Science.gov

Sample records for 5-year age intervals

  1. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  2. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis.

  3. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  4. Renal transplantation in children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N

    1980-01-01

    19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060

  5. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  6. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = −0.19; 95% confidence interval, −0.29 to −0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  7. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Colombara, Danny V.; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011–2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ2 tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0–5 months, those 6–23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  8. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  9. Etiology of Acute Otitis Media in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Melissa K.; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Cohen, Robert; Madhi, Shabir A.; Rosenblüt, Andrés; Macias Parra, Mercedes; Al-Mazrou, Khalid; Grevers, Gerhard; Lopez, Pio; Naranjo, Laura; Pumarola, Felix; Sonsuwan, Nuntigar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear because of a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from 10 AOM etiology studies of similar design, the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for within-study correlations. Results: The majority, 55.5% (95% confidence interval: 47.0%–65.7%) of 1124 AOM episodes, were bacterial pathogen positive: 29.1% (24.8%–34.1%) yielded Hflu and 23.6% (19.0%–29.2%) Spn. Proportions of Hflu and Spn were higher and lower, respectively, in heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–vaccinated children. Hflu and Spn were each isolated from 20% to 35% of children in every 1-year age range. Hflu was less likely to be isolated from first (vs. subsequent) episodes [relative risk (RR): 0.71 (0.60–0.84)]. Spn was more often isolated from sporadic (vs. recurrent) cases [RR: 0.76 (0.61–0.97)]; the opposite was true for Hflu [RR: 1.4 (1.00–1.96)]. Spn cases were more likely to present with severe (vs. mild) symptoms [RR: 1.42 (1.01–2.01)] and Hflu cases with severe tympanic membrane inflammation [RR: 1.35 (1.06–1.71)]. Conclusions: Spn and Hflu remain the leading otopathogens in all populations examined. While associated with overlapping symptoms and severity, they exhibit some differences in their likelihood to cause disease in specific subpopulations. PMID:27918383

  10. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  11. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  12. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Laurier, D; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

    2008-09-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants.

  13. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  14. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  15. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S.; Friederici, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network. PMID:27812160

  16. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network.

  17. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    PubMed

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-02-14

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p < 0.05). However, the mean locomotor standardized scores for both boys and girls fell into the range categorized as "average." There were no other differences by age, race/Hispanic origin, weight status, or income in either of the subtest standardized scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  18. Tuberculosis among immigrants: interval from arrival in Canada to diagnosis. A 5-year study in southern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, R L; Sharpe, J W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the pattern of tuberculosis (TB) occurring among immigrants and the interval from arrival in Canada to diagnosis of the disease. DESIGN: Study of all cases of TB diagnosed in foreign-born residents of southern Alberta during the 5-year period 1990-1994. SETTING: A centre for the diagnosis, management and control of all cases of TB in the southern half of the province of Alberta. METHODS: All foreign-born patients in whom TB was newly diagnosed between January 1990 and December 1994 were included in the study. The interval from their arrival in Canada to diagnosis, their country of birth and the site of their disease were documented. RESULTS: Immigrants to Canada accounted for 248 (70.6%) of the 351 cases of TB diagnosed in southern Alberta during the 5-year period. The majority of these immigrants (182/248 [73.4%]) were of Asian origin. Extrapulmonary TB accounted for 111 (61.0%) of the 182 cases of the disease in Asian immigrants. The mean period between immigration and diagnosis was 11.2 years (standard deviation [SD] 13.9 years). Half of the patients presented within 7 years of their arrival in Canada. The time to presentation was shortest for patients with superficial lymph node disease (mean 7.6 years [SD 6.9] after arrival), intermediate among those with extrapulmonary disease, excluding superficial disease of the lymph node (10.1 years [SD 12.1]), and longest for those with pulmonary disease (14.2 years [SD 17.2]). TB developed sooner after arrival in Canada among immigrants from Asian countries (mean 9.1 years) than among those from other countries (17.2 years) (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Given the low annual incidence of TB in Canada (7.1 per 100,000), it is probable that TB occurring among immigrants reflects infection acquired before arrival in Canada. Health care professionals need to be aware that immigrants from countries with a relatively high prevalence of TB remain at risk for the disease (often at an extrapulmonary site) for

  19. Evaluation of acute pyelonephritis with DMSA scans in children presenting after the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ataei, Neamatollah; Madani, Abbas; Habibi, Reza; Khorasani, Mosa

    2005-10-01

    It is generally believed that infants are more susceptible to development of renal scarring after pyelonephritis than children over 5 years old. This view has led to differences in investigations and treatment according to age. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the occurrence of renal parenchymal lesion in children over 5 years admitted with a first-time symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI). Between October 2000 and April 2002, 52 children aged over 5 years who were admitted to our department with probable acute pyelonephritis (APN) and a positive urine culture were included in this study. All children received antibiotics for 14 days. During the acute phase of infection, scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and ultrasonography (US) were done. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) was performed in all children early in the course of the illness, generally within 5-7 days of hospitalization. When scintigraphy showed renal parenchymal changes, repeat scintigraphy was done after at least 3 months to assess the progression of renal abnormalities. Of the 52 children with a first-time documented pyelonephritis, cortical scintigraphy showed renal lesion in 41 children (78.8%). US was normal in all children with normal renal scintigraphy, while it detected renal abnormalities in 16 of the 41 (39 %) with abnormal scintigraphy (p <0.0001). Topographic analysis of the 165 focal lesions showed that 42.4% were localized to the upper poles, 17.5% to the middle third, and 40% to the lower poles of the kidneys. Repeat scintigraphy showed persistent lesions corresponding to those on the initial scan in nine (28.2%) of the 32 children. Renal lesions had partly regressed in 23 (71.8%) of the patients who underwent repeat scintigraphy. Vesicoureteral reflux was observed in 13.4% of kidneys and renal parenchymal abnormalities were identified in 71.4% and 72.2% of renal units, respectively, with and without reflux ( p >0.05). In

  20. Association between depression in carers and malnutrition in children aged 6 months to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Ganiyu, Adewale B.; Firth, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Childhood malnutrition is an important risk factor for child mortality and underlies close to 50% of child deaths worldwide. Previous studies have found an association between maternal depression and child malnutrition, but it is not known whether this association exists in Botswana. In addition, previous studies excluded non-maternal primary caregivers (PCGs). It is unclear whether the association between primary caregiver depression and child malnutrition remains when non-maternal PCGs are included. Aim The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between PCG depression and malnutrition in children aged between 6 months and 5 years in Mahalapye, Botswana. Setting The study was conducted in the child welfare clinics of Xhosa and Airstrip clinics, two primary health care facilities in Mahalapye, Botswana. Methods This was a case control study. Cases were malnourished children aged between 6 months and 5 years, and controls were non-malnourished children matched for age and gender. The outcome of interest was depression in the PCGs of the cases and controls, which was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9), a depression screening tool. Results From a sample of 171 children, 84 of whom were malnourished, we found that the malnourished children were significantly more likely to have depressed PCGs (odds ratio = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.89, 9.89) than non-malnourished children in the 6-month to 5-year age group; the PCGs of malnourished children also had lower educational status. Conclusion This study found a significant association between PCG depression and child malnutrition. PMID:28155288

  1. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood.

  2. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Gedi A.; Ahmed, Jamal A.; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010–2012. A total of 471 patients aged5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5–14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15–24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  3. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp.

  4. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  5. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Gallagher, D

    2015-01-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  6. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in children aged 0- 5 years with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Anejo-Okopi, Joseph Aje; Okojokwu, Julius Ocheme; Ebonyi, Augustine Odo; Ejeliogu, Emeka Uba; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Audu, Onyemocho; Akpakpan, Edoama Edet; Nwachukwu, Esther Ebere; Ifokwe, Christabel Kelechi; Ali, Murna; Lar, Patricia; Oguche, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immune-compromised individuals. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have led to the discovery of subtype families that are thought to be more commonly associated with diarrhea. We aimed to isolate and characterize Cryptosporidium spp among children with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria. Methods Stool samples were collected from165 children aged 0-5 years with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined by wet mount preparation, using formalin ether and a modified acid fast staining method. DNA was extracted from positive samples using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit and PCR-RFLP assay was carried out after quantification. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were done to determine the subtype families and their relatedness. Results From the 165 children studied, 8 (4.8%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. PCR-RFLP assay and genotype characterization found the following Cryptosporidium species: C. hominis 6 (75%) and C. parvum 2 (25.0%), with family subtypes Id-5, Ie-1 and IIa-1, IId-1 respectively.The most common species was C. hominis and the frequent subtype was C. hominis-Id 5 (62.5%). Conclusion Cryptosporidium is not an uncommon cause of diarrhea in children, with C. hominis being the dominant species. Also C. hominis Id is the commonest sub-family subtype. Put together, zoonotic species may be an important cause of diarrhea in children aged 0-5 years in Jos, Nigeria. PMID:28293369

  7. Climatic factors associated with hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    D'SOUZA, R. M.; HALL, G.; BECKER, N. G.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This study compares the seasonality of rotavirus diarrhoeal hospital admissions and its relationship to climatic factors across three Australian cities. Weekly admission of rotavirus diarrhoea (1993–2003) in children aged <5 years and weekly average temperature and relative humidity for each city were modelled using a log-linear model with a cubic trend and season. Interactions were included to test for differences in the effect of temperature and humidity between seasons and between cities. Admissions of rotavirus diarrhoea peaked in winter and spring and were lowest in summer. Higher temperature and humidity in the previous week were associated with a decrease in rotavirus diarrhoeal admissions in three cities. The effects of both temperature and humidity on rotavirus admissions in Brisbane differed across seasons. Strategies to combat outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhoea should take climatic factors and seasonal effects into consideration to plan for the excess seasonal hospital admissions. PMID:17352836

  8. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD.

  9. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  10. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  11. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  12. Stability and continuity of parentally reported child eating behaviours and feeding practices from 2 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Farrow, C; Blissett, J

    2012-02-01

    Previous research suggests that many eating behaviours are stable in children but that obesigenic eating behaviours tend to increase with age. This research explores the stability (consistency in individual levels over time) and continuity (consistency in group levels over time) of child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices in children between 2 and 5 years of age. Thirty one participants completed measures of child eating behaviours, parental feeding practices and child weight at 2 and 5 years of age. Child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices remained stable between 2 and 5 years of age. There was also good continuity in measures of parental restriction and monitoring of food intake, as well as in mean levels of children's eating behaviours and BMI over time. Mean levels of maternal pressure to eat significantly increased, whilst mean levels of desire to drink significantly decreased, between 2 and 5 years of age. These findings suggest that children's eating behaviours are stable and continuous in the period prior to 5 years of age. Further research is necessary to replicate these findings and to explore why later developmental increases are seen in children's obesigenic eating behaviours.

  13. High prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia among Mozambican children <5 years of age admitted to hospital with clinical severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lanaspa, M; O'Callaghan-Gordo, C; Machevo, S; Madrid, L; Nhampossa, T; Acácio, S; de la Horra, C; Friaza, V; Campano, E; Alonso, P L; Calderón, E J; Roca, A; Bassat, Q

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to describe Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) prevalence and features in children from sub-Saharan Africa and to investigate PCP-associated risk factors. During 2006-2007 we used molecular methods to test children younger than 5 years old admitted with severe pneumonia to a hospital in southern Mozambique for Pneumocystis infection. We recruited 834 children. PCP prevalence was 6.8% and HIV prevalence was 25.7%. The in-hospital and delayed mortality were significantly higher among children with PCP (20.8% vs. 10.2%, p 0.021, and 11.5% vs. 3.6%, p 0.044, respectively). Clinical features were mostly overlapping between the two groups. Independent risk factors for PCP were age less than a year (odds ratio (OR) 6.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.86-21.65), HIV infection (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.70), grunting (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.04-6.73) and digital clubbing (OR 10.75, 95% CI 1.21-95.56). PCP is a common and life-threatening cause of severe pneumonia in Mozambican children. Mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention should be strengthened. Better diagnostic tools are needed.

  14. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  15. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI −0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

  16. Profiling the ethnic characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Stevenson, Adrienne A; Oyetunji, Aderonke O; Onguti, Sharon K; Ames, Sarah A; Haider, Adil H; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2012-04-01

    The home remains a very common location for deadly injuries among children younger than 5 years. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic and injury characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than 5 years. The National Trauma Data Bank's National Sample Program data set was queried for children younger than 5 years with the injury site classified as home. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine unadjusted differences by ethnicity. Appropriate weight was applied to the sample to determine accurate national estimates. A total of 7,364 children, representing 32,033 children, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 1.6 per cent. Among whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans, intentional injuries accounted for 6.5, 12.8, 10.2, 5.2, and 19.0 per cent of all injuries by intent, respectively (P < 0.003). Burn injury was disproportionately higher in blacks (24.1%) followed by Native Americans and Asians (15.3 and 11.5%, P = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, black ethnicity was associated with increased length of stay. Intentional injuries were significantly higher in blacks and Native Americans with black patients sustaining a disproportionately higher proportion of burn injury. Therefore, greater attention is needed to provide more effective home safety interventions to children among high-risk ethnic groups.

  17. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  18. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  19. Similarity of the CDC and WHO weight-for-length growth charts in predicting risk of obesity at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-length (WFL) or BMI growth charts are now recommended as the new standard for children under 24 months. The objective of this study was to examine associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months, based on the older Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO cutpoints, with risk of obesity at age 5 years. From well-child visits to a Massachusetts multi-site group practice during 1980-2008, we studied 15,488 children with length/height and weight measurements at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and at 5 years. The main exposures were ever being overweight during 1-24 months using each of three cutpoints: CDC WFL ≥ 95th percentile, WHO WFL or BMI ≥ 97.7th percentile. The main outcome was obesity at 5 years (CDC BMI ≥ 95th percentile). We calculated multivariable odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year. At 5 years, 10.8% of participants were obese. During 1-24 months, 21.3, 18.3, and 20.2% were ever overweight using CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints, respectively. ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months with obesity at 5 years were 6.0 (5.4, 6.6), 6.3 (5.7, 7.0), and 6.0 (5.4, 6.7), respectively. Ever being overweight in the first 2 years of life is a strong predictor of obesity at 5 years. CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints for overweight in early childhood provided similar estimates of later obesity risk.

  20. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

  1. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  2. Reappearance of Bitot's spots after complete resolution in children between 1 and 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Sareen, Neha

    2015-04-01

    There is limited data on proportion of Bitot's spots (BS), which could reappear after receiving mega dose of Vitamin A (MDVA), and their complete resolution. A prospective, community-based, cohort study with 12 months follow-up was conducted among children (1-5 years) with BS at a district from North India. On diagnosis, 200,000 IU of vitamin A was administered on the same day, then after 4 weeks and subsequently after 6 months. Out of 262 children with BS, 157 (59.9%, 95% CI: 54.1-65.9) children had shown resolution of BS after the MDVA supplementation. Out of 157 children, 97 (61.8%, 95% CI: 54.2-69.4) had reappearance of BS after complete resolution. Kaplan-Meir analysis found that median duration of reappearance of BS was 5 months (95% CI: 3.8-6.2) after their complete resolution. The reappearance of BS after administration of two MDVA within 12 months suggests that children with possibly adequate serum retinol level status may have reappearance of BS.

  3. Space or physics? Children use physical reasoning to solve the trap problem from 2.5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda M; Call, Josep

    2014-07-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the properties of the wall) remains unclear because spatial information would suffice (the location of the wall in relation to the ball). We confronted 2- to 6-year-old children with a ball resting on a shelf inside a clear plastic-fronted box. To retrieve the ball, children had to roll it away from a trap or barrier using their fingers. Crucially, a single object acted as a barrier or supporting surface in different conditions, thus requiring a flexible response. Preschoolers solved the task and the critical transfers from 2.5 years of age (Study 1). Interestingly, 2.5-year-olds required to use a tool to displace the ball performed significantly worse than those who could use their fingers (Study 2). In contrast, 2.5- to 4.5-year-olds failed a covered trap box that provided only 2-dimensional predictive cues without any visible physical information, and even 6.5-year-olds performed significantly worse on the covered task compared to the uncovered one (Studies 3 and 4). Our results suggest that children from around 2.5 years of age integrate spatial and physical information when solving problems like the trap box task, rather than simply exploit spatial relationships between features.

  4. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  5. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  6. Who Receives Speech/Language Services by 5 Years of Age in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve; Cook, Michael; Morano, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to identify factors predictive of or associated with receipt of speech/language services during early childhood. We did so by analyzing data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; Andreassen & Fletcher, 2005), a nationally representative data set maintained by the U.S. Department of Education. We addressed two research questions of particular importance to speech-language pathology practice and policy. First, do early vocabulary delays increase children's likelihood of receiving speech/language services? Second, are minority children systematically less likely to receive these services than otherwise similar White children? Method Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for a population-based sample of 9,600 children and families participating in the ECLS-B. Results Expressive vocabulary delays by 24 months of age were strongly associated with and predictive of children's receipt of speech/language services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 4.32–16.60). Black children were less likely to receive speech/language services than otherwise similar White children at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 0.42–0.55). Lower socioeconomic status children and those whose parental primary language was other than English were also less likely to receive services. Being born with very low birth weight also significantly increased children's receipt of services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Conclusion Expressive vocabulary delays at 24 months of age increase children’s risk for later speech/language services. Increased use of culturally and linguistically sensitive practices may help racial/ethnic minority children access needed services. PMID:26579989

  7. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  8. Childhood body mass index at 5.5 years mediates the effect of prenatal maternal stress on daughters' age at menarche: Project Ice Storm.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, A; Liu, A; Jones, S L; Laplante, D P; King, S

    2017-04-01

    Early pubertal timing is known to put women at greater risk for adverse physiological and psychological health outcomes. Of the factors that influence girls' pubertal timing, stress experienced during childhood has been found to advance age at menarche (AAM). However, it is not known if stress experienced by mothers during or in the months before conception can be similarly associated with earlier pubertal timing. Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is associated with metabolic changes, such as increased childhood adiposity and risk of obesity, that have been associated with earlier menarchal age. Using a prospective longitudinal design, the present study tested whether PNMS induced by a natural disaster is either directly associated with earlier AAM, or whether there is an indirect association mediated through increased girls' body mass index (BMI) during childhood. A total of 31 girls, whose mothers were exposed to the Quebec's January 1998 ice storm during pregnancy were followed from 6 months to 5 1/2 to 5.5 years of age. Mother's stress was measured within 6 months of the storm. BMI was measured at 5.5 years, and AAM was assessed through teen's self-report at 13.5 and 15.5 years of age. Results revealed that greater BMI at 5.5 years mediated the effect of PNMS on decreasing AAM [B=-0.059, 95% confidence intervals (-0.18, -0.0035)]. The present study is the first to demonstrate that maternal experience of stressful conditions during pregnancy reduces AAM in the offspring through its effects on childhood BMI. Future research should consider the impact of AAM on other measures of reproductive ability.

  9. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  10. Neurodevelopmental outcomes for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome at the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Brosig, Cheryl; Mussatto, Kathleen; Hoffman, George; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Dasgupta, Mahua; Tweddell, James; Ghanayem, Nancy

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) at early school age. English-speaking patients who underwent the Norwood procedure between 2000 and 2005 were eligible at 4-6 years of age for ND testing. Of the 72 eligible patients, 44 (61 %) agreed to participate, and 37 completed ND testing before the close of the study. Three subjects were excluded from analyses due to late stroke. The ND testing included intelligence, visual motor integration, memory and motor and language skills. Parents and teachers completed measures of behavior and attention problems. Subjects' scores and parent/teacher ratings were converted to z-scores and compared with test norms. Higher scores on child measures represent better outcomes, whereas higher scores on parent and teacher rating scales indicate more problems. The average ND performance of the tested cohort fell within one standard deviation of the test norms for all measures. However, the subjects performed significantly lower than the test norms on measures of visual-motor integration, fine motor skills, memory, and word structure (z = -0.42 to -0.54; p < 0.005). On the parent and teacher completed measures, the subjects scored higher than the test norms on attention problems (z = 0.40-0.62; p < 0.005). Although the overall ND performance of the cohort was normal, the subjects showed relative weakness in visual motor and attention skills. Ongoing developmental monitoring of these children is recommended to guide interventions that may improve individual outcomes and to assess the impact of changes in clinical management strategies on functional outcomes.

  11. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes for Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome at the Age of 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mussatto, Kathleen; Hoffman, George; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Tweddell, James; Ghanayem, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome for children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) at early school age. English-speaking patients who underwent the Norwood procedure between 2000 and 2005 were eligible at 4–6 years of age for ND testing. Of the 72 eligible patients, 44 (61 %) agreed to participate, and 37 completed ND testing before the close of the study. Three subjects were excluded from analyses due to late stroke. The ND testing included intelligence, visual motor integration, memory and motor and language skills. Parents and teachers completed measures of behavior and attention problems. Subjects’ scores and parent/teacher ratings were converted to z-scores and compared with test norms. Higher scores on child measures represent better outcomes, whereas higher scores on parent and teacher rating scales indicate more problems. The average ND performance of the tested cohort fell within one standard deviation of the test norms for all measures. However, the subjects performed significantly lower than the test norms on measures of visual-motor integration, fine motor skills, memory, and word structure (z = −0.42 to −0.54; p < 0.005). On the parent and teacher completed measures, the subjects scored higher than the test norms on attention problems (z = 0.40–0.62; p < 0.005). Although the overall ND performance of the cohort was normal, the subjects showed relative weakness in visual motor and attention skills. Ongoing developmental monitoring of these children is recommended to guide interventions that may improve individual outcomes and to assess the impact of changes in clinical management strategies on functional outcomes. PMID:23503929

  12. Age-Stratified 5-Year Risks of Cervical Precancer among Women with Enrollment and Newly Detected HPV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Julia C.; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E.; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C.; Castle, Philip E.; Kinney, Walter K.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD, USA) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with “newly detected” HPV infections at their second screening visit. 57,899 women (6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p<.001). Women with enrollment vs. newly detected HPV infection had higher 5-year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% vs. 3.9%, (p<.0001). Risks did not increase with age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% vs. 7.4% (p=0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% vs. 3.5% (p=0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65. PMID:25136967

  13. Age-stratified 5-year risks of cervical precancer among women with enrollment and newly detected HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear whether a woman's age influences her risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) upon detection of HPV. A large change in risk as women age would influence vaccination and screening policies. Among 972,029 women age 30-64 undergoing screening with Pap and HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2, Qiagen, Germantown, MD) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), we calculated age-specific 5-year CIN3+ risks among women with HPV infections detected at enrollment, and among women with "newly detected" HPV infections at their second screening visit. Women (57,899, 6.0%) had an enrollment HPV infection. Among the women testing HPV negative at enrollment with a second screening visit, 16,724 (3.3%) had a newly detected HPV infection at their second visit. Both enrollment and newly detected HPV rates declined with age (p < 0.001). Women with enrollment versus newly detected HPV infection had higher 5-year CIN3+ risks: 8.5% versus 3.9%, (p < 0.0001). Risks did not increase with age but declined slightly from 30-34 years to 60-64 years: 9.4% versus 7.4% (p = 0.017) for enrollment HPV and 5.1% versus 3.5% (p = 0.014) for newly detected HPV. Among women age 30-64 in an established screening program, women with newly detected HPV infections were at lower risk than women with enrollment infections, suggesting reduced benefit vaccinating women at older ages. Although the rates of HPV infection declined dramatically with age, the subsequent CIN3+ risks associated with HPV infection declined only slightly. The CIN3+ risks among older women are sufficiently elevated to warrant continued screening through age 65.

  14. Predictors of Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Concentrations among Children Aged 1-5 Years.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Jacobson, Melanie H; Preston, Emma V; Lee, Grace E; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Marder, M Elizabeth; Marcus, Michele; Barr, Dana B

    2017-01-03

    Serum concentrations of PBDEs were measured using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 80 children aged 15-71 months. Demographic and behavioral data were collected on parental questionnaires; a research nurse recorded anthropometric measures and insurance status. For a subset of children (n = 17), PBDEs were measured in house dust and child handwipes sampled during a home visit. In linear and Tobit regression, log-transformed PBDE congeners were modeled as a function of child characteristics, including neighborhood-level socioeconomic indicators. BDE congeners 47, 99, and 100 were highly correlated and summed for analysis; BDE-153 was examined individually. PBDE serum concentrations were associated with socioeconomic factors; for example, a $20,000 increase in median household income in a child's ZIP code was associated with a 34% decrease (95%CI = 14-49%) in BDE-153 and a 26% decrease (95%CI = 6-42%) in ∑BDE-47,-99,-100. Lower body-mass index (BMI) z-score and household smoking were strong predictors of higher BDE-153 levels. Among children who participated in a home visit, serum PBDE was positively correlated with handwipe PBDE (Spearman r ∑BDE-47, -99, -100 = 0.48, p = 0.09), but not dust PBDE. Results indicate socioeconomic factors and BMI are strong predictors of serum PBDE levels among young children. PBDEs measured on handwipes are more predictive of serum PBDE levels than vacuum-collected dust.

  15. Visual function 5 years or more after macular translocation surgery for myopic choroidal neovascularisation and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, K; Kachi, S; Iwata, E; Ishikawa, K; Terasaki, H

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the changes in the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after 1 year and after ≥5 years after macular translocation for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) or myopic choroidal neovascularisation (mCNV). Methods The medical records of 61 consecutive patients who underwent macular translocation with 360° retinotomy for AMD (35 eyes) or mCNV (26 eyes) were reviewed. Overall, 40 patients, 17 mCNV and 23 AMD, were followed for at least 5 years. BCVA and area of the Goldmann visual field (VF) measured before, 12 months after surgery, and at the final visit. Results In the 23 AMD eyes followed for ≥5 years, the mean preoperative BCVA was 1.149±0.105 logMAR units, which significantly improved to 0.69±0.06 logMAR units at 1 year (P<0.001). This BCVA was maintained at 0.633±0.083 logMAR units on their final examination. In the 17 eyes with mCNV followed for ≥5 years, the mean preoperative BCVA was 1.083±0.119 logMAR units, which was significantly improved to 0.689±0.121 logMAR units at 1 year (P=0.001). This BCVA was maintained at 0.678±0.142 logMAR units on their final examination. The area of the VF was significantly decreased at 12 months and did not change significantly thereafter. Conclusions Our results show that macular translocation surgery significantly improves the BCVA and significantly decreases the VF area of eyes with mCNV or AMD after first 1 year. The BCVA and VF area do not change significantly from the values at 1 year for at least 5 years. PMID:22173070

  16. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  17. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children up to 5 Years of Age in Spain: Epidemiology and Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Marín-García, Patricia; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This epidemiological survey in Spain estimates the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children up to 5 year of age during a 15-year period (1997–2011). Observational retrospective survey was conducted by reviewing data of the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data, including >98% of Spanish hospitals. All hospitalizations related to RSV infection for children up to 5 years, reported during 1997–2011 period, were analyzed. Codes were selected by using the International Classification of Diseases 9th Clinical Modification 466.0–466.19, 480.1, and 079.6. A total of 326,175 and 286,007 hospital discharges for children up to 5 and 2 years of age were reported during the study period. The annual incidence was 1072 and 2413 patients per 100,000, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 (standard deviation 8.2) days. Four hundred forty-six deaths were reported; of those, 403 occurred in children <2 years and 355 (80%) occurred in children <12 months of age. Hospitalization and mortality rates were significantly higher in boys and decrease significantly with age. The higher rate of hospitalization and mortality rates were found in the first year of life. Annual average cost for National Health Care System was € 47 M with a mean hospitalization cost of €2162. The average length of hospitalization and costs were significantly higher in high-risk children. RSV infections in children up to 5 year of age still pose a significant health threat in Spain, especially in the infants. The development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic guidelines focused in children with comorbidities may help reduce the hospital and economic burden of the disease. PMID:26020386

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for malnutrition among children aged 5 years and less in the Lefaragatlha village of Bophuthatswana.

    PubMed

    Setswe, G

    1994-08-01

    A cross-sectioned study was conducted at the Lefaragatha village of Bophuthatswana to document the prevalence and risk factors for malnutrition in children aged 0-5 years in June 1991. Fifty four households, in which there were children in the right age groups, were interviewed over three weeks. Of these children 14 (25.9%) were below the 3rd percentile of weight for age of the 1976 National Centre for Health Statistics standards; in the age group of 2 years and less, this figure was 28.6%, while in children older than 2 years the corresponding figure was 71.4%. Malnutrition was associated with a mother's consumption of alcohol and lack of resources such as water and an inappropriate staple diet. Education and income were not significant variables.

  19. Epidemiology of Injury-Related Death in Children under 5 Years of Age in Hunan Province, China, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lili, Xiong; Jian, He; Liping, Li; Zhiyu, Liu; Hua, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background Injury is an important cause of childhood mortality in China. We described the epidemiology and trends of injury-related deaths of children <5 years of age in Hunan province, and discussed several policy implications. Methods Injury-related deaths of children <5 years of age in 2009–2014 were identified from surveillance data. All specific injury mortality and mortality rates in urban and rural area were calculated from census data; Cochran-armitage trend test was used to assess the time trends. Results Injury was the leading cause of death in children <5 years of age. Overall injury mortality was 48.96 per 100,000 persons, gradually declined with the year (Z = -18.75, P<0.001), and accounted for 27.14% of all deaths. Injury mortality in rural areas was 64.66 per 100,000 persons, which was more than 3.73 times higher than the rate in urban areas. The three leading causes of injury-related death were drowning (43.63%), suffocation (27.57%), and traffic accidents (14.34%). Suffocation was the leading cause in children <1 year of age (79.49%). Suffocation has high incidence in the winter and spring, and drowning has high incidence in the summer season. Drowning was the leading cause in children 1–4 years of age (62.80%). Drowning and suffocation accounted for 67.74% and 65.11%, of injury-related deaths that occurred at home; while the traffic injury deaths (54.12%) occurred mainly in transit. Conclusions Injury-related fatalities in children <5 years of age followed time trends that were different in rural and urban areas. Effective childhood injury prevention may require different prevention policies combination depending on epidemiological characteristics such as development of injury surveillance and public education on injury knowledge. There is a need for evidence-based surveillance of risk factors for development of effective injury prevention programs. PMID:28076399

  20. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Neurodevelopment in U.S. Children through 5 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Yolton, Kimberly; Rauch, Stephen A.; Webster, Glenys M.; Hornung, Richard; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in furniture, carpet padding, car seats, and other consumer products during the past three decades. Objective: We examined whether in utero exposure to PBDEs is associated with child cognitive function and behavior in a U.S. study sample. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort, we measured maternal serum concentrations of BDE-47 and other PBDE congeners in 309 women at 16 weeks of gestation during 2003–2006 and followed their children in Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured cognitive and motor abilities using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at ages 1, 2, and 3 years; intelligence using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III at age 5 years; and children’s behaviors using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 annually at ages 2–5 years. We used linear mixed models or generalized estimating equations with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate associations between these outcomes and log10-transformed PBDE concentrations. Results: The geometric mean of BDE-47 in maternal serum (20.1 ng/g lipid) was comparable with U.S. adult national reference values. Prenatal BDE-47 was not significantly associated with Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Development Indices at 1–3 years, but a 10-fold increase in prenatal BDE-47 was associated with a 4.5-point decrease (95% CI: –8.8, –0.1) in Full-Scale IQ and a 3.3-point increase (95% CI: 0.3, 6.3) in the hyperactivity score at age 5 years. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to PBDEs was associated with lower IQ and higher hyperactivity scores in children. Citation: Chen A, Yolton K, Rauch SA, Webster GM, Hornung R, Sjödin A, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP. 2014. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and neurodevelopment in U.S. children through 5 years of age: the HOME study. Environ Health Perspect 122:856–862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307562 PMID

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Children under the Age of 5 Years from Ifakara, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Jordi; Vargas, Martha; Casals, Climent; Urassa, Honorato; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellemberg, David; Gascon, Joaquim

    1999-01-01

    Diarrhea caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria is an important public health problem among children in developing countries. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in 346 children under 5 years of age in Ifakara, Tanzania, were studied. Thirty-eight percent of the cases of diarrhea were due to multiresistant enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroaggregative E. coli, or enteropathogenic E. coli. Strains of all three E. coli categories showed high-level resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, co-trimoxazole, and chloramphenicol but were highly susceptible to quinolones. Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in developing countries need updating. PMID:10582903

  2. Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age With Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Jedari Seifi, Sirus; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Abdoli Oskuei, Shahram; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Memar, Mohammad Yousef; Alizadeh, Naser; Seifi Yarijan Sofla, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is the most frequent health problem among children in developing countries. Defining the etiology of acute diarrhea is critical to disease therapy and prevention. Some anaerobic bacteria such as Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains cause diarrheal disease by production of enterotoxin in children less than 5 years old. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ETBF among common bacteria and viruses causing diarrhea in children aged less than five years. Materials and Methods One hundred diarrheal stools were cultured for detection of aerobic and anaerobic pathogen bacteria by direct plating on selective media and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines on isolates of ETBF. The enterotoxigenic gene among B. fragilis isolates was also investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Detection of viral pathogens was carried out using the latex agglutination test. Results Ten B. fragilis were isolated from 100 diarrheal fecal specimens. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, while 10% were susceptible to clindamycin. Four (40%) ETBF were isolated. Rotaviruses (57.2%) and adenoviruses (18.6%) were the most frequently detected etiological agents. Conclusions ETBF is one of the etiological agents that may cause diarrhea in children but it is not the commonest of them. Metronidazole is still an effective antibiotic against B. fragilis. Viruses are the most important etiological agents of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. PMID:27635209

  3. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging.

  4. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  5. Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Acute Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years of Age in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xu-Hui; Tian, Lei; Cheng, Zhong-Ju; Liu, Wei-Yong; Li, Song; Yu, Wei-Ting; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Xiang, Xu; Sun, Zi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrhea remains the serious problem in developing countries, especially among children under 5 years of age. Currently, only two or three common diarrhea pathogens were screened at most hospitals in China. The aim of this study was to provide a wide variety of diarrhea pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in children under 5 years of age. Methods: Totally 381 stool samples collected from Tongji Hospital between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 were tested by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction for eight kinds of bacteria and five kinds of viruses. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Viral infections were mainly identified in infants (0–11 months), whereas bacterial infections were more prevalent in the age of 24–59 months. About 69.8% of samples were positive for at least one pathogen, 51.7% of samples were virus positive, followed by bacteria positive cases (19.4%), and 12.6% of cases displayed co-infections with two viruses or a virus and a bacterium. Rotavirus was the most prevalent pathogen, followed closely by norovirus, while Salmonella was the most commonly isolated bacteria, followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and Campylobacter. More than 40% of Salmonella spp. and DEC isolates were resistant to first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline). Around 10% of Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin simultaneously. Campylobacter spp. displayed high resistance to ciprofloxacin but kept low resistance to azithromycin and doxycycline. Conclusions: The etiology of acute diarrhea varies in children of different age groups. The high frequency of infection with viruses suggests the urgent demand for new viral vaccine development. Proper use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea is crucial due to the high level of antibiotic

  6. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  7. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Designed to Assess Diet in Children Aged 4-5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Jesus; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Granado, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the most efficient and cost-effective method to investigate the relationship between usual diet and disease in epidemiologic studies. Although FFQs have been validated in many adult populations worldwide, the number of valid FFQ in preschool children is very scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ designed for children aged 4 to 5 years. Materials and methods In this study, we have included 169 children aged 4–5 years from the INMA project in Valencia, a population-based prospective cohort study of mothers and children in Spain. The 105-items FFQ was administered twice to the parents or care-givers of children over a 9-month period. Reproducibility was explored by comparing intake of nutrients by the FFQs, while validity was examined by comparing the nutrient values from the FFQs with the average nutrient values of three 24 hour dietary recall (24hDR) taken in the period, and also, with the concentration in blood specimens for several vitamins (carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C and α-tocopherol). Pearson correlation coefficients and de-attenuated correlation coefficients were calculated and we also evaluated misclassification by quintile distribution. Results All correlation coefficients for reproducibility for nutrients and major food groups were statistically significant; the average correlation coefficients for daily intake were 0.43 for food groups and 0.41 for nutrients. The average correlation coefficients for validity for daily intakes against 24hDR was r = 0.30, and the average for de-attenuated correlation coefficients was r = 0.44. When evaluating validity against the blood concentration of vitamins, statistically significant correlations were observed for vitamin C (0.35), lycopene (0.31), β-Cryptoxantin (0.40), and vitamin E (0.29); the average of correlation coefficients was r = 0.21. Conclusion Despite some low to

  8. Cost of Intraocular Lens vs. Contact Lens Treatment after Unilateral Congenital Cataract Surgery in the IATS at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Stacey J.; DuBois, Lindreth; Becker, Edmund R.; Morrison, David; Wilson, Lorri; Wilson, M. Edward; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze differences in the cost of treatment for infants randomized to primary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation versus optical correction with a contact lens (CL) after unilateral cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Design Retrospective cost analysis of a prospective, randomized clinical trial based on Georgia Medicaid reimbursement data as well as actual costs of supplies used during the study, adjusted for inflation. Participants The IATS is a multicenter (n=12) randomized, clinical trial comparing the optical treatment of aphakia with either primary IOL implantation (n=57) or CL correction (n=57) in 114 infants with unilateral congenital cataract. Intervention One hundred fourteen infants underwent unilateral cataract surgery and were either optically corrected by primary IOL implantation at the time of surgery or were corrected with a CL after surgery. Main Outcome Measures The mean cost of cataract surgery and all additional surgeries, examinations and supplies used up to 5 years of age. Results The 5-year treatment cost of an infant with a unilateral congenital cataract optically corrected with an IOL was $35,293 versus $33,452 for a patient treated with a CL after initial cataract surgery. The total cost of supplies was $2669 in the IOL group vs $6128 in the CL group. Conclusions Unilateral cataract surgery in infancy coupled with primary IOL implantation is about 5% more expensive than aphakia and CL correction. Patient costs are more than double with CL versus IOL. PMID:25439604

  9. Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with anti-VEGF agents: retrospective analysis of 5-year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ana Catarina; Reis-Silva, Adriana; Pinheiro-Costa, João; Beato, João; Freitas-da-Costa, Paulo; Falcão, Manuel S; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Carneiro, Ângela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the 5-year results obtained in clinical practice in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with anti-VEGF agents. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed all patients with nAMD who initiated anti-VEGF treatment before October 2009. We collected data regarding visual and anatomical outcomes. Results A total of 278 patients met the selection criteria. The mean number of intravitreal injections was 5.7 in the first year and 3.7 in the fifth year. A positive mean visual acuity variation of +3.7 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters occurred in the first year, but no significant differences relative to baseline were observed thereafter. The majority of patients (71%) maintained stable visual acuity throughout follow-up. At 5 years, mean central macular thickness remained substantially inferior to baseline (−96.6 μm), and 56% of patients maintained dry retinas. Conclusion Anti-VEGF therapy leads to long-term visual stabilization in the great majority of patients. PMID:27099460

  10. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children aged 2-5 years in Bahrain: a comparison between two reference standards.

    PubMed

    Al-Raees, Ghada Y; Al-Amer, Maryam A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on Bahraini preschoolers aged 2-5 years (354 males and 344 females) to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity using the World Health Organization and the International Obesity Task Force cut-off values. Weight and height were recorded and body mass index (BMI) was calculated to determine the proportion of overweight and obesity. Using the World Health Organization percentile cut-off values, overweight (12.3%) and obesity (8.4%) was higher in females between 2 and <4 years of age whereas, the proportion of both overweight (8.4%) and obesity (7.2%) were higher in males between 4 and <6 years of age. Relative to the International Obesity Task Force indicators, the World Health Organization cut-off values produced nearly a 2-fold increase in both overweight and obesity at most ages. It is therefore important to ensure that the same cut-off reference values are used to define overweight and obesity particularly in preschoolers. Shifting to the new World Health Organization child growth standards may have important implications for child health programmes.

  11. Associative conditioning can increase liking for and consumption of brussels sprouts in children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Capaldi-Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wadhera, Devina

    2014-08-01

    Pairing foods with liked flavors repeatedly can increase preferences for those foods. We compared the effectiveness of associative conditioning (pairing vegetables with sweetened and unsweetened cream cheese) and exposure (presenting vegetables alone) in increasing liking and consumption of bitter and nonbitter vegetables. Twenty-nine children (aged 3 to 5 years) participated in the study. One group of children received brussels sprouts (bitter) with sweetened cream cheese and cauliflower (nonbitter) with unsweetened cream cheese and a second group received the reverse pairing. A third group received brussels sprouts and cauliflower with no cream cheese. Pairing brussels sprouts with cream cheese increased liking and consumption more than exposure, whereas cauliflower was liked by all groups regardless of presence of cream cheese. Associative conditioning was more effective than exposure in increasing liking for a novel, bitter vegetable-brussels sprouts-whereas exposure alone was effective for a nonbitter, more familiar vegetable-cauliflower.

  12. Incidences and Costs of Illness for Diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infections for Children < 5 Years of Age in Rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Halder, Amal K; Luby, Stephen P; Akhter, Shamima; Ghosh, Probir K; Johnston, Richard B; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-02-06

    Understanding illness costs associated with diarrhea and acute respiratory infections (ARI) could guide prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to determine incidence of childhood diarrhea and ARI and costs of homecare, hospitalization, and outpatient treatment by practitioner type in rural Bangladesh. From each of 100 randomly selected population clusters we sampled 17 households with at least one child < 5 years of age. Childhood diarrhea incidence was 3,451 and ARI incidence was 5,849/1,000 child-years. For diarrhea and ARI outpatient care per 1,000 child-years, parents spent more on unqualified ($2,361 and $4,822) than qualified health-care practitioners ($113 and $947). For outpatient care, visits to unqualified health-care practitioners were at least five times more common than visits to qualified practitioners. Costs for outpatient care treatment by unqualified health-care practitioners per episode of illness were similar to those for qualified health-care practitioners. Homecare costs ($0.16 and $0.24), as well as hospitalization costs per episode, were similar for diarrhea and ARI, respectively. On average, rural Bangladeshi households with children < 5 years of age spent 1.3% ($12 of $915) of their annual income managing diarrhea and ARI for those children. The majority of childhood illness management cost comprised visits to unqualified health-care practitioners. Policy makers should consider strategies to increase the skills of unqualified health-care practitioners, use community health workers to provide referral, and promote homecare for diarrhea and ARI. Incentives to motivate existing qualified physicians who are interested to work in rural Bangladesh could also be considered.

  13. Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Kobrosly, Roni W; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Ueland, Per M; Myers, Gary J

    2013-07-28

    Choline is an essential nutrient that is found in many food sources and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that choline status pre- and postnatally can have long-lasting effects on attention and memory; however, effects in human subjects have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), methionine and homocysteine and specific measures of neurodevelopment were measured in 210 children aged 5 years. The children's plasma free choline concentration (9·17 (sd 2·09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine (r 0·24; P= 0·0006), DMG (r 0·15; P= 0·03), methionine (r 0·24; P= 0·0005) and homocysteine (r 0·19; P= 0·006) concentrations. Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale – total language scores (β = 0·066; P= 0·04), but no other associations were evident. We found no indication that free choline concentration or its metabolites, within the normal physiological range, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. As there is considerable animal evidence suggesting that choline status during development is associated with cognitive outcome, the issue deserves further study in other cohorts.

  14. Single vs dual (en bloc) kidney transplants from donors ≤ 5 years of age: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shraideh, Yousef; Farooq, Umar; El-Hennawy, Hany; Farney, Alan C; Palanisamy, Amudha; Rogers, Jeffrey; Orlando, Giuseppe; Khan, Muhammad; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Gautreaux, Michael D; Iskandar, Samy S; Hairston, Gloria; Brim, Elizabeth; Mangus, Margaret; Stratta, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare outcomes between single and dual en bloc (EB) kidney transplants (KT) from small pediatric donors. METHODS: Monocentric nonprospective review of KTs from pediatric donors ≤ 5 years of age. Dual EB KT was defined as keeping both donor kidneys attached to the inferior vena cava and aorta, which were then used as venous and arterial conduits for the subsequent transplant into a single recipient. Donor age was less useful than either donor weight or kidney size in decision-making for kidney utilization as kidneys from donors < 8 kg or kidneys < 6 cm in length were not transplanted. Post-transplant management strategies were standardized in all patients. RESULTS: From 2002-2015, 59 KTs were performed including 34 dual EB and 25 single KTs. Mean age of donors (17 mo vs 38 mo, P < 0.001), mean weight (11.0 kg vs 17.4 kg, P = 0.046) and male donors (50% vs 84%, P = 0.01) were lower in the dual EB compared to the single KT group, respectively. Mean cold ischemia time (21 h), kidney donor profile index (KDPI; 73% vs 62%) and levels of serum creatinine (SCr, 0.37 mg/dL vs 0.49 mg/dL, all P = NS) were comparable in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively. Actuarial graft and patient survival rates at 5-years follow-up were comparable. There was one case of thrombosis resulting in graft loss in each group. Delayed graft function incidence (12% dual EB vs 20% single KT, P = NS) was slightly lower in dual EB KT recipients. Initial duration of hospital stay (mean 5.4 d vs 5.6 d) and the one-year incidences of acute rejection (6% vs 16%), operative complications (3% vs 4%), and major infection were comparable in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively (all P = NS). Mean 12 mo SCr and abbreviated MDRD levels were 1.17 mg/dL vs 1.35 mg/dL and 72.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 vs 60.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (both P = NS) in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: By transplanting kidneys from young pediatric donors into adult recipients, one can

  15. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being.

  16. Performance of an HRP-2 rapid diagnostic test in Nigerian children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ajumobi, Olufemi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nguku, Patrick; Kwaga, Jacob; Ntadom, Godwin; Gitta, Sheba; Elizeus, Rutebemberwa; Oyibo, Wellington; Nsubuga, Peter; Maire, Mark; Poggensee, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    The diagnostic performance of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2)-based malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was evaluated in a mesoendemic area for malaria, Kaduna, Nigeria. We compared RDT results with expert microscopy results of blood samples from 295 febrile children under 5 years. Overall, 11.9% (35/295) tested positive with RDT compared with 10.5% (31/295) by microscopy: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 100%, 98.5%, 88.6%, and 100%, respectively. The RDT sensitivity was not affected by transmission season, parasite density, and age. Specificity and positive PV decreased slightly during the high-transmission season (97.5% and 83.3%). The RDT test positivity rates in the low- and high-transmission seasons were 9.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Overall, the test performance of this RDT was satisfactory. The findings of a low proportion of RDT false positives, no invalid and no false-negative results should validate the performance of RDTs in this context.

  17. Assessment of blood lead levels among children aged5 years--Zamfara State, Nigeria, June-July 2012.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Muhammed; Umar-Tsafe, Nasir; Getso, Kabiru; Kaita, Ibrahim M; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nguku, Patrick; Davis, Lora; Brown, Mary Jean

    2014-04-18

    Since 2010, Nigerian state and federal governments and the international community have been responding to an outbreak of lead poisoning caused by the processing of lead-containing gold ore in Zamfara State, Nigeria, that resulted in the deaths of approximately 400 children aged5 years. Widespread education, surveys of high-risk villages, testing of blood lead levels (BLLs), medical treatment, and environmental cleanup all have been implemented. To evaluate the success of these remediation efforts in reducing the prevalence of lead poisoning and dangerous work practices, a population-based assessment of children's BLLs and ore processing techniques was conducted during June-July 2012. The assessment found few children in need of medical treatment, significantly lower BLLs, and substantially less exposure of children to dangerous work practices. Public health strategies designed to identify and treat children with lead poisoning, clean up existing environmental hazards, and prevent children from being exposed to dangerous ore processing techniques can produce a sustained reduction in BLLs.

  18. Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Departure Interval: Does Patient Age Matter?

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Bruno; Pasquier, Mathieu; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Dami, Fabrice

    2016-12-01

    Introduction The concept of response time with minimal interval is intimately related to the practice of emergency medicine. The factors influencing this time interval are poorly understood. Problem In a process of improvement of response time, the impact of the patient's age on ambulance departure intervals was investigated.

  19. Concurrent Pneumonia in Children Under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Diarrheal Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Leung, Daniel T; Das, Sumon K; Malek, M A; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A S G; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are the top killers of children worldwide, and their co-occurrence is reported but not well understood. Our aim was to determine the risk factors for concurrent presentation of diarrhea and pneumonia (DP) in a resource-limited setting in Bangladesh. We used data from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of the icddr,b Dhaka Hospital to identify children < 60 months of age with diarrhea and concurrent pneumonia, defined as a history of cough, an abnormal lung examination, and tachypnea. For the years 1996-2007, out of total 14,628 diarrheal patients surveyed, there were 607 (4%) patients who satisfied criteria for pneumonia. Those with DP had a higher mortality rate (4% versus 0.05%, odds ratio [OR] = 86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26-286) and a longer hospital stay (mean 84 versus 26 hours, difference 58 hours, 95% CI = 52-64 hours) than those with diarrhea (D) only. In multivariable logistic regression comparing cases (N = 607) with controls matched for month and year of admission at a ratio of 1:3 (N = 1,808), we found that DP was associated with younger age, male gender, severe acute malnutrition (SAM), less maternal education, lower family income, and lack of current breast-feeding history.

  20. Concurrent Pneumonia in Children under 5 Years of Age Presenting to a Diarrheal Hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Daniel T.; Das, Sumon K.; Malek, M. A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Faruque, A. S. G.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections are the top killers of children worldwide, and their co-occurrence is reported but not well understood. Our aim was to determine the risk factors for concurrent presentation of diarrhea and pneumonia (DP) in a resource-limited setting in Bangladesh. We used data from the Diarrheal Disease Surveillance System of the icddr,b Dhaka Hospital to identify children < 60 months of age with diarrhea and concurrent pneumonia, defined as a history of cough, an abnormal lung examination, and tachypnea. For the years 1996–2007, out of total 14,628 diarrheal patients surveyed, there were 607 (4%) patients who satisfied criteria for pneumonia. Those with DP had a higher mortality rate (4% versus 0.05%, odds ratio [OR] = 86, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 26–286) and a longer hospital stay (mean 84 versus 26 hours, difference 58 hours, 95% CI = 52–64 hours) than those with diarrhea (D) only. In multivariable logistic regression comparing cases (N = 607) with controls matched for month and year of admission at a ratio of 1:3 (N = 1,808), we found that DP was associated with younger age, male gender, severe acute malnutrition (SAM), less maternal education, lower family income, and lack of current breast-feeding history. PMID:26149863

  1. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  2. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  3. Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Möricke, Esmé; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Beuker, Karin T; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-08-01

    It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in cognitive and language functioning. Parents of infants aged 14-15 months from the general population completed the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Three groups of children with high, moderate, and low ESAT-scores (total n = 103) were selected. Follow-up assessments included the CBCL 1(1/2)-5 at age 3 years, and the SCQ, the ADI-R, the ADOS-G, an on-verbal intelligence test, and language tests for comprehension and production at age 4-5 years. None of the children met criteria for autism spectrum disorder at follow-up. Children with high ESAT-scores at 14-15 months showed significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 years and scored significantly lower on language tests at age 4-5 years than children with moderate or low ESAT-scores. Further, significantly more children with high ESAT-scores (14/26, 53.8%) than with moderate and low ESAT-scores (5/36, 13.9% and 1/41, 2.4%, respectively) were in the high-risk/clinical range on one or more outcome domains (autistic symptoms, behavioural problems, cognitive and language abilities). Subclinical autistic traits at 14-15 months predict later behavioural problems and delays in cognitive and language functioning rather than later ASD-diagnoses. The theoretical implications of the findings lie in the pivotal role of early social and communication skills for the development of self-regulation of emotions and impulses. The practical implications bear on the early recognition of children at risk for behavioural problems and for language and cognitive problems.

  4. Effects of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Injection on Chinese Patients with Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration: 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingyi; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jing; Long, Li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To observe the effect of intravitreal ranibizumab injection on wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) over 5 years in Chinese patients. Methods. Thirty-seven patients who were diagnosed with wAMD in our hospital from June 2007 to June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The PRN regimen and the treatment and extend regimen were applied. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), number of ranibizumab injections, and changes in the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesion over 5 years were analyzed. Results. The mean BCVA measured by the ETDRS chart at baseline was 47.4 and 5 years after the treatment it was 34.89 letters, which was significantly different (p = 0.013). Fourteen eyes (37.8%) had improved visual acuity after 5 years. The number of injections in 5 years was 11.53, and most of the injections were in the first two years. Seventeen (45.9%) cases developed fibrous lesions, and 2 (5.4%) cases had atrophic lesions after 5 years. The fibrosis/atrophy was significantly correlated with the injection numbers (Pearson, r = 0.663, and p = 0.000). Conclusion. Most of the patients can maintain visual acuity treated by ranibizumab in the first 3 years. After 5 years, some patients can still improve or maintain visual acuity. Fibrous scarring of the lesion is the main reason for a decrease in vision of wAMD patients. PMID:27885338

  5. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  6. Survival status and predictors of mortality among severely acute malnourished children <5 years of age admitted to stabilization centers in Gedeo Zone: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Girum, Tadele; Kote, Mesfin; Tariku, Befikadu; Bekele, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existence of standard protocol, many stabilization centers (SCs) continue to experience high mortality of children receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. Assessing treatment outcomes and identifying predictors may help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a 30-month retrospective cohort study was conducted among 545 randomly selected medical records of children <5 years of age admitted to SCs in Gedeo Zone. Data was entered by Epi Info version 7 and analyzed by STATA version 11. Cox proportional hazards model was built by forward stepwise procedure and compared by the likelihood ratio test and Harrell's concordance, and fitness was checked by Cox-Snell residual plot. During follow-up, 51 (9.3%) children had died, and 414 (76%) and 26 (4.8%) children had recovered and defaulted (missed follow-up for 2 consecutive days), respectively. The survival rates at the end of the first, second and third weeks were 95.3%, 90% and 85%, respectively, and the overall mean survival time was 79.6 days. Age <24 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] =2.841, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.101-7.329), altered pulse rate (AHR =3.926, 95% CI =1.579-9.763), altered temperature (AHR =7.173, 95% CI =3.05-16.867), shock (AHR =3.805, 95% CI =1.829-7.919), anemia (AHR =2.618, 95% CI =1.148-5.97), nasogastric tube feeding (AHR =3.181, 95% CI =1.18-8.575), hypoglycemia (AHR =2.74, 95% CI =1.279-5.87) and treatment at hospital stabilization center (AHR =4.772, 95% CI =1.638-13.9) were independent predictors of mortality. The treatment outcomes and incidence of death were in the acceptable ranges of national and international standards. Intervention to further reduce deaths has to focus on young children with comorbidities and altered general conditions.

  7. Pediatric data for dual X-ray absorptiometric measures of normal lumbar bone mineral density in children under 5 years of age using the lunar prodigy densitometer

    PubMed Central

    Manousaki, D.; Rauch, F.; Chabot, G.; Dubois, J.; Fiscaletti, M.; Alos, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. Subjects and methods: We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. Results: BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (p<0.001). Volumetric BMD did not change with age. BMD and BMC correlated with age, weight and height (R2≥0.85 for all), with a maximum gain between the ages of 1 and 4 years, which did not follow the same pattern as height velocity. We did not find significant sex difference for any of the three measured parameters. Conclusion: This study provides normative data for lumbar spine densitometry of infants and young children using the Lunar Prodigy DXA system. PMID:27609039

  8. The left perceptual bias for adult and infant faces in adults and 5-year-old children: face age matters.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pavone, Sarah; Ricciardelli, Paola; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2015-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that adults rely more heavily on information conveyed by the left side of the face in judging emotional state, gender and identity. This phenomenon, called left perceptual bias (LPB), suggests a right hemisphere lateralization of face processing mechanisms. Although specialization of neural mechanisms for processing over-experienced face categories begins during the first year of life, little is known about the developmental trajectory of the LPB and whether or when the bias becomes selective for specific face categories as a result of experience. To address these questions we tested adults (Experiment 1) and 5-year-old children (Experiment 2) with null or limited experience with infants in an identity matching-to-sample task with chimeric adult and infant faces, for which both adults and children have been shown to manifest differential processing abilities. Results showed that 5-year-olds manifest a leftward bias selective for adult faces, and the magnitude of the bias is larger for adult compared to infant faces in adults. This evidence is in line with earlier demonstrations of a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in adults and children and points to the role of experience in shaping neurocognitive specialization for face processing.

  9. The Relationship Between Expressive Language Level and Psychological Development in Children with Autism 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pry, R.; Petersen, A.; Baghdadli, A.

    2005-01-01

    The age of detection of autism varies and may be linked to differences in the severity of disturbance and any associated retardation. Symptom intensity, overall language level, age of recognition of first disturbances and level of psychological development were examined in 222 children with pervasive developmental disorder with a mean age of 5…

  10. Etiology and Factors Associated with Pneumonia in Children under 5 Years of Age in Mali: A Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Mélina; Sánchez Picot, Valentina; Telles, Jean-Noël; Diakite, Abdoul-Aziz; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Endtz, Hubert; Diallo, Souleymane; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background There are very limited data on children with pneumonia in Mali. The objective was to assess the etiology and factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children <5 years of age in Mali. Methods A prospective hospital-based case-control study was implemented in the Pediatric department of Gabriel Touré University Hospital at Bamako, Mali, between July 2011-December 2012. Cases were children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia; Controls were hospitalized children without respiratory features, matched for age and period. Respiratory specimens, were collected to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood was collected from cases only. Factors associated with pneumonia were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, 118 cases and 98 controls were analyzed; 44.1% were female, median age was 11 months. Among pneumonia cases, 30.5% were hypoxemic at admission, mortality was 4.2%. Pneumonia cases differed from the controls regarding clinical signs and symptoms but not in terms of past medical history. Multivariate analysis of nasal swab findings disclosed that S. pneumoniae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.6–7.0), human metapneumovirus (aOR = 17.2, 95% CI: 2.0–151.4), respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] (aOR = 7.4, 95% CI: 2.3–23.3), and influenza A virus (aOR = 10.7, 95% CI: 1.0–112.2) were associated with pneumonia, independently of patient age, gender, period, and other pathogens. Distribution of S. pneumoniae and RSV differed by season with higher rates of S. pneumoniae in January-June and of RSV in July-September. Pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 were more frequent in pneumonia cases than in the controls (P = 0.009, and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions In this non-PCV population from Mali, pneumonia in children was mainly attributed to S. pneumoniae, RSV, human metapneumovirus, and influenza A virus. Increased pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage in

  11. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1203 - Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of Test Lines for Helmets Intended for Persons Five (5) Years of Age and Older 4 Figure 4 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS...

  12. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Stutte, Sonja; Gohlke, Bettina; Peiler, Annika; Schreiner, Felix; Born, Mark; Bartmann, Peter; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW), we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01). Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05), but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.). In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001). Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05), whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05). Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children. PMID:28208596

  13. Prevalence of Cyclospora species and other enteric pathogens among children less than 5 years of age in Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Hoge, C W; Echeverria, P; Rajah, R; Jacobs, J; Malthouse, S; Chapman, E; Jimenez, L M; Shlim, D R

    1995-01-01

    Stools from 124 Nepalese children aged 6 to 60 months with diarrhea were examined for organisms of the coccidian genus Cyclospora and for other enteric pathogens. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Giardia Lamblia, Campylobacter species, Cyclospora species, and Cryptosporidium species were the most common pathogens identified. Cyclospora species were detected in none of 74 children < 18 months of age compared with 6 (12%) of 50 children > or = 18 months of age (P = 0.004). PMID:8576377

  14. Randomized intervention study of solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronan M; Ligondo, Sophie; Hennessy, James; Elmore-Meegan, Michael; Soita, Allan; McGuigan, Kevin G

    2011-11-01

    We report the results of a randomized controlled intervention study (September 2007 to March 2009) investigating the effect of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery, nondysentery diarrhea, and anthropometric measurements of height and weight among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in peri-urban and rural communities in Nakuru, Kenya. We compared 555 children in 404 households using SODIS with 534 children in 361 households with no intervention. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for both number of days and episodes of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by use of solar disinfection: dysentery days IRR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.79); dysentery episodes IRR = 0.55 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.73); nondysentery days IRR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.84); nondysentery episodes IRR = 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.84). Anthropometry measurements of weight and height showed median height-for-age was significantly increased in those on SODIS, corresponding to an average of 0.8 cm over a 1-year period over the group as a whole (95% CI 0.7 to 1.6 cm, P = 0.031). Median weight-for-age was higher in those on SODIS, corresponding to a 0.23 kg difference in weight over the same period; however, the confidence interval spanned zero and the effect fell short of statistical significance (95% CI -0.02 to 0.47 kg, P = 0.068). SODIS and control households did not differ in the microbial quality of their untreated household water over the follow-up period (P = 0.119), but E. coli concentrations in SODIS bottles were significantly lower than those in storage containers over all follow-up visits (P < 0.001). This is the first trial to show evidence of the effect of SODIS on childhood anthropometry, compared with children in the control group and should alleviate concerns expressed by some commentators that the lower rates of dysentery associated with SODIS are the product of biased

  15. An intervention programme for improving the nutritional status of children aged 2-5 years in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, E H; Hassan, M H A; Amine, E K

    2004-11-01

    We assessed the effect of a selected intervention on the nutritional status of 2-5-year-old children in day care centres. Using a longitudinal prospective pretest/post-test intervention design, 974 children from 3 day care centres in Alexandria were followed for 1 year. Anthropometric measurements and 3-day 24-hour recall data were gathered at base line and dietary intake was calculated and compared with recommended daily allowances. An intervention programme was implemented through the establishment of kitchens in the 3 centres, provision of 2 meals/day, nutrition education for parents and training of supervisors. Baseline data revealed deficient intake of most nutrients especially calcium, calories, vitamin C and iron. Post-intervention test revealed improvement in mothers' nutrition knowledge and the percentage of anaemic children decreased from 47.3% to 14.2%. A decrease in the percentage of underweight, stunted and wasted was also observed. The cost of the programme per child per year was US$ 20.5.

  16. Survival status and predictors of mortality among severely acute malnourished children <5 years of age admitted to stabilization centers in Gedeo Zone: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Girum, Tadele; Kote, Mesfin; Tariku, Befikadu; Bekele, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existence of standard protocol, many stabilization centers (SCs) continue to experience high mortality of children receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. Assessing treatment outcomes and identifying predictors may help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a 30-month retrospective cohort study was conducted among 545 randomly selected medical records of children <5 years of age admitted to SCs in Gedeo Zone. Data was entered by Epi Info version 7 and analyzed by STATA version 11. Cox proportional hazards model was built by forward stepwise procedure and compared by the likelihood ratio test and Harrell’s concordance, and fitness was checked by Cox–Snell residual plot. During follow-up, 51 (9.3%) children had died, and 414 (76%) and 26 (4.8%) children had recovered and defaulted (missed follow-up for 2 consecutive days), respectively. The survival rates at the end of the first, second and third weeks were 95.3%, 90% and 85%, respectively, and the overall mean survival time was 79.6 days. Age <24 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] =2.841, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.101–7.329), altered pulse rate (AHR =3.926, 95% CI =1.579–9.763), altered temperature (AHR =7.173, 95% CI =3.05–16.867), shock (AHR =3.805, 95% CI =1.829–7.919), anemia (AHR =2.618, 95% CI =1.148–5.97), nasogastric tube feeding (AHR =3.181, 95% CI =1.18–8.575), hypoglycemia (AHR =2.74, 95% CI =1.279–5.87) and treatment at hospital stabilization center (AHR =4.772, 95% CI =1.638–13.9) were independent predictors of mortality. The treatment outcomes and incidence of death were in the acceptable ranges of national and international standards. Intervention to further reduce deaths has to focus on young children with comorbidities and altered general conditions. PMID:28176953

  17. Space or Physics? Children Use Physical Reasoning to Solve the Trap Problem from 2.5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seed, Amanda M.; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the…

  18. Factors influencing survival in hemodialysis patients aged older than 75 years: 2.5-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, P; Combe, C; Laville, M; Fouque, D; Azar, R; Cano, N; Canaud, B; Roth, H; Leverve, X; Aparicio, M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of malnutrition is widely held to be greater in the elderly, but this specific factor has not been extensively studied in elderly dialysis patients. In a 30-month follow-up prospective study, we evaluated the role of nutrition on the outcome of 290 stable hemodialysis (HD) outpatients aged older than 75 years followed up in 20 French HD centers (167 men, 123 women; age, 79.8 +/- 4.2 years; previous time on dialysis, 41 +/- 38 months). On the same day in January 1996, predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were collected according to recommended procedures for dialysis quantification. Normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM; expressed as observed/expected LBM values [obs/exp LBM]) were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine levels. Overall survival rates were 80% and 65% after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively, and were significantly less in patients with the lower quartile of obs/exp LBM. In univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, survival was significantly influenced by age, albumin level, prealbumin level, body mass index, and diabetes, but not by sex, Kt/V, duration of dialysis, cholesterol level, hemoglobin level, or obs/exp LBM. In multivariate analysis, no variable remained significant. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 52.1% of the patient deaths. We conclude that in elderly HD patients, malnutrition influences overall survival despite adequate dialysis treatment.

  19. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  20. Adequate nutrient intakes are associated with traditional food consumption in nunavut inuit children aged 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Down, Louise; Egeland, Grace M

    2010-07-01

    Dietary habits among Arctic preschoolers are unknown. A cross-sectional health survey of 388 Inuit, aged 3-5 y, was conducted in 16 communities in Canada's Nunavut Territory. Twenty-four-hour recall and FFQ with parents and primary caregivers quantified diet from market and traditional foods (TF). The Institute of Medicine's Dietary Reference Intakes estimated adequacy comparing intakes with Estimated Average Requirement or Adequate Intakes (AI). High-sugar and high-fat food and sugar beverage consumption and the extent to which dietary habits followed the Canadian Food Guide were evaluated. The children's mean age was 4.4 +/- 0.9 y and the mean BMI percentile was 90.2%. Consumption of nutrient-poor and energy-dense food and beverages contributed to 35% of energy. Most children met the requirements for many nutrients despite not eating the recommended servings from Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Higher intake of TF resulted in higher intakes of cholesterol, vitamins A and D, iron, magnesium, and zinc. The percent above the AI for vitamin D was 43.1, 56.8, and 83.2% among no, low, and high TF consumers, respectively (chi2 test; P-trend < 0.0001). Dietary habits indicate a population at risk for overweight, obesity, and tooth decay. Interventions should encourage TF, including plant-based TF; healthy market food choices, including fruit and vegetables; and milk or alternative sources of vitamin D and calcium and discourage unhealthy market food choices.

  1. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled noninferiority trial of amoxicillin for clinically diagnosed acute otitis media in children 6 months to 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, Nicole; Gaboury, Isabelle; Baird, Marian; Klassen, Terry P.; MacCormick, Johnna; Blanchard, Colline; Pitters, Carrol; Sampson, Margaret; Moher, David

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Debate continues with respect to a “watch and wait” approach versus immediate antibiotic treatment for the initial treatment of acute otitis media. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we compared clinical improvement rates at 14 days for children (6 months to 5 years of age) with acute otitis media who were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin or placebo. Methods We enrolled healthy children who presented to clinics or the emergency department with a new episode of acute otitis media during the fall and winter months in Ottawa (from December 1999 to the end of March 2002). The children were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin (60 mg/kg daily) or placebo for 10 days. Telephone follow-up was performed on each of days 1, 2 and 3 and once between day 10 and day 14. The primary outcome was clinical resolution of symptoms, defined as absence of receipt of an antimicrobial (other than the amoxicillin in the treatment group) at any time during the 14-day period. Secondary outcomes were the presence of pain and fever and the activity level in the first 3 days, recurrence rates, and the presence of middle ear effusion at 1 and 3 months. Results According to clinical scoring, 415 of the 512 children who could be evaluated had moderate disease. At 14 days 84.2% of the children receiving placebo and 92.8% of those receiving amoxicillin had clinical resolution of symptoms (absolute difference –8.6%, 95% confidence interval –14.4% to –3.0%). Children who received placebo had more pain and fever in the first 2 days. There were no statistical differences in adverse events between the 2 groups, nor were there any significant differences in recurrence rates or middle ear effusion at 1 and 3 months. Interpretation Our results did not support the hypothesis that placebo was noninferior to amoxicillin (i.e., that the 14-day cure rates among children with clinically diagnosed acute otitis media would not be substantially worse in the placebo group

  2. Urinary tract infections in children younger than 5 years of age: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Schlager, T A

    2001-01-01

    Although the true incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children is difficult to estimate, they are one of the most common bacterial infections seen by clinicians who care for young children. Except for the first 8 to 12 weeks of life, when infection of the urinary tact may be secondary to a haematogenous source, UTI is believed to arise by the ascending route after entry of bacteria via the urethra. Enterobacteriaceae are the most common organisms isolated from uncomplicated UTI. Infection with Staphylococcus aureus is rare in children without in-dwelling catheters or other sources of infection, and coagulase-negative staphylococci and Candida spp. are associated with infections after instrumentation of the urinary tract. The diagnosis of UTI in young children is important as it is a marker for urinary tract abnormalities and, in the newborn, may be associated with bacteraemia. Early diagnosis is critical to preserve renal function of the growing kidney. A urine specimen for culture is necessary to document a UTI in a young child. Prior to culture, urinalysis may be useful to detect findings supporting a presumptive diagnosis of UTI. The goals of the management of UTI in a young child are: (i) prompt diagnosis of concomitant bacteraemia or meningitis, particularly in the infant; (ii) prevention of progressive renal disease by prompt eradication of the bacterial pathogen, identification of abnormalities of the urinary tract and prevention of recurrent infections; and (iii) resolution of the acute symptoms of the infection. Delay in initiation of the antibacterial therapy is associated with an increased risk of renal scarring. The initial choice of antibacterial therapy is based on the knowledge of the predominant pathogens in the patient's age group, antibacterial sensitivity patterns in the practice area, the clinical status of the patient and the opportunity for close follow-up. Imaging studies to detect congenital or acquired abnormalities are

  3. Etiology of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years of age admitted in a rural hospital of southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mandomando, Inácio M; Macete, Eusébio V; Ruiz, Joaquim; Sanz, Sergi; Abacassamo, Fatima; Vallès, Xavier; Sacarlal, Jahit; Navia, Margarita M; Vila, Jordi; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

    2007-03-01

    Diarrhea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among children in sub-Saharan Africa and one of the main causes of hospital admissions in rural areas. Stool samples were collected from 529 children admitted with diarrhea to the Manhiça District Hospital (September 2000 to September 2001) and processed to detect bacterial enteropathogens, parasites, and virus. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, isolated from 120 samples (22.6%; enteroaggregative [corrected] [9.6%], enterotoxigenic [6.8%], enteropathogenic [corrected] [4.3%], and verotoxigenic [1.9%]) was the most frequently isolated pathogen, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (9.3%). Others detected included Salmonella spp. and Giardia lamblia (2.5% each) and Campylobacter spp. (1.7%). A. lumbricoides (92% versus 8%; P<0.001) and Strongyloides stercolaris (100% versus 0%; P=0.008) were most frequently isolated in children older than 12 months of age. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulphametoxazole and ampicillin was high. Etiologic data on diarrheal diseases and susceptibility patterns of diarrheal pathogens are important tools for clinical management and control strategic planning.

  4. A significant and consistent reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization of children under 5 years of age, following the introduction of universal rotavirus immunization in Israel.

    PubMed

    Muhsen, Khitam; Rubenstein, Uri; Kassem, Eias; Goren, Sophy; Schachter, Yaakov; Kremer, Adi; Shulman, Lester M; Ephros, Moshe; Cohen, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Universal rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq was introduced in Israel in December 2010. We examined hospitalization rates of children under 5 years of age due to all-cause and rotavirus gastroenteritis, both before and 3 years after universal introduction of the vaccination. An ongoing hospital-based surveillance network that was established in November 2007, accessed information regarding hospitalization of children due to gastroenteritis (n = 6205) in 3 hospitals in northern Israel, with an annual average of about 60,000 children under 5 years of age living in the catchment area of these hospitals. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus by immunochromatography. Compared to the period preceding implementation of the universal rotavirus vaccination (2008-2010), hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age decreased significantly, by 55% (95% CI 43%-67%) during the period of universal vaccination (2011-2013), a decrease that was sustained throughout the 3 year period. This reduction was greater in children aged 0-23 months (60-61%) than in toddlers aged 24-59 months (36%). A 32% (95% CI 21%-45%) decrease in the incidence of all-cause gastroenteritis was also observed. During the period preceding universal vaccination, rotavirus diarrhea showed typical winter seasonality, with highest incidence in December. However, the winter peak was substantially blunted during the period of universal immunization. Surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis should continue to assess the long-term impact of such a program. Our findings are of relevance to high and middle-income countries considering the introduction of a universal rotavirus immunization program.

  5. Risk factors for excessive benzodiazepine use in a working age population: a nationwide 5-year survey in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Fride Tvete, Ingunn; Bjørner, Trine; Skomedal, Tor

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors for becoming an excessive user over time. Setting: Prescription database study over five years. Subjects and method: Norwegians between 30 and 60 years with a first dispensation of a benzodiazepine during 2006, encompassing 23 227 individuals. A Cox hazard regression model was defined, initially stratifying on gender, age, county, previous relevant drug dispensations, household income, education level, and vocational rehabilitation support. Main outcome measure: The time from the first redemption until excessive use was defined as using more than two DDDs per day on average within a three-month period. Results: Women’s risk was lower than men’s for excessive use (HR = 0.42, CI 0.35–0.51). Initial oxazepam, alprazolam, or nitrazepam/flunitrazepam use indicated higher risk compared with diazepam (HR = 1.51, CI 1.24–1.85, HR = 2.75, CI 1.54–4.91, HR = 1.67, CI 1.29–2.16). Previous antidepressants or lithium, antipsychotics or opioids, anti-alcohol and smoke cessation treatment indicated a higher risk compared with no such use (HR = 1.4, CI 1.16–1.69, HR = 1.92, CI 1.54–2.4, and HR = 2.88, CI 2–4.15). Higher education and average or high household income were associated with a low risk compared with low education and income (HR = 0.68, CI 0.57–0.81, HR = 0.58, CI 0.46–0.73, and HR = 0.37, CI 0.26–0.54). Working in the private or public sector was associated with a low risk compared with no registered work (HR = 0.53, CI 0.4–0.71 and HR = 0.57, CI 0.45–0.74). Conclusion: The prevalence of excessive use over a five-year observation period was 2.34%. Risk factors were indications of psychiatric illness, first benzodiazepine choice, low income, and education. Excessive users were also characterized by a more severe disease, indicated by having prescription fulfilments by a psychiatrist and by switching benzodiazepines.Key pointsGuidelines state that

  6. Antibody Persistence 1–5 Years Following Vaccination With MenAfriVac in African Children Vaccinated at 12–23 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Milagritos D.; Findlow, Helen; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Enwere, Godwin C.; Elie, Cheryl; Parulekar, Varsha; Sow, Samba O.; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Akinsola, Adebayo K.; Adegbola, Richard A.; Kampmann, Beate; Chaumont, Julie; Martellet, Lionel; Marchetti, Elisa; Viviani, Simonetta; Tang, Yuxiao; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Marc LaForce, F.; Carlone, George; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. Following mass vaccination campaigns in the African meningitis belt with group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenAfriVac (PsA-TT), disease due to group A meningococci has nearly disappeared. Antibody persistence in healthy African toddlers was investigated. Methods. African children vaccinated at 12–23 months of age with PsA-TT were followed for evaluation of antibody persistence up to 5 years after primary vaccination. Antibody persistence was evaluated by measuring group A serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) with rabbit complement and by a group A–specific IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results. Group A antibodies measured by SBA and ELISA were shown to decline in the year following vaccination and plateaued at levels significantly above baseline for up to 5 years following primary vaccination. Conclusions. A single dose of PsA-TT induces long-term sustained levels of group A meningococcal antibodies for up to 5 years after vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRTCN78147026. PMID:26553683

  7. Relationship between perinatal antioxidant vitamin and heavy metal levels and the growth and cognitive development of children at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfang; Chen, Qian; Wei, Xiaoping; Chen, Li; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ke; Chen, Jie; Li, Tingyu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate how prenatal exposure to antioxidant vitamins and heavy metals affects subsequent development. Maternal serum and cord serum levels of antioxidant vitamins (A, E, and C) were determined. Full-state, performance, and verbal intelligence quotients (FSIQ, PIQ, and VIQ, respectively) of 97 children were assessed at 5 years of age. The placental transport ratio (PTR: cord level relative to maternal serum level) of vitamin A (VA) was associated positively with FSIQ score (p=0.041), vitamin E (VE)-PTR was associated positively with PIQ (p=0.002) and FSIQ (p=0.025) scores, and cord serum cadmium (Cd) level was correlated negatively with VIQ score (p=0.025) at 5 years of age. High VE-PTR protected against low PIQ (OR=0.025; p=0.021) and FSIQ (OR<0.001; p=0.004). High maternal age was a protective factor against low VIQ (OR=0.661; 95% CI, 0.500- 0.875; p=0.004) and FSIQ (OR=0.700; 95% CI, 0.512-0.957; p=0.025). A higher maternal education (OR=0.038; 95% CI, 0.003-0.458; p=0.010) and economic level (OR=0.047; 95% CI, 0.004-0.579; p=0.017) were protective against a low FSIQ score. VA-PTR predicted physical growth. VA-PTR and VE-PTR predicted intelligence test performance at 5 years old. High Cd in cord blood may negatively affect subsequent intelligence.

  8. A case of false median cleft of upper lip with IV-A holoprosencephaly that underwent cheiloplasty at 2.5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, J; Arai, N; Kiyosaki, I; Uzawa, N; Ishii, J; Yoshimasu, H; Amagasa, T

    2000-11-01

    Holoprosencephaly results from the incomplete development of midline structures within the cerebrum and encompasses a series of abnormalities of mid-facial development. Here, we report a case of male holoprosencephaly associated with false median cleft of upper lip. This patient belonged clinically to the DeMyer's group IV holoprosencephaly, semilobar type. An infant with this type of holoprosencephaly has been thought to die generally within 1 to 2 years after birth and to rarely benefit from an operation. In this case, the patient had cheiloplasty at the age of 2.5 years at the request of his parents and he lives currently, being 3 years and 2 months old.

  9. Recurrence Interval and Event Age Data for Type A Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Timothy E.; Weldon, Ray J.; Biasi, Glenn P.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix summarizes available recurrence interval, event age, and timing of most recent event data for Type A faults considered in the Earthquake Rate Model 2 (ERM 2) and used in the ERM 2 Appendix C analysis as well as Appendix N (time-dependent probabilities). These data have been compiled into an Excel workbook named Appendix B A-fault event ages_recurrence_V5.0 (herein referred to as the Appendix B workbook). For convenience, the Appendix B workbook is attached to the end of this document as a series of tables. The tables within the Appendix B workbook include site locations, event ages, and recurrence data, and in some cases, the interval of time between earthquakes is also reported. The Appendix B workbook is organized as individual worksheets, with each worksheet named by fault and paleoseismic site. Each worksheet contains the site location in latitude and longitude, as well as information on event ages, and a summary of recurrence data. Because the data has been compiled from different sources with different presentation styles, descriptions of the contents of each worksheet within the Appendix B spreadsheet are summarized.

  10. Aetiology, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of acute moderate-to-severe diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age hospitalized in a referral paediatric hospital in Rabat, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benmessaoud, Rachid; Jroundi, Imane; Nezha, Mouane; Moraleda, Cinta; Tligui, Houssain; Seffar, Myriam; Alvarez-Martínez, Miriam J; Pons, Maria J; Chaacho, Saad; Hayes, Edward B; Vila, Jordi; Alonso, Pedro L; Bassat, Quique; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the aetiology, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the principal causes of acute infectious diarrhoea requiring hospitalization among children under 5 years of age in Rabat, Morocco. A prospective study was conducted from March 2011 to March 2012, designed to describe the main pathogens causing diarrhoea in hospitalized children >2 months and less than 5 years of age. Among the 122 children included in the study, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) and rotavirus were the main aetiological causes of diarrhoea detected. Twelve (9.8 %) children were referred to an intensive care unit, while two, presenting infection by EAEC, and EAEC plus Shigella sonnei, developed a haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Additionally, six (4.9 %) deaths occurred, with EAEC being isolated in four of these cases. Diarrhoeagenic E. coli and rotavirus play a significant role as the two main causes of severe diarrhoea, while other pathogens, such as norovirus and parasites, seem to have a minimal contribution. Surveillance and prevention programmes to facilitate early recognition and improved management of potentially life-threatening diarrhoea episodes are needed.

  11. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile.Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was collected by tympanocentesis or by otorrhea for identification and serotyping of bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility was tested using E-test (etrack: 112671).Of 160 children (mean age 27.10 ± 15.83 months) with AOM episodes, 164 MEF samples (1 episode each from 156 children; 2 episodes each from 4 children) were collected. Nearly 30% of AOM episodes occurred in children aged 12 to 23 months. Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.7% [58/139]) and Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each).AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile.

  12. Etiology of acute otitis media and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in Chilean children <5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblut, Andres; Napolitano, Carla; Pereira, Angelica; Moreno, Camilo; Kolhe, Devayani; Lepetic, Alejandro; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The impact of bacterial conjugate vaccines on acute otitis media (AOM) is affected by several factors including population characteristics, bacterial etiology and vaccine conjugation method, carrier, and coverage. This study estimated the baseline etiology, distribution, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial serotypes that causes AOM in children aged <5 years in a public setting in Santiago, Chile. Children aged ≥3 months and <5 years referred to the physician for treatment of AOM episodes (with an onset of symptoms <72 h) were enrolled between September 2009 and September 2010. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was collected by tympanocentesis or by otorrhea for identification and serotyping of bacteria. Antibacterial susceptibility was tested using E-test (etrack: 112671). Of 160 children (mean age 27.10 ± 15.83 months) with AOM episodes, 164 MEF samples (1 episode each from 156 children; 2 episodes each from 4 children) were collected. Nearly 30% of AOM episodes occurred in children aged 12 to 23 months. Streptococcus pneumoniae (41.7% [58/139]) and Haemophilus influenzae (40.3% [56/139]) were predominant among the cultures that showed bacterial growth (85% [139/164]). All Streptococcus pneumoniae positive episodes were serotyped, 19F (21%) and 14 (17%) were the predominant serotypes; all Haemophilus influenzae strains were nontypeable. Streptococcus pneumoniae were resistant to penicillin (5%) and erythromycin (33%); Haemophilus influenzae were resistant to ampicillin (14%) and cefuroxime and cefotaxime (2% each). AOM in Chilean children is predominantly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Use of a broad spectrum vaccine against these pathogens might aid the reduction of AOM in Chile. PMID:28178138

  13. School-Aged Outcomes following Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure: 7.5 Year Follow-Up From The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Nwando; Smith, Lynne M; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Della Grotta, Sheri A; Dansereau, Lynne M; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and behavior problems at age 7.5 years, and the extent to which early adversity mediated this relationship. Study design The multicenter, longitudinal IDEAL study enrolled 412 mother-infant pairs at 4 sites. Methamphetamine-exposed participants (n= 204) were identified by self-report and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in infant meconium. Matched participants (n = 208) denied methamphetamine use and had a negative meconium screen. At the 7.5 year follow-up, 290 children with complete Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) data and an early adversity index score were available for analysis (n=146 exposed). Results PME was significantly associated with an increased early adversity index score (P<0.001) and with increased externalizing, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior (P<0.05). Early adversity was also associated with higher externalizing behavior scores. Early adversity significantly mediated the relationship between PME and behavioral problems. After adjusting the mediation model for sex, prenatal tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana exposures, and study site, the association of PME with early adversity remained significant. Conclusion Though PME is associated with behavioral problems, early adversity may be a strong determinant of behavioral outcome for children exposed to methamphetamine in utero. Early adversity significantly mediated the relationship between PME and behavioral problems. PMID:26781836

  14. Effect of advancing births on testosterone until 2.5 years of age and puberty in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Gómez, José Angel; García, Andrés José; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Gallego, Laureano

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the age of attainment of puberty, as well as the pattern of reproductive seasonality in males of Iberian red deer and the relationship of these factors with antler development. A second aim was to examine the effect of the advance of births on the variables mentioned. Fourteen males of Iberian deer were used, five of them born 2.5 months before the others (early group). Male deer were blood sampled from birth until 2.5 years of age to assess the time course of plasma testosterone. The study also included measurements of testicular and neck circumference. As in most cervids, concentration of plasma testosterone was associated to the phases of antler development. Early development affected testosterone titres, since the most precocious males in antler growth also showed higher levels of testosterone during the first and second year of age. In the same way, results suggested that the advance of calving may result in puberty attainment in the first autumn of its life. However, this would require an advance of calving greater than the one we induced since puberty in the Iberian deer is usually attained during second autumn of life at 15-16 months of age. Finally, calving advance also affected antler development. Thus, two of the five males whose birth was advanced, showed two antler cycles in their first year of life.

  15. Effects of the Start For Life treatment on physical activity in primarily African American preschool children of ages 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Tennant, Gisèle A

    2013-01-01

    In U.S. children of ages 2-5 years, combined overweight and obesity has increased to 21%, with African American children of this age range highest at 26%. Lack of physical activity is highly predictive of overweight and obesity in children. Preschools may be a useful point for intervention. An innovative preschool physical activity treatment (Start For Life) was developed based on principles of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory. It incorporated 30 minutes daily of highly structured physical activity with behavioral and self-regulatory skills training (e.g. goal setting, self-monitoring, productive self-talk) interspersed. Data obtained from accelerometry was used to contrast physical activity outputs during the preschool day in the Start For Life condition (n = 202) with a usual-care control condition (n = 136). After controlling for age and sex of the primarily African American participants (M age = 4.7 years), changes over eight weeks in moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous physical activity were significant, and significantly more favorable in the Start For Life group; F(1, 344) = 4.98, p = .026 and F(1, 344) = 3.60, p = .058, respectively. Start For Life was associated with a weekly increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity of approximately 40 minutes. After sufficient replications that better account for different sample types, parental effects and physical activity outside of the school day, and long-term effects, widespread dissemination may be considered.

  16. Lead exposure and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive development of urban children: the Cincinnati Lead Study cohort at age 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K.N.; Succop, P.A.; Berger, O.G.; Keith, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This analysis examined the relationship between lead exposure as registered in whole blood (PbB) and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive developmental status of the Cincinnati cohort (N = 259) at age 5 years. Although the effects were small, higher prenatal, neonatal, and postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer central auditory processing abilities on the Filtered Word Subtest of the SCAN (a screening test for auditory processing disorders). Higher postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer performance on all cognitive developmental subscales of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). However, following adjustment for measures of the home environment and maternal intelligence, few statistically or near statistically significant associations remained. Our findings are discussed in the context of the related issues of confounding and the detection of weak associations in high risk populations.

  17. Undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Yemen: Role of adequate childcare provided by adults under conditions of food insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sobaihi, Saber; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between the adequacy of childcare provided by adult caretakers and childhood undernutrition in rural Yemen, independent of household wealth and food consumption. Methods: We analyzed data of 3,549 children under the age of 5 years living in rural areas of Yemen based on the 2013 Yemen Baseline Survey of Mother and Child Health. Nutritional status was evaluated by the presence of underweight, stunting, and wasting according to the World Health Organization child growth standards. The impact of childcare including leaving children alone, putting older children into labor force, and the use of antenatal care while pregnant on child undernutrition was assessed and adjusted for food consumption by children, household composition, demographic and educational background of caretakers, and household wealth. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 46.2%, 62.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. Not leaving children alone, keeping children out of the labor force, and use of antenatal care were associated with a lower risk of underweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, P = 0.016; OR = 0.84, P = 0.036; and OR = 0.85, P = 0.042) and stunting (OR = 0.80, P = 0.004; OR = 0.82, P = 0.024; and OR = 0.78, P = 0.003). After further adjustment for food consumption, the associations between adequate childcare indicators and lower odds of stunting remained significant (OR = 0.73, P = 0.025; OR = 0.72, P = 0.046; and OR = 0.76, P = 0.038). Conclusions: A marked prevalence of stunting among rural children in Yemen was observed. Adequate childcare by adult caretakers in families is associated with a lower incidence of underweight and stunting among children under 5 years of age. Promoting adequate childcare by adult household members is a feasible option for reducing undernutrition among children in rural Yemen. PMID:27928456

  18. Undernutrition among children under 5 years of age in Yemen: Role of adequate childcare provided by adults under conditions of food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Al-Sobaihi, Saber; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the associations between the adequacy of childcare provided by adult caretakers and childhood undernutrition in rural Yemen, independent of household wealth and food consumption. Methods: We analyzed data of 3,549 children under the age of 5 years living in rural areas of Yemen based on the 2013 Yemen Baseline Survey of Mother and Child Health. Nutritional status was evaluated by the presence of underweight, stunting, and wasting according to the World Health Organization child growth standards. The impact of childcare including leaving children alone, putting older children into labor force, and the use of antenatal care while pregnant on child undernutrition was assessed and adjusted for food consumption by children, household composition, demographic and educational background of caretakers, and household wealth. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 46.2%, 62.6%, and 11.1%, respectively. Not leaving children alone, keeping children out of the labor force, and use of antenatal care were associated with a lower risk of underweight (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, P = 0.016; OR = 0.84, P = 0.036; and OR = 0.85, P = 0.042) and stunting (OR = 0.80, P = 0.004; OR = 0.82, P = 0.024; and OR = 0.78, P = 0.003). After further adjustment for food consumption, the associations between adequate childcare indicators and lower odds of stunting remained significant (OR = 0.73, P = 0.025; OR = 0.72, P = 0.046; and OR = 0.76, P = 0.038). Conclusions: A marked prevalence of stunting among rural children in Yemen was observed. Adequate childcare by adult caretakers in families is associated with a lower incidence of underweight and stunting among children under 5 years of age. Promoting adequate childcare by adult household members is a feasible option for reducing undernutrition among children in rural Yemen.

  19. Deaths Associated with Respiratory Syncytial and Influenza Viruses among Persons ≥5 Years of Age in HIV-Prevalent Area, South Africa, 1998–20091

    PubMed Central

    Walaza, Sibongile; Viboud, Cecile; Cohen, Adam L.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Venter, Marietjie; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M.; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998–2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza–associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, respectively. In 2009, we estimated 4,113 (rate 9.2) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09–associated deaths. The mean of annual RSV-associated deaths during the study period was 511 (rate 1.2); no RSV-associated deaths were estimated in persons >45 years of age. Our findings support the recommendation for influenza vaccination of older persons and HIV-positive persons. Surveillance for RSV should be strengthened to clarify the public health implications and severity of illness associated with RSV infection in South Africa. PMID:25811455

  20. Deaths associated with respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses among persons ≥5 years of age in HIV-prevalent area, South Africa, 1998-2009(1).

    PubMed

    Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Viboud, Cecile; Cohen, Adam L; Madhi, Shabir A; Venter, Marietjie; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-04-01

    We estimated deaths attributable to influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among persons >5 years of age in South Africa during 1998-2009 by applying regression models to monthly deaths and laboratory surveillance data. Rates were expressed per 100,000 person-years. The mean annual number of seasonal influenza-associated deaths was 9,093 (rate 21.6). Persons >65 years of age and HIV-positive persons accounted for 50% (n = 4,552) and 28% (n = 2,564) of overall seasonal influenza-associated deaths, respectively. In 2009, we estimated 4,113 (rate 9.2) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-associated deaths. The mean of annual RSV-associated deaths during the study period was 511 (rate 1.2); no RSV-associated deaths were estimated in persons >45 years of age. Our findings support the recommendation for influenza vaccination of older persons and HIV-positive persons. Surveillance for RSV should be strengthened to clarify the public health implications and severity of illness associated with RSV infection in South Africa.

  1. Prevalence of Rotavirus Genotypes in Children Younger than 5 Years of Age before the Introduction of a Universal Rotavirus Vaccination Program: Report of Rotavirus Surveillance in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Riza; Kalaycioglu, Atila Taner; Acar, Sumeyra; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Karagoz, Alper; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Torunoglu, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. Methods Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Results RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2%) of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7%) was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%). A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G–P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9) and two common P types (P[8] and P[4]) accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%), G2P[8] (9.3%), G2P[4] (6.5%), G3P[8] (3.5%), and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%). These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. Conclusion The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1–G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country. PMID:25437502

  2. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild I A.; Knüppel, Sven; Travier, Noemie; Sánchez, María-José; Huerta, José María; Quirós, J. Ramón; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Teucher, Birgit; Li, Kuanrong; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van der A, Daphne; Mattiello, Amalia; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Vineis, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Hedblad, Bo; Wallström, Peter; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dartois, Laureen; Crowe, Francesca; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Middleton, Lefkos; May, Anne M.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boeing, Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population. Methods We used lifestyle and nutritional data from 53°758 individuals followed for a median of 5.4 years from six centers of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to develop a risk score to predict substantial weight gain (SWG) for the next 5 years (derivation sample). Assuming linear weight gain, SWG was defined as gaining ≥10% of baseline weight during follow-up. Proportional hazards models were used to identify significant predictors of SWG separately by EPIC center. Regression coefficients of predictors were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled coefficients were used to assign weights to each predictor. The risk score was calculated as a linear combination of the predictors. External validity of the score was evaluated in nine other centers of the EPIC study (validation sample). Results Our final model included age, sex, baseline weight, level of education, baseline smoking, sports activity, alcohol use, and intake of six food groups. The model's discriminatory ability measured by the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.64 (95% CI = 0.63–0.65) in the derivation sample and 0.57 (95% CI  = 0.56–0.58) in the validation sample, with variation between centers. Positive and negative predictive values for the optimal cut-off value of ≥200 points were 9% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion The present risk score confidently excluded a large proportion of individuals from being at any appreciable risk to develop SWG within the next 5 years. Future studies, however, may attempt to further refine the positive prediction of the score. PMID:23874419

  3. 5-Year Budget Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, John G.; Lingel, George; Piekarski, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Financial planning is the key to providing a high-quality instructional plan. A 5-year financial plan is typically updated by looking at district financial history, future instructional plans, staffing requirements, and revenue projections. Planning assumptions must be clearly understood by the financial team and the community. (MLH)

  4. Effects of promoting increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on adiposity and insulin-like growth factor-I at age 11.5 years: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M; Patel, Rita; Kramer, Michael S.; Guthrie, Lauren; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Gusina, Nina; Foo, Ying; Palmer, Tom; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W; Davey Smith, George; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Importance Evidence that increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding reduces child obesity risk is based on observational studies that are prone to confounding. Objective To investigate effects of an intervention to promote increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on child adiposity and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (which regulates growth). Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting 31 Belarusian maternity hospitals and their affiliated polyclinics, randomized to usual practices (n=15) or a breastfeeding promotion intervention (n=16). Participants 17,046 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs enrolled in 1996/7, of whom 13,879 (81.4%) were followed-up between January 2008 and December 2010 at a median age of 11.5 years. Intervention Breastfeeding promotion intervention modeled on the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat and fat-free mass indices (FMI and FFMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, overweight and obesity, and whole-blood IGF-I. Primary analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat (without imputation), accounting for clustering within hospitals/clinics. Results The experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity (43% vs. 6% and 7.9% vs. 0.6% exclusively breastfed at 3 and 6 months, respectively) versus the control intervention. Cluster-adjusted mean differences in outcomes at 11.5 years between experimental vs. control groups were: 0.19 kg/m2 (95% 4 CI: −0.09, 0.46) for BMI; 0.12 kg/m2 (−0.03, 0.28) for FMI; 0.04 kg/m2 (−0.11, 0.18) for FFMI; 0.47% (−0.11, 1.05) for % body fat; 0.30 cm (−1.41, 2.01) for waist circumference; −0.07 mm (−1.71, 1.57) for triceps and −0.02 mm (−0.79, 0.75) for subscapular skinfold thicknesses; and −0.02 standard deviations (−0.12, 0.08) for IGF-I. The cluster-adjusted odds ratio for overweight / obesity (BMI

  5. Magnitude and Reasons for Harmful Traditional Practices among Children Less Than 5 Years of Age in Axum Town, North Ethiopia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Fantahun, Atsede; Buruh, Gerezgiher

    2014-01-01

    Background. In addition to beneficial traditional practices, there are around 140 harmful traditional practices affecting mothers and children in almost all ethnic groups of Ethiopia. Therefore this study might give a clue about their practice and associated factors. The objective of this study was to assess magnitude of harmful traditional practices among children less than 5 years of age in Axum Town, North Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 752 participants who were selected using multistage sampling. Simple random sampling method was used to select ketenas from all kebelles of Axum Town. After proportional allocation of sample size to eachketena, systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participants. Data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaire; it was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16 and descriptive statistics was calculated. Results. Majority of the respondents (81.2%) were Orthodox, 78.2% of the mothers had no work, and majority of mothers had no formal education. Among the harmful traditional practices performed on children, uvula cutting alone was performed on 72.8% of children followed by milk teeth extraction and uvula cutting with eyebrow incision. Conclusion. The leading harmful traditional practice performed on children in this study was uvula cutting. PMID:25045359

  6. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years; Well child - 5 years ... skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 to 5 pounds (1. ...

  7. Effects of prenatal micronutrient and early food supplementation on metabolic status of the offspring at 4.5 years of age. The MINIMat randomized trial in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Lindström, Emma; Raqib, Rubhana; El Arifeen, Shams; Basu, Samar; Brismar, Kerstin; Selling, Katarina; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fetal nutritional insults may alter the later metabolic phenotype. We hypothesized that early timing of prenatal food supplementation and multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) would favourably influence childhood metabolic phenotype. Methods: Pregnant women recruited 1 January to 31 December 2002 in Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomized into supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS containing a daily allowance of 15 micronutrients, and randomized to food supplementation (608 kcal) either with early invitation (9 weeks’ gestation) or usual invitation (at 20 weeks). Their children (n = 1667) were followed up at 4.5 years with assessment of biomarkers of lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. Results: Children in the group with early timing of food supplementation had lower cholesterol (difference -0.079 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.156; -0.003), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (difference -0.068 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.126; -0.011) and ApoB levels (difference -0.017 g/l, 95% CL -0.033; -0.001). MMS supplementation resulted in lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (difference -0.028 mmol/l, 95% CL -0.053; -0.002), lower glucose (difference -0.099 mmol/l, 95% CL -0.179; -0.019) and lower insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (difference on log scale -0.141 µg/l, 95% CL -0.254; -0.028) than 60 mg iron and 400 μg folic acid. There were no effects on markers of inflammation or oxidative stress. Conclusions: Findings suggest that in a population where malnutrition is prevalent, nutrition interventions during pregnancy may modify the metabolic phenotype in the young child that could have consequences for later chronic disease risks. PMID:27694568

  8. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M.; Hsiung, Chao A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index. We used baseline measurements (2009–2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years). In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35–0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33–0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA. A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly. PMID:28178143

  9. Observed changes in cardiovascular risk factors among high-risk middle-aged men who received lifestyle counselling: a 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vanhanen, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the long-term impact of health counselling among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. Design An observational study with a 5-year follow-up. Setting and intervention All men aged 40 years in Helsinki have been invited to a visit to evaluate CVD risk from 2006 onwards. A modified version of the North Karelia project risk tool (CVD risk score) served to assess the risk. High-risk men received lifestyle counselling based on their individual risk profile in 2006 and were invited to a follow-up visit in 2011. Subjects Of the 389 originally high-risk men, 159 participated in the follow-up visits in 2011. Based on their follow-up in relation the further risk communication, we divided the participants into three groups: primary health care, occupational health care and no control visits. Main outcome measures Lifestyle and CVD risk score change. Results All groups showed improvements in lifestyles. The CVD risk score decreased the most in the group that continued the risk communication visits in their primary health care centre (6.1 to 4.8 [95% CI −1.6 to −0.6]) compared to those who continued risk communication visits in their occupational health care (6.0 to 5.4 [95% CI −1.3 to 0.3]), and to those with no risk communication visits (6.0 to 5.9 [95% CI −0.5 to 0.4]). Conclusions These findings indicate that individualized lifestyle counselling improves health behaviour and reduces total CVD risk among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. Sustained improvement in risk factor status requires ongoing risk communication with health care providers. KEY POINTSStudies of short duration have shown that lifestyle changes reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among high-risk individuals.Sustaining these lifestyle changes and maintaining the lower disease risk attained can prove challenging.Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and individualized health counselling for high-risk men, when implemented in primary health care, have the potential

  10. Epidemiology and evolution of antibiotic resistance of Haemophilus influenzae in children 5 years of age or less in France, 2001-2008: a retrospective database analysis.

    PubMed

    Dabernat, H; Delmas, C

    2012-10-01

    Trends in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance and mechanisms of resistance of Haemophilus influenzae to β-lactam antibiotics in France were assessed through a retrospective database review. The antimicrobial resistance of 2,206 H. influenzae strains from children aged5 years was studied between 2001 and 2008. Strains were isolated from blood or cerebrospinal fluid (n = 170), bronchial secretions (n = 188), middle ear fluid, and nasopharynx or conjunctiva (n = 1,848). A proportion of 95.1 % (n = 2,097) were non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). β-lactamase production was identified in 27.5 % of NTHi isolates (all TEM-1), while β-lactamase-negative ampicillin resistance and β-lactamase-negative amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance among NTHi was 16.9 and 6.4 %, respectively. Over time, a statistically significant decrease in β-lactamase-producing strain prevalence (p < 0.0001) and a statistically significant increase in β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains (p < 0.0001) were observed in NTHi isolates from 2001 to 2008. The largest changes coincided with a campaign to reduce antibiotic use in France. An increasing diversity of amino acid substitution patterns was observed, with the emergence of group III/'III-like' patterns linked to high-level resistance. In France, amino acid substitution patterns are increasingly diverse, and strains with high-level antibiotic resistance are emerging. This study highlights the complexity of resistance dynamics within a given country. These results have implications on antibiotic guidelines and illustrate the importance of continued surveillance.

  11. Diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in children under 5 years of age admitted to hospital for acute gastroenteritis in Morocco, June 2006 to May 2009.

    PubMed

    Benhafid, Mohammed; Elomari, Nezha; Elqazoui, Maria; Meryem, Azzouzi Idrissi; Rguig, Ahmed; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Elaouad, Rajae

    2013-02-01

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Morocco during 2010. In anticipation of introducing rotavirus vaccines, the Ministry of Health in Morocco established a rotavirus surveillance network in June 2006 at four hospitals in Morocco to obtain baseline data on rotavirus disease burden and prevalent strains. From June 2006 to May 2009, stool samples were collected from children under 5 years of age admitted for diarrhea to four sentinel hospitals serving different regions of Morocco. Rotaviruses were detected in stools using enzyme immunoassay, then genotyped by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Samples with adequate stool in which the P or G types could not be determined by RT-PCR were subjected to nucleotide sequence analysis. Overall, 42% (579 of 1,388) of the stools samples tested were positive for rotavirus. Genotyping of 548 (95%) samples demonstrated that G1P[8] (55%) was the most prevalent strain, followed by G9P[8] (11.3%), G2P[4] (9.1%), G4P[8] (0.9%), and G3P[8] (0.4%). Several other strains were identified including G1P[4] (0.2%), G1P[6] (0.9%), G2P[6] (4.3%), G2P[8] (0.2%), G3P[6] (0.4%), G3P[4] (0.2%), and G9P[6] (0.2%). A high prevalence of mixed infections was found (15% of all samples) of which G1G2P[8] (4%) and G1G3P[8] (3.6%) accounted for the majority. Considerable diversity of rotavirus genotypes was present among strains circulating in Morocco prior to the introduction of the vaccine. This study highlighted the need for maintaining active surveillance to monitor changes in rotavirus disease burden and strain dynamics and to detect changes over time that could impact the effectiveness of the vaccination program.

  12. Solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in South African children aged under 5 years: the role of participant motivation.

    PubMed

    Du Preez, Martella; Mcguigan, Kevin G; Conroy, Ronan M

    2010-11-15

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) effectively improves the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhea; however, the effect of participant motivation has not been studied. This 1-year randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of SODIS of drinking water and motivation on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in periurban communities in South Africa.We compared 383 children in 297 households using SODIS with 335 children in 267 households with no intervention. At baseline 62.4% of the study households had stored water which met World Health Organization guidelines for zero thermotolerant coliforms per 100 mL. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence of dysentery was significantly associated with higher motivation, defined as 75% or better completion of diarrhea data. Incidence rates were lower in those drinking solar disinfected water (incidence rate ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.39 - 1.0, P = 0.071) but not statistically significant. Compared with the control, participants with higher motivation achieved a significant reduction in dysentery (incidence rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.16 - 0.81, P = 0.014). However, there was no significant reduction in risk at lower levels of motivation. Solar disinfection was not significantly associated with nondysentery diarrhea risk overall (P = 0.419). A statistically significant reduction in dysentery was achieved only in households with higher motivation, showing that motivation is a significant determinant for measurable health gains. Failure of three-quarters of participants to achieve a significant reduction in dysentery suggests that research into effective implementation is required.

  13. Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2–5 years in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Judith K.; Nakasujja, Noeline; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Murray, Sarah M.; Opoka, Robert; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV are at increased risk of developmental and neuropsychological disturbances due to direct effects of HIV on the brain and direct effects associated with living in poverty. Caregivers can play an important role, through quality caregiving, in mitigating the negative effect of these stressors. This study used baseline data from an ongoing caregiver training intervention trial to evaluate the association between quality of caregiver–child interactions and neurocognitive outcomes in rural HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in Uganda. We also assessed the extent to which caregiver distress moderated this relationship. Data on 329 caregiver–child dyads were collected between March 2012 and July 2014, when the children were between 2 and 5 years of age. Child outcomes include the Mullen Scales of Early Learning to assess general cognitive ability and the Color Object Association Test to assess immediate memory and total recall. Caregiving quality was assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) total and subscale scores. Caregiver distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. General linear regression models assessed the association between the HOME total and subscale scores and child outcomes, with interaction terms used to test moderation by caregiver distress. Total HOME scores were positively and significantly associated with Mullen scores of cognitive ability; HOME acceptance subscale scores were positively and significantly associated with immediate recall scores. No other associations were statistically significant. As hypothesized, there is a strong association between the HOME and Mullen scores of cognitive ability in our study population, such that children who were assessed as living in environments with more stimulation also presented with a higher level of general neurocognitive development. Our results support the view of program guidance for HIV

  14. Predictors of head start and child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices with children aged 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A; Speirs, Katherine E; Donovan, Sharon M; Cho, Hyun Keun

    2014-09-01

    Few child-care providers meet the national recommendations for healthful feeding practices. Effective strategies are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on child-care providers' feeding practices is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices for children aged 2 to 5 years. In this cross-sectional study, child-care providers (n=118) from 24 center-based programs (six Head Start [HS], 11 Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and seven non-CACFP) completed self-administered surveys during 2011-2012. Multilevel multivariate linear regression models were used to predict seven feeding practices. Working in an HS center predicted teaching children about nutrition and modeling healthy eating; that may be attributed to the HS performance standards that require HS providers to practice healthful feeding. Providers who reported being concerned about children's weight, being responsible for feeding children, and had an authoritarian feeding style were more likely to pressure children to eat, restrict intake, and control food intake to decrease or maintain children's weight. Providers with nonwhite race, who were trying to lose weight, who perceived nutrition as important in their own diet, and who had a greater number of nutrition training opportunities were more likely to use restrictive feeding practices. These findings suggest that individual- and child-care-level factors, particularly provider race, education, training, feeding attitudes and styles, and the child-care context may influence providers' feeding practices with young children. Considering these factors when developing interventions for providers to meet feeding practice recommendations may add to the efficacy of childhood obesity prevention programs.

  15. Home care of malaria-infected children of less than 5 years of age in a rural area of the Republic of Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Bailo Diallo, A.; De Serres, G.; Béavogui, A. H.; Lapointe, C.; Viens, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of mothers in a rural area of the Republic of Guinea to identify fever in their children, and to estimate the proportion of children who received antimalarial drugs. METHODS: Children under 5 years of age in 41 villages were selected by a two-step cluster sampling technique. During home visits we examined the children and questioned their mothers about the child's symptoms and treatment. FINDINGS: Of 784 children examined, 23% were febrile and more than half of them also had a positive smear result for Plasmodium. Mothers reported 63% of children with a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C as sick. Among all children reported as feverish by their mother, 55% had a normal temperature (< 37.5 degrees C). In contrast, a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C was found in 38% of children identified as sick but afebrile by their mother and in 13% of children considered healthy. Among febrile children, 18% were given chloroquine at home or had consulted at the health centre or a dispensary. CONCLUSION: In areas where malaria is endemic, recognition of fever and its presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs is an essential part of the strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the morbidity due to this disease. This population study shows that mothers often failed to identify fever in their children and to consult or to provide antimalarial treatment. Without great efforts to improve home care, it is unlikely that the morbidity and mortality due to malaria in young children will be greatly reduced. PMID:11217664

  16. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children.

  17. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1–5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1–10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft2 was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3–7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children. PMID:23361441

  18. Age effects in discrimination of intervals within rhythmic tone sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbons, Peter J.; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings. Duration difference limens in milliseconds for increments of a single sequence IOI were measured adaptively by adjusting the duration of an inter-tone silent interval. Specific target IOIs within sequences differed across discrimination conditions. Listeners included younger normal-hearing adults and groups of older adults with and without hearing loss. Discrimination performance measured for each of the older groups of listeners was observed to be equivalent, with each group exhibiting significantly poorer discrimination performance than the younger listeners in each sequence condition. Additionally, the specific influence of variable rhythmic grouping on temporal sensitivity was found to be greatest among older listeners. PMID:25618068

  19. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Environmental Factors Which Influence Children (Aged 3-5 Years) to Be Obese/Overweight and the Accuracy of Parental Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, Julie; Keeney, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review the previously published literature on the social and environmental factors which influence children (aged 3-5 years) to be obese/overweight and the accuracy of parental perceptions. Obesity levels are on the increase in today's society and habits are being passed from parents to children, with family…

  20. Epidemiology and medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age in the central-east of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltani, M S; Salah, A Ben; Bouanene, I; Trabelsi, A; Sfar, M T; Harbi, A; Gueddiche, M N; Farhat, E Ben

    2015-09-28

    Data on the economic burden of rotavirus infection in Tunisia are needed to inform the decision to include rotavirus in routine childhood immunizations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of rotavirus disease in central-east Tunisia and to estimate its hospital cost. In the first stage - the prospective collection of epidemiological data - we enrolled all patients < 5 years old who were hospitalized for acute diarrhoea at 5 university paediatric departments in central-east Tunisia during the period 2009-2011. Rotavirus was responsible for 65 (23.3%) of the 279 cases enrolled. In the second stage, cost data were collected retrospectively using an activity-based costing method from the medical records of the children who were positively diagnosed with rotavirus. The average cost of care per child was TD 433 (SD 134). This is a significant economic burden in Tunisia, where a safe and effective vaccine is available but not yet introduced to the immunization schedule.

  1. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children.

  2. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  3. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing. PMID:24839402

  4. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing.

  5. Self-Control, Gender, and Age: A Survival Analysis of Recidivism among Boot Camp Graduates in a 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benda, Brent B.; Toombs, Nancy J.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    2005-01-01

    This study of 572 male and 120 female graduates of a boot camp investigates the potency of self-control as a predictor of recidivism in comparison to gender, age, and elements of life-course theory. It also examines whether the effects of self-control on recidivism are commensurate within the categories of gender. Recidivism is defined as a felony…

  6. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  7. Determinants of Short Interbirth Interval among Reproductive Age Mothers in Arba Minch District, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Desta; Gulte, Teklemariam

    2016-01-01

    Background. One of the key strategies to reduce fertility and promote the health status of mothers and their children is adhering to optimal birth spacing. However, women still have shorter birth intervals and studies addressing their determinants were scarce. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess determinants of birth interval among women who had at least two consecutive live births. Methods. Case control study was conducted from February to April 2014. Cases were women with short birth intervals (<3 years), whereas controls were women having history of optimal birth intervals (3 to 5 years). Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed. Result. Having no formal education (AOR = 2.36, 95% CL: [1.23–4.52]), duration of breast feeding for less than 24 months (AOR: 66.03, 95% CI; [34.60–126]), preceding child being female (AOR: 5.73, 95% CI; [3.18–10.310]), modern contraceptive use (AOR: 2.79, 95% CI: [1.58–4.940]), and poor wealth index (AOR: 4.89, 95% CI; [1.81–13.25]) of respondents were independent predictors of short birth interval. Conclusion. In equalities in education, duration of breast feeding, sex of the preceding child, contraceptive method use, and wealth index were markers of unequal distribution of inter birth intervals. Thus, to optimize birth spacing, strategies of providing information, education and communication targeting predictor variables should be improved. PMID:27239553

  8. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development.

  9. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development. PMID:28350831

  10. Cognitive Control Deficits in Shifting and Inhibition in Preschool Age Children are Associated with Increased Depression and Anxiety Over 7.5 Years of Development.

    PubMed

    Kertz, Sarah J; Belden, Andy C; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Although depression and anxiety are common in youth (Costello et al. 2003), factors that put children at risk for such symptoms are not well understood. The current study examined associations between early childhood cognitive control deficits and depression and anxiety over the course of development through school age. Participants were 188 children (at baseline M = 5.42 years, SD = 0.79 years) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed ratings of children's executive functioning at preschool age and measures of depression and anxiety severity over seven assessment waves (a period of approximately 7.5 years). Longitudinal multilevel linear models were used to examine the effect of attention shifting and inhibition deficits on depression and anxiety. Inhibition deficits at preschool were associated with significantly greater depression severity scores at each subsequent assessment wave (up until 7.5 years later). Inhibition deficits were associated with greater anxiety severity from 3.5 to 7.5 years later. Greater shifting deficits at preschool age were associated with greater depression severity up to 5.5 years later. Shifting deficits were also associated with significantly greater anxiety severity up to 3.5 years later. Importantly, these effects were significant even after accounting for the influence of other key predictors including assessment wave/time, gender, parental education, IQ, and symptom severity at preschool age, suggesting that effects are robust. Overall, findings indicate that cognitive control deficits are an early vulnerability factor for developing affective symptoms. Timely assessment and intervention may be beneficial as an early prevention strategy.

  11. Association of IL-8-inducing strains of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli with sporadic diarrheal patients with less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Meraz, Ismail Mustafa; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakamura, Hiromi; Ogasawara, Jun; Hase, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2007-02-01

    The role of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) in diarrheal disease has been controversial. However, DAEC strains were recently implicated in diarrheal disease in developing countries. To clarify whether DAEC are prevalent among sporadic cases of diarrheal illness in Osaka City, Japan, E. coli strains isolated between July 1997 and March 2000 during diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) investigation were retrospectively examined. DAEC strains were recognized among 41 (4.4%) of 924 patients and formed the biggest subgroup of DEC. Previously, we reported that some DAEC strains caused epithelial cells to secrete as much IL-8 as enteroaggregative E. coli strains did. In this study, we attempted to evaluate epidemiologically whether the ability of DAEC to induce IL-8 was involved in the pathogenesis. Relationship among patient age, symptoms, Afa adhesins, season and IL-8 induction were examined. The subgroup of DAEC that possessed Afa genes and/or induced a high level of IL-8 was significantly prevalent among patients age 1 to 4 years; however total DAEC was not significantly high among the children compared to other age group. IL-8 inducing DAEC seems to play a role in causing sporadic diarrheal illnesses, particularly in pediatric fields. Investigations highlighting the relationship between IL-8 induction and enteropathogenicity are clearly necessary to confirm the role of DAEC in infectious enteritis.

  12. Incidence of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes among People Aged over 20 Years in Ahvaz: A 5-Year Perspective Study (2009–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazian, Hajieh; Hardani Pasand, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study is the fourth cohort study conducted in the Middle East on the evaluation of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, implemented in Ahvaz, Iran. Methodology. The individuals aged over twenty years who had participated in a study on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 2009 (Phase 1) in Ahvaz were invited again in 2014. The questionnaires were completed via interview, and anthropometric parameters were measured by standard method. The logistic regression and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results. In the median of five-year follow-up, a number of 593 people participated in reexamination from which 396 individuals were nondiabetic in Phase 1. The incidence of diabetes and prediabetes was 21.9 and 40.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Among Phase 1 prediabetics, 16.8% were diagnosed with diabetes in a five-year period. The factors affecting the incidence of prediabetes among the people younger than 65 years include age, family history of diabetes, and gender. The age factor plays an important role in the transformation of prediabetes to diabetes. Conclusion. The city of Ahvaz with type 2 diabetes incidence of 13.64 per 1000 person-years is one of the areas with high incidence of diabetes in Iran. PMID:28004008

  13. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  14. A 5-year survey of biopsy proven kidney diseases in Lebanon: significant variation in prevalence of primary glomerular diseases by age, population structure and consanguinity

    PubMed Central

    Karnib, Hussein H.; Gharavi, Ali G.; Aftimos, Georges; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Saad, Reem; Gemayel, Elias; Masri, Badiaa; Assaad, Shafika; Badr, Kamal F.; Ziyadeh, Fuad N.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Differences in epidemiology of kidney disease across the Middle East may arise from variations in indication for biopsy, environmental exposure and socio-economic status. The Lebanese population is composed of different ethnicities, with distinct ancestry and religion, enabling comparison of their effect on the prevalence of kidney disease within a confined geographic setting and uniform practices. Here we report 5 years’ detailed epidemiology of renal diseases, based on histological diagnosis, in a sample from three large pathology centres in Lebanon. Methods. Records of renal biopsies analysed at the American University of Beirut Medical Center, Hotel Dieu de France Hospital and the Institut National de Pathologie from January 2003 till December 2007 were retrospectively examined. We recorded the following data for each patient: age, gender, indication for renal biopsy and histopathological diagnosis. Religious affiliation and parents’ consanguinity were recorded when feasible. Results. The mean age at renal biopsy was 36.76 ± 20 years (range 1–84). The most common diagnosis was mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN; 20%), followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (13.2%). While there were no differences in age, gender or indications for biopsy among different religious affiliations, mesangioproliferative GN was significantly more frequent among Muslims (P = 0.039) and offspring of consanguineous unions (P = 0.036). On the other hand, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was most prevalent in Christians (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Variation in the distribution of diagnoses between Muslim and Christian groups likely reflects differences in population structure and ancestry. In particular, the increased prevalence of mesangioproliferative GN among offspring of consanguineous unions in Muslims suggests a recessive genetic component to this disease which may be identified via homozygosity mapping. These findings have important

  15. Trends in calving ages and calving intervals for dairy cattle breeds in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hare, E; Norman, H D; Wright, J R

    2006-01-01

    Trends since 1980 for calving age and calving interval, 2 factors that influence herd life, were examined by parity for 5 breeds of US dairy cattle. Calving data were from cows with records that passed edits for USDA genetic evaluations and were in herds that remained on Dairy Herd Improvement test. First-calf heifers calved at progressively younger ages over time, but the age decline was less for later parities because of longer calving intervals. Breed differences for calving age were evident for all parities; current mean age at first calving ranged from 24 mo for Jerseys to 28 mo for Ayrshires. Mean calving age across all parities declined over time for all breeds, primarily because of increased turnover rate, and ranged from 48 mo for Holsteins to 54 mo for Ayrshires. Across parity, annual increase in calving interval was reasonably consistent (0.90 to 1.07 d/yr) for all breeds except Jersey (0.49 d/yr). Within parity, regressions of calving interval on year were generally similar to overall breed trend. Breed means for first calving interval across time ranged from 390 d for Jerseys to 407 d for Brown Swiss.

  16. Validation of Masimo Pronto 7 and HemoCue 201 for hemoglobin determination in children from 1 to 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Shamah Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Morales Ruán, María del Carmen; Villalpando Hernández, Salvador; Hernández Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy and precision of HemoCue 201 (HemoCue) and Masimo Pronto 7 (Masimo) devices for measuring hemoglobin (Hb) in epidemiological studies, having venous blood samples as a gold standard. Material and methods We measured Hb concentrations in a field sample of 148 children from one to five years of age. Masimo and HemoCue were used for capillary blood samples and an automatic analyzer for venous blood samples. Regression models with no intercept were constructed to measure precision and predictability, concordance correlations to measure accuracy and precision, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement as well as hierarchical linear models to estimate variance. Results Both HemoCue and Masimo underestimated Hb concentrations compared to the gold standard. They respectively yielded the following results: regression coefficients of 0.887 and 0.876 with 98.7% and 98.6% predictability; concordance correlation coefficients of 0.183 (p<0.001) and 0.166 (p<0.001); and Bland-Altman variances of -1.51 and -1.62. With regard to Masimo specifically, the three-level Hierarchical Linear Model showed that 57.9% of total variance stemmed from random errors in repeated measures from the same subject. Conclusions HemoCue and Masimo measure lower Hb concentrations than the gold standard. Their accuracy and precision levels are comparable. It is essential to ensure proper use of devices through enhanced training of field workers. PMID:28170445

  17. Evaluation of an intensive intervention programme to protect children aged 1-5 years from environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yücel, U; Ocek, Z A; Ciçeklioğlu, M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in Turkey, who smoked and/or whose spouses smoked. It was found that at least one parent of a total of 182 children smoked and 80 of these mothers were taken into stratified sampling based on the number of the smoking parents. Mothers were visited at their homes. During the initial visit, they were educated and urine samples were taken from their children. Following this initial visit, mothers were randomized to the intensive intervention (n = 38) or the minimal intervention group (n = 40). The levels of cotinine in the intensive intervention (P = 0.000) and minimal intervention (P = 0.000) groups in the final follow-up were significantly lower than the initial levels. The proportion of mothers reporting a complete smoking ban at home in the final follow-up was higher in the intensive intervention group than the minimal intervention group (P = 0.000). The education provided during the home visits and the reporting of the urinary cotinine levels of the children were effective in lowering the children's exposure to ETS at their home.

  18. Validity of the body mass index and fat mass index as an indicator of obesity in children aged 3-5 year.

    PubMed

    Eto, Chieko; Komiya, Shuichi; Nakao, Takehira; Kikkawa, Kazutoshi

    2004-01-01

    The validity of the BMI and fat mass index (FMI) as indicators of obesity was evaluated in a group of 3-5 yr old (n=486) children. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was measured (using 50 kHz and tetrapolar electrodes) in order to calculate percent fat mass (%FM) and FMI (fat mass/stature squared). For boys, obesity was defined as > or =20%FM. For girls, the cutoff for obesity was > or =25%FM. However, obesity was defined as a BMI at or above the 90th percentile of age- and sex-specific data in this study. The percentile cutoffs for FMI were the same as for BMI using the same sample. There were correlations between BMI or FMI and %FM, but there was no significant correlation between BMI or FMI and stature. Therefore, it appears that both the BMI and FMI in this study are far more useful indices with which to assess obesity, and are reasonable indicators of fatness. However, with the use of %FM by BIA as the criterion for obesity, BMI and FMI had high specificities (95.5-96.4% for BMI and 99.5-100% for FMI) and lower but variable sensitivities (30.4-37.5% for BMI and 42.9-68.8% for FMI). Thus, almost all children who were not obese were classified correctly. In contrast, many obese children were not correctly identified by BMI and FMI. Therefore, we conclude that BMI should be used with caution as an indicator of childhood obesity. The new recommendations based on the FMI approach for defining childhood obesity are associated with a level of sensitivity that is somewhat higher than that of the BMI approach. Caution should, however, be used in generalizing from the findings in this study, and a further investigation of the issue is required.

  19. Long-term (5-year) antibody persistence following two- and three-dose regimens of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in children aged 1-11 years.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen; Nolan, Terry; Díez Domingo, Javier; Rombo, Lars; Sokal, Etienne M; Marès, Josep; Casanovas, Josep M; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-06-17

    This study compared the long-term persistence of anti-hepatitis A (anti-HAV) and B (anti-HBs) antibodies, 5 years after vaccination of subjects aged 1-11 years with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine either in a two-dose (0, 6 months, Adult formulation) or a three-dose (0, 1, 6 months, Paediatric formulation) schedule. At the end of the 5 years, all subjects (100%) in both groups continued to have anti-HAV antibodies > or =15mIU/mL, while 94-97% of subjects in both groups had anti-HBs antibody concentrations > or =10mIU/mL. Subjects with anti-HBs antibody concentration < or =10mIU/mL were administered a challenge dose of hepatitis B vaccine. All subjects mounted a vigorous immune response to the challenge indicating the presence of immunological memory to HBV.

  20. Use of computerized tomography and chest x-rays in evaluating efficacy of aerosolized recombinant human DNase in cystic fibrosis patients younger than age 5 years: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nasr, S Z; Kuhns, L R; Brown, R W; Hurwitz, M E; Sanders, G M; Strouse, P J

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest and chest x-rays (CXR) to determine efficacy of inhaled recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients younger than 5 years of age. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of 12 patients with CF younger than 5 years of age, attending the University of Michigan Cystic Fibrosis Center (Ann Arbor, MI) was conducted. The changes in the HRCT and CXR score from baseline to day 100 of therapy were assessed using a previously validated scoring system. The mean changes of HRCT scores between the rhDNase and placebo groups were found to be significant at the 95% level, with mean change +/- SE mean of - 1.00 +/- 0.53 and 0.58 +/- 0.24 for rhDNase and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.02). The difference in CXR score was not significant between the two groups. An analysis was performed to relate HRCT subscores to CXR score; only thickening of the intra-interlobular septae was significantly correlated with the total CXR score (r = - 0.7, P < 0.01). There was improvement in the parents' assessments of the patients' well-being, with improvement in physical activity, decreased cough, sleep quality, and appetite in those subjects receiving rhDNase. We conclude that the administration of rhDNase was associated with improvement in the HRCT scan in CF patients younger than 5 years of age. Findings indicate that HRCT of the chest is useful and sensitive in studying responses to therapy in patients with CF lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of HRCT to assess the effectiveness of a therapeutic modality in so young a CF patient population.

  1. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and identification of pneumococcal serotypes by real-time polymerase chain reaction using blood samples from Italian children ≤ 5 years of age with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Anna; Esposito, Susanna; Coppo, Erika; Rossi, Giovanni A; Tozzi, Alberto; Romano, Mariateresa; Da Dalt, Liviana; Schito, Gian Carlo; Principi, Nicola

    2011-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe life-threatening infections. Laboratory identification and serotyping of this pathogens is desirable to monitor vaccine impact and coverage; however, especially in pediatric patients, the yield of traditional microbiological diagnostic procedures can be very low. The aim of this study was to develop real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to be performed directly on blood samples to identify the most common capsular serotypes causing pneumonia in Italian children (≤ 5 years of ages) after the introduction of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. Our real-time PCR-based assays showed high sensitivity (at least 35 fg of pneumococcal DNA), and they were validated with 49 well-characterized pneumococcal isolates, 8 nonpneumococcal isolates, 13 simulated blood clinical samples loaded with S. pneumoniae of known serotypes, and 46 blood clinical samples. All the strains tested and the simulated blood clinical samples were correctly typed by the technique. Real-time PCR allowed serotyping in 37/46 children ≤ 5 years of age (80.4%) in whom pneumonia was diagnosed in four Italian hospitals. Non-PCV7 serotypes accounted for at least 47.8% (22/46) of cases, serotype 19A being the most common (34.7%, 16/46). Although, it is not known at present whether the incidence of 19A serotype is attributable to the use of PCV7 only, expanding pneumococcal serotype coverage has clearly the potential to prevent a larger number of pneumonias in Italian children less than ≤ 5 years of age. Molecular methods are of increasing importance in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia and in monitoring serotype distribution and replacement.

  2. Biochemical and Hematologic Reference Intervals for Aged Xenopus laevis in a Research Colony.

    PubMed

    Chang, Angela G; Hu, Jing; Lake, Elizabeth; Bouley, Donna M; Johns, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, is commonly used in developmental and toxicology research studies. Little information is available on aged X. laevis; however, with the complete mapping of the genome and the availability of transgenic animal models, the number of aged animals in research colonies is increasing. The goals of this study were to obtain biochemical and hematologic parameters to establish reference intervals for aged X. laevis and to compare results with those from young adult X. laevis. Blood samples were collected from laboratory reared, female frogs (n = 52) between the ages of 10 and 14 y. Reference intervals were generated for 30 biochemistry analytes and full hematologic analysis; these data were compared with prior results for young X. laevis from the same vendor. Parameters that were significantly higher in aged compared with young frogs included calcium, calcium:phosphorus ratio, total protein, albumin, HDL, amylase, potassium, CO2, and uric acid. Parameters found to be significantly lower in aged frogs included glucose, AST, ALT, cholesterol, BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, phosphorus, triglycerides, LDL, lipase, sodium, chloride, sodium:potassium ratio, and anion gap. Hematology data did not differ between young and old frogs. These findings indicate that chemistry reference intervals for young X. laevis may be inappropriate for use with aged frogs.

  3. Biochemical and Hematologic Reference Intervals for Aged Xenopus laevis in a Research Colony

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Angela G; Hu, Jing; Lake, Elizabeth; Bouley, Donna M; Johns, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, is commonly used in developmental and toxicology research studies. Little information is available on aged X. laevis; however, with the complete mapping of the genome and the availability of transgenic animal models, the number of aged animals in research colonies is increasing. The goals of this study were to obtain biochemical and hematologic parameters to establish reference intervals for aged X. laevis and to compare results with those from young adult X. laevis. Blood samples were collected from laboratory reared, female frogs (n = 52) between the ages of 10 and 14 y. Reference intervals were generated for 30 biochemistry analytes and full hematologic analysis; these data were compared with prior results for young X. laevis from the same vendor. Parameters that were significantly higher in aged compared with young frogs included calcium, calcium:phosphorus ratio, total protein, albumin, HDL, amylase, potassium, CO2, and uric acid. Parameters found to be significantly lower in aged frogs included glucose, AST, ALT, cholesterol, BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, phosphorus, triglycerides, LDL, lipase, sodium, chloride, sodium:potassium ratio, and anion gap. Hematology data did not differ between young and old frogs. These findings indicate that chemistry reference intervals for young X. laevis may be inappropriate for use with aged frogs. PMID:26424243

  4. Altered fractal dynamics of gait: reduced stride-interval correlations with aging and Huntington's disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Mitchell, S. L.; Firtion, R.; Peng, C. K.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in the duration of the gait cycle (the stride interval) display fractal dynamics and long-range correlations in healthy young adults. We hypothesized that these stride-interval correlations would be altered by changes in neurological function associated with aging and certain disease states. To test this hypothesis, we compared the stride-interval time series of 1) healthy elderly subjects and young controls and of 2) subjects with Huntington's disease and healthy controls. Using detrended fluctuation analysis we computed alpha, a measure of the degree to which one stride interval is correlated with previous and subsequent intervals over different time scales. The scaling exponent alpha was significantly lower in elderly subjects compared with young subjects (elderly: 0.68 +/- 0.14; young: 0.87 +/- 0.15; P < 0.003). The scaling exponent alpha was also smaller in the subjects with Huntington's disease compared with disease-free controls (Huntington's disease: 0.60 +/- 0.24; controls: 0.88 +/-0.17; P < 0.005). Moreover, alpha was linearly related to degree of functional impairment in subjects with Huntington's disease (r = 0.78, P < 0.0005). These findings demonstrate that strike-interval fluctuations are more random (i.e., less correlated) in elderly subjects and in subjects with Huntington's disease. Abnormal alterations in the fractal properties of gait dynamics are apparently associated with changes in central nervous system control.

  5. Detailed analysis of the impact of age on the QT interval

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, Simon W; Cheng, Xin-Bo Justin; Thompson, Darby JS

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of age on the ECG QT interval, an important predictor of cardiovascular mortality and drug-induced cardiac arrhythmias, and determine whether QT-heart rate correction formulae (QTc) have differential relationships with age and sex. Methods Data were examined from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II and III, civilian population aged 25 to 90 years. QT weighted means and standard deviations were calculated for all ages. The QTc were evaluated for six QTc: proposed by Bazett (QTcBZT), Fridericia (QTcFRD), Hodges (QTcHDG), Dmitrienko (QTcDMT), Rautaharju (QTcRTHa) and Framingham (QTcFRM). Results QTc was strongly related to age and gender, for all formulae except for QTcBZT for women. The relationship between QTc and age was significant regardless of whether the relationship was approximated by a linear or non-linear (quadratic or cubic spline) model. QTc increased more dramatically with age in men. There was a significant (P < 0.001) positive relationship between QTc variance and age for each QTc formula for both men and women. There were a greater proportion of individuals with longer QTc with older ages especially age 80 years and above. Conclusion QTc and its variance increase with age. Prolonged QTc is more prevalent in older individuals, especially men. PMID:27899938

  6. Mitral valve replacement in infants and children 5 years of age or younger: Evolution in practice and outcome over three decades with a focus on supra-annular prosthesis implantation

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Elif Seda Selamet; Pigula, Frank A.; Berul, Charles I.; Lock, James E.; del Nido, Pedro J.; McElhinney, Doff B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Successful mitral valve replacement in young children is limited by the lack of small prosthetic valves. Supra-annular prosthesis implantation can facilitate mitral valve replacement with a larger prosthesis in children with a small annulus, but little is known about its effect on the outcomes of mitral valve replacement in young children. Methods One hundred eighteen children underwent mitral valve replacement at 5 years of age or younger from 1976–2006. Mitral valve replacement was supra-annular in 37 (32%) patients. Results Survival was 74% ± 4% at 1 year and 56% ± 5% at 10 years but improved over time (10-year survival of 83% ± 7% from 1994–2006). Factors associated with worse survival included earlier mitral valve replacement date, age less than 1 year, complete atrioventricular canal, and additional procedures at mitral valve replacement, but not supra-annular mitral valve replacement. As survival improved during our more recent experience, the risks of supra-annular mitral valve replacement became apparent; survival was worse among patients with a supra-annular prosthesis after 1991. A pacemaker was placed in 18 (15%) patients within 1 month of mitral valve replacement and was less likely in patients who had undergone supra-annular mitral valve replacement. Among early survivors, freedom from redo mitral valve replacement was 72% ± 5% at 5 years and 45% ± 7% at 10 years. Twenty-one patients with a supra-annular prosthesis underwent redo mitral valve replacement. The second prosthesis was annular in 15 of these patients and upsized in all but 1, but 5 required pacemaker placement for heart block. Conclusions Supra-annular mitral valve replacement was associated with worse survival than annular mitral valve replacement in our recent experience. Patients with supra-annular mitral valve replacement were less likely to have operative complete heart block but remained at risk when the prosthesis was subsequently replaced. PMID:18954636

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in height, leg length and trunk length among children aged 6.5 years and their parents from the Republic of Belarus: Evidence from the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rita; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Kramer, Michael S.; Smith, George Davey; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Matush, Lidia; Martin, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lower socioeconomic position is associated with shorter stature, in particular shorter leg length, but the magnitude of these associations in non-Western countries has received little attention. Aim To examine socioeconomic differentials in height, leg and trunk length in 6.5 year olds from the Republic of Belarus and compare these to differentials in parental height. Methods Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations in a cohort of 13 889 children. Results Children from non-manual households were 1.0 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.3 cm) taller than those from manual households. Mothers and fathers from non-manual backgrounds were 0.7 cm (0.5–0.8) and 1.8 cm (1.6–2.0) taller than those from manual backgrounds, respectively. Associations with higher parental educational attainment were similar. The magnitudes of the associations of socioeconomic position with leg length were similar to those with trunk length. Adjusting for mid-parental height and number of older siblings attenuated associations markedly. Conclusions In Belarus, similar socioeconomic differentials in height were observed in both children and their parents. Among children, height differentials were partly explained by mid-parental height and number of older siblings. Leg length was not a more sensitive indicator of childhood socioeconomic conditions than trunk length. PMID:21591995

  8. Age-related alterations in the fractal scaling of cardiac interbeat interval dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, N.; Peng, C. K.; Morin, R.; Goldberger, A. L.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    We postulated that aging is associated with disruption in the fractallike long-range correlations that characterize healthy sinus rhythm cardiac interval dynamics. Ten young (21-34 yr) and 10 elderly (68-81 yr) rigorously screened healthy subjects underwent 120 min of continuous supine resting electrocardiographic recording. We analyzed the interbeat interval time series using standard time and frequency domain statistics and using a fractal measure, detrended fluctuation analysis, to quantify long-range correlation properties. In healthy young subjects, interbeat intervals demonstrated fractal scaling, with scaling exponents (alpha) from the fluctuation analysis close to a value of 1.0. In the group of healthy elderly subjects, the interbeat interval time series had two scaling regions. Over the short range, interbeat interval fluctuations resembled a random walk process (Brownian noise, alpha = 1.5), whereas over the longer range they resembled white noise (alpha = 0.5). Short (alpha s)- and long-range (alpha 1) scaling exponents were significantly different in the elderly subjects compared with young (alpha s = 1.12 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.90 +/- 0.14, respectively, P = 0.009; alpha 1 = 0.75 +/- 0.17 vs. 0.99 +/- 0.10, respectively, P = 0.002). The crossover behavior from one scaling region to another could be modeled as a first-order autoregressive process, which closely fit the data from four elderly subjects. This implies that a single characteristic time scale may be dominating heartbeat control in these subjects. The age-related loss of fractal organization in heartbeat dynamics may reflect the degradation of integrated physiological regulatory systems and may impair an individual's ability to adapt to stress.

  9. Ages of subsurface stratigraphic intervals in the Quaternary of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, B. J.; Tracey, J. I.; Goter, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Drill cores of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, reveal six stratigraphic intervals, numbered in downward sequence, which represent vertical coral growth during Quaternary interglaciations. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the Holocene sea transgressed the emergent reef platform by about 8000 yr B.P. The reef grew rapidly upward (about 5 to 10 mm/yr) until about 6500 yr B.P. Afterward vertical growth slowed to about 0.5 mm/yr, then lateral development became dominant during the last several thousand years. The second interval is dated at 131,000 ± 3000 yr B.P. by uranium series. This unit correlates with oxygen-isotope substage 5e and with terrace VIIa of Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, and of Main Reef-2 terrace at Atauro Island. The third interval is not dated because corals were recrystallized and it is tentatively correlated with either oxygen-isotope stages 7 or 9. The age of the fourth interval is estimated at 454,000 ± 100,000 yr B.P. from measured {234U }/{238U } activity ratios. This unit is correlated with either oxygen-isotope stage 9, 11, or 13.

  10. Ages of subsurface stratigraphic intervals in the Quaternary of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Tracey, J.I.; Goter, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    Drill cores of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, reveal six stratigraphic intervals, numbered in downward sequence, which represent vertical coral growth during Quaternary interglaciations. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the Holocene sea transgressed the emergent reef platform by about 8000 yr B.P. The reef grew rapidly upward (about 5 to 10 mm/yr) until about 6500 yr B.P. Afterward vertical growth slowed to about 0.5 mm/yr, then lateral development became dominant during the last several thousand years. The second interval is dated at 131,000 ?? 3000 yr B.P. by uranium series. This unit correlates with oxygen-isotope substage 5e and with terrace VIIa of Huon Peninsula, New Guinea, and of Main Reef-2 terrace at Atauro Island. The third interval is not dated because corals were recrystallized and it is tentatively correlated with either oxygen-isotope stages 7 or 9. The age of the fourth interval is estimated at 454,000 ?? 100,000 yr B.P. from measured 234U 238U activity ratios. This unit is correlated with either oxygen-isotope stage 9, 11, or 13. ?? 1985.

  11. Development of a distance-based interval throwing program for Little League-aged athletes.

    PubMed

    Axe, M J; Snyder-Mackler, L; Konin, J G; Strube, M J

    1996-01-01

    We developed a distance-based interval throwing program for Little League-aged athletes (9 to 12 years) to be used in training and rehabilitation. The timing and repetition parameters were developed from data collected during 400 innings of organized baseball during a single season, and short toss distance from Little League rules for field dimensions. There were 1022 boys from organized baseball teams in the four studies. Maximal distance and speed measurements were recorded for 853 boys. We developed a mathematical model from these data to predict maximal throwing distance from maximal throwing speed. This model was then tested on a second sample of 114 players. We compared the predicted distance with the actual maximal throwing distance; the correlation coefficient was 0.92. Forty players aged 9 to 12 participated in a study to assess degradation of speed and distance. The average variability of the speed was small (< 5 mph), but the variability in distance was large (22.4 feet). Fifteen boys then threw the entire throwing program as designed. These results show that healthy young athletes can be expected to be able to throw the predicted value of this practical progressive interval throwing program for Little League-aged athletes. The appropriate program can be assigned from age and known preinjury pitch speed.

  12. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups…

  13. Impact and Effectiveness of 10 and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on Hospitalization and Mortality in Children Aged Less than 5 Years in Latin American Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Martinez-Silveira, Martha S.; Carvalho, Ana Flavia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtemoc; Toscano, Cristiana M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-10 or PCV-13) in their routine national immunization programs. Objectives We aimed to summarize the evidence of PCV impact and effectiveness in children under 5 years old in the LAC Region. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the literature on impact or effectiveness of PCVs on deaths or hospitalizations due to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, meningitis and sepsis. We searched Medline, WoS, Lilacs, Scopus, Central and gray literature published in any language from 2009 to January 2016. We included studies addressing the outcomes of interest in children in the target age group, and with the following designs: randomized trials, cohort or case-control, interrupted time series with at least three data points before and after the intervention, and before-after studies. Screening of citations, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted in duplicate by independent reviewers, according to the study protocol registered on PROSPERO. Descriptive analysis of the effectiveness measurements and sensitivity analysis were conducted. Effectiveness is reported as 1-OR or 1-RR for case control or cohort/clinical trials, and as percent change of disease incidence rates for before-after studies. Results We identified 1,085 citations, 892 from databases and 193 from other sources. Of these, 22 were further analyzed. Studies were from Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, Peru and Nicaragua. Effectiveness ranged from 8.8–37.8% for hospitalizations due to X-ray confirmed pneumonia, 7.4–20.6% for clinical pneumonia, and 13.3–87.7% for meningitis hospitalizations, and 56–83.3% for IPD hospitalization, varying by age, outcome definition, type of vaccine and study design. Conclusions Available evidence to date indicates significant impact of both PCV-10 and PCV-13 in the outcomes studied, with no evidence of the superiority of one

  14. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and DNA-Methylation in Children at Age 5.5 Years: Epigenome-Wide-Analysis in the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP)-Study

    PubMed Central

    Rzehak, Peter; Saffery, Richard; Reischl, Eva; Covic, Marcela; Wahl, Simone; Grote, Veit; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence links prenatal exposure to maternal tobacco smoking with disruption of DNA methylation (DNAm) profile in the blood of infants. However, data on the postnatal stability of such DNAm signatures in childhood, as assessed by Epigenome Wide Association Studies (EWAS), are scarce. Objectives of this study were to investigate DNAm signatures associated with in utero tobacco smoke exposure beyond the 12th week of gestation in whole blood of children at age 5.5 years, to replicate previous findings in young European and American children and to assess their biological role by exploring databases and enrichment analysis. DNA methylation was measured in blood of 366 children of the multicentre European Childhood Obesity Project Study using the Illumina Infinium HM450 Beadchip (HM450K). An EWAS was conducted using linear regression of methylation values at each CpG site against in utero smoke exposure, adjusted for study characteristics, biological and technical effects. Methylation levels at five HM450K probes in MYO1G (cg12803068, cg22132788, cg19089201), CNTNAP2 (cg25949550), and FRMD4A (cg11813497) showed differential methylation that reached epigenome-wide significance according to the false-discovery-rate (FDR) criteria (q-value<0.05). Whereas cg25949550 showed decreased methylation (-2% DNAm ß-value), increased methylation was observed for the other probes (9%: cg12803068; 5%: cg22132788; 4%: cg19089201 and 4%: cg11813497) in exposed relative to non-exposed subjects. This study thus replicates previous findings in children ages 3 to 5, 7 and 17 and confirms the postnatal stability of MYO1G, CNTNAP2 and FRMD4A differential methylation. The role of this differential methylation in mediating childhood phenotypes, previously associated with maternal smoking, requires further investigation. PMID:27171005

  15. Effect of preventive zinc supplementation on linear growth in children under 5 years of age in developing countries: a meta-analysis of studies for input to the lives saved tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    supplemented group compared to placebo. This estimate is recommended for inclusion in Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model. Conclusions Zinc supplementation has a significant positive effect on linear growth, especially when administered alone, and should be included in national strategies to reduce stunting in children < 5 years of age in developing countries. PMID:21501440

  16. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was also investigated, with 'educational provision' referring to the curriculum, school placement and the level of learning support. There were 143 VLBW children without cerebral palsy (CP) and 41 term-born peers assessed at 3½ years of age. The assessment included 6 measures of development: word comprehension, visual motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, executive functioning and behaviour. Educational provision was determined at age 5½ years. A mildly abnormal score (score <1 standard deviation) was considered to indicate developmental difficulty. Scores from the six measures of development were analysed to determine the difficulty frequency and the presence of multiple difficulties (>1 difficulty score) in each child. This study showed that at 3½ years of age, the VLBW children had significantly more difficulty with motor coordination than their term-born peers. In addition, 27% of the VLBW children had multiple difficulties compared to 10% in the term-born group. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that of the difficulties, impaired motor coordination was most strongly associated with the requirement for learning support two years later. Regression analyses showed that having multiple difficulties was significantly associated with the need for learning support (Odds Ratio of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.5-7.8). These results show that the presence of multiple difficulties in a VLBW child of preschool age, can impact the child's educational provision two years later.

  17. Calcium supplementation and the risks of atherosclerotic vascular disease in older women: results of a 5-year RCT and a 4.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joshua R; Calver, Janine; Zhu, Kun; Flicker, Leon; Prince, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that calcium supplementation, a key intervention for preventing osteoporotic fracture in older women, may increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. To evaluate the risk further, an examination of complete verified atherosclerotic vascular hospitalization and mortality data from a 5-year randomized, controlled trial (RCT) of calcium carbonate and 4.5 years of posttrial follow-up was undertaken. This study used data from a published 5-year randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial [Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS)]. The participants were 1460 women aged 75.1 ± 2.7 years at baseline (1998) recruited from the general population and randomized to receive 1200 mg of calcium carbonate daily or an identical placebo. All hospital admission and deaths during the 5-year study and the 4.5-year follow-up were derived from the Western Australian Data Linkage Service (WADLS). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the combined endpoint of atherosclerotic vascular mortality or first hospitalization were calculated using prespecified intention-to-treat and per-protocol models. The intervention group that received calcium supplementation did not have a higher risk of death or first-time hospitalization from atherosclerotic vascular disease in either the 5-year RCT [multivariate-adjusted HR = 0.938, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.690-1.275] or during the 9.5 years of observational study (multivariate-adjusted HR = 0.919, 95% CI 0.737-1.146). Further analysis suggested that calcium supplementation may reduce the risk of hospitalization and mortality in patients with preexisting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This trial provides compelling evidence that calcium supplementation of 1200 mg daily does not significantly increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease in elderly women.

  18. The relationship between consumption of tyrosine and phenylalanine as precursors of catecholamine at breakfast and the circadian typology and mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to examine the relationship between tyrosine and phenylalanine intake at breakfast as precursors of dopamine, and scores on the Torsvall-Åkerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and of mental health in Japanese infants aged 2 to 5 years. Results An integrated questionnaire was administered to parents of 1,367 infants attending one of ten nursery schools governed by Kochi City or a kindergarten affiliated with the Faculty of Education at Kochi University (775 answers for analysis: 56.7%) in May and June 2008. Questionnaires included the Torsvall-Åkerstedt Diurnal Type Scale and questions on sleep habits (onset, offset, quality, quantity, and so on), meal habits (content and regularity of timing), and mental health (depressive states). Amount of tyrosine and phenylalanine intake was calculated based on a breakfast content questionnaire and data on the components of amino acids in foods. Infants who ingested more than 800 mg of tyrosine or phenylalanine at breakfast per meal were more morning-type than those who ingested less than 800 mg (ANOVA: P= 0.005). However, this relationship disappeared in the ANCOVA analysis (with the covariance of tryptophan intake, P= 0.894). Infants who ingested more than 800 mg of the two amino acids at breakfast showed significantly higher mental health scores (lower frequency of depressive states) than those who ingested less than 800 mg (ANOVA: P = 0.004). This relationship remained significant when ANCOVA analysis was performed with the covariance of tryptophan (ANCOVA: P= 0.017). Conclusions These results suggest that tyrosine and phenylalanine ingested at breakfast are not related with circadian phase, but are relate with mental health in infants. PMID:24083356

  19. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... cooperatively with other kids understand the concept of gender identify colors Developmental milestones for 5-year-olds ...

  20. Association between Birth Interval and Cardiovascular Outcomes at 30 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Devakumar, D.; Hallal, P. C.; Horta, B. L.; Barros, F. C.; Wells, J. C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth interval is an important and potentially modifiable factor that is associated with child health. Whether an association exists with longer-term outcomes in adults is less well known. Methods Using the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, the association of birth interval with markers of cardiovascular health at 30 years of age was examined. Multivariable linear regression was used with birth interval as a continuous variable and categorical variable, and effect modification by gender was explored. Results Birth interval and cardiovascular data were present for 2,239 individuals. With birth interval as a continuous variable, no association was found but stratification by gender tended to show stronger associations for girls. When compared to birth intervals of <18 months, as binary variable, longer intervals were associated with increases in height (1.6 cm; 95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) and lean mass (1.7 kg; 95% CI: 0.2, 3.2). No difference was seen with other cardiovascular outcomes. Conclusions An association was generally not found between birth interval and cardiovascular outcomes at 30 years of age, though some evidence existed for differences between males and females and for an association with height and lean mass for birth intervals of 18 months and longer. PMID:26890250

  1. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT) that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14) and middle-aged (n = 14) females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1) and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm). Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs) for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool. PMID:26848956

  2. Prenatal Lead Exposure and Weight of 0- to 5-Year-Old Children in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Karen E.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Cantonwine, David; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cumulative prenatal lead exposure, as measured by maternal bone lead burden, has been associated with smaller weight of offspring at birth and 1 month of age, but no study has examined whether this effect persists into early childhood. Objective: We investigated the association of perinatal maternal bone lead, a biomarker of cumulative prenatal lead exposure, with children’s attained weight over time from birth to 5 years of age. Methods: Children were weighed at birth and at several intervals up until 60 months. Maternal tibia and patella lead were measured at 1 month postpartum using in vivo K-shell X-ray fluorescence. We used varying coefficient models with random effects to assess the association of maternal bone lead with weight trajectories of 522 boys and 477 girls born between 1994 and 2005 in Mexico City. Results: After controlling for breast-feeding duration, maternal anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, a 1-SD increase in maternal patella lead (micrograms per gram) was associated with a 130.9-g decrease in weight [95% confidence interval (CI), –227.4 to –34.4 g] among females and a 13.0-g nonsignificant increase in weight among males (95% CI, –73.7 to 99.9 g) at 5 years of age. These associations were similar after controlling for concurrent blood lead levels between birth and 5 years. Conclusions: Maternal bone lead was associated with lower weight over time among female but not male children up to 5 years of age. Given that the association was evident for patellar but not tibial lead levels, and was limited to females, results need to be confirmed in other studies. PMID:21715242

  3. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  4. Latino Children's Body Mass Index at 2–3.5 Years Predicts Sympathetic Nervous System Activity at 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Tambellini, Katelyn; Lustig, Robert H.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand whether the relationship between young children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses predicted their BMI, or vice versa, the association between standardized BMI (zBMI) at 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age and ANS reactivity at 3.5–5 years of age, and whether zBMI predicts later ANS reactivity or whether early ANS reactivity predicts later zBMI, was studied. Methods: Low-income, primarily Latino children (n=112) were part of a larger cohort study of mothers recruited during early pregnancy. Study measures included maternal prenatal weight, children's health behaviors (i.e., time watching television, fast food consumption, and time playing outdoors), children's height and weight at 2, 3.5, and 5 years, and children's ANS reactivity at 3.5 and 5 years. ANS measures of sympathetic nervous system (i.e., pre-ejection period) and parasympathetic nervous system (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) activity were monitored during rest and four challenges. Reactivity was calculated as the difference between mean challenge response and rest. Structural equation models analyzed the relationship between children's zBMI at 2, 3.5, and 5 years and ANS reactivity at 3.5 and 5 years, adjusting for mother's BMI, children's behaviors, and changes in height. Results: There was no association between zBMI and ANS cross-sectionally. Children with high zBMI at 2 or 3.5 years or large zBMI increases from 2 to 3.5 years of age had decreased sympathetic activity at 5 years. Neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic reactivity at 3.5 years predicted later zBMI. Conclusions: Increased zBMI early in childhood may dampen young children's SNS responses later in life. PMID:24745554

  5. Adults' age-related differences in strategy perseveration are modulated by response-stimulus intervals and problem features.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Patrick; Brun, Fleur

    2014-10-01

    Ageing results in the tendency of older adults to repeat the same strategy across consecutive problems more often than young adults, even when such strategy perseveration is not appropriate. Here, we examined how these age-related differences in strategy perseveration are modulated by response-stimulus intervals and problem characteristics. We asked participants to select the best strategy while accomplishing a computational estimation task (i.e., provide approximate sums to two-digit addition problems like 38 + 74). We found that participants repeated the same strategy across consecutive problems more often when the duration between their response and next problem display was short (300 ms) than when it was long (1300 ms). We also found more strategy perseverations in older than in young adults under short Response-Stimulus Intervals, but not under long Response-Stimulus Intervals. Finally, age-related differences in strategy perseveration decreased when problem features helped participants to select the best strategy. These modulations of age-related differences in strategy perseveration by response-stimulus intervals and characteristics of target problems are important for furthering our understanding of mechanisms underlying strategy perseveration and, more generally, ageing effects on strategy selection.

  6. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  7. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  8. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  9. Contrasting age related changes in autism spectrum disorder phenomenology in Cornelia de Lange, Fragile X, and Cri du Chat syndromes: Results from a 2.5 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Lisa; Moss, Joanna; Nelson, Lisa; Oliver, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the way in which the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) develop and manifest across the age span in individuals with genetic syndromes. In this study we present findings from a two and a half year follow-up of the characteristics associated with ASD in three syndromes: Cornelia de Lange (CdLS), Fragile X (FXS), and Cri du Chat (CdCS). Parents and carers of 251 individuals (CdLS=67, CdCS=42, and FXS=142) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) at Time 1 (T1) and again two and a half years later (T2). The FXS and CdLS groups were more likely to meet the cut-offs for both autism and ASD and show greater severity of ASD related behaviors, at both T1 and T2, compared to the CdCS group. Older individuals (>15yrs) with CdLS were more likely to meet the cut off for ASD than younger individuals (≤15 yrs) with the syndrome and more likely to show greater severity of social impairments. In FXS repetitive behaviors were found to become less prominent with age and in CdCS social impairments were reported to be more severe with age. There were no significant changes between T1 and T2 in the severity of ASD characteristics in the CdCS and CdLS groups. The FXS group showed significantly fewer repetitive behaviors and less severe impairments in social interaction over this time frame. The findings suggest that while there may be similarities in overall severity and presentation of ASD characteristics in CdLS and FXS, these characteristics have divergent patterns of development within these groups.

  10. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  11. Soviet business chaos seen lasting 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    This paper reports that companies seeking work in the collapsing Soviet Union can expect political uncertainty for another 5 years. PW discussed changes in the Soviet Union and offered advice on dealing with officials of the central government and Soviet republics at a recent meeting in Houston with executives of oil field service companies. That meeting preceded reports of the Russian federation, Ukraine, and Byelorussia agreeing to form a Slavic commonwealth.

  12. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p < 0.0001) but no significant correlation between children's HHg and W/H-Z scores. However, the multivariate model showed that breastfeeding, a fish consumption biomarker (HHg), maternal education, and child's age were statistically significant associated with specific domains (language and personal-social) of the Gesell scale. In this mining environment, family fish-eating did not affect children's linear growth, but it showed a positive influence (along with maternal variables) on neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate

  13. Changes in multifractality with aging and heart failure in heartbeat interval time series.

    PubMed

    Munoz Diosdado, A; Angulo Brown, F; Del Rio Correa, J L

    2005-01-01

    We present a multifractal analysis of diurnal heart interbeat time series from healthy young subjects, healthy elderly subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Aging and CHF causes loss of multifractality. We analyze the multifractal spectrum asymmetry. We show that the joint analysis of the degree of multifractality and the asymmetry parameter can differentiate between the cardiac interbeat time series of young and elderly persons and it can also separate healthy subjects and CHF patients.

  14. [Fissure sealants--5 years of use].

    PubMed

    Azul, A M

    1990-01-01

    This study assesses the caries prevalence, retention and cost-effectiveness of a pit and fissure sealant in a children population with 622 cases, 5 years after a single application of an auto-polymerized sealant to permanent molars. The status of the sealant and the presence of caries or restaurations on the sealed teeth was assessed. In a self-controlled group of children, the prevalence of disease (caries and restaurations) was also assessed in non-sealed teeth, for comparison. The sealant application was compared with Class I-restauration with amalgam for cost-effectiveness analysis.

  15. Biological validation of feline serum cystatin C: The effect of breed, age and sex and establishment of a reference interval.

    PubMed

    Ghys, L F E; Paepe, D; Duchateau, L; Taffin, E R L; Marynissen, S; Delanghe, J; Daminet, S

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in cats, but the routine renal markers, serum creatinine (sCr) and urea, are not sensitive or specific enough to detect early CKD. Serum cystatin C (sCysC) has advantages over sCr, both in humans and dogs, and sCysC concentration is significantly higher in cats with CKD than in healthy cats. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, sex and breed on feline sCysC and to establish a reference interval for feline sCysC. In total, 130 healthy cats aged 1-16 years were included. sCysC was determined using a validated particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay. sCr, urea, urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were also measured. No significant differences in sCysC concentration were observed among young, middle-aged and geriatric cats, female intact, female neutered cats, male intact and male neutered cats, or among purebred and domestic short-or longhaired cats. The 95% reference interval for feline sCysC was determined to be 0.58-1.95 mg/L. sCr was significantly higher in geriatric cats than young cats. Serum urea in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P <0.001, respectively). SBP in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in both middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P = 0.040, respectively). Male neutered and female neutered cats had significantly higher serum urea concentrations than female intact cats (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006, respectively). Male intact cats had a significantly higher UPC than female intact and female neutered cats (P = 0.02 for each comparison). There were no significant differences among sex groups for USG. It is of concern that sCysC in the majority of cats with CKD in previous studies falls within the reference interval calculated in this study. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the diagnostic value of sCysC as a renal marker in

  16. Factors affecting reproduction in rehabilitant female orangutans: young age at first birth and short inter-birth interval.

    PubMed

    Kuze, Noko; Dellatore, David; Banes, Graham L; Pratje, Peter; Tajima, Tomoyuki; Russon, Anne E

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the reproductive parameters of free-ranging rehabilitant female orangutans. We aimed to assess the factors that influence these parameters and provide information that could assist with the management of orangutan reintroduction programs. We analyzed the birth records of free-ranging female rehabilitants at Bukit Lawang, Bukit Tigapuluh, Sepilok, Camp Leakey, Kaja Island, Sungai Wain, and Meratus and compared them with reproductive parameters reported in wild and zoo populations. Females' ages at first birth were 10.6-14.7 years, significantly earlier than those of wild and zoo orangutans. Computed inter-birth intervals (IBIs) calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method were 65.1-90.1 months; the values for Camp Leakey and Bukit Lawang rehabilitants were significantly shorter than those reported for wild Sumatran orangutans. Infant mortality rates were 18-61%; the values for Bukit Lawang and Sepilok were significantly higher than those reported for wild Sumatran and zoo orangutans. In rehabilitants, young ages at first birth and shorter IBIs may result from the high energy intake enabled by provisioning, although the possibility exists that they reflect underestimations of age on arrival at rehabilitation centers. The observed high infant mortality rate may reflect poor mothering skills due to human rearing and/or increased disease transmission. This study demonstrates that accelerated reproductive rates (younger age at first birth and shorter IBI) are common in provisioned rehabilitant females on both Sumatra and Borneo.

  17. Olfactory Dysfunction Predicts 5-Year Mortality in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Jayant M.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Kern, David W.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57–85 were studied in 2005–6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010–11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a “dose-dependent” effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process. PMID:25271633

  18. Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Kern, David W; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57-85 were studied in 2005-6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010-11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a "dose-dependent" effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process.

  19. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  20. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  1. Osteoporosis and the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis: a population-based 5-year follow-up study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ping-Song; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Liao, Yu-Chien; Chi, Ying-Chen; Chou, Wei-Po; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liu, Mu-En; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chou, Yii-Her; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2014-10-01

    This study estimates the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis within 5 years of newly diagnosed osteoporosis in a Taiwan population. This cohort study consisted of patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis between Jan. 2003 and Dec. 2005 (N = 1634). Four age- and gender- matched patients for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling as the comparison cohort (N = 6536). All patients were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether they developed symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the 5-year nephrolithiasis-free survival rates. During the 5-year follow-up period, 60 osteoporosis patients (3.7%) and 165 non- osteoporosis patients (2.5%) developed symptomatic nephrolithiasis. The adjusted HR of symptomatic nephrolithiasis was 1.38 times greater risk for patients with osteoporosis than for the comparison cohort (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.86; P < .05). Osteoporosis is very likely to be an independent risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of symptomatic nephrolithiasis.

  2. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).

  3. English Premiership Academy knee injuries: lessons from a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Oliver; Cloke, David J; Avery, Peter J; Beasley, Ian; Deehan, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of knee injuries in adolescent males. Data were collected prospectively from 41 Premiership soccer academies over a 5 year period from July 2000 to June 2005. A total of 12,306 player seasons were registered in the U9 to the U16 age categories with a total of 1750 recordable injuries specific to the knee joint. There was a mean incidence of 0.71 (95% confidence interval ± 0.05) knee injuries per player per year, and a median of 17 (inter-quartile range 9-38) training days and 2 (inter-quartile range 1-4) matches missed per knee injury. Knee injuries were found to be most common in the 14-16 year age group. Six hundred and nine (35% of total) injuries were classed as severe resulting in more than 28 days' absence. Injuries were more likely to be sustained in a competitive or match-play environment (862 or 52%) than in training (796 or 48%), and a non-contact mechanism was implicated in 823 (55%) of recorded cases. Peaks in injury numbers were seen in early season and subsequent to the winter break. Sprain was the most common diagnosis recorded, with the medial collateral ligament affected in 23% of all knee injuries. Knee injuries are common in elite youth footballers. In this uninsured age group, it could be argued that earlier medical intervention may reduce long-term damage to the immature skeleton.

  4. Limited Effects of Endurance or Interval Training on Visceral Adipose Tissue and Systemic Inflammation in Sedentary Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Joshua H. F.; Collins, Blake E. G.; Adams, David R.; Robergs, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether “active” or “passive” recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m2) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk−1 ET (n = 15; 50–60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4–10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14). Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, whole-body and visceral fat mass, and plasma systemic inflammation were examined. Results. Compared to CON, significant increases in interpolated power output (P-SIT, P < 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.041) and test duration (P-SIT, P = 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.046) occurred after training. Final VO2 consumption was increased after P-SIT only (P < 0.001). Despite >90% exercise compliance, there was no change in whole-body or visceral fat mass or plasma inflammation (P > 0.05). Conclusion. In sedentary middle-aged men, SIT was a time-effective alternative to ET in facilitating conditioning responses yet was ineffective in altering body composition and plasma inflammation, and compared to passive recovery, evidenced diminished conditioning responses when employing active recovery. PMID:27777795

  5. Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

    2012-04-01

    Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations.

  6. Estimating the duration of geologic intervals from a small number of age determinations: A challenge common to petrology and paleobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazner, Allen F.; Sadler, Peter M.

    2016-12-01

    The duration of a geologic interval, such as the time over which a given volume of magma accumulated to form a pluton, or the lifespan of a large igneous province, is commonly determined from a relatively small number of geochronologic determinations (e.g., 4-10) within that interval. Such sample sets can underestimate the true length of the interval by a significant amount. For example, the average interval determined from a sample of size n = 5, drawn from a uniform random distribution, will underestimate the true interval by 50%. Even for n = 10, the average sample only captures ˜80% of the interval. If the underlying distribution is known then a correction factor can be determined from theory or Monte Carlo analysis; for a uniform random distribution, this factor is n+1/n-1. Systematic undersampling of interval lengths can have a large effect on calculated magma fluxes in plutonic systems. The problem is analogous to determining the duration of an extinct species from its fossil occurrences. Confidence interval statistics developed for species origination and extinction times are applicable to the onset and cessation of magmatic events.

  7. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (P<0.005) embryo recovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (P<0.05), respectively. The effect of age group on pregnancy rate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P<0.001), age (P<0.04), Day of flushing (P=0.009) and by month (P<0.012). The overall mean interovulatory interval of Group 1 (16.4±0.17 days) and Group 2 (16.6±0.12 days) was not different (P>0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; P<0.04). The embryo recovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03).

  8. Sudden and unexpected death between 1 and 5 years.

    PubMed Central

    Southall, D P; Stebbens, V; Shinebourne, E A

    1987-01-01

    Of a population of 9856 children followed up from birth, 9251 of whom underwent 24 hour tape recordings of electrocardiograms and abdominal wall breathing movements during early infancy, five died suddenly and unexpectedly at home at ages ranging from 16 months to 4 years. Postmortem examination, including full histological and microbiological investigations. failed to identify abnormalities ordinarily associated with death in all five cases. Two of the children were known to have had frequent cyanotic episodes and died during these events. In the three remaining cases there was no previous history of cyanotic or apnoeic episodes. The death of one of these three children was seen by his parents and the clinical features suggested that apnoea rather than a cardiac arrhythmia was the primary mechanism for his death. As in infancy, sudden and unexpected death for which no adequate cause is found at necropsy seems to constitute a major component of mortality between 1 and 5 years. PMID:3632016

  9. Your Child's Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Your Child’s Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months) A A A Are you amazed by the ... TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 2.5 Years (30 Months) Home and Away: How to Keep Toddlers Active ...

  10. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwanto; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment.

  11. Estimated Cerebrospina Fluid Pressure and the 5-Year Incidence of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Tao, Yijin; Yuan, Yuansheng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aim to assess the longitudinal association between baseline estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and 5-year incident primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a population-based sample of Bai Chinese living in rural China. Methods Among the 2133 Bai Chinese aged 50 years or older who had participated in the baseline examination of the Yunnan Minority Eye Study, 1520 (71.3%) attended the follow-up examination after five years and 1485 were at risk of developing POAG. Participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations at both baseline and follow-up surveys. CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)-0.18 × age (years)-1.91. Glaucoma was defined using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification criteria. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to determine the association between baseline CSFP and incident POAG. Results After a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 19 new cases of POAG were detected, with an incidence rate of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.7–1.9%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, education, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, hypertension and diabetes, no significant associations, nor any trends, were evident between baseline estimated CSFP and incident POAG. The association between estimated CSFP per mmHg increase in baseline and 5-year incidence of POAG was also non-significant, with adjusted relative risk of 0.96 (P = 0.11) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This longitudinal cohort study does not support previously observed cross-sectional association between estimated CSFP and POAG in population-based studies. PMID:27611879

  12. Plasma electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein reference intervals in the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) and influences of age, sex, season, and location.

    PubMed

    Flower, Jennifer E; Byrd, John; Cray, Carolyn; Allender, Matthew C

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of plasma electrophoretic profiles and acute phase protein concentrations may play a valuable role in health assessment of reptiles; however, little is known about reference intervals in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina). The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals of protein electrophoretic profiles and hemoglobin binding protein ([HBP] as determined by a haptoglobin assay) in free-ranging eastern box turtles and to assess any possible correlations between varying age class (adults vs. juvenile), sex (male, female, or unknown), season (spring, summer, or fall), or location (Tennessee vs. Illinois). Blood samples were obtained from 324 eastern box turtles from 2010 to 2012 at three sites in Illinois and one site in Tennessee, USA. Significant differences were observed with total protein (sex, season, state, Illinois location), albumin (age class, season, state, Illinois location), α-1 globulins (sex, season, Illinois location), α-2 globulins (sex, season, state, Illinois location), β globulins (age class, sex, season, state, Illinois location), γ globulins (sex, season state, Illinois location), and hemoglobin binding protein (age class, sex, state, Illinois location). The use of electrophoretic profiles and acute phase proteins is a relatively new concept in reptilian medicine, and this study allowed for establishment of references intervals in the eastern box turtle and emphasized differences that occured based on age, sex, season, and location. Future research in this area can now build on these data to determine changes in population health over time or alterations due to specific environmental or disease threats.

  13. Medium-term outcomes and complications after total replacement of the temporomandibular joint. Prospective outcome analysis after 3 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E A; McCullough, J; Sidebottom, A J

    2015-05-01

    In this prospective analysis, we assess the medium-term benefits, efficacy, and safety of the TMJ Concepts joint replacement system in the United Kingdom. Outcome measures of pain, maximum mouth opening, and diet were recorded preoperatively and at intervals up to 3 and 5 years. All patients who had replacement temporomandibular joints (TMJ) within a 6-year period were included. A total of 58 patients (84 joints) were followed up for 3 years (mean age 47, range 19-72) and 26 (42 joints) for 5 years (mean age 46, range 27-70). The female to male ratio was 52:6 at 3 years and 23:3 at 5 years. The most common diagnosis was degenerative disease, and the mean number of previous TMJ procedures was 2.4 (range 0-14). There were significant improvements in pain scores (7.4 reduced to 0.6 at 3 years and 0.8 at 5 years), maximum mouth opening (21.0-35.5mm at 3 years and 23.8-33.7mm at 5 years), and dietary scores (4.1-9.7 at 3 years and 3.7-9.6 at 5 years). Revision operations were required in 2 patients (not included in the outcome data) for biofilm infection of the prosthesis secondary to local infection in the head and neck. One patient had weakness of the temporal branch of the facial nerve that needed correction. TMJ replacement is an effective form of management for an irreparably damaged joint, particularly in cases of ankylosis. It lessens pain and improves function with minimal long-term morbidity.

  14. Cytoskeletal alterations associated with donor age and culture interval for equine oocytes and potential zygotes that failed to cleave after ICSI

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Elena; DeLuca, Keith F; Galli, Cesare; Lazzari, Giovanna; DeLuca, Jennifer G; Carnevale, Elaine M

    2016-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an established method to fertilize equine oocytes, but not all oocytes cleave after ICSI. The aims of the present study were to examine cytoskeleton patterns in oocytes after aging in vitro for 0, 24 or 48 h (Experiment 1) and in potential zygotes that failed to cleave after ICSI of oocytes from donors of different ages (Experiment 2). Cytoplasmic multiasters were observed after oocyte aging for 48 h (P < 0.01). A similar increase in multiasters was observed with an increased interval after ICSI for young mares (9–13 years) but not old (20–25 years) mares. Actin vesicles were observed more frequently in sperm-injected oocytes from old than young mares. In the present study, multiasters appeared to be associated with cell aging, whereas actin vesicles were associated with aging of the oocyte donor. PMID:25798646

  15. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  16. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-07-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats.

  17. Very short (15s-15s) interval-training around the critical velocity allows middle-aged runners to maintain VO2 max for 14 minutes.

    PubMed

    Billat, V L; Slawinksi, J; Bocquet, V; Chassaing, P; Demarle, A; Koralsztein, J P

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three very short interval training sessions (15-15 s of hard and easier runs) run at an average velocity equal to the critical velocity to elicit VO2 max for more than 10 minutes. We hypothesized that the interval with the smallest amplitude (defined as the ratio between the difference in velocity between the hard and the easy run divided by the average velocity and multiplied by 100) would be the most efficient to elicit VO2 max for the longer time. The subjects were middle-aged runners (52 +/- 5 yr, VO2 max of 52.1 +/- 6 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), vVO2 max of 15.9 +/- 1.8 km x h(-1), critical velocity of 85.6 +/- 1.2% vVO2 max) who were used to long slow distance-training rather than interval training. They performed three interval-training (IT) sessions on a synthetic track (400 m) whilst breathing through the COSMED K4b2 portable metabolic analyser. These three IT sessions were: A) 90-80% vVO2 max (for hard bouts and active recovery periods, respectively), the amplitude= (90-80/85) 100=11%, B) 100-70% vVO2 max amplitude=35%, and C) 60 x 110% vVO2 max amplitude = 59%. Interval training A and B allowed the athlete to spend twice the time at VO2 max (14 min vs. 7 min) compared to interval training C. Moreover, at the end of interval training A and B the runners had a lower blood lactate than after the procedure C (9 vs. 11 mmol x l(-1)). In conclusion, short interval-training of 15s-15s at 90-80 and 100-70% of vVO2 max proved to be the most efficient in stimulating the oxygen consumption to its highest level in healthy middle-aged long-distance runners used to doing only long slow distance-training.

  18. Minimal access surgery in children – 5 years institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Oak, S N; Parelkar, S V; Akhtar, T; Joshi, M; Pathak, R; Viswanath, N; V, K Satish Kumar; Ravikiran, K; Manjunath, L; Ahmed, A

    2005-01-01

    Context: Minimal access surgery (MAS) in children are common place and performed worldwide with gratifying results as the learning curve of the surgeon attains plateau. We share our experience of this technically evolving modality of surgery, performed at our setup over a period of 5 years. We also review and individually compare the data for commonly performed procedures with other available series. Author also briefly discuss potential advantages of MAS in certain debatable conditions performed quickly and with cosmesis as open procedure. Materials and methods: We performed 677 MAS in children aged between 7 days and 12 years. Five hundred and sixty-eight of these were Laparoscopic procedures and 109 were Video assisted thoracoscopic surgeries (VATS). In all laparoscopic procedures, the primary port placement was by the Hasson's open technique. We have used 5, 3 and 2 mm instruments. Our study include 259 inguinal hernia, 161 Appendectomies, 95 VATS for empyema, 51 orchiopexies, 49 diagnostic laparoscopy, 29 cholecystectomies, 22 adhesionlysis and other uncommonly performed procedures. Results: The ultimate outcome of all the performed procedures showed gratifying trend, the data of which are discussed in detail in the article. Conclusion: As we gained experience the operating time showed a decreasing trend, the complication rates and conversion rate also reduced. The advantages we came across were better postoperative appearances, less pain and early return to unrestricted activities. PMID:21188009

  19. Interval From Imaging to Treatment Delivery in the Radiation Surgery Age: How Long Is Too Long?

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, Zachary A.; Fogh, Shannon E.; Westcott, Sarah K.; Braunstein, Steve; Larson, David A.; Barani, Igor J.; Nakamura, Jean; Sneed, Penny K.

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate workflow and patient outcomes related to frameless stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS) for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: We reviewed all treatment demographics, clinical outcomes, and workflow timing, including time from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) simulation, insurance authorization, and consultation to the start of SRS for brain metastases. Results: A total of 82 patients with 151 brain metastases treated with SRS were evaluated. The median times from consultation, insurance authorization, CT simulation, and MRI for treatment planning were 15, 7, 6, and 11 days to SRS. Local freedom from progression (LFFP) was lower in metastases with MRI ≥14 days before treatment (P=.0003, log rank). The 6- and 12-month LFFP rate were 95% and 75% for metastasis with interval of <14 days from MRI to treatment compared to 56% and 34% for metastases with MRI ≥14 days before treatment. On multivariate analysis, LFFP remained significantly lower for lesions with MRI ≥14 days at SRS (P=.002, Cox proportional hazards; hazard ratio: 3.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.6-7.3). Conclusions: Delay from MRI to SRS treatment delivery for brain metastases appears to reduce local control. Future studies should monitor the timing from imaging acquisition to treatment delivery. Our experience suggests that the time from MRI to treatment should be <14 days.

  20. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions.

  1. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  2. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ... parts ("Where is your nose?") Movement and Physical Development runs walks up stairs with hand held throws ...

  3. Fitness and Your 4-to 5-Year Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fitness and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old KidsHealth > ... the risk of serious illnesses later in life. Fitness for Preschoolers Physical activity guidelines for preschoolers recommend ...

  4. General Principles for 5-year Regional Haze Progress Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document was developed by the U.S. EPA for EPA Regional Offices and states in preparing and reviewing the 5-year progress reports for the initial regional haze state implementation plans.

  5. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a 5-year retrospective of the structure, methodology, progress, and contributions to the broader scientific community that have resulted from this national USGS program. We evaluate ARMI’s success to date, with regard to the challenges faced by the program and the strengths that have emerged. We chart objectives for the next 5 years that build on current accomplishments, highlight areas meriting further research, and direct efforts to overcome existing weaknesses.

  6. 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Final 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown Hurlburt Field , Florida...SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 5-YEAR UPDATE CV-22 BEDDOWN HURLBURT FIELD , FL Agencies: The United States Air Force (USAF) and the United States Navy (Navy...the CV-22 Osprey at Hurlburt Field , Florida. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to: • Conduct IOT&E by testing the operation of the CV-22 in as

  7. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H.; Konat, Ashwati R.; Sharma, Kamal H.; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity. PMID:26824054

  8. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  9. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  10. Guidelines for Health Assessment and Intervention Techniques for 3, 4, and 5 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Judy K.

    These guidelines were developed to help registered nurses identify preschoolers with potential handicaps in the course of health assessments. Contents include guidelines on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Contents are organized within age levels in terms of functioning levels and anticipatory guidance. Functional areas covered include physical,…

  11. Trabecular metal tibia still stable at 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anders; Rösmark, Dan; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Clinical results of total knee replacement (TKR) are inferior in younger patients, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Coating of components with trabecular metal (TM) is a new way of enhancing fixation to bone. We have previously reported stabilization of TM tibial components at 2 years. We now report the 5-year follow-up of these patients, including RSA of their TM tibial components. Patients and methods 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented TM cruciate-retaining tibial component and 19 patients (21 knees) a cemented NexGen Option cruciate-retaining tibial component. Follow-up with RSA, and clinical and radiographic examinations were done at 5 years. In bilaterally operated patients, the statistical analyses included only the first-operated knee. Results Both groups had most migration within the first 3 months, the TM implants to a greater extent than the cemented implants. After 3 months, both groups stabilized and remained stable up to the 5-year follow-up. Interpretation After a high initial degree of migration, the TM tibia stabilized. This stabilization lasted for at least 5 years, which suggests a good long-term performance regarding fixation. The cemented NexGen CR tibial components showed some migration in the first 3 months and then stabilized up to the 5-year follow-up. This has not been reported previously. PMID:23992142

  12. Interval Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... before trying any type of interval training. Recent studies suggest, however, that interval training can be used safely for short periods even in individuals with heart disease. Also keep the risk of overuse injury in mind. If you rush into a strenuous workout before ...

  13. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  14. A 5-year experience with an elective scholarly concentrations program

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul; Green, Emily P.; Park, Yoon S.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Programs that encourage scholarly activities beyond the core curriculum and traditional biomedical research are now commonplace among US medical schools. Few studies have generated outcome data for these programs. The goal of the present study was to address this gap. Intervention The Scholarly Concentration (SC) Program, established in 2006 at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, is a 4-year elective program that not only encourages students to pursue scholarly work that may include traditional biomedical research but also seeks to broaden students’ focus to include less traditional areas. We compared characteristics and academic performance of SC students and non-SC students for the graduating classes of 2010–2014. Context Approximately one-third of our students opt to complete an SC during their 4-year undergraduate medical education. Because this program is additional to the regular MD curriculum, we sought to investigate whether SC students sustained the academic achievement of non-SC students while at the same time producing scholarly work as part of the program. Outcome Over 5 years, 35% of students elected to enter the program and approximately 81% of these students completed the program. The parameters that were similar for both SC and non-SC students were age at matriculation, admission route, proportion of undergraduate science majors, and number of undergraduate science courses. Most academic indicators, including United States Medical Licensing Examinations scores, were similar for the two groups; however, SC students achieved more honors in the six core clerkships and were more likely to be inducted into the medical school's two honor societies. Residency specialties selected by graduates in the two groups were similar. SC students published an average of 1.3 peer-reviewed manuscripts per student, higher than the 0.8 manuscripts per non-SC student (p=0.013). Conclusions An elective, interdisciplinary scholarly program with

  15. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-01-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

 PMID:9659099

  16. Rhinoscleroma in a 5-year-old Portuguese Child.

    PubMed

    Simão, Inês; Gaspar, Iuri; Faustino, Rosário; Brito, Maria João Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is rare in Western Europe. We report the case of a 5-year-old Portuguese boy diagnosed with rhinoscleroma in the context of recurrent epistaxis. He had a 6-month course of antibiotic (amoxicillin plus clavulanate) therapy with full recovery.

  17. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  18. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (<18 and >34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (<24 months). Family planning programs are widely viewed as having contributed to substantial maternal and neonatal mortality decline through contraceptive use--both by reducing unwanted births and by reducing the burden of these high-risk births. However, beyond averting births, the empirical evidence for the role of family planning in reducing high-risk births at population level is limited. We examined data from 205 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted between 1985 and 2013, to describe the trends in high-risk births and their association with the pace of progress in modern contraceptive prevalence rate (yearly increase in rate of MCPR) in 57 developing countries. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (<24 months), high parity births (birth order >3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in

  19. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    PubMed Central

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  20. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of lower frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) on vascular function in a cohort of lifelong sedentary (SED; n =22, age 62.7 ± 5.2 years) men compared with a positive control group of lifelong exercisers (LEX; n = 17, age 61.1 ± 5.4 years). The study consisted of three assessment phases; enrolment to the study (Phase A), following 6 weeks of conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B) and following 6 weeks of low frequency HIIT in both SED and LEX (LfHIIT; Phase C). Conditioning exercise improved FMD in SED (3.4 ± 1.5% to 4.9 ± 1.1%; P <0.01) such that the difference between groups on enrolment (3.4 ± 1.5% vs. 5.3 ± 1.4%; P <0.01) was abrogated. This was maintained but not further improved following LfHIIT in SED whilst FMD remained unaffected by LfHIIT in LEX. In conclusion, LfHIIT is effective at maintaining improvements in vascular function achieved during conditioning exercise in SED. LfHIIT is a well‐tolerated and effective exercise mode for reducing cardiovascular risk and maintaining but does not improve vascular function beyond that achieved by conditioning exercise in aging men, irrespective of fitness level. PMID:25626864

  1. Onychomatricoma: A Case Report with 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Gouveia, Bruna Melhoranse; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a case of onychomatricoma, a rare benign tumour of the nail matrix, first described by Baran and Kint in 1992. The lesion appeared on the proximal nail fold, covering half the nail of the second left finger. The nail was thickened and yellowish with longitudinal melanonychia. It was surgically removed with very satisfactory aesthetic results even after 5 years. A review on the subject is also presented. PMID:28163462

  2. Hypoadiponectinemia As an Independent Predictor for the Progression of Carotid Atherosclerosis: A 5-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Elaine; Xu, Aimin; Chow, Wing-Sun; Lee, Paul C.H.; Fong, Carol H.Y.; Cheung, Stephen C.W.; Tse, Hung Fat; Chau, Ming-Tak; Cheung, Bernard M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypoadiponectinemia predicts the development of diabetes and hypertension, both being potent atherosclerotic risk factors. Whether adiponectin predicts the progression of early atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this 5-year prospective study, we examined the relationship between serum adiponectin and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: A total of 265 subjects from the population-based Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study, with no known cardiovascular disease, underwent CIMT measurement at baseline and at 5 years. Results: In all, 129 men and 136 women, aged 54.6±12.3 years, were studied. Median CIMT at baseline was 0.63 mm (interquartile range 0.52–0.73 mm) and increased to 0.67 mm (0.56–0.78 mm) after 5 years (P<0.001). CIMT increment correlated with baseline adiponectin, age, and smoking (all P<0.05) and baseline CIMT (P<0.001), but not with sex, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, hypertension, or diabetes. In multiple linear regression analysis, baseline serum adiponectin level was an independent predictor of CIMT increment β (standardized beta)=−0.17, P=0.015], after adjusting for age, smoking, baseline CIMT, hypertension, body mass index, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia predicted CIMT progression, independent of known predictive factors such as age, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. PMID:25211296

  3. Decreased limb muscle and increased central adiposity are associated with 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Lee, Daniel; Powderly, William G.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Bacchetti, Peter; Shlipak, Michael G.; Grunfeld, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Background Unintentional loss of weight and muscle due to aging and disease has been associated with increased mortality. Wasting and weight loss occur in HIV infection even in the modern era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Methods We determined the association of MRI-measured regional and total skeletal muscle and adipose tissue with 5-year, all-cause mortality in 922 HIV-infected persons in the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Results After 5 years of follow-up, HIV-infected participants with arm skeletal muscle in the lowest tertile had a mortality rate of 23%, compared with 11 and 8% for those in the middle and highest tertiles. After multivariable adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, HIV-related factors, inflammatory markers, and renal disease, we found that lower arm skeletal muscle, lower leg skeletal muscle and higher visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were each independently associated with increased mortality. Those in the lowest tertile of arm or leg skeletal muscle had higher odds of death [arm: odds ratio (OR)=2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96–4.0; leg: OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.8] compared with the highest respective tertiles. Those in the highest tertile of VAT had 2.1-fold higher odds of death (95% CI 1.1–4.0) compared with the lowest VAT tertile. Conclusion Lower muscle mass and central adiposity appear to be important risk factors for mortality in HIV-infected individuals. A substantial proportion of this risk may be unrecognized because of the current reliance on body mass index in clinical practice. PMID:21572308

  4. [Tibial valgization osteotomy in gonarthrosis with or without chondrocalcinosis. Results after 5 years].

    PubMed

    Job-Deslandre, C; Languepin, A; Benvenuto, M; Menkès, C J

    1991-01-01

    The authors compare the results of valgisation tibial osteotomies in osteoarthrosis of the knee (146 cases) and osteoarthrosis of the knee with chondrocalcinosis (94 cases). The two groups were identical in terms of age, but differed by sex ratio (female predominance in CCA) and the initial radiological stage (more advanced forms in the CCA group). Results differed after the second year and reached significantly different values at 5 years (73% in knee osteoarthrosis as against 34% good clinical results in chondrocalcinosis). Study of two groups of patients paired for age, sex, weight and radiological stage showed that results at 5 years were significantly less good in the CCA group. These results are discussed and compared with those in the 1990 literature.

  5. A single gene for juvenile and middle-age onset open-angle glaucomas confined within a small interval on chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.; Dumont, M.; Plante, M.

    1994-09-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) encompasses a complex of ocular disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy causing progressive loss of the visual fields and usually associated with elevated intraocular pressure. POAG can be subdivided into two groups according to age of onset: (1) the more prevalent middle to late-age onset chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) diagnosed after age 40 and (2) the less common form, juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG), which occurs between 3 years of age and early adulthood. Susceptibility to either COAG or JOAG has been found to be inherited. We studied 141 members of a huge multigeneration French Canadian family affected with an autosomal dominant form of POAG. Both JOAG and COAG were diagnosed in 43 patients. To first position the disease gene, AFM microsatellites markers specific to chromosome 1q21-q31 were selected since linkage of JOAG to this region was recently demonstrated in two Caucasian families. Tight linkage was observed between the JOAG/COAG phenotype and 7 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q23-q25; a maximum lod score of 6.62 at {theta}=0 was obtained with AFM278ye5. Using a recombination mapping strategy based on a unique founder effect, a characteristic JOAG/COAG haplotype spanning 12 cM was next recognized between loci D1S196 and D1S212. Two key recombination events in affected patients further confined the disease locus within a 5 cM interval between loci D1S445 and D1S452/D1S210. These results are the first to demonstrate that JOAG and one adult form of POAG map at a single locus on chromosome 1q23-q25. They also provide members of this family with a new diagnostic tool to identify the at-risk individuals.

  6. Pranlukast reduces asthma exacerbations during autumn especially in 1- to 5-year-old boys

    PubMed Central

    Campos Alberto, Eduardo; Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Yoshinori; Hoshioka, Akira; Abe, Hiroki; Saito, Kimiyuki; Tsubaki, Toshikazu; Haraki, Mana; Sawa, Akiko; Nakayama, Yoshio; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shigeta, Midori; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Background Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been used to prevent virus-induced asthma exacerbations in autumn. Its efficacy, however, might differ with age and sex. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether pranlukast added to usual asthma therapy in Japanese children during autumn, season associated with the peak of asthma, reduces asthma exacerbations. It was also evaluated the effect of age and sex on pranlukast's efficacy. Methods A total of 121 asthmatic children aged 1 to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive regular pranlukast or not according to sex, and were divided in 2 age groups, 1–5 years and 6–14 years. The primary outcome was total asthma score calculated during 8 weeks by using a sticker calendar related to the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms. This open study lasted 60 days from September 15 to November 14, 2007. Results Significant differences in pranlukast efficacy were observed between sex and age groups. Boys aged 1 to 5 years had the lower total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.002), and experienced fewer cold episodes (p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between pranlukast and control group in total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.35), and in the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms (p = 0.67). Conclusion There was a substantial benefit of adding pranlukast to usual therapy in asthmatic children, especially in boys aged 1 to 5 years, during autumn season. PMID:28154801

  7. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were studied; results were compared according to diabetes treatment and with persons without diabetes. TSH, FT4, antithyroperoxidase, fasting glucose, and HbA1c were measured. Results and Discussion. 6.4% of patients with diabetes had hypothyroidism, a higher prevalence compared with persons without diabetes (5.1%), but lower than observed in many studies. The use of age-specific TSH reference interval (RI) could explain this difference. Patients taking metformin (MTF) had TSH (showed in medians) slightly lower (2.8 mU/L) than those not on MTF (3.3 mU/L), p < 0.05. MTF doses influenced TSH levels. Conclusions. The use of specific TSH RI could avoid the misdiagnosis of hypothyroidism in elderly with diabetes. Patients in use of MTF as single drug had lower TSH than those using other medications and persons without diabetes. PMID:27403442

  8. The acquired cardiac disease domain: the next 5 years.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John R

    2013-01-01

    At a recent in-house meeting at the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) headquarters in Windsor, the Chairs of the four domains were asked by the President to present their perception of the next 5 years in their respective domains. This review represents a distillation of our discussions on adult cardiac surgery. Advances in technology and imaging are having a radical effect on the working lives of surgeons. In clinical practice, the growth of heart teams and the breaking down of artificial barriers between specialities are altering the way we practice for the better. We see the development of hybrid approaches to many areas such as coronary artery surgery and operations on the thoracic aorta. These changes require careful analysis to ensure that they produce better outcomes that are also cost-effective. All health-care systems are at breaking point, and it is our responsibility to harness new technology to benefit our patients. This is all part of placing the patient at the centre of our activities. Hence, we see the involvement of patients in the design and analysis of clinical trials, which also require great mutual trust and cooperation between surgeons in different countries. Because of the dramatic changes in the pattern of working, we have had to alter our patterns of training and education, and we will continue to make significant innovations in the future. These are exciting challenges that will keep us all busy for the next 5 years at least.

  9. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Do, Sharon; Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  10. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  11. Effects of recipient oocyte age and interval from fusion to activation on development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer embryos derived from fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Jiang, J; Li, N; Zhang, S; Sun, H; Luo, C; Wei, Y; Shi, D

    2011-09-15

    The objective was to investigate the effect of recipient oocyte age and the interval from activation to fusion on developmental competence of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Buffalo oocytes matured in vitro for 22 h were enucleated by micromanipulation under the spindle view system, and a fetal fibroblast (pretreated with 0.1 μg/mL aphidicolin for 24 h, followed by culture for 48 h in 0.5% fetal bovine serum) was introduced into the enucleated oocyte, followed by electrofusion. Both oocytes and NT embryos were activated by exposure to 5 μM ionomycin for 5 min, followed by culture in 2 mM 6-dimethyl-aminopurine for 3 h. When oocytes matured in vitro for 28, 29, 30, 31, or 32 h were activated, more oocytes matured in vitro for 30 h developed into blastocysts in comparison with oocytes matured in vitro for 32 h (31.3 vs 19.9%, P < 0.05). When electrofusion was induced 27 h after the onset of oocyte maturation, the cleavage rate (78.0%) was higher than that of electrofusion induced at 28 h (67.2%, P < 0.05), and the blastocyst yield (18.1%) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of electrofusion induced at 25 or 26 h (7.4 and 8.5%, respectively). A higher proportion of NT embryos activated at 3 h after electrofusion developed to the blastocyst stage (18.6%) in comparison with NT embryos activated at 1 h (6.0%), 2 h (8.3%), or 4 h (10.6%) after fusion (P < 0.05). No recipient was pregnant 60 d after transfer of blastocysts developed from NT embryos activated at 1 h (0/8), 2 h (0/10), or 4 h (0/9) after fusion. However, 3 of 16 recipients were pregnant following transfer of blastocysts developed from the NT embryos activated at 3 h after fusion, and two of these recipients maintained pregnancy to term. We concluded that the developmental potential of buffalo NT embryos was related to recipient oocyte age and the interval from fusion to activation.

  12. Hip fracture causes excess mortality owing to cardiovascular and infectious disease in institutionalized older people: a prospective 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Ian D; Chen, Jian Sheng; March, Lyn M; Simpson, Judy M; Cumming, Robert G; Seibel, Markus J; Sambrook, Philip N

    2010-04-01

    An increasing risk of death after hip fracture has been well documented, but the duration and causes remain unclear, especially in very frail older people. This is a nested case-control study of 229 hip fracture cases and 229 controls matched by age, gender, institution type, and follow-up period from a cohort of 2005 institutionalized older people. The residents were assessed at baseline and followed up for hip fracture and death for at least 5 years. Time to death was measured from the same time for each case (time of the hip fracture) and the matched control. The study sample consisted of 90 males and 368 females with a mean age of 86 years (range 67 to 102 years). The hazard ratio (HR) of death for the cases compared with the controls was 3.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83-5.22, p < .001] for the first 3 months, 1.99 (95% CI 1.13-3.51, p = .02) for the period of 3 to 9 months, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.64-1.22, p = .46) for the period beyond 9 months following a fracture, after adjusting for age, gender, institution type, weight, immobility, cognitive function, comorbidities, and number of medications. The main causes of the excess mortality in the first 9 months were infections (HR = 6.66, 95% CI 1.95-22.77, p = .002) for females and cardiac disease (HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.39-5.15, p = .003) for both males and females. Bisphosphonate use was associated with a reduction in mortality after hip fracture (p = .002). Intensive medical supervision to reduce cardiovascular and infective complications should be provided for frail older people with recent hip fracture to reduce mortality.

  13. Extended Long-Term (5 Years) Outcomes of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Methods: Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Results: Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. Conclusions: The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients. PMID:23730369

  14. Pyomyositis in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Romeo, S; Sunshine, S

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain.

  15. Statistical analyses for NANOGrav 5-year timing residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Cordes, James M.; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Chatterjee, Shami; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.; Lam, Michael T.; Madison, Dustin R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Perrodin, Delphine; Rankin, Joanna; Siemens, Xavier; Vallisneri, Michele

    2017-02-01

    In pulsar timing, timing residuals are the differences between the observed times of arrival and predictions from the timing model. A comprehensive timing model will produce featureless residuals, which are presumably composed of dominating noise and weak physical effects excluded from the timing model (e.g. gravitational waves). In order to apply optimal statistical methods for detecting weak gravitational wave signals, we need to know the statistical properties of noise components in the residuals. In this paper we utilize a variety of non-parametric statistical tests to analyze the whiteness and Gaussianity of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) 5-year timing data, which are obtained from Arecibo Observatory and Green Bank Telescope from 2005 to 2010. We find that most of the data are consistent with white noise; many data deviate from Gaussianity at different levels, nevertheless, removing outliers in some pulsars will mitigate the deviations.

  16. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia among Children under 5 Years of Age—Uganda, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Manoj P.; Yoon, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dL, is a global public health problem. According to the 2006 Demographic Health Survey, the prevalence of anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda. PMID:26055748

  17. Immunologic memory 5 years after meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination in infancy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, J; Obaro, S; Deeks, J; Lake, D; Elie, C; Carlone, G; Moxon, E R; Greenwood, B

    2001-01-01

    Infant vaccination with meningococcal conjugates may provide long-term protection against disease. Antibody levels and immunologic memory were assessed in 5-year-old Gambian children who received meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination (MenA/C) in infancy. At 2 years, they were randomized to receive a booster of MenA/C (conjugate group), meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MPS group), or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV group). All groups were revaccinated with 10 microg MPS at 5 years of age, as were 39 previously unvaccinated age-matched control subjects. Before revaccination, titers were higher in the conjugate and MPS groups than in control subjects (P<.001); titers for the IPV group were similar to those for control subjects. Ten days after revaccination, the conjugate and IPV groups had similar serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody titers (3421 vs. 2790, respectively). These levels were significantly higher than those in the MPS (426) and control (485) groups (P<.001). Thus, immunologic memory was sustained for > or =5 years; however, MPS challenge at 2 years interfered with a subsequent memory response.

  18. Prevalence of Overweight and Risk of Overweight among 3-to 5-Year-Old Chicago Children, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Maryann; Meleedy-Rey, Patricia; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Longjohn, Matt; Garcia, Myrna P.; Ashlaw, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the first estimates of overweight prevalence in Chicago children entering school (aged 3-5 years). Chicago data are compared with those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Data were from 2 separate convenience samples of children aged 3-5 years…

  19. Human Figure Drawing as a Representative Medium of Perceptual Motor Development among 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Pirkko; And Others

    This study examined characteristics of human figures representing the self as drawn by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds and the presence of age or gender differences. A total of 150 children who were selected randomly from day care centers drew themselves on paper with crayons. There were equal numbers of boys and girls in each age group. Human figure…

  20. 5-Year Downstream Outcomes Following Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Louise C.; Fung, Kathy Z.; Kirby, Katharine A.; Shi, Ying; Espaldon, Roxanne; O'Brien, Sarah; Freedland, Stephen J.; Powell, Adam A.; Hoffman, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing controversies surrounding PSA screening, large numbers of men age 65+ undergo screening. However, there are few data quantifying the chain of events following screening in clinical practice to better inform decisions. The objective of this study is to quantify 5-year downstream outcomes following a PSA screening result > 4 ng/ml in older men. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of 295,645 men age 65+ who underwent PSA screening in the VA healthcare system in 2003 and were followed for 5 years using national VA and Medicare data. Among men whose index screening PSA was > 4 ng/ml we determined the number who underwent biopsy, were diagnosed with prostate cancer, were treated and survived 5-years, according to baseline characteristics. Biopsy and treatment complications were also assessed. Results 25,208 (8.5%) men had an index PSA > 4 ng/ml. During 5-year follow-up, 8,313 (33%) men underwent at least one biopsy, 5,220 (63%) of men biopsied were diagnosed with prostate cancer of whom 4,284 (82%) were treated. Receipt of biopsy decreased with advancing age and worsening comorbidity (P<0.001), whereas the percentage treated for biopsy-detected cancer exceeded 75% even among men age 85+, those with Charlson score 3+, and those with low-risk cancer. Among men with biopsy-detected cancer, the risk of dying of non-prostate cancer causes increased with advancing age and comorbidity (P<0.001). 468 (6%) of men had 7-day biopsy complications. Treatment complications included 584 (14%) men with new incontinence and 588 (14%) men with new erectile dysfunction. Conclusions Receipt of biopsy is low in older men with abnormal screening PSA and decreases with advancing age and comorbidity. However, once biopsy detects cancer most men undergo immediate treatment regardless of advancing age, comorbidity, or low-risk cancer. Understanding downstream outcomes in clinical practice should better inform individualized decisions among older men considering PSA

  1. Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigger, J. T. Jr; Steinman, R. C.; Rolnitzky, L. M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purposes of the present study were (1) to establish normal values for the regression of log(power) on log(frequency) for, RR-interval fluctuations in healthy middle-aged persons, (2) to determine the effects of myocardial infarction on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), (3) to determine the effect of cardiac denervation on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), and (4) to assess the ability of power law regression parameters to predict death after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied three groups: (1) 715 patients with recent myocardial infarction; (2) 274 healthy persons age and sex matched to the infarct sample; and (3) 19 patients with heart transplants. Twenty-four-hour RR-interval power spectra were computed using fast Fourier transforms and log(power) was regressed on log(frequency) between 10(-4) and 10(-2) Hz. There was a power law relation between log(power) and log(frequency). That is, the function described a descending straight line that had a slope of approximately -1 in healthy subjects. For the myocardial infarction group, the regression line for log(power) on log(frequency) was shifted downward and had a steeper negative slope (-1.15). The transplant (denervated) group showed a larger downward shift in the regression line and a much steeper negative slope (-2.08). The correlation between traditional power spectral bands and slope was weak, and that with log(power) at 10(-4) Hz was only moderate. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were used to predict mortality and were compared with the predictive value of traditional power spectral bands. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were excellent predictors of all-cause mortality or arrhythmic death. To optimize the prediction of death, we calculated a log(power) intercept that was uncorrelated with the slope of the power law regression line. We found that the combination of slope and zero-correlation log(power) was an outstanding predictor, with a

  2. Resting Energy Expenditure and Systolic Blood Pressure Relationships in Women Across 4.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Neeraj; Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Brock, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it is not known if this relationship persists over time. Therefore, we examined the temporal relationship between REE and systolic BP. Additionally, we examined the impact of sympathetic tone and anthropometric variables on this relationship. All testing was performed on healthy, overweight African American and European American women aged 25 – 45 years over 4.5 years in the UAB General Clinical Research Center. Repeated measures mixed-models revealed REE as a significant determinant of systolic BP (β=0.0155, P<0.0001), independent of catecholamines, leg fat, visceral fat, fat free mass, fat mass, height, RSMI, and resting heart rate. Observations that REE is predictive of systolic BP across 4.5 years support previous findings that REE may potentially mediate resting BP, independent of anthropometric variables and a marker for sympathetic tone. PMID:24548382

  3. Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise-Induced Redox Signaling Is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lewan; Stepto, Nigel K; Shaw, Christopher S; Serpiello, Fabio R; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods: Participants completed a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 min after HIIE (4 × 4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods), separated by 1-3 weeks. Results: Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160(Ser588), were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SOD activity, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation (r = 0.63, r = 0.71, r = 0.72, r = 0.71; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 h after HIIE.

  4. Acute High-Intensity Interval Exercise-Induced Redox Signaling Is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lewan; Stepto, Nigel K.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Serpiello, Fabio R.; Anderson, Mitchell; Hare, David L.; Levinger, Itamar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods: Participants completed a 2 h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 min after HIIE (4 × 4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods), separated by 1–3 weeks. Results: Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SOD activity, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB phosphorylation (r = 0.63, r = 0.71, r = 0.72, r = 0.71; p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion:These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 h after HIIE. PMID:27695421

  5. Oral Pressure and Nasal Flow on /m/ and /p/ in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Without Cleft Palate.

    PubMed

    Searl, Jeff; Knollhoff, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : (1) To compare oral pressure and nasal airflow in 3- to 5-year-olds versus older children and adults; (2) to describe stability of these measures in 3- to 5-year-olds at two recording times; and (3) to report participation rates of 3- to 5-year-olds for the aerodynamic protocol. Design : Prospective, nonrandomized, convenience samples in four age groups. Setting : University clinic. Participants : A total of 105 individuals without cleft palate and with normal speech for their age who were 3 to 5 (n  =  45), 7 to 9 (n  =  20), 11 to 13 (n  =  20), or 20 to 30 years old (n  =  20). All had normal nasal resonance and absence of nasally obstructive conditions on the testing day. Main Outcome Measures : Oral pressure and nasal airflow on /p/ and /m/ in syllable series and the word "hamper." Results : Oral pressure was significantly higher on /p/ for 3- to 5-year-olds versus the two oldest groups. Nasal airflow on /p/ occurred infrequently across groups. Oral pressure on /m/ was significantly higher for 3- to 5-year-olds versus adults. Nasal airflow on /m/ increased significantly with age. Oral pressure and nasal flow did not differ at two measurement times for the 3- to 5-year-olds. Of the 3- to 5-year-olds, 88% completed the protocol. Conclusions : Oral pressure decreased on /p/ and nasal airflow increased on /m/ from early childhood into adulthood. Nasal air escape on /p/ occurred rarely for speakers of any age; when it did occur, the magnitude was limited. Most preschool-aged children should be able to complete a velopharyngeal aerodynamic protocol, and measures are stable even for these young speakers.

  6. Category-specific face prototypes are emerging, but not yet mature, in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Lee, Kang; Fu, Genyue; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2014-10-01

    Adults' expertise in face recognition has been attributed to norm-based coding. Moreover, adults possess separable norms for a variety of face categories (e.g., race, sex, age) that appear to enhance recognition by reducing redundancy in the information shared by faces and ensuring that only relevant dimensions are used to encode faces from a given category. Although 5-year-old children process own-race faces using norm-based coding, little is known about the organization and refinement of their face space. The current study investigated whether 5-year-olds rely on category-specific norms and whether experience facilitates the development of dissociable face prototypes. In Experiment 1, we examined whether Chinese 5-year-olds show race-contingent opposing aftereffects and the extent to which aftereffects transfer across face race among Caucasian and Chinese 5-year-olds. Both participant races showed partial transfer of aftereffects across face race; however, there was no evidence for race-contingent opposing aftereffects. To examine whether experience facilitates the development of category-specific prototypes, we investigated whether race-contingent aftereffects are present among Caucasian 5-year-olds with abundant exposure to Chinese faces (Experiment 2) and then tested separate groups of 5-year-olds with two other categories with which they have considerable experience: sex (male/female faces) and age (adult/child faces) (Experiment 3). Across all three categories, 5-year-olds showed no category-contingent opposing aftereffects. These results demonstrate that 5 years of age is a stage characterized by minimal separation in the norms and associated coding dimensions used for faces from different categories and suggest that refinement of the mechanisms that underlie expert face processing occurs throughout childhood.

  7. Development of aerobic and anaerobic power in adolescent rowers: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mikulic, P

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to determine whether the physical and physiological superiority of early-maturing rowing athletes, observed at ages 12-13 years, over that of their late-maturing counterparts observed at the same ages, still persists at 17-18 years of age, when all adolescent athletes are expected to have completed pubertal development. We hypothesized that this superiority of early maturers would not be observed at reassessment, as late maturers would have likely "caught up" with their early-maturing peers. Twenty-one male rowers were assessed at age 12.8 ± 0.5 years and again at 17.5 ± 0.5 years (mean ± SD). They were divided into groups of early-maturing and late-maturing rowing athletes based on Tanner's sexual maturity ratings. A two-way repeated-measures MANOVA followed by a series of ANOVAs with one within-subject factor (time) and one between-subject factor (group) indicated significant (P≤0.003) within-subject and between-subjects main effects for lean body mass (LBM), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and mean power (MP). The group × time interaction effects were significant for LBM (P=0.003), VO2max (P=0.004), but not for MP (P=0.171). Over 5 years, early-maturers' advantage dwindled in terms of LBM (+38% to +9%), VO2max (+47% to +9%), and MP (+76% to +15%); however, these differences may still be considered practically relevant. The proposed hypothesis was not supported.

  8. A 10-year epidemiologic review of homicide cases in children younger than 5 years in Fulton County, GA: 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Geroncio Cagigas; Hanzlick, Randy L

    2010-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to present the epidemiologic review of homicide deaths certified by the Fulton County Medical Examiner's Office from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2005 in children younger than 5 years. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine if the observed cases of homicide deaths among children younger than 5 years in Fulton County are significantly greater than expected when compared with those in the State of Georgia. For purposes of this study, only homicide deaths of Fulton County residents were included. The authors reviewed all homicide cases in children younger than 5 years: infancy (<1 year) and early childhood (1-4 years). χ values were calculated using Epi Info (version 3.4.1; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga) to determine differences in homicide among age group, race, and sex variables. In addition, a χ test at the α level of 0.05 was done to determine if the observed cases of homicide deaths among children younger than 5 years in Fulton County were significantly greater than expected when compared with those in the State of Georgia. There were 49 homicide cases in children younger than 5 years identified over this 10-year period. The yearly distribution of these 49 homicide deaths ranged from 1 death in 2003 to 9 deaths in 2004. Most of the patients were male (n=29, 59.2%) and black (n=44, 89.8%). Between infancy and early childhood cases, homicide victims were nearly equally divided between the 2 groups. However, χ values showed that decedents younger than 5 years are more likely to have died of homicide compared with decedents 5 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-2.35). Black decedents younger than 5 years are more likely to have died of homicide compared with other races (OR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.21-9.28). Male and female decedents are equally at risk to have died of homicide (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.61-2.11). The authors also determined that the

  9. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2013-10-01

    Calcium supplements have been widely used by older men and women. However, in little more than a decade, authoritative recommendations have changed from encouraging the widespread use of calcium supplements to stating that they should not be used for primary prevention of fractures. This substantial shift in recommendations has occurred as a result of accumulated evidence of marginal antifracture efficacy, and important adverse effects from large randomized controlled trials of calcium or coadministered calcium and vitamin D supplements. In this review, we discuss this evidence, with a particular focus on increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements, which we first described 5 years ago. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D marginally reduce total fractures but do not prevent hip fractures in community-dwelling individuals. They also cause kidney stones, acute gastrointestinal events, and increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Any benefit of calcium supplements on preventing fracture is outweighed by increased cardiovascular events. While there is little evidence to suggest that dietary calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is also little evidence that it is associated with fracture risk. Therefore, for the majority of people, dietary calcium intake does not require close scrutiny. Because of the unfavorable risk/benefit profile, widespread prescribing of calcium supplements to prevent fractures should be abandoned. Patients at high risk of fracture should be encouraged to take agents with proven efficacy in preventing vertebral and nonvertebral fractures.

  10. Assessing the Performance of a Medical Intensive Care Unit: A 5-year single-center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Anushiravani, Amir; Masoompour, Seyed Masoom

    2017-01-01

    Patient care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is complex and expensive, serving to provide optimal outcome as well as the adequate use of resources. Our objective was to determine variables associated with admission practices, processes of care, and clinical outcomes for critically ill patients. Admission records of a 10-bed ICU were gathered during a 5-year period. Variables such as average length of stay, bed turnover, bed occupancy rate, and turnover interval were evaluated. Of the 1719 patients evaluated, 54% were men. Mortality was highest between 10 pm and 2 am. There was no significant difference in ICU mortality during different days of the week. We showed that nonoffice hour admissions were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes, and significant differences in ICU mortality and ICU length of stay were not seen. Moreover, hospital mortality rates were not significantly higher for patients admitted to our ICU on weekends, at nights, or any day of the week.

  11. Psychological distress and the development of hypertension over 5 years in black South Africans.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Aletta E; Ware, Lisa J; Huisman, Hugo W; Fourie, Carla M T; Greeff, Minrie; Khumalo, Tumi; Wissing, Marie P

    2015-02-01

    Alarming increases in the incidence of hypertension in many low- and middle-income countries are related to alcohol overuse. It is unclear whether alcohol overuse is a symptom of psychological distress. The authors assessed psychological distress in Africans and its relationship with a 5-year change in blood pressure (BP), independent of alcohol intake. The authors followed 107 Africans with optimal BP (≤120/80 mm Hg) (aged 35-75 years) over 5 years. Alcohol intake (self-report and serum γ-glutamyl transferase) and nonspecific psychological distress (Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress [K6]) were assessed. The K6 predicted hypertension development (P=.019), and its individual component "nervous" increased a participant's risk two-fold to become hypertensive (hazard ratio, 2.00 [1.23-3.26]). By entering K6 and γ-glutamyl transferase into multivariable-adjusted regression models for change in systolic BP, both were independently associated with change in systolic BP. Psychological distress and scoring high on being nervous predicted the development of hypertension over 5 years, independent of alcohol intake.

  12. Intrauterine Adiposity and BMI in 4- to 5-Year-Old Offspring from Diabetic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Nurah M.; de Valk, Harold W.; Biesma, Douwe H.; Visser, Gerhard H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes are associated with disproportionate intrauterine growth that subsequently may lead to pediatric adiposity. Objectives We investigated whether disproportionate intrauterine growth leads to differences in BMI in 4- to 5-year-old offspring from pregnancies complicated by type 1 (ODM1), type 2 (ODM2), or gestational diabetes (OGDM). Methods Ultrasound data of fetal head-to-abdominal circumference (HC/AC) ratio obtained between 32 and 36 weeks of gestational age were related to offspring anthropometrics that were retrieved from infant welfare centers. Results Data from 27 ODM1, 22 ODM2, and 24 OGDM were obtained. Ultrasound measurements for the HC/AC ratio were performed at a mean of 33-34 weeks, with a mean Z-score of the HC/AC ratio of -0.801, -0.879, and 0.017 in ODM1, ODM2, and OGDM. Mean BMI SDS was highest in ODM2 as compared to ODM1 and OGDM. In ODM1 there was a negative correlation between HC/AC ratio and BMI SDS at the ages of 4 and 5 years, but not in ODM2 or OGDM. The birth weight Z-score was positively correlated to BMI SDS in ODM2 and OGDM. Conclusion Disproportionate intrauterine growth, expressed as the HC/AC ratio, was inversely related with BMI SDS in ODM1 at the ages of 4-5 years, but not in ODM2 or OGDM. Weight and maybe obesity in ODM1 offspring are likely to be related to intrauterine adiposity, whereas overweight in ODM2 and OGDM offspring seems more related to other factors such as birth weight centile, maternal obesity, and altered lifestyle factors during childhood. PMID:27788515

  13. Direct round window stimulation with the Med-El Vibrant Soundbridge: 5 years of experience using a technique without interposed fascia.

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, Henryk; Olszewski, Lukasz; Skarzynski, Piotr H; Lorens, Artur; Piotrowska, Anna; Porowski, Marek; Mrowka, Maciej; Pilka, Adam

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to present 5 years of surgical experience, and the extended results of hearing preservation (based on 3-year follow-up), with the Med-El Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) in which the floating mass transducer (FMT) is placed directly against the round window membrane, and the fascia is used only as covering tissue to keep it in position. A retrospective survey of surgical and audiological data was conducted to evaluate the performance and stability of patient hearing, with audiometric measurements performed over fixed time intervals up to 36 months. 21 patients, aged 19-62 years (mean 48.4), with mixed or conductive, bilateral or unilateral hearing loss were included in this study. Surgical intervention involved monaural implantation of the Med-El VSB between 2006 and 2009. The results were assessed using pure tone audiometry. In 5 years of experience with the technique, no significant complications or device extrusion were observed except for two revision surgeries requiring FMT repositioning. In the 3-year follow-up, we observed stable hearing in the implanted ear. It is concluded that direct round window stimulation without interposed fascia is an alternative for patients with hearing impairment caused by chronic otitis media and/or lack of ossicles, especially after modified radical mastoidectomy. It allows good results in a selected group of patients, although further observation on a larger population is needed to confirm long-term validity and effectiveness.

  14. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  15. [The Octabaix study. Baseline assessment and 5 years of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Padrós, Gloria; Badia, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Octabaix, Grupo Estudio

    This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group.

  16. Lateralization of tongue movements during eating in children 2 to 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Gisel, E G; Schwaab, L; Lange-Stemmler, L; Niman, C W; Schwartz, J L

    1986-04-01

    Normative data on skills of the tongue used in eating are presented. Normal children 2 to 5 years old were studied regarding their preference of placing food either on the right or left side when eating, and they were compared with age-matched Down's syndrome children. In addition, the ability to move food from the right to the left side of the mouth was studied. Normal children underwent a transition from predominantly placing food on the right side at 2 years of age to predominantly placing it on the left side at 4 years of age. Among Down's syndrome children females preferred the right side, and males preferred the left side. The ability to move food from right to left (lateralizing) undergoes a developmental progression from tilting the head to rolling, followed by slow and eventually by smooth movement from one side to the other. Only 15% of the 5-year-olds were able to move food smoothly from side to side. These data provide a baseline against which children with eating problems can be compared.

  17. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  18. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  19. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.

  20. Subcutaneous Interferon β-1a May Protect against Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: 5-Year Follow-up of the COGIMUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Francesco; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria; Bastianello, Stefano; Tola, Maria Rosalia; Cottone, Salvatore; Plant, Andrea; Picconi, Orietta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) -1a on cognition over 5 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients aged 18–50 years with RRMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤4.0) who had completed the 3-year COGIMUS study underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examination, and neuropsychological testing at years 4 and 5. Predictors of cognitive impairment at year 5 were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Of 331 patients who completed the 3-year COGIMUS study, 265 participated in the 2-year extension study, 201 of whom (75.8%; sc IFN β-1a three times weekly: 44 µg, n = 108; 22 µg, n = 93) completed 5 years' follow-up. The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment in the study population overall remained stable between baseline (18.0%) and year 5 (22.6%). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment also remained stable in both treatment groups between baseline and year 5, and between year 3 and year 5. However, a significantly higher proportion of men than women had cognitive impairment at year 5 (26.5% vs 14.4%, p = 0.046). Treatment with the 22 versus 44 µg dose was predictive of cognitive impairment at year 5 (hazard ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.97). Conclusions This study suggests that sc IFN β-1a dose-dependently stabilizes or delays cognitive impairment over a 5-year period in most patients with mild RRMS. Women seem to be more protected against developing cognitive impairment, which may indicate greater response to therapy or the inherently better prognosis associated with female sex in MS. PMID:24137499

  1. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  2. WMAP 5-year constraints on α and me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scóccola, Claudia G.; Landau, Susana J.; Vucetich, Héctor

    2010-11-01

    We have studied the role of fundamental constants in an updated recombination scenario. We focus on the time variation of the fine structure constant α, and the electron mass me in the early Universe. In the last years, helium recombination has been studied in great detail revealing the importance of taking new physical processes into account in the calculation of the recombination history. The equations to solve the detailed recombination scenario can be found for example in Wong et al. 2008. In the equation for helium recombination, a term which accounts for the semi-forbidden transition 23p-11s is added. Furthermore, the continuum opacity of HI is taken into account by a modification in the escape probability of the photons that excite helium atoms, with the fitting formulae proposed Kholupenko et al 2007. We have analized the dependences of the quantities involved in the detailed recombination scenario on α and me. We have performed a statistical analysis with COSMOMC to constrain the variation of α and me at the time of neutral hydrogen formation. The observational set used for the analysis was data from the WMAP 5-year temperature and temperature-polarization power spectrum and other CMB experiments such as CBI, ACBAR and BOOMERANG and the power spectrum of the 2dFGRS. Considering the joint variation of α and me we obtain the following bounds: -0.011 < {Δα}/{α_0} < 0.019 and -0.068 < {Δ m_e}/{(m_e)_0 < 0.030 (68% c.l.). When considering only the variation of one fundamental constant we obtain: -0.010 < {Δ α}/{α_0} < 0.008 and -0.04 < {Δ m_e}/{(m_e)_0} < 0.02 (68% c.l.). We compare these results with the ones presented in Landau et al 2008, which were obtained in the standard recombination scenario and using WMAP 3 year release data. The constraints are tighter in the current analysis, which is an expectable fact since we are working with more accurate data from WMAP. The bounds obtained are consistent with null variation, for both α and me, but

  3. Prevalence of Malocclusion in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinhua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuehua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusions in preschool children in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2335 children aged 3–5 years from kindergartens. Several occlusal parameters were clinically assessed, including second deciduous molar terminal plane, canine relationship, degree of overjet and overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, and the presence or absence of physiologic spaces and crowding. All parents of subjects were asked to fill in the oral health knowledge questionnaires. The prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in Shanghai was 83.9%, and no significant differences were found in genders. Data showed that the prevalence of deep overbite (63.7%) was the highest in children with malocclusion, followed by deep overjet (33.9%), midline deviation (26.6%), anterior crossbite (8.0%) and anterior crowding (6.5%). The results revealed a high prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in children aged 3–5 years old of Shanghai, especially in vertical anomalies. The need for preventive orthodontic therapy is extremely desired and oral health education about malocclusion should be strengthened. PMID:28327525

  4. The impact factors on 5-year survival rate in patients operated with oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geum, Dong-Ho; Roh, Young-Chea; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyo-Geon; Lee, Jung-Han; Song, Jae-Min; Lee, Jae-Yeol; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Deok; Shin, Sang-Hun; Chung, In-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical impact factors on the survival rate, and to acquire basic clinical data for the diagnosis of oral cancer, for a determination of the treatment plan with long-term survival in oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods Through a retrospective review of the medical records, the factors for long-term survival rate were analyzed. Thirty-seven patients, among patient database with oral cancer treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Pusan National University Hospital within a period from March 1998 to March 2008, were selected within the study criteria and were followed-up for more than 5 years. The analyzed factors were gender, age, drinking, smoking, primary tumor site, type of cancer, TNM stage, recurrence of affected region, and metastasis of cervical lymph node. The 5-year survival rate on the impact factors was calculated statistically using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results By classification of clinical TNM at the 1st visit, there were 11 (29.7%) cases for stage I, 11 (29.7%) cases for stage II, 3 (8.1%) cases for stage III, and 12 (32.5%) cases for stage IV. The 5-year survival rate of total oral cancer patients after the operation were 75.7%, pathological TNM stage related 5-year survival rate were as follows: stage I 90.0%, stage II 81.8%, stage III 100% and stage IV 45.5%; in which the survival rate difference by each stage was significantly observed. The recurrence of cervical lymph node was the significant impact factor for the survival rate, because only 30.0% the survival rate in recurrent cases existed. During the follow-up, there were 15 (40.5%) patients with confirmed recurrence, and the 5-year survival rate of these patients was decreased as 46.7%. Conclusion The classification of clinical and pathological TNM stage, local recurrence after surgery, and metastasis of cervical lymph node after surgery were analyzed as the 3 most significant factors. PMID:24471047

  5. The Role of Feature Type and Causal Status in 4-5-Year-Old Children's Biological Categorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Benjamin; Cordier, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of the causal status of features and feature type in biological categorizations by young children. Study 1 showed that 5-year-olds are more strongly influenced by causal features than effect features; 4-year-olds exhibit no such tendency. There therefore appears to be a conceptual change between the ages of…

  6. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  7. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the" Emotional Regulation Checklist" in 4- and 5-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danisman, Sahin; Iman, Esra Dereli; Demircan, Zeynep Akin; Yaya, Dilara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional Regulation Checklist is frequently used to determine emotional developments of children by teacher and parents of children. The purpose of this study was to examining the Psychometric Properties of "Emotional Regulation Check List" for 4-5 years age in preschool children. Method: The sample of the research was…

  8. Salvage HDR Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Previous Definitive Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien Peter; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Roach, Mack; Nash, Marc; Gottschalk, Alexander; Chang, Albert J.; Hsu, I-Chow

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate efficacy and toxicity of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDRB between 1998 and 2009 for locally recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive RT. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, patients received 36 Gy in 6 fractions. Twenty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before salvage, and no patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Determination of biochemical failure after salvage HDRB was based on the Phoenix definition. Overall survival (OS) and bF distributions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), were documented. Results: Median follow-up after salvage HDRB was 59.6 months. The 5-year OS estimate was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-97%) with median survival not yet reached. Five-year biochemical control after salvage was 51% (95% CI: 34%-66%). Median PSA nadir postsalvage was 0.1 (range: 0-7.2) reached at a median of 10.2 months after completing HDRB. As for complications, acute and late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in only 2% and 2%, respectively. No grade 2 or higher acute GI events and 4% grade 2 GI late events were observed. On univariate analysis, disease-free interval after initial definitive RT (P=.07), percent of positive cores at the time of diagnosis (P=.08), interval from first recurrence to salvage HDRB (P=.09), and pre-HDRB prostate-specific antigen (P=.07) were each of borderline significance in predicting biochemical control after salvage HDRB. Conclusions: Prostate HDRB is an effective salvage modality with relatively few long-term toxicities. We

  9. Survival and other clinical outcomes of maintenance hemodialysis patients in Taiwan: a 5-year multicenter follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Sheng; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lim, Paik-Seong

    2014-10-01

    The increasing aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in dialysis population make the quality maintenance of dialysis an imperative issue. Recently, an increasing number of dialysis centers were run by private dialysis providers, many of which apply quality assurance programs and performance management systems to dialysis care. We studied patients in dialysis facilities in Taiwan run by a private chain to see clinical outcomes of centers operating under these systemic strategies. Hemodialysis patients from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 in 25 dialysis facilities in Taiwan, which received the management and consultation from a dialysis service provider, NephroCare (NC), were included. Data pivotal to quality of dialysis were analyzed. During a 5-year interval, 5161 hemodialysis patients were included. For volume control, the proportion of patients with weight gain ≥4.5% decreases from 41.7% to 30.2%. Mean Kt/V is 1.74 ± 0.28. Mean albumin level is 3.92 ± 0.38 g/dL. Patients with phosphate <5.5 mg/dL is up to 71.8%. The mean hemoglobin level is 10.70 ± 1.40 g/dL. More than 80% of patients have adequate iron status. Further, 73% of patients use native arteriovenous fistula. Hospitalization-free survival rate was 56% at the fifth year. Patient survival rate at the fifth year was 66.4%. Overall clinical performances were maintained very stable in NC facilities from this temporal data analysis. The hospitalization and survival rate also compare favorably with those reported internationally. These results warrant further studies to justify the application of this kind of quality assurance programs and performance management systems in dialysis care.

  10. Detection of antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in children with community-acquired pneumonia: effects of combining pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness.

    PubMed

    Borges, I C; Andrade, D C; Vilas-Boas, A-L; Fontoura, M-S H; Laitinen, H; Ekström, N; Adrian, P V; Meinke, A; Cardoso, M-R A; Barral, A; Ruuskanen, O; Käyhty, H; Nascimento-Carvalho, C M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of combining different numbers of pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness on the detection of IgG responses against eight Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, three Haemophilus influenzae proteins, and five Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in 690 children aged <5 years with pneumonia. Serological tests were performed on acute and convalescent serum samples with a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. The median sampling interval was 19 days, the median age was 26.7 months, and the median duration of illness was 5 days. The rate of antibody responses was 15.4 % for at least one pneumococcal antigen, 5.8 % for H. influenzae, and 2.3 % for M. catarrhalis. The rate of antibody responses against each pneumococcal antigen varied from 3.5 to 7.1 %. By multivariate analysis, pre-existing antibody levels showed a negative association with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens; the sampling interval was positively associated with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens. A sampling interval of 3 weeks was the optimal cut-off for the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. Duration of illness was negatively associated with antibody responses against PspA. Age did not influence antibody responses against the investigated antigens. In conclusion, serological assays using combinations of different pneumococcal proteins detect a higher rate of antibody responses against S. pneumoniae compared to assays using a single pneumococcal protein. Pre-existing antibody levels and sampling interval influence the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. These factors should be considered when determining pneumonia etiology by serological methods in children.

  11. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243

  12. Determining the optimal surveillance interval after a colonoscopic polypectomy for the Korean population?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Lok; Lee, Hye Min; Jeon, Jung Won; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il; Park, Dong Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Western surveillance strategies cannot be directly adapted to the Korean population. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of metachronous neoplasia and the optimal surveillance interval in the Korean population. Methods Clinical and pathological data from index colonoscopy performed between June 2006 and July 2008 and who had surveillance colonoscopies up to May 2015 were compared between low- and high-risk adenoma (LRA and HRA) groups. The 3- and 5-year cumulative risk of metachronous colorectal neoplasia in both groups were compared. Results Among 895 eligible patients, surveillance colonoscopy was performed in 399 (44.6%). Most (83.3%) patients with LRA had a surveillance colonoscopy within 5 years and 70.2% of patients with HRA had a surveillance colonoscopy within 3 years. The cumulative risk of metachronous advanced adenoma was 3.2% within 5 years in the LRA group and only 1.7% within 3 years in the HRA group. The risk of metachronous neoplasia was similar between the surveillance interval of <5 and ≥5 years in the LRA group; however, it was slightly higher at surveillance interval of ≥3 than <3 years in the HRA group (9.4% vs. 2.4%). In multivariate analysis, age and the ≥3-year surveillance interval were significant independent risk factors for metachronous advanced adenoma (P=0.024 and P=0.030, respectively). Conclusions Patients had a surveillance colonoscopy before the recommended guidelines despite a low risk of metachronous neoplasia. However, the risk of metachronous advanced adenoma was increased in elderly patients and those with a ≥3-year surveillance interval. PMID:28239321

  13. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability.

  14. Renal amyloidosis followed more than 5 years: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, H; Boubaker, K; Béji, S; Abderrahim, E; Moussa, F Ben; Turki, S; Goucha, R; Hedri, H; El Younsi, F; Kheder, A; Maiz, H Ben

    2004-01-01

    Renal involvement with amyloidosis is common but causes patient survival to be poor, rarely reaching 5 years. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and biological characteristics as well as treatments and outcomes of patients with renal amyloidosis followed for more than 5 years. Between 1975 and 2003, 485 patients were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis including only 12 patients who were followed more than 5 years. The six men and six women of mean age 42.4 years (range 18 to 66 years) displayed renal signs of lower limb edema in all cases; hypertension in four cases, proteinuria on urinalysis in all cases with microscopic hematuria in five cases. Biological tests showed nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients, normal renal function in nine patients, and renal failure in three patients whose mean creatinine was 481.6 micromol/L (range 294 to 726). The amyloidosis was AA type in 11 cases and non-AA in one case. An etiologic survey revealed spondylarthropathy in one patient, pulmonary tuberculosis in two patients, chronic bronchitis in three patients, hepatic hydatic cyst in one patient, Mediterranean familial fever in two patients, Crohn's disease in one patient, Hodgkin's lymphoma in one patient, and multiple myeloma in one patient. Specific treatment was initiated with colchicine in seven patients. At a 110-month mean follow-up (range 53 to 153 months), remission of nephrotic syndrome was observed in four cases, progression to chronic renal failure in two patients, and to end-stage renal failure in five cases (range 53 to 196 months), with stabilization of renal function in seven patients. In conclusion, primary amyloid disease should be optimally suppressed in patients with renal involvement. The role of this treatment in remission of renal amyloidosis is not well established. This efficacy of the treatment has been demonstrated in some patients with improved survival.

  15. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  16. Long-term effect of the North Carolina graduated driver licensing system on licensed driver crash incidence: a 5-year survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Masten, Scott V; Foss, Robert D

    2010-11-01

    Several studies document the success of graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems in reducing young teen crash rates, but it is not yet clear whether any portion of the crash reduction is achieved by producing more capable drivers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young teen drivers licensed under the North Carolina GDL system remain crash-free longer than those licensed prior to GDL, independent of the crude reductions in exposure (i.e., decreasing and delaying licensure) that may be responsible for most documented effects of GDL. Survival analysis was used to compare retrospective cohorts of 16-17 year olds before (n=105,569) and after (n=327,054) the North Carolina GDL system was implemented. The crash incidence of GDL-licensed 16-17 year olds (combined) was 10% lower than that for pre-GDL teens for at least 5 years after being licensed to drive independently (hazard ratio [HR]=0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.89, 0.91). However, more refined analysis revealed the reductions to only be among females (7%; HR=0.93; CI=0.91, 0.94) and males (15%; HR=0.85, CI=0.84, 0.87) licensed at age 16 and not among females (0%; HR=1.00; CI=0.95, 1.06) and males (0%; HR=1.00; CI=0.92, 1.09) licensed at age 17. Sixteen-year-old drivers licensed under the North Carolina GDL system experienced lower first-crash incidence during the first 5 years of unsupervised driving than did those licensed under the previous system. The benefits are greater for males, who tend to have higher crash rates. The findings contradict conventional wisdom that the entire benefit of GDL results merely from decreasing or delaying licensure among young drivers.

  17. Needs Assessment of Parents of Typical Children Ages 4 to 5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Deon LaMount

    2010-01-01

    Parent education programs have been very successful in meeting the pre-established goals and expectations of their program without the input of parent participants prior to program implementation. Although programs continue to improve, it is important that programs begin to consider the specific needs of their target population. One parent…

  18. Determinants of nonimmunization of children under 5 years of age in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Fowad; Mustafa, Tajammal; Awan, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Child vaccination is perhaps the first line of defense to ensure a healthy society. Unfortunately, the coverage of child vaccination in Pakistan is poor resulting in unnecessary yet preventable deaths. This study investigated the determinants and reasons for not vaccinating children in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study used the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001–2002 data. Demographic, distance to health facility, poverty status, literacy and education, and location of residence were used as determinants of nonimmunization of children. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution, proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables, and logistic regression analysis were done using the Stata 11.0. Results: Almost 7.73% children in Pakistan were never immunized. More than 87.4% of these lived in the rural areas. Prevalence of nonimmunization was highest in Balochistan compared to other provinces. Large households appeared to have increased risk of a child not being vaccinated. Moreover, low literacy and education of the head of the household and the spouse was also associated with low vaccination coverage. Distance from the health facility was found to be another factor related to nonimmunization of children. Increase in per capita income significantly decreased the risk of missing vaccinations. Conclusions: Prevention and immunization programs should focus more on high-risk regions such as Balochistan and rural areas. Literacy, education, and economic status were among the other significant factors associated with low vaccination rates, which need a special focus in the public policy to achieve the target of a healthy society. PMID:26929727

  19. Iowa's Severity Rating Scales for Communication Disabilities: Preschool, Ages 2-5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freilinger, J. Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The Iowa Severity Rating Scales are designed to provide general guidelines which may be used as a part of the clinical speech and language program to obtain uniform identification of preschool children with communication disabilities. Section 1 contains definitions, an explanation of the severity classification (a 5 point scale ranging from 0 for…

  20. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ≥ 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  1. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children's prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called "game" where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception-no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children's social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors.

  2. [Edwards syndrome--most frequent indications for genetic amniocentesis. Analysis of the last 5 years].

    PubMed

    Chuchracki, Marek; Janiak, Justyna; Ziółkowska, Katarzyna; Sedziak, Anna; Opala, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) occurs in 1: 8000 live births and is closely related to the mother's age. Most of the embryos and fetuses with trisomy of 18 chromosome pair undergo natural abortion. Change in number and structure of chromosomes usually takes place spontaneously. However, the incidence of chromosome mutations increases with the presence of mutagenic factors. One of the chemical mutagenic factors is benzopyrene - present in cigarette smoke. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnostic is used for detecting diseases and clinical syndromes conditioned by chromosome aberrations. To this date the "golden standard" of this diagnostic is the assessment of the fetus karyotype by means of analysis of chromosome banding pattern from amniotic fluid-derived cells. The aim of the study was the analysis of indications for genetic amniocenteses carried out in the last 5 years and in case of which trisomy of chromosome 18 (Edwards syndrome) was diagnosed. The analysis covered 1593 results of fetus karyotypes obtained from Cytogenetic Laboratory of the Central Gynecological-Obstetric Clinical Hospital in Poznań over the last 5 years. The study procedure consisted in producing cell culture from amniotic fluid, appliance of appropriate color techniques and thorough microscopic analysis of chromosome banding pattern. As a result of the analysis it was discovered that in 1538 cases the karyotype was normal, and in 55 cases trisomy 18 was diagnosed, which constituted 3% of all cytogenetic tests. The highest number of trisomy 18 cases was noted in 2009 - 19 cases, which constitutes 5% of all tests. In 2010 and 2011 the results included respectively 2% and 3% of diagnosed trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome). In the last 5 years normal results for karyotypes constituted 87%, in 10% cases other aberrations were diagnosed through cystogenetic tests, whereas 3% of the results have shown trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome The most frequent indications for performing genetic amniocentesis, as a result of

  3. Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591

  4. Family meal frequency and weight status among adolescents: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2008-11-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between the frequency of family meals and overweight status (>85th percentile for age and gender) in a large, diverse population of adolescents (n = 2,516). The population included two cohorts (midadolescence to young adulthood, n = 1,710, and early adolescence to midadolescence, n = 806). Logistic regression models tested cross-sectional and longitudinal (1999-2004) associations between family meal frequency and overweight status. Two sets of models are presented: (i) models adjusted only for baseline demographic characteristics and (ii) models also adjusted for physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and energy intake. Longitudinal models adjusted for baseline overweight status. Although significant inverse associations between family meal frequency and overweight status were observed for early adolescent females in all cross-sectional models (P < 0.001), longitudinal associations were not significant. Neither cross-sectional nor longitudinal associations were significant for males of either cohort and older females in any models. Young adolescent females who do not eat meals with their families may be at risk for overweight; however, the increased risk may not persist over a 5-year period. Eating family meals during high school may not protect against overweight during young adulthood. Although previous longitudinal research has suggested significant dietary and psychosocial benefits related to family meal frequency, the weight-related benefits of family meals may be more complex and deserving of further study, including an examination of the quality and quantity of food consumed at family meals.

  5. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino de; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children's individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother's level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  6. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Mortensen, Erik L; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest.

  7. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26039393

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission is not associated with recent immigration (≤5 years) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Lauzardo, Michael

    2015-12-01

    As tuberculosis (TB) incidence decreases in the US, foreign-born persons continue to account for a larger proportion of the burden. In these cross-sectional analyses of 1149 culture-confirmed TB cases genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU, we show that over a quarter of cases among the foreign-born population in Florida resulted from recent transmission of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In addition, over a third of these cases occurred among persons who had immigrated 5 years or less prior to their diagnosis. Although recent immigration was not a significant predictor of TB transmission, younger age, birthplace in the Americas, homelessness, drug use and TB lineage are risk factors for TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida. These data provide actionable insights into TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida.

  9. Prevalence and etiology of nosocomial diarrhoea in children < 5 years in Tikrit teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Alrifai, S B; Alsaadi, A; Mahmood, Y A; Ali, A A; Al-Kaisi, L A

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out at Tikrit teaching hospital, Iraq, from October 2004 to September 2005, to identify the prevalence and etiology of nosocomial infectious diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age. Of 259 children admitted to the paediatric ward for reasons other than diarrhoea and hospitalized for more than 3 days, clinical and laboratory analysis of stool samples showed nosocomial diarrhoea in 84 children (32.4%). The most common causative agents were enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (25.9%), Clostridium difficile (21.0%) and rotavirus (18.5%). Single infectious agents caused 63.1% of the cases, while mixed infections were detected in 16.7%; in 20.2% of children the cause remained unknown.

  10. Large laryngeal vascular malformation in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Danstrup, Christian Sander; Madsen, Mette Hjørringgaard; Bille, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy was admitted with stridor, which was initially interpreted as subglottic laryngitis. He had a history of prolonged hoarseness and his voice was deep for his age. The stridor persisted despite treatment with epinephrine inhalations and intravenous glucocorticoids. A direct laryngoscopy and blood work up did not support the suspected diagnosis. A MRI was then carried out, followed by angiography. The latter revealed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) involving the lingual and superior thyroid arteries bilaterally. Owing to the rareness and extent of such an AVM, the patient was referred to Paris for further treatment. This case presents the difficulties in diagnostics and emphasises the importance of diagnostics and multidisciplinary approaches with regard to treatment of AVMs. PMID:25795744

  11. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  12. Snoring, sleep disturbance, and behaviour in 4-5 year olds.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N J; Pitson, D J; Stradling, J R

    1993-01-01

    Parents of 996 children aged 4-5 years identified consecutively from the Oxford health visitor register were asked to complete a questionnaire about breathing disorders during sleep. A total of 782 (78.5%) was returned. Ninety five (12.1%) children were reported to snore on most nights. Habitual snoring was significantly associated with daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and hyperactivity. The questionnaire responses were used to select two subgroups, one at high risk of a sleep and breathing disorder and a control group. These children (132 in total) were monitored at home with overnight video recording and oximetry, and had formal behavioural assessment using the Conners scale. Seven (7/66) children from the high risk group and none from the control group had obvious sleep disturbance consequent on snoring and upper airway obstruction. Thus our estimate of the prevalence of sleep and breathing disorders in this age group is 7/996 or 0.7%. The high risk group had significantly higher nocturnal movement, oxygen saturation dip rates, and overnight pulse rates than the controls. Maternal but not paternal smoking was associated with the high risk group. Parents and teachers thought those in the high risk group were more hyperactive and inattentive than the controls, but only their parents thought them more aggressive. Significant sleep and breathing disorders occur in about 0.7% of 4-5 year olds. Children whose parents report snoring and sleep disturbance have objective evidence of sleep disruption and show more behaviour problems than controls. PMID:8280201

  13. Mesenteric panniculitis: prevalence, clinicoradiological presentation and 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    van Bommel, E F H; Elgersma, O E; Hendriksz, T R

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence, clinicoradiological characteristics and outcome of patients with mesenteric panniculitis (MP) in a large hospital-based population. Methods: Consecutive abdominal CT examinations of 3820 patients were evaluated for MP. Clinical characteristics, therapy and outcome of patients with MP were evaluated during a 5-year follow-up period. A matched pair analysis was performed to further investigate the relation between MP and malignancy. Results: 94 (2.5%) patients with MP were identified (mean age, 66.6 ± 11.2 years, 70.2% male). MP coexisted with malignancy (especially prostatic carcinoma) in 48.9% of patients, and this was slightly but significantly higher than in age- and sex-matched control patients (n = 188, 46.3%). In 48 patients, MP was presumed to be idiopathic. The most frequent presenting symptom was pain (54.3%). Laboratory findings revealed increased acute-phase reactants in half of the patients with MP. CT findings included increased density of mesenterial fat (mean, −56.8 ± 10.8 HU), fat ring sign, tumoural pseudocapsule and small soft-tissue nodules. Patients with MP (14.6%) developed significantly more malignancies during a 5-year follow-up than did the control group (6.9%). One patient was treated with prednisone without satisfactory response. Conclusion: The prevalence of MP in this study was 2.5%. In most patients, radiologic features included increased mesenteric fat density, fat ring sign and small soft-tissue nodules. MP was associated with a significant higher prevalence of coexisting malignancies and a higher prevalence of future cancer development. Advances in knowledge: A more accurate prevalence of MP on CT is demonstrated. An underlying malignancy may play a role. PMID:25271412

  14. Femoral impaction bone allografting with an Exeter cemented collarless, polished, tapered stem in revision hip replacement: a mean follow-up of 10.5 years.

    PubMed

    Wraighte, P J; Howard, P W

    2008-08-01

    Femoral impaction bone allografting has been developed as a means of restoring bone stock in revision total hip replacement. We report the results of 75 consecutive patients (75 hips) with a mean age of 68 years (35 to 87) who underwent impaction grafting using the Exeter collarless, polished, tapered femoral stem between 1992 and 1998. The mean follow-up period was 10.5 years (6.3 to 14.1). The median pre-operative bone defect score was 3 (interquartile range (IQR) 2 to 3) using the Endo-Klinik classification. The median subsidence at one year post-operatively was 2 mm (IQR 1 to 3). At the final review the median Harris hip score was 80.6 (IQR 67.6 to 88.9) and the median subsidence 2 mm (IQR 1 to 4). Incorporation of the allograft into trabecular bone and secondary remodelling were noted radiologically at the final follow-up in 87% (393 of 452 zones) and 40% (181 of 452 zones), respectively. Subsidence of the Exeter stem correlated with the pre-operative Endo-Klinik bone loss score (p = 0.037). The degree of subsidence at one year had a strong association with long-term subsidence (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between previous revision surgery and a poor Harris Hip score (p = 0.028), and those who had undergone previous revision surgery for infection had a higher risk of complications (p = 0.048). Survivorship at 10.5 years with any further femoral operation as the end-point was 92% (95% confidence interval 82 to 97).

  15. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  16. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  17. Diabetic foot reconstruction using free flaps increases 5-year-survival rate.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Suk; Lee, Ho Seung; Hong, Joon Pio

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the diabetic foot reconstructed with free flaps and analyse the preoperative risk factors. This study reviews 121 cases of reconstructed diabetic foot in 113 patients over 9 years (average follow-up of 53.2 months). Patients' age ranged from 26 to 78 years (average, 54.6 years). Free flaps used were anterolateral thigh (ALT, 90), superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP, 20), anteromedial thigh (AMT, 5), upper medial thigh (UMT, 3), and other perforator free flaps (3). Correlation between the surgical outcome and preoperative risk factors were analysed using logistic regression model. Total loss was seen in 10 cases and 111 free-tissue transfers were successful (flap survival rate of 91.7%). During follow-up, limb was eventually lost in 17 patients and overall limb salvage rate was 84.9% and the 5-year survival was 86.8%. Correlation between flap loss and 14 preoperative risk factors (computed tomography (CT) angiogram showing intact numbers of major vessels, history of previous angioplasty, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), heart problem, chronic renal failure (CRF), American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system, smoking, body mass index (BMI), HBA1c, lymphocyte count, ankle-brachial index (ABI), osteomyelitis, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and whether taking immunosuppressive agents) were analysed. Significant odds ratio were seen in patients who underwent lower extremity angioplasties (odds ratio: 17.590, p<0.001), with PAD (odds ratio: 10.212, p=0.032) and taking immunosuppressive agents after kidney transplantation (odds ratio: 4.857, p<0.041). Diabetic foot reconstruction using free flaps has a high chance for success and significantly increases the 5-year survival rate. Risk factors such as PAD, history of angioplasties in the extremity and using immunosuppressive agents after transplant may increase the chance for flap loss.

  18. The Western Sydney Stroke Risk in the Elderly Study. A 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, M D; Lazarus, R; Wilson, A; Leeder, S R; Koutts, J

    1994-01-01

    Aging of the Australian population, as in other developed nations, will ensure that stroke remains one of the most important causes of death and disability. The Stroke Risk in the Elderly (SITE) study aims to measure prospectively the independent contribution of dietary, sociodemographic, blood lipid, blood pressure, and hemostatic factors to risk of stroke and other cardiovascular outcomes. The target population included all independently living men and women aged 65 years and over, residents in several retirement villages in western metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The study cohort consists of 225 men and 787 women, selected as a convenience sample from all eligible residents in the local government areas (LGAs) adjacent to Westmead Hospital. Participants attended a baseline session to complete dietary, life-style, medical, and sociodemographic questionnaires. Anthropomorphic variables and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken for measurement of serum lipid, glucose, and hemostatic factors. Questionnaire results were compared with an age/sex-stratified, randomly selected sample drawn from the community (in the same LGAs), in order to quantify potential sampling and selection biases. The study cohort will be followed for a minimum of 5 years. The attendance rate of eligible residents for a baseline medical, dietary, life-style, and sociodemographic assessment was 72% for males and 69% for females. The study cohort was older, better educated, less ethnically diverse, and among women, less likely to have ever been married compared to people aged over 65 years in the comparison group. The baseline results suggest that hemostatic factors may be of importance in assessing risk of cardiovascular disease, (CVD), particularly in older men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Ertapenem: the new carbapenem 5 years after first FDA licensing for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Olaf; Derendorf, Hartmut; Welte, Tobias

    2007-02-01

    Ertapenem, a parenteral broad-spectrum 1-beta-methyl-carbapenem, was licensed 5 years ago for clinical practice in the US and Europe. The substance has a good in vitro activity against many common aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Its in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae carrying plasmid- or chromosomal-mediated beta-lactamases, including AmpC- and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, is especially clinically significant. Advantages concerning in vitro activity and low potential for so-called 'collateral damage', and development of own resistance during therapy, as shown in several randomized, controlled clinical trials, make ertapenem an excellent treatment choice for complicated aerobic and anaerobic mix infections caused by ertapenem-sensitive bacteria. On the other hand, due to its limited activity against Acinetobacter spp., enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it is less suitable for late-onset nosocomial infections. International guidelines recommend the initial empirical use of ertapenem for intra-abdominal infections, skin and skin-structure infections, acute pelvic infections, complicated urinary tract infections and pneumonia (both community-acquired and 'early-onset' nosocomial) in a dose of 1.0 g administered once daily. However, recent results from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling studies in critically ill patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and adipose volunteers with a body mass index of > or = 20 kg/m(2) showed that the standard dose of 1.0 g/day may not provide adequate free, protein-unbound drug concentrations in plasma and organ tissues. Therefore, a shortening of the dosage interval or continuous infusion of ertapenem should be considered to ensure optimal free concentrations in these particular populations.

  20. 5 years of continuous seismic monitoring of snowmelt cycles in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar; Gallart, Josep

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the analysis of background seismic noise variations in the proximity of river channels has revealed as a useful tool to monitor river flow, even for modest discharges. We will focus here in the application of this methodology to study the snowmelt cycle in an Pyrenean valley during the last 5 years, using data from the seismic geophysical station located inside the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Central Pyrenees). Diaz et al. (2014) first identified in the seismic data the signature of river flow increases associated to snowmelt episodes in the catchment area of the Aragon River, based on the marked correlation between the seismic energy variations in the 2-8 Hz frequency band and the estimated variations in water resources from snowfall. The analysis of seismic data during the snowmelt periods allows to identify a clear 24h cycle, with energy increasing from about 14:00 GMT, remaining at a relatively high level for 12 hours and then smoothly vanishing. The spectrogram reveals richer information, as clear variations in the frequency content can be detected during the time intervals in which the amplitude of the seismic signal remains constant. The data available so far allow to compare the evolution of snowmelt in five seasons with very different hydrological behavior. The 2011 and 2012 seasons have been dry, with snow volumes 30-50 % beneath the average values, while the 2013, 2014 and in particular the 2015 seasons have been largely above the mean. Those variations are reflected in the seismic data, which allow to monitor the time occurrence of the main snowmelt stages for each season and to estimate the intensity of the different snowmelt episodes. Therefore, seismic data can be useful for long term monitoring of snowmelt in Alpine-style mountains.

  1. Urban-rural differences in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Davies, Carolyn A; Douglas, Gail V A; Pitts, Nigel B

    2010-12-01

    Previous research suggests there are significant differences between urban and rural areas in Scotland for health outcomes including heart disease, cancer and self reported health. The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary urban/rural variation in obvious decay experience amongst 5-year-olds in Scotland. Scotland was split into 6 geographies, ranging from 'The 4 Cities' (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) to 'Remote Rural' areas. Data derived from the 2007/08 National Dental Inspection Programme, representative of the whole of Scotland, were modelled using Bayesian multilevel zero-inflated Negative Binomial and multilevel Poisson modelling, adjusting for age, sex and deprivation. The outcome variables modelled were d(3)mft (carious, extracted or filled deciduous teeth), d(3)t (carious teeth), mt (missing teeth, extracted due to caries) and ft (filled teeth). The proportion of 5-year old children in Scotland with d(3)mft = 0 was 58% in 2008. Adjusting for age and sex, the odds of a child in a Remote Rural area having d(3)mft>0 was 0.52 that of a city dweller. However, when deprivation was included in the model, the odds of having d(3)mft >0 rose to 0.74. The odds of d(3)mft>0 in 'Accessible Rural' areas also remained significantly lower than in the 4 Cities after adjustment for deprivation. For those with d(3)mft>0, the relative risk of additional d(3)mft was also significantly lower in Remote Rural areas, however this was explained by deprivation, while in Accessible Rural areas this remained significant even after adjustment for deprivation. The odds of having any extractions was lower in Rural areas, even after adjustment for deprivation, while the Care Index (ft/d(3)mft) was higher in Remote Towns. Deprivation, therefore, accounted for much but not all of the geographical difference in d(3)mft which exist in Scotland. Children in Remote and Rural areas appear to have better dental health and a higher proportion of filled teeth when compared

  2. Haemophilus type B meningitis in Saudi children under 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y; Al-Jeffri, Mohamed H; Al-Haggar, Sami H; Musa, Elgeili K; Mohamed, Omer M; Abdalla, Mohamed N

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of bacterial meningitis in general and Hib meningitis in particular among children below the age of 5 years. A population-based, prospective descriptive and analytical study was conducted in five regions, one each in northern, southern, eastern, western, and central parts of Saudi Arabia. Active surveillance for cases of bacterial meningitis among the study population, which comprised 171,818 children under 5 years of age, was implemented. A total of 208 cases of meningitis were identified, of which 141 (67.8 per cent) were identified with a definite causative organism. The remaining 67 cases (32 per cent) were labeled as aseptic meningitis. The overall incidence of meningitis was 60.53/10(5) in under-fives with a disease spectrum similar to that reported in studies conducted in other countries. The three leading causes of meningitis were Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), MCM (Neisseria menigitides) and SPN (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Hib meningitis constituted 28 per cent of cases with an incidence rate of 16.88/10(5) children. There was a marked regional variation in Hib incidence. MCM was the second leading cause (18 per cent) of meningitis with an incidence of 10.77/10(5) while SPN comprised 11 per cent of cases and its incidence was 9.69/10(5). Almost all MCM cases were related to meningitis outbreaks that occurred in Saudi Arabia during two successive Hajj seasons (2000-2001). Hib cases showed a bimodal seasonality, one peak during March-May, the other during September-November. The fact that this study is the first national base-line data on meningitis in general and Hib incidence in particular, has augmented further justification for introducing Hib vaccine within the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Based on the experience gained during this study regarding surveillance of meningitis disease, optimal methods to strengthen meningitis surveillance were identified. A model of Meningitis

  3. Soft tissue stability after segmental distraction of the anterior mandibular alveolar process: a 5.5 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Joss, C U; Triaca, A; Antonini, M; Kiliaridis, S; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2013-03-01

    Soft tissue changes were analysed retrospectively in 17 patients following distraction osteogenesis (DO) of the mandibular anterior alveolar process. Lateral cephalograms were traced by hand, digitized, superimposed, and evaluated at T1 (17.0 days), after DO at T2 (mean 6.5 days), at T3 (mean 24.4 days), at T4 (mean 2.0 years), and at T5 (mean 5.5 years). Statistical analysis was carried out using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and linear backward regression analysis. 5.5 years postoperatively, the net effect for the soft tissue at point B' was 88% of the advancement at point B while the lower lip (labrale inferior) followed the advancement of incision inferior to 24%. Increased preoperative age was correlated (p<0.05) with more horizontal backward movement (T5-T3) for labrale inferior and pogonion'. Higher NL/ML' angles were significantly correlated (p<0.05) to smaller horizontal soft tissue change at labrale inferior (T5-T3). The amount of advancement at point B was significantly correlated with an upward movement (T5-T3) of labrale inferior (p<0.01) and stomion inferior (p<0.05). It can be concluded that further change in soft tissues occurred between 2.0 and 5.5 years postoperatively. The physiological process of ageing and loss of soft tissue elasticity should be considered as possible reasons.

  4. Interval arithmetic in calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairbekova, Gaziza; Mazakov, Talgat; Djomartova, Sholpan; Nugmanova, Salima

    2016-10-01

    Interval arithmetic is the mathematical structure, which for real intervals defines operations analogous to ordinary arithmetic ones. This field of mathematics is also called interval analysis or interval calculations. The given math model is convenient for investigating various applied objects: the quantities, the approximate values of which are known; the quantities obtained during calculations, the values of which are not exact because of rounding errors; random quantities. As a whole, the idea of interval calculations is the use of intervals as basic data objects. In this paper, we considered the definition of interval mathematics, investigated its properties, proved a theorem, and showed the efficiency of the new interval arithmetic. Besides, we briefly reviewed the works devoted to interval analysis and observed basic tendencies of development of integral analysis and interval calculations.

  5. Observational clinical study of 22 adult-onset Pompe disease patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy over 5years.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Karolina M; Hendriksz, Christian J; Roberts, Mark; Sharma, Reena

    2016-04-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from deficiency of the acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The late-onset Pompe Disease (LOPD) patients develop muscular and respiratory complications later in life. We describe a retrospective observational cohort study including 22 patients with LOPD. The cohort was assessed at baseline before Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alpha (20mg/kg biweekly) was commenced and subsequently relevant information was collected at 2, 4 and 5years later. The median age of the patients at study entry was 44years (16-64years), with median disease duration of 11.5years (4-31years). At baseline, 10 patients (45%) could walk without support, 12 (55%) could walk with unilateral or bilateral support including 3/12 were wheelchair bound. Mean predicted FVC % was 55.7 (95% CI 45-66) of predicted normal at baseline and showed no significant change after 5years (54.6 (95% CI 43-66)), (all p=0.9815). Mean FVC % supine was 41.8 (95% CI 33.8-49) of predicted normal at baseline and remained significantly unchanged at 5years (48.4 (95% CI 37-59.6)), (all p=0.8680). The overnight non-invasive ventilator dependence increased by 18.2% as compared with baseline and requirement of mobility aids increased during this period by 5.2% as compared with the baseline. Mean walking distance at 6min walk test was 411.5 (95% CI 338-485) at baseline, 266.5 (95% CI 187-346) m at 2years, 238.6 (95% CI 162-315) m at 4years and 286.8 (95% CI 203-370) m at 5years (p=0.1981; ANOVA was completed only for 14 patients). A gradual decline in FVC% predicted was noted only in four cases and a decline in FVC% supine in two other. Only one patient showed a decline in both pulmonary function tests. In all remaining cases (17/22) respiratory function remains stable. In conclusion overall pulmonary function tests and mobility remained stable for 5years in majority of patients on ERT. However, in some patients they continued to decline in spite of ERT

  6. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  7. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green sturgeon... of requested information include: (1) Species biology including, but not limited to,...

  8. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; request for information. SUMMARY: NMFS announces a 5-year review of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis... of any such information on sei whales that has become available since that has become available...

  9. Aeromonas-Associated Diarrhea in Children Under 5 Years: The GEMS Experience.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Farah Naz; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Quadri, Farheen; Shakoor, Sadia; Sow, Samba O; Nasrin, Dilruba; Blackwelder, William C; Wu, Yukun; Farag, Tamer; Panchalingham, Sandra; Sur, Dipika; Qureshi, Shahida; Faruque, Abu S G; Saha, Debasish; Alonso, Pedro L; Breiman, Robert F; Bassat, Quique; Tamboura, Boubou; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kanungo, Suman; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Hossain, Anowar; Das, Sumon K; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, M Jahangir; Mandomando, Inacio; Tennant, Sharon M; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2016-10-05

    We report the clinical findings, epidemiology, and risk factors for moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) associated with Aeromonas species in children 0-59 months of age, from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, conducted at three sites in south Asia and four sites in sub-Saharan Africa. Children with MSD were enrolled along with controls matched for age, gender, and neighborhood. Pooled, age-stratified conditional logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association of Aeromonas infection controlling for coinfecting pathogens and sociodemographic variables. A pooled, age-stratified, multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify risk factors associated with Aeromonas positivity in MSD cases. A total of 12,110 cases and 17,291 matched controls were enrolled over a period of 48 months. Aeromonas was identified as a significant pathogen in 736 cases of MSD in Pakistan and Bangladesh (22.2%). Aeromonas remained a significant pathogen even after adjustment for the presence of other pathogens and sociodemographic factors. Odds ratio (OR) for Aeromonas were higher in the presence of Shigella (matched OR: 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-20.2). Cases of Aeromonas were likely to present with dysentery, particularly in the 0-11 months (OR: 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0) and 12-23 months (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5) age group. The odds of Aeromonas increased with increasing degree of stunting, being highest for severe stunting (OR: 10.1, 95% CI: 3.6-28.9). Aeromonas is a significant pathogen for MSD in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Presence of dysentery and co-occurrence with other pathogens, notably Shigella spp. are significant features of Aeromonas-associated diarrhea.

  10. Incidence of Hypertension in Korea: 5-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang Hoon; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun; Jun, Jae Eun; Park, Wee Hyun; Chun, Byung Yeol; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Kee-Sik; Kim, Kwon-Bae; Kim, Young Jo

    2011-01-01

    Limited data are available about the incidence of hypertension over the 5-yr in non-hypertensive subjects. The study subjects were 1,806 subjects enrolled in a rural area of Daegu, Korea for a cohort study from August to November 2003. Of them, 1,287 (71.3%) individuals had another examination 5 yr later. To estimate the incidence of hypertension, 730 non-hypertensive individuals (265 males; mean age = 56.6 ± 11.1 yr-old) at baseline examination were analyzed in this study. Hypertension was defined as either a new diagnosis of hypertension or self-reports of newly initiated antihypertensive treatment; prehypertension was if the systolic blood pressure was 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure was 80-89 mmHg. During the 5-yr follow-up, 195 (26.7%) non-hypertensive individuals developed incident hypertension. The age-adjusted 5-yr incidence rates of hypertension were 22.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.9-29.0) in overall subjects, 22.2% (95% CI = 17.2-27.2) in men, and 24.3% (95% CI = 20.4-28.2) in women. The incidence rates of hypertension significantly increased with age. In the multivariate analysis, prehypertension (Odds ratio [OR] 2.25; P < 0.001) and older age (OR 2.26; P = 0.010) were independent predictors for incident hypertension. In this rapidly aging society, population-based preventive approach to decrease blood pressure, particularly in subjects with prehypertension, is needed to reduce hypertension. PMID:22022179

  11. [Auto-injection with epinephrine in the finger of a 5-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Janssen, R L H; Roeleveld-Versteegh, A B C; Wessels-Basten, S J W; Hendriks, T

    2008-04-26

    A 5-year-old boy with food allergies complicated by anaphylactic reactions with dyspnoea and angioedema had been prescribed an autoinjector with epinephrine (0.15 mg) so that his parents could treat him at home if necessary. The patient accidentally injected himself in a finger, which likely makes him the youngest patient to receive an epinephrine auto-injection reported to date. Treatment consisted of phentolamine (0.15 mg in 0.5 ml normal saline) injected subcutaneously at the site of accidental injection; the dose and volume were not adapted according to the age and body weight of the patient as only a local effect was intended. Finger circulation was restored within 20 minutes. Headache, nausea and vomiting were observed after 30 minutes and were most likely a systemic side effect of phentolamine. No other complications occurred. The patient recovered fully and was discharged the following morning. Intramuscular epinephrine autoinjection is standard therapy for severe anaphylactic reactions. The epinephrine autoinjector was introduced in 1980. As allergy and anaphylaxis become more common, increasing numbers of autoinjectors are prescribed, and it is likely that the number of accidental digital autoinjections will also increase. These digits are then at risk of ischaemic necrosis. There is no consensus on therapeutic strategies in such cases. Phentolamine administration appears to be an effective intervention. However, several recent studies have shown that epinephrine may be used safely in hand surgery, which suggests that accidental digital epinephrine autoinjection may not always require immediate treatment.

  12. Temporally selective attention supports speech processing in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Astheimer, Lori B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    Recent event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that adults employ temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech. Doing so is an effective listening strategy since word-initial segments are highly informative. Although the development of this process remains unexplored, directing attention to word onsets may be important for speech processing in young children who would otherwise be overwhelmed by the rapidly changing acoustic signals that constitute speech. We examined the use of temporally selective attention in 3- to 5-year-old children listening to stories by comparing ERPs elicited by attention probes presented at four acoustically matched times relative to word onsets: concurrently with a word onset, 100 ms before, 100 ms after, and at random control times. By 80 ms, probes presented at and after word onsets elicited a larger negativity than probes presented before word onsets or at control times. The latency and distribution of this effect is similar to temporally and spatially selective attention effects measured in adults and, despite differences in polarity, spatially selective attention effects measured in children. These results indicate that, like adults, preschool aged children modulate temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech.

  13. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research.

  14. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28–60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  15. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  16. Epidemiology and mortality of burns in the Lucknow Region, India--a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Ali, Wahid; Verma, Anoop K; Pandey, Abhishek; Rathore, Shiuli

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 95% of global burn deaths and disabilities are estimated to occur in low and middle income countries of the world. Burns are extremely common and are a major public health problem in a developing country like India. The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burns retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 2225 (10.7%) cases of burns among the total autopsies done over 5 years period (1st January 2008-27th November 2012) in the mortuary of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, K.G.M.U., Lucknow. The majority of deaths (88.8%) occurred between 10 and 49 years of age group with a preponderance of females (87.5%). The flame burns were seen in 60.1% of the victims. The majority of burn incidents were suicidal (38.6%) in nature followed by accidental (37.3%) and homicidal (24.1%) deaths. The percentages of burns with a total body surface area (TBSA) over 50% were observed in most of the cases (82.5%). In most of the cases deaths occurred within a week (82%) and most of the victims died from septicaemia and pneumonia (43.7%) followed by neurogenic shock (28.5%). The results of this study provide the necessary information to implement programmes for health education relating to prevention of burns focusing on the domestic setting.

  17. A Handling Study to Assess Use of the Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler in Children Under 5 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion; Kattenbeck, Sabine; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Wachtel, Herbert; Zielen, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) is a hand-held device that generates an aerosol with a high, fine-particle fraction, enabling efficient lung deposition. The study objective was to assess inhalation success among children using Respimat SMI, and the requirement for assistance by the parent/caregiver and/or a valved holding chamber (VHC). Methods: This open-label study enrolled patients aged <5 years with respiratory disease and history of coughing and/or recurrent wheezing. Patients inhaled from the Respimat SMI (air only; no aerosol) using a stepwise configuration: “1” (dose released by child); “2” (dose released by parent/caregiver), and “3” (Respimat SMI with VHC, facemask, and parent/caregiver help). Co-primary endpoints included the ability to perform successful inhalation as assessed by the investigators using a standardized handling questionnaire and evaluation of the reasons for success. Inhalation profile in the successful handling configuration was verified with a pneumotachograph. Patient satisfaction and preferences were investigated in a questionnaire. Results: Of the children aged 4 to <5 years (n=27) and 3 to <4 years (n=30), 55.6% and 30.0%, respectively, achieved success without a VHC or help; with assistance, another 29.6% and 10.0%, respectively, achieved success, and the remaining children were successful with VHC. All children aged 2 to <3 years (n=20) achieved success with the Respimat SMI and VHC. Of those aged <2 years (n=22), 95.5% had successful handling of the Respimat SMI with VHC and parent/caregiver help. Inhalation flow profiles generally confirmed the outcome of the handling assessment by the investigators. Most parent/caregiver and/or child respondents were satisfied with operation, instructions for use, handling, and ease of holding the Respimat SMI with or without a VHC. Conclusions: The Respimat SMI is suitable for children aged <5 years; however, children aged <5 years are advised to add a

  18. Prenatal and postnatal manganese teeth levels and neurodevelopment at 7, 9, and 10.5 years in the CHAMACOS cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana M.; Arora, Manish; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Parra, Kimberly; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Gunier, Robert B.; Bradman, Asa; Smith, Donald R.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies of school-age children have observed that exposure to manganese (Mn) adversely affects neurodevelopment. However, few prospective studies have looked at the effects of both prenatal and postnatal Mn exposure on child neurodevelopment. Methods We measured Mn levels in prenatal and early postnatal dentine of shed teeth and examined their association with behavior, cognition, memory, and motor functioning in 248 children aged 7, 9, and/or 10.5 years living near agricultural fields treated with Mn-containing fungicides in California. We used generalized linear models and generalized additive models to test for linear and nonlinear associations, and generalized estimating equation models to assess longitudinal effects. Results We observed that higher prenatal and early postnatal Mn levels in dentine of deciduous teeth were adversely associated with behavioral outcomes, namely internalizing, externalizing, and hyperactivity problems, in boys and girls at 7 and 10.5 years. In contrast, higher Mn levels in prenatal and postnatal dentine were associated with better memory abilities at ages 9 and 10.5, and better cognitive and motor outcomes at ages 7 and 10.5 years, among boys only. Higher prenatal dentine Mn levels were also associated with poorer visuospatial memory outcomes at 9 years and worse cognitive scores at 7 and 10.5 years in children with higher prenatal lead levels (≥0.8 μg/dL). All these associations were linear and were consistent with findings from longitudinal analyses. Conclusions We observed that higher prenatal and early postnatal Mn levels measured in dentine of deciduous teeth, a novel biomarker that provides reliable information on the developmental timing of exposures to Mn, were associated with poorer behavioral outcomes in school-age boys and girls and better motor function, memory, and/or cognitive abilities in school-age boys. Additional research is needed to understand the inconsistencies in the

  19. Analysis of maximum mouth opening and its related factors in 3- to 5-year-old Taiwanese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Sen; Yang, Pei-Ling; Lee, Chen-Yi; Chen, Ker-Kong; Lee, Kun-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Maximum mouth opening (MMO) can reflect the function of the dentofacial musculature and joint system, and routine oral examinations should include its assessment. To diagnose abnormalities using MMO measurements, it is necessary to establish the normal range of MMO; however, few studies have investigated this subject in Taiwan. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the normal MMO range in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children and to investigate the factors correlated with MMO. We examined the interincisal distance, defined as the distance between the edges of the upper and lower incisors, in 518 preschool children (age range 3-5 years; 271 boys and 247 girls) with a plastic sliding caliper. The MMO on both sides of the mouth and mouth width (MW) was measured 3 times. No differences in MMO were found between the genders. The interincisal distance was 37.47 (±4.11) mm for boys and 36.93 (±3.85) mm for girls, whereas the mean MMO was 37.21 (±3.99) mm. The MMO increased with the increasing age of the children, and the mean value of MMO in children aged 3, 4, and 5 was 35.31 (±4.03), 36.61 (±3.79), and 38.31 (±3.88) mm, respectively. Furthermore, MMO was found to correlate with weight and MW. MMO increased by 0.19 mm per increased weight and 0.37 mm per increased MW. The mean value of MMO in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children was 37.21 (±3.99) mm. MMO in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children increased with age and was correlated with weight and MW.

  20. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Relation between Executive Function and Theory of Mind at 3, 4, and 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Marcovitch, Stuart; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Weaver, Jennifer M.; Levine, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study contributes to the growing literature on the predictive nature of the relation between executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). A latent variable model was fit to the data acquired from 226 socioeconomically and racially diverse children (52% female) at 3, 4, and 5 years of age on a number of age-appropriate tasks designed to assess EF and ToM. After controlling for sex, income-to-needs, and receptive language ability, there was substantial stability within each construct as children aged. In addition, EF at 3 years predicted ToM at 4 years but ToM did not predict EF, replicating earlier results. This pattern also appeared from 4 to 5 years of age, suggesting that the developmental precedence of EF persists later in development. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of contemporary cognitive development theories, as well as the relation between EF and social reasoning in general. PMID:25642021

  1. Surgical treatment of cardiac tumors: a 5-year experience from a single cardiac center

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liang; He, Dengke; Shen, Hua; Ling, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Xue, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare but manifested with various clinical presentations and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. The objective is to review the clinical presentation, histopathological spectrum, mortality and follow-up data of patients with cardiac tumors following surgery treatment over a period of 5 years. Methods We retrospectively collected the medical records of all patients diagnosed of cardiac tumors in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 at the cardiac center of our university. Clinical histories, perioperative data, surgical findings, efficacy and follow-up data were reviewed in our study. Patients were divided into two groups according to site distribution of the tumors in the heart. Results A total of 131 patients underwent surgical treatment of cardiac tumors were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 51.39±16.37. The result of analysis showed that 79.47% (n=104) of the primary intracardiac tumors were benign, while primary malignant neoplasms accounted for 16.03% (n=21) of all patients, with the remainder (n=6, 4.6%) metastatic tumors transferred from other organs. Among all patients there were 2 in-hospital deaths and the survival rate in all patients at 1-year, 3-year and 5-year follow up was 83.20%, 78.62% and 66.41% respectively. Both patients with tumors in the left and right heart had similar basic characteristics except sex gender (P=0.002), BSA (P=0.045) and weight (P=0.033). Compared with patients with tumors in the right heart, patients with tumors in the left heart had significant higher CPB time (P<0.001), cross clamp time (P<0.001) and time of mechanical ventilation (P<0.001), and they also had longer ICU stay (P<0.001) but not total hospital stay (P=0.434). Conclusions Surgical resection represents an effective protocol in treating cardiac tumors. Data in our study of cardiac tumors on frequency and allocation were consistent with previous reports which may provide useful clinical evidence on

  2. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-05-03

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT.

  3. Surgical wound infections. A 5-year prospective study of 20,193 wounds at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, M; O'Connor, M; Schwartz, M L

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a 5-year prospective study of postoperative wound sepsis utilizing a careful program of wound surveillance. Surgical wounds following 20,193 operations on all surgical services were surveyed by a trained nurse epidemiologist. Daily examination of wounds, culture of all suspicious wounds, and 30-day outpatient clinic follow-up were performed. Results were disseminated at monthly intervals to all involved surgeons and operating room personnel. Prospective and ongoing analysis of results facilitated identification and rectification of specific problem areas. Wound infection rates demonstrated a steady decline over the course of the study, overall rates dropping from 4.2% to 1.9% (p less than 0.05). This reduction in incidence of postoperative wound sepsis of 55% is estimated to have saved 2740 inhospital days and nearly $750,000. PMID:6703787

  4. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  5. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed.

  6. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  7. Age-specific MRI templates for pediatric neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carmen E.; Richards, John E.; Almli, C. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study created a database of pediatric age-specific MRI brain templates for normalization and segmentation. Participants included children from 4.5 through 19.5 years, totaling 823 scans from 494 subjects. Open-source processing programs (FSL, SPM, ANTS) constructed head, brain and segmentation templates in 6 month intervals. The tissue classification (WM, GM, CSF) showed changes over age similar to previous reports. A volumetric analysis of age-related changes in WM and GM based on these templates showed expected increase/decrease pattern in GM and an increase in WM over the sampled ages. This database is available for use for neuroimaging studies (blindedforreview). PMID:22799759

  8. Dental caries prevalence in 5-year-old children in Mallow (a non-fluoridated area), Cork, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mageean, J F; Holland, T J; Gleeson, P

    1979-04-01

    295 5-year-old children were examined in Mallow, a non-fluoridated town in North Cork to ascertain the dental status of children commencing first level education. The results were compared with those found in Baja, Hungary and in Barnsley, England. The def in Mallow was found to be 5.15 and the Met Need Index 14%. The authors suggest that the programmes of dental care should be re-examined in the light of these findings and more emphasis placed on the prevention and treatment of caries at an earlier age.

  9. Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients up to 5 years after initiation of HAART: collaborative analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prognosis over 5 years of HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive patients starting HAART, taking into account the immunological and virological response to therapy. Design A collaborative analysis of data from 12 cohorts in Europe and north America on 20 379 adults who started HAART between 1995 and 2003. Methods Parametric survival models were used to predict the cumulative incidence at 5 years of a new AIDS-defining event or death, and death alone, first from the start of HAART and second from 6 months after the start of HAART. Data were analysed by intention-to-continue-treatment, ignoring treatment changes and interruptions. Results During 61 798 person-years of follow-up, 1005 patients died and an additional 1303 developed AIDS. A total of 10 046 (49%) patients started HAART either with a CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/μl or with a diagnosis of AIDS. The 5-year risk of AIDS or death (death alone) from the start of HAART ranged from 5.6 to 77% (1.8–65%), depending on age, CD4 cell count, HIV-1-RNA level, clinical stage, and history of injection drug use. From 6 months the corresponding figures were 4.1–99% for AIDS or death and 1.3–96% for death alone. Conclusion On the basis of data collected routinely in HIV care, prognostic models with high discriminatory power over 5 years were developed for patients starting HAART in industrialized countries. A risk calculator that produces estimates for progression rates at years 1 to 5 after starting HAART is available from www.art-cohort-collaboration.org. PMID:17502729

  10. Modifiable health risks in Atlantic Canadian employees: a 5-year report.

    PubMed

    Makrides, L; Sawatzky, C; Petrie, J; Veinot, P

    2010-12-01

    A number of modifiable health risks, such as smoking, inactivity and obesity have been linked to increased employer costs, including decreased productivity and increased absenteeism and health claims. The purpose of this paper is to report on the health profile and prevalence of modifiable health risks in an Atlantic Canadian Employee Database. Data were collected over a 5-year period (2001-2006) by the Atlantic Health and Wellness Institute, the research arm of Creative Wellness Solutions, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Each employee of 51 workplaces (n = 6067; 2665 males, 3402 females; average age 41.3 years) completed a Health Risk Assessment questionnaire on smoking, nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Clinical data measurements were blood pressure, blood cholesterol, weight and height. Data were compared for private, public and health sectors. Sixteen percent had elevated blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mmHg), 20% smoked cigarettes, 70% were overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2)], 31% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), 38% had elevated non-fasting cholesterol levels (≥ 5.20 mmol/l) and 49% were inactive (<20-30 min, three to five times per week). Moreover, 50% had two to four major modifiable health risks (i.e. daily tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and high blood pressure). Health care sector employees were healthier overall, but there was substantial room for improvement. The present analysis identified an alarming prevalence of modifiable health risks in Atlantic Canadian employees. Workplaces need to invest in workplace wellness to reduce the risks and promote better health among employees, thus increasing productivity and decreasing the financial burden on employers.

  11. Manner of Death Determination in Fire Fatalities: 5-Year Autopsy Data of Istanbul City.

    PubMed

    Esen Melez, İpek; Arslan, Murat Nihat; Melez, Deniz Oguzhan; Gürler, Ahmet Selçuk; Büyük, Yalçin

    2017-03-01

    Death resulting from burns is an important social problem and a frequent accident. However, because approximately 10% of cases are estimated to result from a fire that was deliberately started, all fire-related deaths should be treated as suspicious, and the cause of a fire should be investigated. For the bodies recovered from the scene of a fire, the manner of death could also be suicide or homicide. The objective of this study was to contribute to the clarification of controversial data present in the literature on the manner of death determination of fire-related deaths, through evaluation of autopsy findings of bodies recovered from fires. We reviewed 20,135 autopsies performed in a 5-year period, in Istanbul, as the whole autopsy data of the city and found 133 fire-related deaths. The death scene investigation reports and other judicial documents, autopsy findings, and toxicological analysis results were evaluated to determine the parameters of age, sex, level of the burn, vital signs [red flare; soot in the lower respiratory tract, esophagus, and/or stomach; and screening of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in the blood], toxicological substances, presence of accelerants, cause of death, and manner of death. The manner of death was determined to be an accident in 98 (73.7%) and homicide in 12 (9%) cases, whereas there was no suicide. In addition, it could not be determined in 23 (17.2%) cases. In accidental deaths, the most frequent cause of death was COHb poisoning with statistically significant blood COHb levels greater than 10%. Further, the presence of soot in the lower respiratory tract, esophagus, and/or stomach and the existence of at least 1 or 2 vital signs together were found to be valid deterministic criteria with statistical significance in terms of identifying the manner of death.

  12. Burden of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Progression: A 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Cottin, Vincent; Schmidt, Aurélie; Catella, Laura; Porte, Fanny; Fernandez-Montoya, Céline; Le Lay, Katell; Bénard, Stève

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with an unpredictable course. An observational study was set up using the French hospital discharge database to describe the reasons, outcomes and costs of hospitalisations related to this disease. Patients newly hospitalised for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (ICD-10 code: J84.1) in 2008 were identified and followed for 5 years. As J84.1 includes other fibrotic pulmonary diseases, an algorithm excluding age<50 years and presence of a differential diagnosis in the following year was defined. Overall, 6,476 patients were identified; of whom 30% were admitted through the emergency unit and 12% died during their first hospitalisation. Most of patients were hospitalised at least once for one or several acute events (n = 5,635; 87.0% of patients), of whom 36.5% of patients with an acute respiratory worsening (in-hospital mortality of 17.0% and median cost of €3,224; interquartile range (IQR €889–6,092)), 43.7% of patients with a respiratory infection (in-hospital mortality of 29.5% and median cost of €5,432 (IQR, €3,620–9,115)) and 51.7% of patients with a cardiac event (in-hospital mortality of 35.7% and median cost of €4,584 (IQR, €2,803–6,399)); 30.2% of these events occurred during the first hospitalisation. Finally, the 3-year in-hospital mortality crude rate was 36.8%. This study is the first providing extensive data on hospitalisations in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, mostly idiopathic, in France, demonstrating high burden and hospital cost. PMID:28099456

  13. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  14. Genital prolapse: A 5-year review at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oraekwe, Obinna Izuchukwu; Udensi, Maduabuchi Amagh; Nwachukwu, Kelechi Chiemela; Okali, Uka Kalu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genital prolapse is an important cause of morbidity among postmenopausal and multiparous women especially in our environment where a high premium is placed on large family size. This study was done to determine the prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and management options of genital prolapse. Patients and Methods: Data of those diagnosed with genital prolapse were retrieved from records in the clinic, wards, theater, and from patients' folders in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 with P < 0.05. Results: Genital prolapse accounted for 0.8% of gynecological clinic attendances and 5.2% of major gynecological operations. The mean age of patients was 56.7 ± 15.5 years. Farmers constituted 60.7% of the patients while 72.1% and 70.5% were postmenopausal and grandmultiparous women, respectively. The sensation of something coming down the vagina was the most common symptom noted in 98.4% of the patients. Most (23.0%) of the patients had unsupervised delivery at home. Uterovaginal prolapse was the most common (70.5%) type of genital prolapse, and third-degree uterovaginal prolapse was its most frequent presentation. Majority of the patients (44.4%) were managed expectantly while the most common surgery performed was vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic floor repair (33.3%). Conclusion: Widespread availability of antenatal services especially in the rural communities and limitation on family size can significantly reduce the burden of this disease. PMID:27833248

  15. Interval and Contour Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

  16. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  17. Musical intervals in speech.

    PubMed

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-06-05

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

  18. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  19. Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, P. Scott; Martin, Stacey W.; Dusek, Cristina; Cathey, Erika; D’Alessio, Rebecca; Kirsch, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    In September 2013, local county health officials in Tallahassee, Florida, USA, were notified of a laboratory-confirmed pertussis case in a 1-year-old preschool attendee. During a 5-month period, 26 (22%) students 1–5 years of age, 2 staff from the same preschool, and 11 family members met the national case definition for pertussis. Four persons during this outbreak were hospitalized for clinical management of pertussis symptoms. Only 5 students, including 2 students with pertussis, had not received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis. Attack rates in 1 classroom for all students who received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis approached 50%. This outbreak raises concerns about vaccine effectiveness in this preschool age group and reinforces the idea that recent pertussis vaccination should not dissuade physicians from diagnosing, testing, or treating persons with compatible illness for pertussis. PMID:26814429

  20. Visual function and car driving: longitudinal results 5 years after cataract surgery in a population

    PubMed Central

    Mönestam, E; Lundquist, B; Wachtmeister, L

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To determine visual function in drivers who had cataract surgery 5 years previously, and to analyse longitudinal data, by comparing preoperative and postoperative changes in subjective driving ability and objective visual function. Methods: All patients (810) who underwent cataract surgery, during a 1 year period, were prospectively studied. Data regarding present driving status were collected from self administered questionnaires and visual acuity (VA) data were measured before and after surgery. All patients who were alive 5 years later were invited to participate with a new eye examination and questionnaire. Results: Before surgery 36 active drivers (16%) did not fulfil the visual requirements for driving; with improved glasses this number could be reduced to 24 (11%). 5 years after surgery, the corresponding figures were 5% and 3% (5/174), respectively. Before surgery 50% stated visual difficulties while driving in daylight and 79% in darkness. A few months and 5 years after surgery the corresponding figures were 6% and 5%, respectively, for daytime driving and 34% and 44%, respectively, for night-time driving. Conclusions: Long term results regarding cataract surgery in car drivers are beneficial. 5 years after surgery only a few patients drove not fulfilling the requirements, but there were a larger proportion of patients with problems driving in darkness compared with a few months after surgery. PMID:15774924

  1. Programming with Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  2. SENIORLAB: a prospective observational study investigating laboratory parameters and their reference intervals in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Martin; Nydegger, Urs; Risch, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In clinical practice, laboratory results are often important for making diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic decisions. Interpreting individual results relies on accurate reference intervals and decision limits. Despite the considerable amount of resources in clinical medicine spent on elderly patients, accurate reference intervals for the elderly are rarely available. The SENIORLAB study set out to determine reference intervals in the elderly by investigating a large variety of laboratory parameters in clinical chemistry, hematology, and immunology. Methods/design: The SENIORLAB study is an observational, prospective cohort study. Subjectively healthy residents of Switzerland aged 60 years and older were included for baseline examination (n = 1467), where anthropometric measurements were taken, medical history was reviewed, and a fasting blood sample was drawn under optimal preanalytical conditions. More than 110 laboratory parameters were measured, and a biobank was set up. The study participants are followed up every 3 to 5 years for quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The primary aim is to evaluate different laboratory parameters at age-related reference intervals. The secondary aims of this study include the following: identify associations between different parameters, identify diagnostic characteristics to diagnose different circumstances, identify the prevalence of occult disease in subjectively healthy individuals, and identify the prognostic factors for the investigated outcomes, including mortality. Discussion: To obtain better grounds to justify clinical decisions, specific reference intervals for laboratory parameters of the elderly are needed. Reference intervals are obtained from healthy individuals. A major obstacle when obtaining reference intervals in the elderly is the definition of health in seniors because individuals without any medical condition and any medication are rare in older adulthood. Reference

  3. Long-term survival with diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD): survival to 5 years and further phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Scottoline, Brian; Rosenthal, Scott; Keisari, Rami; Kirpekar, Rashmi; Angell, Cathy; Wallerstein, Robert

    2012-06-01

    We report on the natural history of diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) in the longest known survivor. DSD is a rare form of autosomal recessive vertebral dysotosis recently identified to be caused by a mutation in the BMPER gene. This condition is characterized by absent or severely delayed ossification of vertebral bodies, short broad thorax, short neck, protuberant abdomen, marked respiratory insufficiency, and normal appendicular skeleton. It is one of a number of spinal dysostoses, which are a heterogeneous group of axial skeletal malformations occurring during blastogenesis with continued evolution after birth. Significant medical intervention and at-home support contributed to the long-term survival of our patient. The patient had tracheomalacia, which resulted in respiratory insufficiency with thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS). Tracheostomy and vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) insertion operations ameliorated his symptoms. In addition, comprehensive physical and occupational therapy was performed due to chronic hypotonia. A consistent feature of all described DSD cases thus far are renal findings of dysplasia, nephrogenic rests or nephroblastomatosis, and/or cysts. The patient's renal cysts were monitored with serial ultrasounds at approximately 6-month intervals. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral renal cysts by ultrasound as a neonate, with eventual diagnosis at approximately 20 months of age with nephroblastoma suggesting this maybe an intrinsic part of DSD. The lack of other cases with nephroblastoma is likely related to the previously reported short period of survival.

  4. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  5. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica.

  6. Intelligence and visual motor integration in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to these skills are reported in children with 22q11DS, weak VMI skills may contribute to the lower than average IQ scores commonly reported. To investigate if the correlation of VMI and IQ score was mainly influenced by problems with visual perception skills (VP), motor coordination skills (MC) or difficulties with the integration of both skills (VMI), a subgroup (n = 28) was also administered the Beery VMI supplemental developmental tests. Due to the narrow age range of this study, we were also able to provide an insight into the neurocognitive phenotype of 5-year olds with 22q11DS and the influence of gender, heart disease and origin of deletion on this phenotype. Results show a mean full scale IQ (FSIQ) = 73.0 (SD 10.4) and mean VMI = 86.2 (SD 8.4). A significant correlation between FSIQ and VMI was found (r = .45, p = .000), with most variation (26%) explained in the performance IQ score ((PIQ), r = .51, p = .000). VP correlated significantly with FSIQ (r = .44, p = .01) and PIQ (r = .49, p = .004). MC was not significantly correlated with IQ (FSIQ, r = .21, p = .15; PIQ, r = .28, p = .07), suggesting that problems with motor coordination do not influence results on IQ-tests in a significant way at this age. Girls scored significantly higher on FSIQ and PIQ than boys; cardiac anomalies were not predictive of FSIQ or VMI scores. The results of this study suggest a characteristic neurocognitive phenotype for 5-year olds with 22q11DS. Deficiencies in visual perception and/or processing are negatively correlated with IQ scores, whereas deficiencies in motor skills do not have a relevant negative impact at this age. These findings

  7. Interval estimations in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates interval estimation for a measurand that is known to be positive. Both the Neyman and Bayesian procedures are considered and the difference between the two, not always perceived, is discussed in detail. A solution is proposed to a paradox originated by the frequentist assessment of the long-run success rate of Bayesian intervals.

  8. Sabril® registry 5-year results: Characteristics of adult patients treated with vigabatrin.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Faught, Edward; Foroozan, Rod; Pellock, John M; Sergott, Robert C; Shields, W Donald; Ziemann, Adam; Dribinsky, Yekaterina; Lee, Deborah; Torri, Sarah; Othman, Feisal; Isojarvi, Jouko

    2016-03-01

    Vigabatrin (Sabril®), approved in the US in 2009, is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) in patients ≥ 10 years old who have responded inadequately to several alternative treatments and as monotherapy for infantile spasms (IS) in patients 1 month to 2 years of age. Because of reports of vision loss following vigabatrin exposure, FDA approval required a risk evaluation mitigation strategy (REMS) program. Vigabatrin is only available in the US through Support, Help, And Resources for Epilepsy (SHARE), which includes a mandated registry. This article describes 5 years of demographic and treatment exposure data from adult patients (≥ 17 years old) in the US treated with vigabatrin and monitored in the ongoing Sabril® registry. Registry participation is mandatory for all US Sabril® prescribers and patients. A benefit-risk assessment must be documented by the physician for a patient to progress to maintenance therapy, defined as 1 month of vigabatrin treatment for patients with IS and 3 months for patients with rCPS. Ophthalmologic assessments must be documented during and after completion of therapy. As of August 26, 2014, a total of 6823 patients were enrolled in the registry, of which 1200 were adults at enrollment. Of these patients, 1031 (86%) were naïve to vigabatrin. The majority of adult patients (n=783, 65%) had previously been prescribed ≥ 4 AEDs, and 719 (60%) were receiving ≥ 3 concomitant AEDs at vigabatrin initiation. Prescribers submitted an initial ophthalmological assessment form for 863 patients; an ophthalmologic exam was not completed for 300 (35%) patients and thus, were considered exempted from vision testing. Of these patients, 128 (43%) were exempted for neurologic disabilities. Clinicians discontinued treatment in 8 patients because of visual field deficits (VFD) (5 patients naïve to vigabatrin and 3 patients previously exposed). Based on Kaplan-Meier survival estimates, it is

  9. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  10. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  11. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ-28): A parsimonious version validated for longitudinal use from 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Elena; Williams, Kate E; Mallan, Kimberley M; Nicholson, Jan M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2016-05-01

    Prospective studies and intervention evaluations that examine change over time assume that measurement tools measure the same construct at each occasion. In the area of parent-child feeding practices, longitudinal measurement properties of the questionnaires used are rarely verified. To ascertain that measured change in feeding practices reflects true change rather than change in the assessment, structure, or conceptualisation of the constructs over time, this study examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) subscales (9 constructs; 40 items) across 3 time points. Mothers participating in the NOURISH trial reported their feeding practices when children were aged 2, 3.7, and 5 years (N = 404). Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) within a structural equation modelling framework was used. Comparisons of initial cross-sectional models followed by longitudinal modelling of subscales, resulted in the removal of 12 items, including two redundant or poorly performing subscales. The resulting 28-item FPSQ-28 comprised 7 multi-item subscales: Reward for Behaviour, Reward for Eating, Persuasive Feeding, Overt Restriction, Covert Restriction, Structured Meal Setting and Structured Meal Timing. All subscales showed good fit over 3 time points and each displayed at least partial scalar (thresholds equal) longitudinal measurement invariance. We recommend the use of a separate single item indicator to assess the family meal setting. This is the first study to examine longitudinal measurement invariance in a feeding practices questionnaire. Invariance was established, indicating that the subscales of the shortened FPSQ-28 can be used with mothers to validly assess change in 7 feeding constructs in samples of children aged 2-5 years of age.

  12. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  13. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  14. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  15. Introducing Engineering in Elementary Education: A 5-Year Study of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering, when integrated into K-12 education, may offer a number of potential student learning and future success benefits. In a 5-year study, four cohorts of elementary teachers of grades 2 to 4 in a single US school district were provided with teacher professional development with engineering education. Teachers were prepared to teach…

  16. Trauma Revisited: A 5-Year-Old's Journey from Experiences, to Thoughts, to Words, towards Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I describe the first 2 years of intensive psychotherapy of a multiply traumatized 5-year-old girl. I explore some of the ways in which violent and traumatic experiences were re-lived in the therapy and how they impacted on both patient and therapist. Within the discussion and illustrated by clinical vignettes, I consider the…

  17. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  18. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  19. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  20. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  1. Parental Strategies and Trajectories of Peer Victimization in 4 to 5 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Marielle; Goossens, Frits A.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine how parental strategies contribute to explaining trajectories of peer victimization in young children. A total of 73 4 and 5 year old children identified as victims of peer aggression in the fall semester and their parents were recruited from 46 classrooms in 18 schools in the Netherlands. All children were…

  2. 75 FR 57254 - American Community Survey 5-Year Data Product Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...' specific feedback on the following four dimensions: 1. Block Group Level Geography--The Census Bureau... block group geography level, (2) the types of data products to be included in the 5-year data products... response is below. 1. Block Group Level Geography The Census Bureau received six comments in response...

  3. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  4. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  5. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  6. Low antibiotic resistance among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria in periodontitis 5 years following metronidazole therapy.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, G; Preus, H R

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic susceptibility among predominant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontitis patients who 5 years prior had been subject to mechanical therapy with or without adjunctive metronidazole. One pooled sample was taken from the 5 deepest sites of each of 161 patients that completed the 5 year follow-up after therapy. The samples were analyzed by culture. A total number of 85 anaerobic strains were isolated from the predominant subgingival flora of 65/161 patient samples, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by MIC determination. E-tests against metronidazole, penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and clindamycin were employed. The 73/85 strains were Gram-negative rods (21 Porphyromonas spp., 22 Prevotella/Bacteroides spp., 23 Fusobacterium/Filifactor spp., 3 Campylobacter spp. and 4 Tannerella forsythia). These were all isolated from the treated patients irrespective of therapy procedures (+/-metronidazole) 5 years prior. Three strains (Bifidobacterium spp., Propionibacterium propionicum, Parvimonas micra) showed MIC values for metronidazole over the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing break point of >4 μg/mL. All Porphyromonas and Tannerella strains were highly susceptible. Metronidazole resistant Gram-negative strains were not found, while a few showed resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. In this population of 161 patients who had been subject to mechanical periodontal therapy with or without adjunct metronidazole 5 years prior, no cultivable antibiotic resistant anaerobes were found in the predominant subgingival microbiota.

  7. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  8. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  9. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  10. Children Born to Women with Intellectual Disabilities--5-Year Incidence in a Swedish County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiber, I.; Berglund, J.; Tengland, P.-A.; Eklund, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Families with parental intellectual disabilities (ID) are likely to need support in achieving a decent family life. In order to accurately plan for such support services, society needs data regarding the occurrence of those parents and their children. The aim of this study was to investigate the 5-year incidence of children born to…

  11. Plastic bronchitis developing 5 years after Fontan procedure in a girl with Kartagener's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Tomohiro; Yokozawa, Masato; Takamuro, Motoki; Kasuga, Ai

    2012-06-01

    Although rare, plastic bronchitis (PB) is an important early complication after Fontan procedure. Kartagener's syndrome is characterized by mucociliary dysfunction of the respiratory tract and has a triad of features, including situs inversus totalis, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasia. We experienced PB in a patient with Kartagener's syndrome 5 years after Fontan procedure.

  12. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  13. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  14. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  15. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  16. Maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure or physical activity in 5-year-old Pima Indian children.

    PubMed

    Salbe, A D; Fontvieille, A M; Pettitt, D J; Ravussin, E

    1998-10-01

    Children of women who have diabetes during pregnancy are more likely to become obese by early adulthood than those of women with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Obesity can result from either excess food intake, low levels of energy expenditure or both. In our study, we tested whether maternal diabetes status influences total energy expenditure (TEE by doubly labelled water), resting metabolic rate (RMR by ventilated hood) and physical activity level (PAL = TEE/RMR and assessed by activity questionnaire). Measurements were taken in 88 5-year-old Pima Indian children, 24 children of women with diabetes (2-h plasma glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l) diagnosed before or during pregnancy and 64 children of women with normal glucose tolerance (2-h plasma glucose < 7.8 mmol/l during pregnancy and no prior history of abnormal glucose tolerance). Although birth weight was higher in children of diabetic than of nondiabetic women (mean +/- SD; 3.8 +/- 0.6 vs 3.5 +/- 0.4 kg, p < 0.03), there were no differences in weight (26.4 +/- 6.9 vs 24.2 +/- 5.6 kg) or per cent body fat (18O dilution; 33 +/- 8 vs 31 +/- 8%) between the groups at 5 years of age. There was no difference in TEE (6508 +/- 1109 vs 6175 +/- 942 kJ/d) or in RMR (4674 +/- 786 vs 4483 +/- 603 kJ/d) expressed as absolute values or after adjustment for weight and sex (TEE) or fat-free mass, fat mass, and sex (RMR). Physical activity level was also similar between the groups (1.40 +/- 0.12 vs 1.38 +/- 0.12). These results suggest that maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure in the children by 5 years of age. Thus the greater obesity seen at older ages in the children of women with diabetes could be due to excess energy intake. Alternatively, if energy expenditure does have a role in the aetiology of obesity in these children, perhaps it does so only in older children.

  17. Analysis of Ocular Firework-Related Injuries and Common Eye Traumata: a 5-year Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Frimmel, S; Theusinger, O M; Kniestedt, C

    2017-03-10

    Background A comparative study of eye injuries related to fireworks or acts of violence around New Year's Eve and the Swiss National Day on August 1st. The two groups were compared with respect to the overall numbers of eye accidents within the period of review. Patients and Methods Retrospective analysis of emergency consultations at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich with eye accidents around the Swiss National Day on August 1st and New Year's Eve over the last 5 years. Two subgroups were formed: (1) Firework-related eye traumata, (2) Eye injuries due to acts of violence. The groups were analysed by age, gender, active participant or bystander, eye involved, severity of trauma (from clinical findings), surgical interventions, time of follow-up and visits, visual acuity and outcome. Results The study included 97 patients (100 eyes) with 74 male (76 %) and 23 female (24 %) victims. After filtering out 67 common traumata cases (all unilateral), 17 patients (18 eyes) with firework-related injuries and 13 patients (15 eyes) with damage due to an act of violence remained. Firework injuries accounted for 18 % of cases (65 % men); eye injuries caused by an act of violence accounted for 15 % of cases (92 % men). In the fireworks group, women were significantly older than men (mean age men 32 ± 14 years versus women 38 ± 16 years, p = 0.002). 65 % of cases were bystanders. The two subgroups contained 30 patients (33 eyes) with 22 left eyes (67 %, p < 0.001). The anterior segment was most frequently involved (79 %), significantly more often than the posterior part of the eye (p < 0.001). The posterior segment was injured more often in the fireworks group (28 %), than in the violence group (13 %). 87 % of the victims in the group of common traumata were mild trauma, 10 % moderate and 3 % severe. In the fireworks group the distribution was 53 % mild, 12 % moderate and 35 % severe, in the violence

  18. Dopaminergic therapy and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of 5-year reports.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD) is described in several recent papers. This procedure has been reported to permit a stable reduction of dopaminergic therapy requirements for up to 5 years, although some expectation of deterioration in non-dopaminergic signs has been recently stated. Our aim is to perform a literature-based review of papers available describing long-term post-operative follow-up after a bilateral implant for subthalamic DBS (STN-DBS). Only peer-reviewed published papers with a post-operative follow-up of at least 5 years were considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 2 (or 3 years) and 5 years after surgery. Seven papers were included in the review. A total of 238 patients were analyzed. STN-DBS was confirmed to be an effective treatment for selected patients with PD. In all studies, off-related motor symptoms improved dramatically, compared with pre-implant, at 2 (or 3, according to the study) years and this result persisted at 5-year evaluations. Antiparkinsonian drug reductions, improvements in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and the progression of underlying PD were also reported in all series. Some axial scores, in particular postural stability and speech, improved transiently. Persisting adverse effects included eyelid opening apraxia, weight gain, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysarthria, dyskinesias, and apathy. The present review of the 5-year observations confirms that STN-DBS is a powerful method in the management of PD, but its long-term effects must be thoroughly assessed.

  19. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus colonization and caries experience in 3- and 5-year-old Thai children

    PubMed Central

    Saraithong, P.; Pattanaporn, K.; Chen, Z.; Khongkhunthian, S.; Laohapensang, P.; Chhun, N.; Pattanaporn, W.; Gaw, H. Y.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in supra-gingival plaque samples and to determine their correlation with the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in Thai children. Materials and methods A total of 344 Thai children, ages 3 and 5 years, were invited to participate in this study. Caries status of the children was examined. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to evaluate DNA levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Results Eighty-five percent of the children were colonized by S. mutans and 50.9 % of them were colonized by S. sobrinus. The prevalence of ECC was 43.8 % and 56.2 % among 3- and 5-year-old children, respectively, and was significantly associated with the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The severity of ECC was significantly correlated with increased DNA levels of the two bacteria. Children who were positive for S. mutans and S. sobrinus (Sm+/Sb+) were 8 times or 44 times more likely to experience ECC than children who were Sm−/Sb+or were Sm−/Sb−. Conclusions The study evidence further suggest that children colonized by both S. mutans and S. sobrinus are at the higher risk for ECC. Clinical relevance Molecular-based qPCR can be used to detect and quantify S. mutans and S. sobrinus colonization for epidemiological and clinical studies for ECC risk assessment. PMID:25753978

  20. Examining spatial variations in the prevalence of mental health problems among 5-year-old children in Canada.

    PubMed

    Raos, Robert; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine spatial variations in the prevalence rates of the three most common behaviour problems among 5-year-old children in Canada, to establish the data's suitability for potential spatial analyses of factors contributing to the prevalence of such problems. Data on kindergarten children's outcomes are routinely collected for populations of children in Canada using the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a population-level, teacher completed questionnaire. These data have been previously used to estimate prevalence rates of aggression, anxiety, and hyperactivity. The current study geographically analyzed these estimates to examine their consistency in relation to gender differences at larger provincial geographies and smaller Census Subdivision (CSD) geographies. Multilevel analyses were completed to examine the variation in prevalence at both levels of geography. Data for over 150,000 5-year-olds in three Canadian provinces and 410 Census Subdivisions were available for analyses. Prevalence rates of behaviour problems estimated with the EDI showed consistent gender relationships at both levels of aggregation. Controlling for individuals' age and sex, there was significant variation at the CSD level in risk of behavioural problems, and for anxiety and aggression, this was not explained by the distribution of CSDs in different provinces. This suggests local variation in these aspects of children's behaviour, within provinces. These findings open up the opportunity to further explore the utility and variability of EDI-based spatial variation in children's mental health.

  1. Penile vascular evaluation and sexual function before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dubbelman, Yvette D; Wildhagen, Mark F; Dohle, Gert R

    2008-09-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common after surgery for prostate cancer. The aetiology of changes in sexual potency after radical prostatectomy is probably multifactorial, including neurogenic, vascular and psychosexual factors. A prospective study was designed to investigate haemodynamic and psychosexual changes before and after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for organ-confined prostate cancer. Penile haemodynamic evaluation and an assessment of sexual excitement were performed preoperatively and 3 months after RRP by colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) with visual erotic stimulation combined with a single intracavernous injection of a mixture of papaverine/phentolamine. Questionnaires on sexual function [International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)], general health and quality of life were sent to the patients preoperative, 3 months and 5 years after operation. Forty-eight men participated in the study. Mean age was 62.6 years (range 55-69). CDU did not show any significant reduction in mean peak systolic flow velocity and mean resistance index. From the men who preoperatively had normal arterial inflow 18% developed arteriogenic insufficiency. Some form of veno-occlusive insufficiency and low resistance indices were already present in the majority of normal potent men preoperatively. Surgical technique did not influence penile arterial blood flow after the operation. Three months and 5 years postoperatively, there was a highly significant reduction in erectile function, intercourse satisfaction, overall satisfaction, orgasmic function and sexual desire. However, with respect to the outcome at 3 months there was a significant improvement of orgasmic function 5 years after operation, especially after a bilateral nerve sparing procedure. Erections sufficient for vaginal penetration (questions 3 and 4 of the IIEF, score >or=8) improved from 2% to 11% 3 months and 5 years after RRP respectively. Total IIEF score was significantly better after a bilateral nerve

  2. [Remarriage in the aged].

    PubMed

    Heekerens, H P

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive review of our knowledge on remarriage in old age is presented, based on demographic data and on empirical studies both from Germany and elsewhere. In 1984, more than 8000 people aged 60 years and above remarried after the death of a partner or following divorce. The probability for remarriage in this age group in Germany and other Western industrial countries is about 0.015. The likelihood for men to remarry is approximately five to six times higher and can be best interpreted as a reflector of the distribution of sexes on the "remarriage market", rather than as an expression of any differential priorities or attitudes between sex groups. Other factors influencing remarriage are numeric age, social status, ethnic and religious integration and previous experiences of married life. The interval between loss of a partner and remarriage commonly stretches between 1.5 and 5.5 years. The main motive for remarriage is the wish not be alone. Basic values underlying the choice of a partner are the same as in the previous partnership. There are no apparent differences between the sexes with regard to the estimated success of their partnership. In three out of four cases, remarriage in old age seems to be a successful undertaking.

  3. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  4. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the

  5. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2013-09-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of <-2 is considered to be malnourished. The overall prevalence rate of underweight children was 18.2%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between males and females (p=0.797). However, the percentage of underweight children was slightly higher among females (18.9%) compared to males (17.6%). There was no association between parents' educational level or employment status and childhood malnutrition. There was no association between a family's movement from their house and childhood malnutrition (p=0.322). Living in an unsafe neighbourhood and having a family member killed during the past five years were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (p=0.016 and 0.018 respectively). Childhood malnutrition is still a public-health concern in Baghdad city, especially after the war of 2003. Malnutrition is significantly associated with living in unsafe neighbourhoods and at least one family member having been killed during the past five years.

  6. 75 FR 53272 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... of 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller Sea Lion AGENCY: National..., 2010, announcing the initiation of a 5-year review of the eastern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of..., announcing the initiation of a 5-year review of the eastern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the...

  7. Predictors of heroin relapse: Personality traits, impulsivity, COMT gene Val158met polymorphism in a 5-year prospective study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Li, Zhibin; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Haifeng; Chen, Zhikang; Sun, Haiming; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. The heroin use status was evaluated for 5 years after discharged. Among the 564 heroin-dependent patients, 500 were followed for 5 years after discharge and 53.0% (n = 265) were considered as relapsed to heroin use according to a strict monitor system. Univariate analysis showed that age, having ever been in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the total scores and non-planning scores of BIS-11, and the COMT rs4680 gene variants were different between relapse and abstinent groups. Logistic regression analysis showed higher BIS total score, having ever been in MMT and younger first heroin use age are the predictors of relapse to heroin use during 5 years follow-up, and the COMT rs4680 gene had an interaction with BIS scores. Our findings indicated that the impulsive personality traits, methadone use history, and onset age could predict relapse in heroin-dependent patients during 5 year's follow up. The COMT gene showed a moderational effect in part the relationship of impulsivity with heroin relapse.

  8. Screw fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation related to Down syndrome in children younger than 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenyu; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present cases of upper cervical fixation in Down syndrome patients younger than 5 years. In two cases, C1 lateral mass screws were installed. However, owing to the irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation, the screw backed out and fractured. Therefore, O-C2 fusion was performed. Furthermore, C2 bilateral lamina screws were added to the C2 pedicle screw for reinforcement. C1-C2 fusion is an option for Down syndrome patients younger than 5 years with atlantoaxial dislocation, when the dislocation is reducible. If the dislocation is irreducible, or the implant cannot be firmly secured, the fixation range should be expanded to O-C2 or below.

  9. Residual gentamicin-release from antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads after 5 years of implantation.

    PubMed

    Neut, Daniëlle; van de Belt, Hilbrand; van Horn, Jim R; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2003-05-01

    In infected joint arthroplasty, high local levels of antibiotics are achieved through temporary implantation of non-biodegradable gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads. Despite their antibiotic release, these beads act as a biomaterial surface to which bacteria preferentially adhere, grow and potentially develop antibiotic resistance. In routine clinical practice, these beads are removed after 14 days, but for a variety of reasons, we were confronted with a patient in which these beads were left in situ for 5 years. Retrieval of gentamicin-loaded beads from this patient constituted an exceptional case to study the effects of long-term implantation on potentially colonizing microflora and gentamicin release. Gentamicin-release test revealed residual antibiotic release after being 5 years in situ and extensive microbiological sampling resulted in recovery of a gentamicin-resistant staphylococcal strain from the bead surface. This case emphasizes the importance of developing biodegradable antibiotic-loaded beads as an antibiotic delivery system.

  10. A 5-year Journey with Cutis Laxa in an Indian Child: The De Barsy Syndrome Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Roy, Sutirtha

    2016-01-01

    De Barsy syndrome (DBS), synonymously known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III, is an extremely rare condition clinically characterized by cutis laxa, a progeroid appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. We present here an account of 5-year follow-up since the birth of an Indian boy with DBS, who had a few rare and unusual manifestations. In addition, our case probably represents the first reported case of DBS from India. PMID:26955101

  11. Equatorial Annual Oscillation with QBO-driven 5-year Modulation in NCEP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the zonal wind and temperature variations supplied by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which have been assimilated in the Reanalysis and the Climate Prediction Center (CCP) data sets. The derived zonal-mean variations are employed. Stimulated by modeling studies, the data are separated into the hemispherically symmetric and anti-symmetric components, and spectral analysis is applied to study the annual 12-month oscillation and Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). For data samples that cover as much as 40 years, the results reveal a pronounced 5-year modulation of the symmetric AO in the lower stratosphere, which is confined to equatorial latitudes. This modulation is also inferred for the temperature variations but extends to high latitudes, qualitatively consistent with published model results. A comparison between different data samples indicates that the signature of the 5-year oscillation is larger when the QBO of 30 months is more pronounced. Thus there is circumstantial evidence that this periodicity of the QBO is involved in generating the oscillation. The spectral analysis shows that there is a weak anti-symmetric 5-year oscillation in the zonal winds, which could interact with the large antisymmetric A0 to produce the modulation of the symmetric AO as was shown in earlier modeling studies. According to these studies, the 30-month QBO tends to be synchronized by the equatorial Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO), and this would explain why the inferred 5-year modulation is observed to persist and is phase locked over several cycles.

  12. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  13. Relief of membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, A; Di Donato, R; Dessanti, A; Caccia, G; Zaltron, D; Alberti, D; Callea, F; Marcelletti, C

    1986-12-01

    Membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly that may present clinical features of Budd-Chiari syndrome caused by chronic obstruction of the hepatic drainage. We report membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava in a 5-year-old boy. Surgical repair was prompted by signs and symptoms of hepatic venous obstruction. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient successfully operated on for this anomaly.

  14. Esthetic restorations: observations and insights gained over a 5-year period demonstrated with three case reports.

    PubMed

    Obama, Tadakazu

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two prosthodontically treated patient cases that were observed over a period of at least 5 years after treatment. The evaluation, diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment stages were critically reviewed and reassessed from different perspectives. The conclusions drawn from this evaluation were subsequently implemented in a third clinical case. To ensure the long-term success of a restoration, certain biologic and mechanical principles must be observed, and the appropriate prosthodontic treatment must be chosen accordingly.

  15. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  16. Spanking and child development during the first 5 years of life.

    PubMed

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Gromoske, Andrea N; Berger, Lawrence M

    2012-11-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=3,870) and cross-lagged path analysis, the authors examined whether spanking at ages 1 and 3 is adversely associated with cognitive skills and behavior problems at ages 3 and 5. The authors found spanking at age 1 was associated with a higher level of spanking and externalizing behavior at age 3, and spanking at age 3 was associated with a higher level of internalizing and externalizing behavior at age 5. The associations between spanking at age 1 and behavioral problems at age 5 operated predominantly through ongoing spanking at age 3. The authors did not find an association between spanking at age 1 and cognitive skills at age 3 or 5.

  17. Interval and contour processing in autism.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-12-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group differences emerged. These findings confirm earlier studies showing facilitated pitch processing and a preserved ability to represent small-scale musical structures in autism.

  18. Effect of acute interval sprinting exercise on postprandial lipemia of sedentary young men

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Aaron; Boutcher, Yati N; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Postprandial lipemia (PPL) contributesto the development of atherosclerosis. In females, repeated 8-second bouts of interval sprinting exercise reduced PPL, however, the effect of 8-second bouts of interval sprinting on PPL of overweight males is undetermined. Thus, the effect of 8-secondsof interval sprinting for 20 min, the night before ingestion of a high-fat meal (HFM), on plasma triacylglycerol(TG) levelswas examined. [Methods] Ten overweight males acted as participants (BMI = 26±3.0kg/m2, age 22 ± 2.5 years). A crossover design was employed withinterval sprinting and a noexercise condition separated by 7days. Participants consumed a milkshake (high-fat meal;HFM = 4170 kJ/993 Kcal) the morning after an overnight fast, followed by 4 hourly blood samples. Participants performedone bout of interval sprinting (8seconds sprinting at 110-115rpm, 12seconds active recovery at ~60rpm for 20 minutes) the evening before the consumption of the HFM. [Results] Postprandial TG was 22.5% lower in the interval sprinting compared to the noexercise condition when comparing the change in total area under the curve (ΔAUCT): ISE(7.15±1.90mmolL-1h-1) versus noexercise (9.22±3.44mmolL-1h-1), p=.014. The correlation between fasting TG levels in the noexercise condition and total reduction in AUCT between the conditions was significant (r=.87, p=.001). [Conclusion] One 20-min bout of interval sprinting,the night before consumption of a HFM,significantly attenuated the PPL response of sedentary males. PMID:27298807

  19. Plasma endotoxin core antibody concentration and linear growth are unrelated in rural Malawian children aged 2-5 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental enteropathy is subclinical inflammation of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with reduced linear growth in developing countries. Usually investigators have used biopsy or a dual sugar absorption test to assess environmental enteropathy. Such tests are time and resource intens...

  20. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a “consequence model” to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia’s efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  1. Diet quality of preschool children aged 2 to 5 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Katharine Konrad; Schneider, Bruna Celestino; França, Giovanny Vinicius Araújo; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; dos Santos, Iná; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the dietary quality of preschool children in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Methods: Dietary quality was measured according to the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), adapted to Brazil. Food consumption was obtained using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The index score was obtained by a score, ranging from 0 to 100, distributed in 13 food groups that characterize different components of a healthy diet. The better the quality of the diet, the closer the score is to 100. Results: Dietary quality was evaluated in 556 preschoolers. The mean HEI score value was 74.4 points, indicating that diets need improvement. The mean scores were significantly higher among girls and in children from families with income between one and less than three minimum wages. Conclusions: The children showed vegetable consumption below the recommended level, while foods of the food group of oils and fats, as well as the group of sugars, candies, chocolates and snacks, were consumed in excess. It is important to reinforce guidelines to promote healthier eating habits, which may persist later in life. PMID:26122208

  2. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-05-14

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings.

  3. QT-Interval Duration and Mortality Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Dalal, Darshan; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2012-01-01

    Background Extreme prolongation or reduction of the QT interval predisposes patients to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, but the association of variations in the QT interval within a reference range with mortality end points in the general population is unclear. Methods We included 7828 men and women from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Baseline QT interval was measured via standard 12-lead electrocardiographic readings. Mortality end points were assessed through December 31, 2006 (2291 deaths). Results After an average follow-up of 13.7 years, the association between QT interval and mortality end points was U-shaped. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios comparing participants at or above the 95th percentile of age-, sex-, race-, and R-R interval–corrected QT interval (≥439 milliseconds) with participants in the middle quintile (401 to <410 milliseconds) were 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.81) for total mortality, 2.55 (1.59-4.09) for mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 1.63 (0.96-2.75) for mortality due to coronary heart disease, and 1.65 (1.16-2.35) for non-CVD mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios comparing participants with a corrected QT interval below the fifth percentile (<377 milliseconds) with those in the middle quintile were 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.88) for total mortality, 1.35 (0.77-2.36) for CVD mortality, 1.02 (0.44-2.38) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.42 (0.97-2.08) for non-CVD mortality. Increased mortality also was observed with less extreme deviations of QT-interval duration. Similar, albeit weaker, associations also were observed with Bazett-corrected QT intervals. Conclusion Shortened and prolonged QT-interval durations, even within a reference range, are associated with increased mortality risk in the general population. PMID:22025428

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Cognitive Development of 3-5 Year Old Rural Children in the State of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, Violet

    This study is part of a longitudinal research project which investigated the cognitive and social development of rural children (ages 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11 years) in eight states of the U.S.A. This paper, however, reports only the cognitive development of 3- to 5-year-old subjects in rural Nebraska from 1976-1978. The longitudinal sample plus control…

  5. Replacement of Vertebral Lamina (Laminoplasty) in Surgery for Lumbar Isthmic Spondylolisthesis: 5-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A review of clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar laminoplasty (LL) for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis (ISL). Purpose The single session performance of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with allograft in the anterior column and providing the realignment of the vertebrae was presented as a preliminary report earlier. Overview of Literature Long-term surgical outcome of cervical laminoplasty in patients has been reported. But, outcome of LL in patients is unclear. Methods The long-term (5 years) year follow-up results of the LL technique are reported in this retrospective study. All patients underwent preoperative and postoperative direct X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The patients that did not respond to conservative treatment were operated. Twenty-one (52.5%) female and 19 (47.5%) male patients were included. Results Mean age was 43,5 years (ranges, 22–57 years). The most common symptoms were low back pain (89%), pelvic and leg pain (69%) and reduction in walking distance (65%). A total of 180 pedicle screws were inserted in 40 patients; posterior lumbar interbody fusion and laminoplasty with reduction was performed in 20 patients for L4–L5, 12 patients for L5–S1, 4 patients for L3–L4–L5 and 4 patients for L4–L5-S1. Ten (25%) patients with ILL had accompanying spinal stenosis. The difference between preoperative and postoperative sagittal plane rotation and dislocation degrees and disc space heights were statistically significant in all patients (p<0.05). Solid grade 4 fusion was observed in 38 patients; in only 2 patients grade 2 pseudoarthrosis developed (5%), but these patients were asymptomatic. Visual analog scale, Prolo economical and functional scale was examined with an average follow-up 5.5 years. Conclusions LL technique has the advantages of shorter duration of operation, lack of graft donor site complications, protection of posterior column osseoligamentous structures and

  6. The distinct cognitive syndromes of Parkinson's disease: 5 year follow-up of the CamPaIGN cohort.

    PubMed

    Williams-Gray, Caroline H; Evans, Jonathan R; Goris, An; Foltynie, Thomas; Ban, Maria; Robbins, Trevor W; Brayne, Carol; Kolachana, Bhaskar S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Sawcer, Stephen J; Barker, Roger A

    2009-11-01

    Cognitive abnormalities are common in Parkinson's disease, with important social and economic implications. Factors influencing their evolution remain unclear but are crucial to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. We have investigated the development of cognitive impairment and dementia in Parkinson's disease using a longitudinal approach in a population-representative incident cohort (CamPaIGN study, n = 126) and here present the 5-year follow-up data from this study. Our previous work has implicated two genetic factors in the development of cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, namely the genes for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val(158)Met) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) H1/H2. Here, we have explored the influence of these genes in our incident cohort and an additional cross-sectional prevalent cohort (n = 386), and investigated the effect of MAPT H1/H2 haplotypes on tau transcription in post-mortem brain samples from patients with Lewy body disease and controls. Seventeen percent of incident patients developed dementia over 5 years [incidence 38.7 (23.9-59.3) per 1000 person-years]. We have demonstrated that three baseline measures, namely, age >or=72 years, semantic fluency less than 20 words in 90 s and inability to copy an intersecting pentagons figure, are significant predictors of dementia risk, thus validating our previous findings. In combination, these factors had an odds ratio of 88 for dementia within the first 5 years from diagnosis and may reflect the syndrome of mild cognitive impairment of Parkinson's disease. Phonemic fluency and other frontally based tasks were not associated with dementia risk. MAPT H1/H1 genotype was an independent predictor of dementia risk (odds ratio = 12.1) and the H1 versus H2 haplotype was associated with a 20% increase in transcription of 4-repeat tau in Lewy body disease brains. In contrast, COMT genotype had no effect on dementia, but a significant impact on Tower of London

  7. 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-up after Retropubic and Transobturator Midurethral Slings

    PubMed Central

    Kenton, Kimberly; Stoddard, Anne M.; Zyczynski, Halina; Albo, Michael; Rickey, Leslie; Norton, Peggy; Wai, Clifford; Kraus, Stephen R.; Sirls, Larry T.; Kusek, John W.; Litman, Heather J.; Chang, Robert P.; Richter, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have characterized longer-term outcomes after retropubic and transobturator midurethral slings. Methods Women completing 2-year participation in a randomized equivalence trial who had not received surgical retreatment for stress urinary incontinence were invited to participate in a 5-year observational cohort. The primary outcome, treatment success, was defined as no retreatment or self-reported stress incontinence symptoms. Secondary outcomes included urinary symptoms and quality of life, satisfaction, sexual function and adverse events. Results 404 of 597 (68%) women from the original trial enrolled. Five-years after surgical treatment, success was 7.9% greater in women assigned to retropubic-sling compared to transobturator-sling (51.3% vs 43.4%, 95% CI −1.4%, 17.2%) not meeting pre-specified criteria for equivalence. Satisfaction decreased over 5-years, but remained high and similar between arms (79%, retropubic-sling vs 85%, transobturator-sling groups, p=0.15). Urinary symptoms and quality of life worsened over time (p<0.001), and women with retropubic-sling reported greater urinary urgency (P=0.001), more negative quality of life impact (p=0.02), and worse sexual function (P=0.001). There was no difference in proportion of women experiencing at least 1 adverse event (p=0.17). Seven new mesh erosions were noted (retropubic-sling-3, transobturator-sling-4). Conclusion Treatment success declined over 5-years for retropubic and transobturator-slings and did not meet pre-specified criteria for equivalence with retropubic demonstrating a slight benefit. However, satisfaction remained high in both arms. Women undergoing transobturator-sling reported more sustained improvement in urinary symptoms and sexual function. New mesh erosions occurred in both arms over time, although at a similarly low rate. PMID:25158274

  8. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p < .001), CBCL-Total 41.1 ± 8.6 (p < .001), BRIEF-P-Global Executive Composite 44.8 ± 9.5 (p = .009). Twelve (44%) of the PGD children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  9. Durability of response to vaccination against viral hepatitis A in HIV-infected patients: a 5-year observation.

    PubMed

    Jabłonowska, E; Kuydowicz, J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of total antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV-T) in the group of HIV-positive adults in Lodz region of Poland, and to evaluate the response and long-term immunity after vaccination against hepatitis A virus. In the group of 234 HIV-infected patients, 72 persons (30.8%) were anti-HAV-T positive (>20 IU/L). In multivariate analysis, two independent factors associated with the presence of anti-HAV-T were identified: the age of patients (OR = 1.07) and the presence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus (OR = 2.87). Vaccination was completed in 83 patients. Good response (anti-HAV-T >20 IU/L one month after the booster dose) was obtained in 79.5% of patients. In patients with CD4 >200 cells/µL in multivariate analysis only presence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus was a prognostic factor for the response to vaccination (OR = 0.13). Among responders available for the follow-up, 82% (50 out of 61) had detectable anti-HAV-T at 1 year and 75.5% (37 out of 49) at 5 years. Our results demonstrate that most of the studied HIV-positive patients were susceptible to hepatitis A virus infection. Most HIV-infected adults with high CD4 counts had a durable response even up to 5 years after vaccination. Patients with a HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection displayed a worse response to vaccination.

  10. Full term delivery following cryopreservation of human embryos for 7. 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ozer, S; Vermesh, M

    1999-06-01

    Successful pregnancy in a 44 year old woman is described following the transfer of embryos which were cryopreserved for 7.5 years. The embryos were obtained during a gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) procedure in 1989. To our knowledge this is one of the longest published periods of cryopreservation of embryos which has resulted in a healthy baby. This report illustrates the previously presumed viability and normality of human embryos undergoing long-term cryopreservation. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance for advanced reproductive technique programmes and patients to review and update their embryo status.

  11. Clinical treatment of a ruptured temporomandibular joint disc: morphological changes at 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Lucas; Porto, Felipe; Agarwal, Sachin; Grossman, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthrosis is a disease that affects the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This case report chronicles the diagnosis and treatment of a patient for whom this pathological condition was accompanied by a rupture of the articular disc. The patient presented with loud sounds in the left TMJ and an irregular mandibular occlusal plane due to condylar intrusion in the glenoid fossa on the ipsilateral side. A noninvasive treatment was selected. A 4-month follow-up revealed remission of the articular sounds, and tissue regeneration was noted. These improvements remained visible at 5-year follow-up.

  12. Angiomyolipoma of donor kidney: Successful transplantation and 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, N.; Dhanapriya, J.; Sakthirajan, R.; Dineshkumar, T.; Balasubramaniyan, T.; Haris, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Angiomyolipomas (AML) of the kidney are non-encapsulated benign neoplasms with the incidence of 45-80% in patients with tuberous sclerosis and 1-3% in sporadic cases. There are very few case reports in the literature in which kidneys with AML have been used for transplantation. We report here a 27-year-old female patient who received a live related renal transplant from her mother with isolated angiomyolipoma in donor kidney and on follow-up after 5 years, has stable graft function and tumor size. PMID:27051138

  13. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811

  14. Complex venous anomalies: magnetic resonance imaging findings in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hazirolan, Tuncay; Ozkan, Efe; Haliloglu, Mithat; Celiker, Alpay; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-10-01

    We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a very unusual venous anomaly case. A 5-year-old boy who had surgical repair of coarctation of the thoracic aorta was referred to our department for evaluation of an enlarged venous structure anterior to the aorta, which had been noted during the surgery. Contrast enhanced dynamic MRI revealed partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the left azygos vein, double inferior and superior vena cava with the left azygos continuation of the left superior vena cava. The recognition of venous anomalies allows correct planning of surgical and interventional procedures. MRI is a valuable imaging tool providing detailed anatomical information.

  15. [Acute cerebellar ataxia in a 5-year-old boy. Clinical warnings].

    PubMed

    Mrozińska, M; Horwath, A; Ostoja-Chrzastowski, W

    1998-01-01

    A case of acute cerebellar ataxia caused by ECHO virus 30.5-year-old boy admitted to the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Warsaw, in September, 1996, complaining of headache, dizziness, weakness, somnolence, dysarthria and an unsteady walk. On neurological examination he had imparied coordination, rombergism, generalized hypotonia. There was no history of exposure to contagious diseases, ear discharge, convulsions, trauma. Parents suggested that the child could have swallowed an unidentified pill--toxicological tests ruled out poisoning. The diagnosis is based on the clinical examination and amplification ECHO virus from CSF.

  16. Drifter-based estimate of the 5 year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K.

    2014-11-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Good agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  17. Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium: a 5-year experience utilizing preoperative cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Belinson, J.L.; Spirou, B.; McClure, M.; Badger, G.; Pretorius, R.G.; Roland, T.A.

    1985-03-01

    A treatment protocol for the management of stage I endometrial carcinoma utilizing preoperative cesium is evaluated. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients were treated according to this protocol over a 5-year period. Based on this experience and a literature review a new protocol is recommended. The significant changes include primary surgery without preoperative cesium, primary treatment based on grade without regard to uterine size, modified radical hysterectomy for G3 tumors, pelvic radiotherapy for clear cell carcinoma confined to the pelvis regardless of depth of invasion, cytoxan, adriamycin, and cis-platinum for papillary serous tumors, and postoperative vaginal cuff cesium for G2 and G3 tumors not requiring pelvic radiotherapy.

  18. Infantile fibrosarcoma of ethmoid sinus, misdiagnosed as an adenoid in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519

  19. Tamoxifen beyond 5 years--patients' decisions regarding entry to the aTTom trial.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M J; Dewar, J A

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess among a population of women who had taken adjuvant tamoxifen for 5 years, how many were prepared to enter a randomised trial looking at the duration of tamoxifen treatment and what was the preference of those who declined trial entry. There is uncertainty as to the optimum duration of adjuvant tamoxifen and this is the subject of the aTTom (adjuvant Tamoxifen Treatment offer more?) trial in which patients are randomised to continue or stop tamoxifen after 5 years. Patients have been recruited to the aTTom trial in Dundee since 1996 and a record has been kept of all the patients with whom the trial was discussed. Patients who declined trial entry were allowed to choose whether to electively stop or continue tamoxifen. 306 patients were eligible for trial entry of whom 171 (56%) consented to randomisation (82 to continue and 89 to stop). Amongst the 135 (44%) who declined randomisation, 28 (21%) elected to stop tamoxifen treatment, 90 (67%) elected to continue and in 17 (13%) their decision was unclear. These results illustrate that patients eligible for the aTTom trial share our clinical equipoise. A majority (56%) of patients were agreeable to randomisation, but among those who declined, some (67%) preferred to continue, some (21%) to stop tamoxifen. This trial is unusual in that the patients have already experienced the treatment options, so the patients' preferences reflect a truly informed choice.

  20. Fasting increases risk for onset of binge eating and bulimic pathology: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Davis, Kendra; Miller, Nicole P; Marti, C Nathan

    2008-11-01

    Although adolescent girls with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future binge eating and bulimic pathology, they do not eat less than those with lower restraint scores. The fact that only a small proportion of individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores develop bulimic pathology suggests that some extreme but rare form of dietary restriction may increase risk for this disturbance. The authors tested the hypothesis that fasting (going without eating for 24 hr for weight control) would be a more potent predictor of binge eating and bulimic pathology onset than dietary restraint scores using data from 496 adolescent girls followed over 5 years. Results confirmed that only 23% of participants with elevated dietary restraint scores reported fasting. Furthermore, fasting generally showed stronger and more consistent predictive relations to future onset of recurrent binge eating and threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa over 1- to 5-year follow-up relative to dietary restraint, though the former effects were only significantly stronger than the latter for some comparisons. Results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that fasting is a stronger risk factor for bulimic pathology than is self-reported dieting.

  1. The Thermal State of KS 1731-260 after 14.5 years in Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Rachael L.; Cackett, Edward M.; Brown, Edward F.; Page, Dany; Cumming, Andrew; Degenaar, Nathalie; Deibel, Alex; Homan, Jeroen; Miller, Jon M.; Wijnands, Rudy

    2016-12-01

    Crustal cooling of accretion-heated neutron stars provides insight into the stellar interior of neutron stars. The neutron star X-ray transient, KS 1731-260, was in outburst for 12.5 years before returning to quiescence in 2001. We have monitored the cooling of this source since then through Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. Here we present a 150 ks Chandra observation of KS 1731-260 taken in 2015 August, about 14.5 years into quiescence and 6 years after the previous observation. We find that the neutron star surface temperature is consistent with the previous observation, suggesting that crustal cooling has likely stopped and the crust has reached thermal equilibrium with the core. Using a theoretical crust thermal evolution code, we fit the observed cooling curves and constrain the core temperature (T c = 9.35 ± 0.25 × 107 K), composition (Q {}{imp}={4.4}-0.5+2.2), and level of extra shallow heating required (Q sh = 1.36 ± 0.18 MeV/nucleon). We find that the presence of a low thermal conductivity layer, as expected from nuclear pasta, is not required to fit the cooling curve well, but cannot be excluded either.

  2. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  3. HIV rapid testing in a Veterans Affairs hospital ED setting: a 5-year sustainability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Hagedorn, Hildi; Anaya, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    Routine HIV testing in primary care settings is now recommended in the United States. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has increased the number of patients tested for HIV, but overall HIV testing rates in VA remain low. A proven strategy for increasing such testing involves nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing (HIV RT). The purpose of this work was to use a mixed methodology approach to evaluate the 5-year sustainability of an intervention that implemented HIV RT in a VA emergency department setting in a large, urban VA medical center to reduce missed diagnostic and treatment opportunities in this vulnerable patient population. In-person semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and stakeholders. Interview notes were qualitatively coded for emerging themes. Quarterly testing rates were evaluated for a 5-year time span starting from the launch in July 2008. Findings indicate that HIV RT was sustained by the enthusiasm of 2 clinical champions who oversaw the registered nurses responsible for conducting the testing. The departure of the clinical champions was correlated with a substantial drop-off in testing. Findings also indicate potential strategies for improving sustainability including engaging senior leadership in the project, engaging line staff in the implementation planning from the start to increase ownership over the innovation, incorporating information into initial training explaining the importance of the innovation to quality patient care, providing ongoing training to maintain skills, and providing routine progress reports to staff to demonstrate the ongoing impact of their efforts.

  4. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  5. Gender Differences in Appraisal of Stress and Coping 5 Years after Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Kathleen L; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Li, Zhi; Rybarczyk, Bruce; White-Williams, Connie; Gordon, Robert; McGee, Edwin C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined whether gender differences exist regarding stress, symptom distress, coping, adherence, and social support 5 years after heart transplantation. BACKGROUND Differences exist in health-related quality of life outcomes by gender after heart transplantation; women report poorer outcomes. METHODS Patients (n=210, female=42), were from a prospective, multi-site, study of health-related quality of life long-term after heart transplantation. Patients completed self-report instruments 5 years after heart transplantation (mean=4.98±0.17 years after transplant). Statistical analyses included two-sample t-tests, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multivariable modeling. RESULTS Women did not report more overall stress or symptom distress, but reported more difficulty adhering to the transplant regimen, yet more actual adherence than men. Women reported using more negative coping styles, but reported more satisfaction with social support. CONCLUSIONS Gender differences exist regarding appraisal of stress, coping styles, and coping resources long-term after heart transplantation. These differences may guide tailoring therapy regarding stress, poor coping, and lack of resources. PMID:26514074

  6. Discourse prominence effects on 2.5-year-old children’s interpretation of pronouns

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-joo; Fisher, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined 2.5-year-olds’ sensitivity to discourse structure in pronoun interpretation. Children heard simple two-character stories illustrated by pictures on two video screens. In Experiments 1 and 2, one character in each story was established as more prominent than the other in several context sentences because it was mentioned first, appeared in subject position, was mentioned more often, and was pronominalized once. In Experiment 3, one character was singled out as more prominent only by being mentioned first and placed in subject position. In all three experiments, after hearing a pronoun subject in the final (test) sentence of each story, children looked longer at the character established as more prominent in the preceding sentences. These experiments show that 2.5-year-olds, like older children and adults, interpret pronouns relative to a discourse representation in which referents are ranked in prominence, and that the prominence of discourse referents is influenced by some of the same factors that guide pronoun interpretation in adulthood. PMID:18978930

  7. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  8. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  9. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  10. A 5-year study of adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdin, Begüm Nalça; Pas, Suzan D; Durak, İsmet; Schutten, Martin; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2015-03-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of conjunctivitis. Genotypes are diverse and differ according to population and geographical distribution of the virus. There is limited data regarding ocular adenoviral infections and genotype distribution in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the adenovirus genotypes and their epidemiological features among patients with conjunctivitis between 2006 and 2010, in Izmir, Turkey. Adenoviral DNA was detected by PCR in 213 of 488 (44%) of the ocular samples collected from patients with viral conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Of these, 101 (47%) were randomly chosen and genotyped by sequence analysis. Seven genotypes were identified, including 3, 4, 8, 11, 19, 37, and 53. Genotype 8 and 4 were the dominant types detected in 67 (66.3%) and 25 (24.7%) of the samples, respectively. Other five genotypes (3, 11, 19, 37, 53) were detected in 9 (8.9%) samples. Genotype and seasonal differences observed throughout the study. Human adenoviruse (HAdV)-8 was the most frequent type, except 2008. The prevalence of genotype 4 increased starting from 2006, became dominant in 2008 and decreased in the following years. The peak season was mostly spring months, although it was possible to detect positive samples throughout the year. In conclusion, genotype 8 followed by genotype 4 was the most frequent adenoviral types causing conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Findings suggest that there is a slow shift between genotypes throughout the years.

  11. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a 5-year analysis of the wartime and postwar period in South-Western region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Vajdana; Petrović, Oleg; Petrov, Bozo; Bjelanović, Vedran; Naletilić, Mladenka

    2009-12-01

    Hypertensive disorders are among the most common complications in pregnancy and a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes of pregnancies in mothers with hypertensive disorders, as well as the adequacy of prenatal care during the wartime and postwar period in South-Western region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study included a total of 542 pregnancies with hypertensive disorders during 5-year study period (1995-1999) and 1559 randomly selected controls. Data on risk factors, adverse perinatal outcomes (for singleton pregnancies only) and prenatal care on pregnant women were extracted from the medical records and compared with controls. Chi-square test and crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used in statistical analysis. The average five-year incidence of hypertensive pregnancy disorders was 6.5% and it was significantly higher in 1995, the last year of the war, than in the postwar period (1996-1999) (p = 0.02). Factors significantly associated with hypertensive pregnancy disorders were maternal age > 34, nulliparity, multifetal gestation and male newborn (p < 0.001; except p = 0.002 for male newborn). Severe forms of hypertensive disorders were significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes: preterm birth (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.08-6.3), cesarean delivery (OR 9.2, 95% CI 5.4-15.6), fetal growth restriction (OR 63.8, 95% CI 34.8-117.0), and stillbirth (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.1-14.1). Women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders had significantly lower number of prenatal care visits than controls (p < 0.001). There was a high proportion of normally formed macerated stillbirths in the study (27 out of 30 or 90%) and in the control group (10 out of 12 or 83%). In conclusion, severity of the disorder and adequacy of prenatal care are strongly associated with adverse perinatal outcome related to hypertensive pregnancy disorders.

  12. A practice-based clinical evaluation of the survival and success of metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Rinke, S; Kramer, K; Bürgers, R; Roediger, M

    2016-02-01

    This practice-based study evaluates the survival and success of conventionally luted metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns fabricated by using a prolonged cooling period for the veneering porcelain. Fifty-three patients were treated from 07/2008 to 07/2009 with either metal-ceramic crowns (MCC) or zirconia crowns (ZC). Forty-five patients (26 female) with 91 restorations (obser-vational period: 64.0 ± 4.8 months) participated in a clinical follow-up examination and were included in the study. Estimated cumulative survival (ECSv), success (ECSc) and veneering ceramic success (ECVCSc) were calculated (Kaplan-Meier) and analysed by the crown fabrication technique and the position of the restoration (Cox regression model) (P < 0.05). Five complete failures (MCC: 2, ZC: 3) were recorded (5-year ECSv: MCC: 97.6%, (95% confidence interval (95%-CI): [93%; 100%]/ZC: 94.0%, (95%-CI): [87%; 100%]). Of the MCCs (n = 41), 85.0%, [95%-CI: (77%; 96%)] remained event-free, whereas the ECSc for the ZCs (n = 50) was 74.3% (95%-CI): [61%; 87%]. No significant differences in ECSv (P = 0.51), ECSc (P = 0.43) and ECVCSc (P = 0.36) were detected between the two fabrication techniques. Restorations placed on terminal abutments (n = 44) demonstrated a significantly lower ECVCSc (P = 0.035), (5-year VCF-rate: 14.8%) than crowns placed on tooth-neighboured abutments (n = 47), (5-year VCF-rate: 4.3%). In the present study, zirconia molar crowns demonstrated a 5-year ECSv, ECSc and ECVCSc comparable to MCCs. Irrespective of the fabrication technique, crowns on terminal abutments bear a significantly increased risk for VCFs. Clinical investigations with an increased number of restorations are needed.

  13. Spanking and Child Development during the First 5 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Gromoske, Andrea N.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,870) and cross-lagged path analysis, the authors examined whether spanking at ages 1 and 3 is adversely associated with cognitive skills and behavior problems at ages 3 and 5. The authors found spanking at age 1 was associated with a higher level of spanking and externalizing…

  14. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  15. 5-year Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up of Coil-embolised Intradural Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the paper is the follow-up of embolised intradural saccular Arterial Aneurysms (AA), excluding giant, dissecting, inflammatory, fusiform or AA associated to BVAM. Since its introduction in 1991, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil has offered protection against aneurysmal rebleeding in the critical few days and months after SAH regardless of the grade. A number of questions remain: is complete angiographic obliteration necessary at first embolisation? What duration of clinical / angiographic follow-up (FU) is required to ensure the risk of haemorrhage has been eliminated? What is the long-term protection against rebleeding? One hundred and two patients with 160 intradural saccular AA embolised before april 1997 were selected for this study. They had at least 5-yrs clinical FU, of which 22 patients had a midterm (3 years) and 45 patients had a 5year or more angiographic FU (mean 67,7 months per patient). Twenty-eight embolised AAs with 100% occlusion at 1 year, remained unchanged on the 5year angiograms. A further 14 patients with complete occlusion at 1 year showed persisting complete occlusion on angiogram at 3-years FU, which in our series means that complete occlusion after the first year post-embolisation implies that the aneurysm will remain completely occluded. All secondary spontaneous thromboses (27.6% of cases), occurred during the first year pos-embolisation. In six patients with subtotal or partial occlusion no change was seen for three consecutive years of FU; none showed later change at 5-year angiography. Below 80% occlusion our series does not provide enough information but we consider the situation instable. No mortality related to the procedure was observed in the unruptured AA group. No bleeding or re-bleeding has occurred since the beginning of our experience (1993) in saccular AA treated by GDC-Coil. Coil-embolisation of properly selected patients is effective in protecting against bleeding or re-bleeding at short and long

  16. The influence of a triclosan toothpaste on adverse events in pat