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Sample records for 5-year age intervals

  1. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  2. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  3. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  4. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  5. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  6. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  7. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = −0.19; 95% confidence interval, −0.29 to −0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  8. Seismo-meteo-electromagnetic phenomena observed during a 5-year interval around the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schekotov, Alexander; Hayakawa, Masashi

    The purpose of the paper is to try to find ULF electromagnetic precursors to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (EQ), on the basis of extensive investigation of radiations in vertical component of the magnetic field or with a large ratio of the vertical to full horizontal component. Nighttime records have been analyzed of three Japanese fluxgate magnetometers located in a distance from 300 to 1300 km from the epicenter of the main shock, and the frequency range from 10 to 150 mHz was used for the analysis. We have applied wavelet analyses to improve the detection of pulsed signals. All obtained scalograms have been averaged over the nighttime interval from 01 h to 05 h JST and flattened by means of multiplication by square of frequency. The sequence of spectra thus obtained has been compared with the evolution of seismicity, which has resulted in that the radiation in the vertical component has been detected. It exhibits seasonal variations with winter maxima, but it increases further by approaching the moment of the EQ and decreases after that. This radiation seems to be correlated with atmospheric parameters - air humidity, temperature, vapor pressure and rainfall. So, we consider that this radiation cannot be caused by subsurface sources, but its possible sources can be atmospheric discharges. The evolution of this phenomenon can be explained by a seasonal variation of atmospheric parameters and also its variations under the influence of injection of gas from the focal zone of a forthcoming EQ.

  9. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  10. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  11. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  12. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  13. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  14. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  15. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  16. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 5 Years of Age--Uganda, 2009.

    PubMed

    Menon, Manoj P; Yoon, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dL, is a global public health problem. According to the 2006 Demographic Health Survey, the prevalence of anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA AMONG CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 5 YEARS IN RURAL SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Alegria, Iñaki; Tessema, Dalu; Mohamed, Nuri; Tissiano, Gabrel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus infection among children aged less than 5 years in rural southern Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital-based, prospective study among children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration attending the outpatient department of Gambo Rural Hospital, Ethiopia during September-November 2012. Three hundred fourteen children were included in the study, of whom 137 (43.6%) had rotavirus infection. The average age of children with rotavirus infection was lower than those without it [odds ratio (OR): 0.94]. Finding severe dehydration on skin pinch test (adjusted OR: 3.76) and having diarrhea for !3 days (adjusted OR: 2.50) were associated with rotavirus infection. The mortality rate was 4.4% among rotavirus infection children and 0% among non-rotavirus diarrhea cases (p=0.006). Rotavirus infection should be suspected in children with severe dehydration on a skin pinch test and among those presenting with diarrhea for 3 days in rural southern Ethiopia. PMID:26521516

  18. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  19. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp.

  20. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  1. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  2. Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (≤2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: β = −3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: β = −3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children’s IQ adversely. PMID:19620194

  3. Being overweight and obese: Black children ages 2-5 years.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Cindy E

    2008-01-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of obesity in Black preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) is slightly higher than in whites. However, by age 6, Black children experience higher obesity prevalence. The consequences to health throughout childhood and into adulthood have both medical and economic cost to individuals and society. Factors associated with obesity in preschool children are lifestyle behaviors such as diet, level of activity, culture, environment, and parental perceptions. Programs should target young Black children and their families to reduce the incidence of obesity and promoting healthy behaviors could aid in eliminating health disparities and improving quality of life. Nurses need to provide comprehensive culturally appropriate strategies at community and individual/family levels to prevent overweight and obesity in children.

  4. Severity of brain injury following neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and outcome at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Glass, P; Bulas, D I; Wagner, A E; Rajasingham, S R; Civitello, L A; Papero, P H; Coffman, C E; Short, B L

    1997-07-01

    Neurodevelopmental evaluation in childhood provides an opportunity to study complex neurological compensation following documented neonatal brain injury, and furnishes important clinical information which may have an impact on patient care. We studied 152 term children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as neonates and who received routine neonatal neuroimaging and comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluation at age 5 years. The cohort was divided into four groups based on an independent neuroimaging score: No lesion, N=88; Mild lesion, N=38; Moderate lesion, N=12; and Severe lesion, N=14. Standardized testing at age 5 included complete neuropsychological assessment, neurological evaluation, and assessment of motor function. All testing was conducted without knowledge of the neuroimaging score. The occurrence of disability by severity of neuroimaging was: No lesion=10%; Mild=13%; Moderate=33%; Severe=57%. The relative risk within the ECMO population for disability at age 5 after moderate or severe neonatal lesion was 4.3 (CI=1.0 to 17.5) and 11.7 (CI=3.3 to 41.3), respectively. The remaining non-disabled children who had moderate to severe lesions functioned within normal limits. Severity of neonatal neuroimaging was inversely associated with IQ scores, pre-academic skills, and neuromotor function. The effect size was small but the rank order was predictable. Our data identify in 5-year-old children an impact of brain lesion severity demonstrated on routine neonatal neuroimaging. The results indicate potential compensation following moderate and severe lesions, and suggest a subtle but consistent influence of even mild neonatal brain injury.

  5. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  6. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  7. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  8. Predictive intervals for age-specific fertility.

    PubMed

    Keilman, N; Pham, D Q

    2000-03-01

    A multivariate ARIMA model is combined with a Gamma curve to predict confidence intervals for age-specific birth rates by 1-year age groups. The method is applied to observed age-specific births in Norway between 1900 and 1995, and predictive intervals are computed for each year up to 2050. The predicted two-thirds confidence intervals for Total Fertility (TF) around 2010 agree well with TF errors in old population forecasts made by Statistics Norway. The method gives useful predictions for age-specific fertility up to the years 2020-30. For later years, the intervals become too wide. Methods that do not take into account estimation errors in the ARIMA model coefficients underestimate the uncertainty for future TF values. The findings suggest that the margin between high and low fertility variants in official population forecasts for many Western countries are too narrow. PMID:12158991

  9. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  10. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  11. Evaluation of a new Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in children aged 2-5 years.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Yap, L; Rivera, R G; Dispo, A P; Mallabo, J

    2001-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. In view of the increasing resistance of Salmonella typhi against antibiotics and the high costs associated with improving sanitation conditions, vaccination programs would be of great benefit. We report on the evaluation of a new candidate VI (sic) polysaccharide typhoid vaccine (TypheriX (sic), SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals), tested in Filipino children aged 2-5 years where the profile was compared with that of a competitor-vaccine (Typhim (sic), Pasteur Merieux Connaught). Vaccination with the new candidate vaccine was followed by fewer general symptoms (2.9%) than with the competitor vaccine (14.1%), particularly with lower incidence of fever. The new candidate vaccine is also highly immunogenic: >99% of the vacinees were immune 28 days post vaccination with comparable GMTs of 3597 EL.U/ml for TypheriX (sic) and 3365 EL.U/ml for Typhim (sic). This trial shows that the available VI (sic) polysaccharide vaccines provide a reliable means in preventing a disease responsible for a significant morbidity and placing a heavy burden on health budgets.

  12. Back injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12: A 2.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Franz, C; Jespersen, E; Rexen, C T; Leboeuf-Yde, C; Wedderkopp, N

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this prospective school cohort study were to describe the epidemiology of diagnosed back pain in childhood, classified as either nontraumatic or traumatic back injury, and to estimate the association with physical activity in different settings. Over 2.5 years, 1240 children aged 6-12 years were surveyed weekly using mobile text messages to ask about the presence or absence of back pain. Pain was clinically diagnosed and injuries were classified using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Physical activity data were obtained from text messages and accelerometers. Of the 315 back injuries diagnosed, 186 injuries were nontraumatic and 129 were traumatic. The incidence rate ratio was 1.5 for a nontraumatic back injury compared with a traumatic injury. The overall estimated back injury incidence rate was 0.20 per 1000 physical activity units (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.23). The back injury incidence rates were higher for sports when exposure per 1000 physical activity units was taken into consideration and especially children horse-riding had a 40 times higher risk of sustaining a traumatic back injury compared to the risk during non-organized leisure time physical activity. However, the reasonably low injury incidence rates support the recommendations of children continuously being physically active. PMID:26130046

  13. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  14. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI −0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

  15. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  16. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  17. Similarity of the CDC and WHO weight-for-length growth charts in predicting risk of obesity at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-length (WFL) or BMI growth charts are now recommended as the new standard for children under 24 months. The objective of this study was to examine associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months, based on the older Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO cutpoints, with risk of obesity at age 5 years. From well-child visits to a Massachusetts multi-site group practice during 1980-2008, we studied 15,488 children with length/height and weight measurements at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and at 5 years. The main exposures were ever being overweight during 1-24 months using each of three cutpoints: CDC WFL ≥ 95th percentile, WHO WFL or BMI ≥ 97.7th percentile. The main outcome was obesity at 5 years (CDC BMI ≥ 95th percentile). We calculated multivariable odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year. At 5 years, 10.8% of participants were obese. During 1-24 months, 21.3, 18.3, and 20.2% were ever overweight using CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints, respectively. ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months with obesity at 5 years were 6.0 (5.4, 6.6), 6.3 (5.7, 7.0), and 6.0 (5.4, 6.7), respectively. Ever being overweight in the first 2 years of life is a strong predictor of obesity at 5 years. CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints for overweight in early childhood provided similar estimates of later obesity risk.

  18. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

  19. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  20. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  1. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  2. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  3. Who Receives Speech/Language Services by 5 Years of Age in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve; Cook, Michael; Morano, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to identify factors predictive of or associated with receipt of speech/language services during early childhood. We did so by analyzing data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; Andreassen & Fletcher, 2005), a nationally representative data set maintained by the U.S. Department of Education. We addressed two research questions of particular importance to speech-language pathology practice and policy. First, do early vocabulary delays increase children's likelihood of receiving speech/language services? Second, are minority children systematically less likely to receive these services than otherwise similar White children? Method Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for a population-based sample of 9,600 children and families participating in the ECLS-B. Results Expressive vocabulary delays by 24 months of age were strongly associated with and predictive of children's receipt of speech/language services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 4.32–16.60). Black children were less likely to receive speech/language services than otherwise similar White children at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 0.42–0.55). Lower socioeconomic status children and those whose parental primary language was other than English were also less likely to receive services. Being born with very low birth weight also significantly increased children's receipt of services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Conclusion Expressive vocabulary delays at 24 months of age increase children’s risk for later speech/language services. Increased use of culturally and linguistically sensitive practices may help racial/ethnic minority children access needed services. PMID:26579989

  4. Assessment of handgrip strength in preschool children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Delgado, G; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Martinez-Tellez, B; Chillón, P; Löf, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether there is an optimal grip span for determining the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children and if it is influenced by gender, age, or hand size. A total of 292 preschool children (3-5 years; 59.2% boys) carried out the handgrip strength test with different grip spans (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 cm). The hand size was also measured. We also determined the reliability of the optimal grip span in another group of children (n = 56, 57% boys) who did the test twice, with a 3-hour difference between tests. The results showed that 4.0 cm is the optimal grip span to determine the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children. This result applied to both genders, all age groups, and hand sizes. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between test and retest. These findings may guide clinicians and researchers in selecting the optimal grip span when measuring handgrip strength in preschool children.Level IV.

  5. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  6. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children up to 5 Years of Age in Spain: Epidemiology and Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Marín-García, Patricia; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This epidemiological survey in Spain estimates the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children up to 5 year of age during a 15-year period (1997–2011). Observational retrospective survey was conducted by reviewing data of the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data, including >98% of Spanish hospitals. All hospitalizations related to RSV infection for children up to 5 years, reported during 1997–2011 period, were analyzed. Codes were selected by using the International Classification of Diseases 9th Clinical Modification 466.0–466.19, 480.1, and 079.6. A total of 326,175 and 286,007 hospital discharges for children up to 5 and 2 years of age were reported during the study period. The annual incidence was 1072 and 2413 patients per 100,000, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 (standard deviation 8.2) days. Four hundred forty-six deaths were reported; of those, 403 occurred in children <2 years and 355 (80%) occurred in children <12 months of age. Hospitalization and mortality rates were significantly higher in boys and decrease significantly with age. The higher rate of hospitalization and mortality rates were found in the first year of life. Annual average cost for National Health Care System was € 47 M with a mean hospitalization cost of €2162. The average length of hospitalization and costs were significantly higher in high-risk children. RSV infections in children up to 5 year of age still pose a significant health threat in Spain, especially in the infants. The development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic guidelines focused in children with comorbidities may help reduce the hospital and economic burden of the disease. PMID:26020386

  8. Efficacy of Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine versus Chloroquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Children Aged Under 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, W; Jiang, H; Xiong, Z; Jiang, Z; Chen, H

    2013-01-01

    The children aged under 5 years from vast African areas badly suffer from falciparum malaria and many of them die of this disease. Therapeutic efficacy of anti-malaria drugs, especially pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS) and chloroquine (CQ) to falciparum malaria is frequently evaluated and reported in recent 10 years. Unfortunately, to date, these widespread materials and researches have not been systematically collected and analyzed. In our study, two investigators were employed to widely and independently gather researches on efficacy of PS vs. CQ mono-therapy of falciparum malaria in children aged below 5 years in unpublished and published databases. Meta-analyses were conducted in categories of PS group and CQ group respectively. Pooled OR of PS vs. CQ was 0.11 (95%CI, 0.05-0.24). PS showed higher therapeutic efficacy to falciparum malaria in less-than-5-year children than CQ. Random model was chosen to analyze for the heterogeneity existence between different studies. Subgroup analyses were performed, but heterogeneity was still presented. Heterogeneity might be caused by different resistance of falciparum malaria to PS and CQ in different settings. Malaria type associated with parasite species, basic information of PS and CQ, and PS & CQ resistant malaria control measures were demonstrated and discussed respectively in detail in this article. PMID:23682255

  9. Transverse development of the human jaws between the ages of 8.5 and 15.5 years, studied longitudinally with use of implants.

    PubMed

    Korn, E L; Baumrind, S

    1990-06-01

    We report longitudinal data on the transverse widening of the maxilla and mandible from a sample of normal subjects (11 males and 20 females) with metallic implants of the Bjork type. Data were from measurements on lateral and frontal (posterior-anterior) cephalograms generated at annual intervals between the ages of 8.5 and 15.5 years (although data were not available for all subjects at all time points). The maxillary data were, in general, similar to those reported by Bjork and Skieller (1974, 1977) for a smaller sample of slightly younger boys. During the age interval studied, transverse widening was greater in the more posterior part of the palate. [The mean annual rate of change in the posterior-most (zygomatic) region was 0.43 mm, sd = 0.18 mm; p less than 0.001.] Although the rate of palatal widening was not large in absolute terms, widening appeared to continue throughout the age interval under study, and there was no evidence to support the conventionally accepted idea that palatal growth in the transverse dimension tapers off substantially or even ceases during the age interval under observation. Evidence of statistically significant widening of the mandibular arch by means of transverse rotation of the osseous matrix was noted in nine of the 29 subjects for whom three-dimensional mandibular information was available. For these nine subjects, the estimated annual increase in mandibular arch angle ranged from 0.52 degrees to 1.40 degrees. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of mandibular matrix rotation in the transverse direction from a sample of subjects with metallic implants. The finding that spontaneous changes in this dimension are relatively common raises the possibility that classical attitudes concerning the immutability of osseous relationships in the symphyseal region during growth may be inappropriate.

  10. Traffic density and stationary sources of air pollution associated with wheeze, asthma, and immunoglobulin E from birth to age 5 years among New York City children.

    PubMed

    Patel, Molini M; Quinn, James W; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Diaz, Diurka; Perzanowski, Matthew; Rundle, Andrew; Kinney, Patrick L; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L

    2011-11-01

    Exposures to ambient air traffic-related pollutants and their sources have been associated with respiratory and asthma morbidity in children. However, longitudinal investigation of the effects of traffic-related exposures during early childhood is limited. We examined associations of residential proximity and density of traffic and stationary sources of air pollution with wheeze, asthma, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E among New York City children between birth and age 5 years. Subjects included 593 Dominican and African American participants from the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health cohort. Prenatally, through age 5 years, residential and respiratory health data were collected every 3-6 months. At ages 2, 3, and 5 years, serum IgE was measured. Spatial data on the proximity and density of roadways and built environment were collected for a 250 m buffer around subjects' homes. Associations of wheeze, asthma, total IgE, and allergen-specific IgE with prenatal, earlier childhood, and concurrent exposures to air pollution sources were analyzed using generalized estimating equations or logistic regression. In repeated measures analyses, concurrent residential density of four-way intersections was associated significantly with wheeze (odds ratio: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.57). Age 1 exposures also were associated with wheeze at subsequent ages. Concurrent proximity to highway was associated more strongly with total IgE (ratio of the geometric mean levels: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.42) than were prenatal or earlier childhood exposures. Positive associations also were observed between percent commercial building area and asthma, wheeze, and IgE and between proximity to stationary sources of air pollution and asthma. Longitudinal investigation suggests that among Dominican and African American children living in Northern Manhattan and South Bronx during ages 0-5 years, residence in neighborhoods with high density of traffic and industrial

  11. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging.

  12. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging. PMID:26374140

  13. Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age With Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Jedari Seifi, Sirus; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Abdoli Oskuei, Shahram; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Memar, Mohammad Yousef; Alizadeh, Naser; Seifi Yarijan Sofla, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is the most frequent health problem among children in developing countries. Defining the etiology of acute diarrhea is critical to disease therapy and prevention. Some anaerobic bacteria such as Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains cause diarrheal disease by production of enterotoxin in children less than 5 years old. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ETBF among common bacteria and viruses causing diarrhea in children aged less than five years. Materials and Methods One hundred diarrheal stools were cultured for detection of aerobic and anaerobic pathogen bacteria by direct plating on selective media and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines on isolates of ETBF. The enterotoxigenic gene among B. fragilis isolates was also investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Detection of viral pathogens was carried out using the latex agglutination test. Results Ten B. fragilis were isolated from 100 diarrheal fecal specimens. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, while 10% were susceptible to clindamycin. Four (40%) ETBF were isolated. Rotaviruses (57.2%) and adenoviruses (18.6%) were the most frequently detected etiological agents. Conclusions ETBF is one of the etiological agents that may cause diarrhea in children but it is not the commonest of them. Metronidazole is still an effective antibiotic against B. fragilis. Viruses are the most important etiological agents of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. PMID:27635209

  14. Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age With Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Jedari Seifi, Sirus; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Abdoli Oskuei, Shahram; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Memar, Mohammad Yousef; Alizadeh, Naser; Seifi Yarijan Sofla, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is the most frequent health problem among children in developing countries. Defining the etiology of acute diarrhea is critical to disease therapy and prevention. Some anaerobic bacteria such as Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains cause diarrheal disease by production of enterotoxin in children less than 5 years old. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ETBF among common bacteria and viruses causing diarrhea in children aged less than five years. Materials and Methods One hundred diarrheal stools were cultured for detection of aerobic and anaerobic pathogen bacteria by direct plating on selective media and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines on isolates of ETBF. The enterotoxigenic gene among B. fragilis isolates was also investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Detection of viral pathogens was carried out using the latex agglutination test. Results Ten B. fragilis were isolated from 100 diarrheal fecal specimens. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, while 10% were susceptible to clindamycin. Four (40%) ETBF were isolated. Rotaviruses (57.2%) and adenoviruses (18.6%) were the most frequently detected etiological agents. Conclusions ETBF is one of the etiological agents that may cause diarrhea in children but it is not the commonest of them. Metronidazole is still an effective antibiotic against B. fragilis. Viruses are the most important etiological agents of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age.

  15. Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Acute Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years of Age in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xu-Hui; Tian, Lei; Cheng, Zhong-Ju; Liu, Wei-Yong; Li, Song; Yu, Wei-Ting; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Xiang, Xu; Sun, Zi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrhea remains the serious problem in developing countries, especially among children under 5 years of age. Currently, only two or three common diarrhea pathogens were screened at most hospitals in China. The aim of this study was to provide a wide variety of diarrhea pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in children under 5 years of age. Methods: Totally 381 stool samples collected from Tongji Hospital between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 were tested by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction for eight kinds of bacteria and five kinds of viruses. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Viral infections were mainly identified in infants (0–11 months), whereas bacterial infections were more prevalent in the age of 24–59 months. About 69.8% of samples were positive for at least one pathogen, 51.7% of samples were virus positive, followed by bacteria positive cases (19.4%), and 12.6% of cases displayed co-infections with two viruses or a virus and a bacterium. Rotavirus was the most prevalent pathogen, followed closely by norovirus, while Salmonella was the most commonly isolated bacteria, followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and Campylobacter. More than 40% of Salmonella spp. and DEC isolates were resistant to first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline). Around 10% of Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin simultaneously. Campylobacter spp. displayed high resistance to ciprofloxacin but kept low resistance to azithromycin and doxycycline. Conclusions: The etiology of acute diarrhea varies in children of different age groups. The high frequency of infection with viruses suggests the urgent demand for new viral vaccine development. Proper use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea is crucial due to the high level of antibiotic

  16. [Analysis of food allergy incidence in children up to 5 years of age in the Wielikopolska region].

    PubMed

    Hofman, T

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was found the most frequent food allergens and analysis of food allergy incidence in children with food allergy from region Wielkopolska. 78 children in age from 2 months to 5 years of life with the first symptoms of food allergy: gastrointestinals symptoms and atopic dermatitis was examined. The specific IgE using the immunoenzymatic Quidel and AlaSTAT method to wheat, peanut, hazel nut, tomato, soya been, cow milk, egg, corn, orange and cod was percentage of the lymphocytes ThCD4+ in peripheral blood of allergy children was estimated. The normal results ranging from 29-42%. During the analysis established that in children from region Wielkopolska the most frequent allergen in each age was cow milk. Allergy to wheat found in 50% children with food allergy. It was observed increase allergy to new products as soya been, corn and nuts which are the more frequent used in our region. The causes apparent the food allergy among the children in age to 5 years are: so early given the cow's milk and other foreign protein to diet of infants, and infections the intestinal, airways and urine tracts. It is necessary breast-feeding the infants minimum up to 6 months of life and varying light diet without a big amounts of cow's milk or other foreign proteins during lactation and pregnancy. About a half of patients had a decreased number of lymphocytes T CD4+. Among the causes of food allergy the most important are in 40% the genetic factors but in 60% the infections factors and feedings defects.

  17. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  18. Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with anti-VEGF agents: retrospective analysis of 5-year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ana Catarina; Reis-Silva, Adriana; Pinheiro-Costa, João; Beato, João; Freitas-da-Costa, Paulo; Falcão, Manuel S; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Carneiro, Ângela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the 5-year results obtained in clinical practice in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with anti-VEGF agents. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed all patients with nAMD who initiated anti-VEGF treatment before October 2009. We collected data regarding visual and anatomical outcomes. Results A total of 278 patients met the selection criteria. The mean number of intravitreal injections was 5.7 in the first year and 3.7 in the fifth year. A positive mean visual acuity variation of +3.7 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters occurred in the first year, but no significant differences relative to baseline were observed thereafter. The majority of patients (71%) maintained stable visual acuity throughout follow-up. At 5 years, mean central macular thickness remained substantially inferior to baseline (−96.6 μm), and 56% of patients maintained dry retinas. Conclusion Anti-VEGF therapy leads to long-term visual stabilization in the great majority of patients. PMID:27099460

  19. Variability in lateralised blood flow response to language is associated with language development in children aged 1-5 years.

    PubMed

    Kohler, M; Keage, H A D; Spooner, R; Flitton, A; Hofmann, J; Churches, O F; Elliott, S; Badcock, N A

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of language lateralisation over the preschool years is unclear. We explored the relationship between lateralisation of cerebral blood flow velocity response to object naming and cognitive performance in children aged 1-5 years. Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record blood flow velocity bilaterally from middle cerebral arteries during a naming task in 58 children (59% male). At group level, the Lateralisation Index (LI) revealed a greater relative increase in cerebral blood flow velocity within the left as compared to right middle cerebral artery. After controlling for maternal IQ, left-lateralised children displayed lower expressive language scores compared to right- and bi-lateralised children, and reduced variability in LI. Supporting this, greater variability in lateralised response, rather than mean response, was indicative of greater expressive language ability. Findings suggest that a delayed establishment of language specialisation is associated with better language ability in the preschool years.

  20. SIRT6 minor allele genotype is associated with >5-year decrease in lifespan in an aged cohort.

    PubMed

    TenNapel, Mindi J; Lynch, Charles F; Burns, Trudy L; Wallace, Robert; Smith, Brian J; Button, Anna; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a natural process involving complex interplay between environment, metabolism, and genes. Sirtuin genes and their downstream targets have been associated with lifespan in numerous organisms from nematodes to humans. Several target proteins of the sirtuin genes are key sensors and/or effectors of oxidative stress pathways including FOXO3, SOD3, and AKT1. To examine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at candidate genes in these pathways and human lifespan, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study of an elderly cohort (≥65 years old.). Using age at death as a continuous outcome variable and assuming a co-dominant genetic model within the framework of multi-variable linear regression analysis, the genotype-specific adjusted mean age at death was estimated for individual SNP genotypes while controlling for age-related risk factors including smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and co-morbidity. Significant associations were detected between human lifespan and SNPs in genes SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6, FOXO3 and SOD3. Individuals with either the CC or CT genotype at rs107251 within SIRT6 displayed >5-year mean survival advantages compared to the TT genotype (5.5 and 5.9 years, respectively; q-value  = 0.012). Other SNPs revealed genotype-specific mean survival advantages ranging from 0.5 to 1.6 years. Gender also modified the effect of SNPs in SIRT3, SIRT5 and AKT1 on lifespan. Our novel findings highlight the impact of sirtuins and sirtuin-related genotypes on lifespan, the importance of evaluating gender and the advantage of using age as a continuous variable in analyses to report mean age at death. PMID:25541994

  1. A Prospective Hospital-based Surveillance to Estimate Rotavirus Disease Burden in Bhutanese Children under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Wangchuk, Sonam; Dorji, Tshering; Tsheten; Tshering, Karchung; Zangmo, Sangay; Pem Tshering, Kunzang; Dorji, Tandin; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2015-01-01

    As part of efforts to develop an informed policy for rotavirus vaccination, this prospective study was conducted to estimate the burden of rotavirus diarrhea among children less than 5 years old attended to the Department of Pediatrics, Jigme Dorji Wangchuk National Referral Hospital (JDWNRH), Thimphu, Bhutan. The duration of the study was three years, extending from February 2010 through December 2012. We estimated the frequency of hospitalization in the pediatric ward and dehydration treatment unit (DTU) for diarrhea and the number of events attributable to rotavirus infection among children under 5 years of age. During the study period, a total of 284 children (1 in 45) were hospitalized in the pediatric ward, and 2,220 (1 in 6) in the DTU with diarrhea among children residing in the Thimphu district. Group A rotavirus was detected in 32.5% and 18.8% of the stool samples from children hospitalized in the pediatric ward, respectively. Overall, 22.3% of the stool samples were rotavirus-positive, and the majority (90.8%) of them was detected in children under 2 years of age. From this study, we estimated that the annual incidence of hospitalization in the pediatric ward and DTU due to rotavirus diarrhea was 2.4/1000 (95% CI 1.7–3.4) and 10.8/1000 (95% CI 9.1–12.7) children, respectively. This study revealed that rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhea in Bhutanese children in Thimphu district and since no study has been performed previously, represents an important finding for policy discussions regarding the adoption of a rotavirus vaccine in Bhutan. PMID:25859154

  2. Single vs dual (en bloc) kidney transplants from donors ≤ 5 years of age: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shraideh, Yousef; Farooq, Umar; El-Hennawy, Hany; Farney, Alan C; Palanisamy, Amudha; Rogers, Jeffrey; Orlando, Giuseppe; Khan, Muhammad; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Gautreaux, Michael D; Iskandar, Samy S; Hairston, Gloria; Brim, Elizabeth; Mangus, Margaret; Stratta, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare outcomes between single and dual en bloc (EB) kidney transplants (KT) from small pediatric donors. METHODS: Monocentric nonprospective review of KTs from pediatric donors ≤ 5 years of age. Dual EB KT was defined as keeping both donor kidneys attached to the inferior vena cava and aorta, which were then used as venous and arterial conduits for the subsequent transplant into a single recipient. Donor age was less useful than either donor weight or kidney size in decision-making for kidney utilization as kidneys from donors < 8 kg or kidneys < 6 cm in length were not transplanted. Post-transplant management strategies were standardized in all patients. RESULTS: From 2002-2015, 59 KTs were performed including 34 dual EB and 25 single KTs. Mean age of donors (17 mo vs 38 mo, P < 0.001), mean weight (11.0 kg vs 17.4 kg, P = 0.046) and male donors (50% vs 84%, P = 0.01) were lower in the dual EB compared to the single KT group, respectively. Mean cold ischemia time (21 h), kidney donor profile index (KDPI; 73% vs 62%) and levels of serum creatinine (SCr, 0.37 mg/dL vs 0.49 mg/dL, all P = NS) were comparable in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively. Actuarial graft and patient survival rates at 5-years follow-up were comparable. There was one case of thrombosis resulting in graft loss in each group. Delayed graft function incidence (12% dual EB vs 20% single KT, P = NS) was slightly lower in dual EB KT recipients. Initial duration of hospital stay (mean 5.4 d vs 5.6 d) and the one-year incidences of acute rejection (6% vs 16%), operative complications (3% vs 4%), and major infection were comparable in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively (all P = NS). Mean 12 mo SCr and abbreviated MDRD levels were 1.17 mg/dL vs 1.35 mg/dL and 72.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 vs 60.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (both P = NS) in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: By transplanting kidneys from young pediatric donors into adult recipients, one can

  3. Rotavirus infection among Sudanese children younger than 5 years of age: a cross sectional hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Magzoub, Magzoub Abbas; Bilal, Naser Eldin; Bilal, Jalal Ali; Osman, Omran Fadl

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Sudan, rotavirus has been one of the important causative agents of diarrhea among children. Rotavirus A is well known as the leading cause of diarrhea in young children worldwide. It was estimated to account for 41% of hospitalized cases of acute gastroenteritis among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the common clinical presentations of rotavirus A infection among Sudanese children with gastroenteritis seeking management in hospitals. Methods 755 Sudanese children less than 5 years of age suffering from acute gastroenteritis in hospital settings were included. The positive stool specimens for rotavirus A was used for extract Ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the RNA product was loaded on formaldehyde agarose gel and visualized under UV illumination. Results Of the 755 children, 430(57%) were males while 325(43%) were female. The age of children ranged from 1 to 60 months. There were 631 (84%) children who were less than 24 months of age. Out of the 755 stool samples, 121(16%) were positive for rotavirus. Of the 121 infected children with rotavirus, 79(65.3%) were male and 42(34.7%) were female and the highest infection rate was seen among 91(75.2%) of children up to 12 months of age. Children of illiterate parents were more infected with rotavirus than children of educated parents. Severe dehydration present among 70% of infected children with rotavirus. Conclusion Since this study is hospital-based, the 16% prevalence rate may not reflect the true prevalence among Sudanese children, thus a community-based surveillance is needed. PMID:24711878

  4. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being.

  5. Association of early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body mass index at 4 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Grzeskowiak, L E; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Morrison, J L; Clifton, V L

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring body mass index (BMI). We undertook a retrospective cohort study using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia. Among a cohort of women delivering a singleton, live-born infants between January 2000 and December 2005 (n=7658), 5961 reported not smoking during pregnancy, 297 reported quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 1400 reported continued smoking throughout pregnancy. Trained nurses measured the height and weight of the children at preschool visits in a state-wide surveillance programme. The main outcome measure was age- and sex-specific BMI z-score. At 4 to 5 years, mean (s.d.) BMI z-score was 0.40 (1.05), 0.60 (1.07) and 0.65 (1.18) in children of mothers who reported never smoking, quitting smoking and continued smoking during pregnancy, respectively. Compared with the group of non-smokers, both quitting smoking and continued smoking were associated with an increase in child BMI z-score of 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.29) and 0.21 (0.13-0.29), respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was also observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average during the second half of pregnancy and the increase in offspring BMI z-score (P<0.001). In conclusion, any maternal smoking in pregnancy, even if mothers quit, is associated with an increase in offspring BMI at 4 to 5 years of age.

  6. Performance of an HRP-2 Rapid Diagnostic Test in Nigerian Children Less Than 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ajumobi, Olufemi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nguku, Patrick; Kwaga, Jacob; Ntadom, Godwin; Gitta, Sheba; Elizeus, Rutebemberwa; Oyibo, Wellington; Nsubuga, Peter; Maire, Mark; Poggensee, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2)–based malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was evaluated in a mesoendemic area for malaria, Kaduna, Nigeria. We compared RDT results with expert microscopy results of blood samples from 295 febrile children under 5 years. Overall, 11.9% (35/295) tested positive with RDT compared with 10.5% (31/295) by microscopy: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 100%, 98.5%, 88.6%, and 100%, respectively. The RDT sensitivity was not affected by transmission season, parasite density, and age. Specificity and positive PV decreased slightly during the high-transmission season (97.5% and 83.3%). The RDT test positivity rates in the low- and high-transmission seasons were 9.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Overall, the test performance of this RDT was satisfactory. The findings of a low proportion of RDT false positives, no invalid and no false-negative results should validate the performance of RDTs in this context. PMID:25711608

  7. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in three hurricane-affected areas of Honduras.

    PubMed

    Barrios, R E; Stansbury, J P; Palencia, R; Medina, M T

    2000-12-01

    Hurricanes and other natural disasters can produce crop destruction, population displacement, infrastructure damage, and long-term public health consequences that include increased malnutrition among the affected populations. This paper presents the results of anthropometric measurements taken of 295 children under 5 years of age from three regions of Honduras that were affected by Hurricane Mitch, a major storm that struck Central America in the fall of 1998. The children in our study were sampled in three shelters in the capital city of Tegucigalpa; in the resettlement zone of Nueva Choluteca, Choluteca; and in the small urban area of Catacamas, Olancho. Our data indicated that, in comparison to the period before the hurricane, there was an elevated prevalence of wasting in all three of the study areas, and that there were also high levels of underweight in the Tegucigalpa and Nueva Choluteca study areas. There were statistically significant differences between the mean values of malnutrition indicators for Catacamas and those for the Tegucigalpa and Nueva Choluteca settlements. These differences suggest that resettled families were confronting a nutritional crisis in July and August of 1999, some 9 months after the hurricane struck.

  8. Concurrent Pneumonia in Children Under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Diarrheal Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Leung, Daniel T; Das, Sumon K; Malek, M A; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A S G; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are the top killers of children worldwide, and their co-occurrence is reported but not well understood. Our aim was to determine the risk factors for concurrent presentation of diarrhea and pneumonia (DP) in a resource-limited setting in Bangladesh. We used data from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of the icddr,b Dhaka Hospital to identify children < 60 months of age with diarrhea and concurrent pneumonia, defined as a history of cough, an abnormal lung examination, and tachypnea. For the years 1996-2007, out of total 14,628 diarrheal patients surveyed, there were 607 (4%) patients who satisfied criteria for pneumonia. Those with DP had a higher mortality rate (4% versus 0.05%, odds ratio [OR] = 86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26-286) and a longer hospital stay (mean 84 versus 26 hours, difference 58 hours, 95% CI = 52-64 hours) than those with diarrhea (D) only. In multivariable logistic regression comparing cases (N = 607) with controls matched for month and year of admission at a ratio of 1:3 (N = 1,808), we found that DP was associated with younger age, male gender, severe acute malnutrition (SAM), less maternal education, lower family income, and lack of current breast-feeding history.

  9. Concurrent Pneumonia in Children under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Diarrheal Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Daniel T.; Das, Sumon K.; Malek, M. A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A. S. G.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are the top killers of children worldwide, and their co-occurrence is reported but not well understood. Our aim was to determine the risk factors for concurrent presentation of diarrhea and pneumonia (DP) in a resource-limited setting in Bangladesh. We used data from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of the icddr,b Dhaka Hospital to identify children < 60 months of age with diarrhea and concurrent pneumonia, defined as a history of cough, an abnormal lung examination, and tachypnea. For the years 1996–2007, out of total 14,628 diarrheal patients surveyed, there were 607 (4%) patients who satisfied criteria for pneumonia. Those with DP had a higher mortality rate (4% versus 0.05%, odds ratio [OR] = 86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26–286) and a longer hospital stay (mean 84 versus 26 hours, difference 58 hours, 95% CI = 52–64 hours) than those with diarrhea (D) only. In multivariable logistic regression comparing cases (N = 607) with controls matched for month and year of admission at a ratio of 1:3 (N = 1,808), we found that DP was associated with younger age, male gender, severe acute malnutrition (SAM), less maternal education, lower family income, and lack of current breast-feeding history. PMID:26149863

  10. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  11. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia. PMID:20801490

  12. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt...) Years of Age and Older ER10MR98.004...

  13. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  14. The role of maternal education in the 15-year trajectory of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Tanvir; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Williams, Gail M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (U5s) is a serious public health problem in low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Improved maternal education can contribute effectively to reduce child malnutrition. We examined the long-term impact of maternal education on the risk of malnutrition in U5s and quantified the level of education required for the mothers to reduce the risk. We used pooled data from five nationwide demographic and health surveys conducted in 1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving 28 941 U5s. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the association between maternal education (no education, primary, secondary or more) and malnutrition in children, measured by stunting, underweight and wasting controlling for survey time, maternal age, maternal body mass index, maternal working status, parity, paternal education and wealth quintile. An overall improvement in maternal educational attainment was observed between 1996 and 2011. The prevalence of malnutrition although decreasing was consistently high among children of mothers with lower education compared with those of mothers with higher education. In adjusted models incorporating time effects, children of mothers with secondary or higher education were at lower risk of childhood stunting [risk ratio (RR): 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.89], underweight (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.88) and wasting (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.91) compared with children of mothers with no education. We demonstrated the importance of promoting women's education at least up to the secondary level as a means to tackle malnutrition in Bangladesh.

  15. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions.

    PubMed

    Lal, Aparna; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-09-18

    The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2-1.7, p < 0.001), and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2-2.9, p < 0.001), and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3-6.2, p < 0.001) and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9-9.8, p < 0.001) areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years.

  16. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Aparna; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2–1.7, p < 0.001), and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2–2.9, p < 0.001), and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3–6.2, p < 0.001) and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9–9.8, p < 0.001) areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years. PMID:26393636

  17. Etiology and Factors Associated with Pneumonia in Children under 5 Years of Age in Mali: A Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Mélina; Sánchez Picot, Valentina; Telles, Jean-Noël; Diakite, Abdoul-Aziz; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Endtz, Hubert; Diallo, Souleymane; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background There are very limited data on children with pneumonia in Mali. The objective was to assess the etiology and factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children <5 years of age in Mali. Methods A prospective hospital-based case-control study was implemented in the Pediatric department of Gabriel Touré University Hospital at Bamako, Mali, between July 2011-December 2012. Cases were children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia; Controls were hospitalized children without respiratory features, matched for age and period. Respiratory specimens, were collected to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood was collected from cases only. Factors associated with pneumonia were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, 118 cases and 98 controls were analyzed; 44.1% were female, median age was 11 months. Among pneumonia cases, 30.5% were hypoxemic at admission, mortality was 4.2%. Pneumonia cases differed from the controls regarding clinical signs and symptoms but not in terms of past medical history. Multivariate analysis of nasal swab findings disclosed that S. pneumoniae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.6–7.0), human metapneumovirus (aOR = 17.2, 95% CI: 2.0–151.4), respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] (aOR = 7.4, 95% CI: 2.3–23.3), and influenza A virus (aOR = 10.7, 95% CI: 1.0–112.2) were associated with pneumonia, independently of patient age, gender, period, and other pathogens. Distribution of S. pneumoniae and RSV differed by season with higher rates of S. pneumoniae in January-June and of RSV in July-September. Pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 were more frequent in pneumonia cases than in the controls (P = 0.009, and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions In this non-PCV population from Mali, pneumonia in children was mainly attributed to S. pneumoniae, RSV, human metapneumovirus, and influenza A virus. Increased pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage in

  18. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  1. Randomized intervention study of solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronan M; Ligondo, Sophie; Hennessy, James; Elmore-Meegan, Michael; Soita, Allan; McGuigan, Kevin G

    2011-11-01

    We report the results of a randomized controlled intervention study (September 2007 to March 2009) investigating the effect of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery, nondysentery diarrhea, and anthropometric measurements of height and weight among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in peri-urban and rural communities in Nakuru, Kenya. We compared 555 children in 404 households using SODIS with 534 children in 361 households with no intervention. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for both number of days and episodes of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by use of solar disinfection: dysentery days IRR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.79); dysentery episodes IRR = 0.55 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.73); nondysentery days IRR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.84); nondysentery episodes IRR = 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.84). Anthropometry measurements of weight and height showed median height-for-age was significantly increased in those on SODIS, corresponding to an average of 0.8 cm over a 1-year period over the group as a whole (95% CI 0.7 to 1.6 cm, P = 0.031). Median weight-for-age was higher in those on SODIS, corresponding to a 0.23 kg difference in weight over the same period; however, the confidence interval spanned zero and the effect fell short of statistical significance (95% CI -0.02 to 0.47 kg, P = 0.068). SODIS and control households did not differ in the microbial quality of their untreated household water over the follow-up period (P = 0.119), but E. coli concentrations in SODIS bottles were significantly lower than those in storage containers over all follow-up visits (P < 0.001). This is the first trial to show evidence of the effect of SODIS on childhood anthropometry, compared with children in the control group and should alleviate concerns expressed by some commentators that the lower rates of dysentery associated with SODIS are the product of biased

  2. Evaluation of immune responses to an oral typhoid vaccine, Ty21a, in children from 2 to 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Choudhury, Feroza K; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Sayeed, Md Abu; Salma, Umme; Lundgren, Anna; Sack, David A; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-02-19

    Young children are very susceptible to typhoid fever, emphasizing the need for vaccination in under five age groups. The parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine is not immunogenic in children under 2 years and the oral Ty21a vaccine (Vivotif) available in capsular formulation is only recommended for those over 5 years. We studied immune responses to a liquid formulation of Ty21a in children 2-5 years of age. Since children in developing countries are in general hypo responsive to oral vaccines, the study was designed to determine if anti-helminthic treatment prior to vaccination, improves responses. In a pilot study in 20 children aged 4-5 years, the immune responses in plasma and in antibody in lymphocyte secretions (ALS) to the enteric coated capsule formulation of Ty21a was found to be comparable to a liquid formulation (P>0.05). Based on this, children (n=252) aged ≥ 2-<3 years and ≥3-<5 years were randomized to receive a liquid formulation of Ty21a with and without previous anti-helminthic treatment. The vaccine was well tolerated with only a few mild adverse events recorded in <1% of the children. De-worming did not improve immune responses and both age groups developed 32-71% IgA, IgG, and IgM responses in plasma and 63-86% IgA responses in ALS and stool specimens to a membrane preparation (MP) of Ty21a. An early MP specific proliferative T cell response was also seen. We recommend that safety and efficacy studies with a liquid formulation of the vaccine are carried out in children under five, including those less than two years of age to determine if Ty21a is protective in these age groups and applicable as a public health tool for controlling typhoid fever in high prevalence areas of typhoid fever including Bangladesh.

  3. Evaluation of immune responses to an oral typhoid vaccine, Ty21a, in children from 2 to 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Choudhury, Feroza K; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Sayeed, Md Abu; Salma, Umme; Lundgren, Anna; Sack, David A; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-02-19

    Young children are very susceptible to typhoid fever, emphasizing the need for vaccination in under five age groups. The parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine is not immunogenic in children under 2 years and the oral Ty21a vaccine (Vivotif) available in capsular formulation is only recommended for those over 5 years. We studied immune responses to a liquid formulation of Ty21a in children 2-5 years of age. Since children in developing countries are in general hypo responsive to oral vaccines, the study was designed to determine if anti-helminthic treatment prior to vaccination, improves responses. In a pilot study in 20 children aged 4-5 years, the immune responses in plasma and in antibody in lymphocyte secretions (ALS) to the enteric coated capsule formulation of Ty21a was found to be comparable to a liquid formulation (P>0.05). Based on this, children (n=252) aged ≥ 2-<3 years and ≥3-<5 years were randomized to receive a liquid formulation of Ty21a with and without previous anti-helminthic treatment. The vaccine was well tolerated with only a few mild adverse events recorded in <1% of the children. De-worming did not improve immune responses and both age groups developed 32-71% IgA, IgG, and IgM responses in plasma and 63-86% IgA responses in ALS and stool specimens to a membrane preparation (MP) of Ty21a. An early MP specific proliferative T cell response was also seen. We recommend that safety and efficacy studies with a liquid formulation of the vaccine are carried out in children under five, including those less than two years of age to determine if Ty21a is protective in these age groups and applicable as a public health tool for controlling typhoid fever in high prevalence areas of typhoid fever including Bangladesh. PMID:24440210

  4. The child's conception of food: differentiation of categories of rejected substances in the 16 months to 5 year age range.

    PubMed

    Rozin, P; Hammer, L; Oster, H; Horowitz, T; Marmora, V

    1986-06-01

    Children (N = 54) ranging in age from one year four months to five years were offered over 30 items to eat. The items included normal adult foods and exemplars of different adult rejection categories: disgust (e.g. grasshopper, hair), danger (liquid dish soap), inappropriate (e.g. paper, leaf) and unacceptable combinations (e.g. ketchup and cookie). We report a high to moderate level of acceptance (item put into mouth) of substances from all of these categories in the youngest children. Acceptance of disgusting and dangerous substances decreases with increasing age, while acceptance of inappropriate substances remains at moderate levels across the age range studied. Although the youngest children accepted more disgust items, the majority rejected most of the disgust choices. Almost all children at all ages tested accept combinations of foods which, although individually accepted by adults, are rejected in combination. No significant differences were observed between 'normal' children and those with a history of toxin ingestion, although there was a tendency of ingesters to accept more inedible items. In general, the results suggest that a major feature of the development of food selection is learning what not to eat. PMID:3740830

  5. Space or Physics? Children Use Physical Reasoning to Solve the Trap Problem from 2.5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seed, Amanda M.; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the…

  6. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer patients with old age or medical comorbidity: a 5-year follow-up of an investigational study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sea-Won; Jang, Hong Seok; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Sei Chul

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated 5-year follow-up of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with Cyberknife for prostate cancer patients. Forty-five men with prostate adenocarcinoma who received SBRT using Cyberknife from May 2006 to November 2012 were enrolled in this study. They were prostate cancer patients with old age and medical comorbidities who received a total of 36 Gy to the prostate in 5 fractions with either everyday or every other day schedule. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at initial diagnosis and after radiation were traced. Primary endpoints were biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The definition of biochemical relapse was a PSA level of nadir+2 ng/mL. Progression was defined as biochemically or clinically detected disease and the start of salvage therapy. After median follow-up of 63 months, the 5-year bRFS for all patients was estimated at 89.7%. The 5-year PFS was estimated at 71%. Four cases of biochemical relapse were observed, including two patients who experienced locoregional failure and one patient who had distant metastasis with biochemical relapse. The 5-year OS was estimated at 94.3%. There were five deaths, all of which were unrelated to prostate cancer. There was no grade 3 or higher acute complication. Grade 3 or higher late urinary toxicity was reported in 2 (4.4%) of 45 patients. The 5-year survival and toxicity outcome of SBRT using Cyberknife on prostate cancer patients with old age or comorbidities were favorable and safe in an investigational study.

  7. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  8. A significant and consistent reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization of children under 5 years of age, following the introduction of universal rotavirus immunization in Israel.

    PubMed

    Muhsen, Khitam; Rubenstein, Uri; Kassem, Eias; Goren, Sophy; Schachter, Yaakov; Kremer, Adi; Shulman, Lester M; Ephros, Moshe; Cohen, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Universal rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq was introduced in Israel in December 2010. We examined hospitalization rates of children under 5 years of age due to all-cause and rotavirus gastroenteritis, both before and 3 years after universal introduction of the vaccination. An ongoing hospital-based surveillance network that was established in November 2007, accessed information regarding hospitalization of children due to gastroenteritis (n = 6205) in 3 hospitals in northern Israel, with an annual average of about 60,000 children under 5 years of age living in the catchment area of these hospitals. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus by immunochromatography. Compared to the period preceding implementation of the universal rotavirus vaccination (2008-2010), hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age decreased significantly, by 55% (95% CI 43%-67%) during the period of universal vaccination (2011-2013), a decrease that was sustained throughout the 3 year period. This reduction was greater in children aged 0-23 months (60-61%) than in toddlers aged 24-59 months (36%). A 32% (95% CI 21%-45%) decrease in the incidence of all-cause gastroenteritis was also observed. During the period preceding universal vaccination, rotavirus diarrhea showed typical winter seasonality, with highest incidence in December. However, the winter peak was substantially blunted during the period of universal immunization. Surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis should continue to assess the long-term impact of such a program. Our findings are of relevance to high and middle-income countries considering the introduction of a universal rotavirus immunization program.

  9. Risk factors for excessive benzodiazepine use in a working age population: a nationwide 5-year survey in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Fride Tvete, Ingunn; Bjørner, Trine; Skomedal, Tor

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors for becoming an excessive user over time. Setting: Prescription database study over five years. Subjects and method: Norwegians between 30 and 60 years with a first dispensation of a benzodiazepine during 2006, encompassing 23 227 individuals. A Cox hazard regression model was defined, initially stratifying on gender, age, county, previous relevant drug dispensations, household income, education level, and vocational rehabilitation support. Main outcome measure: The time from the first redemption until excessive use was defined as using more than two DDDs per day on average within a three-month period. Results: Women’s risk was lower than men’s for excessive use (HR = 0.42, CI 0.35–0.51). Initial oxazepam, alprazolam, or nitrazepam/flunitrazepam use indicated higher risk compared with diazepam (HR = 1.51, CI 1.24–1.85, HR = 2.75, CI 1.54–4.91, HR = 1.67, CI 1.29–2.16). Previous antidepressants or lithium, antipsychotics or opioids, anti-alcohol and smoke cessation treatment indicated a higher risk compared with no such use (HR = 1.4, CI 1.16–1.69, HR = 1.92, CI 1.54–2.4, and HR = 2.88, CI 2–4.15). Higher education and average or high household income were associated with a low risk compared with low education and income (HR = 0.68, CI 0.57–0.81, HR = 0.58, CI 0.46–0.73, and HR = 0.37, CI 0.26–0.54). Working in the private or public sector was associated with a low risk compared with no registered work (HR = 0.53, CI 0.4–0.71 and HR = 0.57, CI 0.45–0.74). Conclusion: The prevalence of excessive use over a five-year observation period was 2.34%. Risk factors were indications of psychiatric illness, first benzodiazepine choice, low income, and education. Excessive users were also characterized by a more severe disease, indicated by having prescription fulfilments by a psychiatrist and by switching benzodiazepines.Key pointsGuidelines state that

  10. Recurrence Interval and Event Age Data for Type A Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Timothy E.; Weldon, Ray J.; Biasi, Glenn P.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix summarizes available recurrence interval, event age, and timing of most recent event data for Type A faults considered in the Earthquake Rate Model 2 (ERM 2) and used in the ERM 2 Appendix C analysis as well as Appendix N (time-dependent probabilities). These data have been compiled into an Excel workbook named Appendix B A-fault event ages_recurrence_V5.0 (herein referred to as the Appendix B workbook). For convenience, the Appendix B workbook is attached to the end of this document as a series of tables. The tables within the Appendix B workbook include site locations, event ages, and recurrence data, and in some cases, the interval of time between earthquakes is also reported. The Appendix B workbook is organized as individual worksheets, with each worksheet named by fault and paleoseismic site. Each worksheet contains the site location in latitude and longitude, as well as information on event ages, and a summary of recurrence data. Because the data has been compiled from different sources with different presentation styles, descriptions of the contents of each worksheet within the Appendix B spreadsheet are summarized.

  11. [Physical and chemical properties of land-filling pile and aged refuse in 5-year-old semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yue, Bo; Huang, Qi-Fei; Huang, Ze-Chun; Zhang, Zeng-Qiang; Wang, Qi; Lin, Ye; Wang, Jin-An

    2010-03-01

    This paper studied the surface settlement, temperature, and gas production of land-filling pile, and the physical and chemical properties of aged refuse in 5-year-old semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills. The pile's surface settlement and its volume reduction rate were significantly higher in semi-aerobic than in anaerobic landfill; and the treatment with leachate recycling brought larger uneven settlement than the treatment with water recycling. The temperature of anaerobic landfill pile (25.6 degrees C) was slightly higher than that of semi-aerobic landfill file (24.8 degrees C), but the difference was not significant. During land-filling period, the O2 concentration in semi-aerobic landfill pile was significantly higher than that in anaerobic one, while the CH4 concentration was in reverse. After 5 years land-filling, the contents of easily degradable organic matters in aged refuse, such as kitchen refuses and papers, decreased dramatically, while the contents of plastics, glasses, bricks, and woods increased. In addition, the contents of organic matters and nutrients in aged refuse were higher than those in typical southern China soils, and the concentrations of heavy metals except chromium in anaerobic landfill aged refuse were not beyond the grade three of Environmental Quality Standards for Soils (GB 15618-1995).

  12. [Seasonal variations in the nutritional status of nomad and sedentary children less than 5 years of age living in the Sahel in Chad].

    PubMed

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Bonfoh, B; Seydi, M; Wade, S; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is widespread among rural and nomad populations in the Sahel. It is linked to socio-economic factors and exhibits significant seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among children less than 5 years of age. A repeated cross-sectional study design based on interviews and anthropometric measurements was used. A total of 653 nomad children and 579 sedentary children ranging in age from 0 to 59 months were randomly selected in households/camps on the south-eastern shore of Lake Chad. Data were collected from the same number of children at the end of the dry season (May/June, 2007) and at the end of rainy season (October 2007). Findings showed significant interseasonal variation in the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) between the end of the dry season and end of the rainy season. The respective variations were 17.9% to 13.7% (p = 0.03) in nomad children and 16.5% to 10.6% (p = 0.004) in sedentary children. Backward stepwise multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that GAM among children under 5 years of age was significantly correlated with the following risk factors: seasonal variation, child's age, mother's nutritional status, ethnic group, and place of residence (LRT=172 and p < 0.001 for the logistic regression model). These findings demonstrate the critical state of the nutritional situation in the Sahel and rural areas.

  13. Premature death of children aged 2 months to 5 years: the case of the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Mbassi Awa, Hubert D.; Dongmo, Roger; Nkwonkam Mafotso, Josiane; Ngo Um, Suzanne; Ambomatei, Calson; Koki Ndombo, Paul O.

    2016-01-01

    Background In hospital premature deaths of children less than 5 years of age admitted for different reasons still remains very high in our context warranting study in order to reverse the tendency (using appropriate means). Our study was aimed at describing and analyzing cases of those children aged from 2 months to 5 years who died within the first 48 hours of their admission at the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation (MCC/CBF). Methods It was a retrospective descriptive study. Data were extracted from the clinical records of the patients admitted from 2008 to 2012. Cases of accidental trauma were excluded from the study. Level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. The approval of the ethical committee of the Université des Montagnes was also obtained. Results During the period of our study, out of the 14,200 patients aged 2 months and 5 years who were hospitalized 522 premature deaths were registered. This gives an incidence of 4.9%, representing 74.3% of all hospitalized deaths in this age group. Considering the fact that some of the files had very little information, only 373 files were studied. The sex ratio was 1.2. More astonishing was that a majority of the deaths occurred between midnight and 8 am. The most frequent registered cases were patients with severe malaria (42.6%), severe sepsis (20.6%), and acute lower respiratory tract infections (RTI) (16.1%) cases. One third of the patients had a poor nutritional status. Conclusions The reinforcement of preventive measures and programs targeting the health of children such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Diseases (IMCD) would be a major priority in proffering a solution to this phenomenon. PMID:26835403

  14. Antibody Persistence 1–5 Years Following Vaccination With MenAfriVac in African Children Vaccinated at 12–23 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Milagritos D.; Findlow, Helen; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Enwere, Godwin C.; Elie, Cheryl; Parulekar, Varsha; Sow, Samba O.; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Akinsola, Adebayo K.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Kampmann, Beate; Chaumont, Julie; Martellet, Lionel; Marchetti, Elisa; Viviani, Simonetta; Tang, Yuxiao; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Marc LaForce, F.; Carlone, George; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. Following mass vaccination campaigns in the African meningitis belt with group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac (PsA-TT), disease due to group A meningococci has nearly disappeared. Antibody persistence in healthy African toddlers was investigated. Methods. African children vaccinated at 12–23 months of age with PsA-TT were followed for evaluation of antibody persistence up to 5 years after primary vaccination. Antibody persistence was evaluated by measuring group A serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) with rabbit complement and by a group A–specific IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Group A antibodies measured by SBA and ELISA were shown to decline in the year following vaccination and plateaued at levels significantly above baseline for up to 5 years following primary vaccination. Conclusions. A single dose of PsA-TT induces long-term sustained levels of group A meningococcal antibodies for up to 5 years after vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRTCN78147026. PMID:26553683

  15. The current status of community-acquired pneumonia management and prevention in children under 5 years of age in India: a review

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Awasthi, Shally

    2016-01-01

    India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia. Fast breathing with or without chest in-drawing is categorized as pneumonia and fast breathing with any of danger signs as severe pneumonia. Because effective vaccines against two of the common organisms causing community-acquired pneumonia, namely Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, are available, there should be urgent and phased introduction into the Indian Universal Immunization Programme. Several preventable risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia such as lack of exclusive breast feeding for first 6 months of life, inappropriate complimentary feeding, iron deficiency anemia, malnutrition, and indoor air pollution should be adequately addressed. The community should be aware about the signs and symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia and its danger signs so that delay in qualified care seeking can be avoided. To achieve the sustainable development goal of ⩽25 under five deaths per 1000 live births by 2030, a multipronged approach is the need of the hour. PMID:27536353

  16. Relationship between perinatal antioxidant vitamin and heavy metal levels and the growth and cognitive development of children at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfang; Chen, Qian; Wei, Xiaoping; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ke; Chen, Jie; Li, Tingyu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate how prenatal exposure to antioxidant vitamins and heavy metals affects subsequent development. Maternal serum and cord serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (A, E, and C) were determined. Full-state, performance, and verbal intelligence quotients (FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ, respectively) of 97 children were assessed at 5 years of age. The placental transport ratio (PTR: cord level relative to maternal serum level) of vitamin A (VA) was associated positively with FSIQ score (p=0.041), vitamin E (VE)-PTR was associated positively with PIQ (p=0.002) and FSIQ (p=0.025) scores, and cord serum cadmium (Cd) level was correlated negatively with VIQ score (p=0.025) at 5 years of age. High VE-PTR protected against low PIQ (OR=0.025; p=0.021) and FSIQ (OR<0.001; p=0.004). High maternal age was a protective factor against low VIQ (OR=0.661; 95% CI, 0.500- 0.875; p=0.004) and FSIQ (OR=0.700; 95% CI, 0.512-0.957; p=0.025). A higher maternal education (OR=0.038; 95% CI, 0.003-0.458; p=0.010) and economic level (OR=0.047; 95% CI, 0.004-0.579; p=0.017) were protective against a low FSIQ score. VA-PTR predicted physical growth. VA-PTR and VE-PTR predicted intelligence test performance at 5 years old. High Cd in cord blood may negatively affect subsequent intelligence. PMID:26693750

  17. The current status of community-acquired pneumonia management and prevention in children under 5 years of age in India: a review.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Awasthi, Shally

    2016-06-01

    India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia. Fast breathing with or without chest in-drawing is categorized as pneumonia and fast breathing with any of danger signs as severe pneumonia. Because effective vaccines against two of the common organisms causing community-acquired pneumonia, namely Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, are available, there should be urgent and phased introduction into the Indian Universal Immunization Programme. Several preventable risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia such as lack of exclusive breast feeding for first 6 months of life, inappropriate complimentary feeding, iron deficiency anemia, malnutrition, and indoor air pollution should be adequately addressed. The community should be aware about the signs and symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia and its danger signs so that delay in qualified care seeking can be avoided. To achieve the sustainable development goal of ⩽25 under five deaths per 1000 live births by 2030, a multipronged approach is the need of the hour. PMID:27536353

  18. Relationship between perinatal antioxidant vitamin and heavy metal levels and the growth and cognitive development of children at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfang; Chen, Qian; Wei, Xiaoping; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ke; Chen, Jie; Li, Tingyu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate how prenatal exposure to antioxidant vitamins and heavy metals affects subsequent development. Maternal serum and cord serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (A, E, and C) were determined. Full-state, performance, and verbal intelligence quotients (FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ, respectively) of 97 children were assessed at 5 years of age. The placental transport ratio (PTR: cord level relative to maternal serum level) of vitamin A (VA) was associated positively with FSIQ score (p=0.041), vitamin E (VE)-PTR was associated positively with PIQ (p=0.002) and FSIQ (p=0.025) scores, and cord serum cadmium (Cd) level was correlated negatively with VIQ score (p=0.025) at 5 years of age. High VE-PTR protected against low PIQ (OR=0.025; p=0.021) and FSIQ (OR<0.001; p=0.004). High maternal age was a protective factor against low VIQ (OR=0.661; 95% CI, 0.500- 0.875; p=0.004) and FSIQ (OR=0.700; 95% CI, 0.512-0.957; p=0.025). A higher maternal education (OR=0.038; 95% CI, 0.003-0.458; p=0.010) and economic level (OR=0.047; 95% CI, 0.004-0.579; p=0.017) were protective against a low FSIQ score. VA-PTR predicted physical growth. VA-PTR and VE-PTR predicted intelligence test performance at 5 years old. High Cd in cord blood may negatively affect subsequent intelligence.

  19. Stunting, underweight and wasting among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme children aged 3-5 years of Chapra, Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bisai, Samiran; Ganguli, Sanjib; Khatun, Argina; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated age and sex variations in height and weight, levels of stunting, underweight and wasting among 533 (254 boys; 279 girls) 3- to 5-year-old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity at 11 Integrated Child Development Services centres of Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height < -2 z-scores were used to evaluate stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively, following the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Guidelines. Results revealed that boys were significantly heavier than girls at age 3 years. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in both sexes. Mean z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-age and weight-for-height were lower than those of NCHS for both sexes at all ages. The overall (age and sex combined) rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were 23.9%, 31.0% and 9.4%, respectively. The rate of underweight and wasting was higher among girls (underweight = 35.1%, wasting = 12.2%) compared with boys (underweight = 26.5%, wasting = 6.3%). In general, the frequency of stunting increased with increasing age in both sexes. Based on the World Health Organization classification of severity of malnutrition, the overall prevalence of underweight was very high (>or=30%). The prevalence rates of stunting (20-29%) and wasting (5-9%) were medium. In conclusion, the nutritional status of the subjects is unsatisfactory. There is scope for improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  20. Incidence and risk factors for community-acquired hepatitis C infection from birth to 5 years of age in rural Egyptian children

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Doa’a A.; Shebl, Fatma M.; El-Kamary, Samer S.; Magder, Laurence S.; Allam, Alif; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel; Hashem, Mohamed; Sharaf, Soraya; Stoszek, Sonia K.; Strickland, G. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A prospective study in three Egyptian villages (A, B and C) having a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection examined incidence of community-acquired HCV infection in children; 2852 uninfected infants were prospectively followed from birth for up to 5.5 years. Fifteen seroconverted for either HCV antibodies and/or HCV-RNA (incidence of 0.53%). Ten had both anti-HCV and HCV-RNA; four had only anti-HCV; and one had HCV-RNA in the absence of antibody. The incidence rate at all ages was 2.7/1000 person-years (PY). It was 3.8/1000 PY during infancy and 2.0/1000 PY for the 1–5-years age group. Hospitalization and low birth weight increased the risk of infection; while living in village B, the family having a higher socioeconomic status, and advanced maternal education were protective. Six of eight HCV-infected infants reported iatrogenic exposures (e.g. hospitalization, therapeutic injections, ear piercing) prior to infection whereas only 2/7 children older than 1 year reported these exposures. Having an HCV-positive mother was the only other reported risk in two of these older children. The virus cleared in six (40%) children by the end of follow-up. Health education targeting iatrogenic exposures and focusing on risk factors could reduce HCV infection in children in high-risk populations. PMID:20153495

  1. [Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in indian villages of the Parakaña tribe in Brazil's eastern Amazonia].

    PubMed

    Martins, S J; Menezes, R C

    1994-02-01

    The evolution of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age living in two Indian settlements of the Parakanã tribe, Maroxewara and Paratininga, situated in the southeast of Pará State (Brazil), with less than 20 years of direct contact with our society, was studied. The main purpose of this study was to register the effects of the preventive and curative health activities of the "Parakanã Program" (created by an agreement between the National Indian Foundation- FUNAI and Northern Hydroelectric Project- ELETRONORTE), undertaken with the technical cooperation of the Tropical Medicine Center (Federal University of Pará). Anthropometric data were obtained in there cross-sectional studies (April 89; January 90 and October 91) for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition by means of Gomez's, Waterlow's and WHO criteria. The evolution of nutritional status was evaluated in the light of the rate of growth and accepting weight increments superior to those expected among well-nourished children as a goal. Seventy children (87.5% of all the 0-5 years-olds living there) were followed through throughout the studies. Prevalence of malnutrition was greater in Paranatinga than in Maroxewara, possibly because the former was more populous and had had longer inter-racial contact. Paranatinga's anthropometric indices (wt/age, ht/age and wt/ht) were the lower. Most of the severe forms of malnutrition were found there too. Children between six months and 2 years old were the most affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Lead exposure and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive development of urban children: the Cincinnati Lead Study cohort at age 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K.N.; Succop, P.A.; Berger, O.G.; Keith, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This analysis examined the relationship between lead exposure as registered in whole blood (PbB) and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive developmental status of the Cincinnati cohort (N = 259) at age 5 years. Although the effects were small, higher prenatal, neonatal, and postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer central auditory processing abilities on the Filtered Word Subtest of the SCAN (a screening test for auditory processing disorders). Higher postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer performance on all cognitive developmental subscales of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). However, following adjustment for measures of the home environment and maternal intelligence, few statistically or near statistically significant associations remained. Our findings are discussed in the context of the related issues of confounding and the detection of weak associations in high risk populations.

  3. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genotypes in Children Younger than 5 Years of Age before the Introduction of a Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Program: Report of Rotavirus Surveillance in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Riza; Kalaycioglu, Atila Taner; Acar, Sumeyra; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Karagoz, Alper; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Torunoglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. Methods Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2%) of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7%) was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%). A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G–P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9) and two common P types (P[8] and P[4]) accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%), G2P[8] (9.3%), G2P[4] (6.5%), G3P[8] (3.5%), and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%). These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. Conclusion The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1–G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country. PMID:25437502

  4. Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Levels Are Higher in Children (2–5 Years of Age) than in Infants and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L.; Sjödin, Andreas; Harden, Fiona; Hobson, Peter; Jones, Richard; Edenfield, Emily; Mueller, Jochen F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in many products and have been detected in human samples worldwide. Limited data show that concentrations are elevated in young children. Objectives We investigated the association between PBDEs and age with an emphasis on young children from Australia in 2006–2007. Methods We collected human blood serum samples (n = 2,420), which we stratified by age and sex and pooled for analysis of PBDEs. Results The sum of BDE-47, -99, -100, and -153 concentrations (∑4PBDE) increased from 0–0.5 years (mean ± SD, 14 ± 3.4 ng/g lipid) to peak at 2.6–3 years (51 ± 36 ng/g lipid; p < 0.001) and then decreased until 31–45 years (9.9 ± 1.6 ng/g lipid). We observed no further significant decrease among ages 31–45, 45–60 (p = 0.964), or > 60 years (p = 0.894). The mean ∑4PBDE concentration in cord blood (24 ± 14 ng/g lipid) did not differ significantly from that in adult serum at ages 15–30 (p = 0.198) or 31–45 years (p = 0.140). We found no temporal trend when we compared the present results with Australian PBDE data from 2002–2005. PBDE concentrations were higher in males than in females; however, this difference reached statistical significance only for BDE-153 (p = 0.05). Conclusions The observed peak concentration at 2.6–3 years of age is later than the period when breast-feeding is typically ceased. This suggests that in addition to the exposure via human milk, young children have higher exposure to these chemicals and/or a lower capacity to eliminate them. PMID:19750114

  5. Distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of children aged 3-5 years of Uygur and Han nationality and their genotype in caries-active groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, N; Lin, J; Wu, L; Zhao, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of 3-5-year-old children of Uygur and Han nationalities as well as their genotypes in caries-active groups in the Urumqi municipality. CHROMagar Candida was separately cultivated, and we identified 359 Uygur and Han children aged 3-5 years. We randomly selected 20 Han children and 20 Uygur children for this study. We chose a bacterial strain for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 25S rDNA genotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genotyping. The rate of caries-active in Han children was higher than that in Uygur children, with values of 39.6 and 24.3%, respectively. The detection rate of C. albicans was closely correlated to the caries filling index classification (X(2) = 31.037, P = 0.000, r = 0.421; X(2) = 80.454, P = 0.000, r = 0.497). PCR of 25S rDNA from 40 strains of Han and Uygur children revealed 3 genotypes, while RAPD analysis revealed 5 genotypes. The distribution of 25S rDNA genotyping of Han children from PCR differed from that of Uygur children (X(2) = 7.697, P = 0.021), both of which were mainly the A type. RAPD genotyping of both Han and Uygur children showed similar results (X(2) = 1.573, P = 0.814). There were differences in the distributions of C. albicans in children of different nationalities. C. albicans is a key factor causing caries. The PCR 25S rDNA genotyping method is simple and sensitive, while the RAPD genotyping method is reliable and comprehensive. PMID:25730012

  6. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBW<2500), very low birth weight (VLBW<1500), extremely low birth weight (ELBW<1500) infants are at high risk for growth failure that result in delayed development. Africa is a continent that presents high rates of children born with LBW, VLBW and ELBW particularly sub-Saharan Africa. To review the existing literature that explores the repercussions of LBW, VLBW and ELBW on growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality in African children aged 0-5 years old. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles using Academic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  7. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... Physical and motor skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

  8. The effect of intravertebral anesthesia on bone cement implantation syndrome in aged patients: A single-center 5-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Huang, Chun; Zhang, Ya-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of commonly used intravertebral anesthesia on bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) in aged patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty.The medical records of 1210 aged patients receiving hemiarthroplasty under intravertebral anesthesia were retrospectively reviewed. Anesthesia charts for all patients were reviewed for central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, and heart rate before, during, and after cementation. Each patient was classified into no BCIS (grade 0) or BCIS grade 1, 2, or 3 according to the degree of hypotension, arterial desaturation, or loss of consciousness around cementation. Changes in these grades after cementation were compared according to the ways of intravertebral anesthesia used.Among all included patients, 72.2% (874/1210) showed grade 1 or higher grade of BCIS after cementation. Compared with spinal-epidural anesthesia, single epidural anesthesia showed adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.25 (1.13-1.43) for grade 1, 1.36 (0.83-2.06) for grade 2, and 3.55 (1.52-7.06) for marked postoperatively grade 3 of BCIS versus grade 0 (Type III P < 0.0001).Single epidural anesthesia was associated with increased odds for elevation of these grades after cementation compared with spinal-epidural anesthesia. PMID:27603378

  9. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children.

  10. Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2–5 years in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Judith K.; Nakasujja, Noeline; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Murray, Sarah M.; Opoka, Robert; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV are at increased risk of developmental and neuropsychological disturbances due to direct effects of HIV on the brain and direct effects associated with living in poverty. Caregivers can play an important role, through quality caregiving, in mitigating the negative effect of these stressors. This study used baseline data from an ongoing caregiver training intervention trial to evaluate the association between quality of caregiver–child interactions and neurocognitive outcomes in rural HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in Uganda. We also assessed the extent to which caregiver distress moderated this relationship. Data on 329 caregiver–child dyads were collected between March 2012 and July 2014, when the children were between 2 and 5 years of age. Child outcomes include the Mullen Scales of Early Learning to assess general cognitive ability and the Color Object Association Test to assess immediate memory and total recall. Caregiving quality was assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) total and subscale scores. Caregiver distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. General linear regression models assessed the association between the HOME total and subscale scores and child outcomes, with interaction terms used to test moderation by caregiver distress. Total HOME scores were positively and significantly associated with Mullen scores of cognitive ability; HOME acceptance subscale scores were positively and significantly associated with immediate recall scores. No other associations were statistically significant. As hypothesized, there is a strong association between the HOME and Mullen scores of cognitive ability in our study population, such that children who were assessed as living in environments with more stimulation also presented with a higher level of general neurocognitive development. Our results support the view of program guidance for HIV

  11. Home care of malaria-infected children of less than 5 years of age in a rural area of the Republic of Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Bailo Diallo, A.; De Serres, G.; Béavogui, A. H.; Lapointe, C.; Viens, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of mothers in a rural area of the Republic of Guinea to identify fever in their children, and to estimate the proportion of children who received antimalarial drugs. METHODS: Children under 5 years of age in 41 villages were selected by a two-step cluster sampling technique. During home visits we examined the children and questioned their mothers about the child's symptoms and treatment. FINDINGS: Of 784 children examined, 23% were febrile and more than half of them also had a positive smear result for Plasmodium. Mothers reported 63% of children with a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C as sick. Among all children reported as feverish by their mother, 55% had a normal temperature (< 37.5 degrees C). In contrast, a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C was found in 38% of children identified as sick but afebrile by their mother and in 13% of children considered healthy. Among febrile children, 18% were given chloroquine at home or had consulted at the health centre or a dispensary. CONCLUSION: In areas where malaria is endemic, recognition of fever and its presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs is an essential part of the strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the morbidity due to this disease. This population study shows that mothers often failed to identify fever in their children and to consult or to provide antimalarial treatment. Without great efforts to improve home care, it is unlikely that the morbidity and mortality due to malaria in young children will be greatly reduced. PMID:11217664

  12. Predictors of head start and child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices with children aged 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A; Speirs, Katherine E; Donovan, Sharon M; Cho, Hyun Keun

    2014-09-01

    Few child-care providers meet the national recommendations for healthful feeding practices. Effective strategies are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on child-care providers' feeding practices is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices for children aged 2 to 5 years. In this cross-sectional study, child-care providers (n=118) from 24 center-based programs (six Head Start [HS], 11 Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and seven non-CACFP) completed self-administered surveys during 2011-2012. Multilevel multivariate linear regression models were used to predict seven feeding practices. Working in an HS center predicted teaching children about nutrition and modeling healthy eating; that may be attributed to the HS performance standards that require HS providers to practice healthful feeding. Providers who reported being concerned about children's weight, being responsible for feeding children, and had an authoritarian feeding style were more likely to pressure children to eat, restrict intake, and control food intake to decrease or maintain children's weight. Providers with nonwhite race, who were trying to lose weight, who perceived nutrition as important in their own diet, and who had a greater number of nutrition training opportunities were more likely to use restrictive feeding practices. These findings suggest that individual- and child-care-level factors, particularly provider race, education, training, feeding attitudes and styles, and the child-care context may influence providers' feeding practices with young children. Considering these factors when developing interventions for providers to meet feeding practice recommendations may add to the efficacy of childhood obesity prevention programs. PMID:24618036

  13. Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2-5 years in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bass, Judith K; Nakasujja, Noeline; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Murray, Sarah M; Opoka, Robert; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Children affected by HIV are at increased risk of developmental and neuropsychological disturbances due to direct effects of HIV on the brain and direct effects associated with living in poverty. Caregivers can play an important role, through quality caregiving, in mitigating the negative effect of these stressors. This study used baseline data from an ongoing caregiver training intervention trial to evaluate the association between quality of caregiver-child interactions and neurocognitive outcomes in rural HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in Uganda. We also assessed the extent to which caregiver distress moderated this relationship. Data on 329 caregiver-child dyads were collected between March 2012 and July 2014, when the children were between 2 and 5 years of age. Child outcomes include the Mullen Scales of Early Learning to assess general cognitive ability and the Color Object Association Test to assess immediate memory and total recall. Caregiving quality was assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) total and subscale scores. Caregiver distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. General linear regression models assessed the association between the HOME total and subscale scores and child outcomes, with interaction terms used to test moderation by caregiver distress. Total HOME scores were positively and significantly associated with Mullen scores of cognitive ability; HOME acceptance subscale scores were positively and significantly associated with immediate recall scores. No other associations were statistically significant. As hypothesized, there is a strong association between the HOME and Mullen scores of cognitive ability in our study population, such that children who were assessed as living in environments with more stimulation also presented with a higher level of general neurocognitive development. Our results support the view of program guidance for HIV-affected children

  14. Solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in South African children aged under 5 years: the role of participant motivation.

    PubMed

    Du Preez, Martella; Mcguigan, Kevin G; Conroy, Ronan M

    2010-11-15

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) effectively improves the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhea; however, the effect of participant motivation has not been studied. This 1-year randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of SODIS of drinking water and motivation on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in periurban communities in South Africa.We compared 383 children in 297 households using SODIS with 335 children in 267 households with no intervention. At baseline 62.4% of the study households had stored water which met World Health Organization guidelines for zero thermotolerant coliforms per 100 mL. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence of dysentery was significantly associated with higher motivation, defined as 75% or better completion of diarrhea data. Incidence rates were lower in those drinking solar disinfected water (incidence rate ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.39 - 1.0, P = 0.071) but not statistically significant. Compared with the control, participants with higher motivation achieved a significant reduction in dysentery (incidence rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.16 - 0.81, P = 0.014). However, there was no significant reduction in risk at lower levels of motivation. Solar disinfection was not significantly associated with nondysentery diarrhea risk overall (P = 0.419). A statistically significant reduction in dysentery was achieved only in households with higher motivation, showing that motivation is a significant determinant for measurable health gains. Failure of three-quarters of participants to achieve a significant reduction in dysentery suggests that research into effective implementation is required.

  15. Evaluation of an Education, Restraint Distribution, and Fitting Program to Promote Correct Use of Age-Appropriate Child Restraints for Children Aged 3 to 5 Years: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Simpson, Judy M.; Bilston, Lynne E.; Elliott, Maureen; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated an education, distribution, and fitting program for increasing age-appropriate and correct child restraint use. Methods. We performed a cluster randomized trial involving 28 early childhood education centers in low socioeconomic status areas in Sydney, Australia. The main outcome was optimal restraint use defined as age-appropriate restraints, installed into the vehicle correctly and used correctly. Results. One service withdrew after randomization, so data are presented for 689 child passengers, aged 3 to 5 years, from 27 centers. More children attending intervention centers were optimally restrained (43% vs 31%; P = .01; allowing for clustering). More 3-year-olds were using forward-facing seats rather than booster seats, more 4- to 5-year-olds were using booster seats instead of seat belts alone, and there were fewer errors in use at intervention centers. Among non–English-speaking families, more children attending intervention centers were optimally restrained (43% vs 17%; P = .002; allowing for clustering). Conclusions. The program increased use of age-appropriate restraints and correct use of restraints, which translates to improved crash injury protection. Multifaceted education, seat distribution, and fitting enhanced legislation effects, and the effect size was larger in non–English-speaking families. PMID:23078492

  16. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children.

  17. Age effects in discrimination of intervals within rhythmic tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbons, Peter J; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings. Duration difference limens in milliseconds for increments of a single sequence IOI were measured adaptively by adjusting the duration of an inter-tone silent interval. Specific target IOIs within sequences differed across discrimination conditions. Listeners included younger normal-hearing adults and groups of older adults with and without hearing loss. Discrimination performance measured for each of the older groups of listeners was observed to be equivalent, with each group exhibiting significantly poorer discrimination performance than the younger listeners in each sequence condition. Additionally, the specific influence of variable rhythmic grouping on temporal sensitivity was found to be greatest among older listeners. PMID:25618068

  18. Protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study: association between neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development at 4–5 year of age: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several European countries, including Belgium, still suffer from mild iodine deficiency. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in whole blood measured at birth has been proposed as an indicator of maternal iodine status during the last trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy may affect the neurodevelopment of the offspring. In several studies, elevated TSH levels at birth were associated with suboptimal cognitive and psychomotor outcomes among young children. This paper describes the protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study aiming to assess the association between neonatal TSH levels and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development of 4–5 year old children. The results could lead to a reassessment of the recommended cut-off levels of 5 > mU/L used for monitoring iodine status of the population. Methods In total, 380 Belgian 4–5 year old preschool children from Brussels and Wallonia with a neonatal blood spot TSH concentration between 0 and 15 mU/L are included in the study. For each sex and TSH-interval (0–1, 1–2, 2–3, 3–4, 4–5, 5–6, 6–7, 7–8, 8–9 and 9–15 mU/L), 19 newborns were randomly selected from all newborns screened by the neonatal screening centre in Brussels in 2008–2009. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight and prematurity were excluded from the study. Neonatal TSH concentration was measured by the Autodelphia method in dried blood spots, collected by heel stick on filter paper 3 to 5 days after birth. Cognitive abilities and psychomotor development are assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - third edition - and the Charlop-Atwell Scale of Motor coordination. Psychosocial development is measured using the Child Behaviour Check List for age 1½ to 5 years old. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental and child confounding factors are assessed. Conclusions This study aims to clarify the effect of

  19. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Environmental Factors Which Influence Children (Aged 3-5 Years) to Be Obese/Overweight and the Accuracy of Parental Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, Julie; Keeney, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review the previously published literature on the social and environmental factors which influence children (aged 3-5 years) to be obese/overweight and the accuracy of parental perceptions. Obesity levels are on the increase in today's society and habits are being passed from parents to children, with family…

  20. Perceived social isolation makes me sad: 5-year cross-lagged analyses of loneliness and depressive symptomatology in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Hawkley, Louise C; Thisted, Ronald A

    2010-06-01

    We present evidence from a 5-year longitudinal study for the prospective associations between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a population-based, ethnically diverse sample of 229 men and women who were 50-68 years old at study onset. Cross-lagged panel models were used in which the criterion variables were loneliness and depressive symptoms, considered simultaneously. We used variations on this model to evaluate the possible effects of gender, ethnicity, education, physical functioning, medications, social network size, neuroticism, stressful life events, perceived stress, and social support on the observed associations between loneliness and depressive symptoms. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that loneliness predicted subsequent changes in depressive symptomatology, but not vice versa, and that this temporal association was not attributable to demographic variables, objective social isolation, dispositional negativity, stress, or social support. The importance of distinguishing between loneliness and depressive symptoms and the implications for loneliness and depressive symptomatology in older adults are discussed.

  1. Community-based nutritional intervention for reducing malnutrition among children under 5 years of age in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Malekafzali, H; Abdollahi, Z; Mafi, A; Naghavi, M

    2000-01-01

    A project was conducted in a rural area in September 1994 with the aim of decreasing the incidence of protein-energy malnutrition among children under 5 years, by nutritional intervention through the primary health care system. An initial situation analysis revealed the region's resources and causes of malnutrition. Practical instruction on feeding methods, deworming, environmental sanitation, the promotion of home-grown vegetables and reinforcement of the growth monitoring programme were chosen as the routes for intervention. All indices were reassessed in the region after 1 year. Results showed that nutritional awareness had grown among mothers, and that the incidence of malnutrition had dropped from 6.5% to 1.8%, as measured against the weight-for-height index. PMID:11556008

  2. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  3. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children.

  4. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  5. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing.

  6. Determinants of Short Interbirth Interval among Reproductive Age Mothers in Arba Minch District, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Desta; Gulte, Teklemariam

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the key strategies to reduce fertility and promote the health status of mothers and their children is adhering to optimal birth spacing. However, women still have shorter birth intervals and studies addressing their determinants were scarce. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess determinants of birth interval among women who had at least two consecutive live births. Methods. Case control study was conducted from February to April 2014. Cases were women with short birth intervals (<3 years), whereas controls were women having history of optimal birth intervals (3 to 5 years). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Result. Having no formal education (AOR = 2.36, 95% CL: [1.23-4.52]), duration of breast feeding for less than 24 months (AOR: 66.03, 95% CI; [34.60-126]), preceding child being female (AOR: 5.73, 95% CI; [3.18-10.310]), modern contraceptive use (AOR: 2.79, 95% CI: [1.58-4.940]), and poor wealth index (AOR: 4.89, 95% CI; [1.81-13.25]) of respondents were independent predictors of short birth interval. Conclusion. In equalities in education, duration of breast feeding, sex of the preceding child, contraceptive method use, and wealth index were markers of unequal distribution of inter birth intervals. Thus, to optimize birth spacing, strategies of providing information, education and communication targeting predictor variables should be improved. PMID:27239553

  7. Determinants of Short Interbirth Interval among Reproductive Age Mothers in Arba Minch District, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Desta; Gulte, Teklemariam

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the key strategies to reduce fertility and promote the health status of mothers and their children is adhering to optimal birth spacing. However, women still have shorter birth intervals and studies addressing their determinants were scarce. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess determinants of birth interval among women who had at least two consecutive live births. Methods. Case control study was conducted from February to April 2014. Cases were women with short birth intervals (<3 years), whereas controls were women having history of optimal birth intervals (3 to 5 years). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Result. Having no formal education (AOR = 2.36, 95% CL: [1.23–4.52]), duration of breast feeding for less than 24 months (AOR: 66.03, 95% CI; [34.60–126]), preceding child being female (AOR: 5.73, 95% CI; [3.18–10.310]), modern contraceptive use (AOR: 2.79, 95% CI: [1.58–4.940]), and poor wealth index (AOR: 4.89, 95% CI; [1.81–13.25]) of respondents were independent predictors of short birth interval. Conclusion. In equalities in education, duration of breast feeding, sex of the preceding child, contraceptive method use, and wealth index were markers of unequal distribution of inter birth intervals. Thus, to optimize birth spacing, strategies of providing information, education and communication targeting predictor variables should be improved. PMID:27239553

  8. [Continuous nebulization with terbutaline sulfate under tent inhalation. Evaluation of the efficacy in children 2 to 5 years of age in asthmatic crises].

    PubMed

    Lotufo, J P; Ejzenberg, B; Vieira, S; Mukai, L; Macedo, H; Yamashita, C; Ventura, G; Baldacci, E R; Okay, Y

    1998-06-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a system for continuous nebulization of terbutaline sulphate in the treatment of acute asthmatic crises in children. The equipment consisted of a condensation nebulizer attached to a 40 liter acrylic tent placed around the patient's head. A prospective, randomized and open clinical trial was conducted. Twenty eight children, 2 to 5 year-old, in acute asthmatic crises were selected. Fourteen were nebulized with terbutaline sulphate while in the control group the aerosolization was proceeded only with half diluted physiologic serum. All patients were administered aminophyline intravenously. The parameter used to evaluate the efficacy of the terbutaline sulphate nebulizing system was clinical improvement measured by the Wood-Downes Score. Two additional parameters indicating terbutaline sulphate absorption were used: reduction of potassium seric levels and positive chronotropic effect. The group treated with terbutaline sulphate showed greater clinical improvement than control group at the 12 hour protocol evaluation as well as lower seric potassium level. A positive chronotropic effect was also observed at the final protocol evaluation. The data showed, preliminarily, that (a) the system for continuous nebulization of terbutaline sulphate was effective in treatment of children's acute asthmatic crises, and (b) there was evidence attesting to the absorption of terbutaline sulphate by the children treatment with it. PMID:9677633

  9. Epidemiology and medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age in the central-east of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltani, M S; Salah, A Ben; Bouanene, I; Trabelsi, A; Sfar, M T; Harbi, A; Gueddiche, M N; Farhat, E Ben

    2015-08-01

    Data on the economic burden of rotavirus infection in Tunisia are needed to inform the decision to include rotavirus in routine childhood immunizations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of rotavirus disease in central-east Tunisia and to estimate its hospital cost. In the first stage - the prospective collection of epidemiological data - we enrolled all patients < 5 years old who were hospitalized for acute diarrhoea at 5 university paediatric departments in central-east Tunisia during the period 2009-2011. Rotavirus was responsible for 65 (23.3%) of the 279 cases enrolled. In the second stage, cost data were collected retrospectively using an activity-based costing method from the medical records of the children who were positively diagnosed with rotavirus. The average cost of care per child was TD 433 (SD 134). This is a significant economic burden in Tunisia, where a safe and effective vaccine is available but not yet introduced to the immunization schedule. PMID:26446530

  10. Factors Affecting Access to Healthcare: An Observational Study of Children under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Rural Gambian Primary Healthcare Centre

    PubMed Central

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Moore, Sophie E.; Dondeh, Bai L.; Unger, Stefan A.

    2016-01-01

    Main Objective Prompt access to primary healthcare before onset of severe illness is vital to improve morbidity and mortality rates. The Gambia has high rates of child mortality and research is needed to investigate contributing factors further. This study aimed to identify factors affecting access to primary healthcare for children <5 years (y) in rural Gambia focusing on delayed presentation and severe illness at presentation as indicators in a setting where primary healthcare is delivered free of charge. Methods Data were extracted from an electronic medical records system at a rural primary healthcare clinic in The Gambia for children (0–5y) between 2009 and 2012. First clinic attendances with malaria, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and diarrhoeal disease, the main contributors to mortality in this setting, were identified and categorized as delayed/non-delayed and severe/non-severe representing our two main outcome measures. Potential explanatory variables, identified through a comprehensive literature review were obtained from an ongoing demographic surveillance system for this population. Variables associated with either delayed/non-delayed and/or with severe/non-severe presentations identified by univariate analysis (p<0.1) were assessed in multivariate models using logistic regression (p<0.05). Results Out of 6554 clinic attendances, 571 relevant attendances were identified. Delayed presentation was common (45% of all presentations) and there was a significantly reduced risk associated with being from villages with free regular access to transport (OR 0.502, 95%CI[0.310, 0.814], p = 0.005). Children from villages with free regular transport were also less likely to present with severe illness (OR 0.557, 95%CI[0.325, 0.954], p = 0.033). Conclusions Transport availability rather than distance to health clinic is an important barrier to accessing healthcare for children in The Gambia, and public health interventions should aim to reduce this

  11. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  12. Self-Control, Gender, and Age: A Survival Analysis of Recidivism among Boot Camp Graduates in a 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benda, Brent B.; Toombs, Nancy J.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    2005-01-01

    This study of 572 male and 120 female graduates of a boot camp investigates the potency of self-control as a predictor of recidivism in comparison to gender, age, and elements of life-course theory. It also examines whether the effects of self-control on recidivism are commensurate within the categories of gender. Recidivism is defined as a felony…

  13. Association of IL-8-inducing strains of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli with sporadic diarrheal patients with less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakamura, Hiromi; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2007-02-01

    The role of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) in diarrheal disease has been controversial. However, DAEC strains were recently implicated in diarrheal disease in developing countries. To clarify whether DAEC are prevalent among sporadic cases of diarrheal illness in Osaka City, Japan, E. coli strains isolated between July 1997 and March 2000 during diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) investigation were retrospectively examined. DAEC strains were recognized among 41 (4.4%) of 924 patients and formed the biggest subgroup of DEC. Previously, we reported that some DAEC strains caused epithelial cells to secrete as much IL-8 as enteroaggregative E. coli strains did. In this study, we attempted to evaluate epidemiologically whether the ability of DAEC to induce IL-8 was involved in the pathogenesis. Relationship among patient age, symptoms, Afa adhesins, season and IL-8 induction were examined. The subgroup of DAEC that possessed Afa genes and/or induced a high level of IL-8 was significantly prevalent among patients age 1 to 4 years; however total DAEC was not significantly high among the children compared to other age group. IL-8 inducing DAEC seems to play a role in causing sporadic diarrheal illnesses, particularly in pediatric fields. Investigations highlighting the relationship between IL-8 induction and enteropathogenicity are clearly necessary to confirm the role of DAEC in infectious enteritis.

  14. [An intra-community profile of nutritional deficiency: a study of children under 5 years of age in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Reichenheim, M E; Harpham, T

    1990-02-01

    This study is part of a larger epidemiological study concerned with the health status of children under the age of five carried out in the squatter settlement of Rocinha, and focuses on the nutritional profile of a representative sample of 591 children. According to the weight-for-age criteria (Gomez's classification), 23.9% and 2.0% were, respectively, mildly and moderately malnourished. This finding is in agreement with the assessment using weight-for-height and height-for-age as anthropometric indicators: (a) absence of acute malnutrition (wasting) indicated by a pattern overlapping that of an expected normal population, and (b) growth deficiency (stunting) indicated by 7% and 15% of children exceeding the proportion normally expected to be, respectively, below the -1 and -2 standard deviate limits. So far as growth failure was concerned, the following variables remained associated even when controlling for economic status (indicated by the environmental conditions of the household): low birth weight, number of siblings equal to or above three, male gender, a history of never having breastfed and a family history of previous sibling death. Each variable is discussed separately, as well as the overall nutritional profile and the marked social intra-community stratification related to growth deficit.

  15. Classical Conditioning and Retention of the Infant's Eyelid Response: Effects of Age and Interstimulus Interval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Arlene H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reports that lengthy interstimulus interval facilitates classical conditioning in very young infants. Infants trained in a single session at 20 days of age exhibited reliable retention of the conditioned eyelid reflex 10 days later, but infants 10 days of age did not. (Author)

  16. Long-term (5-year) antibody persistence following two- and three-dose regimens of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in children aged 1-11 years.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen; Nolan, Terry; Díez Domingo, Javier; Rombo, Lars; Sokal, Etienne M; Marès, Josep; Casanovas, Josep M; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-06-17

    This study compared the long-term persistence of anti-hepatitis A (anti-HAV) and B (anti-HBs) antibodies, 5 years after vaccination of subjects aged 1-11 years with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine either in a two-dose (0, 6 months, Adult formulation) or a three-dose (0, 1, 6 months, Paediatric formulation) schedule. At the end of the 5 years, all subjects (100%) in both groups continued to have anti-HAV antibodies > or =15mIU/mL, while 94-97% of subjects in both groups had anti-HBs antibody concentrations > or =10mIU/mL. Subjects with anti-HBs antibody concentration < or =10mIU/mL were administered a challenge dose of hepatitis B vaccine. All subjects mounted a vigorous immune response to the challenge indicating the presence of immunological memory to HBV.

  17. Biochemical and Hematologic Reference Intervals for Aged Xenopus laevis in a Research Colony

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Angela G; Hu, Jing; Lake, Elizabeth; Bouley, Donna M; Johns, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, is commonly used in developmental and toxicology research studies. Little information is available on aged X. laevis; however, with the complete mapping of the genome and the availability of transgenic animal models, the number of aged animals in research colonies is increasing. The goals of this study were to obtain biochemical and hematologic parameters to establish reference intervals for aged X. laevis and to compare results with those from young adult X. laevis. Blood samples were collected from laboratory reared, female frogs (n = 52) between the ages of 10 and 14 y. Reference intervals were generated for 30 biochemistry analytes and full hematologic analysis; these data were compared with prior results for young X. laevis from the same vendor. Parameters that were significantly higher in aged compared with young frogs included calcium, calcium:phosphorus ratio, total protein, albumin, HDL, amylase, potassium, CO2, and uric acid. Parameters found to be significantly lower in aged frogs included glucose, AST, ALT, cholesterol, BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, phosphorus, triglycerides, LDL, lipase, sodium, chloride, sodium:potassium ratio, and anion gap. Hematology data did not differ between young and old frogs. These findings indicate that chemistry reference intervals for young X. laevis may be inappropriate for use with aged frogs. PMID:26424243

  18. Urinary fluoride excretion in children aged 3 to 5 years exposed to fluoridated salt at 60 to 90 mgF/Kg in two Venezuelan cities. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Ana M; Febres-Cordero, Carolina; Feldman, Sonia; Arasme, Marlene A; Pedauga, Daniel F; González, Henry; Rojas-Sánchez, Fátima

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to obtain information on the total urinary fluoride concentration and excretion of Venezuelan children at the age of 3 to 5 years, as part of a program to monitor fluoride ingestion. A 24 hour urine sample was collected from each of 63 children, between 3 and 5 years of age and analyzed for (i) total urinary volume (ml), (ii) urinary flow rate (ml/h), (iii) fluoride concentration (ppm) and (iv)fluoride excretion rate (microg/h). The group comprised 32 boys and 31 girls who resided in two different communities, 32 in Caracas, DC and 31 in San Juan de los Morros, Guarico state. Fluoride analyses were done with an ion-specific electrode. Age and gender did not affect total urine volume, urinary flow rate, or urinary fluoride concentration and excretion rate. The children from San Juan de los Morros had a significantly higher total urinary volume (426.45 +/- 36.31 ml) and flow rate (17.09 +/- 1.57ml/h) than children from Caracas (297.06 +/- 23.59 ml and 12.40 +/- 0.98, respectively) (p=0.0039). Significant differences were also observed when the urinary fluoride excretion rate of the two communities was compared. Mean urinary fluoride concentrations did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) between the two communities. These values were 0.67 +/- 0.40, 0.57 +/- 0.34, 0.76 +/- 0.27 ppmF in the 3, 4 and 5 year-old children of Caracas and 0.69 +/- 0.33, 0.65 +/- 0.20, 0.63 +/- 0.36 mgF in San Juan de los Morros children. The results showed low urinary fluoride concentration and excretion, indicating that children residing in the evaluated communities are receiving fluoride below the recommended optimal range.

  19. Altered fractal dynamics of gait: reduced stride-interval correlations with aging and Huntington's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Mitchell, S. L.; Firtion, R.; Peng, C. K.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in the duration of the gait cycle (the stride interval) display fractal dynamics and long-range correlations in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that these stride-interval correlations would be altered by changes in neurological function associated with aging and certain disease states. To test this hypothesis, we compared the stride-interval time series of 1) healthy elderly subjects and young controls and of 2) subjects with Huntington's disease and healthy controls. Using detrended fluctuation analysis we computed alpha, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. The scaling exponent alpha was significantly lower in elderly subjects compared with young subjects (elderly: 0.68 +/- 0.14; young: 0.87 +/- 0.15; P < 0.003). The scaling exponent alpha was also smaller in the subjects with Huntington's disease compared with disease-free controls (Huntington's disease: 0.60 +/- 0.24; controls: 0.88 +/-0.17; P < 0.005). Moreover, alpha was linearly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r = 0.78, P < 0.0005). These findings demonstrate that strike-interval fluctuations are more random (i.e., less correlated) in elderly subjects and in subjects with Huntington's disease. Abnormal alterations in the fractal properties of gait dynamics are apparently associated with changes in central nervous system control.

  20. [The coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CVRR) on electrocardiogram in patients with essential hypertension with reference to aging, hemodynamics and sympatho-adrenomedullary function].

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, M; Kikuchi, K; Kobayakawa, H; Yamamoto, M; Kudoh, C; Wada, A; Sakamoto, T; Sawai, N; Mukai, H; Iimura, O

    1991-09-01

    To evaluate the significance of parasympathetic nerve activity in essential hypertension, we measured the coefficients of variation of RR intervals (CVRR) on electrocardiogram and examined the relationships between CVRR and aging, hemodynamics and sympatho-adrenomedullary function in normotensive subjects (NT) and in patients with essential hypertension (EHT). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), plasma noradrenaline concentration (pNA), plasma adrenaline concentration (pAd) and CVRR resting in a supine position were simultaneously measured in 37 NT (33.8 +/- 2.0 years) and 47 mild-to-moderate EHT (51.3 +/- 1.5 years). In both NT and EHT, significantly negative correlations between CVRR and age (NT: r = -0.54, p less than 0.001, EHT: r = -0.41, p less than 0.005) were observed, however, CVRR correlated with neither MAP, HR nor pAd. CVRR tended to correlate negatively with pNA (r = -0.27, p less than 0.1) in NT, unlike in EHT. The mean value of CVRR in EHT (n = 10, age: 38.3 +/- 1.6 years, CVRR: 3.61 +/- 0.37%) was significantly (p less than 0.005) lower than in age-matched NT (n = 10, age: 38.3 +/- 2.5 years, CVRR: 5.76 +/- 0.45%). These results indicate that the parasympathetic tone suggested by CVRR may be related to aging and sympathetic nerve activity, and that parasympathetic function might be impaired in EHT.

  1. Age-related alterations in the fractal scaling of cardiac interbeat interval dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, N.; Peng, C. K.; Morin, R.; Goldberger, A. L.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    We postulated that aging is associated with disruption in the fractallike long-range correlations that characterize healthy sinus rhythm cardiac interval dynamics. Ten young (21-34 yr) and 10 elderly (68-81 yr) rigorously screened healthy subjects underwent 120 min of continuous supine resting electrocardiographic recording. We analyzed the interbeat interval time series using standard time and frequency domain statistics and using a fractal measure, detrended fluctuation analysis, to quantify long-range correlation properties. In healthy young subjects, interbeat intervals demonstrated fractal scaling, with scaling exponents (alpha) from the fluctuation analysis close to a value of 1.0. In the group of healthy elderly subjects, the interbeat interval time series had two scaling regions. Over the short range, interbeat interval fluctuations resembled a random walk process (Brownian noise, alpha = 1.5), whereas over the longer range they resembled white noise (alpha = 0.5). Short (alpha s)- and long-range (alpha 1) scaling exponents were significantly different in the elderly subjects compared with young (alpha s = 1.12 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.14, respectively, P = 0.009; alpha 1 = 0.75 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.10, respectively, P = 0.002). The crossover behavior from one scaling region to another could be modeled as a first-order autoregressive process, which closely fit the data from four elderly subjects. This implies that a single characteristic time scale may be dominating heartbeat control in these subjects. The age-related loss of fractal organization in heartbeat dynamics may reflect the degradation of integrated physiological regulatory systems and may impair an individual's ability to adapt to stress.

  2. Ages of subsurface stratigraphic intervals in the Quaternary of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Tracey, J.I., Jr.; Goter, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Drill cores of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, reveal six stratigraphic intervals, numbered in downward sequence, which represent vertical coral growth during Quaternary interglaciations. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the Holocene sea transgressed the emergent reef platform by about 8000 yr B.P. The reef grew rapidly upward (about 5 to 10 mm/yr) until about 6500 yr B.P. Afterward vertical growth slowed to about 0.5 mm/yr, then lateral development became dominant during the last several thousand years. The second interval is dated at 131,000 ?? 3000 yr B.P. by uranium series. This unit correlates with oxygen-isotope substage 5e and with terrace VIIa of Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, and of Main Reef-2 terrace at Atauro Island. The third interval is not dated because corals were recrystallized and it is tentatively correlated with either oxygen-isotope stages 7 or 9. The age of the fourth interval is estimated at 454,000 ?? 100,000 yr B.P. from measured 234U 238U activity ratios. This unit is correlated with either oxygen-isotope stage 9, 11, or 13. ?? 1985.

  3. Development of a distance-based interval throwing program for Little League-aged athletes.

    PubMed

    Axe, M J; Snyder-Mackler, L; Konin, J G; Strube, M J

    1996-01-01

    We developed a distance-based interval throwing program for Little League-aged athletes (9 to 12 years) to be used in training and rehabilitation. The timing and repetition parameters were developed from data collected during 400 innings of organized baseball during a single season, and short toss distance from Little League rules for field dimensions. There were 1022 boys from organized baseball teams in the four studies. Maximal distance and speed measurements were recorded for 853 boys. We developed a mathematical model from these data to predict maximal throwing distance from maximal throwing speed. This model was then tested on a second sample of 114 players. We compared the predicted distance with the actual maximal throwing distance; the correlation coefficient was 0.92. Forty players aged 9 to 12 participated in a study to assess degradation of speed and distance. The average variability of the speed was small (< 5 mph), but the variability in distance was large (22.4 feet). Fifteen boys then threw the entire throwing program as designed. These results show that healthy young athletes can be expected to be able to throw the predicted value of this practical progressive interval throwing program for Little League-aged athletes. The appropriate program can be assigned from age and known preinjury pitch speed.

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in height, leg length and trunk length among children aged 6.5 years and their parents from the Republic of Belarus: Evidence from the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kramer, Michael S.; Smith, George Davey; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Martin, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic position is associated with shorter stature, in particular shorter leg length, but the magnitude of these associations in non-Western countries has received little attention. Aim To examine socioeconomic differentials in height, leg and trunk length in 6.5 year olds from the Republic of Belarus and compare these to differentials in parental height. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations in a cohort of 13 889 children. Results Children from non-manual households were 1.0 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.3 cm) taller than those from manual households. Mothers and fathers from non-manual backgrounds were 0.7 cm (0.5–0.8) and 1.8 cm (1.6–2.0) taller than those from manual backgrounds, respectively. Associations with higher parental educational attainment were similar. The magnitudes of the associations of socioeconomic position with leg length were similar to those with trunk length. Adjusting for mid-parental height and number of older siblings attenuated associations markedly. Conclusions In Belarus, similar socioeconomic differentials in height were observed in both children and their parents. Among children, height differentials were partly explained by mid-parental height and number of older siblings. Leg length was not a more sensitive indicator of childhood socioeconomic conditions than trunk length. PMID:21591995

  5. Significant decline in pneumonia admission rate after the introduction of routine 2+1 dose schedule heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in children under 5 years of age in Kielce, Poland.

    PubMed

    Patrzałek, M; Albrecht, P; Sobczynski, M

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to estimate the effect of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on the pneumonia admission rate in children younger than 5 years of age, after the introduction of routine 2+1 dose schedule immunization. We compared the pneumonia admission rate (number of cases per 1,000 population) 2 years before and 2 years after the introduction of PCV7 in 2006. Only children with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were analyzed. The vaccination rate in the analyzed periods was around 99%. In the period preceding the implementation of PCV7, the average pneumonia admission rate was 41.48/1,000 and 6.15/1,000 for 1-year-old and 2-4-year-old children, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a significant fall in this rate in two consecutive years after PCV7 implementation (p < 0.0000001 for 1-year-old and p = 0.011 for 2-4-year-old children, respectively). In the first year of vaccination, the admission number decreased in these two groups by about 65 and 23%, respectively. In the second year, only a few percent fall in the admission rate was noted. In children younger than 2 years of age, the age group targeted for vaccination, pneumonia-related healthcare utilization declined substantially following PCV7 introduction. These results suggest that PCV7 may play an important role in reducing the burden of pneumonia in Poland.

  6. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups…

  7. Calving intervals in beef cows at 2, 3, and 4 years of age when breeding is not restricted after calving.

    PubMed

    Werth, L A; Azzam, S M; Kinder, J E

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate calving intervals and repeatability of calving intervals of young beef cows when breeding seasons were initiated immediately after calving. Average calving date at 2, 3, and 4 yr of age was recorded, and duration of calving interval between the first and second and second and third parities was compared in 178 crossbred beef cows calving between 1981 and 1988. Cows were placed in paddocks with intact bulls immediately after calving so they had the opportunity to conceive at the estrus associated with the initial estrous cycles after calving. Average Gregorian date of calving for cows was progressively earlier with older age (March 9, March 5, and February 14 at 2, 3, and 4) yr of age, respectively). Repeatability of calving intervals within individual cows was also evaluated. There was an interaction between year and parity on calving interval between 2 and 3 (P < .001) and 3 and 4 (P < .004) yr of age. Repeatability of calving interval was low and negative during 5 of the 6 yr. In young beef cows, year and parity interact to influence calving interval, and this average interval is less than 365 d when initiation of the breeding season is not restricted after calving. PMID:8707715

  8. Calving intervals in beef cows at 2, 3, and 4 years of age when breeding is not restricted after calving.

    PubMed

    Werth, L A; Azzam, S M; Kinder, J E

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate calving intervals and repeatability of calving intervals of young beef cows when breeding seasons were initiated immediately after calving. Average calving date at 2, 3, and 4 yr of age was recorded, and duration of calving interval between the first and second and second and third parities was compared in 178 crossbred beef cows calving between 1981 and 1988. Cows were placed in paddocks with intact bulls immediately after calving so they had the opportunity to conceive at the estrus associated with the initial estrous cycles after calving. Average Gregorian date of calving for cows was progressively earlier with older age (March 9, March 5, and February 14 at 2, 3, and 4) yr of age, respectively). Repeatability of calving intervals within individual cows was also evaluated. There was an interaction between year and parity on calving interval between 2 and 3 (P < .001) and 3 and 4 (P < .004) yr of age. Repeatability of calving interval was low and negative during 5 of the 6 yr. In young beef cows, year and parity interact to influence calving interval, and this average interval is less than 365 d when initiation of the breeding season is not restricted after calving.

  9. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and DNA-Methylation in Children at Age 5.5 Years: Epigenome-Wide-Analysis in the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP)-Study

    PubMed Central

    Rzehak, Peter; Saffery, Richard; Reischl, Eva; Covic, Marcela; Wahl, Simone; Grote, Veit; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence links prenatal exposure to maternal tobacco smoking with disruption of DNA methylation (DNAm) profile in the blood of infants. However, data on the postnatal stability of such DNAm signatures in childhood, as assessed by Epigenome Wide Association Studies (EWAS), are scarce. Objectives of this study were to investigate DNAm signatures associated with in utero tobacco smoke exposure beyond the 12th week of gestation in whole blood of children at age 5.5 years, to replicate previous findings in young European and American children and to assess their biological role by exploring databases and enrichment analysis. DNA methylation was measured in blood of 366 children of the multicentre European Childhood Obesity Project Study using the Illumina Infinium HM450 Beadchip (HM450K). An EWAS was conducted using linear regression of methylation values at each CpG site against in utero smoke exposure, adjusted for study characteristics, biological and technical effects. Methylation levels at five HM450K probes in MYO1G (cg12803068, cg22132788, cg19089201), CNTNAP2 (cg25949550), and FRMD4A (cg11813497) showed differential methylation that reached epigenome-wide significance according to the false-discovery-rate (FDR) criteria (q-value<0.05). Whereas cg25949550 showed decreased methylation (-2% DNAm ß-value), increased methylation was observed for the other probes (9%: cg12803068; 5%: cg22132788; 4%: cg19089201 and 4%: cg11813497) in exposed relative to non-exposed subjects. This study thus replicates previous findings in children ages 3 to 5, 7 and 17 and confirms the postnatal stability of MYO1G, CNTNAP2 and FRMD4A differential methylation. The role of this differential methylation in mediating childhood phenotypes, previously associated with maternal smoking, requires further investigation. PMID:27171005

  10. Effect of preventive zinc supplementation on linear growth in children under 5 years of age in developing countries: a meta-analysis of studies for input to the lives saved tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    supplemented group compared to placebo. This estimate is recommended for inclusion in Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model. Conclusions Zinc supplementation has a significant positive effect on linear growth, especially when administered alone, and should be included in national strategies to reduce stunting in children < 5 years of age in developing countries. PMID:21501440

  11. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  12. Potential use of hydrocarbons for aging Lucilia sericata blowfly larvae to establish the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies on Diptera have shown the potential for the use of cuticular hydrocarbons' analysis in the determination of larval age and hence the postmortem interval (PMI) for an associated cadaver. In this work, hydrocarbon compounds, extracted daily until pupation from the cuticle of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), have been analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show distinguishing features within the hydrocarbon profile over the period of the larvae life cycle, with significant chemical changes occurring from the younger larvae to the postfeeding larvae. Further interpretation of the chromatograms using principal component analysis revealed a strong correlation between the magnitudes of particular principal components and time. This outcome suggests that, under the conditions of this study, the cuticular hydrocarbons evolve in a systematic fashion with time, thus supporting the potential for GC-MS analysis as a tool for establishing PMI where such a species is present.

  13. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    PubMed

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected.

  14. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  15. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    PubMed

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected. PMID:26354136

  16. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

    PubMed

    Mair, Jacqueline L; Nevill, Alan M; De Vito, Giuseppe; Boreham, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  17. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Rebecca J.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS: We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, and television viewing. RESULTS: Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10–1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children. PMID:23918897

  19. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  20. Effects of paradigm and inter-stimulus interval on age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S; Seta, Susan E; Roker, LaToya A; Lehr, Melissa A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups dramatically, with superior performance in the delay paradigm. ISI was salient as middle-aged rabbits were significantly impaired in 750-msec compared with 600-msec delays, and young rabbits were significantly less impaired in 600-msec than in 750-msec trace. Young rabbits performed equally well at both delay ISIs, and consequently, there were significant age differences in 750-msec but not in 600-msec delays. Middle-aged rabbits performed poorly at both 600- and 750-msec trace, resulting in significant age differences in 600-msec but not in 750-msec trace. Timing of the conditioned response has been associated with cerebellar cortical function. Normal aging of the cerebellar cortex likely contributed to the magnitude of the effect of ISI in delay conditioning in middle-aged rabbits. Results demonstrate that the magnitude of age differences in eyeblink conditioning can be enlarged or eliminated by ISI and paradigm.

  1. Effects of paradigm and inter-stimulus interval on age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups dramatically, with superior performance in the delay paradigm. ISI was salient as middle-aged rabbits were significantly impaired in 750-msec compared with 600-msec delays, and young rabbits were significantly less impaired in 600-msec than in 750-msec trace. Young rabbits performed equally well at both delay ISIs, and consequently, there were significant age differences in 750-msec but not in 600-msec delays. Middle-aged rabbits performed poorly at both 600- and 750-msec trace, resulting in significant age differences in 600-msec but not in 750-msec trace. Timing of the conditioned response has been associated with cerebellar cortical function. Normal aging of the cerebellar cortex likely contributed to the magnitude of the effect of ISI in delay conditioning in middle-aged rabbits. Results demonstrate that the magnitude of age differences in eyeblink conditioning can be enlarged or eliminated by ISI and paradigm. PMID:17522017

  2. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  3. Stimulant Treatment over 5 Years: Effects on Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Figueroa, Max; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Long-term effects of psychostimulants on growth in height and in weight are investigated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Participants were 79 children, 6 to 12 years of age, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, who were followed annually for up to 5 years, between the years 1993 and 1994 and…

  4. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  5. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  6. Dependency of magnetocardiographically determined fetal cardiac time intervals on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometrics in healthy pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Peter; Lange, Silke; Klein, Anita; Geue, Daniel; Grönemeyer, Dietrich HW

    2004-01-01

    Background Magnetocardiography enables the precise determination of fetal cardiac time intervals (CTI) as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that fetal CTI change in course of gestation. The aim of this work was to investigate the dependency of fetal CTI on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data in a substantial sample of subjects during normal pregnancy. Methods A total of 230 fetal magnetocardiograms were obtained in 47 healthy fetuses between the 15th and 42nd week of gestation. In each recording, after subtraction of the maternal cardiac artifact and the identification of fetal beats, fetal PQRST courses were signal averaged. On the basis of therein detected wave onsets and ends, the following CTI were determined: P wave, PR interval, PQ interval, QRS complex, ST segment, T wave, QT and QTc interval. Using regression analysis, the dependency of the CTI were examined with respect to gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data. Results Atrioventricular conduction and ventricular depolarization times could be determined dependably whereas the T wave was often difficult to detect. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis established strong dependency on age for the P wave and QRS complex (r2 = 0.67, p < 0.001 and r2 = 0.66, p < 0.001) as well as an identifiable trend for the PR and PQ intervals (r2 = 0.21, p < 0.001 and r2 = 0.13, p < 0.001). Gender differences were found only for the QRS complex from the 31st week onward (p < 0.05). The influence on the P wave or QRS complex of biometric data, collected in a subgroup in whom recordings were available within 1 week of birth, did not display statistical significance. Conclusion We conclude that 1) from approximately the 18th week to term, fetal CTI which quantify depolarization times can be reliably determined using magnetocardiography, 2) the P wave and QRS complex duration show a high dependency on age which to a large part reflects fetal growth and 3) fetal gender

  7. Memories of an emotional and a nonemotional event: effects of aging and delay interval.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Krendl, Anne C; Corkin, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The present study compared the memory of young and older adults for details pertaining to two public events of close temporal proximity but varying emotional import-the Columbia shuttle explosion and the 2003 Super Bowl. Participants responded to surveys sent within 2 weeks of these events and then again 7 months later, providing information about event-related details (i.e., of the events themselves) and personal details (i.e., of the reception event). Both age groups rated the shuttle tragedy as significantly more emotional than the Super Bowl, and although older adults often had poorer memory overall, both age groups remembered more about the shuttle than they did about the Super Bowl. Further, the age discrepancy (young adults remembering more than older adults) was less pronounced for the shuttle than for the Super Bowl. Thus, older adults' memories appear to benefit from the emotional salience of real-life events.

  8. Contrasting age related changes in autism spectrum disorder phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange, Fragile X, and Cri du Chat syndromes: Results from a 2.5 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Lisa; Moss, Joanna; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the way in which the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) develop and manifest across the age span in individuals with genetic syndromes. In this study we present findings from a two and a half year follow-up of the characteristics associated with ASD in three syndromes: Cornelia de Lange (CdLS), Fragile X (FXS), and Cri du Chat (CdCS). Parents and carers of 251 individuals (CdLS=67, CdCS=42, and FXS=142) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) at Time 1 (T1) and again two and a half years later (T2). The FXS and CdLS groups were more likely to meet the cut-offs for both autism and ASD and show greater severity of ASD related behaviors, at both T1 and T2, compared to the CdCS group. Older individuals (>15yrs) with CdLS were more likely to meet the cut off for ASD than younger individuals (≤15 yrs) with the syndrome and more likely to show greater severity of social impairments. In FXS repetitive behaviors were found to become less prominent with age and in CdCS social impairments were reported to be more severe with age. There were no significant changes between T1 and T2 in the severity of ASD characteristics in the CdCS and CdLS groups. The FXS group showed significantly fewer repetitive behaviors and less severe impairments in social interaction over this time frame. The findings suggest that while there may be similarities in overall severity and presentation of ASD characteristics in CdLS and FXS, these characteristics have divergent patterns of development within these groups. PMID:25989416

  9. Age at first birth and the length of the second birth interval: is a positive relationship universal in modern populations?

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A

    1986-06-01

    "Age at first birth has been found to be positively associated with the length of the second birth interval in several studies. One researcher has hypothesized that such a relationship would be found in any population in which contraception is widespread and women are exposed to non-maternal roles. However, in this study a positive relationship is not found for caucasian women in Hawaii, a population in which contraception is wide-spread and women are exposed to non-maternal roles. The findings suggest a revision of the hypothesis to accommodate more complex relationships."

  10. GuidAge study: a 5-year double blind, randomised trial of EGb 761 for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease in elderly subjects with memory complaints. i. rationale, design and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Andrieu, Sandrine; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Coley, Nicola; Ouzid, Mehemed; Mathiex-Fortunet, Hélène; Vellas, Bruno

    2008-08-01

    Primary and secondary prevention strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are urgently needed. We have initiated a five-year prospective prevention study involving patients spontaneously reporting memory complaints. The primary objective is to determine the effect of treatment with EGb 76 on the rate of conversion from memory complaints to AD using survival analysis. Ambulatory patients aged at least 70 years who spontaneously reported a memory complaint during a GP or memory centre consultation were eligible for inclusion. Patients with major objective memory impairment or clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression were excluded. Subjects were randomised to receive either EGb 761 120mg bid or matching placebo. Participants undergo an annual visit at a memory centre, where a series of neuropsychological tests are administered to assess cognitive function (Grober and Buschke, Trail-Making and controlled oral word association tests) and cognitive status (MMS and CDR). Functional status is evaluated with the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living questionnaire. The primary outcome is the transition to a diagnosis of AD (DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria), determined at the annual memory centre visit. A total of 4066 patients were screened for participation, of whom 2854 fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were entered into the study. Their mean age was 76.8+/-4.4 years and 66.7% were female. The mean MMSE score was 27.8+/-1.7 and 55.5% presented a CDR score of 0.5. This study will enable us to evaluate the efficacy of EGb761 in the prevention of AD, and to assess the usefulness of various baseline characteristics as predictors of conversion to AD in this population.

  11. [Influence of age on blood glucose levels: percentile reference intervals determined on ambulatory patients].

    PubMed

    Sapigni, T; Astolfi, G; Cavallini, L; Cremonini, F

    1981-06-15

    Data of routine chemical and hematological laboratory tests regarding outpatients were collected in four different hospitals of the provinces of Ferrara, Rovigo and Bologna. Data of about 1500 subjects per hospital were cumulated without preliminary selection of patients; sex, age and pregnancy status were also recorded. At the end of the collection, the second (and third) record of the same patient was discarded; only those referring to the first examination were retained. In this report we consider only the values of the blood sugar level which were obtained by enzymatic methods. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were performed utilizing a CDC CYBER 70/76 computer. The means and the variances of the data collected at the four hospital laboratories were very similar (Tab 1). The interlaboratory analysis of variance was poorly significant. All frequency distributions were leptocurtic and skewed to the right (Fig. 1). The blood sugar level tend to increase with age (Tab. 2). This correlation is graphically depicted in a two-dimensional plot (Fig 2) in which the regression line and the 2, 5 and 97,5 percentile levels corrected for age were also reported. We think that this diagram may be more helpful to the clinicians interpreting laboratory results than the usual "normal values". PMID:7284101

  12. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  13. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p < 0.0001) but no significant correlation between children's HHg and W/H-Z scores. However, the multivariate model showed that breastfeeding, a fish consumption biomarker (HHg), maternal education, and child's age were statistically significant associated with specific domains (language and personal-social) of the Gesell scale. In this mining environment, family fish-eating did not affect children's linear growth, but it showed a positive influence (along with maternal variables) on neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate

  14. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  15. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  16. Microbiological monitoring of endoscopes: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth E; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2008-07-01

    Periodic microbiological monitoring of endoscopes is a recommendation of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GENSA). The aim of monitoring has been to provide quality assurance of the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes; however, there is controversy regarding its frequency. This lack of consensus stimulated a review of the experience within our health service. At Southern Health, routine microbiological sampling has involved 4-weekly monitoring of bronchoscopes, duodenoscopes and automated flexible endoscope reprocessors (AFER), and 3-monthly monitoring of all other gastrointestinal endoscopes. Records of testing were reviewed from 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2006. A literature review was conducted, cost analysis performed and positive cultures investigated. There were 2374 screening tests performed during the 5-year period, including 287 AFER, 631 bronchoscopes for mycobacteria and 1456 endoscope bacterial screens. There were no positive results of the AFER or bronchoscopes for mycobacteria. Of the 1456 endoscopic bacterial samples, six were positive; however, retesting resulted in no growth. The overall cost of tests performed and cost in time for nursing staff to collect the samples was estimated at $AUD 100,400. Periodic monitoring of endoscopes is both time-consuming and costly. Our review demonstrates that AFER (Soluscope) perform well in cleaning endoscopes. Based on our 5-year experience, assurance of quality for endoscopic use could be achieved through process control as opposed to product control. Maintenance of endoscopes and AFER should be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and microbiological testing performed on commissioning, annually and following repair. Initial prompt manual leak testing and manual cleaning followed by mechanical leak testing, cleaning and disinfection should be the minimum standard in reprocessing of endoscopes. PMID:18086113

  17. Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Kern, David W; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57-85 were studied in 2005-6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010-11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a "dose-dependent" effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process.

  18. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  19. Effects of mild calorie restriction and high-intensity interval walking in middle-aged and older overweight Japanese.

    PubMed

    Sawashita, Jinko; Onitsuka, Sayaka; Gen-no, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Shinobu; Iino, Fumie; Tateishi, Norihiko; Murakami, Takeo; Seki, Yoichi; Nagaiwa, Toshiyuki; Hanaoka, Masaaki; Hama, Sumio; Nose, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2009-10-01

    We investigated whether a combination of mild calorie restriction (MCR) and high-intensity interval walking (HIW) improved physical fitness more than HIW alone in middle-aged and older overweight Japanese (40-69years old, BMI23.6kg/m(2)). Forty-seven women and 16 men were divided into MCR+HIW and HIW groups. All subjects performed HIW: 5 sets of 3-min low-intensity walking (40% peak aerobic capacity for walking, VO(2peak)) and 3-min high-intensity walking (70% VO(2peak)) per day, 4days per week, for 16weeks while energy expenditure was monitored with a tri-axial accelerometer. The MCR+HIW group consumed meal replacement formula (240kcal): a mixture of low-carbohydrates and -fat and high-protein, for either lunch or dinner everyday and therefore, had approximately 87% of the energy intake of the HIW group during the intervention period. Although the HIW group showed improvements in BMI, blood pressure, and several blood chemicals, the MCR+HIW group had greater improvement. Moreover, the medical expenditure for the 6months including the intervention period was 59% lower in the MCR+HIW group than in the HIW group. Our strategy of a short-term combination of MCR and HIW may thus prevent lifestyle-associated diseases and improve health in middle-aged and older overweight Japanese.

  20. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).

  1. Associations between Changes in City and Address Specific Temperature and QT Interval - The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J.; Kloog, Itai; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Background The underlying mechanisms of the association between ambient temperature and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well understood, particularly for daily temperature variability. We evaluated if daily mean temperature and standard deviation of temperature was associated with heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization in a prospective cohort of older men. Methods This longitudinal analysis included 487 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with up to three visits between 2000–2008 (n = 743). We analyzed associations between QTc and moving averages (1–7, 14, 21, and 28 days) of the 24-hour mean and standard deviation of temperature as measured from a local weather monitor, and the 24-hour mean temperature estimated from a spatiotemporal prediction model, in time-varying linear mixed-effect regression. Effect modification by season, diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, and age was also evaluated. Results Higher mean temperature as measured from the local monitor, and estimated from the prediction model, was associated with longer QTc at moving averages of 21 and 28 days. Increased 24-hr standard deviation of temperature was associated with longer QTc at moving averages from 4 and up to 28 days; a 1.9°C interquartile range increase in 4-day moving average standard deviation of temperature was associated with a 2.8 msec (95%CI: 0.4, 5.2) longer QTc. Associations between 24-hr standard deviation of temperature and QTc were stronger in colder months, and in participants with diabetes and coronary heart disease. Conclusion/Significance In this sample of older men, elevated mean temperature was associated with longer QTc, and increased variability of temperature was associated with longer QTc, particularly during colder months and among individuals with diabetes and coronary heart disease. These findings may offer insight of an important underlying mechanism of temperature

  2. Limited Effects of Endurance or Interval Training on Visceral Adipose Tissue and Systemic Inflammation in Sedentary Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Joshua H. F.; Collins, Blake E. G.; Adams, David R.; Robergs, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether “active” or “passive” recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m2) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk−1 ET (n = 15; 50–60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4–10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14). Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, whole-body and visceral fat mass, and plasma systemic inflammation were examined. Results. Compared to CON, significant increases in interpolated power output (P-SIT, P < 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.041) and test duration (P-SIT, P = 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.046) occurred after training. Final VO2 consumption was increased after P-SIT only (P < 0.001). Despite >90% exercise compliance, there was no change in whole-body or visceral fat mass or plasma inflammation (P > 0.05). Conclusion. In sedentary middle-aged men, SIT was a time-effective alternative to ET in facilitating conditioning responses yet was ineffective in altering body composition and plasma inflammation, and compared to passive recovery, evidenced diminished conditioning responses when employing active recovery. PMID:27777795

  3. Predictive 5-Year Survivorship Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Theodore G.; Adler, Frederick R.; FitzSimmons, Stacey C.; Cahill, Barbara C.; Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 5-year survivorship model to identify key clinical features of cystic fibrosis. Such a model could help researchers and clinicians to evaluate therapies, improve the design of prospective studies, monitor practice patterns, counsel individual patients, and determine the best candidates for lung transplantation. The authors used information from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), which has collected longitudinal data on approximately 90% of cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed in the United States since 1986. They developed multivariate logistic regression models by using data on 5,820 patients randomly selected from 11,630 in the CFFPR in 1993. Models were tested for goodness of fit and were validated for the remaining 5,810 patients for 1993. The validated 5-year survivorship model included age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted normal, gender, weight-for-age z score, pancreatic sufficiency, diabetes mellitus, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Burkerholderia cepacia infection, and annual number of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The model provides insights into the complex nature of cystic fibrosis and supplies a rigorous tool for clinical practice and research. PMID:11207152

  4. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  5. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (P<0.005) embryo recovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (P<0.05), respectively. The effect of age group on pregnancy rate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P<0.001), age (P<0.04), Day of flushing (P=0.009) and by month (P<0.012). The overall mean interovulatory interval of Group 1 (16.4±0.17 days) and Group 2 (16.6±0.12 days) was not different (P>0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; P<0.04). The embryo recovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03). PMID:25981675

  6. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (P<0.005) embryo recovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (P<0.05), respectively. The effect of age group on pregnancy rate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P<0.001), age (P<0.04), Day of flushing (P=0.009) and by month (P<0.012). The overall mean interovulatory interval of Group 1 (16.4±0.17 days) and Group 2 (16.6±0.12 days) was not different (P>0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; P<0.04). The embryo recovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03).

  7. Development and Validation of a Model to Predict 5-Year Risk of Death without ESRD among Older Adults with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ronit; De Boer, Ian H.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Fried, Linda F.; Siscovick, David S.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Hirsch, Calvin; Cummings, Steven R.; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives CKD is associated with mortality. Accurate prediction tools for mortality may guide clinical decision-making, particularly among elderly persons with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A prediction equation was developed for 5-year risk of mortality among participants with CKD in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Sixteen candidate predictor variables were explored, which included demographics, physical examination measures, comorbidity, medication use, and kidney function measures (eGFR calculated from serum creatinine and the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equation and the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio). Models were developed using Cox regression and evaluated using c statistics. A final parsimonious model was externally validated in an independent cohort of community-living elders with CKD in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Results The development cohort included 828 participants who had a mean age of 80 (±5.6) years and an eGFR of 47 (±11) ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 13 (interquartile range 6–51) mg/g. The validation cohort included 789 participants who had a mean age of 74 (±2.8) years and an eGFR of 50 (±9) ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 13 (interquartile range 6–42) mg/g. The final model for 5-year mortality risk included age, sex, race, eGFR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and history of heart failure and stroke (c statistic=0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.68 to 0.74). When a point-based system was assigned for each of nine variables in the equation, the estimated risk of death within 5 years ranged from 3.8% among participants with the lowest scores to 83.6% among participants with nine points. The model performed fair in external validation (c statistic=0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.74). Conclusions A simple prediction tool using nine readily available clinical variables can assist

  8. [The readmission of schizophrenics: a retrospective study over 5 years].

    PubMed

    Antonioli, D; Rey-Bellet, J; Müller, C

    1988-05-01

    Since the introduction of neuroleptics, the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals has decreased progressively, but, in the same time, the number of readmissions has increased. For schizophrenic outpatients, we can estimate that 68% will be readmitted during the 5 years following their departure from the hospital. In our retrospective survey, we have studied the different factors which influence the readmissions. We have shown, with a statistical significancy, that an agricultural background, a fulltime job and brief hospitalizations prevent the readmissions. However patients aged less than 30 years, with long hospitalizations and living alone have a high risk of readmission. The most frequent causes are patient's omission to take prescribed drugs, environmental conflicts and alteration in the familial situation. PMID:3059911

  9. Comparisons of Holsteins with Brown Swiss and Jersey cows on the same farm for age at first calving and first calving interval.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Peniche, T B; Cassell, B G; Pearson, R E; Misztal, I

    2005-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate breed differences for heat-stress resistance as reflected by age at first calving and first calving interval. We examined the effect of geographic location and birth season on age at first calving, and geographic location and first calving season on first calving interval on Holsteins and Jerseys, and Holsteins and Brown Swiss located on the same farm. We defined 7 regions within the United States: Northwest, Central north, Northeast, Central, Central south, Southwest, and Southeast, and analyzed 7 individual states: Ohio, Wisconsin, Oregon, California, Arizona, Texas, and Florida. Brown Swiss were older than Holsteins at first calving (833 +/- 2.4 vs. 806 +/- 2.0 d in regions, and 830 +/- 3.1 vs. 803 +/- 2.4 d in states), but Holsteins and Brown Swiss did not differ for first calving interval. Jerseys were younger than Holsteins at first calving and had shorter first calving intervals. In data from individual states, Holsteins housed with Brown Swiss were older at first calving than were Holsteins housed with Jerseys (800 +/- 2.7 vs. 780 +/- 2.5 d). Holsteins housed with one breed or the other were analyzed as a separate data set, and referred to as "type of Holstein." The interaction of "type of Holstein" with first calving season was highly significant for first calving interval. Geographic location and season effects were smaller for Jerseys than for Holsteins; thus, Jerseys showed evidence of heat-stress resistance with respect to Holsteins. Management modified age at first calving in Holsteins to more nearly match that of the other breed. Longer calving intervals might be partly due to voluntary waiting period to breed the cows.

  10. Interferon-gamma release assay sensitivity in children younger than 5 years is insufficient to replace the use of tuberculin skin test in western countries.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Elena; Bonsignori, Francesca; Mazzantini, Rachele; Sollai, Sara; Venturini, Elisabetta; Mangone, Giusi; Cortimiglia, Martina; Olivito, Biagio; Azzari, Chiara; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB were performed in 338 children at risk for tuberculosis (TB), including 70 active TB cases. In children <5 years of age, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube sensitivity was 73.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 57.5-89.1]; and T-SPOT.TB sensitivity was 59.3% (95% CI: 40.1-77.8); both were inferior to tuberculin skin test sensitivity (90.0%; 95% CI: 79.3-100). In children ≥ 5 years QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube sensitivity was 92.5% (95% CI: 84.4-100); T-SPOT.TB sensitivity was 73.0% (95% CI: 58.6-87.3) ; and tuberculin skin test sensitivity was 97.5% (95% CI: 92.6-100).Test specificities were similar in all age groups.

  11. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment.

  12. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment. PMID:26863863

  13. Estimated Cerebrospina Fluid Pressure and the 5-Year Incidence of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Tao, Yijin; Yuan, Yuansheng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aim to assess the longitudinal association between baseline estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and 5-year incident primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a population-based sample of Bai Chinese living in rural China. Methods Among the 2133 Bai Chinese aged 50 years or older who had participated in the baseline examination of the Yunnan Minority Eye Study, 1520 (71.3%) attended the follow-up examination after five years and 1485 were at risk of developing POAG. Participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations at both baseline and follow-up surveys. CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)-0.18 × age (years)-1.91. Glaucoma was defined using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification criteria. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to determine the association between baseline CSFP and incident POAG. Results After a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 19 new cases of POAG were detected, with an incidence rate of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.7–1.9%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, education, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, hypertension and diabetes, no significant associations, nor any trends, were evident between baseline estimated CSFP and incident POAG. The association between estimated CSFP per mmHg increase in baseline and 5-year incidence of POAG was also non-significant, with adjusted relative risk of 0.96 (P = 0.11) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This longitudinal cohort study does not support previously observed cross-sectional association between estimated CSFP and POAG in population-based studies. PMID:27611879

  14. Cytoskeletal alterations associated with donor age and culture interval for equine oocytes and potential zygotes that failed to cleave after ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Elena; DeLuca, Keith F; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; DeLuca, Jennifer G; Carnevale, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an established method to fertilize equine oocytes, but not all oocytes cleave after ICSI. The aims of the present study were to examine cytoskeleton patterns in oocytes after aging in vitro for 0, 24 or 48 h (Experiment 1) and in potential zygotes that failed to cleave after ICSI of oocytes from donors of different ages (Experiment 2). Cytoplasmic multiasters were observed after oocyte aging for 48 h (P < 0.01). A similar increase in multiasters was observed with an increased interval after ICSI for young mares (9–13 years) but not old (20–25 years) mares. Actin vesicles were observed more frequently in sperm-injected oocytes from old than young mares. In the present study, multiasters appeared to be associated with cell aging, whereas actin vesicles were associated with aging of the oocyte donor. PMID:25798646

  15. Medium-term outcomes and complications after total replacement of the temporomandibular joint. Prospective outcome analysis after 3 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E A; McCullough, J; Sidebottom, A J

    2015-05-01

    In this prospective analysis, we assess the medium-term benefits, efficacy, and safety of the TMJ Concepts joint replacement system in the United Kingdom. Outcome measures of pain, maximum mouth opening, and diet were recorded preoperatively and at intervals up to 3 and 5 years. All patients who had replacement temporomandibular joints (TMJ) within a 6-year period were included. A total of 58 patients (84 joints) were followed up for 3 years (mean age 47, range 19-72) and 26 (42 joints) for 5 years (mean age 46, range 27-70). The female to male ratio was 52:6 at 3 years and 23:3 at 5 years. The most common diagnosis was degenerative disease, and the mean number of previous TMJ procedures was 2.4 (range 0-14). There were significant improvements in pain scores (7.4 reduced to 0.6 at 3 years and 0.8 at 5 years), maximum mouth opening (21.0-35.5mm at 3 years and 23.8-33.7mm at 5 years), and dietary scores (4.1-9.7 at 3 years and 3.7-9.6 at 5 years). Revision operations were required in 2 patients (not included in the outcome data) for biofilm infection of the prosthesis secondary to local infection in the head and neck. One patient had weakness of the temporal branch of the facial nerve that needed correction. TMJ replacement is an effective form of management for an irreparably damaged joint, particularly in cases of ankylosis. It lessens pain and improves function with minimal long-term morbidity. PMID:25818493

  16. Screening outcomes in older US women undergoing multiple mammograms in community practice: does interval, age, or comorbidity score affect tumor characteristics or false positive rates?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Dejana; Zhu, Weiwei; Hubbard, Rebecca A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Miglioretti, Diana L; Geller, Berta; Dittus, Kim; Moore, Dan; Wernli, Karen J; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-03-01

    Background Uncertainty exists about the appropriate use of screening mammography among older women because comorbid illnesses may diminish the benefit of screening. We examined the risk of adverse tumor characteristics and false positive rates according to screening interval, age, and comorbidity. Methods From January 1999 to December 2006, data were collected prospectively on 2993 older women with breast cancer and 137 949 older women without breast cancer who underwent mammography at facilities that participated in a data linkage between the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and Medicare claims. Women were aged 66 to 89 years at study entry to allow for measurement of 1 year of preexisting illnesses. We used logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds of advanced (IIb, III, IV) stage, large (>20 millimeters) tumors, and 10-year cumulative probability of false-positive mammography by screening frequency (1 vs 2 years), age, and comorbidity score. The comorbidity score was derived using the Klabunde approximation of the Charlson score. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Adverse tumor characteristics did not differ statistically significantly by comorbidity, age, or interval. Cumulative probability of a false-positive mammography result was higher among annual screeners than biennial screeners irrespective of comorbidity: 48.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 46.1% to 49.9%) of annual screeners aged 66 to 74 years had a false-positive result compared with 29.0% (95% CI = 28.1% to 29.9%) of biennial screeners. Conclusion Women aged 66 to 89 years who undergo biennial screening mammography have similar risk of advanced-stage disease and lower cumulative risk of a false-positive recommendation than annual screeners, regardless of comorbidity.

  17. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  18. Interval From Imaging to Treatment Delivery in the Radiation Surgery Age: How Long Is Too Long?

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, Zachary A.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Westcott, Sarah K.; Braunstein, Steve; Larson, David A.; Barani, Igor J.; Nakamura, Jean; Sneed, Penny K.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate workflow and patient outcomes related to frameless stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We reviewed all treatment demographics, clinical outcomes, and workflow timing, including time from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) simulation, insurance authorization, and consultation to the start of SRS for brain metastases. Results: A total of 82 patients with 151 brain metastases treated with SRS were evaluated. The median times from consultation, insurance authorization, CT simulation, and MRI for treatment planning were 15, 7, 6, and 11 days to SRS. Local freedom from progression (LFFP) was lower in metastases with MRI ≥14 days before treatment (P=.0003, log rank). The 6- and 12-month LFFP rate were 95% and 75% for metastasis with interval of <14 days from MRI to treatment compared to 56% and 34% for metastases with MRI ≥14 days before treatment. On multivariate analysis, LFFP remained significantly lower for lesions with MRI ≥14 days at SRS (P=.002, Cox proportional hazards; hazard ratio: 3.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.6-7.3). Conclusions: Delay from MRI to SRS treatment delivery for brain metastases appears to reduce local control. Future studies should monitor the timing from imaging acquisition to treatment delivery. Our experience suggests that the time from MRI to treatment should be <14 days.

  19. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  20. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions.

  1. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  2. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H.; Konat, Ashwati R.; Sharma, Kamal H.; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity. PMID:26824054

  3. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a 5-year retrospective of the structure, methodology, progress, and contributions to the broader scientific community that have resulted from this national USGS program. We evaluate ARMI’s success to date, with regard to the challenges faced by the program and the strengths that have emerged. We chart objectives for the next 5 years that build on current accomplishments, highlight areas meriting further research, and direct efforts to overcome existing weaknesses.

  4. Interval Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Regardless of the type of physical activity used, interval training is simply repeated periods of physical stress interspersed with recovery periods during which activity of a reduced intensity is performed. During the recovery periods, the individual usually keeps moving and does not completely recover before the next exercise interval (e.g.,…

  5. [Immunogenicity of additional varicella vaccination 3-5 years after the initial vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2013-07-01

    Additional varicella vaccination was carried out targeting 16 subjects who had immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) seroconversion following the initial varicella vaccination and did not contract breakthrough varicella after the initial vaccination. The median ages at the initial and additional vaccination were 2.1 (1.1-6.9) years old and 6.1 (4.4-10.5) years old, respectively. The mean interval between the initial and additional vaccination was 4.0 (3.2-5.2) years. IAHA and glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) antibody titers were measured just before and 4-6 weeks after the additional vaccination. Side reaction was surveyed at four weeks after the additional vaccination, and compared with the results at the initial vaccination. IAHA and gpELISA seroconversion rates at the initial vaccination were 100% and 88% respectively. Prior to the additional vaccination, IAHA antibody titers significantly decreased in 50% of the subjects, and became negative in 38% of the subjects. On the other hand, a significant increase in IAHA antibody titers was observed in 25% of the subjects, and this is assumed to be the result of a subclinical infection after the initial vaccination. The positive rate of both antibodies after the additional vaccination was 100%, the mean IAHA antibody titer (Log2) after the initial/additional vaccination in seropositive subjects was 4.6/6.5, and the mean gpELISA antibody titer (Log10) was 2.3/4.0. The mean IAHA and gpELISA antibody titers were higher after the additional vaccination than after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01, p < 0.01). This is considered to be the booster effect due to the additional vaccination. At 0-2 days after the additional vaccination, a rash at the injection site was observed in 56% of the subjects, higher than the incidence after the initial vaccination (13%) (p < 0.05), but no severe systemic side reactions were observed at either the initial or the additional vaccination. In conclusion, an

  6. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  7. Story Contexts Increase Susceptibility to the DRM Illusion in 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Pursglove, Rhian C.; Lewis, Charlie

    2007-01-01

    False recognition in children aged 5, 8, and 11 years was investigated using the standard version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and an alternative version in which the DRM stimuli were embedded in stories designed to emphasize their overall theme. Relative to the 8- and 11-year-olds, the 5-year-olds falsely recognized fewer…

  8. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  9. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in

  10. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  11. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of lower frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) on vascular function in a cohort of lifelong sedentary (SED; n =22, age 62.7 ± 5.2 years) men compared with a positive control group of lifelong exercisers (LEX; n = 17, age 61.1 ± 5.4 years). The study consisted of three assessment phases; enrolment to the study (Phase A), following 6 weeks of conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B) and following 6 weeks of low frequency HIIT in both SED and LEX (LfHIIT; Phase C). Conditioning exercise improved FMD in SED (3.4 ± 1.5% to 4.9 ± 1.1%; P <0.01) such that the difference between groups on enrolment (3.4 ± 1.5% vs. 5.3 ± 1.4%; P <0.01) was abrogated. This was maintained but not further improved following LfHIIT in SED whilst FMD remained unaffected by LfHIIT in LEX. In conclusion, LfHIIT is effective at maintaining improvements in vascular function achieved during conditioning exercise in SED. LfHIIT is a well‐tolerated and effective exercise mode for reducing cardiovascular risk and maintaining but does not improve vascular function beyond that achieved by conditioning exercise in aging men, irrespective of fitness level. PMID:25626864

  12. A 5-year experience with an elective scholarly concentrations program

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul; Green, Emily P.; Park, Yoon S.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Programs that encourage scholarly activities beyond the core curriculum and traditional biomedical research are now commonplace among US medical schools. Few studies have generated outcome data for these programs. The goal of the present study was to address this gap. Intervention The Scholarly Concentration (SC) Program, established in 2006 at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, is a 4-year elective program that not only encourages students to pursue scholarly work that may include traditional biomedical research but also seeks to broaden students’ focus to include less traditional areas. We compared characteristics and academic performance of SC students and non-SC students for the graduating classes of 2010–2014. Context Approximately one-third of our students opt to complete an SC during their 4-year undergraduate medical education. Because this program is additional to the regular MD curriculum, we sought to investigate whether SC students sustained the academic achievement of non-SC students while at the same time producing scholarly work as part of the program. Outcome Over 5 years, 35% of students elected to enter the program and approximately 81% of these students completed the program. The parameters that were similar for both SC and non-SC students were age at matriculation, admission route, proportion of undergraduate science majors, and number of undergraduate science courses. Most academic indicators, including United States Medical Licensing Examinations scores, were similar for the two groups; however, SC students achieved more honors in the six core clerkships and were more likely to be inducted into the medical school's two honor societies. Residency specialties selected by graduates in the two groups were similar. SC students published an average of 1.3 peer-reviewed manuscripts per student, higher than the 0.8 manuscripts per non-SC student (p=0.013). Conclusions An elective, interdisciplinary scholarly program with

  13. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-05-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

  14. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  15. 2001 IFT Education Standards: A 5-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    The current IFT Education Standards used to evaluate Food Science programs for IFT approval have been in place now for 5 years. Most Food Science programs in the United States (as well as some in Mexico and Canada) have been reviewed according to these standards. The transition to instruction based on assessment of student learning outcomes, in…

  16. WCTC 5-Year Graduation Rates. Retention for Learning Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Viktor; Sanford, Doug

    This study addresses Waukesha County Technical College's (WCTC) 5-year retention and graduate rates. Some of the key findings of the report are as follow: (1) overall, 35.4% of cohort students graduated; (2) a 4-year combined graduation rate for ethnic minorities was 26%, well below the overall average; (3) the percent of cohort that graduated…

  17. The epidemiology of chickenpox in UK 5-year olds: an analysis to inform vaccine policy.

    PubMed

    Manikkavasagan, Gayatri; Dezateux, Carol; Wade, Angie; Bedford, Helen

    2010-11-10

    Varicella vaccine is not routinely administered to children in many countries including the UK. Longitudinal data are lacking to inform optimal schedules. We report the prevalence of VZV infection at 5 years of age, cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years and socio-demographic associations with risk of infection using longitudinal data on 12,509 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. VZV prevalence by 5 years was 76.9% [95% CI: 75.9%, 78.0%]. The cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years was 32.2% [95% CI: 31.1%, 33.3%]. Risk of infection by 5 years was associated with higher maternal socio-economic status, larger household size and formal day-care attendance at 9 months and 3 years. If universal varicella immunisation were introduced in the UK, where 40% children have attended some formal day-care by 3 years, a schedule commencing early in the second year of life would be indicated.

  18. A single gene for juvenile and middle-age onset open-angle glaucomas confined within a small interval on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.; Dumont, M.; Plante, M.

    1994-09-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) encompasses a complex of ocular disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy causing progressive loss of the visual fields and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. POAG can be subdivided into two groups according to age of onset: (1) the more prevalent middle to late-age onset chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after age 40 and (2) the less common form, juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), which occurs between 3 years of age and early adulthood. Susceptibility to either COAG or JOAG has been found to be inherited. We studied 141 members of a huge multigeneration French Canadian family affected with an autosomal dominant form of POAG. Both JOAG and COAG were diagnosed in 43 patients. To first position the disease gene, AFM microsatellites markers specific to chromosome 1q21-q31 were selected since linkage of JOAG to this region was recently demonstrated in two Caucasian families. Tight linkage was observed between the JOAG/COAG phenotype and 7 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 at {theta}=0 was obtained with AFM278ye5. Using a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect, a characteristic JOAG/COAG haplotype spanning 12 cM was next recognized between loci D1S196 and D1S212. Two key recombination events in affected patients further confined the disease locus within a 5 cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S452/D1S210. These results are the first to demonstrate that JOAG and one adult form of POAG map at a single locus on chromosome 1q23-q25. They also provide members of this family with a new diagnostic tool to identify the at-risk individuals.

  19. Self-Reported Periodontitis and Incident Type 2 Diabetes among Male Workers from a 5-Year Follow-Up to MY Health Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Atsushi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontitis is associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Japanese male worker cohort. Methods The study participants were Japanese men, aged 36–55 years, without diabetes. Data were extracted from the MY Health Up study, consisting of self-administered questionnaire surveys at baseline and following annual health examinations for an insurance company in Japan. The oral health status of the participants was classified by two self-reported indicators: (1) gingival hemorrhage and (2) tooth loosening. Type 2 diabetes incidence was determined by self-reporting or blood test data. Modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals of incident diabetes with periodontitis. Covariates included age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking habits, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, and exercise habits. Results Of the 2895 candidates identified at baseline in 2004, 2469 men were eligible for follow-up analysis, 133 of whom were diagnosed with diabetes during the 5-year follow-up period. Tooth loosening was associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.64] after adjusting for other confounding factors. Gingival hemorrhage displayed a similar trend but was not significantly associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.85]. Conclusions Tooth loosening is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. PMID:27115749

  20. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Rosita; Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima Dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  1. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  2. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica in a 5 year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; Pires-de-Mello, Paulo; Morgado, Maria de Fátima; March, Maria de Fátima Pombo

    2012-12-01

    Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is considered an orphan disease with exceptional occurrence in children. We report a 5 year old female child who was referred to us with chronic cough and recurrent pneumonia. After several investigations, bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in the tracheobronchial lumen, whose distribution was consistent with TO. The patient was followed for four years, with no change in the pattern of the disease.

  3. [5-year experience with BCG immunoprophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Rüssel, C

    1992-09-01

    Our 5-year experience with BCG in the tumor stage pTis, pTa and pT1, G I-II shows a lasting remission of 88.5% (73%) in 78 (26) patients treated with BCG preparation Pasteur (Connaught) after transurethral resection. A complete remission in patients with carcinoma in situ (12 patients) could be found in 92%. The local and systemic side-effects, which are of limited duration, are tolerable, well treatable and fully reversible.

  4. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, ARMI has partnered with an extensive list of government, academic, and private entities. These partnerships have been fruitful and have assisted ARMI in developing new field protocols and analytic tools, in using and refining emerging technologies to improve accuracy and efficiency of data handling, in conducting amphibian disease, malformation, and environmental effects research, and in implementing a network of mon

  5. A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates.

    PubMed

    Richards, John E; Sanchez, Carmen; Phillips-Meek, Michelle; Xie, Wanze

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes a life-span neurodevelopmental MRI database. The study of neurostructural development or neurofunctional development has been hampered by the lack of age-appropriate MRI reference volumes. This causes misspecification of segmented data, irregular registrations, and the absence of appropriate stereotaxic volumes. We have created the "Neurodevelopmental MRI Database" that provides age-specific reference data from 2 weeks through 89 years of age. The data are presented in fine-grained ages (e.g., 3 months intervals through 1 year; 6 months intervals through 19.5 years; 5 year intervals from 20 through 89 years). The base component of the database at each age is an age-specific average MRI template. The average MRI templates are accompanied by segmented partial volume estimates for segmenting priors, and a common stereotaxic atlas for infant, pediatric, and adult participants. The database is available online (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/).

  6. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P < 0.05). When electrofusion was induced 27 h after the onset of oocyte maturation, the cleavage rate (78.0%) was higher than that of electrofusion induced at 28 h (67.2%, P < 0.05), and the blastocyst yield (18.1%) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of electrofusion induced at 25 or 26 h (7.4 and 8.5%, respectively). A higher proportion of NT embryos activated at 3 h after electrofusion developed to the blastocyst stage (18.6%) in comparison with NT embryos activated at 1 h (6.0%), 2 h (8.3%), or 4 h (10.6%) after fusion (P < 0.05). No recipient was pregnant 60 d after transfer of blastocysts developed from NT embryos activated at 1 h (0/8), 2 h (0/10), or 4 h (0/9) after fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation.

  7. Intraoperative Radiotherapy as a Boost During Breast-Conserving Surgery Using Low-Kilovoltage X-Rays: The First 5 Years of Experience With a Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Frederik; Welzel, Grit; Blank, Elena; Hermann, Brigitte; Steil, Volker; Suetterlin, Marc; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) during breast-conserving surgery (BCS) has been recently introduced using different devices. We report the first 5 years of a single-center experience after introduction of a novel approach to deliver IORT as a tumor bed boost during BCS for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 breast cancers in 154 women (median age, 63 years; range, 30-83 years; T1/T2 = 100/55; N0/N+ = 108/47) were treated between February 2002 and December 2007 at the University Medical Center Mannheim, in whom IORT as tumor bed boost was applied using 50-kV X-rays (20 Gy) followed by 46-50 Gy whole-breast external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Chemotherapy, if indicated, was given before EBRT. The median interval between BCS plus IORT and EBRT was 40 days. Median follow-up was 34 months (maximum 80 months, 1 patient lost to follow-up). Overall survival and local relapse-free survival were calculated at 5 years using the Kaplan-Meier method. Seventy-nine patients were evaluated at 3-year follow-up for late toxicity according to the Late Effects in Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic system. Results: Ten patients died, 2 had in-breast relapse, and 8 developed distant metastases (5-year overall survival = 87.0%; 5-year local relapse-free survival = 98.5%). Grade 3 fibroses of the tumor bed were detected in 5% of the patients after 3 years. Skin toxicity was mild (telangiectases and hyperpigmentations in approximately 6% each). Conclusions: Intraoperative radiotherapy as a tumor bed boost during BCS for breast cancer using low-kilovoltage X-rays followed by EBRT yields low recurrence and toxicity rates.

  8. Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigger, J. T. Jr; Steinman, R. C.; Rolnitzky, L. M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purposes of the present study were (1) to establish normal values for the regression of log(power) on log(frequency) for, RR-interval fluctuations in healthy middle-aged persons, (2) to determine the effects of myocardial infarction on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), (3) to determine the effect of cardiac denervation on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), and (4) to assess the ability of power law regression parameters to predict death after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied three groups: (1) 715 patients with recent myocardial infarction; (2) 274 healthy persons age and sex matched to the infarct sample; and (3) 19 patients with heart transplants. Twenty-four-hour RR-interval power spectra were computed using fast Fourier transforms and log(power) was regressed on log(frequency) between 10(-4) and 10(-2) Hz. There was a power law relation between log(power) and log(frequency). That is, the function described a descending straight line that had a slope of approximately -1 in healthy subjects. For the myocardial infarction group, the regression line for log(power) on log(frequency) was shifted downward and had a steeper negative slope (-1.15). The transplant (denervated) group showed a larger downward shift in the regression line and a much steeper negative slope (-2.08). The correlation between traditional power spectral bands and slope was weak, and that with log(power) at 10(-4) Hz was only moderate. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were used to predict mortality and were compared with the predictive value of traditional power spectral bands. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were excellent predictors of all-cause mortality or arrhythmic death. To optimize the prediction of death, we calculated a log(power) intercept that was uncorrelated with the slope of the power law regression line. We found that the combination of slope and zero-correlation log(power) was an outstanding predictor, with a

  9. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Do, Sharon; Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  10. Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise-Induced Redox Signaling Is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Stepto, Nigel K.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Serpiello, Fabio R.; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L.; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods: Participants completed a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 min after HIIE (4 × 4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods), separated by 1–3 weeks. Results: Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SOD activity, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation (r = 0.63, r = 0.71, r = 0.72, r = 0.71; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 h after HIIE.

  11. Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise-Induced Redox Signaling Is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Stepto, Nigel K.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Serpiello, Fabio R.; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L.; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods: Participants completed a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 min after HIIE (4 × 4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods), separated by 1–3 weeks. Results: Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SOD activity, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation (r = 0.63, r = 0.71, r = 0.72, r = 0.71; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 h after HIIE. PMID:27695421

  12. Natural history of alcoholic myopathy: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Sacanella, E; Fernández-Solá, J; Nicolás, J M; Rubin, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1998-12-01

    Chronic myopathy is a common complication of alcoholism, but its natural history has not been well described. We, therefore, studied muscle structure and function in a 5-year study of 30 chronic alcoholics who became abstinent and 20 who relapsed, and 40 control subjects. The mean strength of the abstaining alcoholics increased from 18.6 to 23.2 kg; but, after 5 years, they were still substantially weaker than controls. In a subset who showed histological myopathy, the strength of half of the patients remained two standard deviations below that of controls. Alcoholics who relapsed tended to become progressively weaker (21.7 kg vs. 18.2 kg) and develop histological evidence of myopathy. Thus, continued alcohol abuse was generally reflected in deterioration of muscle strength and the appearance of histological injury to muscle. Importantly, almost half of the sober patients did not recover to normal levels, indicating that alcoholic myopathy is only partially reversible. We also unexpectedly found that, in some alcoholics, a substantial reduction in the amount of alcohol consumed may be as effective as complete abstinence in improving muscle strength or preventing its deterioration.

  13. The acquired cardiac disease domain: the next 5 years.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John R

    2013-01-01

    At a recent in-house meeting at the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) headquarters in Windsor, the Chairs of the four domains were asked by the President to present their perception of the next 5 years in their respective domains. This review represents a distillation of our discussions on adult cardiac surgery. Advances in technology and imaging are having a radical effect on the working lives of surgeons. In clinical practice, the growth of heart teams and the breaking down of artificial barriers between specialities are altering the way we practice for the better. We see the development of hybrid approaches to many areas such as coronary artery surgery and operations on the thoracic aorta. These changes require careful analysis to ensure that they produce better outcomes that are also cost-effective. All health-care systems are at breaking point, and it is our responsibility to harness new technology to benefit our patients. This is all part of placing the patient at the centre of our activities. Hence, we see the involvement of patients in the design and analysis of clinical trials, which also require great mutual trust and cooperation between surgeons in different countries. Because of the dramatic changes in the pattern of working, we have had to alter our patterns of training and education, and we will continue to make significant innovations in the future. These are exciting challenges that will keep us all busy for the next 5 years at least.

  14. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  15. Extended Long-Term (5 Years) Outcomes of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Methods: Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Results: Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. Conclusions: The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients. PMID:23730369

  16. Human Figure Drawing as a Representative Medium of Perceptual Motor Development among 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Pirkko; And Others

    This study examined characteristics of human figures representing the self as drawn by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds and the presence of age or gender differences. A total of 150 children who were selected randomly from day care centers drew themselves on paper with crayons. There were equal numbers of boys and girls in each age group. Human figure…

  17. Prevalence of Overweight and Risk of Overweight among 3-to 5-Year-Old Chicago Children, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Maryann; Meleedy-Rey, Patricia; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Longjohn, Matt; Garcia, Myrna P.; Ashlaw, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the first estimates of overweight prevalence in Chicago children entering school (aged 3-5 years). Chicago data are compared with those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Data were from 2 separate convenience samples of children aged 3-5 years…

  18. Immunologic memory 5 years after meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination in infancy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, J; Obaro, S; Deeks, J; Lake, D; Elie, C; Carlone, G; Moxon, E R; Greenwood, B

    2001-01-01

    Infant vaccination with meningococcal conjugates may provide long-term protection against disease. Antibody levels and immunologic memory were assessed in 5-year-old Gambian children who received meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination (MenA/C) in infancy. At 2 years, they were randomized to receive a booster of MenA/C (conjugate group), meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MPS group), or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV group). All groups were revaccinated with 10 microg MPS at 5 years of age, as were 39 previously unvaccinated age-matched control subjects. Before revaccination, titers were higher in the conjugate and MPS groups than in control subjects (P<.001); titers for the IPV group were similar to those for control subjects. Ten days after revaccination, the conjugate and IPV groups had similar serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody titers (3421 vs. 2790, respectively). These levels were significantly higher than those in the MPS (426) and control (485) groups (P<.001). Thus, immunologic memory was sustained for > or =5 years; however, MPS challenge at 2 years interfered with a subsequent memory response.

  19. The Treatment of Parasomnias with Hypnosis: a 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Peter J.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study involves a replication and extension of a previous one reported by Hurwitz et al (1991) on the treatment of certain parasomnias with hypnosis. Methods: Thirty-six patients (17 females), mean age 32.7 years (range 6–71). Four were children aged 6 to 16. All had chronic, “functionally autonomous” (self-sustaining) parasomnias. All underwent 1 or 2 hypnotherapy sessions and were then followed by questionnaire for 5 years. Results: Of the 36 patients, 45.4% were symptom-free or at least much improved at the 1-month follow-up, 42.2% at the 18-month follow-up, and 40.5% at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusions: One or 2 sessions of hypnotherapy might be an efficient first-line therapy for patients with certain types of parasomnias. Citation: Hauri PJ; Silber MH; Boeve BF. The treatment of parasomnias with hypnosis: a 5-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):369-373. PMID:17694725

  20. Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Traumatic Endophthalmitis over a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nicoară, Simona Delia; Călinici, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcome and identify the prognostic factors of traumatic endophthalmitis over a 5-year period. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all the traumatic endophthalmities that we treated in our department over the last 5 years (2009–2013). We extracted the following parameters: age, gender, wound anatomy, associated ocular lesions, treatment, and initial and final visual acuities. We used the program SPSS version 20.0.0. for the statistical analysis of our data. Results. During the last 5 years, we treated 14 traumatic endophthalmities, representing 46.66% of all types of endophthalmities. The infection rate in open globe injuries was 8.13% and 34.78%, if an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) was associated. All the patients were males with the median age of 37 years. Initial visual acuities varied between light perception and 0.4 and the timing of treatment from a few hours to 10 days. We administered antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, systemically and intravitreally, in all cases. We performed pars plana vitrectomy in 64.28% of cases. In 57.14% of cases, the final visual acuity was 0.1 or more. Conclusions. IOFBs increased significantly the risk for endophthalmitis. The worse prognostic factors were retinal detachment at presentation and delayed treatment. This trial is registered with IRCT2014082918966N1. PMID:25302113

  1. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  2. Sports activities 5 years after total knee or hip arthroplasty: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Huch, K; Muller, K; Sturmer, T; Brenner, H; Puhl, W; Gunther, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse sports activities of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) over lifetime, preoperatively, and 5 years after arthroplasty. Methods: In a longitudinal four centre study, 809 consecutive patients with advanced OA of the hip (420) or the knee (389) joint under the age of 76 years who required total joint replacement were recruited. A completed questionnaire about sports activities at 5 year follow up was received from 636 (79%) of the 809 patients. Results: Although most patients with hip (97%) and knee (94%) OA had performed sports activities during their life, only 36% (hip patients) and 42% (knee patients) had maintained sports activities at the time of surgery. Five years postoperatively, the proportion of patients performing sports activities increased to 52% among patients with hip OA, but further declined to 34% among those with knee OA. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with hip OA performing sports activities for more than 2 hours a week increased from 8 to 14%, whereas this proportion decreased from 12 to 5% among patients with knee OA. Pain in the replaced joint was reported by 9% of patients with hip and by >16% with knee OA. Conclusion: Differences in pain 5 years after joint replacement may explain some of the difference of sports activities between patients with hip and knee OA. Reasons for reduction of sports activities may include the increasing age of the patients, their worries about an "artificial joint", and the advice of their surgeon to be cautious. PMID:15843453

  3. Maternal anxiety: a 5-year review of an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B; Schaafsma, M F; Guzman, A M; Parker, G B

    1991-03-01

    Primiparous women were divided into groups according to their post-partum trait anxiety scores. Professional or non-professional support for the first 12 months was offered to two subgroups of high trait anxiety subjects. At the 5-year follow-up the high-anxiety mothers (n = 57) manifested more psychological and social pathology than moderate- and low-anxiety mothers (n = 43), and their children also showed signs of poorer adaptation. There was evidence of improved outcome for mothers in the professional intervention group, but not for their children. Child psychopathology was predicted best by maternal psychosocial variables, and to a lesser extent by child temperament variables. The relation of infant attachment and temperament measures to subsequent psychopathology is discussed.

  4. Achalasia 5 years following Roux-en-y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Torghabeh, Mehyar Hefazi; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Saif, Taha; Dakin, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Oesophageal achalasia is a rare, but serious condition in which the motility of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) is inhibited. This disorder of idiopathic aetiology complicates the peristaltic function and relaxation of the LES that may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, epigastric pain, and regurgitation of an obstructed food. The following case describes achalasia in a patient 5 years following a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The patient underwent a laparoscopic Heller myotomy without a fundoplication. Although achalasia seems to be a rare occurrence in obese patients, this is the third case documented in a patient who previously had an RYGB. The role of performing a fundoplication in these patients remains to be elucidated. PMID:26195880

  5. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions.

  6. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions. PMID:24952286

  7. Category-specific face prototypes are emerging, but not yet mature, in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Lee, Kang; Fu, Genyue; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2014-10-01

    Adults' expertise in face recognition has been attributed to norm-based coding. Moreover, adults possess separable norms for a variety of face categories (e.g., race, sex, age) that appear to enhance recognition by reducing redundancy in the information shared by faces and ensuring that only relevant dimensions are used to encode faces from a given category. Although 5-year-old children process own-race faces using norm-based coding, little is known about the organization and refinement of their face space. The current study investigated whether 5-year-olds rely on category-specific norms and whether experience facilitates the development of dissociable face prototypes. In Experiment 1, we examined whether Chinese 5-year-olds show race-contingent opposing aftereffects and the extent to which aftereffects transfer across face race among Caucasian and Chinese 5-year-olds. Both participant races showed partial transfer of aftereffects across face race; however, there was no evidence for race-contingent opposing aftereffects. To examine whether experience facilitates the development of category-specific prototypes, we investigated whether race-contingent aftereffects are present among Caucasian 5-year-olds with abundant exposure to Chinese faces (Experiment 2) and then tested separate groups of 5-year-olds with two other categories with which they have considerable experience: sex (male/female faces) and age (adult/child faces) (Experiment 3). Across all three categories, 5-year-olds showed no category-contingent opposing aftereffects. These results demonstrate that 5 years of age is a stage characterized by minimal separation in the norms and associated coding dimensions used for faces from different categories and suggest that refinement of the mechanisms that underlie expert face processing occurs throughout childhood.

  8. Muscle-specific glucose and free fatty acid uptake after sprint interval and moderate-intensity training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Saunavaara, Virva; Kirjavainen, Anna; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sprint interval training (SIT) causes larger improvements in glucose and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) in lower and upper body muscles than moderate-intensity training (MIT). Twenty-eight healthy, untrained, middle-aged men were randomized into SIT (n = 14, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling/4 min recovery) and MIT groups [n = 14, 40-60 min cycling at 60% of peak O2 uptake (V̇o2 peak)] and completed six training sessions within 2 wk. Pre- and postmeasurements included V̇o2 peak, whole body (M-value), muscle-specific insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU), and fasting FFAU measured with positron emission tomography in thigh [quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstrings] and upper body (deltoids, biceps, and triceps brachii) muscles. V̇o2 peak and M-value improved significantly by 6 and 12% in SIT, and 3 and 8% in MIT, respectively,. GU increased significantly only in the QF, and there was no statistically significant difference between the training modes. GU increased in all four heads of QF in response to SIT, but only in the vasti muscles in response to MIT, whereas in rectus femoris the response was completely lacking. Training response in FFAU in QF was smaller and nonsignificant, but it also differed between the training modes in the rectus femoris. In conclusion, SIT and MIT increased insulin-stimulated GU only in the main working muscle QF and not in the upper body muscles. In addition, the biarticular rectus femoris did not respond to moderate-intensity training, reflecting most probably poor activation of it during moderate-intensity cycling. PMID:25767035

  9. Malpractice and radiologists, update 1986: an 11. 5-year perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, L.

    1986-12-01

    All medical malpractice lawsuits filed in Cook County, IL, from January 1, 1980, through June 30, 1986, were reviewed and compared with similar data for the period of January 1, 1975, through December 30, 1979. A total of 11,203 suits were filed during the 11.5-year period; of these, 1391 (12%) were radiology related. The latter were categorized into six groups. The largest was missed radiologic diagnoses, which accounted for 40% of the total. The remaining groups included complications, 19%; failure to order, 17%; radiation therapy, 11%; slip and fall, 5%; and miscellaneous, 8%. Over the 1975-1986 period, the rise in the number of suits alleging radiologic misses outpaced all other groups. Although the most common type of miss continues to involve fractures, the frequency of missed carcinomas has grown at a disproportionately faster rate. Misses specifically involving CT, nuclear medicine, and sonography also are becoming more prevalent. Radiographic misses continue to occur at an average rate of 30%, with little hope of improvement. Methods to combat the rising number of malpractice suits are discussed. It is concluded that although programs to educate radiologists on risk management should continue, the ultimate solution may be a more enlightened public attitude as to what actually constitutes malpractice, and institution of tort reform measures by federal and state legislatures.

  10. Traditional endodontic surgery versus modern technique: a 5-year controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tortorici, Silvia; Difalco, Paolo; Caradonna, Luigi; Tetè, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared outcomes of traditional apicoectomy versus modern apicoectomy, by means of a controlled clinical trial with a 5-year follow-up. The study investigated 938 teeth in 843 patients. On the basis of the procedure performed, the teeth were grouped in 3 groups. Differences between the groups were the method of osteotomy (type of instruments used), type of preparation of retrograde cavity (different apicoectomy angles and instruments used for root-end preparation), and root-end filling material used (gray mineral trioxide aggregate or silver amalgam). Outcome (tooth healing) was estimated after 1 and 5 years, postoperatively. Clinical success rates after 1 year were 67% (306 teeth), 90% (186 teeth), and 94% (256 teeth) according to traditional apicoectomy (group 1), modern microsurgical apicoectomy using burns for osteotomy (group 2) or using piezo-osteotomy (group 3), respectively. After 1 year, group comparison results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Linear trend test was also statistically significant (P < 0.0001), pointing out larger healing from group 1 to group 3. After 5 years, teeth were classified into 2 groups on the basis of root-end filling material used. Clinical success was 90.8% (197 teeth) in the silver amalgam group versus 96% (309 teeth) in the mineral trioxide aggregate group (P < 0.00214). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that surgical technique was independently associated to tooth healing. In conclusion, modern apicoectomy resulted in a probability of success more than 5 times higher (odds ratio, 5.20 [95% confidence interval, 3.94-6.92]; P < 0.001) compared with the traditional technique. PMID:24469371

  11. Predictors of long term survival after hepatic resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A retrospective study of 5-year survivors

    PubMed Central

    Abd ElWahab, Mohamed; El Nakeeb, Ayman; El Hanafy, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad M; Elghawalby, Ahmed; Askr, Waleed; Ali, Mahmoud; Abd El Gawad, Mohamed; Salah, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine predictors of long term survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) by comparing patients surviving > 5 years with those who survived < 5 years. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with pathologically proven HC who underwent surgical resection at the Gastroenterology Surgical Center, Mansoura University, Egypt between January 2002 and April 2013. All data of the patients were collected from the medical records. Patients were divided into two groups according to their survival: Patients surviving less than 5 years and those who survived > 5 years. RESULTS: There were 34 (14%) long term survivors (5 year survivors) among the 243 patients. Five-year survivors were younger at diagnosis than those surviving less than 5 years (mean age, 50.47 ± 4.45 vs 54.59 ± 4.98, P = 0.001). Gender, clinical presentation, preoperative drainage, preoperative serum bilirubin, albumin and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were similar between the two groups. The level of CA 19-9 was significantly higher in patients surviving < 5 years (395.71 ± 31.43 vs 254.06 ± 42.19, P = 0.0001). Univariate analysis demonstrated nine variables to be significantly associated with survival > 5 year, including young age (P = 0.001), serum CA19-9 (P = 0.0001), non-cirrhotic liver (P = 0.02), major hepatic resection (P = 0.001), caudate lobe resection (P = 0.006), well differentiated tumour (P = 0.03), lymph node status (0.008), R0 resection margin (P = 0.0001) and early postoperative liver cell failure (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Liver status, resection of caudate lobe, lymph node status, R0 resection and CA19-9 were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for long term survival. PMID:27358676

  12. Long-Term Effects of the Life Skills Program IPSY on Substance Use: Results of a 4.5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Weichold, Karina; Blumenthal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of a Life Skills program with regard to use and proneness to legal and illicit drug use across a 4.5-year study interval. The universal school-based Life Skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3 years (basic program in grade 5 and booster sessions in grades 6 and 7). Over the same time period, it was evaluated based on a longitudinal quasi-experimental design with intervention and control group, including two follow-up assessments after program completion [six measurement points; N (T1) = 1657 German students; M age (T1) = 10.5 years]. Applying an HLM approach, results showed that participation in IPSY had a significant effect on the frequency of smoking, and proneness to illicit drug use, across the entire study period. In addition, shorter-term effects were found for the frequency of alcohol use in that intervention effects were evident until the end of program implementation but diminished 2 years later. Thus, IPSY can be deemed an effective intervention against tobacco use and proneness to and use of illicit drugs during adolescence; however, further booster sessions may be necessary in later adolescence to enhance youths' resistance skills when alcohol use becomes highly normative among peers. PMID:26202801

  13. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  14. [Influence of short interpregnancy interval on pregnancy outcomes].

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Beniamin

    2007-01-01

    Optimal interpregnancy interval (IPI) is an important issue affecting pregnancy results, fetal and maternal morbidity/mortality, and has economic, social and demographic significance. The definition of IPI has not yet been standardized, thereby affecting results and conclusions. It was found that pregnancies conceived 18 to 23 months after previous birth had the lowest risks of fetal complications--low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age. Women with shorter IPI have higher risk of maternal mortality, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, bleeding and anemia. Studies conducted in developing countries suggest longer IPI-3 to 5 years as the optimal IPI. The relation between short interpregnancy intervals and adverse perinatal outcomes has been attributed to maternal nutritional depletion, the competition theory and behavioral risk factors. It was proposed that there is a J-shaped association between IPI and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This is not the effect of other common reproductive risk factors. There is a need to inform women regarding the association between adverse pregnancy outcomes and interpregnancy intervals, as well as the benefits of optimizing that interval. Public health programs could identify women with other risk factors (for example substance abuse, such as tobacco or alcohol, or a young/advanced maternal age) for interventions to improve perinatal outcomes. There is also a need for more studies to define the optimal IPI under local conditions. PMID:17294848

  15. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  16. Upbeat nystagmus in a 3.5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Matalia, Jyoti; Rajput, Vimal K; Chillal, Geetanjali J; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-02-01

    Upbeat nystagmus is usually a central vestibular nystagmus attributable to structural brainstem or cerebellar lesions. Adult-onset upbeat nystagmus calls for a thorough neurological evaluation. In children, however, it can occur as a transient phenomenon in healthy neonates or as a sensory form of nystagmus that usually transforms into horizontal nystagmus by 2 years of age. We report the case of 3.5-year-old boy with upbeat nystagmus. His ocular examination was within normal limits. Neurological evaluation was normal. Optical coherence tomography testing and Electroretinogram confirmed cone dysfunction. Over the next 6 months the upbeat nystagmus converted to horizontal nystagmus.

  17. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  18. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  19. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  20. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  1. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  2. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  3. The effects of HIV disease and older age on laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory: does retrieval cue type and delay interval matter?

    PubMed

    Avci, G; Loft, S; Sheppard, D P; Woods, S P

    2016-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons. In line with the naturalistic findings, older age, but not HIV, was associated with a relative sparing of self-perceived PM failures in daily life across longer delay self-cued intervals. Findings suggest that, even in relatively younger aging cohorts, the effects of HIV and older age on PM can vary across PM delay intervals by the strategic demands of the retrieval cue type, are expressed differently in the laboratory and in daily life, and are independent of other higher order neurocognitive functions (e.g., retrospective memory).

  4. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  5. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  6. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  7. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  8. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  9. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  10. Epidemiology of Speech and Language Impairment in a Nationally Representative Sample of 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To draw on multiple sources of information to determine prevalence of speech and language impairment in young Australian children. Method: Information about 4,983 children (ages 4-5 years) from Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2007) was obtained via parent…

  11. Salvage HDR Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Previous Definitive Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien Peter; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Roach, Mack; Nash, Marc; Gottschalk, Alexander; Chang, Albert J.; Hsu, I-Chow

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate efficacy and toxicity of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDRB between 1998 and 2009 for locally recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive RT. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, patients received 36 Gy in 6 fractions. Twenty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before salvage, and no patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Determination of biochemical failure after salvage HDRB was based on the Phoenix definition. Overall survival (OS) and bF distributions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), were documented. Results: Median follow-up after salvage HDRB was 59.6 months. The 5-year OS estimate was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-97%) with median survival not yet reached. Five-year biochemical control after salvage was 51% (95% CI: 34%-66%). Median PSA nadir postsalvage was 0.1 (range: 0-7.2) reached at a median of 10.2 months after completing HDRB. As for complications, acute and late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in only 2% and 2%, respectively. No grade 2 or higher acute GI events and 4% grade 2 GI late events were observed. On univariate analysis, disease-free interval after initial definitive RT (P=.07), percent of positive cores at the time of diagnosis (P=.08), interval from first recurrence to salvage HDRB (P=.09), and pre-HDRB prostate-specific antigen (P=.07) were each of borderline significance in predicting biochemical control after salvage HDRB. Conclusions: Prostate HDRB is an effective salvage modality with relatively few long-term toxicities. We

  12. [The geriatric psychiatric day hospital: an analysis of 5 years of activities].

    PubMed

    Trifonov, E G; Ognev, A E

    1997-01-01

    233 patients (53 men and 180 women) at the age of 60 years and older were treated in day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic for 5 years. 60-69 year old patients prevailed (146 individuals). Nearly all mental diseases characteristic for the old age were found in such patients; majority of patients suffered from schizophrenia (31.3%) and affective pathology (25.8%). Vascular form of dementia prevailed among the patients with dementia while atrophic degenerative dementia was rarely observed (2 patients). Syndromological distribution revealed that the main groups were formed by patients with depressions (41.6%) as well as individuals with neurosis- and psychopathic-like conditions (37.3%). Mental disorders with paranoid syndromes were observed in 8.6% of the patients. It is shown that day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic had some preferences in comparison with usual mental hospitals and psychoneurological out-patient clinic.

  13. Survival and other clinical outcomes of maintenance hemodialysis patients in Taiwan: a 5-year multicenter follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Sheng; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lim, Paik-Seong

    2014-10-01

    The increasing aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in dialysis population make the quality maintenance of dialysis an imperative issue. Recently, an increasing number of dialysis centers were run by private dialysis providers, many of which apply quality assurance programs and performance management systems to dialysis care. We studied patients in dialysis facilities in Taiwan run by a private chain to see clinical outcomes of centers operating under these systemic strategies. Hemodialysis patients from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 in 25 dialysis facilities in Taiwan, which received the management and consultation from a dialysis service provider, NephroCare (NC), were included. Data pivotal to quality of dialysis were analyzed. During a 5-year interval, 5161 hemodialysis patients were included. For volume control, the proportion of patients with weight gain ≥4.5% decreases from 41.7% to 30.2%. Mean Kt/V is 1.74 ± 0.28. Mean albumin level is 3.92 ± 0.38 g/dL. Patients with phosphate <5.5 mg/dL is up to 71.8%. The mean hemoglobin level is 10.70 ± 1.40 g/dL. More than 80% of patients have adequate iron status. Further, 73% of patients use native arteriovenous fistula. Hospitalization-free survival rate was 56% at the fifth year. Patient survival rate at the fifth year was 66.4%. Overall clinical performances were maintained very stable in NC facilities from this temporal data analysis. The hospitalization and survival rate also compare favorably with those reported internationally. These results warrant further studies to justify the application of this kind of quality assurance programs and performance management systems in dialysis care. PMID:24766262

  14. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243

  15. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability.

  16. Long-term effect of the North Carolina graduated driver licensing system on licensed driver crash incidence: a 5-year survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Masten, Scott V; Foss, Robert D

    2010-11-01

    Several studies document the success of graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems in reducing young teen crash rates, but it is not yet clear whether any portion of the crash reduction is achieved by producing more capable drivers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young teen drivers licensed under the North Carolina GDL system remain crash-free longer than those licensed prior to GDL, independent of the crude reductions in exposure (i.e., decreasing and delaying licensure) that may be responsible for most documented effects of GDL. Survival analysis was used to compare retrospective cohorts of 16-17 year olds before (n=105,569) and after (n=327,054) the North Carolina GDL system was implemented. The crash incidence of GDL-licensed 16-17 year olds (combined) was 10% lower than that for pre-GDL teens for at least 5 years after being licensed to drive independently (hazard ratio [HR]=0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.89, 0.91). However, more refined analysis revealed the reductions to only be among females (7%; HR=0.93; CI=0.91, 0.94) and males (15%; HR=0.85, CI=0.84, 0.87) licensed at age 16 and not among females (0%; HR=1.00; CI=0.95, 1.06) and males (0%; HR=1.00; CI=0.92, 1.09) licensed at age 17. Sixteen-year-old drivers licensed under the North Carolina GDL system experienced lower first-crash incidence during the first 5 years of unsupervised driving than did those licensed under the previous system. The benefits are greater for males, who tend to have higher crash rates. The findings contradict conventional wisdom that the entire benefit of GDL results merely from decreasing or delaying licensure among young drivers.

  17. Determinants of nonimmunization of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Child vaccination is perhaps the first line of defense to ensure a healthy society. Unfortunately, the coverage of child vaccination in Pakistan is poor resulting in unnecessary yet preventable deaths. This study investigated the determinants and reasons for not vaccinating children in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study used the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002 data. Demographic, distance to health facility, poverty status, literacy and education, and location of residence were used as determinants of nonimmunization of children. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution, proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables, and logistic regression analysis were done using the Stata 11.0. Results: Almost 7.73% children in Pakistan were never immunized. More than 87.4% of these lived in the rural areas. Prevalence of nonimmunization was highest in Balochistan compared to other provinces. Large households appeared to have increased risk of a child not being vaccinated. Moreover, low literacy and education of the head of the household and the spouse was also associated with low vaccination coverage. Distance from the health facility was found to be another factor related to nonimmunization of children. Increase in per capita income significantly decreased the risk of missing vaccinations. Conclusions: Prevention and immunization programs should focus more on high-risk regions such as Balochistan and rural areas. Literacy, education, and economic status were among the other significant factors associated with low vaccination rates, which need a special focus in the public policy to achieve the target of a healthy society. PMID:26929727

  18. Needs Assessment of Parents of Typical Children Ages 4 to 5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Deon LaMount

    2010-01-01

    Parent education programs have been very successful in meeting the pre-established goals and expectations of their program without the input of parent participants prior to program implementation. Although programs continue to improve, it is important that programs begin to consider the specific needs of their target population. One parent…

  19. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  20. Renal amyloidosis followed more than 5 years: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, H; Boubaker, K; Béji, S; Abderrahim, E; Moussa, F Ben; Turki, S; Goucha, R; Hedri, H; El Younsi, F; Kheder, A; Maiz, H Ben

    2004-01-01

    Renal involvement with amyloidosis is common but causes patient survival to be poor, rarely reaching 5 years. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and biological characteristics as well as treatments and outcomes of patients with renal amyloidosis followed for more than 5 years. Between 1975 and 2003, 485 patients were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis including only 12 patients who were followed more than 5 years. The six men and six women of mean age 42.4 years (range 18 to 66 years) displayed renal signs of lower limb edema in all cases; hypertension in four cases, proteinuria on urinalysis in all cases with microscopic hematuria in five cases. Biological tests showed nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients, normal renal function in nine patients, and renal failure in three patients whose mean creatinine was 481.6 micromol/L (range 294 to 726). The amyloidosis was AA type in 11 cases and non-AA in one case. An etiologic survey revealed spondylarthropathy in one patient, pulmonary tuberculosis in two patients, chronic bronchitis in three patients, hepatic hydatic cyst in one patient, Mediterranean familial fever in two patients, Crohn's disease in one patient, Hodgkin's lymphoma in one patient, and multiple myeloma in one patient. Specific treatment was initiated with colchicine in seven patients. At a 110-month mean follow-up (range 53 to 153 months), remission of nephrotic syndrome was observed in four cases, progression to chronic renal failure in two patients, and to end-stage renal failure in five cases (range 53 to 196 months), with stabilization of renal function in seven patients. In conclusion, primary amyloid disease should be optimally suppressed in patients with renal involvement. The role of this treatment in remission of renal amyloidosis is not well established. This efficacy of the treatment has been demonstrated in some patients with improved survival.

  1. Surgical resection of colorectal recurrence of gastric cancer more than 5 years after primary resection

    PubMed Central

    Noji, Takehiro; Yamamura, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Jun; Kuroda, Aki; Koinuma, Junkichi; Yoshioka, Tatsuya; Murakawa, Katsuhiko; Otake, Setsuyuki; Hirano, Satoshi; Ono, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intestinal metastasis from gastric cancer is rare, although the most common cause of secondary neoplastic infiltration of the colon is gastric cancer. However, little data is available on recurrence or death in patients with gastric cancer surviving >5 years post-gastrectomy. Here we report two cases of lower intestinal metastasis from gastric cancer >5 years after primary resection and discuss with reference to the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE Case 1: A 61-year-old man with a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 9 years earlier was referred to our hospital with constipation and abdominal distention. We diagnosed primary colon cancer and subsequently performed extended left hemicolectomy. Histological examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma resembling the gastric tumor he had 9 years earlier. The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and remained alive with cancerous peritonitis and skin metastases as of 17 months later. Case 2: A 46-year-old woman with a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 9 years earlier presented with constipation. She also had a history of Krukenberg tumor 3 years earlier. We diagnosed metastatic rectal cancer and subsequently performed low anterior resection and hysterectomy. Pathological examination revealed poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, resembling the gastric tumor. The patient remained alive without recurrence as of 17 months later. DISCUSSION We found 19 reported cases of patients with resection of colon metastases from gastric cancer. Median disease-free interval was 74 months. CONCLUSION Resection of late-onset colorectal recurrence from gastric cancer appears worthwhile for selected patients. PMID:25460445

  2. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children's prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called "game" where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception-no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children's social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors.

  3. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children's prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called "game" where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception-no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children's social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors. PMID:25729357

  4. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5–3.5 year-olds with 5.5–6.5 year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children’s prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5–3.5 years of age and 5.5–6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called “game” where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception—no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5–3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5–6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children’s social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors. PMID:25729357

  5. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino de; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children's individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother's level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  6. Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591

  7. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26039393

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission is not associated with recent immigration (≤5 years) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Lauzardo, Michael

    2015-12-01

    As tuberculosis (TB) incidence decreases in the US, foreign-born persons continue to account for a larger proportion of the burden. In these cross-sectional analyses of 1149 culture-confirmed TB cases genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU, we show that over a quarter of cases among the foreign-born population in Florida resulted from recent transmission of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In addition, over a third of these cases occurred among persons who had immigrated 5 years or less prior to their diagnosis. Although recent immigration was not a significant predictor of TB transmission, younger age, birthplace in the Americas, homelessness, drug use and TB lineage are risk factors for TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida. These data provide actionable insights into TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida.

  9. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  10. Results of proximal gastric vagotomy over 1-5 years in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Tovey, F I; Heald, R J

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-three underwent proximal gastric vagotomy for duodenal ulceration over a 6-year period. One hundred and fifteen of these have been followed up for 1-5 years. The operative mortality was nil and the result was satisfactory in 91 per cent. The incidence of side effects was small, notably that of dumping being 2.4 per cent and of diarrhoea, 3.6 per cent. Incidence of postoperative heartburn was reduced from 13 per cent to 4 per cent by the introduction of hepatic interposition. The incidence of recurrent ulceration was 5.1 per cent after an average interval of 2 years and that of new gastric ulceration 2.6 per cent after an average of 4 years. There were no recurrent ulcers in those who had peroperative Burge tests, although secretory studies showed no difference between those tested and those not tested. Most recurrences occurred in the earliest cases operated on before Burge testing was introduced and when only 2 cm of the lower oesophagus were exposed.

  11. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  12. Effects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Graef, Jennifer L; Fukuda, David H; Moon, Jordan R; Beck, Travis W; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2009-09-01

    The critical power test provides 2 measures, critical power (CP) and anaerobic working capacity (AWC). In theory, the CP measurement represents the maximal power output that can be maintained without fatigue, and AWC is an estimate of work capacity associated with muscle energy reserves. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to be an effective training method for improving endurance performance, including VO2PEAK. In addition, creatine (Cr) supplementation has been reported to improve AWC without training; however, it has shown no effect on CP. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks of HIIT with Cr supplementation on CP and AWC. Forty-two recreationally active men volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: Cr (n = 16), 10 g Cr + 10 g dextrose; placebo (PL, n = 16), 20 g dextrose; control (CON, n = 10), no treatment. Before and after supplementation, each participant performed a maximal oxygen consumption test VO2PEAK on a cycle ergometer to establish peak power output (PPO). Participants then completed a CP test involving 3 exercise bouts with the workloads set as a percentage of their PPO to determine CP and AWC. After a 2-week familiarization period of training and supplementing, PPO, CP, and AWC were remeasured before an additional 4 weeks of HIIT and supplementation were completed. Training consisted of 5 sets of 2-minute exercise bouts with 1 minute rest in between performed on the cycle ergometer, with intensities based on PPO. A significant improvement in CP was observed in the Cr group (6.72% +/- 2.54%), whereas PL showed no significant change (3.87% +/- 2.30%), and CON significantly decreased (6.27% +/- 2.38%). Furthermore, no changes in AWC were observed in any of the groups after treatment. The current findings suggest that Cr supplementation may enhance the effects of intense interval endurance training on endurance performance changes.

  13. Impact of BRCA1/2 mutation on young women's 5-year parenthood rates: a prospective comparative study (GENEPSO-PS cohort).

    PubMed

    Mancini, Julien; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Noguès, Catherine; Julian-Reynier, Claire

    2015-06-01

    Previous qualitative and intentions surveys have shown that the disclosure of a BRCA1/2 mutation might deter young women from becoming pregnant. However, to our knowledge, no comparative studies have ever documented the possibility that positive genetic test results might affect these women's future reproductive rates. Our aim was therefore to quantify the impact of BRCA1/2 mutation disclosure on long-term relationships between partners and childbearing rates. Participants were cancer-free women belonging to families in which a deleterious BRCA1/2 mutation had been identified, who had attended one of the 29 participating cancer genetic clinics for BRCA1/2 testing between 2000 and 2006. Logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of the 5-year self-reported parenthood rate. The sample consisted of 271 women aged 18-45 years (126 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 145 non-carriers). Couples had separated more frequently among BRCA1/2 carriers than non-carriers (10 vs. 3%, p = .040), especially among nulliparous carriers (13%). Among the 104 women who were childless at disclosure, disclosure of a BRCA1/2 mutation was not significantly associated with childbearing during the 5-year follow-up period [adjusted odds ratio .64, 95% confidence interval (CI) (.26, 1.57), p = .334]. Among the 167 women with at least one child at disclosure of a BRCA1/2 mutation had no conspicuous effect on the childbearing trends [adjOR .88, 95% CI (.35, 2.21), p = .787]. The disclosure of a BRCA1/2 mutation might impact couples' relationships and future mothering rates, particularly among nulliparous women. Studies on larger populations are now required to confirm these findings.

  14. Mortality profile across our Intensive Care Units: A 5-year database report from a Singapore restructured hospital.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Shahla

    2015-12-01

    Intensive care remains an area of high acuity and high mortality across the globe. With a rapidly aging population, the disease burden requiring intensive care is growing. The cost of critical care also is rising with new technology becoming available rapidly. We present the all-cause mortality results of 5 years database established in a restructured, large public hospital in Singapore, looking at all three types of Intensive Care Units present in our hospital. These include medical, surgical, and coronary care units.

  15. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  16. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  17. Vitamin A deficiency and attributable mortality among under-5-year-olds.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; West, K. P.; Sommer, A.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are estimates of the prevalence in developing countries of physiologically significant vitamin A deficiency and the number of attributable deaths. The WHO classification of countries by the severity and extent of xerophthalmia was used to categorize developing countries by likely risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Using vital statistics compiled by UNICEF, we derived population figures and mortality rates for under-5-year-olds. The findings of vitamin A supplementation trials were applied to populations at-risk of endemic vitamin A deficiency to estimate the potential impact of improved vitamin A nutriture in reducing mortality during preschool years. Worldwide, over 124 million children are estimated to be vitamin A deficient. Improved vitamin A nutriture would be expected to prevent approximately 1-2 million deaths annually among children aged 1-4 years. An additional 0.25-0.5 million deaths may be averted if improved vitamin A nutriture can be achieved during the latter half of infancy. Improved vitamin A nutriture alone could prevent 1.3-2.5 million of the nearly 8 million late infancy and preschool-age child deaths that occur each year in the highest-risk developing countries. PMID:1600583

  18. Gallstone disease in a teaching hospital, Addis Ababa: a 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Ersumo, Tessema

    2006-01-01

    There are not many studies of gallbladder disease in Africa. The disease appears to be not uncommon in Ethiopia. To determine the prevalence and evaluate the management of gallstone disease in a central teaching hospital, a 5-year retrospective study was undertaken in 747 patients surgically treated for gallbladder disease in the period 1995-99 in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa. The sex ratio (M:F) was 1:5, narrower ratio in complicated cholelithiasis. The mean age was 42 years. About 80% of patients were in the age group between 30 and 60 years. The median duration of symptoms at admission was 2 years. Abdominal pain, in 96% of cases situated in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) and usually aching type, was the most frequent presenting symptom; RUQ tenderness was the most common sign. Clinically, 29.4% of patients were categorized obese. Gallstone detection rate by ultrasound was about 96% but cholecystitis appeared to be overlooked. At operation, about 77% of cases had features of chronic cholecystitis, 2% acalculous cholecystitis. Majority of the stones were grossly cholesterol stones. Cholecystectomy was performed in 99% of cases, most often through the oblique subcostal and transverse routes. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 0.4%. Nearly 87% of cases had postoperative course without incident. The etiologic factors and the type of gallstones, we believe, are not different from that of the developed world. Cholecystectomy is a safe and most effective procedure that provides ultimate cure for symptomatic gallstone disease. PMID:17447363

  19. Systolic time intervals at rest and during exercise in sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Franculescu, V; Sallam, E B; Otoiu, M E

    1982-01-01

    The authors using non-invasive methods, have studied left ventricular performance at rest and during training of sportsmen, taking into consideration the period of activity (during resting, training and competition periods). The studied subjects belonged to three groups (football, basketball and athletics). They all had more than 5 years of performance training. The obtained values are compared with data obtained from a control group of untrained subjects in the same age group. Determination of systolic time intervals has been done using mechanophonocardiographic tracing, registered at rest and during various exercise intensities, measuring PEP, LVET and Weissler ratio. Obtained data have been correlated with oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood pressure. Systolic time intervals measured at rest have been compared with the values obtained by Weissler from untrained subjects. Regression equations are given for values obtained in exercise tests in the case of sportsmen as well as for sedentary persons. In conclusion the authors stress the importance of systolic time intervals determinations for indirect estimation of left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise tests. From the presented data results the importance of PEP and Weissler ratio, which parametres the authors recommend to be systematically determined in the case of performance sportsmen. The most significant modifications are recorded when values are compared for the same subject during all the three periods of activity.

  20. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV. PMID:27448554

  1. Right ventricular metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Marja A; Leskinen, Tuija; Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-09-01

    Despite the recent studies on structural and functional adaptations of the right ventricle (RV) to exercise training, adaptations of its metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of short-term, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on RV glucose and fat metabolism. Twenty-eight untrained, healthy 40-55 yr-old-men were randomized into HIIT (n = 14) and MICT (n = 14) groups. Subjects performed six supervised cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 wk (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4-min recovery; MICT session: 40-60 min at 60% peak O2 uptake). Primary outcomes were insulin-stimulated RV glucose uptake (RVGU) and fasted state RV free fatty acid uptake (RVFFAU) measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary outcomes were changes in RV structure and function, determined by cardiac magnetic resonance. RVGU decreased after training (-22% HIIT, -12% MICT, P = 0.002 for training effect), but RVFFAU was not affected by the training (P = 0.74). RV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, respectively, increased +5 and +7% for HIIT and +4 and +8% for MICT (P = 0.002 and 0.005 for training effects, respectively), but ejection fraction mildly decreased (-2% HIIT, -4% MICT, P = 0.034 for training effect). RV mass and stroke volume remained unaltered. None of the observed changes differed between the training groups (P > 0.12 for group × training interaction). Only 2 wk of physical training in previously sedentary subjects induce changes in RV glucose metabolism, volumes, and ejection fraction, which precede exercise-induced hypertrophy of RV.

  2. 5 years of continuous seismic monitoring of snowmelt cycles in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar; Gallart, Josep

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the analysis of background seismic noise variations in the proximity of river channels has revealed as a useful tool to monitor river flow, even for modest discharges. We will focus here in the application of this methodology to study the snowmelt cycle in an Pyrenean valley during the last 5 years, using data from the seismic geophysical station located inside the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Central Pyrenees). Diaz et al. (2014) first identified in the seismic data the signature of river flow increases associated to snowmelt episodes in the catchment area of the Aragon River, based on the marked correlation between the seismic energy variations in the 2-8 Hz frequency band and the estimated variations in water resources from snowfall. The analysis of seismic data during the snowmelt periods allows to identify a clear 24h cycle, with energy increasing from about 14:00 GMT, remaining at a relatively high level for 12 hours and then smoothly vanishing. The spectrogram reveals richer information, as clear variations in the frequency content can be detected during the time intervals in which the amplitude of the seismic signal remains constant. The data available so far allow to compare the evolution of snowmelt in five seasons with very different hydrological behavior. The 2011 and 2012 seasons have been dry, with snow volumes 30-50 % beneath the average values, while the 2013, 2014 and in particular the 2015 seasons have been largely above the mean. Those variations are reflected in the seismic data, which allow to monitor the time occurrence of the main snowmelt stages for each season and to estimate the intensity of the different snowmelt episodes. Therefore, seismic data can be useful for long term monitoring of snowmelt in Alpine-style mountains.

  3. Observational clinical study of 22 adult-onset Pompe disease patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy over 5years.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Karolina M; Hendriksz, Christian J; Roberts, Mark; Sharma, Reena

    2016-04-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from deficiency of the acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The late-onset Pompe Disease (LOPD) patients develop muscular and respiratory complications later in life. We describe a retrospective observational cohort study including 22 patients with LOPD. The cohort was assessed at baseline before Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alpha (20mg/kg biweekly) was commenced and subsequently relevant information was collected at 2, 4 and 5years later. The median age of the patients at study entry was 44years (16-64years), with median disease duration of 11.5years (4-31years). At baseline, 10 patients (45%) could walk without support, 12 (55%) could walk with unilateral or bilateral support including 3/12 were wheelchair bound. Mean predicted FVC % was 55.7 (95% CI 45-66) of predicted normal at baseline and showed no significant change after 5years (54.6 (95% CI 43-66)), (all p=0.9815). Mean FVC % supine was 41.8 (95% CI 33.8-49) of predicted normal at baseline and remained significantly unchanged at 5years (48.4 (95% CI 37-59.6)), (all p=0.8680). The overnight non-invasive ventilator dependence increased by 18.2% as compared with baseline and requirement of mobility aids increased during this period by 5.2% as compared with the baseline. Mean walking distance at 6min walk test was 411.5 (95% CI 338-485) at baseline, 266.5 (95% CI 187-346) m at 2years, 238.6 (95% CI 162-315) m at 4years and 286.8 (95% CI 203-370) m at 5years (p=0.1981; ANOVA was completed only for 14 patients). A gradual decline in FVC% predicted was noted only in four cases and a decline in FVC% supine in two other. Only one patient showed a decline in both pulmonary function tests. In all remaining cases (17/22) respiratory function remains stable. In conclusion overall pulmonary function tests and mobility remained stable for 5years in majority of patients on ERT. However, in some patients they continued to decline in spite of ERT

  4. [A report of 40 cases of esophageal carcinoma surviving for more than 5 years after treatment with drugs].

    PubMed

    Wang, R L

    1993-07-01

    From August 1974 to January 1987, 650 cases of moderately and advanced esophageal carcinoma were treated with a combination of chemotherapy and Rabdosia rubescens or Rabdosia rubescens and/or tradition chinese medicinal prescription. After treatment, 40 patients survived for over 5 years (5-year survival rate 6.15%): 32 for over 6 years, 23 for more than 10 years, 5 for more than 15 years and 20 die of tumors (16 cases) or other diseases (4 cases). There were 20 patients who are still living and some of them have been living for more than 18 years. Analyzing the data, it is believed that the age, the state of activity, the length of illness, the effectiveness of primary treatment, the multi-course extensive therapy, long-term maintenance treatment, etc, are all important factors affecting the results of drug treatment. PMID:8174469

  5. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  6. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-05-03

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT.

  7. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  8. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  9. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... update, if necessary, the Northern DPS' status in five years time (70 FR 17386; April 6, 2005). Therefore...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green...

  10. Treatment of Chronic PTSD by Cognitive Therapy and Exposure: 5-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Sommerfield, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Patients who had taken part in a randomized clinical trial of the treatment of chronic PTSD by either cognitive therapy or imaginal exposure were reassessed after 5 years. At 5-year follow-up a clear superiority of cognitive therapy over imaginal exposure emerged, although there had been no difference between the two treatment groups up to 12…

  11. Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

  12. Child and Mother Cardiac Vagal Tone: Continuity, Stability, and Concordance across the First 5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Measured vagal tone and heart period at 2 months and 5 years in children and their mothers to evaluate the development of vagal regulation at rest and during an environmental task. Found that children reached adult levels of baseline vagal tone by 5 years and did not differ from mothers in baseline-to-task change in vagal tone or heart period.…

  13. A Handling Study to Assess Use of the Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler in Children Under 5 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion; Kattenbeck, Sabine; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Wachtel, Herbert; Zielen, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) is a hand-held device that generates an aerosol with a high, fine-particle fraction, enabling efficient lung deposition. The study objective was to assess inhalation success among children using Respimat SMI, and the requirement for assistance by the parent/caregiver and/or a valved holding chamber (VHC). Methods: This open-label study enrolled patients aged <5 years with respiratory disease and history of coughing and/or recurrent wheezing. Patients inhaled from the Respimat SMI (air only; no aerosol) using a stepwise configuration: “1” (dose released by child); “2” (dose released by parent/caregiver), and “3” (Respimat SMI with VHC, facemask, and parent/caregiver help). Co-primary endpoints included the ability to perform successful inhalation as assessed by the investigators using a standardized handling questionnaire and evaluation of the reasons for success. Inhalation profile in the successful handling configuration was verified with a pneumotachograph. Patient satisfaction and preferences were investigated in a questionnaire. Results: Of the children aged 4 to <5 years (n=27) and 3 to <4 years (n=30), 55.6% and 30.0%, respectively, achieved success without a VHC or help; with assistance, another 29.6% and 10.0%, respectively, achieved success, and the remaining children were successful with VHC. All children aged 2 to <3 years (n=20) achieved success with the Respimat SMI and VHC. Of those aged <2 years (n=22), 95.5% had successful handling of the Respimat SMI with VHC and parent/caregiver help. Inhalation flow profiles generally confirmed the outcome of the handling assessment by the investigators. Most parent/caregiver and/or child respondents were satisfied with operation, instructions for use, handling, and ease of holding the Respimat SMI with or without a VHC. Conclusions: The Respimat SMI is suitable for children aged <5 years; however, children aged <5 years are advised to add a

  14. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  15. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research. PMID:21554472

  16. Haemoptysis in adults: a 5-year study using the French nationwide hospital administrative database.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalak, Caroline; Cottenet, Jonathan; Beltramo, Guillaume; Georges, Marjolaine; Camus, Philippe; Bonniaud, Philippe; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Haemoptysis is a serious symptom with various aetiologies. Our aim was to define the aetiologies, outcomes and associations with lung cancer in the entire population of a high-income country.This retrospective multicentre study was based on the French nationwide hospital medical information database collected over 5 years (2008-2012). We analysed haemoptysis incidence, aetiologies, geographical and seasonal distribution and mortality. We studied recurrence, association with lung cancer and mortality in a 3-year follow-up analysis.Each year, ~15 000 adult patients (mean age 62 years, male/female ratio 2/1) were admitted for haemoptysis or had haemoptysis as a complication of their hospital stay, representing 0.2% of all hospitalised patients. Haemoptysis was cryptogenic in 50% of cases. The main aetiologies were respiratory infections (22%), lung cancer (17.4%), bronchiectasis (6.8%), pulmonary oedema (4.2%), anticoagulants (3.5%), tuberculosis (2.7%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%) and aspergillosis (1.1%). Among incident cases, the 3-year recurrence rate was 16.3%. Of the initial cryptogenic haemoptysis patients, 4% were diagnosed with lung cancer within 3 years. Mortality rates during the first stay and at 1 and 3 years were 9.2%, 21.6% and 27%, respectively.This is the first epidemiological study analysing haemoptysis and its outcomes in an entire population. Haemoptysis is a life-threatening symptom unveiling potentially life-threatening underlying conditions.

  17. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28–60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  18. Dimensionality and Reliability of Letter Writing in 3- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality and reliability of letter writing skills in preschool children with the aim of determining whether a sequence existed in how children learn to write the letters of the alphabet. Additionally, we examined gender differences in the development of letter writing skills. 471 children aged 3 to 5 years old completed a letter writing task. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter writing represented a unidimensional skill. Similar to research findings that the development of letter-names and letter-sound knowledge varies in acquisition, our findings indicate that the ability to write some letters is acquired earlier than the ability to write other letters. Although there appears to be an approximate sequence for the easiest and most difficult letters, there appears to be a less clear sequence for letters in the middle stages of development. Overall, girls had higher letter writing scores compared to boys. Gender differences regarding difficulty writing specific letters was less conclusive; however, results indicated that when controlling for ability level, girls had a higher probability of writing a letter correctly than boys. Implications of these findings for the assessment and instruction of letter writing are discussed. PMID:26346443

  19. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  20. Implications of foot ulceration in hemodialysis patients: a 5-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Koshy, Valsa; Hussein, Ahmed; Sharaf, Ahmed; Asim, Mohammad; Sadek, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Foot ulceration (FU) remains a serious concern for patients worldwide. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of FU in hemodialysis (HD) patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 252 HD patients who were followed up for 5 years. Patients were categorized according to whether they developed FU or not. The FU group (17%) was older and had significantly higher incidence of nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral (PAD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to no-FU group. FU group had higher frequency of major amputation (P = 0.001) and HD vascular access (P = 0.01). Patients with combined DM and PAD had a 10-fold increased risk of FU in comparison to those who had DM alone. Presence of PAD was the main independent predictor for development of FU in HD with an adjusted odd ratio (aOR) of 16.0 (95% CI: 4.41-62.18; P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and CAD, predictors for mortality were PAD (aOR 4.3), FU (aOR 3.6), and DM (aOR 2.6). FU is common in HD patients regardless of DM. However, the presence of PAD is significantly associated with more FU and mortality in HD. HD patients need intensive foot care and warrant progressive modification of vascular risk factors. PMID:24724108

  1. Acquisition of the mental state verb know by 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Booth, J R; Hall, W S; Robison, G C; Kim, S Y

    1997-11-01

    The production of the cognitive internal state word know by four 2- to 5-year-old children and their parents was examined. The levels of meaning of cognitive words can be categorized hierarchically along the dimensions of conceptual difficulty and abstractness (see Booth & Hall, 1995). The present study found that children and their parents expressed low levels of meaning less frequently, whereas they expressed high levels of meaning more frequently as a function of age. The children's use of know was also correlated positively with (1) their number of different words produced suggesting that cognitive words are related to more general semantic processes, and (2) with parental use of those same cognitive words suggesting that parental linguistic input may be an important mechanism in cognitive word acquisition. Finally, young children tended to use know more to refer to themselves than to refer to others, whereas their parents tended to use know equally to refer to self and others. The importance of cognitive words in a theory of language acquisition is discussed.

  2. Diabetic Gastroparesis: what we have learned and had to unlearn in the past 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Purna; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic gastroparesis is a disorder that occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is associated with considerable morbidity among these patients and resultant economic burden on the health system. It is primarily a disease seen in middle aged women though the increased predisposition in women still remains unexplained. Patients often present with nausea, vomiting, bloating, early satiety, and abdominal pain. The pathogenesis of this complex disorder is still not well understood but involves abnormalities in multiple interacting cell types including the extrinsic nervous system, enteric nervous system, Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC), smooth muscles and immune cells. The primary diagnostic test remains gastric scintigraphy though other modalities such as breath test, capsule, ultrasound, MRI and SPECT imaging show promise as alternative diagnostic modalities. The mainstay of treatment for diabetic gastroparesis has been antiemetics, prokinetics, nutritional support and pain control. In recent years, gastric stimulation has been used in refractory cases with nausea and vomiting. As we better understand the pathophysiology, newer treatment modalities are emerging which aim to correct the underlying defect. In this review we highlight what has been learned about diabetic gastroparesis in the past 5 years. We review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of diabetic gastroparesis focusing on the areas that are still controversial and those that require more studies. We also focus on advances in our understanding of the cellular changes that underlie development of diabetic gastroparesis highlighting new opportunities for targeted therapy. PMID:20871131

  3. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28-60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  4. Epidemiology and mortality of burns in the Lucknow Region, India--a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Ali, Wahid; Verma, Anoop K; Pandey, Abhishek; Rathore, Shiuli

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 95% of global burn deaths and disabilities are estimated to occur in low and middle income countries of the world. Burns are extremely common and are a major public health problem in a developing country like India. The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burns retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 2225 (10.7%) cases of burns among the total autopsies done over 5 years period (1st January 2008-27th November 2012) in the mortuary of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, K.G.M.U., Lucknow. The majority of deaths (88.8%) occurred between 10 and 49 years of age group with a preponderance of females (87.5%). The flame burns were seen in 60.1% of the victims. The majority of burn incidents were suicidal (38.6%) in nature followed by accidental (37.3%) and homicidal (24.1%) deaths. The percentages of burns with a total body surface area (TBSA) over 50% were observed in most of the cases (82.5%). In most of the cases deaths occurred within a week (82%) and most of the victims died from septicaemia and pneumonia (43.7%) followed by neurogenic shock (28.5%). The results of this study provide the necessary information to implement programmes for health education relating to prevention of burns focusing on the domestic setting.

  5. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research.

  6. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Relation between Executive Function and Theory of Mind at 3, 4, and 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Marcovitch, Stuart; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Weaver, Jennifer M.; Levine, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study contributes to the growing literature on the predictive nature of the relation between executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). A latent variable model was fit to the data acquired from 226 socioeconomically and racially diverse children (52% female) at 3, 4, and 5 years of age on a number of age-appropriate tasks designed to assess EF and ToM. After controlling for sex, income-to-needs, and receptive language ability, there was substantial stability within each construct as children aged. In addition, EF at 3 years predicted ToM at 4 years but ToM did not predict EF, replicating earlier results. This pattern also appeared from 4 to 5 years of age, suggesting that the developmental precedence of EF persists later in development. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of contemporary cognitive development theories, as well as the relation between EF and social reasoning in general. PMID:25642021

  7. Analysis of maximum mouth opening and its related factors in 3- to 5-year-old Taiwanese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Sen; Yang, Pei-Ling; Lee, Chen-Yi; Chen, Ker-Kong; Lee, Kun-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Maximum mouth opening (MMO) can reflect the function of the dentofacial musculature and joint system, and routine oral examinations should include its assessment. To diagnose abnormalities using MMO measurements, it is necessary to establish the normal range of MMO; however, few studies have investigated this subject in Taiwan. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the normal MMO range in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children and to investigate the factors correlated with MMO. We examined the interincisal distance, defined as the distance between the edges of the upper and lower incisors, in 518 preschool children (age range 3-5 years; 271 boys and 247 girls) with a plastic sliding caliper. The MMO on both sides of the mouth and mouth width (MW) was measured 3 times. No differences in MMO were found between the genders. The interincisal distance was 37.47 (±4.11) mm for boys and 36.93 (±3.85) mm for girls, whereas the mean MMO was 37.21 (±3.99) mm. The MMO increased with the increasing age of the children, and the mean value of MMO in children aged 3, 4, and 5 was 35.31 (±4.03), 36.61 (±3.79), and 38.31 (±3.88) mm, respectively. Furthermore, MMO was found to correlate with weight and MW. MMO increased by 0.19 mm per increased weight and 0.37 mm per increased MW. The mean value of MMO in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children was 37.21 (±3.99) mm. MMO in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children increased with age and was correlated with weight and MW.

  8. Diarrhoeal disease morbidity in children below 5 years in urban slums of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, S; Dosajh, U

    1986-07-01

    To determine the magnitude of morbidity related to diarrhea among children under 5 years of age, a study was carried out in 4 slum areas of Delhi in May-June 1984. Of the 3645 children surveyed, 963 (26.4%) had suffered from 1 or more new episodes of diarrhea in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. This suggests a mean annual incidence of diarrhea in the slums of Delhi of 7.9 episodes/child, with an average duration of 3.9 days/episode. The mean episodes/child/year ranged from a low of 4.1 in Ballimaran to a high of 11.9 in the Seelampur slum. The incidence of diarrhea was highest in chldren 7-12 months of age (13.6 episodes/year). In 24.2% of the diarrhea episodes, the families sought no medical help. 54.5% of cases were treated by private practitioners, 21% were seen at hospitals, and 0.3% were treated with home remedies. Only 20.2% of mothers of children with diarrhea were familiar with oral rehydration therapy, despite the easy accessibility of information about this treatment in the slum areas. Among the mothers with knowledge of oral rehydration, 47.9% used it for all diarrhea episodes, 33.0% used it for selected episodes, and 19.1% had never used it. A higher incidence of diarrhea was found among children living in homes where unfiltered water from handpumps was used for drinking or where residents defecated in open fields. Children with grade 2 or 3 malnutrition also showed a higher incidence of diarrhea. Among the socioeconomic parameters, diarrhea was positively associated with low female income and illiteracy on the part of the mother. Finally, infants who were exclusively breastfed had a lower incidence of diarrhea than those who were receiving supplementary feedings.

  9. Trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department in Taiwan: a 5-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sung-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Shun; Lin, Meng-Yu; Hsu, Chiann-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; How, Chorng-Kuang; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Jeffrey Che-Hung; Wu, Yu-Hui; Chang, Yan-Zin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department (ED) and changes in clinical imaging practice and patients' disposition. Setting A hospital-based retrospective observational study of a public 1520-bed referral medical centre in Taiwan. Participants Adult ED visits (aged ≥18 years) during 2009–2013, with or without receiving CT, were enrolled as the study participants. Main outcome measures For all enrolled ED visits, we retrospectively analysed: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) triage categories, (3) whether CT was performed and the type of CT scan, (4) further ED disposition, (5) ED cost and (6) ED length of stay. Results In all, 269 239 adult ED visits (148 613 male patients and 120 626 female patients) were collected during the 5-year study period, comprising 38 609 CT scans. CT utilisation increased from 11.10% in 2009 to 17.70% in 2013 (trend test, p<0.001). Four in 5 types of CT scan (head, chest, abdomen and miscellaneous) were increasingly utilised during the study period. Also, CT was increasingly ordered annually in all age groups. Although ED CT utilisation rates increased markedly, the annual ED visits did not actually increase. Moreover, the subsequent admission rate, after receiving ED CT, declined (59.9% in 2009 to 48.2% in 2013). Conclusions ED CT utilisation rates increased significantly during 2009–2013. Emergency physicians may be using CT for non-emergent studies in the ED. Further investigation is needed to determine whether increasing CT utilisation is efficient and cost-effective. PMID:27279477

  10. An empirical analysis of suicidal death trends in India: a 5 year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Badiye, Ashish; Kapoor, Neeti; Ahmed, Shagufa

    2014-10-01

    Suicide, a major problem worldwide, continues to be a criminal offence in most of the developing countries of the world, including India. This paper retrospectively examines the latest trends and the relevant determinants of the suicidal deaths in one of the most important city of central India- Nagpur of Maharashtra state, carried out for a period of 5 years i.e. 2009-2013. Total 2036 cases were analyzed. An alarmingly increasing trend in the rate of suicides has been observed in the region, which increased from 16% to 22.68% during the study period. The male to female suicide ratio was found to be 2.50:1. The rate of suicidal deaths ranged from 15.34 to 21.74 per 100,000 populations. Hanging was found to be the most preferred mean adopted for suicide by males (54.77%) and females (47.65%), while, Family problems was the most common cause of suicide among both male (38.25%) and female (52.65%). The Suicides were concentrated in the age group of 30-44 years for males (35.76%), while in the age group of 15-29 years for females (51.75%). The prevalence was higher among the people who were married, being as high as 1099 (66.73%) males and 372 (56.45%) females. Highest trend has been found among the people with matriculate/secondary education level. The males with job in private sector accounted for 1007 suicides (61.14%) and 434 (65.86%) females in the category of housewives (non-working, homemakers) committed the same.

  11. Depressive Symptom Clusters and 5-Year Incidence of Coronary Artery Calcification: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jesse C.; Zielke, Desiree J.; Hawkins, Misty A.W.; Williams, David R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knox, Sarah S.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Because depression is a multidimensional construct and few studies have compared the relative importance of its facets in predicting cardiovascular risk, we evaluated the utility of depressive symptom clusters in predicting the 5-year incidence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods and Results Participants were 2,171 middle-aged adults (58% female, 43% black) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who were free of cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptom clusters (z scores) were measured by questionnaires in 2000–2001, and CAC was measured by electron beam computed tomography in 2000–2001 and 2005–2006. There were 243 (11%) cases of incident CAC, defined as the absence of CAC at baseline and the presence of CAC at follow-up. Total depressive symptoms (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.33, p = .03) and the depressed affect cluster (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03–1.33, p = .02) predicted incident CAC; however, the somatic, interpersonal distress, low positive affect, and pessimism clusters did not. The depressed affect-incident CAC relationship was independent of age, sex, race, education, and antidepressant use; was similar across gender and racial groups; and was partially accounted for by tobacco use and mean arterial pressure. Conclusions In contrast to recent results indicating that the somatic cluster is the most predictive of cardiovascular outcomes, we found that the prospective association between depressive symptoms and incident CAC was driven by the depressed affect cluster. Our findings raise the possibility that there may not be one facet of depression that is the most cardiotoxic across all contexts. PMID:22711275

  12. Surgical treatment of cardiac tumors: a 5-year experience from a single cardiac center

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liang; He, Dengke; Shen, Hua; Ling, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Xue, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare but manifested with various clinical presentations and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. The objective is to review the clinical presentation, histopathological spectrum, mortality and follow-up data of patients with cardiac tumors following surgery treatment over a period of 5 years. Methods We retrospectively collected the medical records of all patients diagnosed of cardiac tumors in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 at the cardiac center of our university. Clinical histories, perioperative data, surgical findings, efficacy and follow-up data were reviewed in our study. Patients were divided into two groups according to site distribution of the tumors in the heart. Results A total of 131 patients underwent surgical treatment of cardiac tumors were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 51.39±16.37. The result of analysis showed that 79.47% (n=104) of the primary intracardiac tumors were benign, while primary malignant neoplasms accounted for 16.03% (n=21) of all patients, with the remainder (n=6, 4.6%) metastatic tumors transferred from other organs. Among all patients there were 2 in-hospital deaths and the survival rate in all patients at 1-year, 3-year and 5-year follow up was 83.20%, 78.62% and 66.41% respectively. Both patients with tumors in the left and right heart had similar basic characteristics except sex gender (P=0.002), BSA (P=0.045) and weight (P=0.033). Compared with patients with tumors in the right heart, patients with tumors in the left heart had significant higher CPB time (P<0.001), cross clamp time (P<0.001) and time of mechanical ventilation (P<0.001), and they also had longer ICU stay (P<0.001) but not total hospital stay (P=0.434). Conclusions Surgical resection represents an effective protocol in treating cardiac tumors. Data in our study of cardiac tumors on frequency and allocation were consistent with previous reports which may provide useful clinical evidence on

  13. Sepsis After Cardiac Surgery Early in Infancy and Adverse 4.5-Year Neurocognitive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Naveen; Joffe, Ari R; Doughty, Paul; Vatanpour, Shabnam; Dinu, Irina; Alton, Gwen; Acton, Bryan; Robertson, Charlene M T

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether sepsis is associated with neurocognitive outcomes 4.5 years after congenital heart disease surgery in early infancy. Methods and Results A secondary analysis from a prospective inception cohort included all children having congenital heart disease surgery done at ≤6 weeks of age with cardiopulmonary bypass at the Western Canadian referral center from 1996 to 2009. Follow-up at the referral center determined the primary outcomes at 4.5 years with full-scale, performance, and verbal intelligence quotients on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Perioperative variables were collected prospectively, and confirmation of blood culture–positive sepsis was done retrospectively. Multiple linear regression models for neurocognitive outcomes and multiple Cox proportional hazards regression for mortality were determined. Sepsis occurred in 97 of 502 patients (19%) overall and in 76 of 396 survivors (19%) with 4.5-year follow-up. By 4.5 years, there were 91 (18%) deaths, and 396 of 411 survivors (96%) had follow-up completed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with worse scores on all neurocognitive outcomes on multivariable regression; the association between extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and full-scale intelligence quotient had a regression coefficient of −13.6 (95% CI −21.3 to −5.9; P =0.001). Sepsis perioperatively was associated with performance and verbal intelligence quotients, with a trend for full-scale intelligence quotient (P =0.058) on multivariable regression. The regression coefficient for sepsis was strongest for performance intelligence quotient (−5.31; 95% CI −9.84 to −0.78; P =0.022). Sepsis was not but extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with mortality by 4.5 years. Conclusions Perioperative sepsis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes on multivariable regression. Quality improvement to

  14. Comparison of the homogeneity of mRNAs encoding SFRP5, FZD4, and Fosl1 in post-injury intervals: Subcellular localization of markers may influence wound age estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi-Yan; Du, Qiu-Xiang; Li, San-Qiang; Sun, Jun-Hong

    2016-10-01

    The inter-group heterogeneity and intra-group homogeneity of relative expression are very necessary when the mRNA were used to determine wound age accurately in forensic medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the intra-group homogeneity of SFRP5, FZD4 and Fosl1 mRNAs in post-injury intervals. The corresponding proteins show different subcellular locations. A total of 78 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and contusion groups. At 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, or 48 h (n = 6 per group) after contusion (under anesthesia by chloral hydrate intraperitoneally), the rats were sacrificed using a lethal dose of pentobarbital, and samples of the injured muscles were collected. The raw Ct values of SFRP5, FZD4, and Fosl1 mRNAs were obtained using real-time PCR. After normalized to RPL13 mRNA levels, the coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative average deviation (d%) of each normalized Ct, and their relative expression levels, were calculated in each post-injury interval. Two methods were applied to compare the homogeneity of the three genes. First, each gene was given a score based on its CV value in each post-injury interval. Then, the sum of the 13 scores was calculated; a low sum indicated high homogeneity. Second, the 13 calculated CVs or d%s were used as raw data, which was described as the mean ± SD. Based on this mean ± SD, a CV of the CVs and a d% of the d%s were calculated to represent the variation; a low value indicated high homogeneity. The sum of the variability of FZD4 mRNA was lower than those of the SFRP5 and Fosl1 mRNAs, consistent with the results that the FZD4 mRNA had the lowest mean, the smallest CV of all CVs, and the smallest d% of all d%s, among the three genes. In conclusion, these data indicated that mRNA encoding membranous FZD4 was likely to be more homogeneous than those encoding SFRP5 and Fosl1 within post-injury intervals. PMID:27497723

  15. Comparison of the homogeneity of mRNAs encoding SFRP5, FZD4, and Fosl1 in post-injury intervals: Subcellular localization of markers may influence wound age estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi-Yan; Du, Qiu-Xiang; Li, San-Qiang; Sun, Jun-Hong

    2016-10-01

    The inter-group heterogeneity and intra-group homogeneity of relative expression are very necessary when the mRNA were used to determine wound age accurately in forensic medicine. The aim of this study was to assess the intra-group homogeneity of SFRP5, FZD4 and Fosl1 mRNAs in post-injury intervals. The corresponding proteins show different subcellular locations. A total of 78 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and contusion groups. At 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, or 48 h (n = 6 per group) after contusion (under anesthesia by chloral hydrate intraperitoneally), the rats were sacrificed using a lethal dose of pentobarbital, and samples of the injured muscles were collected. The raw Ct values of SFRP5, FZD4, and Fosl1 mRNAs were obtained using real-time PCR. After normalized to RPL13 mRNA levels, the coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative average deviation (d%) of each normalized Ct, and their relative expression levels, were calculated in each post-injury interval. Two methods were applied to compare the homogeneity of the three genes. First, each gene was given a score based on its CV value in each post-injury interval. Then, the sum of the 13 scores was calculated; a low sum indicated high homogeneity. Second, the 13 calculated CVs or d%s were used as raw data, which was described as the mean ± SD. Based on this mean ± SD, a CV of the CVs and a d% of the d%s were calculated to represent the variation; a low value indicated high homogeneity. The sum of the variability of FZD4 mRNA was lower than those of the SFRP5 and Fosl1 mRNAs, consistent with the results that the FZD4 mRNA had the lowest mean, the smallest CV of all CVs, and the smallest d% of all d%s, among the three genes. In conclusion, these data indicated that mRNA encoding membranous FZD4 was likely to be more homogeneous than those encoding SFRP5 and Fosl1 within post-injury intervals.

  16. Interval and Contour Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

  17. Polyethylene wear with an entirely HA-coated total hip replacement: 79 hips followed for 5 years.

    PubMed

    Røkkum, M; Reigstad, A

    1998-06-01

    We measured the eccentricity of the femoral head in the metal backing annually during 5 years in 79 consecutive total hip replacements (73 patients). The mean age of the patients was 57 (32-73) years and the female/male ratio 63/22. The prostheses were entirely coated with hydroxyapatite. Modular 32 mm stainless steel heads and hemispherical, self-tapping screw cups with polyethylene liners were used. We found accelerating eccentricity throughout the observation period. The mean eccentricity at 5 years was 0.71 mm (95% CI 0.53-0.90), resulting in a mean eccentricity rate of 0.14 mm (0.11-0.18) per year. The 5-year eccentricity was 0.5 mm or less in 45 hips and more than 1.5 mm in 13 hips, 2 in the latter group apparently having worn through the polyethylene liner. The true wear may be twice as great. The use of 32 mm stainless steel heads and thin polyethylene inlays may have aggravated the wear problems. These HA-coated prostheses must all be checked regularly, so that cases with excessive polyethylene wear can be reoperated on before wear-through of the liner. PMID:9703398

  18. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16464703

  19. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner’s Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  20. Dental caries prevalence in 5-year-old children in Mallow (a non-fluoridated area), Cork, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mageean, J F; Holland, T J; Gleeson, P

    1979-04-01

    295 5-year-old children were examined in Mallow, a non-fluoridated town in North Cork to ascertain the dental status of children commencing first level education. The results were compared with those found in Baja, Hungary and in Barnsley, England. The def in Mallow was found to be 5.15 and the Met Need Index 14%. The authors suggest that the programmes of dental care should be re-examined in the light of these findings and more emphasis placed on the prevention and treatment of caries at an earlier age.

  1. Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients up to 5 years after initiation of HAART: collaborative analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prognosis over 5 years of HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive patients starting HAART, taking into account the immunological and virological response to therapy. Design A collaborative analysis of data from 12 cohorts in Europe and north America on 20 379 adults who started HAART between 1995 and 2003. Methods Parametric survival models were used to predict the cumulative incidence at 5 years of a new AIDS-defining event or death, and death alone, first from the start of HAART and second from 6 months after the start of HAART. Data were analysed by intention-to-continue-treatment, ignoring treatment changes and interruptions. Results During 61 798 person-years of follow-up, 1005 patients died and an additional 1303 developed AIDS. A total of 10 046 (49%) patients started HAART either with a CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/μl or with a diagnosis of AIDS. The 5-year risk of AIDS or death (death alone) from the start of HAART ranged from 5.6 to 77% (1.8–65%), depending on age, CD4 cell count, HIV-1-RNA level, clinical stage, and history of injection drug use. From 6 months the corresponding figures were 4.1–99% for AIDS or death and 1.3–96% for death alone. Conclusion On the basis of data collected routinely in HIV care, prognostic models with high discriminatory power over 5 years were developed for patients starting HAART in industrialized countries. A risk calculator that produces estimates for progression rates at years 1 to 5 after starting HAART is available from www.art-cohort-collaboration.org. PMID:17502729

  2. Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160811.html Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years But number ... 6, 2016 TUESDAY, Sept. 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Gluten-free diets seem to be the latest fad, ...

  3. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  4. Sensitivity and Specificity of Procalcitonin to Determine Etiology of Diarrhea in Children Younger Than 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Mujë; Azemi, Mehmedali; Spahiu, Shqipe; Hoxha, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Lidvana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine bacterial etiology of diarrhea. The examinees and methods: For this purpose we conducted the study comprising 115 children aged 1 to 60 months admitted at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Clinic, divided in three groups based on etiology of the diarrhea that has been confirmed with respective tests during the hospitalization. Each group has equal number of patients – 35. The first group was confirmed to have bacterial diarrhea, the second viral diarrhea and the third extra intestinal diarrhea. The determination of procalcitonin has been established with the ELFA methods of producer B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, (Germany). Results: From the total number of 1130 patient with acute diarrhea procalcitonin was assessed in 105. 67 (63.8%) of these patient were male. More than one third (38.14%) of the children in our study were younger then 12 months. Approximately the same was the number of children 13-24 months (33 patients or 31.43%) and 25-60 months (32 patients or 30.43%). The mean value of PRC in children with viral diarrhea was 0.13±0.5 ng/mL in children with bacterial diarrhea was 5.3±4.9 ng/m Land in children with extra intestinal diarrhea was 1.7±2.8 ng/mL. When measured using ANOVA and Turkey HSD tests, results have shown the statistical significance when comparing viral with bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea but were statistically insignificant when comparing bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea. Conclusion: Procalcitonin is an important but not conclusive marker of bacterial etiology of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years. PMID:24944526

  5. WHO global rotavirus surveillance network: a strategic review of the first 5 years, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Agócs, Mary M; Serhan, Fatima; Yen, Catherine; Mwenda, Jason M; de Oliveira, Lúcia H; Teleb, Nadia; Wasley, Annemarie; Wijesinghe, Pushpa R; Fox, Kimberley; Tate, Jacqueline E; Gentsch, Jon R; Parashar, Umesh D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-07-25

    Since 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, a network of sentinel surveillance hospitals and laboratories that report to ministries of health (MoHs) and WHO clinical features and rotavirus testing data for children aged <5 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. In 2013, WHO conducted a strategic review to assess surveillance network performance, provide recommendations for strengthening the network, and assess the network's utility as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. The strategic review team determined that during 2011 and 2012, a total of 79 sites in 37 countries met reporting and testing inclusion criteria for data analysis. Of the 37 countries with sites meeting inclusion criteria, 13 (35%) had introduced rotavirus vaccine nationwide. All 79 sites included in the analysis were meeting 2008 network objectives of documenting presence of disease and describing disease epidemiology, and all countries were using the rotavirus surveillance data for vaccine introduction decisions, disease burden estimates, and advocacy; countries were in the process of assessing the use of this surveillance platform for other vaccine-preventable diseases. However, the review also indicated that the network would benefit from enhanced management, standardized data formats, linkage of clinical data with laboratory data, and additional resources to support network functions. In November 2013, WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) endorsed the findings and recommendations made by the review team and noted potential opportunities for using the network as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. WHO will work to implement the recommendations to improve the network's functions and to provide higher quality surveillance data for use in decisions related to vaccine introduction and vaccination program sustainability.

  6. The Burden of Health Care Costs in the Last 5 Years of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amy S.; McGarry, Kathleen; Gorges, Rebecca; Skinner, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Common diseases, particularly dementia, entail large social costs, previously well described for the U.S. population. Less is known about end-of-life costs of specific diseases and the associated financial risk for individual households. Objective To examine social costs and financial risks faced by Medicare beneficiaries five years before death. Design Retrospective cohort. Setting Health and Retirement Study. Participants Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, aged 70 years or older, who died 2005-2010 (N = 1702), stratified into four cohorts: individuals with high probability of dementia, or with either heart disease, cancer, or other causes of death. Measurements Total social costs and its components: Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, out-of-pocket, and informal care, measured over the last 5 years of life; and out-of-pocket spending as a proportion of household wealth. Results Average total cost per decedent for dementia ($287,038) was significantly greater than for those who died of heart disease ($175,136), cancer ($173,383), or other causes ($197,286), p<0.001. While Medicare expenditures were similar across groups, average out-of-pocket spending for dementia patients ($61,522) was 81% higher than for non-dementia patients ($34,068); a similar pattern held for informal care. Out-of-pocket spending for the dementia group (median, $36,919) represented 32% of wealth measured five years before death, compared to 11% for non-dementia decedents (p<0.001). This proportion was greater for Blacks (84%), those with less than high school education (48%), and unmarried/widowed women (58%). Limitations Imputed Medicaid, private insurance and informal care costs Conclusions Healthcare expenditures among those with dementia were substantially larger than for other diseases, with much of those expenses uninsured, thus placing a large financial burden on families. These burdens are particularly pronounced among demographic groups least prepared for

  7. Persistence of rabies antibody 5 years after postexposure prophylaxis with vero cell antirabies vaccine and antibody response to a single booster dose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wang, Chuanlin

    2011-09-01

    This study was done to investigate the antibody response to a Vero cell antirabies vaccine, the persistence of antibody for 5 years, and the effect of a booster dose after this interval. From August 2005 to February 2011, a total of 195 patients were enrolled into our study due to an animal bite. The Essen intramuscular (i.m.) regimen, which is recommended by the WHO for modern vaccines used in postexposure treatment, was adopted in this study. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, day 7, day 14, day 45, year 1, year 2, year 3, year 4, year 5, and year 5 plus 14 days. Immunogenicity was evaluated by the titration of neutralizing antibodies with a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Seroconversion was expressed as the seroconversion rate (SCR). A secondary quantitative evaluation criterion, other than the seroconversion level, was the geometric mean titer (GMT). Of the 195 enrolled patients, 168 (86.4%) of them completed the whole study. No serious adverse reactions to the vaccine were reported during vaccination, the 5-year follow-up period, or revaccination. On day 14, the rabies antibody GMT value was 8.87 IU/ml in the vaccinees. During the next 5 years, the SCR in the ChengDa vaccine group gradually decreased to 34.0% at year 5, down from 90.5% at year 1. There was a significant booster effect: the GMT was 15.22 IU/ml on year 5 plus 14 days. Our findings demonstrate that the ChengDa rabies vaccine offers an alternative with a high degree of efficacy and yet limited side effects and ensures that the exposed patient will be on the safe side of the risk of rabies by the 14th day. Moreover, when followed by a booster dose 5 years later, it could boost the immunity. A further booster is effective in inducing a good neutralizing antibody response even after an interval of 5 years.

  8. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  9. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  10. Categorization by Schema Relations and Perceptual Similarity in 5-Year-Olds and Adults: A Study in Vision and in Audition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Carole; Donnadieu, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    This research explores the way in which young children (5 years of age) and adults use perceptual and conceptual cues for categorizing objects processed by vision or by audition. Three experiments were carried out using forced-choice categorization tasks that allowed responses based on taxonomic relations (e.g., vehicles) or on schema category…

  11. Persistence and progression of masked hypertension: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Xavier; Milot, Alain; Brisson, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine masked hypertension persistence over 5 years. Methods. White-collar workers were recruited from three public organizations. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using Spacelabs 90207. Manually operated BP was defined as the mean of the first three readings taken at rest. Ambulatory BP was defined as the mean of the next readings taken every 15 minutes and recorded during working hours. BP was assessed three times over 5 years. Masked hypertension was defined as manually operated BP less than 140 and less than 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg. Sustained hypertension was defined as manually operated BP at least 140 or at least 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg or being treated for hypertension. Results. BP measurements were obtained from 1669 participants from whom 232 had masked hypertension at baseline. Persistence of masked hypertension was 38% and 18.5%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Progression to sustained hypertension was 26% and 37%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Conclusion. Among baseline masked hypertensives, one-third progressed to sustained hypertension and about one out of five remained masked after 5 years, potentially delaying diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24455208

  12. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  13. Carotid Intima Media Thickness, Atherosclerosis, and 5-Year Decline in Odor Identification: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Ronald; Tsai, Michael Y.; Pinto, A. Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to determine if subclinical markers of atherosclerosis are associated with a decline in olfactory function. Methods. The San Diego Odor Identification Test was administered to 2,302 participants (age 21–84 years) at the baseline (2005–2008) and 5-year follow-up (2010–2013) examinations of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. A decline in odor identification was defined as a decrease in San Diego Odor Identification Test score of 2 or more (range 0–8) from Beaver Dam Offspring Study 1 to Beaver Dam Offspring Study 2. Carotid intima media thickness and plaque, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, and body mass index were measured and other risk factor data were obtained by interview. Results. Overall 3.2% of participants had a decline in San Diego Odor Identification Test score at 5 years. In age- and sex-adjusted models, mean intima media thickness (odds ratio = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.34, per 0.1 mm) and number of sites (range 0–6) with carotid artery plaque (odds ratio = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.65, per site) at baseline were associated with an increased risk for decline. Plaque score (odds ratio = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.53) remained a significant independent predictor of olfactory decline in a model that included age, sex, hypertension, body mass index, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusions. Subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with an increased risk for olfactory decline indicating that atherosclerosis may be one of the risk factors for the decline in olfactory function seen with aging. Strategies to improve vascular health may also benefit olfactory health. PMID:25182599

  14. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica. PMID:25499184

  15. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica.

  16. Blunted sodium excretion in response to a saline load in 5 year old female sheep following fetal uninephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lankadeva, Yugeesh R; Singh, Reetu R; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Moritz, Karen M; Denton, Kate M

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that fetal uninephrectomy (uni-x) causes hypertension in female sheep by 2 years of age. Whilst the hypertension was not exacerbated by 5 years of age, these uni-x sheep had greater reductions in renal blood flow (RBF). To further explore these early indications of a decline in renal function, we investigated the renal response to a saline load (25 ml/kg/40 min) in 5-year old female uni-x and sham sheep. Basal mean arterial pressure was ∼15 mmHg greater (P(Group)<0.001), and sodium excretion (∼50%), glomerular filtration rate (∼30%, GFR) and RBF (∼40%) were all significantly lower (P(Group)<0.01) in uni-x compared to sham animals. In response to saline loading, sodium excretion increased significantly in both groups (P(Time)<0.001), however this response was blunted in uni-x sheep (P(GroupxTime)<0.01). This was accompanied with an attenuated increase in GFR and fractional sodium excretion (both P(GroupxTime)<0.05), and reduced activation of the renin-angiotensin system (both P<0.05), as compared to the sham group. The reduction in sodium excretion was associated with up-regulations in the renal gene expression of NHE3 and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase α and β subunits in the kidney cortex of the uni-x compared to the sham animals (P<0.05). Notably, neither group completely excreted the saline load within the recovery period, but the uni-x retained a higher percentage of the total volume (uni-x: 48±7%; sham: 22±9%, P<0.05). In conclusion, a reduced ability to efficiently regulate extracellular fluid homeostasis is evident in female sheep at 5 years of age, which was exacerbated in animals born with a congenital nephron deficit. Whilst there was no overt exacerbation of hypertension and renal insufficiency with age in the uni-x sheep, these animals may be more vulnerable to secondary renal insults. PMID:23077628

  17. Time trends in intracranial bleeding associated with direct oral anticoagulants: a 5-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Kerstin; Bahl, Bharat; Latrous, Meriem; Scaffidi Argentina, Sarina; Thompson, Jesse; Chatha, Aasil Ayyaz; Castellucci, Lana; Stiell, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past 5 years, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban were approved for stroke prevention. Phase III studies have shown a lower risk of intracranial bleeding with these direct oral anticoagulants than with warfarin; however, there is a lack of real-life data to validate this. We analyzed time trends in atraumatic intracranial bleeding from 2009 to 2013 among patients prescribed oral anticoagulants and those not prescribed oral anticoagulants. Methods: We used ICD-10-CA (enhanced Canadian version of the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) codes to identify all patients with atraumatic intracranial bleeding who presented to our neurosurgical centre (serving a population of more than 1.2 million). Trained researchers extracted data on anticoagulant medications used in the week before diagnosis of the intracranial bleed. Provincial prescription data for oral anticoagulants were obtained from IMS Brogan CompuScript Market Dynamics. The primary outcome was the time trend in incident intracranial bleeds associated with oral anticoagulation during the period 2009-2013. The secondary outcomes were the time trend in intracranial bleeds not associated with oral anticoagulation and the provincial prescribing patterns for oral anticoagulants during the same period. Results: A total of 2050 patients presented with atraumatic intracranial bleeds during the study period. Of the 371 (18%) prescribed an anticoagulant in the week before presentation, 335 were prescribed an oral anticoagulant. There was an increasing time trend in intracranial bleeding associated with oral anticoagulants (p = 0.009; 6 additional events per year) and in intracranial bleeding not associated with oral anticoagulation (p = 0.06). During 2013, prescriptions for warfarin decreased to 70% of all oral anticoagulant prescriptions in the province, whereas those for dabigatran and rivaroxaban increased to 17% and 12

  18. Sabril® registry 5-year results: Characteristics of adult patients treated with vigabatrin.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Faught, Edward; Foroozan, Rod; Pellock, John M; Sergott, Robert C; Shields, W Donald; Ziemann, Adam; Dribinsky, Yekaterina; Lee, Deborah; Torri, Sarah; Othman, Feisal; Isojarvi, Jouko

    2016-03-01

    Vigabatrin (Sabril®), approved in the US in 2009, is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) in patients ≥ 10 years old who have responded inadequately to several alternative treatments and as monotherapy for infantile spasms (IS) in patients 1 month to 2 years of age. Because of reports of vision loss following vigabatrin exposure, FDA approval required a risk evaluation mitigation strategy (REMS) program. Vigabatrin is only available in the US through Support, Help, And Resources for Epilepsy (SHARE), which includes a mandated registry. This article describes 5 years of demographic and treatment exposure data from adult patients (≥ 17 years old) in the US treated with vigabatrin and monitored in the ongoing Sabril® registry. Registry participation is mandatory for all US Sabril® prescribers and patients. A benefit-risk assessment must be documented by the physician for a patient to progress to maintenance therapy, defined as 1 month of vigabatrin treatment for patients with IS and 3 months for patients with rCPS. Ophthalmologic assessments must be documented during and after completion of therapy. As of August 26, 2014, a total of 6823 patients were enrolled in the registry, of which 1200 were adults at enrollment. Of these patients, 1031 (86%) were naïve to vigabatrin. The majority of adult patients (n=783, 65%) had previously been prescribed ≥ 4 AEDs, and 719 (60%) were receiving ≥ 3 concomitant AEDs at vigabatrin initiation. Prescribers submitted an initial ophthalmological assessment form for 863 patients; an ophthalmologic exam was not completed for 300 (35%) patients and thus, were considered exempted from vision testing. Of these patients, 128 (43%) were exempted for neurologic disabilities. Clinicians discontinued treatment in 8 patients because of visual field deficits (VFD) (5 patients naïve to vigabatrin and 3 patients previously exposed). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, it is

  19. Neurocognitive development in first episode psychosis 5 years follow-up: associations between illness severity and cognitive course.

    PubMed

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Langeveld, Hans; Larsen, T K; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive deficits are documented in first-episode psychosis (FEP), but the continuing course is not fully understood. The present study examines the longitudinal development of neurocognitive function in a five year follow-up of FEP-patients, focusing on the relation to illness severity, as measured by relapses and diagnostic subgroups. The study is an extension of previous findings from the TIPS-project, reporting stability over the first two years. Sixty-two FEP patients (53% male, age 28 ± 9 years) were neuropsychologically examined at baseline and at 1, 2, and 5 year follow-ups. The test battery was divided into five indices; Verbal Learning, Executive Function, Impulsivity, Motor Speed, and Working Memory. To investigate the effect of illness severity, the sample was divided in groups based on number of relapses, and diagnostic subgroups, respectively. Impulsivity and Working Memory improved significantly in the first two years, followed by no change over the next three years. Motor Speed decreased significantly from 2 to 5 years. Number of relapses was significantly related to Verbal Learning and Working Memory, showing a small decrease and less improvement, respectively, in patients with two or more episodes. No significant association was found with diagnostic group. Neurocognitive stability as well as change was found in a sample of FEP-patients examined repeatedly over 5 years. Of potential greater importance for understanding how psychotic illnesses progress, is the finding of significant associations between neurocognition and number of relapses but not diagnostic group, indicating that neurocognition is more related to recurring psychotic episodes than to the descriptive diagnosis per se.

  20. Baseline ambulatory knee kinematics are associated with changes in cartilage thickness in osteoarthritic patients over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Favre, Julien; Erhart-Hledik, Jennifer C; Chehab, Eric F; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2016-06-14

    Although kinematic alterations during walking have been reported with knee osteoarthritis (OA), there is a paucity of longitudinal data, therefore limiting our understanding of the role of kinematics in OA development. This study tested the hypothesis that less knee extension angle and less posterior displacement of the femur relative to the tibia during the heel-strike portion of the gait cycle are associated with greater loss of medial cartilage thickness during a follow-up period of five years. This study also tested for associations between flexion-extension angle and anterior-posterior displacement during other periods of the gait cycle and 5-year cartilage thinning. 16 subjects with moderate medial knee OA were tested with gait analysis and MRI at baseline and had a follow-up MRI after 5 years. Linear regressions were used to assess the relationship between changes in cartilage thickness and baseline kinematics using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multivariate regressions were also performed to adjust for gender, baseline age, BMI, walking speed, Kellgren/Lawrence grade, and baseline knee pain score. As hypothesized, baseline knee flexion angle and femoral displacement during heel-strike and other gait cycle periods were significantly associated with medial femoral and tibial cartilage thinning at the 5 year follow-up; these associations were strengthened after adjustment for covariates. This study provided new insight into the pathogenesis of knee OA where baseline knee kinematics were associated with longitudinal disease progression. These results could serve as a basis for developing newer gait modification interventions to reduce the risk for developing knee OA. PMID:27178021

  1. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  2. Preserved Quality of Life in Octogenarians at Early, Mid, and Late Follow-Up Intervals Irrespective of Cardiac Procedure.

    PubMed

    Luckraz, Heyman; Nagarajan, Kumaresan; Chnaris, Akis; Jayia, Parminderjit Kaur; Muhammed, Israr; Mahboob, Sophia; Nevill, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac surgery has become established in octogenarians over the past decade. This study assessed the quality of life (QOL) and survival in patients undergoing various cardiac procedures at various time intervals postoperative. Patients older than 80 years at the time of their cardiac procedure were initially included (n = 427). Patients were grouped according to the time interval from their operations namely as within 3 years postoperative (Group A), 3-5 years postoperative (Group B), and older than 5 years postoperative (Group C). Patients who were at least 2 years postoperative and who were still alive were sent the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 Health Survey version 2 QOL questionnaire (n = 308). In results, there were no significant differences in the preoperative characteristics among the groups including type of surgery and logistic Euroscore. There were also no significant differences in the immediate postoperative phase in the complication rates except for renal replacement therapy (P < 0.01). At follow-up, a further 20 patients had died, and for those still alive 87% (61 of 70), 86% (86 of 100), and 74% (87 of 118) of patients returned questionnaire for each group, respectively. There were no significant differences in mental scores (P = 0.3) and physical scores (P = 0.07) among the groups at the various time intervals. This was irrespective of the type of surgery performed on multivariate analysis. Moreover, most octogenarians who underwent cardiac surgery had equivalent or better QOL than expected when compared with the general population of the same age and sex. In conclusion, the QOL in octogenarians undergoing cardiac surgery is preserved, irrespective of the interval from and the type of procedure. Octogenarians enjoy a good QOL, both physical and mental performance, irrespective of the time interval after surgery and the type of cardiac surgery that they have undergone. Based on these data, any type of cardiac surgery should still be an

  3. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ-28): A parsimonious version validated for longitudinal use from 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Elena; Williams, Kate E; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-05-01

    Prospective studies and intervention evaluations that examine change over time assume that measurement tools measure the same construct at each occasion. In the area of parent-child feeding practices, longitudinal measurement properties of the questionnaires used are rarely verified. To ascertain that measured change in feeding practices reflects true change rather than change in the assessment, structure, or conceptualisation of the constructs over time, this study examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) subscales (9 constructs; 40 items) across 3 time points. Mothers participating in the NOURISH trial reported their feeding practices when children were aged 2, 3.7, and 5 years (N = 404). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) within a structural equation modelling framework was used. Comparisons of initial cross-sectional models followed by longitudinal modelling of subscales, resulted in the removal of 12 items, including two redundant or poorly performing subscales. The resulting 28-item FPSQ-28 comprised 7 multi-item subscales: Reward for Behaviour, Reward for Eating, Persuasive Feeding, Overt Restriction, Covert Restriction, Structured Meal Setting and Structured Meal Timing. All subscales showed good fit over 3 time points and each displayed at least partial scalar (thresholds equal) longitudinal measurement invariance. We recommend the use of a separate single item indicator to assess the family meal setting. This is the first study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance in a feeding practices questionnaire. Invariance was established, indicating that the subscales of the shortened FPSQ-28 can be used with mothers to validly assess change in 7 feeding constructs in samples of children aged 2-5 years of age.

  4. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  5. The 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology 1981. Source Materials Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This is the second of two volumes of source documents commissioned by the National Science Foundation in preparing the second 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology for transmission to the Congress. This volume consists of the views of individuals selected by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy of the American Association for…

  6. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  7. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  8. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  9. Delayed refractory hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Merola, J; Liang, E; Hoskins, J; Balakrishnan, V; Gan, P

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who developed a delayed onset intractable hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The proposed aetiology of this exceptionally rare phenomenon is discussed. To our knowledge, previous cases have only been reported in the adult population.

  10. A Multiple-Data Analysis of the 3.5-Year Development of EFL Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes in Japanese students English writing behaviors over a 3.5-year period using multiple data sources including written texts, videotaped writing behaviors, and stimulated-recall protocols. Data from student interviews supplemented the analyses. Because 6 (henceforth, English as a second language [ESL]…

  11. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  12. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  13. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  14. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  15. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  16. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... limited to, population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics; (2) habitat conditions...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Comment'' icon on the right of that line. Mail or hand-delivery: Angela Somma, National Marine...

  17. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  18. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  19. Secondary Science Teachers' Use of Technology in the Classroom during Their First 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Luft, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technology use of beginning secondary science teachers and explored factors facilitating or inhibiting their use of technology. The researchers collected and analyzed interviews and observational data from 95 teachers over a 5-year period. The results show that teachers used PowerPoint the most and other software the least…

  20. Introducing Engineering in Elementary Education: A 5-Year Study of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering, when integrated into K-12 education, may offer a number of potential student learning and future success benefits. In a 5-year study, four cohorts of elementary teachers of grades 2 to 4 in a single US school district were provided with teacher professional development with engineering education. Teachers were prepared to teach…

  1. 76 FR 50447 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 5 Evolutionarily Significant Units of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ..., Oregon, Washington, and Idaho (75 FR 13082). Both ESUs and DPSs are treated as ``species'' under the ESA... FR 37204). The 5-year review reports prepared by the Southwest Region, the Southwest Science Center's... since they were previously reviewed in 2005 (70 FR 37160) and 2006 (71 FR 834), respectively....

  2. 76 FR 50448 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 17 Evolutionarily Significant Units and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Regional Offices announced initiation of 5-year reviews of Pacific salmon ESUs and steelhead DPSs (75 FR...-promulgating the threatened listing for Oregon Coast coho salmon (76 FR 35755). This notice also addresses the... Salmon and Steelhead in Listing Determinations under the ESA (70 FR 37204) to complete this...

  3. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  4. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  5. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  6. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  7. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  8. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  9. The Prevalence of Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in 4- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children in Northern Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine the prevalence of dental caries among a representative sample of preschool children (4-5 years old) who were accompanied by their parents to the dental centre of the Arab American University in Jenin whether they come seeking dental treatment or as visitors with adult patients. Materials and Methods. 1376 children of both sexes were investigated by three calibrated and trained examiners for dental caries using the dmft index according to the WHO method. Results. 76% of the studied children have already experienced dental caries at the age of 4-5 years (1046 children). The mean dmft score was found to be 2.46 while the other 24% of children were caries-free. There was no significant difference in caries prevalence between boys and girls (77.2% versus 74.6%). Children of highly educated and college graduated mothers were found to have more fillings (restored teeth) in comparison to those who belong to mothers who did not finish their secondary (high school) education. Conclusion. The number of caries-free children in northern Palestine is still far from numbers found in developed countries. There is a real need to make improvements at the level of parents dental health education, application of preventive measures, and dietary habits among preschool children. PMID:25328526

  10. Gait and clinical measurements in patients with knee osteoarthritis after surgery: a prospective 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, M; Weidenhielm, L; Mattsson, E; Olsson, E

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this prospective follow-up study was to determine if gait measurements and/or clinical measurements could detect differences in treatment outcome between two surgical interventions in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The patients were followed for 5 years after surgery. Forty patients, 55-70 years of age, with unilateral knee OA were included. The patients were treated either with a high tibial osteotomy (HTO) (n=18) or a unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) (n=22). Clinical outcome measures were the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) score, pain during walking, passive range of knee motion (PROM) and patients' subjective opinion. The gait variables were free walking speed, step frequency, step length and single and double-stance phase for each leg. The patients were examined before surgery and 3 months, 1 year and 5 years after surgery. The time-distance variables of gait could detect differences in treatment outcome, 3 months after surgery, while the clinical outcome measures, as given here, could not detect any differences between the two groups of patients. Measurements of free walking speed could be recommended for clinical evaluation, after surgical interventions, in patients with knee OA.

  11. [Coronary heart diseases and associated risk factors in newly manifested type II diabetic patients over the course of 5 years].

    PubMed

    Schmechel, H; Schulze, J; Hanefeld, M; Lippold, C; Schwanebeck, U; Rössger, G; Haller, H

    1989-03-15

    Using the baseline data of the diabetes intervention study (DIS) from 1126 newly manifested type II-diabetics our analysis demonstrates higher mean-values of some components of the so-called metabolic syndrome in patients with ECG-abnormalities indicating coronary heart disease (CHD) in diagnosis of diabetes compared with subjects without ECG-findings. The impact of general risk factors for the prevalence of CHD in diagnosis and after a 5-year follow-up is obviously different in both sexes. In multivariate analysis only systolic blood pressure was persistently a significant predictor in both sex groups. With increasing age life-duration gets as time-related factor importance for the development of CHD. The mathematically demonstrated association of triglyceride levels to the presence of ECG-abnormalities agrees with the results of WHO multinational study of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. In the interventions as well as in the control-groups diabetic subjects with CHD after 5 year follow-up showed in comparison to diabetics without CHD higher levels of investigated risk factors which develop their pathogenetic effect probably by their clustering impact, because the differences of their mean-values are only in some cases significant. The common lower level of the most risk factors at the intervention group compared with the conventionally treated group is the result of the intervention measures. PMID:2728558

  12. Dopaminergic therapy and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of 5-year reports.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD) is described in several recent papers. This procedure has been reported to permit a stable reduction of dopaminergic therapy requirements for up to 5 years, although some expectation of deterioration in non-dopaminergic signs has been recently stated. Our aim is to perform a literature-based review of papers available describing long-term post-operative follow-up after a bilateral implant for subthalamic DBS (STN-DBS). Only peer-reviewed published papers with a post-operative follow-up of at least 5 years were considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 2 (or 3 years) and 5 years after surgery. Seven papers were included in the review. A total of 238 patients were analyzed. STN-DBS was confirmed to be an effective treatment for selected patients with PD. In all studies, off-related motor symptoms improved dramatically, compared with pre-implant, at 2 (or 3, according to the study) years and this result persisted at 5-year evaluations. Antiparkinsonian drug reductions, improvements in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and the progression of underlying PD were also reported in all series. Some axial scores, in particular postural stability and speech, improved transiently. Persisting adverse effects included eyelid opening apraxia, weight gain, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysarthria, dyskinesias, and apathy. The present review of the 5-year observations confirms that STN-DBS is a powerful method in the management of PD, but its long-term effects must be thoroughly assessed.

  13. Interval colorectal carcinoma: An unsolved debate

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark; Neto, Antonio Galvao; Zhang, Xuchen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC), as the third most common new cancer diagnosis, poses a significant health risk to the population. Interval CRCs are those that appear after a negative screening test or examination. The development of interval CRCs has been shown to be multifactorial: location of exam-academic institution versus community hospital, experience of the endoscopist, quality of the procedure, age of the patient, flat versus polypoid neoplasia, genetics, hereditary gastrointestinal neoplasia, and most significantly missed or incompletely excised lesions. The rate of interval CRCs has decreased in the last decade, which has been ascribed to an increased understanding of interval disease and technological advances in the screening of high risk individuals. In this article, we aim to review the literature with regard to the multifactorial nature of interval CRCs and provide the most recent developments regarding this important gastrointestinal entity. PMID:26668498

  14. Interval neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

  15. Creation of mortality risk charts using 123I meta-iodobenzylguanidine heart-to-mediastinum ratio in patients with heart failure: 2- and 5-year risk models

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Nakata, Tomoaki; Matsuo, Shinro; Jacobson, Arnold F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims 123I meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging has been extensively used for prognostication in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The purpose of this study was to create mortality risk charts for short-term (2 years) and long-term (5 years) prediction of cardiac mortality. Methods and results Using a pooled database of 1322 CHF patients, multivariate analysis, including 123I-MIBG late heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and clinical factors, was performed to determine optimal variables for the prediction of 2- and 5-year mortality risk using subsets of the patients (n = 1280 and 933, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to create risk charts. Cardiac mortality was 10 and 22% for the sub-population of 2- and 5-year analyses. A four-parameter multivariate logistic regression model including age, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, LVEF, and HMR was used. Annualized mortality rate was <1% in patients with NYHA Class I–II and HMR ≥ 2.0, irrespective of age and LVEF. In patients with NYHA Class III–IV, mortality rate was 4–6 times higher for HMR < 1.40 compared with HMR ≥ 2.0 in all LVEF classes. Among the subset of patients with b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) results (n = 491 and 359 for 2- and 5-year models, respectively), the 5-year model showed incremental value of HMR in addition to BNP. Conclusion Both 2- and 5-year risk prediction models with 123I-MIBG HMR can be used to identify low-risk as well as high-risk patients, which can be effective for further risk stratification of CHF patients even when BNP is available. PMID:26705487

  16. Penile vascular evaluation and sexual function before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dubbelman, Yvette D; Wildhagen, Mark F; Dohle, Gert R

    2008-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common after surgery for prostate cancer. The aetiology of changes in sexual potency after radical prostatectomy is probably multifactorial, including neurogenic, vascular and psychosexual factors. A prospective study was designed to investigate haemodynamic and psychosexual changes before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for organ-confined prostate cancer. Penile haemodynamic evaluation and an assessment of sexual excitement were performed preoperatively and 3 months after RRP by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) with visual erotic stimulation combined with a single intracavernous injection of a mixture of papaverine/phentolamine. Questionnaires on sexual function [International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)], general health and quality of life were sent to the patients preoperative, 3 months and 5 years after operation. Forty-eight men participated in the study. Mean age was 62.6 years (range 55-69). CDU did not show any significant reduction in mean peak systolic flow velocity and mean resistance index. From the men who preoperatively had normal arterial inflow 18% developed arteriogenic insufficiency. Some form of veno-occlusive insufficiency and low resistance indices were already present in the majority of normal potent men preoperatively. Surgical technique did not influence penile arterial blood flow after the operation. Three months and 5 years postoperatively, there was a highly significant reduction in erectile function, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction, orgasmic function and sexual desire. However, with respect to the outcome at 3 months there was a significant improvement of orgasmic function 5 years after operation, especially after a bilateral nerve sparing procedure. Erections sufficient for vaginal penetration (questions 3 and 4 of the IIEF, score >or=8) improved from 2% to 11% 3 months and 5 years after RRP respectively. Total IIEF score was significantly better after a bilateral nerve

  17. Preventive education and birth order as co-determinants of IQ in disadvantaged 5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Boat, B W; Campbell, F A; Ramey, C T

    1986-01-01

    The effects of preventive education and birth order on IQ scores of 95 economically disadvantaged children at risk for retarded intellectual development were studied. Experimental first- and later-born children participated from birth in a 5-year programme of systematic educational intervention. An equal number of children served as controls and received no systematic intervention. First-borns prevailed as the brighter children in both the educational treatment group and the control group when Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) full scale and verbal IQ scores were compared. Furthermore, mothers of first-borns (70% of whom were only-born at age 5) achieved significantly higher WAIS scores than did mothers of later-born children. Results suggest that later-born disadvantaged children are at greatest risk for developmental retardation. PMID:3955795

  18. First series of Exeter small stem primary total hip arthroplasty minimum 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tai, Cheh Chin; Nam, Hui Yin; Abbas, Azlina Amir; Merican, Azhar M; Choon, Siew Kit

    2009-12-01

    We carried out a prospective study of 47 Exeter (Stryker Inc, Warsaw, Ind) small stem total hip arthroplasty in 42 patients with an average age of 58 years and a mean follow-up of 8.5 years. The Oxford hip score improved from a preoperative mean of 47 to 17 at last follow-up. More than 87% patients had excellent or good Harris hip scores, and 90% were able to walk with little or no pain. Stem subsidence within the cement mantle was observed in 26% of cases, and none showed evidence of aseptic loosening or implant failure. Two stems were removed due to infection. The survival rate of this implant was 95.7% at 10 years. This first series of Exeter small stem showed excellent medium-term results, comparable to its larger counterparts. PMID:19682839

  19. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  20. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the

  1. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  2. Refractive outcome of prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity treated by diode laser: follow-up at 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuoc Huu; Catt, Caroline; Nguyen, Tinh Xuan; Pham, Van Trong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the refraction of eyes treated with diode laser photocoagulation for prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at a mean of 5 years after treatment. Materials and methods Fifty infants with prethreshold ROP treated with diode laser at Hanoi Childrens’ Hospital during the period 2008 to 2009 were reviewed. Refractive error was identified by cycloplegic refraction with Cyclogyl 1%. Myopia was divided into two categories based on magnitude: high myopia (more than −5.00 D) and low myopia (between 0 and −5.00 D). Hypermetropia was subdivided into low hypermetropia (between 0 and +5.00 D) and high hypermetropia (greater than +5.00 D). Astigmatism was classified as high if >2.00 D. Eyes with media opacification that interferes with retinoscopy were excluded. The refractive outcome was correlated with birth weight and gestational age. The anatomical and visual outcomes were recorded. Results One hundred eyes from 50 infants were included in the study. The mean birth weight was 1,426.4 g and the mean gestational age was 29.88 weeks. After 5 years of follow-up, the average spherical equivalent for 100 eyes was −2.87 D. On cycloplegic retinoscopy, high myopia (more than −5.00 D) was seen in 32% of eyes. Twenty (20%) eyes had nonsignificant hypermetropia, and high hypermetropia (more +5.00 D) was seen in only one eye (1%). The prevalence of astigmatism and high astigmatism (more than −2.00 D) was 79% and 49%, respectively. Three infants (6%) had esotropia and two infants (4%) had exotropia. None of the infants had nystagmus. Conclusion The majority of patients who underwent diode laser therapy for prethreshold ROP had favourable anatomical and visual outcomes. High refractive error is common and may be the cause of visual impairment. PMID:26445521

  3. Effect of acute interval sprinting exercise on postprandial lipemia of sedentary young men

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Aaron; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Postprandial lipemia (PPL) contributesto the development of atherosclerosis. In females, repeated 8-second bouts of interval sprinting exercise reduced PPL, however, the effect of 8-second bouts of interval sprinting on PPL of overweight males is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-secondsof interval sprinting for 20 min, the night before ingestion of a high-fat meal (HFM), on plasma triacylglycerol(TG) levelswas examined. [Methods] Ten overweight males acted as participants (BMI = 26±3.0kg/m2, age 22 ± 2.5 years). A crossover design was employed withinterval sprinting and a noexercise condition separated by 7days. Participants consumed a milkshake (high-fat meal;HFM = 4170 kJ/993 Kcal) the morning after an overnight fast, followed by 4 hourly blood samples. Participants performedone bout of interval sprinting (8seconds sprinting at 110-115rpm, 12seconds active recovery at ~60rpm for 20 minutes) the evening before the consumption of the HFM. [Results] Postprandial TG was 22.5% lower in the interval sprinting compared to the noexercise condition when comparing the change in total area under the curve (ΔAUCT): ISE(7.15±1.90mmolL-1h-1) versus noexercise (9.22±3.44mmolL-1h-1), p=.014. The correlation between fasting TG levels in the noexercise condition and total reduction in AUCT between the conditions was significant (r=.87, p=.001). [Conclusion] One 20-min bout of interval sprinting,the night before consumption of a HFM,significantly attenuated the PPL response of sedentary males. PMID:27298807

  4. Predictors of heroin relapse: Personality traits, impulsivity, COMT gene Val158met polymorphism in a 5-year prospective study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Li, Zhibin; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Haifeng; Chen, Zhikang; Sun, Haiming; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. The heroin use status was evaluated for 5 years after discharged. Among the 564 heroin-dependent patients, 500 were followed for 5 years after discharge and 53.0% (n = 265) were considered as relapsed to heroin use according to a strict monitor system. Univariate analysis showed that age, having ever been in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the total scores and non-planning scores of BIS-11, and the COMT rs4680 gene variants were different between relapse and abstinent groups. Logistic regression analysis showed higher BIS total score, having ever been in MMT and younger first heroin use age are the predictors of relapse to heroin use during 5 years follow-up, and the COMT rs4680 gene had an interaction with BIS scores. Our findings indicated that the impulsive personality traits, methadone use history, and onset age could predict relapse in heroin-dependent patients during 5 year's follow up. The COMT gene showed a moderational effect in part the relationship of impulsivity with heroin relapse.

  5. Predictors of heroin relapse: Personality traits, impulsivity, COMT gene Val158met polymorphism in a 5-year prospective study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Li, Zhibin; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Haifeng; Chen, Zhikang; Sun, Haiming; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. The heroin use status was evaluated for 5 years after discharged. Among the 564 heroin-dependent patients, 500 were followed for 5 years after discharge and 53.0% (n = 265) were considered as relapsed to heroin use according to a strict monitor system. Univariate analysis showed that age, having ever been in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the total scores and non-planning scores of BIS-11, and the COMT rs4680 gene variants were different between relapse and abstinent groups. Logistic regression analysis showed higher BIS total score, having ever been in MMT and younger first heroin use age are the predictors of relapse to heroin use during 5 years follow-up, and the COMT rs4680 gene had an interaction with BIS scores. Our findings indicated that the impulsive personality traits, methadone use history, and onset age could predict relapse in heroin-dependent patients during 5 year's follow up. The COMT gene showed a moderational effect in part the relationship of impulsivity with heroin relapse. PMID:26345603

  6. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  7. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  8. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  9. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  10. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  11. 78 FR 33113 - Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan Program Years 2012-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan... Administration's (USDOL/ ETA) 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan for 2012-2017. Under Section 171 of... a strategic plan for pilots, demonstrations, and research over the next 5 years in areas related...

  12. What Is in the Naming? A 5-Year Longitudinal Study of Early Rapid Naming and Phonological Sensitivity in Relation to Subsequent Reading Skills in Both Native Chinese and English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Among 262 Chinese children, syllable awareness and rapid automatized naming (RAN) at age 5 years and invented spelling of Pinyin at age 6 years independently predicted subsequent Chinese character recognition and English word reading at ages 8 years and 10 years, even with initial Chinese character reading ability statistically controlled. In…

  13. Reverse-reward learning in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus): retesting after 5 years, and assessment on qualitative transfer.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Ikuma; Anderson, James R; Fujita, Kazuo

    2011-02-01

    Seven squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) previously trained on reverse-reward tasks were presented with the original "1-versus-4" task after a 5-year interval without reverse-reward experience (Experiment 1). None of them reliably selected the smaller food array; however, at around chance level, their performance was superior to when they were first exposed to the task almost 6 years previously, suggesting some long-term memory retention. One naive monkey consistently selected the larger array, as expected. In Experiment 2, trials consisting of 1 versus 1 piece of two qualitatively different types of food were interspersed among familiar 1-versus-4 trials. None of five monkeys tested reliably selected the less-preferred food to get the more preferred food as the reward, and one monkey scored below chance. However, when one piece of low-preference food was paired with four pieces of high-preference food (Experiment 3), all four monkeys tested avoided reaching for the latter and thereby obtained it as the reward; two monkeys obtained perfect scores on these trials. These two monkeys were trained on a specific qualitative reverse-reward pairing and then again tested on new pairings (Experiment 4), but transfer was incomplete. Compound trials that pit quantity against quality in novel ways appear taxing for squirrel monkeys, despite competence in reverse-reward on both dimensions separately. PMID:21244136

  14. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised.

  15. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised. PMID:27489968

  16. Equatorial Annual Oscillation with QBO-driven 5-year Modulation in NCEP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the zonal wind and temperature variations supplied by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which have been assimilated in the Reanalysis and the Climate Prediction Center (CCP) data sets. The derived zonal-mean variations are employed. Stimulated by modeling studies, the data are separated into the hemispherically symmetric and anti-symmetric components, and spectral analysis is applied to study the annual 12-month oscillation and Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). For data samples that cover as much as 40 years, the results reveal a pronounced 5-year modulation of the symmetric AO in the lower stratosphere, which is confined to equatorial latitudes. This modulation is also inferred for the temperature variations but extends to high latitudes, qualitatively consistent with published model results. A comparison between different data samples indicates that the signature of the 5-year oscillation is larger when the QBO of 30 months is more pronounced. Thus there is circumstantial evidence that this periodicity of the QBO is involved in generating the oscillation. The spectral analysis shows that there is a weak anti-symmetric 5-year oscillation in the zonal winds, which could interact with the large antisymmetric A0 to produce the modulation of the symmetric AO as was shown in earlier modeling studies. According to these studies, the 30-month QBO tends to be synchronized by the equatorial Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO), and this would explain why the inferred 5-year modulation is observed to persist and is phase locked over several cycles.

  17. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in a 5-year-old boy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Sabnis, Rajesh; Bhuta, Bansari A; Yadav, Archana

    2015-03-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), formerly known as calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a rare developmental neoplasm/cyst of odontogenic epithelial origin with considerable histopathologic diversity and variable clinical behaviour. The occurrence of CCOT in the first decade of life is very uncommon. We report an interestingly rare variant of CCOT with ameloblastomatous proliferation affecting the mandibular left posterior region associated with an impacted permanent tooth in a 5-year-old boy.

  18. King 2 2519 ATM residual gyros: Reestablishing 5 year life requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayal, B.; Carbocci, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The technical expertise required to assess the condition of the residual ATM 2519 Singer gyros is discussed. Past build history records, past performance characteristics, and recommendations for particular tests (which were performed by NASA personnel) are summarized. Test results are analyzed. A study of motor performance data and recommendations concerning gyro spin bearing life was performed. A method of reestablishing potential reliability of the bearing for the 5-year life requirement of the power module is also included.

  19. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  20. A 5-year Journey with Cutis Laxa in an Indian Child: The De Barsy Syndrome Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Roy, Sutirtha

    2016-01-01

    De Barsy syndrome (DBS), synonymously known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III, is an extremely rare condition clinically characterized by cutis laxa, a progeroid appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. We present here an account of 5-year follow-up since the birth of an Indian boy with DBS, who had a few rare and unusual manifestations. In addition, our case probably represents the first reported case of DBS from India. PMID:26955101

  1. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively.

  2. Soil microbial properties after 5 years of consecutive amendment with composted tannery sludge.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima; Oliveira, Mara Lucia Jacinto; Santos, Vilma Maria; Nunes, Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; Melo, Wanderley José

    2015-01-01

    Composting has been recognised an alternative method to tannery sludge recycling and afterwards to be used in agriculture. As the tannery sludge contains salts and chromium, the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) should be performed carefully to minimise negative effects on soil microbial properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on soil microbial biomass (SMB) and enzyme activities in a tropical soil. CTS was applied during 5 years at 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha(-1), and at the fifth year, the microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), basal and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), metabolic quotient (qCO₂) and dehydrogenase (DHA) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were determined in the soil samples. Soil MBC and MBN showed the highest values with the amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. Soil respiration increased with the increase in CTS rates, while SIR showed the highest values with the amendment of 0, 2.5 and 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. DHA activity showed the highest values with the amendment up to 2.5 Mg ha(-1), while FDA hydrolysis increased up to the rate of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. The results show that after 5 years of permanent amendment of CTS, soils amended with 2.5 Mg ha(-1) have SMB and enzymatic activities similar to those in unamended soil.

  3. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  4. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  5. Spanking and child development during the first 5 years of life.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Gromoske, Andrea N; Berger, Lawrence M

    2012-11-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3,870) and cross-lagged path analysis, the authors examined whether spanking at ages 1 and 3 is adversely associated with cognitive skills and behavior problems at ages 3 and 5. The authors found spanking at age 1 was associated with a higher level of spanking and externalizing behavior at age 3, and spanking at age 3 was associated with a higher level of internalizing and externalizing behavior at age 5. The associations between spanking at age 1 and behavioral problems at age 5 operated predominantly through ongoing spanking at age 3. The authors did not find an association between spanking at age 1 and cognitive skills at age 3 or 5.

  6. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  7. Plasma endotoxin core antibody concentration and linear growth are unrelated in rural Malawian children aged 2-5 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental enteropathy is subclinical inflammation of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with reduced linear growth in developing countries. Usually investigators have used biopsy or a dual sugar absorption test to assess environmental enteropathy. Such tests are time and resource intens...

  8. Diet quality of preschool children aged 2 to 5 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Katharine Konrad; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; França, Giovanny Vinicius Araújo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; dos Santos, Iná; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the dietary quality of preschool children in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Methods: Dietary quality was measured according to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), adapted to Brazil. Food consumption was obtained using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The index score was obtained by a score, ranging from 0 to 100, distributed in 13 food groups that characterize different components of a healthy diet. The better the quality of the diet, the closer the score is to 100. Results: Dietary quality was evaluated in 556 preschoolers. The mean HEI score value was 74.4 points, indicating that diets need improvement. The mean scores were significantly higher among girls and in children from families with income between one and less than three minimum wages. Conclusions: The children showed vegetable consumption below the recommended level, while foods of the food group of oils and fats, as well as the group of sugars, candies, chocolates and snacks, were consumed in excess. It is important to reinforce guidelines to promote healthier eating habits, which may persist later in life. PMID:26122208

  9. Influence of beverage and food consumption on fluoride intake in Japanese children aged 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Narita, N; Shibata, T; Nakagaki, H; Koga, H; Nishimuta, M

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the relative contribution of particular foods and drinks to dietary fluoride intake in 94 preschool Japanese children in low-fluoride areas. The mean daily fluoride intake from all beverages (548 +/- 162 g) was 0.108 mg (SD = 0.082), accounting for 37% of the total dietary fluoride; tea beverages showed the highest value, 0.093 mg (SD = 0.081), 32%. That from staple food and side dishes was 0.183 mg (SD = 0.146), 63%, followed by cereals (12%), fish (8%) and bean products (5%). In conclusion, the contribution of beverages excluding tea to dietary fluoride intake is small in Japanese children.

  10. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a “consequence model” to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia’s efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  11. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-05-14

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings.

  12. Percutaneous Nucleoplasty Using Coblation Technique for the Treatment of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: 5-year Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Du, Sui-Yong; Sun, Tian-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous nucleoplasty using coblation technique for the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP), after 5 years of follow-up. Methods: From September 2004 to November 2006, 172 patients underwent percutaneous nucleoplasty for chronic LBP in our department. Forty-one of these patients were followed up for a mean period of 67 months. Nucleoplasty was performed at L3/4 in 1 patient; L4/5 in 25 patients; L5/S1 in 2 patients; L3/4 and L4/5 in 2 patients; L4/5 and L5/S1 in 7 patients; and L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 in 4 patients. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years postoperatively. Pain was graded using a 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the percentage reduction in pain score was calculated at each postoperative time point. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to assess disability-related to lumbar spine degeneration, and patient satisfaction was assessed using the modified MacNab criteria. Results: There were significant differences among the preoperative, 1-week postoperative, and 3-year postoperative VAS and ODI scores, but not between the 3- and 5-year postoperative scores. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or preoperative symptoms between patients with effective and ineffective treatment, but there were significant differences in the number of levels treated, Pfirrmann grade of intervertebral disc degeneration, and provocative discography findings between these two groups. Excellent or good patient satisfaction was achieved in 87.9% of patients after 1 week, 72.4% after 1 year, 67.7% after 3 years, and 63.4% at the last follow-up. Conclusions: Although previously published short- and medium-term outcomes after percutaneous nucleoplasty appeared to be satisfactory, our long-term follow-up results show a significant decline in patient satisfaction over time. Percutaneous nucleoplasty is a safe and simple technique, with therapeutic

  13. Calcineurin activity in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients early after and 5 years after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, D M; Koefoed-Nielsen, P B; Jørgensen, K A

    2006-10-01

    The pharmacodynamic (PD) action of tacrolimus (FK) within the T-cell is inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase (CaN). Determination of CaN activity provides us with an important PD marker. Eleven renal transplant patients treated with FK were investigated on day 14 following transplantation and 5 years later. Blood samples drawn before as well as 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after oral intake of FK were analyzed for CaN activity and blood FK concentrations. Twenty healthy subjects had one blood sample drawn for CaN activity, which was measured as the release of (32)P from a phosphorylated peptide. Radioactivity of (32)P was quantitated by liquid scintillation counting with the results converted to units of CaN utilizing a calibration curve. On day 14, we observed significant inhibition of CaN activity at T:1, 2, and 3 compared with the predose level (P = .002; P = .015; P = .015). Furthermore, all measured CaN activities were significantly different from those observed in healthy nonmedicated subjects. In contrast, at 5 years posttransplant only the CaN activity at T:2 was significantly inhibited compared with the predose level (P = .02). Additionally, all CaN activities at this time were not significantly different from CaN activities in the healthy subjects. We were not able to demonstrate individual CaN activity profiles in the patients. The lack of CaN inhibition at 5 years after transplantation despite relevant drug concentrations, probably reflected the lower drug dose used long after transplantation. This result raises the question of whether CaN inhibition is necessary to hold graft function and whether FK possess CaN-independent mechanisms of action. PMID:17098028

  14. Durability of response to vaccination against viral hepatitis A in HIV-infected patients: a 5-year observation.

    PubMed

    Jabłonowska, E; Kuydowicz, J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of total antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV-T) in the group of HIV-positive adults in Lodz region of Poland, and to evaluate the response and long-term immunity after vaccination against hepatitis A virus. In the group of 234 HIV-infected patients, 72 persons (30.8%) were anti-HAV-T positive (>20 IU/L). In multivariate analysis, two independent factors associated with the presence of anti-HAV-T were identified: the age of patients (OR = 1.07) and the presence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (OR = 2.87). Vaccination was completed in 83 patients. Good response (anti-HAV-T >20 IU/L one month after the booster dose) was obtained in 79.5% of patients. In patients with CD4 >200 cells/µL in multivariate analysis only presence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus was a prognostic factor for the response to vaccination (OR = 0.13). Among responders available for the follow-up, 82% (50 out of 61) had detectable anti-HAV-T at 1 year and 75.5% (37 out of 49) at 5 years. Our results demonstrate that most of the studied HIV-positive patients were susceptible to hepatitis A virus infection. Most HIV-infected adults with high CD4 counts had a durable response even up to 5 years after vaccination. Patients with a HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection displayed a worse response to vaccination.

  15. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Savant, Hemant V.; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed. PMID:26167224

  16. Infantile fibrosarcoma of ethmoid sinus, misdiagnosed as an adenoid in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519

  17. The Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating: Design, Fabrication, Ground Calibration, and 5 Years in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, Claude R.; Davis, John E.; Dewey, Daniel; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Galton, Eugene B.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Markert, Thomas H.; Marshall, Herman L.; McGuirk, Michael; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Smith, Henry I.; Wise, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication techniques, and the results of ground testing and calibration of the HETG. For nearly 6 years the HETG has operated essentially as designed, although it has presented some subtle flight calibration effects.

  18. Drifter-based estimate of the 5-year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2014-12-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time-scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Excellent agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  19. Drifter-based estimate of the 5 year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K.

    2014-11-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Good agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  20. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811

  1. Bilateral renal leiomyoma with 5 year follow-up: Case report.

    PubMed

    Goren, Mehmet Resit; Erbay, Gurcan; Ozer, Cevahir; Goren, Vinil; Bal, Nebil

    2015-01-01

    Renal leiomyomas are exceptionally rare benign tumours of the kidney. Although the renal leiomyomas usually do not metastasize, the differential diagnosis between renal leiomyomas and malign lesions (leiomyosarcoma or renal cell carcinoma) cannot be done by radiological examinations, but is possible by histological examination. Surgery is the preferred treatment. After surgery, the prognosis is excellent without recurrence. Although uterine leiomyomas can be multicentric, renal leiomyomas have been single lesions. We report an incidentally detected case of bilateral renal leiomyoma in a 50-year-old woman with a 5-year follow-up. We also review the literature and discuss clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:26664510

  2. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  3. Interval arithmetic operations for uncertainty analysis with correlated interval variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chao; Fu, Chun-Ming; Ni, Bing-Yu; Han, Xu

    2016-08-01

    A new interval arithmetic method is proposed to solve interval functions with correlated intervals through which the overestimation problem existing in interval analysis could be significantly alleviated. The correlation between interval parameters is defined by the multidimensional parallelepiped model which is convenient to describe the correlative and independent interval variables in a unified framework. The original interval variables with correlation are transformed into the standard space without correlation, and then the relationship between the original variables and the standard interval variables is obtained. The expressions of four basic interval arithmetic operations, namely addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, are given in the standard space. Finally, several numerical examples and a two-step bar are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Patterns, Predictors, and Outcomes of Falls Trajectories in Older Adults: The MOBILIZE Boston Study with 5 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Tchalla, Achille E.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Travison, Thomas G.; Habtemariam, Daniel; Iloputaife, Ikechukwu; Manor, Brad; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Falls may occur as unpredictable events or in patterns indicative of potentially modifiable risks and predictive of adverse outcomes. Knowing the patterns, risks, and outcomes of falls trajectories may help clinicians plan appropriate preventive measures. We hypothesized that clinically distinct trajectories of falls progression, baseline predictors and their coincident clinical outcomes could be identified. Methods We studied 765 community-dwelling participants in the MOBILIZE Boston Study, who were aged 70 and older and followed prospectively for falls over 5 years. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected by questionnaire and a comprehensive clinic examination. Falls, injuries, and hospitalizations were recorded prospectively on daily calendars. Group-Based Trajectory Modeling (GBTM) was used to identify trajectories. Results We identified 4 distinct trajectories: No Falls (30.1%), Cluster Falls (46.1%), Increasing Falls (5.8%) and Chronic Recurring Falls (18.0%). Predictors of Cluster Falls were faster gait speed (OR 1.69 (95CI, 1.50–2.56)) and fall in the past year (OR 3.52 (95CI, 2.16–6.34)). Predictors of Increasing Falls were Diabetes Mellitus (OR 4.3 (95CI, 1.4–13.3)) and Cognitive Impairment (OR 2.82 (95CI, 1.34–5.82)). Predictors of Chronic Recurring Falls were multi-morbidity (OR 2.24 (95CI, 1.60–3.16)) and fall in the past year (OR 3.82 (95CI, 2.34–6.23)). Symptoms of depression were predictive of all falls trajectories. In the Chronic Recurring Falls trajectory group the incidence rate of Hospital visits was 121 (95% CI 63–169) per 1,000 person-years; Injurious falls 172 (95% CI 111–237) per 1,000 person-years and Fractures 41 (95% CI 9–78) per 1,000 person-years. Conclusions Falls may occur in clusters over discrete intervals in time, or as chronically increasing or recurring events that have a relatively greater risk of adverse outcomes. Patients with multiple falls, multimorbidity, and depressive symptoms

  5. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  6. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  7. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  8. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  9. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years.

  10. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  11. A 5-year study of adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdin, Begüm Nalça; Pas, Suzan D; Durak, İsmet; Schutten, Martin; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2015-03-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of conjunctivitis. Genotypes are diverse and differ according to population and geographical distribution of the virus. There is limited data regarding ocular adenoviral infections and genotype distribution in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the adenovirus genotypes and their epidemiological features among patients with conjunctivitis between 2006 and 2010, in Izmir, Turkey. Adenoviral DNA was detected by PCR in 213 of 488 (44%) of the ocular samples collected from patients with viral conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Of these, 101 (47%) were randomly chosen and genotyped by sequence analysis. Seven genotypes were identified, including 3, 4, 8, 11, 19, 37, and 53. Genotype 8 and 4 were the dominant types detected in 67 (66.3%) and 25 (24.7%) of the samples, respectively. Other five genotypes (3, 11, 19, 37, 53) were detected in 9 (8.9%) samples. Genotype and seasonal differences observed throughout the study. Human adenoviruse (HAdV)-8 was the most frequent type, except 2008. The prevalence of genotype 4 increased starting from 2006, became dominant in 2008 and decreased in the following years. The peak season was mostly spring months, although it was possible to detect positive samples throughout the year. In conclusion, genotype 8 followed by genotype 4 was the most frequent adenoviral types causing conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Findings suggest that there is a slow shift between genotypes throughout the years.

  12. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  13. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  14. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager: 5 years on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Ong, Lawrence; Barsi, Julia A.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Morfitt, Ron

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALI's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  15. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  16. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schulze, J; Riegel, H; Brade, V

    1999-01-01

    Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who developed a large effusion of the right knee joint. The titer for antinuclear antibodies was 1:80 and the test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Investigations for antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi demonstrated remarkable elevation of IgG antibody and no specific IgM response. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting reactivity with the bands p83/100, p58, p43, p41, p39, OspA, p30, OspC, p21, and p17. We subsequently learned that the child had suffered a tick bite followed by an EM 5 years earlier and had been treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at that time. The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days. In the absence of clinical improvement 3 weeks later a knee joint aspiration was performed which resulted in a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for B. burgdorferi DNA (OspA) in the synovial fluid. The patient fully recovered 2 months later without further treatment. The case indicates that the latency period between EM and onset of LA may last up to 5 years. In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA.

  17. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community. PMID:27295701

  18. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs. PMID:17124330

  19. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cueto, Santiago; Glewwe, Paul; Richter, Linda; Strupp, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data—the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty—to use as indicators of poor development. We show that both indicators are closely associated with poor cognitive and educational performance in children and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility, and provide poor care for their children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. PMID:17208643

  20. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years. PMID:21827523

  1. Multichannel interval timer (MINT)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, K.B.

    1982-06-01

    A prototype Multichannel INterval Timer (MINT) has been built for measuring signal Time of Arrival (TOA) from sensors placed in blast environments. The MINT is intended to reduce the space, equipment costs, and data reduction efforts associated with traditional analog TOA recording methods, making it more practical to field the large arrays of TOA sensors required to characterize blast environments. This document describes the MINT design features, provides the information required for installing and operating the system, and presents proposed improvements for the next generation system.

  2. A practice-based clinical evaluation of the survival and success of metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Rinke, S; Kramer, K; Bürgers, R; Roediger, M

    2016-02-01

    This practice-based study evaluates the survival and success of conventionally luted metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns fabricated by using a prolonged cooling period for the veneering porcelain. Fifty-three patients were treated from 07/2008 to 07/2009 with either metal-ceramic crowns (MCC) or zirconia crowns (ZC). Forty-five patients (26 female) with 91 restorations (obser-vational period: 64.0 ± 4.8 months) participated in a clinical follow-up examination and were included in the study. Estimated cumulative survival (ECSv), success (ECSc) and veneering ceramic success (ECVCSc) were calculated (Kaplan-Meier) and analysed by the crown fabrication technique and the position of the restoration (Cox regression model) (P < 0.05). Five complete failures (MCC: 2, ZC: 3) were recorded (5-year ECSv: MCC: 97.6%, (95% confidence interval (95%-CI): [93%; 100%]/ZC: 94.0%, (95%-CI): [87%; 100%]). Of the MCCs (n = 41), 85.0%, [95%-CI: (77%; 96%)] remained event-free, whereas the ECSc for the ZCs (n = 50) was 74.3% (95%-CI): [61%; 87%]. No significant differences in ECSv (P = 0.51), ECSc (P = 0.43) and ECVCSc (P = 0.36) were detected between the two fabrication techniques. Restorations placed on terminal abutments (n = 44) demonstrated a significantly lower ECVCSc (P = 0.035), (5-year VCF-rate: 14.8%) than crowns placed on tooth-neighboured abutments (n = 47), (5-year VCF-rate: 4.3%). In the present study, zirconia molar crowns demonstrated a 5-year ECSv, ECSc and ECVCSc comparable to MCCs. Irrespective of the fabrication technique, crowns on terminal abutments bear a significantly increased risk for VCFs. Clinical investigations with an increased number of restorations are needed.

  3. Spanking and Child Development during the First 5 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Gromoske, Andrea N.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,870) and cross-lagged path analysis, the authors examined whether spanking at ages 1 and 3 is adversely associated with cognitive skills and behavior problems at ages 3 and 5. The authors found spanking at age 1 was associated with a higher level of spanking and externalizing…

  4. Interval-valued random functions and the kriging of intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, P.

    1988-04-01

    Estimation procedures using data that include some values known to lie within certain intervals are usually regarded as problems of constrained optimization. A different approach is used here. Intervals are treated as elements of a positive cone, obeying the arithmetic of interval analysis, and positive interval-valued random functions are discussed. A kriging formalism for interval-valued data is developed. It provides estimates that are themselves intervals. In this context, the condition that kriging weights be positive is seen to arise in a natural way. A numerical example is given, and the extension to universal kriging is sketched.

  5. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  6. Risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in stroke patients: A 5-year nationwide investigation of 44,460 patients.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Lung; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chang, Wei-Pin; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Poststroke sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) can hinder communication between patients and healthcare professionals, thereby restricting participation in rehabilitation programs and limiting improvements in physical performance. However, the relationship between stroke and SSNHL remains unclear. This study employed a nationwide population-based dataset to investigate the relationship between stroke and SSNHL.The Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database was used to compile data from 11,115 stroke patients and a comparison cohort of 33,345 matched nonstroke enrollees. Each patient was followed for 5 years to identify new-onset SSNHL. Stratified Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to examine the association of stroke with subsequent SSNHL.Among the 44,460 patients, 66 patients (55,378 person-years) from the stroke cohort and 105 patients (166,586 person-years) from the comparison cohort were diagnosed with SSNHL. The incidence of SSNHL was approximately twice as high among stroke patients than among nonstroke patients (1.19 and 0.63/1000 person-years, respectively). Stroke patients had a 71% increased risk of SSNHL, compared with nonstroke patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-2.36). We also observed a remarkable increase in risk of SSNHL in stroke patients within 1-year of follow-up (adjusted HR 5.65, 95% CI 3.07-10.41) or under steroid therapy during hospitalization (adjusted HR 5.14, 95% CI 2.08-12.75).Patients with stroke had a higher risk of subsequent SSNHL compared with patients without stroke. In particular, stroke patients within 1-year follow-up and those undergoing steroid therapy during hospitalization should be treated with the utmost caution, considering that the risk of SSNHL increases by more than 5-fold. PMID:27603402

  7. Risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in stroke patients: A 5-year nationwide investigation of 44,460 patients.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Lung; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Chang, Wei-Pin; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Poststroke sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) can hinder communication between patients and healthcare professionals, thereby restricting participation in rehabilitation programs and limiting improvements in physical performance. However, the relationship between stroke and SSNHL remains unclear. This study employed a nationwide population-based dataset to investigate the relationship between stroke and SSNHL.The Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database was used to compile data from 11,115 stroke patients and a comparison cohort of 33,345 matched nonstroke enrollees. Each patient was followed for 5 years to identify new-onset SSNHL. Stratified Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was used to examine the association of stroke with subsequent SSNHL.Among the 44,460 patients, 66 patients (55,378 person-years) from the stroke cohort and 105 patients (166,586 person-years) from the comparison cohort were diagnosed with SSNHL. The incidence of SSNHL was approximately twice as high among stroke patients than among nonstroke patients (1.19 and 0.63/1000 person-years, respectively). Stroke patients had a 71% increased risk of SSNHL, compared with nonstroke patients (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-2.36). We also observed a remarkable increase in risk of SSNHL in stroke patients within 1-year of follow-up (adjusted HR 5.65, 95% CI 3.07-10.41) or under steroid therapy during hospitalization (adjusted HR 5.14, 95% CI 2.08-12.75).Patients with stroke had a higher risk of subsequent SSNHL compared with patients without stroke. In particular, stroke patients within 1-year follow-up and those undergoing steroid therapy during hospitalization should be treated with the utmost caution, considering that the risk of SSNHL increases by more than 5-fold.

  8. The influence of a triclosan toothpaste on adverse events in patients with cardiovascular disease over 5-years.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Mary P; Palmer, Janet E; Carle, Anne D; West, Malcolm J; Westerman, Bill; Seymour, Gregory J

    2015-03-01

    Adverse effects of long-term usage of triclosan-containing toothpaste in humans are currently unknown. We assessed the effect of long-term use of 0.3% triclosan-toothpaste on serious adverse events (SAEs) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). 438 patients with a history of stable CVD were entered into the 5-year longitudinal Cardiovascular and Periodontal Study at Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia and randomised into test (triclosan) or placebo groups. There were no significant differences in demographics or clinical features between the groups. Patients were examined at baseline, and annually for 5-years. SAEs were classified according to the System Organ Classes defined by MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Results were analysed using chi square and Kaplan Meier analysis. Overall, 232 patients (123 in the triclosan group; 109 in the placebo group) experienced 569 SAEs (288 in the triclosan group and 281 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference between the groups in numbers of patients experiencing SAEs (p=0.35) or specific cardiovascular SAEs (p=0.82), nor in time to the first SAE or first cardiovascular SAE, irrespective of gender, age or BMI after adjusting for multiple comparisons (p>0.05). The adjusted odds of experiencing an SAE were estimated to increase by 2.7% for each year of age (p=0.02) and the adjusted odds of experiencing a cardiovascular SAE were estimated to increase by 5.1% for each unit increase in BMI (p=0.02). Most cardiovascular events were related to unstable angina or myocardial infarcts, 21 were associated with arrhythmia and 41 were vascular events such as aortic aneurysm and cerebrovascular accident. Within the limitations of the present study the data suggest that the use of triclosan-toothpaste may not be associated with any increase in SAEs in this CVD population. The long-term impact of triclosan on hormone-related disease, such as cancer, in humans remains to be determined

  9. The influence of a triclosan toothpaste on adverse events in patients with cardiovascular disease over 5-years.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Mary P; Palmer, Janet E; Carle, Anne D; West, Malcolm J; Westerman, Bill; Seymour, Gregory J

    2015-03-01

    Adverse effects of long-term usage of triclosan-containing toothpaste in humans are currently unknown. We assessed the effect of long-term use of 0.3% triclosan-toothpaste on serious adverse events (SAEs) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). 438 patients with a history of stable CVD were entered into the 5-year longitudinal Cardiovascular and Periodontal Study at Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia and randomised into test (triclosan) or placebo groups. There were no significant differences in demographics or clinical features between the groups. Patients were examined at baseline, and annually for 5-years. SAEs were classified according to the System Organ Classes defined by MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Results were analysed using chi square and Kaplan Meier analysis. Overall, 232 patients (123 in the triclosan group; 109 in the placebo group) experienced 569 SAEs (288 in the triclosan group and 281 in the placebo group). There was no significant difference between the groups in numbers of patients experiencing SAEs (p=0.35) or specific cardiovascular SAEs (p=0.82), nor in time to the first SAE or first cardiovascular SAE, irrespective of gender, age or BMI after adjusting for multiple comparisons (p>0.05). The adjusted odds of experiencing an SAE were estimated to increase by 2.7% for each year of age (p=0.02) and the adjusted odds of experiencing a cardiovascular SAE were estimated to increase by 5.1% for each unit increase in BMI (p=0.02). Most cardiovascular events were related to unstable angina or myocardial infarcts, 21 were associated with arrhythmia and 41 were vascular events such as aortic aneurysm and cerebrovascular accident. Within the limitations of the present study the data suggest that the use of triclosan-toothpaste may not be associated with any increase in SAEs in this CVD population. The long-term impact of triclosan on hormone-related disease, such as cancer, in humans remains to be determined.

  10. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    PubMed

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.

  11. 5-year Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up of Coil-embolised Intradural Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the paper is the follow-up of embolised intradural saccular Arterial Aneurysms (AA), excluding giant, dissecting, inflammatory, fusiform or AA associated to BVAM. Since its introduction in 1991, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil has offered protection against aneurysmal rebleeding in the critical few days and months after SAH regardless of the grade. A number of questions remain: is complete angiographic obliteration necessary at first embolisation? What duration of clinical / angiographic follow-up (FU) is required to ensure the risk of haemorrhage has been eliminated? What is the long-term protection against rebleeding? One hundred and two patients with 160 intradural saccular AA embolised before april 1997 were selected for this study. They had at least 5-yrs clinical FU, of which 22 patients had a midterm (3 years) and 45 patients had a 5year or more angiographic FU (mean 67,7 months per patient). Twenty-eight embolised AAs with 100% occlusion at 1 year, remained unchanged on the 5year angiograms. A further 14 patients with complete occlusion at 1 year showed persisting complete occlusion on angiogram at 3-years FU, which in our series means that complete occlusion after the first year post-embolisation implies that the aneurysm will remain completely occluded. All secondary spontaneous thromboses (27.6% of cases), occurred during the first year pos-embolisation. In six patients with subtotal or partial occlusion no change was seen for three consecutive years of FU; none showed later change at 5-year angiography. Below 80% occlusion our series does not provide enough information but we consider the situation instable. No mortality related to the procedure was observed in the unruptured AA group. No bleeding or re-bleeding has occurred since the beginning of our experience (1993) in saccular AA treated by GDC-Coil. Coil-embolisation of properly selected patients is effective in protecting against bleeding or re-bleeding at short and long

  12. Full-mouth rehabilitation of Class II deep-bite patient: A 5-year clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Gulfem; Bozkaya, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the full-mouth rehabilitation of a 45-year-old male patient with severe deep-bite by increasing vertical dimension. The technique of anterior maxillary osteotomy performed in the present situation has been found to be effective, requiring anterior and inferior repositioning of the anterior maxilla to provide an esthetic and functional implant supported fixed prosthesis. Four months after surgery, the fixation system was removed, and 6 dental implants were placed. The anterior and inferior movements of the segment allowed for natural tooth anatomy and size in the definitive implant supported partial fixed prosthesis. A satisfactory functional and esthetic result was obtained after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27403066

  13. Delayed Replantation after Endodontic and Fluoride Treatment: A 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abi Mathew; Akkara, Francis; Fernandes, Kristlee Sabrin

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate if endodontic and fluoride treatment of the root before delayed replantation would render the tooth a favorable prognosis. Methods A 10-year-old boy reported 10 hours after he had avulsed his maxillary right permanent central incisor. The pulp and PDL cells were considered to be nonviable. Endodontic treatment for the tooth was performed extraorally and obturated with gutta-percha. Prior to replantation, the root was treated with 1.23% APSF for 15 minutes. Result An intraoral radiograph taken 6 months after replantation revealed narrowing of the PDL space around the replanted tooth due to apposition from the surrounding alveolar bone. A radiograph taken 5 years after replantation revealed no evidence of external root resorption. There was no abnormal mobility either. Conclusion Extraoral endodontic treatment and root treatment with 1.23% APSF prior to delayed replantation might prevent the occurrence of external root resorption.

  14. Constraints on the Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant by the 5-Year WMAP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, M.; Nagata, R.; Yokoyama, J.

    2008-12-01

    The constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant at recombination epoch relative to its present value, Δα/α ≡ (α_{rec} - α_{now})/α_{now}, are obtained from the analysis of the 5-year WMAP cosmic microwave background data. As a result of Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that, contrary to the analysis based on the previous WMAP data, the mean value of Δα/α = -0.0009 does not change significantly whether we use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measurement of the Hubble parameter as a prior or not. The resultant 95% confidence ranges of Δα/α are -0.028 < Δα/α < 0.026 with HST prior and -0.050 < Δα/α < 0.042 without HST prior.

  15. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:26744159

  16. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia Affiliation When The Manuscript Was Written Department Of Paediatrics K J Somaiya Medical College And Hospital Mumbai India, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2014-11-19

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:25410687

  17. Performance of the MIR Cooperative Solar Array After 2.5 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States and Russia to produce 6 kW of power for the Russian space station Mir. Four, multi-orbit test sequences were executed between June 1996 and December 1998 to measure MCSA electrical performance. A dedicated Fortran computer code was developed to analyze the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. The computational performance results compared very favorably with the measured flight data in most cases. Minor performance degradation was detected in one current generating section of the MCSA. Yet overall, the flight data indicated the MCSA was meeting and exceeding performance expectations. There was no precipitous performance loss due to contamination or other causes after 2.5 years of operation. In this paper, we review the MCSA flight electrical performance tests, data and computational modeling and discuss findings from data comparisons with the computational results.

  18. The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from over 5 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Eldakar, Omar T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years numerous reports have confirmed and replicated the specific brain cooling and thermal window predictions derived from the thermoregulatory theory of yawning, and no study has found evidence contrary to these findings. Here we review the comparative research supporting this model of yawning among homeotherms, while highlighting a recent report showing how the expression of contagious yawning in humans is altered by seasonal climate variation. The fact that yawning is constrained to a thermal window of ambient temperature provides unique and compelling support in favor of this theory. Heretofore, no existing alternative hypothesis of yawning can explain these results, which have important implications for understanding the potential functional role of this behavior, both physiologically and socially, in humans and other animals. In discussion we stress the broader applications of this work in clinical settings, and counter the various criticisms of this theory. PMID:23293583

  19. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-05-15

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications.

  20. Salter-Harris type-IV displaced distal radius fracture in a 5-year-old.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.

  1. Review of the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R D; Marryatt, G; Henderson, R F

    1988-09-01

    Symptoms in patients with hiatal hernia often respond to treatment consisting of diet and medication. Operative procedures, designed to control gastroesophageal reflux and avoid surgically induced problems, are reserved for those with intractable symptoms. When these operative procedures fail, reoperation may be necessary. The reoperative procedure is often technically complex because of esophageal and gastric scar fixation. The authors reviewed the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia in 168 patients followed up to 5 years or more; 43 of them had undergone gastric surgery previously.Radiologically, 97% patients studied (142 of 146) had no evidence of anatomic recurrence or reflux post operatively. Manometric studies postoperatively in 114 patients showed that the mean tone of the high pressure zone was within the normal range and lower esophageal disordered motor activity was decreased by 34.5% from the preoperative level. Symptoms of recurrent hiatal hernia were abolished by operation in 88% of the patients; only 4.8% had serious or recurrent symptoms.

  2. Neurological Recovery of Upper Extremity in Stroke Woman after 5 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vejabhuti, Chayanin

    2016-02-01

    Strokes are common neurological disorders in Thailand. Rehabilitation programs significantly improve arm function outcomes if performed during the sub-acute period of stroke rehabilitation, within 6 months of the attack. This report describes the case of a stroke patient who gained upper extremity motor recovery after 5 years, which is beyond the normal recovery period. Although the patient does not have functionality, she has partial motor recovery, and she is enthusiastic about learning to gain better use of her hand. However there is still limited evidence to use in designing effective intervention and proper timing of rehabilitation administered by personnel in training chronic stroke patients. Therefore, evidence based on neuroplasticity and neurological recovery in chronic stroke patients, including rehabilitation intervention, is presented in this report. PMID:27266238

  3. Estimating rates of land falling US hurricanes on a 5-year timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, K.; Turner, J.; Jewson, S.; Bellone, E.; Rowlands, D.; Laepple, T.

    2010-03-01

    Atlantic hurricanes are the costliest of US natural disasters. Their frequency, intensity and likelihood of landfall are highly variable, being impacted by sea-surface and upper-atmosphere temperatures, wind shear, El Niño and other climatic variables. Risk Management Solutions has created a set of over 500,000 synthetic Atlantic hurricanes for use in catastrophe modelling. Until 2005, the rates associated with each of these storms were based on the averaged historical rate since 1900. However, there is evidence that hurricane frequencies are non-stationary and this means that long-term averaged rates may not be the best estimate of future rates. Furthermore, the insurance/reinsurance industry is particularly interested in 5-year projections of land falling US hurricanes. We show, using hindcasting, that simple statistical models can significantly improve estimates of the number of Atlantic hurricanes hitting land on this timescale.

  4. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-05-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154.

  5. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154. PMID:25206158

  6. [The results of 5-year-long research of sclerotherapy of liver metastases by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Borsukov, A V

    2001-01-01

    64 patients with liver metastases have been studied (mammary gland--6 cases, stomach--15, colon--32, other locations--11) and US metastasis semiotics and the fine aspiration biopsy have been identified. 12 cases had underwent intraoperative 96% ethanol infusion, 52 had got transdermal infusions under US control. The survival rate of colon cases with dissemination was: 1 year S.--100%, 3 year S.--53.1%, 5 year S.--3.1%. In cases with noncolon dissemination the percentage of survival was: 1 year S.--68.8%, 2 year S.--9.4%, 3 year S.--3.0%. 96% ethanol sclerotherapy proved to be more effective in single metachronic metastases of the colon malignancies.

  7. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  8. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, p<0.0001); provider satisfaction (65.4–79.2, p<0.01); capacity for service provision (47.4–76.4, p<0.0001); quality of services (40.5–67.4, p<0.0001); and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0–52.6). The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4–95.7, p<0.01), after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. Conclusions The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  9. HIV-Positive–to–HIV-Positive Kidney Transplantation — Results at 3 to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The outcome of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients who receive organs from HIV-negative donors has been reported to be similar to the outcome in HIV-negative recipients. We report the outcomes at 3 to 5