Science.gov

Sample records for 5-year breast cancer

  1. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  2. Missing data imputation on the 5-year survival prediction of breast cancer patients with unknown discrete values.

    PubMed

    García-Laencina, Pedro J; Abreu, Pedro Henriques; Abreu, Miguel Henriques; Afonoso, Noémia

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Using historical patient information stored in clinical datasets, data mining and machine learning approaches can be applied to predict the survival of breast cancer patients. A common drawback is the absence of information, i.e., missing data, in certain clinical trials. However, most standard prediction methods are not able to handle incomplete samples and, then, missing data imputation is a widely applied approach for solving this inconvenience. Therefore, and taking into account the characteristics of each breast cancer dataset, it is required to perform a detailed analysis to determine the most appropriate imputation and prediction methods in each clinical environment. This research work analyzes a real breast cancer dataset from Institute Portuguese of Oncology of Porto with a high percentage of unknown categorical information (most clinical data of the patients are incomplete), which is a challenge in terms of complexity. Four scenarios are evaluated: (I) 5-year survival prediction without imputation and 5-year survival prediction from cleaned dataset with (II) Mode imputation, (III) Expectation-Maximization imputation and (IV) K-Nearest Neighbors imputation. Prediction models for breast cancer survivability are constructed using four different methods: K-Nearest Neighbors, Classification Trees, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines. Experiments are performed in a nested ten-fold cross-validation procedure and, according to the obtained results, the best results are provided by the K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm: more than 81% of accuracy and more than 0.78 of area under the Receiver Operator Characteristic curve, which constitutes very good results in this complex scenario. PMID:25725446

  3. Results of treatment in patients with IIa - IIIast. breast cancer treated by combination of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and surgery (5-year experience)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. A.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Denisov, I. N.; Frank, George A.; Voltchenko, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    Laser therapy with semiconductor laser (wavelength 890 nm) was performed in 41 patients with IIa - IIIast. breast cancer. LLLT was used before surgery and in postoperative period during 2 years. LLLT decreased postoperative complications by 15.3% and decreased duration of lymphorrhea. 5 years survival in patients with IIast. breast cancer treated by LLLT was 100%, in control group--85.71%. In patients with IIIast. breast cancer treated by LLLT survival was 94.44%, in control group--78.94%. 91.3% of patients with IIast. treated by LLLT had not recurrences in 5 year period, in the controls they were in about 77.7%. 82.35% of patients with IIIast. treated by laser therapy had no recurrences in 5 year period, in control group--60%.

  4. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  5. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    PubMed Central

    Rabaglio, M.; Sun, Z.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Hawle, H.; Thürlimann, B.; Mouridsen, H.; Campone, M.; Forbes, J. F.; Paridaens, R. J.; Colleoni, M.; Pienkowski, T.; Nogaret, J.-M.; Láng, I.; Smith, I.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To compare the incidence and timing of bone fractures in postmenopausal women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. Methods: We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication (median follow-up 60.3 months). Bone fracture information (grade, cause, site) was collected every 6 months during trial treatment. Results: The incidence of bone fractures was higher among patients treated with letrozole [228 of 2448 women (9.3%)] versus tamoxifen [160 of 2447 women (6.5%)]. The wrist was the most common site of fracture in both treatment groups. Statistically significant risk factors for bone fractures during treatment included age, smoking history, osteoporosis at baseline, previous bone fracture, and previous hormone replacement therapy. Conclusions: Consistent with other trials comparing aromatase inhibitors to tamoxifen, letrozole was associated with an increase in bone fractures. Benefits of superior disease control associated with letrozole and lower incidence of fracture with tamoxifen should be considered with the risk profile for individual patients. PMID:19474112

  6. A study of donepezil in female breast cancer survivors with self-reported cognitive dysfunction 1 to 5 years following adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, L.; Balcueva, E. P.; Groteluschen, D. L.; Samuel, T. A.; Lesser, G. J.; Naughton, M. J.; Case, L. D.; Shaw, E. G.; Rapp, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Some breast cancer survivors report cognitive difficulties greater than 1 year after chemotherapy. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) may improve cognitive impairment. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study to assess the feasibility of using the AChEI, donepezil, to improve subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in breast cancer survivors. Methods Women who received adjuvant chemotherapy 1–5 years prior with current cognitive dysfunction symptoms were randomized to 5 mg of donepezil/day vs placebo for 6 weeks and if tolerated 10 mg/day for 18 weeks for a total of 24 weeks. A battery of validated measures of attention, memory, language, visuomotor skills, processing speed, executive function, and motor dexterity and speed was administered at baseline and at 24 and 36 weeks. Subjective cognitive function, fatigue, sleep, mood, and health-related quality of life were evaluated at baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Results Sixty-two patients were enrolled, 76 % completed the study, self-reported compliance was 98 %, and toxicities were minimal. At the end of treatment, the donepezil group performed significantly better than the control group on two parameters of memory—the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test -Revised (HVLT-R) Total Recall (p=0.033) and HVLT-R Discrimination (p=0.036). There were no significant differences on other cognitive variables or in subjective cognitive function or quality of life. Conclusion Accrual to this feasibility trial was robust, retention was good, compliance was excellent, and toxicities were minimal. Implications for Cancer Survivors Randomized clinical trials in breast cancer survivors to improve cognitive dysfunction are feasible. A phase III trial testing the efficacy of donepezil is warranted given these pilot results. PMID:26130292

  7. Liver Metastasis of a Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Complete Remission for 5 Years After Treatment With Combined Bevacizumab/Paclitaxel/Carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Hideaki; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Natori, Kazuhiko; Shiraga, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Magoshi, Shunsuke; Saito, Fumi; Osaku, Tadatoshi; Kanazawa, Shinsaku; Kubota, Yorichika; Murakami, Yoshie; Kaneko, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is aggressive, with high risk of visceral metastasis and death. A substantial proportion of patients with TNBC is associated with BRCA mutations, implying that these tumors are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. We report successful treatment of a metastatic TNBC in a woman with a BRCA2 germline mutation using combined bevacizumab/paclitaxel/carboplatin (BPC) therapy. The patient was pregnant and had liver metastases, and a complete clinical response was sustained for approximately 5 years. Mastectomy was performed during the 29th week of pregnancy, and the baby was later delivered by caesarean section. Subsequently, multiple metastases in both liver lobes were detected using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and the patient was treated with a BPC regimen, which led to complete disappearance of metastatic lesions in the liver. No additional treatment was provided, and after 5 years the patient consented to direct sequencing of BRCA2 and a 6781delG mutation was identified. At the most recent (5-year) follow-up, the patient was alive with good quality of life and no evidence of metastases. This finding suggests that BPC therapy might be considered a good therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic TNBC in a woman with a BRCA2 germline mutation. PMID:26496295

  8. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  9. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk ...

  10. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms ...

  11. Long-term effects of continuing adjuvant tamoxifen to 10 years versus stopping at 5 years after diagnosis of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: ATLAS, a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Christina; Pan, Hongchao; Godwin, Jon; Gray, Richard; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Raina, Vinod; Abraham, Mirta; Alencar, Victor Hugo Medeiros; Badran, Atef; Bonfill, Xavier; Bradbury, Joan; Clarke, Michael; Collins, Rory; Davis, Susan R; Delmestri, Antonella; Forbes, John F; Haddad, Peiman; Hou, Ming-Feng; Inbar, Moshe; Khaled, Hussein; Kielanowska, Joanna; Kwan, Wing-Hong; Mathew, Beela S; Müller, Bettina; Nicolucci, Antonio; Peralta, Octavio; Pernas, Fany; Petruzelka, Lubos; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Rajan, Balakrishnan; Rubach, Maryna T; Tort, Sera; Urrútia, Gerard; Valentini, Miriam; Wang, Yaochen; Peto, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background For women with oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive early breast cancer, treatment with tamoxifen for 5 years substantially reduces the breast cancer mortality rate throughout the first 15 years after diagnosis. We aimed to assess the further effects of continuing tamoxifen to 10 years instead of stopping at 5 years. Methods In the worldwide Adjuvant Tamoxifen: Longer Against Shorter (ATLAS) trial, 12 894 women with early breast cancer who had completed 5 years of treatment with tamoxifen were randomly allocated to continue tamoxifen to 10 years or stop at 5 years (open control). Allocation (1:1) was by central computer, using minimisation. After entry (between 1996 and 2005), yearly follow-up forms recorded any recurrence, second cancer, hospital admission, or death. We report effects on breast cancer outcomes among the 6846 women with ER-positive disease, and side-effects among all women (with positive, negative, or unknown ER status). Long-term follow-up still continues. This study is registered, number ISRCTN19652633. Findings Among women with ER-positive disease, allocation to continue tamoxifen reduced the risk of breast cancer recurrence (617 recurrences in 3428 women allocated to continue vs 711 in 3418 controls, p=0·002), reduced breast cancer mortality (331 deaths vs 397 deaths, p=0·01), and reduced overall mortality (639 deaths vs 722 deaths, p=0·01). The reductions in adverse breast cancer outcomes appeared to be less extreme before than after year 10 (recurrence rate ratio [RR] 0·90 [95% CI 0·79–1·02] during years 5–9 and 0·75 [0·62–0·90] in later years; breast cancer mortality RR 0·97 [0·79–1·18] during years 5–9 and 0·71 [0·58–0·88] in later years). The cumulative risk of recurrence during years 5–14 was 21·4% for women allocated to continue versus 25·1% for controls; breast cancer mortality during years 5–14 was 12·2% for women allocated to continue versus 15·0% for controls (absolute mortality

  12. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  13. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of targeted therapy. It blocks certain hormones that fuel cancer growth. Cancer treatment can be local or ... breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) Alternative Names Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; ...

  14. Liver Metastasis of a Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Complete Remission for 5 Years After Treatment With Combined Bevacizumab/Paclitaxel/Carboplatin: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Hideaki; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Natori, Kazuhiko; Shiraga, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Magoshi, Shunsuke; Saito, Fumi; Osaku, Tadatoshi; Kanazawa, Shinsaku; Kubota, Yorichika; Murakami, Yoshie; Kaneko, Hironori

    2015-10-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is aggressive, with high risk of visceral metastasis and death. A substantial proportion of patients with TNBC is associated with BRCA mutations, implying that these tumors are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. We report successful treatment of a metastatic TNBC in a woman with a BRCA2 germline mutation using combined bevacizumab/paclitaxel/carboplatin (BPC) therapy. The patient was pregnant and had liver metastases, and a complete clinical response was sustained for approximately 5 years. Mastectomy was performed during the 29th week of pregnancy, and the baby was later delivered by caesarean section. Subsequently, multiple metastases in both liver lobes were detected using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and the patient was treated with a BPC regimen, which led to complete disappearance of metastatic lesions in the liver. No additional treatment was provided, and after 5 years the patient consented to direct sequencing of BRCA2 and a 6781delG mutation was identified. At the most recent (5-year) follow-up, the patient was alive with good quality of life and no evidence of metastases.This finding suggests that BPC therapy might be considered a good therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic TNBC in a woman with a BRCA2 germline mutation. PMID:26496295

  15. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  16. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  17. 5-year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Immediate versus Delayed Zoledronic Acid for Prevention of Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer Starting Letrozole after Tamoxifen: N03CC (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Wagner-Johnston, Nina D.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Liu, Heshan; Kearns, Ann E.; Hines, Stephanie L.; Puttabasavaiah, Suneetha; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Lafky, Jacqueline M.; Perez, Edith A.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal women with breast cancer (BC) receiving aromatase inhibitors are at increased risk for bone loss. The current study was undertaken to determine whether upfront versus delayed treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) impacted bone loss. This report describes the 5-year follow-up results. Methods 551 postmenopausal women with BC completing tamoxifen and undergoing daily letrozole treatment were randomized to upfront (274) or delayed (277) ZA 4 mg IV every 6 months. In the delayed arm, ZA was initiated for post-baseline bone mineral density (BMD) T-score < -2.0 or fracture. Results The incidence of a 5% decrease in total lumbar spine BMD at 5 years was 10.2% in the upfront arm versus 41.2% in the delayed arm, p < 0.0001. 41 patients in the delayed arm were eventually started on ZA. With the exception of increased grade 1/2 elevated creatinine and fever in the upfront arm and cerebrovascular ischemia in the delayed arm, there were no significant differences between arms with respect to the most common adverse events of arthralgia and back pain. Osteoporosis occurred less frequently in the upfront arm (2 versus 8 cumulative cases) though this difference was not statistically significant. Bone fractures occurred in 24 patients in the upfront arm versus 25 patients in the delayed arm. Conclusions Immediate treatment with ZA prevented bone loss compared with delayed treatment in postmenopausal women on letrozole and these differences were maintained at 5 years. The incidence of osteoporosis or fractures was not different between arms. PMID:25930719

  18. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  19. IOERT as anticipated tumor bed boost during breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer--results of a case series after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fastner, Gerd; Reitsamer, Roland; Ziegler, Ingrid; Zehentmayr, Franz; Fussl, Christoph; Kopp, Peter; Peintinger, Florentia; Greil, Richard; Fischer, Thorsten; Deutschmann, Heinrich; Sedlmayer, Felix

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate retrospectively rates of local (LCR) and locoregional tumor control (LRCR) in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) who were treated with preoperative chemotherapy (primary systemic treatment, PST) followed by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and either intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons (IOERT) preceding whole-breast irradiation (WBI) (Group 1) or with WBI followed by an external tumor bed boost (electrons or photons) instead of IOERT (Group 2). From 2002 to 2007, 83 patients with clinical Stage II or III breast cancer were enrolled in Group 1 and 26 in Group 2. All patients received PST followed by BCS and axillary lymph node dissection. IOERT boosts were applied by single doses of 9 Gy (90% reference isodose) versus external boosts of 12 Gy (median dose range, 6-16) in 2 Gy/fraction (ICRU). WBI in both groups was performed up to total doses of 51-57 Gy (1.7-1.8 Gy/fraction). The respective median follow-up times for Groups 1 and 2 amount 59 months (range, 3-115) and 67.5 months (range, 13-120). Corresponding 6-year rates for LCR, LRCR, metastasis-free survival, disease-specific survival and overall survival were 98.5, 97.2, 84.7, 89.2 and 86.4% for Group 1 and 88.1, 88.1, 74, 92 and 92% for Group 2, respectively, without any statistical significances. IOERT as boost modality during BCS in LABC after PST shows a trend to be superior in terms of LCR and LRCR in comparison with conventional boosts. PMID:24995409

  20. Postoperative dose-dense sequential versus concomitant administration of epirubicin and paclitaxel in patients with node-positive breast cancer: 5-year results of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group HE 10/00 phase III Trial.

    PubMed

    Gogas, Helen; Dafni, Urania; Karina, Maria; Papadimitriou, Christos; Batistatou, Anna; Bobos, Mattheos; Kalofonos, Haralabos P; Eleftheraki, Anastasia G; Timotheadou, Eleni; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Christodoulou, Christos; Markopoulos, Christos; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Samantas, Epaminontas; Kosmidis, Paris; Stathopoulos, George P; Karanikiotis, Charisios; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Fountzilas, George

    2012-04-01

    To explore the impact of dose intensity (DI) in the adjuvant setting of breast cancer, a randomized phase III trial was conducted comparing postoperative dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel, and cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF)in high-risk breast cancer patients. From Oct 2000 to June 2005, 1,121 node-positive patients were randomized to dose-dense sequential epirubicin 110 mg/m(2) and paclitaxel (Taxol, Bristol Myers-Squibb, Princeton, NJ) 250 mg/m(2) (group A), or concurrent epirubicin 83 mg/m(2) and paclitaxel 187 mg/m(2) (group B), both followed by three cycles of "intensified" combination chemotherapy with CMF. By protocol design total cumulative dose and duration of treatment were identical in both groups. Dose intensity of epirubicin and paclitaxel was double in the dose-dense arm. Prophylactic treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was given with the dose-dense treatments. Disease-free survival (DFS) was the primary endpoint. At a median follow-up of 76 months, 253 patients (23%) had documented disease relapse (123 vs. 130 in groups A and B, respectively) and 208 deaths (101, group A and 107, group B) had been observed. The 5-year DFS rate of 74 and 74% and OS rate of 86 and 85% were observed for group A and group B, respectively. No differences were found in DFS or OS between the two treatment groups (P = 0.78 and P = 0.45 for DFS and OS, respectively). Safety analysis results showing that both regimens were well tolerated and safe have been previously published (Fountzilas et al. Ann Oncol 2008). No DFS or OS benefit from the dose-dense sequential epirubicin and paclitaxel was detected when compared to the concurrent administration of the same drugs. No additional safety issues were raised with long-term follow-up. PMID:22187126

  1. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  2. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-17

    Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it. PMID:27533387

  3. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast ... took it for 5 years. (See the table.) Breast Cancer Recurrence and Death 5 to 14 Years after ...

  4. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  5. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... chance that you could develop breast cancer: Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family history, you cannot control. The more risk factors you have, the more your risk increases. ...

  6. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  7. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth ...

  10. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Do, Sharon; Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  11. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  13. Breast cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  14. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  15. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  16. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  17. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  18. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, Vratislav; Hildebrandt, Guido; Poetter, Richard; Hammer, Josef; Hindemith, Marion; Resch, Alexandra; Spiegl, Kurt; Lotter, Michael; Uter, Wolfgang; Bani, Mayada; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

  19. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  20. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  1. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  2. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  3. Growth of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from human solid cancers: summary of a 5-year experience.

    PubMed

    Yannelli, J R; Hyatt, C; McConnell, S; Hines, K; Jacknin, L; Parker, L; Sanders, M; Rosenberg, S A

    1996-02-01

    Between 1989 and 1993, 255 tumor biopsies representing 4 tumor histologies (melanoma, breast cancer, colon cancer and renal cell cancer) were received by the Surgery Branch of the National Cancer Institute. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were grown from single-cell suspensions of tumor biopsies over the course of 30-45 days. The TIL were grown in medium containing IL-2. To obtain numbers suitable for therapy (>10(11)), TIL were expanded using a large-scale system of cell culture and harvesting. While the largest number of biopsies was obtained from melanoma patients, TIL were successfully grown from 160 of 255 tumor biopsies representing all 4 histologies. Under the culture conditions employed, several characteristics of TIL expansion were observed. The cell surface phenotype of TIL which grew out from the tumor biopsies was generally a mix of CD3+/CD4+ or CD3+/CD8+ lymphocytes. Only TIL from melanoma biopsies were found to be consistently cytolytic and, in many cases, lysed autologous tumor cells preferentially. Interestingly, TIL derived from extra-nodal sites of metastatic melanoma biopsies (subcutaneous, lung, bowel; 36 of 67, 54%) were more likely to have these cytolytic characteristics than TIL derived from tumor-involved lymph node biopsies (7 of 39, 18%). The present study summarizes 5 years of laboratory effort and validates the technologies developed for the large-scale growth and harvesting of TIL. In addition, it summarizes the laboratory effort supporting previously published clinical reports on TIL from our group. PMID:8621219

  4. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  5. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  6. Dose-dense sequential adjuvant chemotherapy followed, as indicated, by trastuzumab for one year in patients with early breast cancer: first report at 5-year median follow-up of a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group randomized phase III trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dose-dense sequential chemotherapy including anthracyclines and taxanes has been established in the adjuvant setting of high-risk operable breast cancer. However, the preferable taxane and optimal schedule of administration in a dose-dense regimen have not been defined yet. Methods From July 2005 to November 2008, 1001 patients (990 eligible) were randomized to receive, every 2 weeks, 3 cycles of epirubicin 110 mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 followed by 3 cycles of intensified CMF (Arm A; 333 patients), or 3 cycles of epirubicin followed by 3 cycles of CMF, as in Arm A, followed 3 weeks later by 9 weekly cycles of docetaxel 35 mg/m2 (Arm B; 331), or 9 weekly cycles of paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 (Arm C; 326). Trastuzumab was administered for one year to HER2-positive patients post-radiation. Results At a median follow-up of 60.5 months, the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 86%, 90% and 88%, for Arms A, B and C, respectively, while the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 96% in all arms. No differences were found in DFS or OS between the combined B and C Arms versus Arm A (DFS: HR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.59-1.11, P = 0.20; OS: HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.55-1.30, P = 0.43). Among the 255 patients who received trastuzumab, 189 patients (74%) completed 1 year of treatment uneventfully. In all arms, the most frequently reported severe adverse events were neutropenia (30% vs. 27% vs. 26%) and leucopenia (12% vs. 13% vs. 12%), while febrile neutropenia occurred in fifty-one patients (6% vs. 4% vs. 5%). Patients in Arm A experienced more often severe pain (P = 0.002), neurological complications (P = 0.004) and allergic reactions (P = 0.004), while patients in Arm B suffered more often from severe skin reactions (P = 0.020). Conclusions No significant differences in survival between the regimens were found in the present phase III trial. Taxane scheduling influenced the type of severe toxicities. HER2

  7. PCNA immunostaining in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cummings, M C; Furnival, C M; Parsons, P G; Townsend, E

    1993-08-01

    Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has been shown to be of prognostic value in patients with certain types of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if the abundance of PCNA is inversely correlated with survival of patients with breast cancer. Paraffin blocks were available from 68 patients, all of whom had been followed clinically for at least 5 years. Sections from 20 patients showed no reactivity to PCNA and were excluded from the study because it was not possible to distinguish between true negatives and false negatives (those due to poor fixation of the original specimens). The PCNA index (the number of stained cancer cells as a percentage of the total number of cancer cells present) was calculated for the remaining 48 patients. Results were analysed by Wilcoxon's rank sum test (two tailed) and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical difference between the PCNA indices of those patients dead from their disease within 5 years of diagnosis compared with those alive and without signs of breast cancer at 5 years. There was also no correlation between PCNA index and size of the cancer, involvement of axillary lymph nodes, time to recurrence or time to death. There was, however, a significant correlation between PCNA index and histological grade (P = 0.029). It appears that PCNA staining of stored paraffin sections is of little prognostic value in patients with breast cancer. PMID:8101708

  8. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  9. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  10. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  11. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Johnson KC, Olsson H, Casagrande JT, et al. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer: ... D, Ferlay J, Brinton LA, Cook MB. An international comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence ...

  12. Intraoperative Radiotherapy as a Boost During Breast-Conserving Surgery Using Low-Kilovoltage X-Rays: The First 5 Years of Experience With a Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Frederik; Welzel, Grit; Blank, Elena; Hermann, Brigitte; Steil, Volker; Suetterlin, Marc; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) during breast-conserving surgery (BCS) has been recently introduced using different devices. We report the first 5 years of a single-center experience after introduction of a novel approach to deliver IORT as a tumor bed boost during BCS for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 breast cancers in 154 women (median age, 63 years; range, 30-83 years; T1/T2 = 100/55; N0/N+ = 108/47) were treated between February 2002 and December 2007 at the University Medical Center Mannheim, in whom IORT as tumor bed boost was applied using 50-kV X-rays (20 Gy) followed by 46-50 Gy whole-breast external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Chemotherapy, if indicated, was given before EBRT. The median interval between BCS plus IORT and EBRT was 40 days. Median follow-up was 34 months (maximum 80 months, 1 patient lost to follow-up). Overall survival and local relapse-free survival were calculated at 5 years using the Kaplan-Meier method. Seventy-nine patients were evaluated at 3-year follow-up for late toxicity according to the Late Effects in Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic system. Results: Ten patients died, 2 had in-breast relapse, and 8 developed distant metastases (5-year overall survival = 87.0%; 5-year local relapse-free survival = 98.5%). Grade 3 fibroses of the tumor bed were detected in 5% of the patients after 3 years. Skin toxicity was mild (telangiectases and hyperpigmentations in approximately 6% each). Conclusions: Intraoperative radiotherapy as a tumor bed boost during BCS for breast cancer using low-kilovoltage X-rays followed by EBRT yields low recurrence and toxicity rates.

  13. Breast thermography. A prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Isard, H J; Sweitzer, C J; Edelstein, G R

    1988-08-01

    A prognostic classification for thermographic staging of breast cancer has been applied to a cohort of 70 patients from 5040 screenees enrolled in the Albert Einstein Medical Center (AEMC) Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP). A diagnosis of breast cancer was established in each case before December 31, 1980. None of the patients have been lost to follow-up which extended from a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 years. Survival rates for those with favorable, equivocal, and poor thermographic factors are compared with each other and with results in accordance with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. As of December 31, 1986, there have been 22 (31.4%) deaths, all attributed to breast cancer. The thermographic scoring system clearly shows shorter survival for patients with poor thermographic prognostic factors, 30% surviving at 5 years and only 20% at 10 years compared with overall survival of 80% at 5 years and 70% at 10 years. PMID:3390789

  14. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  15. External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pashtan, Itai M.; Recht, Abram; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Brachtel, Elena; Abi-Raad, Rita F.; D'Alessandro, Helen A.; Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Goldberg, Saveli; Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L.; Powell, Simon N.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

  16. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  17. Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance of dying from breast cancer. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast ... the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI). MRI does not use any x-rays. ...

  18. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...

  19. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  1. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Stan, Daniela L; Allen, Summer V; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-11-01

    The development of pharmacologic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is a significant milestone in medical and laboratory research. Despite these advances, the endorsement of preventive options has become challenging and complex, as physicians are expected to counsel and tailor their recommendations using a personalized approach taking into account medical comorbidities, degree of risk and patient preferences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the major breast cancer prevention trials, review of the pharmacologic options available for breast cancer prevention, and strategies for integrating chemoprevention of breast cancer in high-risk women into clinical practice. PMID:23181529

  2. Depression in older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among U.S. women .The 5-year survival rate for this tumour is nowadays 85%, and the 61% of these women are still alive at 15 years. When depression symptoms are present as a consequence of breast cancer treatments, they may interfere negatively with patients’ quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breast cancer treatment on the quality of life and the impact of depression on the health-related life. Methods We enrolled 173 women aged 65-75 years with early stage breast cancer diagnosed over the last 10 years, initially recruited to participate in a study examining heath-related quality of life in the first 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were divided into four groups: 1) 46 breast cancer survivors (aged 65-70); 2) 62 women diagnosed with breast cancer (aged 65-69); 3) 32 women with recurrent breast cancer after 10 years (aged 66-75); 4) 30 women in good health status (aged 60-70). The Geriatric Depression Scale was used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Collection of data for the application of instruments, such as sociodemographic variables (age, educational level, social state) and clinical date (stage and time of the disease and treatment), was carried out by trained researcher assistants. Results Our results demonstrated the correlation between depression and previous cancer experiences. In fact, in patients with cancer experience, the grade of depression was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the patients with recurrent breast cancer were severely depressed compared to other groups. Conclusions A high percentage of participants were identified as having emotional and/or well being problems. Further investigations on the cause of depression problems cancer-related are needed. PMID:23173836

  3. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  4. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  5. Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may result in a delay in diagnosis. Survival is highest when breast cancer is found early. If you notice any of ... chest or nipple, see a doctor right away. Survival rates are similar for men and women when breast cancer is found at the same stage. A man’s ...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  7. Benign breast lesions in Bayelsa State, Niger Delta Nigeria: a 5 year multicentre histopathological audit

    PubMed Central

    Uwaezuoke, Stanley Chibuzo; Udoye, Ezenwa Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There has been no previous study to classify benign breast lesions in details based on histopathologically confirmed diagnosis in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. This study therefore aims to review all cases of benign breast lesions seen in all the three centres in Bayelsa State with histopathology services over a five year period for a comprehensive baseline data in our community for management, research and education. Methods This is a multicentre retrospective descriptive study based on histopathological diagnosed benign breast lesions from January 2009 to December 2013. Archival results and slides on benign breast lesions were retrieved and analysed using simple statistical methods. Results A total of 228 benign breast lesions (68.3%) were seen among 334 histopathologically diagnosed breast diseases. The male to female ratio was 19.7:1. Peak age incidence was the third decade (43%) with a mean age of 29.1years. Fibroadenoma was the most common benign breast disease (BBD) accounting for 45.6% of all the cases followed by fibrocystic change (23.1%). The mean ages of fibroadenoma and fibrocystic change were 23.1years and 31.1years respectively. Inflammatory breast lesions constituted 8.3%. We recorded only 2 cases (0.9%) of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) with no case of atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) within the study period. Gynaecomastia (4%) was the main male breast lesion in the study. Conclusion Benign breast diseases are the most common breast lesions in Bayelsa State. Fibroadenoma is the most common lesion followed by fibrocystic change. The incidence of atypical hyperplasia recorded was rather low in the state. PMID:25995790

  8. MYC and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jinhua; Chen, Yinghua; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2010-01-01

    MYC is a key regulator of cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, differentiation, and apoptosis. MYC deregulation contributes to breast cancer development and progression and is associated with poor outcomes. Multiple mechanisms are involved in MYC deregulation in breast cancer, including gene amplification, transcriptional regulation, and mRNA and protein stabilization, which correlate with loss of tumor suppressors and activation of oncogenic pathways. The heterogeneity in breast cancer is increasingly recognized. Breast cancer has been classified into 5 or more subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and each subtype has distinct biological features and clinical outcomes. Among these subtypes, basal-like tumor is associated with a poor prognosis and has a lack of therapeutic targets. MYC is overexpressed in the basal-like subtype and may serve as a target for this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Tumor suppressor BRCA1 inhibits MYC’s transcriptional and transforming activity. Loss of BRCA1 with MYC overexpression leads to the development of breast cancer—especially, basal-like breast cancer. As a downstream effector of estrogen receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor family pathways, MYC may contribute to resistance to adjuvant therapy. Targeting MYC-regulated pathways in combination with inhibitors of other oncogenic pathways may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for breast cancer, the basal-like subtype in particular. PMID:21779462

  9. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  10. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  11. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  12. [Screening for cervical and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilm, J; Schüler-Toprak, S; Ortmann, O

    2016-09-01

    Screening programs for cervical cancer and breast cancer lead to a clear reduction of mortality. Starting in 2018 screening for cervical cancer will be structured as an organized program as already exists for breast cancer. In future screening for cervical cancer will be primarily performed by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing at intervals of 5 years while cytological examination (Pap smear) will also be available as an additional or alternative procedure. For breast cancer screening in Germany an annual clinical examination with palpation and mammography screening at 2‑year intervals is provided for women aged between 50 and 69 years. In Germany only approximately 50 % of invited women have used the opportunity to participate in screening in recent years. Weighing the benefits against the harms of cancer screening programs is always important in the process of evaluation of different strategies. PMID:27577734

  13. Pregnancy After Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gemignani; Petrek

    1999-05-01

    BACKGROUND: The issue of pregnancy following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is important because the incidence of breast cancer is increasing in women of childbearing age. The fact that many women are delaying childbearing, whether for educational, professional, or personal reasons, increases the number of women who will undergo breast cancer treatment before completing childbearing. METHODS: Data on pregnancy in breast cancer survivors are limited and consist only of retrospective data. This paper reviews the published literature on the influence of subsequent pregnancy on breast cancer, including three recent large-scale population-based studies. RESULTS: The survival of women with breast carcinoma who subsequently become pregnant is not reported to be decreased in any of the published series. However, several biases may be present that justify the concern regarding the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the safety of subsequent pregnancy after breast carcinoma treatment is needed. To address these issues, patients are currently being accrued for a large, prospective, multicenter study of young breast carcinoma patients. PMID:10758557

  14. Methylxanthines and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N

    1987-10-15

    We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709

  15. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  16. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  17. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  18. Pregnancy and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, R; Harvey, V

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) presents a challenging clinical situation. This article reviews the current evidence around the management of PABC and the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer. The trend towards later age at first childbirth has resulted in an increase in the number of breast cancer cases coexistent with pregnancy. The management of breast cancer during pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Breast surgery can be safely performed during any trimester of pregnancy. Radiation therapy, if required, must be delayed until after delivery. The majority of patients with PABC require chemotherapy. The timing of delivery in relation to chemotherapy administration should be carefully considered. There is no evidence to date that pregnancy termination influences overall survival for the mother. To date, there is no clear evidence that subsequent pregnancy after breast cancer is associated with worse maternal survival. There is a suggestion that subsequent pregnancy may in fact be associated with an improved survival. However, the available studies are limited by potential biases.

  19. Breast cancer in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Crivellari, Diana; Aapro, Matti; Leonard, Robert; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Brain, Etienne; Goldhirsch, Aron; Veronesi, Andrea; Muss, Hyman

    2007-05-10

    Screening and adjuvant postoperative therapies have increased survival among women with breast cancer. These tools are seldom applied in elderly patients, although the usually reported incidence of breast cancer is close to 50% in women 65 years or older, reaching 47% after 70 years in the updated Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Elderly breast cancer patients, even if in good medical health, were frequently excluded from adjuvant clinical trials. Women age 70 years who are fit actually have a median life expectancy of 15.5 years, ie, half of them will live much longer and will remain exposed for enough time to the potentially preventable risks of a relapse and specific death. In the last few years, a new concern about this issue has developed. Treatment now faces two major end points, as in younger women: to improve disease-free survival in the early stages, and to palliate symptoms in advanced disease. However, in both settings, the absolute benefit of treatment is critical because protecting quality of life and all its related aspects (especially functional status and independence), is crucial in older persons who have more limited life expectancy. Furthermore, the new hormonal compounds (aromatase inhibitors) and chemotherapeutic drugs (capecitabine, liposomal doxorubicin), are potentially less toxic than and equally as effective as older more established therapies. These new treatments bring new challenges including higher cost, and defining their benefit in elderly breast cancer must include an analysis of the cost/benefit ratio. These issues emphasize the urgent need to develop and support clinical trials for this older population of breast cancer patients both in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, a move that will take us from a prejudiced, age-based medicine to an evidence-based medicine. PMID:17488987

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  2. Breast cancer and protein biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Gam, Lay-Harn

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is a healthcare concern of women worldwide. Despite procedures being available for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, researchers are working intensively on the disease in order to improve the life quality of breast cancer patients. At present, there is no single treatment known to bring a definite cure for breast cancer. One of the possible solutions for combating breast cancer is through identification of reliable protein biomarkers that can be effectively used for early detection, prognosis and treatments of the cancer. Therefore, the task of identification of biomarkers for breast cancer has become the focus of many researchers worldwide. PMID:24520539

  3. Study Confirms Letrozole Prevents More Breast Cancer Recurrences than Tamoxifen

    Cancer.gov

    After a median of 8 years of follow-up, women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer who received 5 years of letrozole were less likely to have their cancer recur or to die during follow-up than women who received 5 years of tamoxifen.

  4. Breast Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy and targeted therapy. This helps to increase survival. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two main types of breast ... shown lumpectomy plus radiation offers the same overall survival benefit as mastectomy for early ... (almost always followed by radiation): The surgeon ...

  5. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  6. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a malignant ... women but are very rare in men. General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words ...

  7. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  8. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  10. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Cancer.gov

    Taking adjuvant tamoxifen for 10 years after primary treatment leads to a greater reduction in breast cancer recurrences and deaths than taking the drug for only 5 years, according to the results of a large international clinical trial.

  11. PET/CT in Evaluating Response to Chemotherapy in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  12. Tibolone and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erel, C Tamer; Senturk, Levent M; Kaleli, Semih

    2006-01-01

    Tibolone is a relatively new drug for postmenopausal women, which is structurally related to 19‐nortestosterone derivatives and exhibits weak oestrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activities. The effect of tibolone on breast tissue is still obscure. In vitro studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effects of tibolone on breast cells. On the other hand, although epidemiological studies show an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women treated with tibolone, accumulation of data obtained from radiological studies presents promising results. However, the safety of tibolone with regard to breast tissue needs to be investigated further, especially through well‐designed, large‐scale, randomised‐controlled trials. PMID:17068276

  13. A 5-year activity report from the Oral Cancer Center, Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuharu; Sato, Kazumichi; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Taiki; Osaka, Ryuta; Kin, Mira; Yoshida, Yoshifumi; Noguchi, Sunaki; Ishizaki, Ken; Takano, Masayuki; Katakura, Akira; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shibahara, Takahiko; Takano, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    The Tokyo Dental College Oral Cancer Center was established on April 1st, 2006 at our Ichikawa General Hospital for the purpose of providing multimodal treatment for oral cancer. This report summarizes the Center's activities over the last 5 years. The total number of oral cancer patients treated was 360 (April 2006 to March 2011), with 205 primary cases. We investigated the following treatment-related items: 1) site, 2) age, 3) sex, 4) pathological examination, 5) staging, 6) systemic disorder, 7) double cancer, 8) treatment, and 9) prognosis. Out of 205 patients, 60% were men and 40% were women. Men in their 60s and women in their 80s were seen the most. The most common site was the tongue, at 42%, followed by the mandibular gingiva, maxillary gingiva, oral floor, and buccal mucosa. Squamous cell carcinomas were seen most frequently, at 94% (15% were stage I, 33% stage II, 15% stage III, and 34% stage IV). The most common treatment method was surgical treatment, at 83%. The 5-year survival rate at all stages was 85.4%. At the Oral Cancer Center, oral surgeons take the initiative in establishing treatment in cooperation with other departments and branches. Since the establishment of the Ambulatory Center for Maxillary Prosthetics in October 2011, 26 patients have undergone treatment. Related departments and branches work in teams, enabling comprehensive treatment, from the preoperative state to postoperative functional recovery. We wish to use these strengths to improve oral cancer treatment in Japan and will continue to work toward providing the best possible care for our patients. PMID:24521553

  14. Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyan, Annapurneswari; Radhakrishna, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    Background Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is not an uncommon entity in contemporary breast clinics. Improved life expectancy after breast cancer treatment and routine use of contra-lateral breast mammography has led to increased incidence of BBC. Our study objective was to define the epidemiological and tumour characteristics of BBC in India. Materials and Methods A total of 1251 breast cancer patients were treated during the period January 2007 to March 2015 and 30 patients were found to have BBC who constituted the study population (60 tumour samples). Synchronous bilateral breast cancers (SBC) was defined as two tumours diagnosed within an interval of 6 months and a second cancer diagnosed after 6 months was labelled as metachronous breast cancer (MBC). Analyses of patient and tumour characteristics were done in this prospective data base of BBC patients. Results Median patient age was 66 years (range 39-85). Majority of the patients had SBC (n=28) and in 12 patients the second tumour was clinically occult and detected only by mammography of the contra-lateral breast. The second tumour was found at lower tumour size compared to the first in 73% of cases and was negative for axillary metastasis in 80% of cases (24/30). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest histological type (n=51) and majority of the tumours were ER/PR positive (50/60). Her2 was overexpressed in 13 tumours (21%). Over 70% (22/30) of patients had similar histology in both breasts and amongst them grade concordance was present in about 69% (15/22) of patients. Concordance rates of ER, PR and Her2 statuses were 83%, 80% and 90% respectively. Bilateral mastectomy was the commonest surgery performed in 80% of the patients followed by bilateral breast conservation in 13%. At the end of study period, 26 patients were alive and disease free. Median survival was 29 months (range 3-86 months). Conclusion In most patients with BBC, the second tumour is identified at an early stage than index

  15. Relationship of Predicted Risk of Developing Invasive Breast Cancer, as Assessed with Three Models, and Breast Cancer Mortality among Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Tice, Jeffery; Vacek, Pamela M.; Gierach, Gretchen L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer risk prediction models are used to plan clinical trials and counsel women; however, relationships of predicted risks of breast cancer incidence and prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis are unknown. Methods Using largely pre-diagnostic information from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) for 37,939 invasive breast cancers (1996–2007), we estimated 5-year breast cancer risk (<1%; 1–1.66%; ≥1.67%) with three models: BCSC 1-year risk model (BCSC-1; adapted to 5-year predictions); Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT); and BCSC 5-year risk model (BCSC-5). Breast cancer-specific mortality post-diagnosis (range: 1–13 years; median: 5.4–5.6 years) was related to predicted risk of developing breast cancer using unadjusted Cox proportional hazards models, and in age-stratified (35–44; 45–54; 55–69; 70–89 years) models adjusted for continuous age, BCSC registry, calendar period, income, mode of presentation, stage and treatment. Mean age at diagnosis was 60 years. Results Of 6,021 deaths, 2,993 (49.7%) were ascribed to breast cancer. In unadjusted case-only analyses, predicted breast cancer risk ≥1.67% versus <1.0% was associated with lower risk of breast cancer death; BCSC-1: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.82 (95% CI = 0.75–0.90); BCRAT: HR = 0.72 (95% CI = 0.65–0.81) and BCSC-5: HR = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.75–0.94). Age-stratified, adjusted models showed similar, although mostly non-significant HRs. Among women ages 55–69 years, HRs approximated 1.0. Generally, higher predicted risk was inversely related to percentages of cancers with unfavorable prognostic characteristics, especially among women 35–44 years. Conclusions Among cases assessed with three models, higher predicted risk of developing breast cancer was not associated with greater risk of breast cancer death; thus, these models would have limited utility in planning studies to evaluate breast cancer mortality reduction strategies. Further, when offering

  16. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  17. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  18. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  19. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  20. Breast Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Euhus, David; Di Carlo, Philip A; Khouri, Nagi F

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening has become a controversial topic. Understanding the points of contention requires an appreciation of the conceptual framework underpinning cancer screening in general, knowledge of the strengths and limitations of available screening modalities, and familiarity with published clinical trial data. This review is data intense with the intention of presenting enough information to permit the reader to enter into the discussion with an ample knowledge base. The focus throughout is striking a balance between the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. PMID:26315519

  1. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  3. 'Ppl, I Have Breast Cancer'

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160134.html 'Ppl, I Have Breast Cancer' Many women found online support after their diagnosis, ... Women who communicated via social media after a breast cancer diagnosis and received information and/or support about ...

  4. Life After Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...

  5. The Clinicopathologic Characteristics and 5-year Survival Rate of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Bashardust, Nasrollah; Zakerian, Neda; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignancy in women, the most common cause of gynecologic cancer deaths, and most patients have advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 5-year survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer based on age, tumor histology, stage of disease, and type of treatment. Methods This study was conducted on 120 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer referred to Shahid Sadoughi hospital and Shah Vali oncology clinic of Yazd from 2006 to 2012. Demographic data and patient records were studied to evaluate the treatment outcome, pathology of the tumor, and stage of disease. Finally, the overall survival rate and tumor-free survival of patients was assessed. Results The mean patient age was 53.87± 14.11 years. Most participants had stage I (36.7%) or stage II (35%) disease. Serous adenocarcinoma (57.6%) was the most common pathology found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The overall survival of patients in this study was significantly associated with the histological tumor type (p = 0.000) and disease stage (p = 0.0377). Stage I (84.18%) and serous adenocarcinoma (72.81%) demonstrated the best survival. The tumor-free survival rates were not associated with histology types (p = 0.079), surgical procedure (p = 0.18), or chemotherapy (p = 0.18). Conclusion The survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly associated with disease stage. Serous adenocarcinoma also had the best prognosis among the pathologies studied. Therefore, early detection of ovarian cancer can substantially increase the survival rate. PMID:26516450

  6. Immunotherapy in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Marmé, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment including immune cell infiltrates in breast cancer has long been recognized. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are prognostic and predictive; however, their prevalence as well as their prognostic and predictive power are subtype-dependent and appear most prominent in aggressive subtypes like triple-negative and HER2-positive disease. The immune responses observed in many cancers are attracted by tumor-associated antigens and, as suggested by recent research, by neoantigens - immunogenic antigens encoded for by non-synonymous mutations. The appealing promise of cancer vaccines has been pursued in breast cancer for over 2 decades; however, despite much effort having been put into vaccine trials, their clinical benefit, with the exception of some encouraging preliminary results, remains disappointing. The main hurdles compromising the efficacy of these vaccination strategies are the difficulties to generate broad and robust immune responses as well as to overcome immune escape mechanisms. The remarkable efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma and lung cancer has set the ground for a race in the clinical development of numerous agents targeting these immune escape mechanisms in many tumor entities. Early clinical data in metastatic breast cancer suggests at least some clinical activity. This review discusses the current status and future perspectives of immunotherapy in breast cancer. PMID:27260697

  7. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  8. Computerized Cognitive Retraining in Improving Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-26

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradlow, H Leon; Sepkovic, Daniel W

    2002-06-01

    The preponderance of evidence suggests a role for fat and alcohol as risk factors for breast cancer. The role of milk is more controversial with some studies suggesting that milk is a risk factor and others that consumption of milk is protective against breast cancer. No other major nutrient appears to play a significant role in increasing breast cancer risk. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that a variety of micronutrients and hormones appear to have significant anticancer activity. These range from steroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its analysis to indoles, isothiocyanates, and isoflavone derivatives. These compounds act directly by interfering with cyclins and promoting apoptosis as well as indirectly by altering estrogen metabolism in a favorable direction. These effects are not merely theoretical actions in cell culture and tissue explants; they have been demonstrated in human patients as a range of studies have demonstrated. PMID:12095951

  10. Cryosurgery of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-01-01

    With recent improvements in breast imaging, the ability to identify small breast tumors is markedly improved, prompting significant interest in the use of cryoablation without surgical excision to treat early-stage breast cancer. The cryoablation is often performed using ultrasound-guided tabletop argon-gas-based cryoablation system with a double freeze/thaw cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that, as a primary therapy for small breast cancer, cryoablation is safe and effective with durable results, and can successfully destroy all cancers <1.0 cm and tumors between 1.0 and 1.5 cm without a significant ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) component. Presence of noncalcified DCIS is the cause of most cryoablation failures. At this time, cryoablation should be limited to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma <1.5 cm and with <25% DCIS in the core biopsy. For unresectable advanced breast cancer, cryoablation is a palliation modality and may be used as complementary for subsequent resection or other therapies. PMID:25083433

  11. Surgery for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dooley, W C

    1998-11-01

    Women with breast cancer today have many more therapeutic options available to them for their surgical therapy. Almost all patients with breast cancer have some options for breast conservation. Active patient involvement in analyzing and understanding the pros and cons of each of these options seems extremely important to the long-term emotional and psychological outcome of their breast cancer therapy. Several reports this year have reintroduced the issue of adequate local control. The common philosophy a decade ago was that because systematic therapy (adjuvant chemotherapy) was improving, local therapy would become of lesser importance. Several studies this year have indicated the extreme importance of local control in maximizing survival advantage because of the relationship of increasing local failure and deteriorating survival from systemic disease. Despite significant improvements in treatment, our screening and diagnostic approaches have still failed to identify the majority of lesions prior to the patient's own palpation of the tumor. Using new diagnostic modalities that do not involve surgery, the biopsy of lower probability lesions with great accuracy is expected to improve the efficacy of the current screening measures. Despite all the improvements, the most important therapeutic step in the management of breast cancer remains earlier diagnosis and earlier extirpation of the initial invasive focus of malignancy. PMID:9818228

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Inflammatory Breast Cancer from Metastatic Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Achariyapota, Vuthinun; Chuangsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from tumors other than breast carcinomas are extremely rare and represent only 0.2–1.3% of all diagnosed malignant breast tumors. Furthermore, while the most common sites for advanced ovarian cancer metastases are the liver, lung, and pleura, metastasis to the breast from a primary ovarian cancer is uncommon and has only been reported in 0.03–0.6% of all breast cancers. Here we describe a case report of a 50-year-old female patient with a rare case of breast metastases from an advanced ovarian cancer, presenting as inflammatory breast cancer. Our observations emphasize the clinical importance of distinguishing between primary and metastatic breast cancer during diagnosis for the purpose of appropriate prognosis and treatment. PMID:27047697

  14. Exemestane Following Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences and Prolongs Survival

    Cancer.gov

    Postmenopausal women with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer had delayed disease recurrence and longer survival after taking 2-3 years of tamoxifen followed by exemestane for a total of 5 years compared to taking tamoxifen for 5 years.

  15. Cognitive Adaptation Theory and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are There Limits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomich, Patricia L.; Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2006-01-01

    Relations of the components of cognitive adaptation theory (self-esteem, optimism, control) to quality of life and benefit finding were examined for 70 women (91% Caucasian) diagnosed with Stage I, II, or III breast cancer over 5 years ago. Half of these women experienced a recurrence within the 5 years; the other half remained disease free. Women…

  16. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D has also been reported to have anticancer activities against many cancer types, including breast cancer. The discovery that breast epithelial cells possess the same enzymatic system as the kidney, allowing local manufacture of active vitamin D from circulating precursors, makes the effect of vitamin D in breast cancer biologically plausible. Preclinical and ecologic studies have suggested a role for vitamin D in breast cancer prevention. Inverse associations have also been shown between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (25(OH)D) and breast cancer development, risk for breast cancer recurrence, and mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Regardless of whether or not vitamin D helps prevent breast cancer or its recurrence, vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population is very common, and the adverse impact on bone health, a particular concern for breast cancer survivors, makes it important to understand vitamin D physiology and to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency. In this review, we discuss vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action. We summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, highlight ongoing research in this area, and discuss optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention. PMID:22234628

  17. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. [Breast cancer imaging].

    PubMed

    Canale, Sandra; Balleyguier, Corinne; Dromain, Clarisse

    2013-12-01

    Imaging of breast cancer is multimodal. Mammography uses X-rays, the development of digital mammography has improved its quality and enabled implementations of new technologies such astomosynthesis (3D mammography) or contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Ultrasound is added to mammography when there is need to improve detection in high-density breast, to characterize an image, or guide apuncture or biopsy. Breast MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality. It detects a possible tumor angiogenesis by highlighting an early and intense contrast uptake. This method has an excellent negative predictive value, but its lack of specificity (false positives) can be problematic, thus it has to be prescribed according to published standards. An imaging breast screening report must be concluded by the BI-RADS lexicon classification of the ACR and recommendations about monitoring or histological verification. PMID:24579332

  19. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  20. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venniyoor, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach. PMID:27051149

  1. Progestins and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Jorge R

    2007-10-01

    Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically

  2. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G.; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  3. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wu, Wei; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56, P = 0.02). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m(2) (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10-24.9, P = 0.04). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. PMID:26229688

  4. Surveying Breast Cancer's Genomic Landscape.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    An in-depth analysis has produced the most comprehensive portrait to date of the myriad genomic alterations involved in breast cancer. In sequencing the whole genomes of 560 breast cancers and combining this information with published data from another 772 breast tumors, the research team uncovered several new genes and mutational signatures that potentially influence this disease. PMID:27225883

  5. The Basic Facts of Korean Breast Cancer in 2012: Results from a Nationwide Survey and Breast Cancer Registry Database

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Zisun; Min, Sun Young; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Ko, Beom Seok; Kang, Eunyoung; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Seokwon

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Breast Cancer Society has constructed a nationwide breast cancer database through utilization of an online registration program. We have reported the basic facts about breast cancer in Korea in 2012, and analyzed the changing patterns in the clinical characteristics and management of breast cancer in Korea over the last 10 years. Data on patients newly diagnosed with breast cancer were collected for the year 2012 from 97 hospitals and clinics nationwide using a questionnaire survey, and from the online registry database. A total of 17,792 patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2012. The crude incidence rate of female breast cancer, including invasive cancer and in situ cancer, was 70.7 cases per 100,000 women. The median age at diagnosis was 51 years, and the proportion of postmenopausal women was higher than that of premenopausal women among those diagnosed with breast cancer. The proportion of cases of early breast cancer increased continuously, and breast-conserving surgery was performed in more cases than total mastectomy in that same year. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased approximately 3-fold over last 10 years. The 5-year overall survival rate for all stages of breast cancer patients was extremely high. The clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed in ways that resulted in high overall survival over the past 10 years in Korea, and the surgical management of the disease has changed accordingly. Analysis of nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:26155285

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  7. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  8. Breast cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173

  9. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a trained breast cancer survivor. Cancer Survivors Network : An online community of people with cancer and their loved ones that provides peer support through discussion boards, chat rooms and other ...

  10. Reproduction after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zervoudis, Stefanos; Iatrakis, George; Navrozoglou, Iordanis

    2010-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women of developed countries, and as a result of new developments in breast cancer treatment, more women are cured after being diagnosed with this disease. It is important that fertility preservation strategies are addressed before chemotherapy, because chemotherapy may induce premature ovarian failure (depending on the woman's age, the drugs used, the dosage and duration of treatment). Among possible solutions are embryos or oocytes cryopreservation, ovarian tissue cryopreservation-freezing with a subsequent orthotopic and heterotopic autotransplantation, whole ovary cryopreservation, ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, which inhibit ovarian follicular depletion induced by chemotherapeutic agents and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) after ovulation induction with aromatase inhibitors or tamoxifen. PMID:20170848

  11. Salvage HDR Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Previous Definitive Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien Peter; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Roach, Mack; Nash, Marc; Gottschalk, Alexander; Chang, Albert J.; Hsu, I-Chow

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate efficacy and toxicity of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDRB between 1998 and 2009 for locally recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive RT. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, patients received 36 Gy in 6 fractions. Twenty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before salvage, and no patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Determination of biochemical failure after salvage HDRB was based on the Phoenix definition. Overall survival (OS) and bF distributions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), were documented. Results: Median follow-up after salvage HDRB was 59.6 months. The 5-year OS estimate was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-97%) with median survival not yet reached. Five-year biochemical control after salvage was 51% (95% CI: 34%-66%). Median PSA nadir postsalvage was 0.1 (range: 0-7.2) reached at a median of 10.2 months after completing HDRB. As for complications, acute and late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in only 2% and 2%, respectively. No grade 2 or higher acute GI events and 4% grade 2 GI late events were observed. On univariate analysis, disease-free interval after initial definitive RT (P=.07), percent of positive cores at the time of diagnosis (P=.08), interval from first recurrence to salvage HDRB (P=.09), and pre-HDRB prostate-specific antigen (P=.07) were each of borderline significance in predicting biochemical control after salvage HDRB. Conclusions: Prostate HDRB is an effective salvage modality with relatively few long-term toxicities. We

  12. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  13. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... References: Breast cancer detailed guide What`s new in breast cancer research and treatment? Researchers around the world are ... for breast cancer Breast cancer treatment Causes of breast cancer Studies continue to uncover lifestyle factors and habits, ...

  14. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  15. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  16. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men The thought of surgery can be ... 2 to 3 hours. What to expect after breast cancer surgery: After your surgery, you will be taken ...

  17. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt with, as well as various pregnancy-associated factors, events, and perinatal outcomes. Finally, the contribution of breast feeding to a reduced breast cancer risk is discussed. PMID:25759622

  18. Using Clinical Factors and Mammographic Breast Density to Estimate Breast Cancer Risk: Development and Validation of a New Predictive Model

    PubMed Central

    Tice, Jeffrey A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Ichikawa, Laura; Barlow, William E.; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Background Current models for assessing breast cancer risk are complex and do not include breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is routinely reported with mammography. Objective To develop and validate an easy-to-use breast cancer risk prediction model that includes breast density. Design Empirical model based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence, and relative hazards from a prospective cohort. Setting Screening mammography sites participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Patients 1 095 484 women undergoing mammography who had no previous diagnosis of breast cancer. Measurements Self-reported age, race or ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast biopsy. Community radiologists rated breast density by using 4 Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories. Results During 5.3 years of follow-up, invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 14 766 women. The breast density model was well calibrated overall (expected–observed ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.06]) and in racial and ethnic subgroups. It had modest discriminatory accuracy (concordance index, 0.66 [CI, 0.65 to 0.67]). Women with low-density mammograms had 5-year risks less than 1.67% unless they had a family history of breast cancer and were older than age 65 years. Limitation The model has only modest ability to discriminate between women who will develop breast cancer and those who will not. Conclusion A breast cancer prediction model that incorporates routinely reported measures of breast density can estimate 5-year risk for invasive breast cancer. Its accuracy needs to be further evaluated in independent populations before it can be recommended for clinical use. PMID:18316752

  19. Chemoprevention for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozovic-Spasojevic, I; Azambuja, E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Dinh, P; Cardoso, F

    2012-08-01

    Despite the progress that has been made in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, this disease is still a major health problem, being the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the first leading cause of cancer death among women both in developed and economically developing countries. In some developed countries incidence rate start to decrease from the end of last millennium and this can be explained, at least in part, by the decrease in hormone replacement therapy use by post-menopausal women. Chemoprevention has the potential to be an approach of utmost importance to reduce cancer burden at least among high-risk populations. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are both indicated for the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk for the development of the disease, although raloxifene may have a more favorable adverse-effect profile, causing fewer uterine cancers and thromboembolic events. Aromatase inhibitors will most probably become an additional prevention treatment option in the near future, in view of the promising results observed in adjuvant trials and the interesting results of the very recently published first chemoprevention trial using an aromatase inhibitor.(2) Despite impressive results in most clinical trials performed to date, chemoprevention is still not widely used. Urgently needed are better molecular risk models to accurately identify high-risk subjects, new agents with a better risk/benefit ratio and validated biomarkers. PMID:21856081

  20. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  1. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  3. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jepson, A S; Fentiman, I S

    1998-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, often with a late presentation and poor prognosis. The mainstay of treatment is modified radical mastectomy, with axillary node dissection to assess stage, prognosis and the need for adjuvant treatment. When matched for age, tumour size, grade and axillary nodal status, the prognosis is similar for males and females. Concerted efforts must be made to educate both the public and health professionals, in order to make earlier diagnoses and thereby improve prognosis. PMID:10622057

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  5. Breast cancer risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  6. Tomosynthesis for breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D

    2016-01-01

    Breast tomosynthesis, a three-dimensional x-ray based breast imaging technology, has been available for clinical use in the United States since 2011. In this paper we review the literature on breast cancer screening with this new technology including where gaps in knowledge remain. PMID:26472036

  7. Targeting Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Suling; Wicha, Max S.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that many cancers, including breast cancer, contain populations of cells that display stem-cell properties. These breast cancer stem cells, by virtue of their relative resistance to radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy, may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The elucidation of pathways that regulate these cells has led to the identification of potential therapeutic targets. A number of agents capable of targeting breast cancer stem cells in preclinical models are currently entering clinical trials. Assessment of the efficacy of the agents will require development of innovative clinical trial designs with appropriate biologic and clinical end points. The effective targeting of breast cancer stem cells has the potential to significantly improve outcome for women with both early-stage and advanced breast cancer. PMID:20498387

  8. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  9. Circadian clocks and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Victoria; Williams, Jack L; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, and link this to increased tumour risk in women who work irregular shift patterns. Understanding the influence of circadian rhythms on breast cancer could lead to more efficacious therapies, reformed public health policy and improved patient outcome. PMID:27590298

  10. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... what you can do to help prevent breast cancer. Risk Factors You Cannot Control Risk factors you cannot control ... risk. Race . White women are diagnosed with breast cancer more often than African American/black, ... Can Control Risk factors you can control ...

  12. Male breast cancer - a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Bystricky, Branislav; Kohutek, Filip; Rosik, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Due to its rarity, male breast cancer remains a poorly characterized disease. The present study obtained retrospective clinicopathological data, treatment patterns and outcomes for all male patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the Oncology Department, Faculty Hospital Trenčín (Trenčín, Slovakia) over the last 20 years from January 1995 to December 2015. A total of 21 patients with male breast cancer were analyzed, with a median patient age of 65.6 years. Two patients were diagnosed with lobular invasive cancer; all others were diagnosed with cancer of a ductal origin. One patient presented with metastatic disease in the pleural cavity. The primary tumors in 8 patients were staged as pT1, whilst 6 patients were staged as pT2 and 7 as pT4. Axillary lymph node involvement was present in 11 patients (52%) and 15 patients were hormone receptor-positive (83%). All but 1 patient underwent mastectomy and surgical staging of the axilla. Adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone treatment was administered in the same manner as breast cancer treatment in female patients. The median follow-up time was 4.5 years. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 87 and 74%, respectively, and the estimated median disease-free survival for the same population was 9.5 years (95% confidence interval, 6.2–14.6). The survival rates reported in the present retrospective study are comparable with previously published studies. In addition, the current study reported predominant hormone-positive characteristics and rare expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. However, further multi-institutional trials are required to allow for informed treatment decisions in this uncommon disease. PMID:27446481

  13. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  14. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  15. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  16. Childbearing Recency and Modifiers of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Neeraja B.; Huang, Yifan; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Anic, Gabriella; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer for women in relation to childbearing recency, and whether this association differs by breastfeeding history and/or the amount of weight gained during pregnancy. This analysis was based on data from a population-based case-control study comprised of 1,706 incident cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,756 population controls from Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In a telephone interview conducted from 1996 to 2001, information was gathered on established breast cancer risk factors, as well as reproductive history, including amount of weight gained during the last full-term pregnancy, and whether or not the child was breast-fed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and Wald 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of breast cancer. When compared to nulliparous women, women that had given birth within the past 5 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis in the cases or a comparable period in controls had a non-significant 35% increased risk of invasive breast cancer (OR=1.35; 95% CI: 0.90–2.04) adjusting for age and known breast cancer risk factors (p trend = 0.14). We did not find a significant interaction with breast-feeding (p for interaction = 0.30) or pregnancy weight gain (p for interaction = 0.09). PMID:18990773

  17. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela R; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2007-09-01

    Deleterious mutations in two breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation are candidates for additional risk reduction measures such as intensive screening, prophylactic surgery or chemoprevention. Additional susceptibility genes have been identified, including PTEN, ATM, TP53, CHEK2, CASP8, PBRL and BRIP1. Yet, many women with a personal or family history suggestive of a hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer undergo genetic testing and no significant genetic alteration is found. Thus, there are other susceptibility genes that have not been identified, and it is likely that the remaining familial contribution to breast cancer will be explained by the presence of multiple low penetrance alleles that coexist to confer high penetrance risks (a polygenic model). The American Cancer Society has identified cancer prevention as a key component of cancer management and there is interest in developing individualized cancer prevention focused on identifying high risk individuals who are most likely to benefit from more aggressive risk reduction measures. Breast cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling are currently provided by genetic counselors, oncology nurse specialist, geneticists, medical and surgical oncologists, gynecologists and other health care professionals, often working within a multidisciplinary clinical setting. Current methods for risk assessment and predictive genetic testing have limitations and improvements in molecular testing and risk assessment tools is necessary to maximize individual breast cancer risk assessment and to fulfill the promise of cancer prevention. PMID:17508290

  19. Survival of breast cancer patients. Our experience.

    PubMed

    Marrazzoa, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Casà, Luigi; Catalano, Filippo; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Noto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Life expectancy for patients with breast carcinoma has changed in Europe over the last two decades. In Italy, the overall survival rate is about 77% at 5 years. When considering the situation in Sicily, the EUROCARE 2 study examined survival data from the Ragusa Cancer Registry, showing that the curves are worse than in other regions of Italy. Starting from these considerations we decide to evaluate whether these data from the Ragusa Cancer Registry corresponded to Palermo data. So we analysed data from 575 consecutive patients with breast cancer, treated in our Breast Unit from 1990 to 2003 according to the St. Gallen Recommendations and followed for a median period of 5 years. The prognostic role of age, tumour size, nodal status, TNM, stage, grading and hormonal receptors (OR, PR) were analysed and survival curves at 5 and 10 years were produced using the actuarial survival methods. All causes of death were considered. The median follow-up was 33 months. The Log rank test and univariate cox proportional model were used to demonstrate the association between prognostic factors and outcome. When considering T and N status, the curves showed an inverse correlation between survival and increases in these parameters. Overall survival was 92.9% at 5 years and 81.4% at 10 years for T1, 78.4% at 5 years and 61.4% at 10 years for T2 and 40.8% for T3-T4 at 5 and 10 years. Overall survival for NO was 92.1% and 78.2%, respectively, at 5 and 10 years, but decreased to 72.0% and 59.9% at 5 and 10 years for N1. In N2 patients we found that only about 50% of patients were still alive at 5 and 10 years, while for N3 patients the figures were 57.2% and 40%, respectively. PMID:17663369

  20. Curing Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sledge, George W

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is generally considered incurable, and this colors doctor-patient interactions for patients with metastatic disease. Although true for most patients, there appear to be important exceptions, instances where long-term disease-free survival occurs. Although these instances are few in number, they suggest the possibility of cure. How will we move toward cure for a much larger population of patients with metastatic disease? This article outlines a potential research agenda that might move us toward that distant goal. PMID:26759458

  1. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  2. Treating Male Breast Cancer by Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... men treated? Surgery for breast cancer in men Radiation therapy for breast cancer in men Chemotherapy for breast cancer in men ... these may be used after surgery and/or radiation therapy. Regional recurrence: When breast cancer comes back in nearby lymph nodes (such as ...

  3. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  5. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  6. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  7. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in its pathogenesis. Major risk factors include clinical disorders carrying hormonal imbalances, radiation exposure and, in particular, a positive family history (FH) for BC, the latter suggestive of genetic susceptibility. Rare mutations in high-penetrance genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) confer a high risk of BC development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  8. Neo-adjuvant Therapy With Anastrozole Plus Pazopanib in Stage II and III ER+ Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-24

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  9. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  11. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused ... News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® ...

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  13. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  14. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  15. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  16. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer: epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Brody, Julia Green; Moysich, Kirsten B; Humblet, Olivier; Attfield, Kathleen R; Beehler, Gregory P; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2007-06-15

    Laboratory research has shown that numerous environmental pollutants cause mammary gland tumors in animals; are hormonally active, specifically mimicking estrogen, which is a breast cancer risk factor; or affect susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. An assessment of epidemiologic research on these pollutants identified in toxicologic studies can guide future research and exposure reduction aimed at prevention. The PubMed database was searched for relevant literature and systematic critical reviews were entered in a database available at URL: www.silentspring.org/sciencereview and URL: www.komen.org/environment (accessed April 10, 2007). Based on a relatively small number of studies, the evidence to date generally supports an association between breast cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in conjunction with certain genetic polymorphisms involved in carcinogen activation and steroid hormone metabolism. Evidence regarding dioxins and organic solvents is sparse and methodologically limited but suggestive of an association. Methodologic problems include inadequate exposure assessment, a lack of access to highly exposed and unexposed populations, and a lack of preclinical markers to identify associations that may be obscured by disease latency. Among chemicals identified in toxicologic research as relevant to breast cancer, many have not been investigated in humans. The development of better exposure assessment methods is needed to fill this gap. In the interim, weaknesses in the epidemiologic literature argue for greater reliance on toxicologic studies to develop national policies to reduce chemical exposures that may be associated with breast cancer. Substantial research progress in the last 5 years suggests that the investigation of environmental pollutants will lead to strategies to reduce breast cancer risk. PMID:17503436

  17. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors you can control, such as drinking alcohol. Others, such as family ... Risk factors you cannot control includes: Age . Your risk for breast cancer increases as you age. Most cancers are found in ...

  18. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research. PMID:12631387

  19. The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC): Prognostic factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Vigen, Cheryl; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lu, Yani; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Monroe, Kristine R.; Kurian, Allison W.; Cheng, Iona; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Roh, Janise M.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Henderson, Brian E.; Bernstein, Leslie; John, Esther M.; Sposto, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well-documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer-specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox-proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23864487

  20. Clinical utility of exemestane in the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Geuna, Elena; Milani, Andrea; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women, causing a significant mortality worldwide. Different endocrine strategies are available for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer, including antiestrogen tamoxifen and fulvestrant, as well as third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane. In this review, we will focus on exemestane, its clinical use, and its side effects. Exemestane is a steroidal third-generation AI now used in all treatment settings for breast cancer. In the metastatic disease, it has been extensively investigated as the first-, second-, and further-line treatment and it is now registered for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer whose disease has progressed following antiestrogen therapy. A potential lack of cross-resistance with nonsteroidal AIs has been described, giving additional therapeutic opportunities in sequences of endocrine agents. Exemestane is also approved for the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal early breast cancer, either as upfront monotherapy for 5 years, as a switch following 2–3 years of tamoxifen, or as extended therapy beyond 5 years of adjuvant treatment. New promising data also showed a beneficial effect in young premenopausal early breast cancer patients, when administered together with ovarian suppression. Interesting results have also emerged when exemestane has been investigated as neodjuvant treatment as well as preventive agent in healthy women at high risk for breast cancer. Exemestane is generally well tolerated, with a side effect profile similar to that of other AIs, including menopausal symptoms, arthralgia, and bone loss. In conclusion, exemestane can be considered an effective and well-tolerated endocrine treatment option for all stages of breast cancer. PMID:26064072

  1. Clinical utility of exemestane in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Geuna, Elena; Milani, Andrea; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women, causing a significant mortality worldwide. Different endocrine strategies are available for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer, including antiestrogen tamoxifen and fulvestrant, as well as third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane. In this review, we will focus on exemestane, its clinical use, and its side effects. Exemestane is a steroidal third-generation AI now used in all treatment settings for breast cancer. In the metastatic disease, it has been extensively investigated as the first-, second-, and further-line treatment and it is now registered for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer whose disease has progressed following antiestrogen therapy. A potential lack of cross-resistance with nonsteroidal AIs has been described, giving additional therapeutic opportunities in sequences of endocrine agents. Exemestane is also approved for the adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal early breast cancer, either as upfront monotherapy for 5 years, as a switch following 2-3 years of tamoxifen, or as extended therapy beyond 5 years of adjuvant treatment. New promising data also showed a beneficial effect in young premenopausal early breast cancer patients, when administered together with ovarian suppression. Interesting results have also emerged when exemestane has been investigated as neodjuvant treatment as well as preventive agent in healthy women at high risk for breast cancer. Exemestane is generally well tolerated, with a side effect profile similar to that of other AIs, including menopausal symptoms, arthralgia, and bone loss. In conclusion, exemestane can be considered an effective and well-tolerated endocrine treatment option for all stages of breast cancer. PMID:26064072

  2. Consumer Health Education. Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…

  3. Metals and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

  4. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Giles, Graham G; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Southey, Melissa C; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María-José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-12-15

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of evidence suggest that alleles influencing breast cancer risk might also be associated with breast cancer survival. We examined the associations between 35 breast cancer susceptibility loci and the disease over-all survival (OS) in 10,255 breast cancer patients from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) of which 1,379 died, including 754 of breast cancer. We also conducted a meta-analysis of almost 35,000 patients and 5,000 deaths, combining results from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and performed in silico analyses of SNPs with significant associations. In BPC3, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was significantly associated with improved OS (HRper-allele =0.70; 95% CI: 0.58-0.85; ptrend  = 2.84 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55-0.92; HRhomozygotes  = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.76; p2DF  = 1.45 × 10(-3) ). In silico, the C allele of LSP1-rs3817198 was predicted to increase expression of the tumor suppressor cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C). In the meta-analysis, TNRC9-rs3803662 was significantly associated with increased death hazard (HRMETA =1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15; ptrend  = 6.6 × 10(-4) ; HRheterozygotes  = 0.96 95% CI: 0.90-1.03; HRhomozygotes  = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09-1.35; p2DF =1.25 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, we show that there is little overlap between the breast cancer risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified so far and the SNPs associated with breast cancer prognosis, with the possible exceptions of LSP1-rs3817198 and TNRC9-rs3803662. PMID:25611573

  5. Cholesterol and Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik R.; Chang, Ching-yi; McDonnell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is a risk factor for breast cancer although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. One hypothesis is that dyslipidemia results in increased cholesterol content in cell membranes thus impacting membrane fluidity and subsequent signaling. Additionally, studies demonstrate that the metabolite, 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), can function as an estrogen, increasing the proliferation of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. This was unexpected as 27HC and other oxysterols activate the liver X receptors resulting in the reduction of intracellular cholesterol. Resolution of this paradox will require a dissection of the molecular mechanisms by which ER and LXR converge in breast cancer cells. Regardless, the observation that 27HC influences breast cancer provides rationale for strategies that target cholesterol metabolism. PMID:25458418

  6. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical literature, the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial was started in 1998. That study enrolled ... in the BCPT. Studies, such as BCPT and STAR, involve women who have not had breast cancer, ...

  7. [Maternity after breast cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Ulman-Włodarz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a notable increase in the number of breast cancer diagnoses among women who have not fulfilled their maternity plans before the disease. Cytotoxic drugs (chemotherapy), used in the treatment of breast cancer patients, cause varying degrees of damage to the ovaries. The expected favorable effect of gonadoliberin analogues on the preservation of fertility has not been confirmed in clinical trials, and these drugs are currently not recommended for therapy. It is only the development of cryobiology and assisted reproduction techniques that make it possible to preserve the reproductive potential. The safety of the mother and the baby after breast cancer treatment is a separate issue. The available data indicate that both, pregnancy and breast-feeding are safe for the mother and the baby. However, the majority of findings come from retrospective studies covering small sample size and excluding the heterogeneity of both, cancer cells and patient clinical data. PMID:25775879

  8. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  9. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  10. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  11. Lipofilling in breast cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Visnu; Rietjens, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Recently, lipofilling is being performed either as a part of oncoplastic technique or alone by itself for correction of defects and asymmetry after oncologic breast cancer surgery. Its efficacy, safety and technical procedures are varying among institutions and individual surgeon’s experiences. We provide a literature review and view point focus on this novel technique which emphasize on the application on breast cancer reconstruction. PMID:25083450

  12. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  13. Social Trauma as Related to Cancer of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Laura; Graham, Saxon

    1971-01-01

    A number of writers, primarily in the field of psychophysiology, have suggested that breast cancer may be related to a variety of untoward psychological states and that these may be related in turn to having experienced misfortune in the social milieu. Other research has indicated that endocrine function may figure in the etiology of this disease. For these reasons, we wished to examine the relationship between the experiencing of social trauma which could induce endocrine effect and the development of cancer of the breast. We hypothesized that breast cancer cases, more often than controls, would have encountered traumatic incidents in their social milieu in the 5-year period prior to the diagnosis of their disease. Three hundred and fifty-two breast cancer cases and 670 controls with other types of cancer and non-neoplastic diseases of organs other than the breast and genitalia from Roswell Park Memorial Institute were interviewed. Comparisons were made concerning the extent to which the subjects and their immediate and extended families incurred such life events as death, divorce, illness, economic want, residential mobility, and feelings of being upset. No difference was found between the breast cancer cases and the controls either in the experiencing of single events or cumulative numbers of events by themselves or by members of their families. There may be events of a different type, not studied here, which are related to the development of cancer of the breast. PMID:5144537

  14. Targeting autophagy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maycotte, Paola; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Macroautophagy (referred to as autophagy here) is an intracellular degradation pathway enhanced in response to a variety of stresses and in response to nutrient deprivation. This process provides the cell with nutrients and energy by degrading aggregated and damaged proteins as well as compromised organelles. Since autophagy has been linked to diverse diseases including cancer, it has recently become a very interesting target in breast cancer treatment. Indeed, current clinical trials are trying to use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with other drugs to inhibit autophagy during breast cancer therapy since chemotherapy and radiation, regimens that are used to treat breast cancer, are known to induce autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, in breast cancer, autophagy has been involved in the development of resistance to chemotherapy and to anti-estrogens. Moreover, a close relationship has recently been described between autophagy and the HER2 receptor. Here, we discuss some of the recent findings relating autophagy and cancer with a particular focus on breast cancer therapy. PMID:25114840

  15. BREAST CANCER, DERMATOFIBROMAS AND ARSENIC

    PubMed Central

    Dantzig, Paul I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dermatofibromas are common benign tumors in women, and breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The aim of this study is to determine if there is any relationship between the two conditions. Materials and Methods: Five patients with dermatofibromas and 10 control patients (two groups) had their skin biopsies measured for arsenic by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Fifty randomly selected patients with breast cancer and 50 control patients were examined for the presence of dermatofibromas. Results: The dermatofibromas were found to have an arsenic concentration of 0.171 micrograms/gram, compared with 0.06 and 0.07 micrograms/gram of the two control groups. Forty-three out of 50 patients with breast cancer had dermatofibromas and 32/50 patients with breast cancer had multiple dermatofibromas, compared to 10/50 control patients with dermatofibromas and only 1/50 with multiple dermatofibromas. Conclusions: Arsenic is important in the development of dermatofibromas and dermatofibromas represent a reservoir and important sign of chronic arsenic exposure. Dermatofibromas represent an important sign for women at risk for breast cancer, and arsenic may represent the cause of the majority of cases of breast cancer. PMID:20049264

  16. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  17. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling. PMID:19235775

  18. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  19. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy

  20. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  1. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  2. [Immunotherapy opportunities in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Pusztai, Lajos; Ladányi, Andrea; Székely, Borbála; Dank, Magdolna

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer has long been recognized by histopathologists. These observations were reaffirmed by recent immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling studies that also revealed an association between greater chemotherapy sensitivity and extensive lymphocytic infiltration in early stage breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that local anti-tumor immune response can at least partially control cancer growth and may mediate the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. However, until recently, there was no direct clinical evidence to demonstrate that enhancing anti-tumor immune response could lead to clinical benefit in breast cancer patients. The recent development of clinically effective immune checkpoint inhibitors made it possible to test the therapeutic impact of augmenting the local anti-tumor immune response. Two Phase I clinical trials using single agent anti-PD-1 (MK-3475, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 (MPDL3280A, atezolizumab) antibodies demonstrated close to 20% tumor response rates in heavily pretreated, metastatic, triple negative breast cancers. The most remarkable feature of the responses was their long duration. Several patients had disease control close to a year, or longer, which has not previously been seen with chemotherapy regimens in this patient population. A large number of clinical trials are currently underway with these and similar drugs in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings to define the role of this new treatment modality in breast cancer. PMID:26934349

  3. Azacitidine and Entinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  4. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Lipid biology of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Jan; Sevinsky, Christopher; Conklin, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been reported in many types of cancer. Lipids have been implicated in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, autophagy, motility and membrane homeostasis. It is required that their biosynthesis is tightly regulated to ensure homeostasis and to prevent unnecessary energy expenditure. This review focuses on the emerging understanding of the role of lipids and lipogenic pathway regulation in breast cancer, including parallels drawn from the study of metabolic disease models, and suggestions on how these findings can potentially be exploited to promote gains in HER2/neu-positive breast cancer research. PMID:23562840

  6. Medical Prevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stubert, Johannes; Dieterich, Max; Gerber, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Western Europe and North America. Effective strategies of medical prevention could reduce the burden of breast cancer mortality. The best evidence for a risk reduction exists for hormonal agents such as tamoxifen and raloxifene (22–72%) or aromatase inhibitors (50–65%). However, the severity of side effects and the lack of evidence for an improved survival compromise the risk/benefit balance. In this review the results of chemoprevention studies, including new treatment approaches, are summarized with critical discussion of their use in clinical practice. PMID:25759621

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  8. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. Breast cancer: current and future endocrine therapies.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Carlo; Patten, Darren K; Januszewski, Adam; Zucchini, Giorgia; Howell, Sacha J

    2014-01-25

    Endocrine therapy forms a central modality in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. The routine use of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen has improved survival rates for early breast cancer, and more recently has evolved in the postmenopausal setting to include aromatase inhibitors. The optimal duration of adjuvant endocrine therapy remains an active area of clinical study with recent data supporting 10 years rather than 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. However, endocrine therapy is limited by the development of resistance, this can occur by a number of possible mechanisms and numerous studies have been performed which combine endocrine therapy with agents that modulate these mechanisms with the aim of preventing or delaying the emergence of resistance. Recent trial data regarding the combination of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus with endocrine therapy have resulted in a redefinition of the clinical treatment pathway in the metastatic setting. This review details the current endocrine therapy utilized in both early and advanced disease, as well as exploring potential new targets which modulate pathways of resistance, as well as agents which aim to modulate adrenal derived steroidogenic hormones. PMID:23933149

  11. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In this ...

  12. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... States Preventive Services Task Force updated recommendations on breast cancer screening, suggesting that women ages 50 to 74 ...

  13. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  14. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer On This Page Can antiperspirants or deodorants cause breast cancer? What do scientists know about the ingredients in ...

  15. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Staging The extent (stage) of breast cancer needs to be determined to help choose the ...

  16. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ...

  17. Breast Cancer: Match of Her Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer The Match of Her Life Past Issues / Spring - ... Martina Navratilova stays strong in her battle against breast cancer and her work to help Americans live healthier, ...

  18. Treatment of Breast Cancer during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Breast Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer Talking With Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New ...

  19. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease ... Excessive stress can lead to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new ...

  20. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... the Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In ...

  1. Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159762.html Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs Adaptive study design allows researchers to match ... provide a fighting chance for women with advanced breast cancer. The drugs, neratinib and veliparib, both appear effective ...

  2. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  3. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  4. Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158409.html Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility: Study The BRCA1 ... that is linked to a greater risk of breast cancer may also be tied to potential fertility problems, ...

  5. Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158409.html Breast Cancer Gene Might Lower Women's Fertility: Study The BRCA1 ... that is linked to a greater risk of breast cancer may also be tied to potential fertility problems, ...

  6. Time Course of Mild Arm Lymphedema After Breast Conservation Treatment for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bar Ad, Voichita; Cheville, Andrea; Solin, Lawrence J.; Dutta, Pinaki; Both, Stefan; Harris, Eleanor

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Arm lymphedema is a potential consequence of the treatment for breast carcinoma. The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize the progression of mild arm lymphedema after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study cohort was drawn from 1,713 consecutive Stage I or II breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy, including axillary staging followed by radiation. Arm lymphedema was documented in 266 (16%) of 1,713 patients. One hundred nine patients, 6% of the overall group and 40% of the patients with arm lymphedema, presented with mild arm lymphedema, defined as a difference of 2 cm or less between the measured circumferences of the affected and unaffected arms. Results: Among the 109 patients with mild arm lymphedema at the time of arm lymphedema diagnosis, the rate of freedom from progression to more severe lymphedema was 79% at 1 year, 66% at 3 years, and 52% at 5 years. The patients who were morbidly obese, had positive axillary lymph nodes, or received supraclavicular irradiation at the time of breast cancer treatment were at higher risk of progression from mild arm lymphedema to more severe edema. Conclusions: Mild arm lymphedema, generally considered to be a minor complication after breast conservation treatment for breast cancer, was associated with a risk of progression to a more severe grade of arm lymphedema in a substantial fraction of patients.

  7. Triple-negative breast cancer: epidemiological considerations and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P

    2012-08-01

    Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and

  8. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for nonmetastatic lung cancer: An analysis of 75 patients treated over 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, Jonathan J. . E-mail: jbeitler92@alumni.gsb.columbia.edu; Badine, Edgard A.; El-Sayah, Danny; Makara, Denise; Friscia, Phillip; Silverman, Phillip; Terjanian, Terenig

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may not be medically operable even in patients with surgically resectable disease. For patients who either refuse surgery or are medically inoperable, radiation therapy may be the best therapeutic choice. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) employs external fixation and hypofractionation to deliver a high dose per fraction of radiation to a small target volume. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 75 patients treated over 5 years at Staten Island University Hospital as definitive treatment for NSCLC or presumed NSCLC. Patients received a median of 5 fractions of 8 Gy per fraction over 27 days. Results: Overall 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial survivals were 63%, 45%, and 17%. Patients with a gross tumor volume (GTV) less than 65 cm{sup 3} enjoyed a longer median survival (25.7 vs. 9.9 months, p < 0.003), and at 5 years, the actuarial survival for the patients with GTVs less than 65 cm{sup 3} was 24% vs. 0% for those with GTVs larger than 65 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy as delivered was ineffective for curing the patients whose GTVs were larger than 65 cm{sup 3}. SBRT was promising for those with GTVs less than 65 cm{sup 3}.

  9. Multicenter Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A.; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) Bronze Compatible product. The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  10. Multicenter breast cancer collaborative registry.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Simon; Shats, Oleg; Fleissner, Elizabeth; Bascom, George; Yiee, Kevin; Copur, Mehmet; Crow, Kate; Rooney, James; Mateen, Zubeena; Ketcham, Marsha A; Feng, Jianmin; Sherman, Alexander; Gleason, Michael; Kinarsky, Leo; Silva-Lopez, Edibaldo; Edney, James; Reed, Elizabeth; Berger, Ann; Cowan, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Cancer Collaborative Registry (BCCR) is a multicenter web-based system that efficiently collects and manages a variety of data on breast cancer (BC) patients and BC survivors. This registry is designed as a multi-tier web application that utilizes Java Servlet/JSP technology and has an Oracle 11g database as a back-end. The BCCR questionnaire has accommodated standards accepted in breast cancer research and healthcare. By harmonizing the controlled vocabulary with the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) or Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT), the BCCR provides a standardized approach to data collection and reporting. The BCCR has been recently certified by the National Cancer Institute's Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (NCI CBIIT) as a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG(®)) Bronze Compatible product.The BCCR is aimed at facilitating rapid and uniform collection of critical information and biological samples to be used in developing diagnostic, prevention, treatment, and survivorship strategies against breast cancer. Currently, seven cancer institutions are participating in the BCCR that contains data on almost 900 subjects (BC patients and survivors, as well as individuals at high risk of getting BC). PMID:21918596

  11. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Vinorelbine Ditartrate in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA1; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA2; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  12. Saracatinib in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-02

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  13. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-20

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  15. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Management of older women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Punglia, Rinaa S; Hughes, Kevin S; Muss, Hyman B

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease of aging. The average age at diagnosis is 61, and the majority of deaths occur after age 65. Caring for older women with breast cancer is a major challenge, as many have coexisting illness that can preclude optimal breast cancer treatment and which frequently have greater effect than the breast cancer itself. Older patients with cancer should be screened or have a brief geriatric assessment to detect potentially remediable problems not usually assessed by oncologists (e.g., self-care, falls, social support, nutrition). Older women with early-stage breast cancer should be treated initially with surgery unless they have an exceedingly short life expectancy. Primary endocrine therapy should be considered for patients who have hormone receptor-positive tumors and a very short life expectancy, an acute illness that delays surgery, or tumors that need to be downstaged to be resectable. Sentinel node biopsy should be considered for patients in whom it might affect treatment decisions. Breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery may be omitted for selected older women, especially for those with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer that are compliant with adjuvant endocrine therapy. The majority of older women with stage I and II breast cancer have hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative tumors, and endocrine therapy provides them with optimal systemic treatment. If these patients have life expectancies exceeding at least 5 years, they should be considered for genetic assays to determine the potential value of chemotherapy. Partnering care with geriatricians or primary care physicians trained in geriatrics should be considered for all vulnerable and frail older patients. PMID:25993142

  17. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  18. Breast Cancer, Version 3.2013

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Richard L.; Carlson, Robert W.; Allred, Craig; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Burstein, Harold J.; Edge, Stephen B.; Farrar, William B.; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goldstein, Lori J.; Gradishar, William J.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Isakoff, Steven J.; Ljung, Britt-Marie E.; Mankoff, David A.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A.; McCormick, Beryl; Pierce, Lori J.; Reed, Elizabeth C.; Schwartzberg, Lee S.; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Ward, John H.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Zellars, Richard; Shead, Dorothy A.; Kumar, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:23847214

  19. Can We Prevent Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer in females accounting to 23% of all cases. Between January 1998 and December 2004–2004, 6,882 cases were reported from all GCC states accounting to 11.8% from all cancers and 22.7% from cancers in females. An ASR/100,000 woman was 46.4 from Bahrain, 44.3 from Kuwait, 35.5 from Qatar, 19.2 from UAE, 14.2 from Oman and 12.9 from KSA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in Arab women constituting 14–42% of all women cancers. Breast cancer in Arab countries presents almost 10 yrs younger than in USA and Europe. Median age at presentation is 48–52 and 50% of all cases are below the age of 50 where as only 25% of cases in industrialized nations are below the age of 50 yrs. What we need to fight this deadly disease is opening of screening centers with trained physicians equipped with ultrasound, x-ray unit, a pathology lab and most of all a system where a patient is seen urgently on referral to a secondary level care. Health education campaigns should be organized, female medical students should be encouraged to be general surgeons in a community where social customs still have value. PMID:21475500

  20. [Cancer in ectopic breast tissue].

    PubMed

    Røikjer, Johan; Lindmark, Ida; Knudsen, Thor

    2015-06-15

    Two different forms of ectopic breast tissue exist in human beings: supernumerary and aberrant. Both forms are usually seen alongside the milk lines, which extend from the upper limbs to the inguinal region where they give rise to mammary glands, areolas and nipples. Although ectopic- and orthotopic breast tissue are placed in different areas of the body, they still share the same ability to undergo pathological degeneration. The focus of this case report is to shed light on this unusual form of breast cancer, and raise the level of awareness in cases with lumps located in the milk lines. PMID:26101129

  1. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-12

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  3. Denosumab in breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; van der Padt, Annemieke; Sleijfer, Stefan; Jager, Agnes

    2013-10-01

    The bone is the most common site to which breast cancer metastasises. Recently, denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) has been developed as a new targeted bone therapy. In a large randomized phase III study with a head-to-head comparison of denosumab to zoledronic acid in patients with bone metastases of breast cancer, denosumab significantly delayed the time to first skeletal related event. In the adjuvant setting denosumab significantly increased bone mineral density compared to placebo in a phase III study in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors. Preclinical data suggest an effect of denosumab on tumour growth and even on carcinogenesis. This review describes the current indications for denosumab in the various settings of breast cancer treatment, with special attention for efficacy, short and long term toxicity and other relevant issues for clinical practice. Furthermore possible and necessary future research questions are proposed. PMID:23545361

  4. Spontaneous regression of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lewison, E F

    1976-11-01

    The dramatic but rare regression of a verified case of breast cancer in the absence of adequate, accepted, or conventional treatment has been observed and documented by clinicians over the course of many years. In my practice limited to diseases of the breast, over the past 25 years I have observed 12 patients with a unique and unusual clinical course valid enough to be regarded as spontaneous regression of breast cancer. These 12 patients, with clinically confirmed breast cancer, had temporary arrest or partial remission of their disease in the absence of complete or adequate treatment. In most of these cases, spontaneous regression could not be equated ultimately with permanent cure. Three of these case histories are summarized, and patient characteristics of pertinent clinical interest in the remaining case histories are presented and discussed. Despite widespread doubt and skepticism, there is ample clinical evidence to confirm the fact that spontaneous regression of breast cancer is a rare phenomenon but is real and does occur. PMID:799758

  5. Estrogen Metabolism and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samavat, Hamed; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-01-01

    There is currently accumulating evidence that endogenous estrogens play a critical role in the development of breast cancer. Estrogens and their metabolites have been studied in both pre- and postmenopausal women with more consistent results shown in the latter population, in part because of large hormonal variations during the menstrual cycle and far fewer studies having been performed in premenopausal women. In this review we describe in detail estrogen metabolism and associated genetic variations, and provide a critical review of the current literature regarding the role of estrogens and their metabolites in breast cancer risk. PMID:24784887

  6. Breast cancer. Selected legal issues.

    PubMed

    Wynstra, N A

    1994-07-01

    Several legal and ethical issues may arise during the course of screening for and diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Among the most active legal areas are reimbursement for therapies deemed experimental by certain insurance companies, such as high dose chemotherapy/autologous bone marrow transplantation (HDCT/ABMT) and off-label drug use; these reimbursement issues are discussed. Legal issues in mammography screening and insurance coverage and legal issues relative to informed consent in breast cancer treatment also are discussed. PMID:8004625

  7. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  8. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  9. Skeletal Manifestations of Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Palak; Williams, Margaret; Clark, Patricia M.; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer and osteoporosis are common diagnoses in women. Breast cancer survival has improved due to earlier detection and improved treatments. As most breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive, treatment is often aimed at altering the hormonal environment. Both pre and postmenopausal women undergoing these therapies are at risk for bone loss. The patient's health care team ought to have an awareness of the potential for breast cancer treatments to accelerate bone loss. Women with early stage breast cancer are treated with curative intent and, therefore, maintaining bone health is important and is part of the survivorship care to ensure an optimal quality of life. PMID:24132726

  10. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  11. Identifying Women with Dense Breasts at Highi Risk of Interval Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Zhu, Weiwei; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Sprague, Brian L.; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Lehman, Constance D.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nineteen states have mandatory breast density reporting laws requiring women to be notified they have dense breasts (∼50% of screened women) and be advised to discuss supplemental imaging with their provider. Objective To better direct supplemental imaging discussions, we determined which combinations of breast cancer risk and Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories were associated with high interval cancer rates. Design Prospective cohort Setting Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) breast-imaging facilities Patients 365,426 women aged 40-74 years who underwent 831,455 digital screening mammograms Measurement(s) BI-RADS breast density, BCSC 5-year breast cancer risk, and interval rate (invasive cancer within 12 months of a normal mammogram) per 1,000 mammograms. High interval rate was defined as >1/1,000 mammograms. Results High interval rates were observed for women with 5-year risk ≥1.67% and extremely dense breasts or 5-year risk >2.49% and heterogeneously dense breasts comprising 24% of all women with dense breasts. The interval rate for advanced stage disease was highest (>0.4/1,000 mammograms) among women with 5-year risk >2.49% and heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts comprising 21% of all women with dense breasts. Five-year risk was low-average (0-1.66%) for 51% of women with heterogeneously dense and 52.5% with extremely dense breasts with interval rates of 0.58-0.63 and 0.72-0.89/1,000 mammograms, respectively. Limitations Benefit of supplemental imaging not assessed. Conclusions Breast density should not be the sole criterion for deciding whether supplemental imaging is justified because not all women with dense breasts have high interval cancer rates. BCSC 5-year risk combined with BI-RADS breast density can identify women at high risk of interval cancers to inform patient-provider discussions about alternative screening strategies. Primary Funding Source National Cancer Institute PMID

  12. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  13. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page April 2016 The Impact of Breast Cancer Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the ...

  14. Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990

    MedlinePlus

    ... News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: October ... report from the American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States ...

  15. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  16. Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the shanghai breast cancer study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaohui; Dai, Qi; Tseng, Marilyn; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2007-07-01

    The association of breast cancer with dietary patterns such as a western diet has not been studied in Asian women. We examined this among Shanghai Breast Cancer Study participants. Cases were of ages 25 to 64 years, diagnosed 08/1996-03/1998, and identified through a rapid case ascertainment system supplemented by the Shanghai Cancer Registry. Controls, selected from the general population of urban Shanghai, were frequency matched to cases by 5-year age group. Participants provided information on diet, lifestyle, and reproductive factors. In principal component analysis among 1,556 controls, two patterns emerged: a "vegetable-soy" pattern (tofu, cauliflower, beans, bean sprouts, green leafy vegetables) and a "meat-sweet" pattern (shrimp, chicken, beef, pork, candy, desserts). In adjusted unconditional logistic regression analyses including 1,446 cases and 1,549 controls with complete covariate data, risk was not associated with the vegetable-soy pattern. It was associated with the meat-sweet pattern (4th versus 1st quartile: odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.7; P(trend) = 0.03), but only in postmenopausal women, specifically among those with estrogen receptor-positive tumors (4th versus 1st quartile: odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.3; P(trend) = 0.03). Our findings indicate that a western diet increases breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Chinese women. They also suggest the value of quantifying aggregate risk for common combinations of foods. PMID:17623805

  17. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  18. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  19. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  20. Conservation therapy for breast cancers other than infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, J M; Jacquemier, J; Torhorst, J; Spitalier, J M; Amalric, R; Hünig, R; Walther, E; Harder, F; Almendral, A; Brandone, H

    1989-04-15

    Pathologic review of 861 Stage I and II breast cancers yielded 152 patients (18%) with histologic types other than invasive ductal carcinoma. All patients had been treated by breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy, including supplemental radiation to the tumor bed. For 67 patients with predominantly lobular carcinomas, the actuarial overall 5-year survival was 100% and 77% for node-negative and node-positive patients, respectively. The actuarial probability of recurrence in the treated breast (13.5% at 5 years) appeared to be somewhat greater than that observed after treatment of invasive ductal cancers (8.8% at 5 years, P = 0.11). Of 12 mammary recurrences in patients with lobular carcinoma, four occurred at a considerable distance from the original primary and seven were multifocal, involving more than one quadrant in five patients. Of 47 patients with strictly in situ carcinomas, one patient whose axillary nodal status had not been determined subsequently developed distant metastases. Three additional patients developed mammary recurrence, two at the primary tumor site and one in another quadrant. The actuarial 5-year mammary recurrence and overall survival rates were 4% and 98%, respectively. For 27 patients with true medullary cancers, overall survival at 5 years was 90%. One localized mammary recurrence was observed at the site of the original primary. Actuarial mammary recurrence rate was 4% at 5 years. No relapse was observed in ten patients with colloid and one patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma. The authors conclude that, in addition to its well-established efficacy in the treatment of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, the combination of tumor excision and radiotherapy appears to provide adequate local control for other histologic types as well. However, patients with lobular cancer appear to be at somewhat greater risk of mammary failure, and recurrences in such patients tend to be multifocal and multicentric. PMID:2538219

  1. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  3. Breast density and breast cancer risk: a practical review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Amy T; Vachon, Celine M; Brandt, Kathleen R; Ghosh, Karthik

    2014-04-01

    New legislation in several states requiring breast density notification in all mammogram reports has increased awareness of breast density. Estimates indicate that up to 50% of women undergoing mammography will have high breast density; thus, with increased attention and high prevalence of increased breast density, it is crucial that primary care clinicians understand the implications of dense breasts and are able to provide appropriate counseling. This review provides an overview of breast density, specifically by defining breast density, exploring the association between breast density and breast cancer risk, both from masking and as an independent risk factor, and reviewing supplemental screening options as part of a larger framework for counseling patients with dense breasts. PMID:24684876

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Cancer.gov

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  6. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-11

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  7. Rectal metastasis from Breast cancer: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Cho Ee; Wright, Lucie; Pieri, Andrew; Belhasan, Anas; Fasih, Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer metastases occurs in around 50% of all presentation. It is the second most common type of cancer to metastasise to the GI tract but this only occurs in less than 1% of cases. Presentation of case We report a case that underwent treatment for invasive lobular cancer (ILC) of the breast and 5 years later was found to have rectal and peritoneal metastasis. She is currently receiving palliative management including chemotherapy in the form of weekly Paclitaxel (Taxol®) and stenting to relieve obstruction. Conclusion There should be high clinical suspicion of bowel metastasis in patients presenting with positive faecal occult blood with or without bowel symptoms even if the incidence is less <1% of metastases, particularly in cases where the initial breast tumour was large, with positive axillary nodes. PMID:26188979

  8. MTHFR genotypes and breast cancer survival after surgery and chemotherapy: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Shrubsole, Martha J; Shu, Xiao Ou; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Cai, Qiuyin; Cai, Hui; Niu, Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2005-05-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) regulates the intracellular folates pool for DNA synthesis and methylation. Sequence variations in MTHFR (nucleotides 677 (C-->T) and 1298 (A-->C)) result in allozymes with decreased activity. The 677TT genotype is associated with increased toxicity of methotrexate and increased clinical response to 5-fluorouracil in treatment of cancers including breast cancer. We evaluated MTHFR genotypes and breast cancer survival in a cohort of 1067 Chinese women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1996 and 1998 who received surgery and chemotherapy. Life table method was used to calculate 5-year survival rates. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Median follow-up time was 5.2 years; 5-year survival was 84.6%. Sixty-six percent carried a 677T allele and 31% carried a 1298 C allele. We found that overall 5-year breast cancer survival did not differ significantly across all genotypes (85.3% for 677 CC and 83.8% for 677TT; 83.8% for 1298 AA and 79.1% for 1298 CC). However, carrying the 677T allele was associated with non-significant increased risk of death for subjects with late stage disease (stages III-IV) (HR=1.80, 95% CI: 0.79-4.14 for TT vs. CC, p for trend=0.15), particularly among those who had survived past the second year (HR=2.97, 95% CI: 1.10-7.98, p for trend=0.04). The A1298C genotypes were not significantly associated with risk of death. This study suggests that the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms may affect long-term survival from advanced breast cancer. PMID:15868433

  9. A Case Report of Local Recurrence Developing 24 Years After Mastectomy for Breast Cancer Recurrence From Breast Cancer After 24 Years

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Linlin; Hu, Xudong; Wang, Suzhen; Yong-Sheng, Gao; Yu, Qingxi; Gao, Song; Zhang, Hui; Wei, Yuchun; Zhao, Qian; Yuan, Shuang-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer, in which most patients’ metastases (about 75%) occurred in 5 years after the initial diagnosis, especially in 3 years. Recrudescence exceeding 20 years is rarely reported in the past several decades. Case information: A 68-year-old female patient presented with breast cancer in which 3 focal increased 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the right supraclavicular lymph node, the mediastinum and sternum were found on positron emission tomography and computed tomography. Then we learned that the patient had suffered from breast cancer and been given a right-sided mastectomy 24 years ago. Histopathology from the mediastinum revealed metastatic, moderately differentiated breast adenomatous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: We report this late recurrence of breast cancer 24 years following mastectomy, suggesting that possible recurrence of this disease with a 24-year latency period should be taken into consideration. PMID:27258518

  10. Characteristics and Survival of Breast Cancer Patients with Multiple Synchronous or Metachronous Primary Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Janghee; Kim, Sanghwa; Kim, Jeeye; Ryu, Jegyu; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Newly developed extra-mammary multiple primary cancers (MPCs) are an issue of concern when considering the management of breast cancer survivors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MPCs and to evaluate the implications of MPCs on the survival of breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods A total of 8204 patients who underwent surgery at Severance Hospital between 1990 and 2012 were retrospectively selected. Clinicopathologic features and survival over follow-up periods of ≤5 and >5 years were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results During a mean follow-up of 67.3 months, 962 MPCs in 858 patients (10.5%) were detected. Synchronous and metachronous MPCs were identified in 23.8% and 79.0% of patients, respectively. Thyroid cancer was the most prevalent, and the second most common was gynecologic cancer. At ≤5 years, patients with MPCs were older and demonstrated significantly worse survival despite a higher proportion of patients with lower-stage MPCs. Nevertheless, an increased risk of death in patients with MPCs did not reach statistical significance at >5 years. The causes of death in many of the patients with MPCs were not related to breast cancer. Stage-matched analysis revealed that the implications of MPCs on survival were more evident in the early stages of breast disease. Conclusion Breast cancer patients with MPCs showed worse survival, especially when early-stage disease was identified. Therefore, it is necessary to follow screening programs in breast cancer survivors and to establish guidelines for improving prognosis and quality of life. PMID:26256962

  11. Breast cancer with inguinal node recurrence.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Shikha; Puri, Tarun; Julka, Pramod K

    2015-03-01

    Surgery and irradiation for breast cancer may interfere with conventional pathways of spread, leading to bizarre patterns of dissemination through lymphatics or through hematogenous route. Lymphoscintigraphic studies may help identify nodal involvement. Other possible reasons could be occurrence of primary breast cancer in accessory breast tissue retained in the vulva following involution of milk line. We describe a case of triple negative breast cancer, who developed contralateral breast cancer during treatment. Three years later, she developed isolated inguinal nodal metastases, which responded to local radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the patient relapsed after 2 years and could not be salvaged thereafter. PMID:25455282

  12. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  13. Lung Cancer Detected 5 Years after Resection of Cancer of Unknown Primary in a Mediastinal Lymph Node: A Case Report and Review of Relevant Cases from the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Hidenori; Arakaki, Kazunari; Taira, Naohiro; Furugen, Tomonori; Ichi, Takaharu; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawabata, Tsutomu

    2016-04-20

    We report the rare and interesting case of a primary lung cancer detected 5 years after cancer of unknown primary (CUP) of a mediastinal lymph node (LN) was resected. A 40-year-old male was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary in a mediastinal lymph node after resection of the mediastinal tumor. Five years after resection of the CUP in mediastinal LN, a small, abnormal nodular shadow in left upper lobe was detected by chest CT. This pulmonary tumor was diagnosed as a lung adenocarcinoma. The pathological and immunohistological findings of the resected pulmonary tumor resembled those of the LN resected 5 years before. We speculated that the pulmonary lesion represented primary lung cancer that enlarged later than the metastatic mediastinal LN. This case illustrates the importance of careful observation and long-term follow-up in patients treated for CUP of a thoracic LN. PMID:26328596

  14. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-15

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  15. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response. PMID:27444140

  16. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells become cancerous because of changes (mutations) in DNA. Some DNA mutations are inherited. This means the mutations are ... cancers that run in some families. But most DNA changes related to breast cancer are acquired in ...

  17. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer.org Handling treatment The goal of any breast cancer treatment is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even the best treatments have side effects. ...

  18. Interforaminal implant placement in oral cancer patients: during ablative surgery or delayed? A 5-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mizbah, K; Dings, J P; Kaanders, J H A M; van den Hoogen, F J A; Koole, R; Meijer, G J; Merkx, M A W

    2013-05-01

    In a retrospective study, two mandibular prosthetic rehabilitation strategies supported by implants in oral cancer patients were evaluated: implants placed in the non-resected edentulous symphyseal area during ablative surgery (DAS implants); or at a later stage (postponed (P) implants). Medical files of patients from two head-neck oncology groups from 2000 to 2005 were screened for study inclusion. DAS protocol was used in one group and P protocol in the other. After a 5 year follow-up of 261 edentulous patients with oral cancer in the second group, P implants were placed in 27 patients to support an overdenture. Of the 249 edentulous patients in the first group, 82 patients were given an implant supported overdenture using the DAS implant protocol. Regarding implant loss, no statistically significant differences were seen between the DAS and P implants. In the DAS group, more patients benefited from an implant-supported lower overdenture (39 versus 11%, respectively), and they received their overdenture on average 20.0 months sooner (sd=11.01, p<0.001) after ablative surgery. 17.1% of DAS implants and 4.6% of P implants were never loaded due to tumour and patient related factors including unfavourable implant soft tissue, tumour recurrence near the implant, or radiotherapy induced trismus. PMID:23102901

  19. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in

  20. Paclitaxel and Cyclophosphamide With or Without Trastuzumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  1. Reversing breast cancer stem cell into breast somatic stem cell.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, L; Agustina, D; Lizandi, A O; Kartawinata, M M; Sandra, F

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells have an important role in cell biology, allowing tissues to be renewed by freshly created cells throughout their lifetime. The specific micro-environment of stem cells is called stem cell niche; this environment influences the development of stem cells from quiescence through stages of differentiation. Recent advance researches have improved the understanding of the cellular and molecular components of the micro-environment--or niche--that regulates stem cells. We point out an important trend to the study of niche activity in breast cancers. Breast cancer has long been known to conserve a heterogeneous population of cells. While the majority of cells that make up tumors are destined to differentiate and eventually stop dividing, only minority populations of cells, termed cancer stem cell, possess extensive self renewal capability. These cancer stem cells possess characteristics of both stem cells and cancer cells. Breast cancer stem cells reversal to breast somatic stem cells offer a new therapy, that not only can stop the spread of breast cancer cells, but also can differentiate breast cancer stem cells into normal breast somatic stem cells. These can replace damaged breast tissue. Nevertheless, the complexity of realizing this therapy approach needs further research. PMID:21044008

  2. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Long-Term Safety of Letrozole and Gonadotropin Stimulation for Fertility Preservation in Women With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayeon; Turan, Volkan; Oktay, Kutluk

    2016-04-01

    This prospective non-randomized controlled study showed no increased recurrence risk in breast cancer patients who pursued fertility preservation via controlled ovarian stimulation with letrozole during the 5 years after diagnosis. PMID:26751194

  4. Evolution of Imaging in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Evelyn M; Crowley, James; Hagan, Catherine; Atkinson, Lisa L

    2016-06-01

    The following topics are discussed in this article. A historical review of the evolution of breast cancer imaging from thermography through digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and advanced breast magnetic resonance imaging. Discussion of multiple clinical trials, their strengths, and weaknesses. Historical perspective on the Mammography Quality Standards Act and its relationship with development and implementation of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). PMID:27029017

  5. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  6. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-06

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  8. Vitamin D deficiency in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Saba; Siddiqui, Neelam; Raza, Syed Abbas; Loya, Asif; Muhammad, Aasim

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine serum vitamin D levels in breast cancer patients and to assess its risk association with grade and stage of the tumor. Materials and Methods: Ninety breast cancer patients and equal number of age-matched healthy females were recruited into the study by consecutive sampling over a period of 6 months for this case control study. Serum 25(OH)2D levels and CT bone mineral density was done. Results: The mean age was 46±1.5 years. Age, marital status, menopausal, residential area, parda observing status, and body mass index were similar in distribution among cases and controls. The mean serum vitamin D level in the breast cancer patients was 9.3 ng/ml and in the control group was 14.9 ng/ml (P value <0.001). Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 95.6% (86) breast cancer patients and in 77% (69) of the control group (P value <0.001). Among the breast cancer patients the tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, and receptor status) did not show any significant associations with serum levels of vitamin D. Premenopausal breast cancer females had a mean serum vitamin D level of 10.5 ng/ml and postmenopausal females had a mean value of 13.5 ng/ml (P value 0.015). Low BMD did not correlate significantly with vitamin D deficiency (P value 0.787). Conclusion: Invariably almost all patients with breast cancer were vitamin D deficient. Tumor characteristics did not show any significant associations with serum levels of vitamin D. Bone mineral density did not correlate significantly with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:22629509

  9. Breast cancer and autism.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  10. Noncoding RNAs in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Xipeng; Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhou, Qun

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian transcriptome has recently been revealed to encompass a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the best studied of the short noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), have been extensively characterized with regard to their biogenesis, function and importance in tumorigenesis. Another class of sncRNAs called piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) has also gained attention recently in cancer research owing to their critical role in stem cell regulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of >200 nucleotides in length have recently emerged as key regulators of developmental processes, including mammary gland development. lncRNA dysregulation has also been implicated in the development of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this review, we describe and discuss the roles of sncRNAs (including miRNAs and piRNAs) and lncRNAs in the initiation and progression of breast tumorigenesis, with a focus on outlining the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic and tumor-suppressor ncRNAs. Moreover, the current and potential future applications of ncRNAs to clinical breast cancer research are also discussed, with an emphasis on ncRNA-based diagnosis, prognosis and future therapeutics. PMID:26685283

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  12. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer treatment fact sheet ePublications Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet Print this fact sheet Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet (PDF, 943 KB) Related information ...

  13. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of breast cancer in men Can breast cancer in men be found early? Early detection improves ... be treated successfully. Differences affecting early detection of breast cancers in men and women There are many similarities ...

  14. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  15. Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

  16. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences are jointly funding three Breast Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERCs) to conduct interdisciplinary research on the effects of early environmental exposures on breast development and breast cancer risk. The Breast Cancer Surveillance ...

  17. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21071816

  18. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  19. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  20. What Are the Key Statistics about Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer in men? What are the key statistics about breast cancer in men? The American Cancer ... 30 years. Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer Statistics Center for more key statistics. Last Medical Review: ...

  1. Effect of breast self-examination techniques on the risk of death from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, B J; Miller, A B; Baines, C J; Corey, P N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the effect of breast self-examination (BSE) technique and frequency on the risk of death from breast cancer. DESIGN: Case-control study nested within the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS). SETTING: The Canadian NBSS, a multicentre randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer in Canadian women. SUBJECTS: The case subjects were 163 women who had died from breast cancer and 57 women with distant metastases. Ten control subjects matched by 5-year age group, screening centre, year of enrolment and random allocation group were randomly selected for each case subject. EXPOSURE MEASURES: Self-reported BSE frequency before enrolment in the NBSS, annual self-reports of BSE frequency during the program and annual objective assessments of BSE technique. OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratios (ORs) associated with BSE practice were estimated by conditional multiple logistic regression modelling, which permitted control of covariates. RESULTS: Relative to women who, when assessed 2 years before diagnosis, examined their breasts visually, used their finger pads for palpation and examined with their 3 middle fingers, the OR for death from breast cancer or distant metastatic disease for women who omitted 1, 2 or 3 of these components was 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30 to 3.71, p = 0.003). The OR for women who omitted 1 of the 3 components was 1.82 (95% CI 1.00 to 3.29, p = 0.05), for those who omitted 2 of the 3 components, 2.84 (95% CI 1.44 to 5.59, p = 0.003), and for those who omitted all 3 components, 2.95 (95% CI 1.19 to 7.30, p = 0.02). The results remained unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSION: The results, obtained with the use of prospectively collected data, suggest that the performance of specific BSE components may reduce the risk of death from breast cancer. PMID:9361639

  2. Skp2 is over-expressed in breast cancer and promotes breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwen; Cao, Lulu; Sun, Zijia; Xu, Jing; Tang, Lin; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Jiayan; Yang, Fang; Wang, Yucai; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-05-18

    The F box protein Skp2 is oncogenic. Skp2 and Skp2B, an isoform of Skp2 are overexpressed in breast cancer. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which Skp2B promotes the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Here, we determined the expression and clinical outcomes of Skp2 in breast cancer samples and cell lines using breast cancer database, and investigated the role of Skp2 and Skp2B in breast cancer cell growth, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We obtained Skp2 is significantly overexpressed in breast cancer samples and cell lines, and high Skp2 expression positively correlated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. Both Skp2 and Skp2B could promote breast cancer cell proliferation, inhibit cell apoptosis, change the cell cycle distribution and induce the increased S phase cells and therefore induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cells. Moreover, the 2 isoforms could both suppress PIG3 expression via independent pathways in the breast cancer cells. Skp2 suppressed p53 and inhibited PIG3-induced apoptosis, while Skp2B attenuated the function of PIG3 by inhibiting PHB. Our results indicate that Skp2 and Skp2B induce breast cancer cell development and progression, making Skp2 and Skp2B potential molecular targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27111245

  3. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Kaufman, Bella; Meirow, Dror

    2008-10-01

    The frequency of pregnancy-associated breast cancer, a rare but serious occurrence, may increase in light of the secular trends for lower parity in general and for older age at first full-term delivery in particular Data on PABC in individuals who are at high risk for breast cancer are limited. A computerized search of Pubmed showed that the reported incidence of PABC is 1:3000 pregnancies; it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and its prognosis is inferior compared to non-PABC Carriers of mutations in the genes BRCA1/2 may present a specific high risk group for PABC especially at younger ages. Women treated with fertility treatment drugs may be at a higher risk for PABC as well. PMID:19009954

  4. MK2206 in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, or Stage III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-16

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  5. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. [Treatment of disseminated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Huovinen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective drugs have in recent years been introduced for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer, it is still an incurable illness. Many patients live a fairly normal life with their illness for a long time, and some of them are able to continue working in spite of the therapies. Factors considered in tailoring the treatment include tumor subtype, extent of the disease, symptoms, previous treatments and the achieved treatment outcome, and adverse effects of the treatments. PMID:26245064

  7. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  8. [Systemic therapy of breast cancer: practice guideline].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsolt; Boér, Katalin; Dank, Magdolna; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Kocsis, Judit; Kövér, Erika; Pajkos, Gábor; Pikó, Béla; Rubovszky, Gábor; Eckhardt, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the practice guideline of systemic treatment of breast cancer and recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference. It reflects the recent international guidelines (ESMO, NCCN, ABC2, St Gallen's) irrespectively of the current financial opportunities. Here we follow the early - locally advanced - locally relapsed - metastatic breast cancer line for didactic considerations and we discuss the different subgroups of breast cancer based on hormone receptor and HER2 receptor status. Diagnosis and treatment options of rare clinical entities are summarised at the end of the paper. PMID:27579723

  9. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L; Miller, D R; Helmrich, S P; Kaufman, D W; Schottenfeld, D; Stolley, P D; Shapiro, S

    1985-09-01

    The hypothesis has been raised that coffee consumption may increase the incidence of breast cancer, based on the report that fibrocystic breast disease, a risk factor for breast cancer, regresses after abstention from coffee and other methylxanthines. The relation between recent coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer was evaluated in a case-control study, based on interviews conducted 1975-1982 at several mainly eastern US teaching and community hospitals. The responses of 2,651 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with those of 1,501 controls with nonmalignant conditions and 385 controls with cancers at other sites. The relative risk estimates for levels of coffee drinking up to seven or more cups daily, relative to none, approximated 1.0 with narrow 95% confidence intervals. After allowance for confounding, the relative risk estimate for drinking at least five cups a day was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) using the noncancer controls and 1.1 (0.7-1.6) using the cancer controls. Coffee consumption was not associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer among women with a history of fibrocystic breast disease, nor were tea or decaffeinated coffee associated with an increase in the risk of breast cancer. The results suggest that the recent consumption of coffee does not influence the incidence of breast cancer. PMID:4025289

  10. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-31

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  11. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials. PMID:25324576

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  13. Intractable pain with breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, C. P.; Evans, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    This study examines retrospectively the cause, clinical features, natural history and results of treatment of intractable pain associated with breast cancer in 210 patients. The three chief types of pain were that due to skeletal metastases or brachial plexus neuropathy and pain of psychogenic origin. Onset at the time of cancer diagnosis characterized the psychogenic pain, whereas pain from metastases first occurred after a median latency of 3.7 years. Treatment was custom-tailored to the specific patient and pain problem, with several factors taken into account. The onset of intractable pain due to metastatic disease indicated a short survival (median, 9 months). PMID:6277445

  14. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-15

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  15. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend  = 0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  16. Korean Risk Assessment Model for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Methods Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. Results The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). The observed incidence of breast cancer in the two cohorts was similar to the expected incidence from the KoBCRAT (KMCC, p = 0.880; NCC, p = 0.878). The AUC using the KoBCRAT was 0.61 for the KMCC and 0.89 for the NCC cohort. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the KoBCRAT is a better tool for predicting the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, especially urban women. PMID:24204664

  17. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    PubMed

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand. PMID:26480621

  18. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  19. Hypofractionation with no boost after breast conservation in early-stage breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Arcadipane, Francesca; Franco, Pierfrancesco; De Colle, Chiara; Rondi, Nadia; Di Muzio, Jacopo; Pelle, Emanuela; Martini, Stefania; Ala, Ada; Airoldi, Mario; Donadio, Michela; De Sanctis, Corrado; Castellano, Isabella; Ragona, Riccardo; Ricardi, Umberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate local control, survival and toxicity profile of a consecutive cohort of early-stage breast cancer (EBC) patients treated with adjuvant hypofractionated radiotherapy (HF) with no boost delivered to the lumpectomy cavity, after breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Between 2005 and 2015, a total of 493 women affected with EBC were treated with HF (46 Gy/20 fractions or 40.05 Gy/15 fractions) to the whole breast without boost to tumor bed, because of age and/or favorable tumor characteristics. The primary endpoint was 5-year actuarial local control (LC); secondary endpoints included survival, toxicity profile and cosmesis. Median follow-up was 57 months (range 6-124). Actuarial 5-year overall, cancer-specific, disease-free survival and LC were 96.3, 98.9, 97.8 and 98.6 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, tumor stage (T1 vs. T2) and hormonal status (positive vs. negative estrogen receptors) were significantly correlated with LC. Only 2 % of patients experienced ≥G3 acute skin toxicity. Late toxicity was mild with only 1 case of G3 fibrosis. Most of the patients (95 %) had good-excellent cosmetic results. HF to the whole breast with no boost delivered to the tumor bed is a safe and effective option for a population of low-risk breast cancer patients after BCS, with excellent 5-year LC, mild toxicity profile and promising cosmetic outcome. A subgroup of patients with larger tumors and/or with no estrogen receptor expression may potentially benefit from treatment intensification with a boost dose to the lumpectomy cavity. PMID:27573380

  20. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  1. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  2. Vitamin D receptor genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and breast cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Perna, Laura; Butterbach, Katja; Haug, Ulrike; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have suggested that the anticancerogenous effects of vitamin D might be modulated by genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. The association of VDR polymorphisms with breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality after a breast cancer diagnosis remains, however, largely unexplored. We assessed the association of genetic variants in VDR (rs731236, rs1989969, rs2228570, and 11568820) with breast cancer survival in a sample of 498 patients with breast cancer with a mean age at diagnosis of 61 years from Saarland, Germany, who were followed for up to 5 years with respect to total and breast cancer-specific mortality (56 and 48 events, respectively). Adjusted HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox regression models. We found that patients with breast cancer homozygous for the rare allele of rs731236 (15% of the women in our cohort) had a tendency toward an increased risk for breast cancer-specific mortality. The HR (95% CI) adjusted for age and breast cancer stage was 2.8 (1.1-7.2) for breast cancer-specific mortality and 2.1 (0.9-4.9) for total mortality. Additional adjustment for family history of breast cancer, radical mastectomy, and body mass index only marginally changed the estimates. No association was found for rs1989969, rs2228570, and rs11568820. Our analysis suggests that VDR polymorphism rs731236 might be associated with breast cancer-specific mortality, and if our findings are confirmed in future bigger studies rs731236 might deserve consideration as a prognostic factor in clinical care of patients with breast cancer. PMID:23300018

  3. Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases in Their Sentinel Lymph Nodes May Not Need Axillary Dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report ... Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home Cancer Types Breast Cancer Research Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast ...

  4. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has come up with a technique to decrease exposure to harmful x-rays in mammographies or breast radiography. Usually, physicians make more than one exposure to arrive at an x-ray film of acceptable density. Now the same solar cells used to convert sunlight into electricity on space satellites can make a single exposure sufficient. When solar cell sensor is positioned directly beneath x-ray film, it can determine exactly when film has received sufficient radiation and has been exposed to optimum density. At that point associated electronic equipment sends signal to cut off x-ray source. Reduction of mammography to single exposures not only reduced x-ray hazard significantly, but doubled the number of patient examinations handled by one machine. The NASA laboratory used this control system at the Huntington Memorial Hospital with overwhelming success.

  5. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Kaiyumars B; Kaur, Kanchan; Rodrigues, Gabriel S; Kulkarni, Dhananjay M; Singhal, Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease. PMID:18558006

  6. Overcoming radiation resistance in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Wendy A; Debeb, Bisrat G; Xu, Wei; Buchholz, Thomas A

    2010-06-01

    The clinical-pathological features of inflammatory breast cancer include enrichment of factors that have been previously associated with radioresistant disease, including negative hormone receptor status and a phenotype enriched for relatively radioresistant breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. The risks and benefits of accelerated postmastectomy radiation treatment regimens in the multimodality management of inflammatory breast cancer were reviewed at the first International Inflammatory Breast Cancer Conference at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The biological basis for radiation resistance and strategies to radiosensitize these tumors were also presented. The prevalent basal phenotype of inflammatory breast cancer makes it an ideal clinical model to examine stem cell hypotheses, which the authors believe can help guide future trials to continue making incremental progress against this aggressive disease. PMID:20503417

  7. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  8. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  9. Breast Cancer Risk Factors among Ugandan Women at a Tertiary Hospital: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Galukande, Moses; Wabinga, Henry; Mirembe, Florence; Karamagi, Charles; Asea, Alexzander

    2016-01-01

    Background Although East Africa, like other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, has a lower incidence of breast cancer than high-income countries, the disease rate is rising steeply in Africa; it has nearly tripled in the past few decades in Uganda. There is a paucity of studies that have examined the relation between reproductive factors and breast cancer risk factors in Ugandan women. Objective To determine breast cancer risk factors among indigenous Ugandan women. Methods This is a hospital-based unmatched case-control study. Interviews were conducted between 2011 and 2012 using structured questionnaires. Patients with histologyproven breast cancer were recruited over a 2-year period. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 350 women were recruited; 113 were cases and 237 were controls. The mean age was 47.5 years (SD 14) for the cases and 45.5 years (SD 14.1) for the controls. The odds of breast cancer risk seemed lower for those who breastfed (adjusted OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18). There was no significance for early age at first full-term birth (adjusted OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 0.97, 3.96; p = 0.061), and urban residence carried no increased odds of breast cancer either (p = 0.201). Conclusion Breastfeeding seems to be associated with reduced odds of breast cancer. PMID:27104645

  10. Mammographic breast density: effect on imaging and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Renee W; Helvie, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    Mammographic breast density has been studied for more than 30 years. Greater breast density not only is related to decreased sensitivity of mammograms because of a masking effect but also is a major independent risk factor for breast cancer. This article defines breast density and reviews literature on quantification of mammographic density that is key to future clinical and research protocols. Important influences on breast density are addressed, including age, menopausal status, exogenous hormones, and genetics of density. Young women with dense breasts benefit from digital mammographic technique. The potential use of supplemental MRI and ultrasound screening techniques in high-risk women and women with dense breasts is explored, as are potential risk reduction strategies. PMID:20971840

  11. 0927GCC: Entinostat and Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Women With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  12. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  13. Practices That Reduce the Latina Survival Disparity After Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, J. Emilio; Ang, Alfonzo; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Latina breast cancer patients are 20 percent more likely to die within 5 years after diagnosis compared with white women, even though they have a lower incidence of breast cancer, lower general mortality rates, and some better health behaviors. Existing data only examine disparities in the utilization of breast cancer care; this research expands the study question to which utilization factors drive the shorter survival in Latina women compared with white women. Methods This longitudinal linked Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare cohort study examined early stage breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1992 and 2000 and followed for 5–11 years after diagnosis (N=44,999). Modifiable utilization factors included consistent visits to primary care providers and to specialists after diagnosis, consistent post-diagnosis mammograms, and receipt of initial care consistent with current standards of care. Results Of the four utilization factors potentially driving this disparity, a lack of consistent post-diagnosis mammograms was the strongest driver of the Latina breast cancer survival disparity. Consistent mammograms attenuated the hazard of death from 23% [hazard ratio, HR, (95% confidence interval, 95%CI)=1.23 (1.1,1.4)] to a nonsignificant 12% [HR (95%CI)=1.12 (0.7,1.3)] and reduced the excess hazard of death in Latina women by 55%. Effect modification identified that visits to primary care providers have a greater protective impact on the survival of Latina compared to white women [HR (95%CI)=0.9 (0.9,0.9)]. Conclusions We provide evidence that undetected new or recurrent breast cancers due to less consistent post-diagnosis mammograms contribute substantially to the long-observed Latina survival disadvantage. Interventions involving primary care providers may be especially beneficial to this population. PMID:24106867

  14. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-05

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  16. Breast Cancer in the Personal Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Decewicz, David J.; Shriver, Craig D.; Ellsworth, Darrell L.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a complex etiology that develops from different cellular lineages, progresses along multiple molecular pathways, and demonstrates wide variability in response to treatment. The “standard of care” approach to breast cancer treatment in which all patients receive similar interventions is rapidly being replaced by personalized medicine, based on molecular characteristics of individual patients. Both inherited and somatic genomic variation is providing useful information for customizing treatment regimens for breast cancer to maximize efficacy and minimize adverse side effects. In this article, we review (1) hereditary breast cancer and current use of inherited susceptibility genes in patient management; (2) the potential of newly-identified breast cancer-susceptibility variants for improving risk assessment; (3) advantages and disadvantages of direct-to-consumer testing; (4) molecular characterization of sporadic breast cancer through immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling and opportunities for personalized prognostics; and (5) pharmacogenomic influences on the effectiveness of current breast cancer treatments. Molecular genomics has the potential to revolutionize clinical practice and improve the lives of women with breast cancer. PMID:21037853

  17. THE LONG ISLAND BREAST CANCER STUDY (LIBCSP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NIEHS and the NCI are collaborating on the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP), which is designed to conduct epidemiologic research on the role of environmental factors in the etiology of breast cancer in women who live in Nassau and Suffolk counties, New York. T...

  18. Industrialization, electromagnetic fields, and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Kheifets, L I; Matkin, C C

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between the rates of breast cancer in industrialized and less-industrialized regions has led to many hypotheses, including the theory that exposure to light-at-night and/or electromagnetic fields (EMF) may suppress melatonin and that reduced melatonin may increase the risk of breast cancer. In this comprehensive review we consider strengths and weaknesses of more than 35 residential and occupational epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between EMF and breast cancer. Although most of the epidemiologic data do not provide strong support for an association between EMF and breast cancer, because of the limited statistical power as well as the possibility of misclassification and bias present in much of the existing data, it is not possible to rule out a relationship between EMF and breast cancer. We make several specific recommendations for future studies carefully designed to test the melatonin-breast cancer and EMF-breast cancer hypotheses. Future study designs should have sufficient statistical power to detect small to moderate associations; include comprehensive exposure assessments that estimate residential and occupational exposures, including shift work; focus on a relevant time period; control for known breast cancer risks; and pay careful attention to menopausal and estrogen receptor status. PMID:10229714

  19. The Changing World of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Christiane K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  20. Metastatic male ductal breast cancer mimicking obstructing primary colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-03-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  1. Metastatic Male Ductal Breast Cancer Mimicking Obstructing Primary Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  2. Claudin 1 in Breast Cancer: New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bowen; Moodie, Amanda; Blanchard, Anne A. A.; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Claudin 1 is a small transmembrane protein responsible for maintaining the barrier function that exists between epithelial cells. A tight junction protein that regulates the paracellular transport of small ions across adjacent cells, claudin 1 maintains cellular polarity and plays a major role in cell-cell communication and epithelial cell homeostasis. Long considered to be a putative tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, new studies suggest a role much more complex. While most invasive breast cancers exhibit a down regulation or absence of claudin 1, some aggressive subtypes that exhibit high claudin 1 levels have now been described. Furthermore, a causal role for claudin 1 in breast cancer progression has recently been demonstrated in some breast cancer cell lines. In this review we highlight new insights into the role of claudin 1 in breast cancer, including its involvement in collective migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:26633531

  3. Claudin 1 in Breast Cancer: New Insights.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bowen; Moodie, Amanda; Blanchard, Anne A A; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Claudin 1 is a small transmembrane protein responsible for maintaining the barrier function that exists between epithelial cells. A tight junction protein that regulates the paracellular transport of small ions across adjacent cells, claudin 1 maintains cellular polarity and plays a major role in cell-cell communication and epithelial cell homeostasis. Long considered to be a putative tumor suppressor in human breast cancer, new studies suggest a role much more complex. While most invasive breast cancers exhibit a down regulation or absence of claudin 1, some aggressive subtypes that exhibit high claudin 1 levels have now been described. Furthermore, a causal role for claudin 1 in breast cancer progression has recently been demonstrated in some breast cancer cell lines. In this review we highlight new insights into the role of claudin 1 in breast cancer, including its involvement in collective migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). PMID:26633531

  4. Breast cancer detection using time reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.

  5. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  7. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  8. 70 Gy Versus 80 Gy in Localized Prostate Cancer: 5-Year Results of GETUG 06 Randomized Trial;Prostate cancer; Dose escalation; Conformal radiotherapy; Randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Beckendorf, Veronique; Guerif, Stephane; Le Prise, Elisabeth; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Bougnoux, Agnes; Chauvet, Bruno; Salem, Naji; Chapet, Olivier; Bourdain, Sylvain; Bachaud, Jean-Marc; Maingon, Philippe; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Malissard, Luc; Simon, Jean-Marc; Pommier, Pascal; Hay, Men; Dubray, Bernard; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Bey, Pierre

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a randomized trial comparing 70 and 80 Gy radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 306 patients with localized prostate cancer were randomized. No androgen deprivation was allowed. The primary endpoint was biochemical relapse according to the modified 1997-American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and Phoenix definitions. Toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 1991 criteria and the late effects on normal tissues-subjective, objective, management, analytic scales (LENT-SOMA) scales. The patients' quality of life was scored using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30-item cancer-specific and 25-item prostate-specific modules. Results: The median follow-up was 61 months. According to the 1997-American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition, the 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 39% and 28% in the 70- and 80-Gy arms, respectively (p = .036). Using the Phoenix definition, the 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 32% and 23.5%, respectively (p = .09). The subgroup analysis showed a better biochemical outcome for the higher dose group with an initial prostate-specific antigen level >15 ng/mL. At the last follow-up date, 26 patients had died, 10 of their disease and none of toxicity, with no differences between the two arms. According to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, the Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity rate was 14% and 19.5% for the 70- and 80-Gy arms (p = .22), respectively. The Grade 2 or greater urinary toxicity was 10% at 70 Gy and 17.5% at 80 Gy (p = .046). Similar results were observed using the LENT-SOMA scale. Bladder toxicity was more frequent at 80 Gy than at 70 Gy (p = .039). The quality-of-life questionnaire results before and 5 years after treatment were available for 103 patients with no differences found between the 70- and 80-Gy arms. Conclusion: High-dose radiotherapy provided a

  9. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-28

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  10. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  11. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. [Infertility, fertility treatment and breast cancer risk].

    PubMed

    Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in Israel and throughout the world. It is the leading cause of death from cancer in women. The cause of breast cancer is unknown; however gynecological history and hormonal factors have a major impact on the risk to develop breast cancer. Infertility affects 15-20% of couples in developed countries and most of them will need fertility treatment. The variety of fertility treatments and their use has been widespread during the last 50 years and especially since the introduction of in vitro fertilization. During fertility treatment, and depending on the type of treatment, there is ovarian hyperstimulation with maturation of several follicles and higher than normal estradiol levels. This article reviews the leading studies that evaluated the possible link between fertility treatment and the development of breast cancer. Most studies showed no association between fertility drugs and breast cancer. Whereas other researchers demonstrated a possible link between some fertility drugs and increased risk for breast cancer in certain subgroups. Therefore, larger studies with longer follow-up periods and better control for all possible confounding factors are needed in order to confirm the safety of fertility treatments in the long run. The combination of infertility and fertility treatment might cause harm, such as an increased risk for breast cancer Therefore, one has to consider carefully, together with the woman, the need for fertility treatment and give the lowest possible dosage for the shortest duration in order to minimize the risk. PMID:24450034

  13. Should We Offer Medication to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk?: Grand Rounds Discussion From Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Burns, Risa B; Schonberg, Mara A; Tung, Nadine M; Libman, Howard

    2016-08-01

    In November 2013, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued a guideline on medications for risk reduction of primary breast cancer in women. Although mammography can detect early cases, it cannot prevent development of breast cancer. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are selective estrogen receptor modulators that have been shown to reduce the risk for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for this indication. However, neither medication reduces the risk for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer or all-cause mortality. The Task Force concluded that postmenopausal women with an estimated 5-year risk for breast cancer of 3% or greater will probably have more net benefit than harm and recommends that clinicians engage in shared, informed decision making about these medications. The American Society of Clinical Oncology issued a practice guideline on use of pharmacologic interventions for breast cancer in 2013. It recommends that women aged 35 years or older at increased risk, defined as a 5-year absolute risk for breast cancer of 1.66% or greater, discuss breast cancer prevention medications with their primary care practitioner. The Society includes the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in addition to tamoxifen and raloxifene as a breast cancer prevention medication, although exemestane is not FDA approved for this indication. Here, an oncologist and an internist discuss how they would balance these recommendations and what they would suggest for an individual patient. PMID:27479221

  14. Characterization of Korean Male Breast Cancer Using an Online Nationwide Breast-Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Young; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Park, Hyung Seok; Lim, Seung Taek; Jung, Yongsik; Ko, Byung Kyun; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and the survival rate in male breast cancer (MBC) patients in Korea over a 31-year period. Additionally, we analyzed the overall survival (OS) rate of a group of MBC matched to females with breast cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 400 Korean patients who were treated for MBC from 1978 to 2009. Patient demographics and clinical information were routinely documented throughout the study period. Survival and prognostic factors were evaluated. Each MBC patient was matched with 5 female breast cancer (FBC) patients based on 7 characteristics and we compared the OS rates between the 2 groups. For MBC cases, the median follow-up was 72 months and the 5-year OS rate was 85.9%. In univariate analyses, the prognostic factors influencing OS were age (more than 60 years, P <0.001), tumor size (>2 cm, P = 0.007), and having a negative progesterone receptor (PR) status (P = 0.042). Only the age (P = 0.028) and tumor size (P = 0.024) were significant prognostic factors for OS in multivariate analysis. After matching, we had 260 male patients matched to 1300 female patients for analysis. Compared with cases among females, the rate of mastectomy was higher among MBC cases and tumors, which were almost invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), were more likely to be located in the central part of the breast. For MBC cases, the percentage of adjuvant radiation therapy was low compared with female cases. The primary hormone therapy agent used was tamoxifen. The 5-year OS rates were similar in MBC compared with FBC (91.0% vs. 92.6%, P = 0.300). We found that only the age (more than 60 years) and tumor size were independent prognostic factors of survival in MBC. The prognosis for MBC is similar to that for FBC given similar stage and hormone-receptor status. PMID:27100414

  15. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y.; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. Hypothesis: In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Design: This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Setting and Participants: Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Main Outcome Measure: Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Results: Maternal o,p′-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5–9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. Conclusions: This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk. PMID:26079774

  16. Estrogen sulfotransferases in breast and endometrial cancers.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase is significantly more active in the normal breast cell (e.g., Human 7) than in the cancer cell (e.g., MCF-7). The data suggest that in breast cancer sulfoconjugated activity is carried out by another enzyme, the SULT1A, which acts at high concentration of the substrates. In breast cancer cells sulfotransferase (SULT) activity can be stimulated by various progestins: medrogestone, promegestone, and nomegestrol acetate, as well as by tibolone and its metabolites. SULT activities can also be controlled by other substances including phytoestrogens, celecoxib, flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, resveratrol), and isoflavones. SULT expression was localized in breast cancer cells, which can be stimulated by promegestone and correlated with the increase of the enzyme activity. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), which acts at nanomolar concentration of estradiol, can inactivate most of this hormone present in the normal breast; however, in the breast cancer cells, the sulfotransferase denoted as SULT1A1 is mainly present, and this acts at micromolar concentrations of E(2). A correlation was postulated among breast cancer cell proliferation, the effect of various progestins, and sulfotransferase stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that factors involved in the stimulation of the estrogen sulfotransferases could provide new possibilities for the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast and endometrial cancers. PMID:19250196

  17. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:27270661

  18. Antipsychotic treatment in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Tahir; Clevenger, Charles V; Kaklamani, Virginia; Lauriello, John; Campbell, Austin; Malwitz, Kari; Kirkland, Robert S

    2014-06-01

    Special consideration is required when prescribing antipsychotic drugs for patients with an existing diagnosis of breast cancer. The package inserts of all approved antipsychotics contain precautions regarding their administration in this patient group. These drugs are well known to elevate serum prolactin levels to varying degrees. Overexpression of the prolactin receptor is seen in more than 95% of human breast cancers. Many genes that are activated by the prolactin receptor are associated with tumorigenesis and cancer cell proliferation. The authors discuss the pathophysiology, clinical implications, and pertinent preclinical data and make specific recommendations regarding the use of antipsychotics in patients with breast cancer. PMID:24880509

  19. Genomic similarities between breast and ovarian cancers

    Cancer.gov

    One subtype of breast cancer shares many genetic features with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a cancer that is very difficult to treat, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The findings suggest that the two cancers a

  20. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-24

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  1. The history of breast cancer advocacy.

    PubMed

    Braun, Susan

    2003-01-01

    There have been four key steps in the advent of breast cancer advocacy: priming the market, engaging consumers, establishing political advocacy, and taking the advocacy mainstream. Breast cancer was surrounded by secrecy until the 1980s, when brave individuals such as former First Ladies Betty Ford and Nancy Reagan, and founder of the Susan G. Komen Foundation, Nancy Brinker (Susan Komen's sister), began speaking publicly about the personal impact of the disease, which increased awareness of breast cancer and made it more acceptable to talk about it openly. At the same time, statistics about breast cancer were presented in new ways that the public could understand. Public health advocates played a key role in the second step, engaging consumers, when they established guidelines in the 1980s that encouraged women to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs) and have screening mammograms and clinical breast examinations (CBEs). Other events that helped engage consumers were increased media coverage of breast cancer issues, the founding of the Komen Race for the Cure in 1983, and the establishment of other programs that both educated the public and raised funds. Funds from these efforts enabled advocates to hold educational forums and produce educational materials in different media and tailored to different audiences and to become active in the funding of research. The third step, political action, became possible when breast cancer advocates joined together in the 1980s and 1990s to work toward legislative, regulatory, and funding changes, such as passage of the Mammography Quality Standards Act and increased funding for the National Cancer Institute. These efforts contributed to a more than quadrupling of federal funding for breast cancer research in the 1990s. Going mainstream, the final step in the advocacy process, entailed establishing a solid base of support to ensure that the message about breast cancer stays strong and fresh. This has been achieved by engaging

  2. Impact of breast cancer on anti-mullerian hormone levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Su, H I; Flatt, S W; Natarajan, L; DeMichele, A; Steiner, A Z

    2013-01-01

    Young women with breast cancer face treatments that impair ovarian function, but it is not known if malignancy itself impacts ovarian reserve. As more breast cancer patients consider future fertility, it is important to determine if ovarian reserve is impacted by cancer, prior to any therapeutic intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted comparing if ovarian reserve, as measured by anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and inhibin B (inhB), differed between 108 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 99 healthy women without breast cancer. Breast cancer participants were ages 28-44 and were recruited from two clinical breast programs. Healthy women ages 30-44 without a history of infertility were recruited from gynecology clinics and the community. The median age (interquartile range) was 40.2(5.5) years for breast cancer participants and 33.0(4.6) years for healthy controls. The unadjusted geometric mean AMH levels (SD) for breast cancer participants and controls were 0.66(3.6) and 1.1(2.9) ng/mL, respectively. Adjusting for age, body mass index, gravidity, race, menstrual pattern, and smoking, mean AMH levels were not significantly different between breast cancer participants and healthy controls (0.85 vs. 0.76 ng/mL, p = 0.60). FSH and inhB levels did not differ by breast cancer status. In exploratory analysis, the association between AMH and breast cancer status differed by age (p-interaction = 0.02). AMH may be lower with breast cancer status in women older than 37. In younger women, AMH levels did not differ significantly by breast cancer status. Among the youngest of breast cancer patients, ovarian reserve as measured by AMH, FSH, and inhibin B did not differ significantly from healthy women of similar age. In older breast cancer patients, ovarian reserve may be adversely impacted by cancer status. These findings support the potential success and need for fertility preservation strategies prior to institution of

  3. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities

  4. Analysis of gene expression of secreted factors associated with breast cancer metastases in breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Elana J.; Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, having multiple subtypes with different malignant phenotypes. The triple-negative breast cancer, or basal breast cancer, is highly aggressive, metastatic, and difficult to treat. Previously, we identified that key molecules (IL6, CSF2, CCL5, VEGFA, and VEGFC) secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells in basal breast cancer can promote metastasis. It remains to assess whether these molecules function similarly in other subtypes of breast cancer. Here, we characterize the relative gene expression of the five secreted molecules and their associated receptors (GP130, GMRA, GMRB, CCR5, VEGFR2, NRP1, VEGFR3, NRP2) in the basal, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive, luminal A, and luminal B subtypes using high throughput data from tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC). IL6 and CCL5 gene expression are basal breast cancer specific, whereas high gene expression of GP130 was observed in luminal A/B. VEGFA/C and CSF2 mRNA are overexpressed in HER2 positive breast cancer, with VEGFA and CSF2 also overexpressed in basal breast cancer. Further study of the specific protein function of these factors within their associated cancer subtypes may yield personalized biomarkers and treatment modalities. PMID:26173622

  5. Analysis of gene expression of secreted factors associated with breast cancer metastases in breast cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Elana J; Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B; Popel, Aleksander S

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, having multiple subtypes with different malignant phenotypes. The triple-negative breast cancer, or basal breast cancer, is highly aggressive, metastatic, and difficult to treat. Previously, we identified that key molecules (IL6, CSF2, CCL5, VEGFA, and VEGFC) secreted by tumor cells and stromal cells in basal breast cancer can promote metastasis. It remains to assess whether these molecules function similarly in other subtypes of breast cancer. Here, we characterize the relative gene expression of the five secreted molecules and their associated receptors (GP130, GMRA, GMRB, CCR5, VEGFR2, NRP1, VEGFR3, NRP2) in the basal, HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive, luminal A, and luminal B subtypes using high throughput data from tumor samples in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC). IL6 and CCL5 gene expression are basal breast cancer specific, whereas high gene expression of GP130 was observed in luminal A/B. VEGFA/C and CSF2 mRNA are overexpressed in HER2 positive breast cancer, with VEGFA and CSF2 also overexpressed in basal breast cancer. Further study of the specific protein function of these factors within their associated cancer subtypes may yield personalized biomarkers and treatment modalities. PMID:26173622

  6. Molecular basis of invasion in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McSherry, E A; Donatello, S; Hopkins, A M; McDonnell, S

    2007-12-01

    Cancer cell invasion involves the breaching of tissue barriers by cancer cells, and the subsequent infiltration of these cells throughout the surrounding tissue. In breast cancer, invasion at the molecular level requires the coordinated efforts of numerous processes within the cancer cell and its surroundings. Accumulation of genetic changes which impair the regulation of cell growth and death is generally accepted to initiate cancer. Loss of cell-adhesion molecules, resulting in a loss in tissue architecture, in parallel with matrix remodelling may also confer a motile or migratory advantage to breast cancer cells. The tumour microenvironment may further influence the behaviour of these cancer cells through expression of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases promoting chemotaxis and invasion. This review will attempt to summarise recent work on these fundamental processes influencing or facilitating breast cancer cell invasion. (Part of a Multi-author Review). PMID:17957337

  7. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  8. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  9. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  10. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  11. Eribulin mesylate in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Verdaguer, Helena; Morilla, Idoia; Urruticoechea, Ander

    2013-11-01

    Eribulin mesylate is a synthetic analog of halichondrin B (a polyether macrolide isolated from a marine sponge). It is a nontaxane microtubule dynamics inhibitor with a novel mechanism of action. It is the first drug that has demonstrated an improvement in overall survival as a single agent compared with the physician's choice of currently available treatments in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. It has shown a good manageable tolerability profile. This drug has been approved by the US FDA and by the EMA for patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer who have received at least two chemotherapeutic regimens for advanced/metastatic disease. Prior therapy should have included an anthracycline and a taxane in either the adjuvant or metastatic setting unless patients were not suitable for these treatments. The aim of this article is to describe the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and the most relevant clinical trials in the development of this drug. PMID:24161305

  12. Non-practice of breast self examination and marital status are associated with delayed presentation with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Othman, Zabedah; Cheong, Kee Chee; Hock, Lim Kuang; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Delay in seeking treatment for breast cancer is a barrier to the early diagnosis and management of the disease, resulting in a poorer prognosis. We here estimated the prevalence of delayed presentation for breast cancer and identified possible influential sociodemographic factors in a cross-sectional study of 250 patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at the Radiotherapy and Oncology Clinic in Kuala Lumpur Hospital. Data were collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire and from medical records. We examined associations between delayed presentation (presenting to a physician more than 3 months after self-discovery of a symptom) and sociodemographic characteristics, practice of breast self examination (BSE), history of benign breast disease, family history of breast cancer and type of symptom, symptom disclosure and advice from others to seek treatment using multiple logistic regression. Time from self-discovery of symptom to presentation ranged from tghe same day to 5 years. Prevalence of delayed presentation was 33.1% (95%CI: 27.4, 39.3). A significantly higher proportion of delayers presented with late stages (stage III/IV) (58.3% vs. 26.9%, p<0.001). Divorced or widowed women (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.11, 4.47) had a higher risk of delayed presentation than married women and women who never performed breast self examination were more likely to delay presentation compared to those who regularly performed BSE (OR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.33, 5.64). Our findings indicate that delayed presentation for breast cancer symptoms among Malaysian women is high and that marital status and breast self examination play major roles in treatment-seeking for breast cancer symptoms. PMID:23621202

  13. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  14. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D P; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Dunning, Alison M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  15. Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  16. Modern Outcomes of Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rehman, Sana; Reddy, Chandana A.; Tendulkar, Rahul D.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To report contemporary outcomes for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) patients treated in the modern era of trastuzumab and taxane-based chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 104 patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated between January 2000 and December 2009. Patients who received chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy were considered to have completed the intended therapy. Kaplan-Meier curves estimated locoregional control (LRC), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival. Results: The median follow-up time was 34 months; 57 (55%) patients were estrogen receptor progesterone receptor (ER/PR) negative, 34 (33%) patients were human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (her2)/neu amplified, and 78 (75%) received definitive postoperative radiation. Seventy-five (72%) patients completed all of the intended therapy, of whom 67 (89%) received a taxane and 18/28 (64%) of her2/neu-amplified patients received trastuzumab. For the entire cohort, the 5-year rates of overall survival, LRC, and DMFS were 46%, 83%, and 44%, respectively. The ER/PR-negative patients had a 5-year DMFS of 39% vs. 52% for ER/PR-positive patients (p = 0.03). The 5-year DMFS for patients who achieved a pathologic complete response compared with those who did not was 83% vs. 44% (p < 0.01). Those patients who received >60.4 Gy (n = 15) to the chest wall had a 5-year LRC rate of 100% vs. 83% for those who received 45 to 60.4 Gy (n = 49; p = 0.048). On univariate analysis, significant predictors of DMFS included achieving a complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-24.4; p = 0.02) and pathologically negative lymph nodes (HR = 4.1; 95% CI = 1.4-11.9; p < 0.01), but no factor was significant on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: For IBC patients, the rate of distant metastases is still high despite excellent local control, particularly for patients who received >60.4 Gy

  17. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa V.; Labbok, Miriam H.; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common subtype, exhibited risk factors typically reported for breast cancer in previous studies, including inverse associations for increased parity and younger age at first full-term pregnancy. Basal-like cases exhibited several associations that were opposite to those observed for luminal A, including increased risk for parity and younger age at first term full-term pregnancy. Longer duration breastfeeding, increasing number of children breastfed, and increasing number of months breastfeeding per child were each associated with reduced risk of basal-like breast cancer, but not luminal A. Women with multiple live births who did not breastfeed and women who used medications to suppress lactation were at increased risk of basal-like, but not luminal A, breast cancer. Elevated waist-hip ratio was associated with increased risk of luminal A in postmenopausal women, and increased risk of basal-like breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. The prevalence of basal-like breast cancer was highest among premenopausal African-American women, who also showed the highest prevalence of basal-like risk factors. Among younger African-American women, we estimate that up to 68% of basal-like breast cancer could be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and reducing abdominal adiposity. PMID:17578664

  18. Cell Fate Decisions During Breast Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Kayla; Wronski, Ania; Skibinski, Adam; Phillips, Sarah; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    During the formation of breast cancer, many genes become altered as cells evolve progressively from normal to a pre-malignant to a malignant state of growth. How mutations in genes lead to specific subtypes of human breast cancer is only partially understood. Here we review how initial genetic or epigenetic alterations within mammary epithelial cells (MECs) can alter cell fate decisions and put pre-malignant cells on a path towards cancer development with specific phenotypes. Understanding the early stages of breast cancer initiation and progression and how normal developmental processes are hijacked during transformation has significant implications for improving early detection and prevention of breast cancer. In addition, insights gleaned from this understanding may also be important for developing subtype-specific treatment options. PMID:27110512

  19. RECQL: a new breast cancer susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Taraswi; Brosh, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing novel genetic risk factors for BRCA1/2 negative breast cancers is highly relevant for early diagnosis and development of a management plan. Mutations in a number of DNA repair genes have been associated with genomic instability and development of breast and various other cancers. Whole exome sequencing efforts by 2 groups have led to the discovery in distinct populations of multiple breast cancer susceptibility mutations in RECQL, a gene that encodes a DNA helicase involved in homologous recombination repair and response to replication stress. RECQL pathogenic mutations were identified that truncated or disrupted the RECQL protein or introduced missense mutations in its helicase domain. RECQL mutations may serve as a useful biomarker for breast cancer. Targeting RECQL associated tumors with novel DNA repair inhibitors may provide a new strategy for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26125302

  20. Breast Cancer Basics and You | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 ... women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 ...

  1. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Introduction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Introduction Past Issues / Spring - ... women, although male breast cancer is rare. The Breasts Inside a woman's breast are 15 to 20 ...

  2. Prognostically Distinctive Subgroup in Pathologic N3 Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Yeong; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Kwan Il; Chun, Yong Soon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether there are prognostically different subgroups among patients with pathologic N3 (pN3) breast cancer. Methods The records of 220 patients who underwent surgery for pN3 breast cancer from January 2006 to September 2012 were reviewed. All patients received adjuvant therapy according to standard protocols. The primary outcome was disease-free survival (DFS). Results Patients were followed for a median time of 68.3 months after their primary surgery (range, 10–122 months), during which time 75 patients (34.1%) had developed disease recurrence and 48 patients (21.8%) had died. The DFS and overall survival were 67.8% and 86.1%, respectively, at 5 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that young age (<35 years, p=0.009), high serum neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (>3.0) (p=0.020), high nodal ratio (number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by number of removed nodes) (>0.65) (p=0.062), and molecular phenotype (p=0.012) were significantly associated with tumor recurrence. Tumor biological subtype was the most significant predictor of recurrence. The 5-year DFS rates in patients with hormone receptor (HR) positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative, HR+HER2+, HR–HER2+, and triple negative subtypes were 82%, 63%, 58%, and 37%, respectively. Conclusion Clinical outcomes of patients with extensive nodal metastasis were heterogeneous in terms of prognosis. Tumor biological subtype was the most important prognostic factor for pN3 disease. The prognosis of patients with HR+HER2– subtype in pN3 breast cancer was similar to that of patients with stage II breast cancer. PMID:27382392

  3. Long-term physical activity trends in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Caitlin; Alfano, Catherine M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Wang, C.Y.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Duggan, Catherine; Bernstein, Leslie; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with reduced mortality and higher quality of life in breast cancer survivors; however, limited data on the prevalence of activity and long-term trends after diagnosis are available. Methods A multi-ethnic cohort of 631 women (18–64 years) with stage 0-IIIA breast cancer were followed for 10 years. Recreational aerobic activity (MET-hrs/week) was ascertained for the year before diagnosis (baseline), 24 months, 5 and 10 years after enrollment. Women were classified according to U.S. physical activity guidelines (≥150 mins/week moderate or ≥75 mins/week vigorous activity). The odds ratios (OR) for meeting guidelines at 5 and 10 years according to baseline factors was estimated using logistic regression. The change in MET-hrs/wk was predicted using linear regression. Results Pre-diagnosis, 34% of women met physical activity guidelines; 34.0%, 39.5%, and 21.4% met guidelines at 24 months, 5 years, and 10 years post-enrollment, respectively. Fewer than 8% of survivors met guidelines at all follow-up periods. Over 10 years, recreational aerobic activity decreased by a mean(SD) 4.3(16.2) MET-hrs/wk.. Meeting guidelines pre-diagnosis was strongly associated with meeting guidelines at 5 years [OR (95% CI): 2.76 (1.85–4.1)] and 10 years [OR (95% CI): 3.35 (2.13–5.28)]. No other demographic or prognostic factors were significantly associated with the 10-year change in MET-hrs/wk. Conclusion The vast majority of early breast cancer survivors do not meet national exercise recommendations 10 years post-diagnosis. Impact Physical activity levels are low in breast cancer survivors across the 10 years post-diagnosis, yet the predictors of activity in this population remain poorly understood. PMID:23576689

  4. Screening and self examination for breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Austoker, J.

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer is the major form of cancer in women, with nearly 30,000 new cases and over 15,000 deaths in the United Kingdom each year. Breast screening by mammography has been shown in randomised trials to reduce mortality from breast cancer in women aged 50 and over. An NHS breast screening programme has been in operation in the United Kingdom since 1988. Its aim is to reduce mortality from breast cancer by 25% in the population of women invited to be screened. The uptake of mammography among the eligible population may be the single most important determinant if the programme is to be effective. Primary care teams have an important part to play in encouraging women to attend for screening and in providing information, advice, and reassurance at all stages of the screening process. To date, routine breast self examination has not been shown to be an effective method of screening for breast cancer and should not therefore be promoted as a primary screening procedure. There is, however, a case to be made for women to become more "breast aware." PMID:8044097

  5. β-Blockers Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence and Breast Cancer Death: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Childers, W Kurtis; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-12-01

    The normal physiologic stress mechanism, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, causes a release of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Preclinical data have demonstrated an effect on tumor progression and metastasis via the sympathetic nervous system mediated primarily through the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) pathway. In vitro data have shown an increase in tumor growth, migration, tumor angiogenesis, and metastatic spread in breast cancer through activation of the β-AR. Retrospective cohort studies on the clinical outcomes of β-blockers in breast cancer outcomes showed no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of β-blockers on breast cancer outcomes. A systematic review was performed using the Cochrane library and PubMed. Publications between the dates of January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Available hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted for breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, and all-cause mortality and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies contained results for at least 1 of the outcomes of breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, or all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients receiving β-blockers. In the 5 studies that contained results for breast cancer recurrence, there was no statistically significant risk reduction (HR, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.13). Breast cancer death results were contained in 4 studies, which also suggested a significant reduction in risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80). Among the 4 studies that reported all-cause mortality, there was no significant effect of β-blockers on risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37). Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of β-blockers significantly reduced risk of breast cancer death among women with breast cancer. PMID:26516037

  6. [Adjuvant drug therapies for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Riikka; Auvinen, Päivi; Mattson, Johanna; Joensuu, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Most breast cancers are hormone receptor positive and exhibit a slow growth pattern. Based on biological properties, breast cancers are divided into four different biological subtypes. Furthermore, these subtypes are indicative of the risk of recurrence, which is also influenced by the size of the tumor and extension to lymph nodes. Postoperative adjuvant drug therapy is chosen on the basis of the biological type. Chemotherapy can be used in all subtypes. Hormonal therapies are used exclusively for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab antibody belongs to the treatment of the HER2 positive subtype. PMID:26245052

  7. Fertility preservation for breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Oktem, Ozgur; Oktay, Kutluk

    2009-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common neoplasm in women and accounts for 26% (182,460) of all new cancer cases among women. With the use of screening mammography and advancement in other diagnostic modalities, many cases of breast cancer now can be diagnosed and treated at early stages of the disease. Unfortunately, adjuvant chemotherapy regimens commonly used in the treatment of breast cancer may cause premature ovarian failure due to their cytotoxic effects on the germ cells in the ovary. Therefore preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors at reproductive age has become an important quality of life issue. Fertility preservation is a recently emerged field of reproductive medicine that may help protect the reproductive capability of the cancer survivors and allow them to have children in the future. Embryo freezing is the most established fertility preservation strategy. But conventional ovarian stimulation protocols are contraindicated in breast cancer patients because of the rise of estrogen and its metabolites to supraphysiological levels. Recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide a safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen levels comparable with those achieved in the natural cycle. Oocyte freezing can be considered in single women and in those who do not wish donor sperm. Ovarian tissue freezing could also be an option in breast cancer patients who do not wish or have a time for an in vitro fertilization cycle, which requires 10 to 14 days of ovarian stimulation. PMID:19806518

  8. Older women, breast cancer, and social support

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ellen G.; Aviv, Caryn; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Introduction One in ten women over the age of 65 will develop breast cancer. Despite this high incidence of breast cancer among older women, social support for them is often inadequate. This paper describes a qualitative study of the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on older women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and their subsequent need for social support. Methods Forty-seven older African American, Asian American, Caucasian and Latina women between the ages of 65 to 83 participated in a larger study examining the impact of breast cancer on women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and the meaning and nature of social support. The women completed an in-depth qualitative interview on the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and the meaning and nature of social support. Results and Conclusion The results indicate that there are variations in reactions to a breast cancer diagnosis among older women, and that these reactions impact their experiences with seeking social support at diagnosis and during treatment. Respondents were concerned about their aging bodies, potential dependency on others, and loss of autonomy. At the same time, the severity of cancer treatment and existing co-morbidities often meant they needed to learn to receive support, and to reach out if they had no support. The implications of these findings underscore the older cancer patient’s need to strengthen her supportive networks at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and post-treatment. PMID:20967554

  9. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer patients with old age or medical comorbidity: a 5-year follow-up of an investigational study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sea-Won; Jang, Hong Seok; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Sei Chul

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated 5-year follow-up of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with Cyberknife for prostate cancer patients. Forty-five men with prostate adenocarcinoma who received SBRT using Cyberknife from May 2006 to November 2012 were enrolled in this study. They were prostate cancer patients with old age and medical comorbidities who received a total of 36 Gy to the prostate in 5 fractions with either everyday or every other day schedule. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at initial diagnosis and after radiation were traced. Primary endpoints were biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). The definition of biochemical relapse was a PSA level of nadir+2 ng/mL. Progression was defined as biochemically or clinically detected disease and the start of salvage therapy. After median follow-up of 63 months, the 5-year bRFS for all patients was estimated at 89.7%. The 5-year PFS was estimated at 71%. Four cases of biochemical relapse were observed, including two patients who experienced locoregional failure and one patient who had distant metastasis with biochemical relapse. The 5-year OS was estimated at 94.3%. There were five deaths, all of which were unrelated to prostate cancer. There was no grade 3 or higher acute complication. Grade 3 or higher late urinary toxicity was reported in 2 (4.4%) of 45 patients. The 5-year survival and toxicity outcome of SBRT using Cyberknife on prostate cancer patients with old age or comorbidities were favorable and safe in an investigational study. PMID:25526468

  10. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer. PMID:26218769

  11. Kallikrein gene downregulation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yousef, G M; Yacoub, G M; Polymeris, M-E; Popalis, C; Soosaipillai, A; Diamandis, E P

    2004-01-12

    Recent evidence suggests that many members of the human kallikrein gene family are differentially regulated in breast cancer and other endocrine-related malignancies. In this study, we utilised the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and expressed sequence tag (EST) databases of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) to perform in silico analyses of the expression pattern of the 15 human kallikrein genes in normal and cancerous breast tissues and cell lines using different analytical tools such as Virtual Northern blotting, Digital Differential Display and X-profiler. Our results indicate that at least four kallikrein genes (KLK5, 6, 8, 10) are downregulated in breast cancer. Probing eight normal and 24 breast cancer SAGE libraries with gene-specific tags for each of the above kallikreins indicated moderate-to-high expression densities in normal breast (27-319 tags per million; tpm, in two to five out of eight libraries), compared to no or low expression (0 - 34 tpm in zero to two libraries out of 24) in breast cancer. These data were verified by screening the EST databases, where all mRNA clones isolated for these genes, except for one in each, were from normal breast libraries, with no clones detected from breast cancer tissues or cell lines (with the exception of KLK8). X-profiler comparison of two pools of normal and breast cancer libraries further verified the presence of significant downregulation of expression levels of 4 of the kallikreins genes (KLK5, 6, 10, 12). We experimentally verified the downregulation of these four kallikreins (KLK5, 6, 8, 10 and 12) by RT - PCR analysis. PMID:14710225

  12. Application of Canonical Correlation Analysis for Detecting Risk Factors Leading to Recurrence of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Lotfnezhad Afshar, Hadi; Olfatbakhsh, Asiie; Mehrdad, Neda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advances in treatment options of breast cancer and development of cancer research centers have necessitated the collection of many variables about breast cancer patients. Detection of important variables as predictors and outcomes among them, without applying an appropriate statistical method is a very challenging task. Because of recurrent nature of breast cancer occurring in different time intervals, there are usually more than one variable in the outcome set. For the prevention of this problem that causes multicollinearity, a statistical method named canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a good solution. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the data related to breast cancer recurrence of Iranian females using the CCA method to determine important risk factors. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data of 584 female patients (mean age of 45.9 years) referred to Breast Cancer Research Center (Tehran, Iran) were analyzed anonymously. SPSS and NORM softwares (2.03) were used for data transformation, running and interpretation of CCA and replacing missing values, respectively. Data were obtained from Breast Cancer Research Center, Tehran, Iran. Results: Analysis showed seven important predictors resulting in breast cancer recurrence in different time periods. Family history and loco-regional recurrence more than 5 years after diagnosis were the most important variables among predictors and outcomes sets, respectively. Conclusions: Canonical correlation analysis can be used as a useful tool for management and preparing of medical data for discovering of knowledge hidden in them. PMID:27231580

  13. Gamma-secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, or Recurrent Triple Negative Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-19

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  14. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    PubMed

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  15. Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Liangjian; Li, Ting; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks. 'Sustaining proliferative signaling' further differentiates cancers with positive hormone receptors. 'Activating invasion and metastasis' and 'evading immune destruction' drive the differentiation of triple negative breast cancers. 'Resisting cell death', 'genome instability and mutation' and 'deregulating cellular energetics' refine breast cancer classification with their predictive values. 'Evading growth suppressors', 'enabling replicative immortality', 'inducing angiogenesis' and 'tumor-promoting inflammation' have not been involved in breast cancer classification which need more focus in the future biomarker-related research. This review novels in its global view on breast cancer heterogeneity, which clarifies many confusions in this field and contributes to precision medicine. PMID:27390604

  16. Cancer Hallmarks, Biomarkers and Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Liangjian; Li, Ting; Bai, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease encompassing multiple tumor entities, each characterized by distinct morphology, behavior and clinical implications. Besides estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, novel biomarkers have shown their prognostic and predictive values, complicating our understanding towards to the heterogeneity of such cancers. Ten cancer hallmarks have been proposed by Weinberg to characterize cancer and its carcinogenesis. By reviewing biomarkers and breast cancer molecular subtypes, we propose that the divergent outcome observed from patients stratified by hormone status are driven by different cancer hallmarks. 'Sustaining proliferative signaling' further differentiates cancers with positive hormone receptors. 'Activating invasion and metastasis' and 'evading immune destruction' drive the differentiation of triple negative breast cancers. 'Resisting cell death', 'genome instability and mutation' and 'deregulating cellular energetics' refine breast cancer classification with their predictive values. 'Evading growth suppressors', 'enabling replicative immortality', 'inducing angiogenesis' and 'tumor-promoting inflammation' have not been involved in breast cancer classification which need more focus in the future biomarker-related research. This review novels in its global view on breast cancer heterogeneity, which clarifies many confusions in this field and contributes to precision medicine. PMID:27390604

  17. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan, L.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study.

  18. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    PubMed

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  19. [Special considerations in breast cancer treatment of an augmented breast].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Tóth, László; Sávolt, Akos; Kunos, Csaba; Pesthy, Pál; Bartal, Alexandra; Szabó, Eva; Kásler, Miklós

    2011-10-16

    Breast augmentation surgery involving the use of implants has been one of the most popular plastic surgical procedures for decades. As the multi-million female population who received breast implants ages, the risk of cancer is increasing rapidly, therefore the incidence of malignant disease in association with breast implants will increase as well. Although there is no relationship between tumor development and implants, these cases require special considerations in diagnostics, therapy and follow-up methods. Appropriate multidisciplinary treatment of tumors in augmented breasts corresponding with modern oncoplastic principles can only be accomplished based on adequate oncological, breast and plastic surgical knowledge. Supposing a possible increase of this condition in Hungary, too, authors provide a wide review of the literature on the special oncological and esthetic considerations, for the first time in Hungarian language. PMID:21979221

  20. New targeted therapies for breast cancer: A focus on tumor microenvironmental signals and chemoresistant breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Etet, Paul Faustin Seke; Vecchio, Lorella; Tagne, Richard Simo; Amvene, Jeremie Mbo; Muller, Jean-Marc; Krampera, Mauro; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Current strategies in breast cancer therapy, including classical chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapies, are usually associated with chemoresistance and serious adverse effects. Advances in our understanding of changes affecting the interactome in advanced and chemoresistant breast tumors have provided novel therapeutic targets, including, cyclin dependent kinases, mammalian target of rapamycin, Notch, Wnt and Shh. Inhibitors of these molecules recently entered clinical trials in mono- and combination therapy in metastatic and chemo-resistant breast cancers. Anticancer epigenetic drugs, mainly histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, also entered clinical trials. Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of breast cancer, the future in therapy lies in the application of individualized tailored regimens. Emerging therapeutic targets and the implications for personalized-based therapy development in breast cancer are herein discussed. PMID:25516852

  1. Radiation treatment for breast cancer. Recent advances.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Edward

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review recent advances in radiation therapy in treatment of breast cancer. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and CANCERLIT were searched using the MeSH words breast cancer, ductal carcinoma in situ, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and postmastectomy radiation. Randomized studies have shown the efficacy of radiation treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and for invasive breast cancer. MAIN MESSAGE: Lumpectomy followed by radiation is effective treatment for DCIS. In early breast cancer, shorter radiation schedules are as efficacious for local control and short-term cosmetic results as traditional fractionation regimens. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is done in specialized cancer centres; regional radiation is recommended for patients with four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. Postmastectomy radiation has been shown to have survival benefits for high-risk premenopausal patients. Systemic metastases from breast cancer usually respond satisfactorily to radiation. CONCLUSION: Radiation therapy continues to have an important role in treatment of breast cancer. There have been great advances in radiation therapy in the last decade, but they have raised controversy. Further studies are needed to address the controversies. PMID:12113193

  2. Managing Breast Cancer in the Older Patient

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Tracey; Shinde, Arvind; Doan, Caroline; Katheria, Vani; Hurria, Arti

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated with aging, with almost one-half of all new breast cancer cases diagnosed annually in the United States occurring in women age 65 and older. Recent data suggest that although breast cancer outcomes in younger women have shown substantial improvement as a result of advances in treatment and screening, the benefits in older women have been less pronounced. Although older adults have been under-represented on cancer clinical trials there is an emerging body of literature to help guide treatment decisions. For early stage breast cancer, the discussion regarding treatment options involves balancing the reduction in risk of recurrence gained by specific therapies with the potential for increased treatment-related toxicity potentially exacerbated by physiological decline or comorbidities that often co-exist in the older population. A key component of care of the older adult is the recognition that chronologic age alone cannot guide the management of an older individual with breast cancer; rather, treatment decisions must also take into account an individual’s functional status, estimated life expectancy, the risks and benefits of the therapy, potential barriers to treatment, and patient preference. This article reviews the available evidence for therapeutic management of early-stage breast cancer in older adults, and highlights data from geriatric oncology literature that provides a basis on which to facilitate evidence-based treatment. PMID:24472802

  3. DNA Repair and Personalized Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Xia; Sjolund, Ashley; Harris, Lyndsay; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer therapy is likely to be one of the next big advances in our search for a cure for cancer. To be able to treat people in an individualized manner, researchers need to know a great deal about their genetic constitution and the DNA repair status of their tumors. Specific knowledge is required regarding the polymorphisms individuals carry and how these polymorphisms influence responses to therapy. Researchers are actively engaged in biomarker discovery and validation for this purpose. In addition, the design of clinical trials must be reassessed to include new information on biomarkers and drug responses. In this review, we focus on personalized breast cancer therapy. The hypothesis we focus upon in this review is that there is connection between the DNA repair profile of individuals, their breast tumor subtypes, and their responses to cancer therapy. We first briefly review cellular DNA repair pathways that are likely to be impacted by breast cancer therapies. Next, we review the phenotypes of breast tumor subtypes with an emphasis on how a DNA repair deficiency might result in tumorigenesis itself and lead to the chemotherapeutic responses that are observed. Specific examples of breast tumor subtypes and their responses to cancer therapy are given, and we discuss possible DNA repair mechanisms that underlie the responses of tumors to various chemotherapeutic agents. Much is known about breast cancer subtypes and the way each of these subtypes responds to chemotherapy. In addition, we discuss novel design of clinical trials that incorporates rapidly emerging information on biomarkers. PMID:20872853

  4. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  5. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    PubMed Central

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. PMID:26229503

  6. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-26

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  7. Brain metastases of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Diane; Smith, Quentin R; Lockman, Paul R; Bronder, Julie; Gril, Brunilde; Chambers, Ann F; Weil, Robert J; Steeg, Patricia S

    Central nervous system or brain metastases traditionally occur in 10-16% of metastatic breast cancer patients and are associated with a dismal prognosis. The development of brain metastases has been associated with young age, and tumors that are estrogen receptor negative, Her-2+ or of the basal phenotype. Treatment typically includes whole brain irradiation, or either stereotactic radiosurgery or surgery with whole brain radiation, resulting in an approximately 20% one year survival. The blood-brain barrier is a formidable obstacle to the delivery of chemotherapeutics to the brain. Mouse experimental metastasis model systems have been developed for brain metastasis using selected sublines of human MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Using micron sized iron particles and MRI imaging, the fate of MDA-MB-231BR cells has been mapped: Approximately 2% of injected cells form larger macroscopic metastases, while 5% of cells remain as dormant cells in the brain. New therapies with permeability for the blood-brain barrier are needed to counteract both types of tumor cells. PMID:17473372

  8. Variants on the promoter region of PTEN affect breast cancer progression and patient survival

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The PTEN gene, a regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt oncogenic pathway, is mutated in various cancers and its expression has been associated with tumor progression in a dose-dependent fashion. We investigated the effect of germline variation in the promoter region of the PTEN gene on clinical characteristics and survival in breast cancer. Methods We screened the promoter region of the PTEN gene for germline variation in 330 familial breast cancer cases and further determined the genotypes of three detected PTEN promoter polymorphisms -903GA, -975GC, and -1026CA in a total of 2,412 breast cancer patients to evaluate the effects of the variants on tumor characteristics and disease outcome. We compared the gene expression profiles in breast cancers of 10 variant carriers and 10 matched non-carriers and performed further survival analyses based on the differentially expressed genes. Results All three promoter variants associated with worse prognosis. The Cox's regression hazard ratio for 10-year breast cancer specific survival in multivariate analysis was 2.01 (95% CI 1.17 to 3.46) P = 0.0119, and for 5-year breast cancer death or distant metastasis free survival 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.11) P = 0.0381 for the variant carriers, indicating PTEN promoter variants as an independent prognostic factor. The breast tumors from the promoter variant carriers exhibited a similar gene expression signature of 160 differentially expressed genes compared to matched non-carrier tumors. The signature further stratified patients into two groups with different recurrence free survival in independent breast cancer gene expression data sets. Conclusions Inherited variation in the PTEN promoter region affects the tumor progression and gene expression profile in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to establish PTEN promoter variants as clinical markers for prognosis in breast cancer. PMID:22171747

  9. Breast cancer and sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    As the most common malignancy affecting women within the United States, breast cancer can bring about multiple physical and psychological challenges. Among the greatest challenges are those associated with female sexual function. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, surgeries and radiation can all have a large effect in altering a woman’s sexual health and function. Sexual concerns result in significant emotional distress, including sadness/depression, issues related to personal appearance, stigma, and negative impacts on personal relationships. In this article, we discuss some of the specific challenges that present with each type of treatment and the socio-physical impact they have on survivorship. Among the most detrimental to sexual function, are the use of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Additionally, anatomical changes that transpire in patients who have undergone surgery or radiation therapy (RT), disrupt perceptions of body image. Here we will discuss and also review the contemporary literature to determine effective management and treatment of sexual dysfunction. PMID:26816822

  10. Breast cancer and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Erica N; Dizon, Don S

    2015-04-01

    As the most common malignancy affecting women within the United States, breast cancer can bring about multiple physical and psychological challenges. Among the greatest challenges are those associated with female sexual function. Chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, surgeries and radiation can all have a large effect in altering a woman's sexual health and function. Sexual concerns result in significant emotional distress, including sadness/depression, issues related to personal appearance, stigma, and negative impacts on personal relationships. In this article, we discuss some of the specific challenges that present with each type of treatment and the socio-physical impact they have on survivorship. Among the most detrimental to sexual function, are the use of chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. Additionally, anatomical changes that transpire in patients who have undergone surgery or radiation therapy (RT), disrupt perceptions of body image. Here we will discuss and also review the contemporary literature to determine effective management and treatment of sexual dysfunction. PMID:26816822

  11. Endoxifen shows promise in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    In a phase I trial of endoxifen, a metabolite of tamoxifen, multiple patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer that was resistant to treatment with aromatase inhibitors had partial responses or long-lasting stable disease. PMID:24501306

  12. [New targeted therapies in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Coussy, F; Teixeira, L; Giacchetti, S; Cuvier, C; Hocini, H; Espié, M

    2014-11-01

    Trastuzumab improves care of patients with HER2+ breast cancer and allows a major gain in terms of survival. T-DM1 and pertuzumab are two new treatments, which give very encouraging results in metastatic breast cancer. Their place in neo-adjuvant and adjuvant setting still remains to be defined. Bevacizumab have its place in metastatic breast cancer. In adjuvant setting, results are disappointing and in neo-adjuvant setting, we need more studies on subgroups, which can benefit more. Development of the PARP inhibitors was slowed down by recent negative results in metastatic breast cancer but studies continue with more targeted patient's. Finally, everolimus, inhibitor of mTOR, allows to by pass the hormono-resistance in metastatic phase. Its toxicity must be taken into account in particular in adjuvant setting. PMID:25442825

  13. Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Features Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The feature you selected is no longer available. In 10 seconds you will be automatically redirected to the CDC. ...

  14. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia Mathews Burwell and Deputy Secretary Bill Corr. For more information on the Challenge, see previous article on the Poster website. Start-up companies are instrumental in bringing the fruits of scientific research to market. Recognizing an opportunity to bring entrepreneurial minds to bear on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, the Avon Foundation for Women partnered with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation to launch the Breast Cancer Startup Challenge.

  15. Breast cancer risk in mothers of twins.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M. F.; Broeders, M. J.; Carpenter, L. M.; Gunnarskog, J.; Leon, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    The risk of breast cancer associated with delivering a twin birth was examined in a population-based nested case-control study of nearly 4800 Swedish women with breast cancer and 47000 age-matched control subjects. All were aged less than 50 years and parous. After adjustment for age at first birth and parity, a 29% reduction in breast cancer risk was observed in mothers of twins relative to those who were not (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.91). These results provide evidence that women who bear twins are at reduced risk of breast cancer, one explanation for which may be their unusual levels of hormonal exposure. PMID:9083344

  16. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  17. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  18. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  19. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breast Cancer URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/breastcancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  20. Breast Cancer Imaging with Novel PET Tracers.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Lee, Jean H; Eubank, William B

    2009-10-01

    Whereas (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/computed tomography has proven to be valuable for breast cancer diagnosis and response evaluation, it is likely that PET radiopharmaceuticals beyond FDG will contribute further to the understanding of breast cancer and thereby further direct breast cancer care. Increasingly specific and quantitative approaches will help direct treatment selection from an ever-expanding and increasing array of targeted breast cancer therapies. This article highlights 4 areas of ongoing research where preliminary patient results look promising: (1) tumor perfusion and angiogenesis, (2) drug delivery and transport, (3) tumor receptor imaging, and (4) early response evaluation. For each area, the biologic background is reviewed and early results are highlighted. PMID:27157306

  1. Targeting SH2 domains in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morlacchi, Pietro; Robertson, Fredika M; Klostergaard, Jim; McMurray, John S

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related disease in the USA. SH2 domains recruit signaling proteins to phosphotyrosine residues on aberrantly activated growth factor and cytokine receptors and contribute to cancer cell cycling, metastasis, angiogenesis and so on. Herein we review phosphopeptide mimetic and small-molecule approaches targeting the SH2 domains of Grb2, Grb7 and STAT3 that inhibit their targets and reduce proliferation in in vitro breast cancer models. Only STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated in in vivo models and have led to tumor reduction. Taken together, these studies suggest that targeting SH2 domains is an important approach to the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25495984

  2. Reovirus oncolysis of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Norman, Kara L; Coffey, Matthew C; Hirasawa, Kensuke; Demetrick, Douglas J; Nishikawa, Sandra G; DiFrancesco, Lisa M; Strong, James E; Lee, Patrick W K

    2002-03-20

    We have previously shown that human reovirus replication is restricted to cells with an activated Ras pathway, and that reovirus could be used as an effective oncolytic agent against human glioblastoma xenografts. This study examines in more detail the feasibility of reovirus as a therapeutic for breast cancer, a subset of cancer in which direct activating mutations in the ras proto-oncogene are rare, and yet where unregulated stimulation of Ras signaling pathways is important in the pathogenesis of the disease. We demonstrate herein the efficient lysis of breast tumor-derived cell lines by the virus, whereas normal breast cells resist infection in vitro. In vivo studies of reovirus breast cancer therapy reveal that viral administration could cause tumor regression in an MDA-MB-435S mammary fat pad model in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Reovirus could also effect regression of tumors remote from the injection site in an MDA-MB-468 bilateral tumor model, raising the possibility of systemic therapy of breast cancer by the oncolytic agent. Finally, the ability of reovirus to act against primary breast tumor samples not propagated as cell lines was evaluated; we found that reovirus could indeed replicate in ex vivo surgical specimens. Overall, reovirus shows promise as a potential breast cancer therapeutic. PMID:11916487

  3. Improvement of survival and prospect of cure in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yee Chung; Ueno, Naoto T

    2012-07-01

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer have traditionally been considered incurable with conventional treatment. However, 5-10% of those patients survive more than 5 years, and 2-5% survive more than 10 years. Recent studies suggest that the survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer has been slowly improving. In this review, we examine the possible curative approach for a certain group of patients with metastatic breast cancer. We identify that patients most likely to benefit from such an aggressive approach are young and have good performance status, adequate body functional reserve, long disease-free interval before recurrence, oligometastatic disease, and low systemic tumor load. An aggressive multidisciplinary approach including both local treatment of macroscopic disease and systemic treatment of microscopic disease can result in prolonged disease control in certain patients with metastatic breast cancer. Whether patients with prolonged disease control are "cured" remains controversial. PMID:21567170

  4. Breast cancer following polyacrylamide hydrogel injection for breast augmentation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GANG; WANG, YUJIA; HUANG, JIN-LONG

    2016-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) has been used for several years as an injectable implant for augmentation mammoplasty in China. Although patients who received PAAG injections experienced a number of complications, breast cancer following PAAG injection has been reported only in two cases. In this report, we present a case of breast cancer following PAAG injection for breast augmentation. Our study demonstrated that PAAG injection may increase the risk of breast cancer development. Early-stage breast cancer detection is difficult, since the breast is covered with the indurated injected gel. Thus, PAAG injection for augmentation mammoplasty may negatively affect breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:26998299

  5. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. PMID:26093511

  6. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  7. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  8. Breast Cancer in Young Women: Poor Survival Despite Intensive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fredholm, Hanna; Eaker, Sonja; Frisell, Jan; Holmberg, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and correlates with a less favourable prognosis; still it is the most frequent cancer in women under 40, accounting for 30–40% of all incident female cancer. The aim of this study was to study prognosis in young women, quantifying how much stage at diagnosis and management on the one hand, and tumour biology on the other; each contribute to the worse prognosis seen in this age group. Methodology/Principal Findings In a registry based cohort of women aged 20–69 (n = 22 017) with a primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer (1992–2005), women aged 20–34 (n = 471), 35–39 (n = 858) and 40–49 (n = 4789) were compared with women aged 50–69 years (n = 15 899). The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio and the relative excess mortality (RER) were calculated. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio was lowest in women aged 20–34. The RER was 2.84 for women aged 20–34 and decreased with increasing age (RER 1.76 and 1.17 for women aged 35–39 and 40–49, respectively). The excess risk was, however, present only in disease stages I and II. For women aged 20–34 with stage I disease RER was 4.63, and 6.70 in the subgroup with tumour size 1–10 mm. The absolute difference in stage I between the youngest and the reference groups amounted to nearly 8%, with a 90% 5-year survival in women aged 20–34. In stages IIa and IIb, the relative excess risk was not as dramatic, but the absolute differences approached 15%. The youngest women with small tumours generally received more aggressive treatment than women in older age groups. Conclusions After correction for stage, tumour characteristics and treatment, age remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer death in women <35 years of age. The excess risk for young women was only seen in early stages of disease and was most pronounced in women with small tumours. Young women affected by breast cancer have a high risk of dying

  9. Pharmacoprevention for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome is an important women's health condition characterized by an increased susceptibility to the development of cancer, in particular breast and ovarian neoplasms, and is caused by an inherited germline genetic mutation in one or both tumor suppressor genes named BRCA1 and BRCA2. This monographic issue provides an update on our knowledge of this syndrome with particular emphasis on the risk reduction strategies through a pharmacopreventive approach. PMID:26928419

  10. Vaginal Health During Breast Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Falk, Sandy J; Bober, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    There are increasing numbers of breast cancer survivors. Chemotherapy or endocrine therapy result in effects on vaginal health that may affect quality of life. These effects may impact sexual function, daily comfort, or the ability to perform a pelvic examination. Vulvovaginal atrophy, or genitourinary syndrome of menopause, may be treated with nonhormonal or hormonal measures. Breast cancer survivors who are menopausal and/or on endocrine therapy should be screened for issues with vaginal health and counseled about treatment options. PMID:27074843

  11. Novel Nanophotolysis Technique for Breast Cancer Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiq, M. G. B.; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Shahid, M.; Tahir, B. A.; Saeed, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of gold nanoparticles on breast cancer tumor. A theoretical approach has been adopted to probe the nanophotolysis technique using short pulse laser. The influences of various parameters including number of ions, shock front, energy distribution function, laser fluence are discussed in detail. Computational results suggest that spherical gold nanoparticles provides a promising platform for selective killing of abnormal cells in breast cancer tumor.

  12. Platinum Based Chemotherapy or Observation in Treating Patients With Residual Triple-Negative Basal-Like Breast Cancer Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-14

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  13. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Atezolizumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed, Stage II-III Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-29

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Breast Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Male Breast Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  15. Endothelial CXCR7 Regulates Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Stacer, Amanda C.; Fenner, Joseph; Cavnar, Stephen P.; Xiao, Annie; Zhao, Shuang; Chang, S. Laura; Salomonnson, Anna; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Atypical chemokine receptor CXCR7 (ACKR3) functions as a scavenger receptor for chemokine CXCL12, a molecule that promotes multiple steps in tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer and multiple other malignancies. While normal vascular endothelium expresses low levels of CXCR7, marked upregulation of CXCR7 occurs in tumor vasculature in breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate effects of endothelial CXCR7 in breast cancer, we conditionally deleted this receptor from vascular endothelium of adult mice, generating CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND animals. CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice appeared phenotypically normal, although these animals exhibited a modest 35 ± 3% increase in plasma CXCL12 as compared with control. Using two different syngeneic, orthotopic tumor implant models of breast cancer, we discovered that CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice had significantly greater local recurrence of cancer following resection, elevated numbers of circulating tumor cells, and more spontaneous metastases. CXCR7ΔEND/ΔEND mice also showed greater experimental metastases following intracardiac injection of cancer cells. These results establish that endothelial CXCR7 limits breast cancer metastasis at multiple steps in the metastatic cascade, advancing understanding of CXCL12 pathways in tumor environments and informing ongoing drug development targeting CXCR7 in cancer. PMID:26119946

  16. Pathway-based analysis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong; Cui, Miao; Zhao, Gang; Fan, Zhimin; Nolan, Katherine; Yang, Ying; Lee, Peng; Ye, Fei; Zhang, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although HER2 and ER pathways are predominant pathways altered in breast cancer, it is now well accepted that many other signaling pathways are also involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. The understanding of these additional pathways may assist in identifying new therapeutic approaches for breast cancer. Methods: 13 invasive ductal carcinoma tissues and 5 benign breast tissues were analyzed for the mRNA expression level of 1243 cancer pathway-related genes using SmartChip (WaferGen, CA), a real-time PCR-base method. In addition, the levels of 131 cancer pathway-related proteins and phosphoproteins in 33 paired breast cancers were measured using our innovative Protein Pathway Array. Results: Out of 1,243 mRNAs, 68.7% (854) were detected in breast cancer and 395 mRNAs were statistically significant (fold change >2) between benign and cancer tissues. Of these mRNAs, 105 only expressed in breast cancer tissues and 33 mRNAs only expressed in normal breast tissues. Out of 131 proteins and phosphoproteins, 68% (89) were detected in cancer tissues and 57 proteins were significantly differentiated between tumor and normal tissues. Interestingly, only 3 genes (CDK6, Vimentin and SLUG) showed decreases in both protein and mRNA. Six proteins (BCL6, CCNE1, PCNA, PDK1, SRC and XIAP) were differentially expressed between tumor and normal tissues but no differences were observed at mRNA levels. Analyses of mRNA and protein data using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed more than 15 pathways were altered in breast cancer and 6 of which were shared between mRNAs and proteins, including p53, IL17, HGF, NGF, PTEN and PI3K/AKT pathways. Conclusions: There is a broad dysregulation of various pathways in breast cancer both at protein levels and mRNA levels. It is important to note that mRNA expression does not correlate with protein level, suggesting different regulation mechanisms between proteins and mRNAs. PMID:24936222

  17. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-11-15

    Healthy eating patterns and keeping physically active are potentially more important for chronic disease prevention than intake or exclusion of specific food items or nutrients. To this end, many health organizations routinely publish dietary and lifestyle recommendations aimed at preventing chronic disease. Using data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and adherence to two sets of guidelines specific for cancer prevention, namely the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Recommendations. At baseline, 49,613 women completed dietary and lifestyle questionnaires and height and weight measurements were taken. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 2,503 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of meeting each guideline, and number of guidelines met, with breast cancer risk. The two sets of guidelines yielded similar results. Specifically, adherence to all six ACS guidelines was associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk when compared to subjects adhering to at most one guideline (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.49-0.97); similarly, adherence to six or seven of the WCRF/AICR guidelines was also associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.47-1.00). Under either classification, meeting each additional guideline was associated with a 4-6% reduction in breast cancer risk. These results suggest that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:24723234

  18. Distinct breast cancer characteristics between screen- and self-detected breast cancers recorded in the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Takayuki; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Niikura, Naoki; Kawai, Masaaki; Anan, Keisei; Hayashi, Naoki; Masuda, Shinobu; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Aogi, Kenjiro; Ishida, Takanori; Masuoka, Hideji; Iijima, Kotaro; Matsuoka, Junji; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seigo; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    The rate of breast cancer screening for women of all ages in Japan is increasing. However, little is known about the biological differences between screen- and self-detected tumors. We used data from the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry (JBCR), a nationwide registry of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in Japan, to investigate patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We compared the clinicopathological features of tumors and assessed yearly trends regarding the proportion of screen-detected cases during the study period. We found that 31.8 % (65,358/205,544) of cancers were detected by screening. Asymptomatic tumors detected by screening (asymptomatic) were more likely to have favorable prognostic features than those that were self-detected (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]: 19.8 versus 4.1 %, node-negative: 77.0 versus 61.6 %, and estrogen receptor-positive [ER+]: 82.0 versus 72.9 %, respectively). All these findings were statistically significant (p < .001). The proportion of breast cancers detected by screening among all cases increased from 21.7 % in 2004 to 37.1 % in 2011. During the same time period, the proportion of screen-detected DCIS increased from 41.5 to 66.0 % and that of ER+ cancers increased from 23.2 to 39.7 %. This study demonstrated that low-risk tumors, including DCIS, ER+, and lower TNM stage, account for a substantial proportion of clinical screening-detected cancers. The differences in biological characteristics between screen- and self-detected cancers may account in part for the limited efficacy of breast cancer screening programs aimed at improving breast cancer mortality. PMID:27048417

  19. Grading Breast Cancer Tissues Using Molecular Portraits*

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Niclas; Carlsson, Petter; James, Peter; Hansson, Karin; Waldemarson, Sofia; Malmström, Per; Fernö, Mårten; Ryden, Lisa; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor progression and prognosis in breast cancer patients are difficult to assess using current clinical and laboratory parameters, where a pathological grading is indicative of tumor aggressiveness. This grading is based on assessments of nuclear grade, tubule formation, and mitotic rate. We report here the first protein signatures associated with histological grades of breast cancer, determined using a novel affinity proteomics approach. We profiled 52 breast cancer tissue samples by combining nine antibodies and label-free LC-MS/MS, which generated detailed quantified proteomic maps representing 1,388 proteins. The results showed that we could define in-depth molecular portraits of histologically graded breast cancer tumors. Consequently, a 49-plex candidate tissue protein signature was defined that discriminated between histological grades 1, 2, and 3 of breast cancer tumors with high accuracy. Highly biologically relevant proteins were identified, and the differentially expressed proteins indicated further support for the current hypothesis regarding remodeling of the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. The protein signature was corroborated using meta-analysis of transcriptional profiling data from an independent patient cohort. In addition, the potential for using the markers to estimate the likelihood of long-term metastasis-free survival was also indicated. Taken together, these molecular portraits could pave the way for improved classification and prognostication of breast cancer. PMID:23982162

  20. Cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Jane A; Shafer, Martin M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Newcomb, Polly A

    2006-06-21

    Cadmium, a highly persistent heavy metal, has been categorized as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Primary exposure sources include food and tobacco smoke. We carried out a population-based case-control study of 246 women, aged 20-69 years, with breast cancer and 254 age-matched control subjects. We measured cadmium levels in urine samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and conducted interviews by telephone to obtain information on known breast cancer risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer by creatinine-adjusted cadmium levels were calculated by multivariable analysis. Statistical tests were two-sided. Women in the highest quartile of creatinine-adjusted cadmium level (> or = 0.58 microg/g) had twice the breast cancer risk of those in the lowest quartile (<0.26 microg/g; OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.2) after adjustment for established risk factors, and there was a statistically significant increase in risk with increasing cadmium level (P(trend) = .01). Based on this study, the absolute risk difference is 45 (95% CI = 0 to 77) per 100,000 given an overall breast cancer rate of 124 per 100,000. Whether increased cadmium is a causal factor for breast cancer or reflects the effects of treatment or disease remains to be determined. PMID:16788160

  1. Serum fatty acids and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Järvinen, Ritva; Salminen, Irma; Hakulinen, Timo

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of the diet may be essential to the development of breast cancer. We studied the ability of several fatty acids of serum total lipids to predict breast cancer incidence in a case-control study nested within a longitudinal population study. The proportions of fatty acids in serum total lipids were determined from stored serum samples collected at baseline for 127 incident breast cancer cases and 242 matched controls. Women with a higher proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum had a reduced risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio (OR) between the highest and lowest tertiles of serum PUFA was 0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.12-0.77). This association was mainly due to n-6 PUFAs and especially to linoleic acid. The ORs were 0.35 (CI = 0.14-0.84) and 0.29 (CI = 0.12-0.73), respectively. Of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), higher trans-11-18:1 levels were related to an increased breast cancer risk (OR = 3.69, CI = 1.35-10.06). The association was stronger in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. The present study suggests that higher serum proportions of the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid and lower proportions of the MUFA trans-11-18:1 fatty acid predict a reduced incidence of breast cancer. PMID:12881010

  2. Radiation dose and second breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Basco, V. E.; Coldman, A. J.; Elwood, J. M.; Young, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Amongst 14,000 women with breast cancer treated between 1946 and 1982, 194 developed a second primary tumour in the contralateral breast more than one year after diagnosis of the first primary. The radiation dose to the contralateral breast was calculated for each member of this group and also for members of a control group matched for age, year of diagnosis and survival time. Comparison of the groups provides no evidence for radiation induced carcinogenesis on the contralateral breast in these patients. PMID:4041361

  3. Evolution of radical mastectomy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Plesca, M; Bordea, C; El Houcheimi, B; Ichim, E; Blidaru, A

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of breast cancer has been marked by a constant evolution since the Halsted radical mastectomy described in the late 19th century has become the current standard Madden radical mastectomy, a breast surgery that involves the ablation of tissue with the axillary lymphatic preserving both pectoral muscles. The purpose of this paper was to present the stages that have marked the evolution of this intervention and to provide an overview of the way breast cancer has been understood and treated in the last century. PMID:27453752

  4. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  5. Genetic characterization of breast cancer and implications for clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Felipe C; Lopez-Garcia, Maria A; Lambros, Maryou B; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a genetic disease caused by the accumulation of mutations in neoplastic cells. In the last few years, high-throughput microarray-based molecular analysis has provided increasingly more coherent information about the genetic aberrations in breast cancer. New biomarkers and molecular techniques are slowly becoming part of the diagnostic and prognostic armamentarium available for pathologists and oncologists to tailor the therapy for breast cancer patients. In this review, we will focus on the contribution of breast cancer somatic genetics to our understanding of breast cancer biology and its impact on breast cancer patient management. PMID:19754664

  6. Observed and Predicted Risk of Breast Cancer Death in Randomized Trials on Breast Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Autier, Philippe; Sullivan, Richard; Boyle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of breast screening in breast cancer mortality declines is debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the number of advanced cancers with poor diagnosis, while cancer treatment works through decreasing the case-fatality rate. Hence, reductions in cancer death rates thanks to screening should directly reflect reductions in advanced cancer rates. We verified whether in breast screening trials, the observed reductions in the risk of breast cancer death could be predicted from reductions of advanced breast cancer rates. Patients and Methods The Greater New York Health Insurance Plan trial (HIP) is the only breast screening trial that reported stage-specific cancer fatality for the screening and for the control group separately. The Swedish Two-County trial (TCT)) reported size-specific fatalities for cancer patients in both screening and control groups. We computed predicted numbers of breast cancer deaths, from which we calculated predicted relative risks (RR) and (95% confidence intervals). The Age trial in England performed its own calculations of predicted relative risk. Results The observed and predicted RR of breast cancer death were 0.72 (0.56–0.94) and 0.98 (0.77–1.24) in the HIP trial, and 0.79 (0.78–1.01) and 0.90 (0.80–1.01) in the Age trial. In the TCT, the observed RR was 0.73 (0.62–0.87), while the predicted RR was 0.89 (0.75–1.05) if overdiagnosis was assumed to be negligible and 0.83 (0.70–0.97) if extra cancers were excluded. Conclusions In breast screening trials, factors other than screening have contributed to reductions in the risk of breast cancer death most probably by reducing the fatality of advanced cancers in screening groups. These factors were the better management of breast cancer patients and the underreporting of breast cancer as the underlying cause of death. Breast screening trials should publish stage-specific fatalities observed in each group. PMID:27100174

  7. Radiation therapy for breast cancer: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham

    2016-01-01

    Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment. PMID:27545009

  8. Noninvasive strategies for breast cancer early detection.

    PubMed

    Trecate, Giovanna; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer screening and presurgical diagnosis are currently based on mammography, ultrasound and more sensitive imaging technologies; however, noninvasive biomarkers represent both a challenge and an opportunity for early detection of cancer. An extensive number of potential breast cancer biomarkers have been discovered by microarray hybridization or sequencing of circulating DNA, noncoding RNA and blood cell RNA; multiplex analysis of immune-related molecules and mass spectrometry-based approaches for high-throughput detection of protein, endogenous peptides, circulating and volatile metabolites. However, their medical relevance and their translation to clinics remain to be exploited. Once they will be fully validated, cancer biomarkers, used in combination with the current and emerging imaging technologies, represent an avenue to a personalized breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27044539

  9. Genomic tumor evolution of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sato, Fumiaki; Saji, Shigehira; Toi, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent technical development of comprehensive genome-wide analysis such as next generation sequencing, deep biological insights of breast cancer have been revealed. Information of genomic mutations and rearrangements in patients' tumors is indispensable to understand the mechanism in carcinogenesis, progression, metastasis, and resistance to systemic treatment of breast cancer. To date, comprehensive genomic analyses illustrate not only base substitution patterns and lists of driver mutations and key rearrangements, but also a manner of tumor evolution. Breast cancer genome is dynamically changing and evolving during cancer development course from non-invasive disease via invasive primary tumor to metastatic tumor, and during treatment exposure. The accumulation pattern of base substitution and genomic rearrangement looks gradual and punctuated, respectively, in analogy with contrasting theories for evolution manner of species, Darwin's phyletic gradualism, and Eldredge and Gould's "punctuated equilibrium". Liquid biopsy is a non-invasive method to detect the genomic evolution of breast cancer. Genomic mutation patterns in circulating tumor cells and circulating cell-free tumor DNA represent those of tumors existing in patient body. Liquid biopsy methods are now under development for future application to clinical practice of cancer treatment. In this article, latest knowledge regarding breast cancer genome, especially in terms of 'tumor evolution', is summarized. PMID:25998191

  10. Leptin–cytokine crosstalk in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Gale; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2013-01-01

    Despite accumulating evidence suggesting a positive correlation between leptin levels, obesity, post-menopause and breast cancer incidence, our current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in these relationships is still incomplete. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994 and its receptor (OB-R) 1 year later by Friedman’s laboratory (Zhang et al., 1994) and Tartaglia et al. (Tartaglia et al., 1995), respectively, more than 22,000 papers related to leptin functions in several biological systems have been published (Pubmed, 2012). The ob gene product, leptin, is an important circulating signal for the regulation of body weight. Additionally, leptin plays critical roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, reproduction, growth and the immune response. Supporting evidence for leptin roles in cancer has been shown in more than 1000 published papers, with almost 300 papers related to breast cancer (Pubmed, 2012). Specific leptin-induced signaling pathways are involved in the increased levels of inflammatory, mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factors in breast cancer. In obesity, a mild inflammatory condition, deregulated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and leptin from adipose tissue, inflammatory and cancer cells could contribute to the onset and progression of cancer. We used an in silico software program, Pathway Studio 9, and found 4587 references citing these various interactions. Functional crosstalk between leptin, IL-1 and Notch signaling (NILCO) found in breast cancer cells could represent the integration of developmental, proinflammatory and pro-angiogenic signals critical for leptin-induced breast cancer cell proliferation/migration, tumor angiogenesis and breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Remarkably, the inhibition of leptin signaling via leptin peptide receptor antagonists (LPrAs) significantly reduced the establishment and growth of syngeneic, xenograft and carcinogen-induced breast cancer and, simultaneously

  11. Exemestane With or Without Entinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer That is Locally Advanced or Metastatic

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  12. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-11-11

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as 'exceptional responders' or as 'rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:25225904

  13. The AURORA initiative for metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zardavas, D; Maetens, M; Irrthum, A; Goulioti, T; Engelen, K; Fumagalli, D; Salgado, R; Aftimos, P; Saini, K S; Sotiriou, C; Campbell, P; Dinh, P; von Minckwitz, G; Gelber, R D; Dowsett, M; Di Leo, A; Cameron, D; Baselga, J; Gnant, M; Goldhirsch, A; Norton, L; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality among women in the Western world. To date most research efforts have focused on the molecular analysis of the primary tumour to dissect the genotypes of the disease. However, accumulating evidence supports a molecular evolution of breast cancer during its life cycle, with metastatic lesions acquiring new molecular aberrations. Recognising this critical gap of knowledge, the Breast International Group is launching AURORA, a large, multinational, collaborative metastatic breast cancer molecular screening programme. Approximately 1300 patients with metastatic breast cancer who have received no more than one line of systemic treatment for advanced disease will, after giving informed consent, donate archived primary tumour tissue, as well as will donate tissue collected prospectively from the biopsy of metastatic lesions and blood. Both tumour tissue types, together with a blood sample, will then be subjected to next generation sequencing for a panel of cancer-related genes. The patients will be treated at the discretion of their treating physicians per standard local practice, and they will be followed for clinical outcome for 10 years. Alternatively, depending on the molecular profiles found, patients will be directed to innovative clinical trials assessing molecularly targeted agents. Samples of outlier patients considered as ‘exceptional responders' or as ‘rapid progressors' based on the clinical follow-up will be subjected to deeper molecular characterisation in order to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. AURORA, through its innovative design, will shed light onto some of the unknown areas of metastatic breast cancer, helping to improve the clinical outcome of breast cancer patients. PMID:25225904

  14. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, N.

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants’ ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants’ opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants’ responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  15. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sriram, N; Mills, Jennifer; Lang, Edward; Dickson, Holli K; Hamann, Heidi A; Nosek, Brian A; Schiller, Joan H

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  16. Breast cancer risk in MEN1 - a cancer genetics perspective.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The tumour spectrum associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) has been known for many years. New data suggest that females with MEN1 may face an additional, hitherto unrecognized, risk of early-onset breast cancer. The menin protein is certainly known to have a role in regulating oestrogen receptor activity; but how robust are the data linking MEN1 to breast cancer? This article examines the published data from the viewpoint of a cancer geneticist and considers whether there really is a justifiable indication for enhanced breast surveillance in women with MEN1. PMID:25279812

  17. MET deregulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is an oncogene encoding for a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor activated by the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MET has a normal function in organ development during embryogenesis and in tissue homeostasis during adult life. Deregulation of HGF/MET signaling pathway is frequently observed in many cancer types, conferring invasive growth and tendency to progression. MET deregulation is due to gene amplification or increased copy number, gene mutation, receptor over-expression or ligand autocrine loops activation. These events lead to migration, invasion, proliferation, metastatic spread and neo-angiogenesis of cancer cells, suggesting that anti-HGF/MET agents may represent a potential antitumor strategy. In breast cancer (BC), preclinical and clinical data demonstrated the role of HGF/MET signalling pathway in carcinogenesis, disease progression and resistance features. Methods For this review article, all published data on HGF/MET in BC were collected and analyzed. Results Several evidences underline that, in early BC, MET over-expression has an independent negative prognostic significance, regardless of method used for evaluation and BC subtypes. Available data suggest that MET is a relevant target particularly in basal-like (BL) and in triple negative BC. Moreover, preclinical and retrospective data support the critical role of MET deregulation in the development of resistance to target-agents, such as anti-HER2 strategies. Conclusions MET is a promising new target in BC. Several anti-MET agents are under investigation and ongoing clinical trials will clarify its relevance in BC treatment. PMID:26366398

  18. Dietary effects on breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G. )

    1991-07-20

    Professor Lee and colleagues show a significant effect of dietary red meat intake, no effect of fat, and a protective effect of soya protein on the risk of breast cancer in young women in Singapore. They do not ascribe the red-meat effect to fat in the meat, and offer no alternative explanation. Red meat contains the most readily absorbed form of dietary iron, and there is evidence that increased body iron stores raise cancer risk, perhaps by one or both of two possible mechanisms: (1) boosting the availability of an essential nutrient for cancer cells, and (2) increasing the production of oxygen radicals. In addition, there is some evidence from studies in animals for a role for iron in mammary-tumor induction. Thompson et al administered 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea to groups of rats receiving normal rat chow, a low-iron diet, or an iron-supplemented diet. The group receiving dietary iron supplementation had the greatest mammary-tumor burden, whereas that receiving an iron-restricted diet had fewer tumors than the group on the normal diet (although this latter effect may have resulted merely from reduced body weight in the rats on an iron-restricted diet). The protective effect of soya protein seen by Lee et al may also be related to iron metabolism. Soy beans are a source of phytate, a constituent of most cereals, nuts, and legumes, that avidly binds iron in such a way that it is incapable of catalyzing the production of oxygen radicals. The protective effect of soya protein may be shared by increased intakes of other plant products that are high in phytate but either not consumed in quantity in Singapore or not assessed in the questionnaire Lee et al administered.

  19. Cellular iron metabolism in prognosis and therapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Torti, Suzy V; Torti, Frank M

    2013-01-01

    Despite many recent advances, breast cancer remains a clinical challenge. Current issues include improving prognostic evaluation and increasing therapeutic options for women whose tumors are refractory to current frontline therapies. Iron metabolism is frequently disrupted in breast cancer, and may offer an opportunity to address these challenges. Iron enhances breast tumor initiation, growth and metastases. Iron may contribute to breast tumor initiation by promoting redox cycling of estrogen metabolites. Up-regulation of iron import and down-regulation of iron export may enable breast cancer cells to acquire and retain excess iron. Alterations in iron metabolism in macrophages and other cells of the tumor microenvironment may also foster breast tumor growth. Expression of iron metabolic genes in breast tumors is predictive of breast cancer prognosis. Iron chelators and other strategies designed to limit iron may have therapeutic value in breast cancer. The dependence of breast cancer on iron presents rich opportunities for improved prognostic evaluation and therapeutic intervention. PMID:23879588

  20. How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... mammogram. It also helps tell the difference between fluid-filled cysts and solid masses. See Mammograms and Other Breast Imaging Tests for more detailed information. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast MRIs use ...

  1. Cancer risk-reduction behaviors of breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Ada M; Waltman, Nancy; Gross, Gloria; Ott, Carol D; Twiss, Jan

    2004-12-01

    Using secondary data analysis, the aim was to determine if postmenopausal women, who have survived breast cancer, have adopted healthy nutritional and physical activity behaviors recommended in the American Cancer Society guidelines as cancer risk-reduction strategies, and in guidelines for prevention of other chronic diseases or for improving general health. From their personal health history, women who have survived breast cancer would be likely candidates to adopt healthy behaviors recommended as cancer risk-reduction strategies or for prevention of other chronic diseases. A secondary aim was to determine the perceived general health and affective state of these women. These breast cancer survivors had a high perception of their general health, a positive affective state, and have adopted some healthy lifestyle behaviors, but they are not fully adhering to the ACS nutrition and physical activity guidelines or other health related guidelines for cancer risk reduction or prevention of other chronic diseases. PMID:15539533

  2. Docetaxel, Carboplatin, Trastuzumab, and Pertuzumab With or Without Estrogen Deprivation in Treating Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Positive Operable or Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. POST-TREATMENT REGRET AMONG YOUNG BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study addresses: (1) what women regret about their breast cancer treatment five years later, and (2) what characteristics of disease and treatment predict post-treatment regret. Method Interviews were conducted with breast cancer survivors in the San Francisco Bay Area. Participants were interviewed following diagnosis. Five years later, women were asked whether they had any regrets about their cancer treatment (N=449). Qualitative analysis was used to identify regret content, and logistic regression was used to determine what characteristics of treatment predicted regret. Results 42.5% of women in the sample regretted some aspect of treatment. The most common regrets were primary surgery (24.1%), chemotherapy and/or radiation (21.5%), reconstruction (17.8%), and problems with providers (13.1%). In addition, women regretted inactions (59.2%) (actions that they did not take) more than actions that they did take (30.4%). This represents a novel finding in the study of post-treatment regret, which has largely focused on regrets over actions. Quantitative analysis revealed that women who were anxious about the future (OR=1.32; p=.03) or had problems communicating with physicians (OR=1.26; p=.02) during treatment were more likely to express regret 5 years later. In addition, women with new or recurrent cancers 5 years later were significantly more likely to regret some aspect of their primary treatment (OR=5.81; p<.001). Conclusion This research supports addressing the psychosocial aspects of cancer care and improving physician-patient communication. Evidence is also provided for addressing the unique emotional needs of women with recurrent cancers, who may experience an undue burden of regret. PMID:20878843

  4. Oral progestagens before menopause and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, A; Fournier, A; Mesrine, S; Desreux, J; Gompel, A; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Clavel-Chapelon, F

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between use of progestagen-only before menopause (except for mini-pills) after the age of 40 and invasive breast cancer risk in 73 664 women from the French E3N cohort study (mean age at start of follow-up, 51.8 years; mean duration of follow-up, 9.1 years). A total of 2390 cases of invasive breast cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Risk estimates were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. Overall, ever use of progestagen before menopause was not significantly associated with risk (relative risk (RR): 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.93–1.11). However, we observed a significant increase in risk associated with the duration of use (P-value for trend: 0.012), current use of progestagens for longer than 4.5 years being significantly associated with risk (RR: 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–2.00). Prolonged use of progestagens after the age of 40 may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and the subject needs to be investigated further. PMID:17299388

  5. Hierarchical Clustering of Breast Cancer Methylomes Revealed Differentially Methylated and Expressed Breast Cancer Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Hsuan; Chen, Dow-Tien; Chang, Yi-Feng; Lee, Yu-Ling; Su, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Ching; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Ng, Swee-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Tan; Lee, Mei-Chen; Chen, Hong-Wei; Suen, Shih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Liu, Tze-Tze; Chang, Chuan-Hsiung; Hsu, Ming-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation of normal cells often involves epigenetic alterations, including histone modification and DNA methylation. We conducted whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylomes of normal breast, fibroadenoma, invasive ductal carcinomas and MCF7. The emergence, disappearance, expansion and contraction of kilobase-sized hypomethylated regions (HMRs) and the hypomethylation of the megabase-sized partially methylated domains (PMDs) are the major forms of methylation changes observed in breast tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering of HMR revealed tumor-specific hypermethylated clusters and differential methylated enhancers specific to normal or breast cancer cell lines. Joint analysis of gene expression and DNA methylation data of normal breast and breast cancer cells identified differentially methylated and expressed genes associated with breast and/or ovarian cancers in cancer-specific HMR clusters. Furthermore, aberrant patterns of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) was found in breast cancer cell lines as well as breast tumor samples in the TCGA BRCA (breast invasive carcinoma) dataset. They were characterized with differentially hypermethylated XIST promoter, reduced expression of XIST, and over-expression of hypomethylated X-linked genes. High expressions of these genes were significantly associated with lower survival rates in breast cancer patients. Comprehensive analysis of the normal and breast tumor methylomes suggests selective targeting of DNA methylation changes during breast cancer progression. The weak causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression observed in this study is evident of more complex role of DNA methylation in the regulation of gene expression in human epigenetics that deserves further investigation. PMID:25706888

  6. Prognostic Significance of 5-Year PSA Value for Predicting Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Brachytherapy Alone and Combined With Hormonal Therapy and/or External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, Richard G. Klein, Thomas J.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognosis and outcomes of patients who remain free of biochemical failure during the first 5 years after treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 742 patients with prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy alone (n = 306), brachytherapy and hormonal therapy (n = 212), or combined implantation and external beam radiotherapy (with or without hormonal therapy; n = 224). These patients were free of biochemical failure (American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ASTRO] definition) during the first 5 post-treatment years and had a documented 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. The median follow-up was 6.93 years. Results: The actuarial 10-year freedom from PSA failure rate was 97% using the ASTRO definition and 95% using the Phoenix definition. The median 5-year PSA level was 0.03 ng/mL (range, 0-3.6). The 5-year PSA value was {<=}0.01 in 47.7%, >0.01-0.10 in 31.1%, >0.10-0.2 in 10.2%, >0.2-0.5 in 7.82%, and >0.5 in 3.10%. The 5-year PSA value had prognostic significance, with a PSA value of {<=}0.2 ng/mL (n = 661) corresponding to a 10-year freedom from PSA failure rate of 99% with the ASTRO definition and 98% with the Phoenix definition vs. 86% (ASTRO definition) and 81% (Phoenix definition) for a PSA value {>=}0.2 ng/mL (n = 81; p < .0001). The treatment regimen had no effect on biochemical failure. None of the 742 patients in this study developed metastatic disease or died of prostate cancer. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the prognosis for patients treated with brachytherapy and who remain biochemically free of disease for {>=}5 years is excellent and none developed metastatic disease during the first 10 years after treatment. The 5-year PSA value is prognostic, and patients with a PSA value <0.2 ng/mL are unlikely to develop subsequent biochemical relapse.

  7. [Hormonotherapy for breast cancer prevention: What about women with genetic predisposition to breast cancer?].

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Claire; Reyal, Fabien; Callet, Nasrine; This, Pascale; Noguès, Catherine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fourme, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    In France, women carrying BRCA1/2 mutation, at an identified high risk of breast cancer are recommended to undergo breast MRI screening. That screening does not however prevent the risk of developing a breast cancer. The only alternative to breast cancer screening available in France is surgical prevention by prophylactic mastectomy. An interesting option for women who wish to reduce their breast cancer risk, but are unready for prophylactic mastectomy is a preventive hormonal treatment by aromatase inhibitors, or selective estrogens receptor modulators (SERMs). Reliable clinical trials show the efficiency of tamoxifen, raloxifen, exemestane, and anastrozole especially, in reducing breast cancer incidence by 33%, 34%, 65% and 53% respectively. This article tries to sum up the main published trials of breast cancer prevention with hormonal treatment, and presents the latest American and English clinical guidelines concerning hormonal prevention for women at high risk of breast cancer, and starts thinking about the possibilities of hormonoprevention, especially among women carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation in France. PMID:26852151

  8. Neuroendocrine breast tumours: breast cancer or neuroendocrine cancer presenting in the breast?

    PubMed

    Adams, R W; Dyson, P; Barthelmes, L

    2014-04-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of the breast are rare. Diagnosis depends on close scrutiny of core- or excisional-biopsy specimens for characteristic growth patterns (papillary, nesting or mixed), which should trigger immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers (in particular chromogranin and synaptophysin). The diagnosis is confirmed if a) >50% of the tissue specimen demonstrate neuroendocrine markers and b) in-situ ductal carcinoma is identified and/or imaging modalities exclude extra-mammary sites. Our literature search including the non-English literature identified 66 articles with data on 123 cases, including our own. Oestrogen receptors are not diagnostic for NET's of the breast as they are found in tumours of non-mammary origin, too. Half of reported cases of neuroendocrine tumours have axillary lymph node involvement. Breast-conserving surgery (wide local excision ± axillary clearance) is commonly performed for suitable tumours. Chemotherapy regimens utilised are commonly either platinum- (as for small-cell cancers) or anthracycline-based (as for primary breast cancers). Best management remains unknown. PMID:24342375

  9. Breast cancer screening in regional Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A G; Talavera, G A; Villarreal, R; Suarez, L; McAlister, A; Trapido, E; Pérez-Stable, E; Marti, J

    2000-10-01

    Although Hispanics' use of breast cancer screening services has been investigated, to date there have been no published studies of distinct Hispanic populations in different areas of the country. Using the diverse populations and sites involved in the National Hispanic Leadership Initiative on Cancer 'En Acción', this study examines ethno-regional differences in breast cancer screening rates among these groups and explores the correlates of screening participation. Data collected through telephone surveys were analyzed for women 40 years of age and older (n = 2082). After controlling for demographic variables traditionally related to breast cancer screening rates, it was found that ethno-regional differences in breast cancer screening practices clearly persisted. In addition to traditional demographic factors, other variables evidently underlie differences in Hispanics' utilization of breast cancer screening services. These variables may be cultural and should be investigated in future research. Meanwhile, researchers should not refer to the 'Hispanic' population at large without identifying, addressing and clarifying the ethno-regional characteristics of their samples. PMID:11184215

  10. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Orozco, Breanna Z

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength), negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass), increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:26543382

  11. Obesity, cholesterol metabolism, and breast cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Donald P; Park, Sunghee; Goulet, Matthew T; Jasper, Jeff; Wardell, Suzanne E; Chang, Ching-Yi; Norris, John D; Guyton, John R; Nelson, Erik R

    2014-09-15

    Obesity and altered lipid metabolism are risk factors for breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women. These pathologic relationships have been attributed in part to the impact of cholesterol on the biophysical properties of cell membranes and to the influence of these changes on signaling events initiated at the membrane. However, more recent studies have indicated that the oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), and not cholesterol per se, may be the primary biochemical link between lipid metabolism and cancer. The enzyme responsible for production of 27HC from cholesterol, CYP27A1, is expressed primarily in the liver and in macrophages. In addition, significantly elevated expression of this enzyme within breast tumors has also been observed. It is believed that 27HC, acting through the liver X receptor in macrophages and possibly other cells, is involved in maintaining organismal cholesterol homeostasis. It has also been shown recently that 27HC is an estrogen receptor agonist in breast cancer cells and that it stimulates the growth and metastasis of tumors in several models of breast cancer. These findings provide the rationale for the clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical approaches that interfere with cholesterol/27HC synthesis as a means to mitigate the impact of cholesterol on breast cancer pathogenesis. Cancer Res; 74(18); 4976-82. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25060521

  12. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Orozco, Breanna Z

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength), negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass), increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:26543382

  13. Psychiatric care for patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Koh, K B

    1999-10-01

    Psychiatric management of patients with breast cancer, as well as women's emotional reactions to all phases of breast cancer, were reviewed. These patients face two major losses; one is the physical loss of part of the body and a threat to life, and the other is the loss of femininity. The patients are also likely to suffer from various psychiatric problems including anxiety and depression. Oncologists should be alert to each patient's emotional reactions and potential psychiatric problems, and if necessary, should refer them to a psychiatrist. A combination of psychotherapeutic, behavioural, and pharmacologic techniques is available for the care of patients with breast cancer. Psychotherapeutic modalities include individual therapy, family therapy, group therapy, and self-help treatment. The author divided individual therapy into general and specific treatment. General treatment deals with a crisis-intervention and cognitive-behavioral approach, whereas specific treatment deals with issues relevant to patients with breast cancer. Some of the therapeutic processes were illustrated in a case report. These guidelines will contribute to the relief and prevention of emotional suffering stemming from an encounter with the most common form of cancer in women. Also, proper and effective care for patients with breast cancer requires combined use of a variety of therapeutic modalities as well as a multi-disciplinary approach including psychiatric care. PMID:10565263

  14. Biological markers of invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Ando, Tomofumi; Fujii, Taku; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Saito, Junichi; Takahashi, Maiko; Hayashida, Tetsu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    Biological markers for breast cancer are biomolecules that result from cancer-related processes and are associated with particular clinical outcomes; they thus help predict responses to therapy. In recent years, gene expression profiling has made the molecular classification of breast cancer possible. Classification of breast cancer by immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki-67 is standard practice for clinical decision-making. Assessments of hormone receptor expression and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression help estimate benefits from targeted therapies and have greatly improved prognoses for women with these breast cancer types. Although Ki-67 positivity is associated with an adverse outcome, its clear identification is an aid to optimal disease management. Standardization of testing methodology to minimize inter-laboratory measurement variations is a remaining issue. Multi-gene assays provide prognostic information and identify those most likely to benefit from systemic chemotherapy. Incorporating molecular profiles with conventional pathological classification would be more precise, and could enhance the clinical development of personalized therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26486826

  15. Melatonin: an Inhibitor of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Steven M.; Belancio, Victoria P.; Dauchy, Robert T.; Xiang, Shulin; Brimer, Samantha; Mao, Lulu; Hauch, Adam; Lundberg, Peter W.; Summers, Whitney; Yuan, Lin; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses recent work on melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and metabolic and molecular signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and associated consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LEN). The anti-cancer actions of the circadian melatonin signal in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts heavily involve MT1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. In estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive human breast cancer, melatonin, via the MT1 receptor, suppresses ERα mRNA expression and ERα transcriptional activity. As well, melatonin regulates the transactivation of other members of the nuclear receptor super-family, estrogen metabolizing enzymes, and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. Furthermore, melatonin also suppresses tumor aerobic metabolism (Warburg effect), and, subsequently, cell-signaling pathways critical to cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. Melatonin demonstrates both cytostatic and cytotoxic activity in breast cancer cells that appears to be cell type specific. Melatonin also possesses anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions that involve multiple pathways including inhibition of p38 MAPK and repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Studies demonstrate that melatonin promotes genomic stability by inhibiting the expression of LINE-1 retrotransposons. Finally, research in animal and human models indicate that LEN induced disruption of the circadian nocturnal melatonin signal promotes the growth, metabolism, and signaling of human breast cancer to drive breast tumors to endocrine and chemotherapeutic resistance. These data provide the strongest understanding and support of the mechanisms underpinning the epidemiologic demonstration of elevated breast cancer risk in night shift workers and other individuals increasingly exposed to LEN. PMID:25876649

  16. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P < 0.05), although no associations were observed for other DNA repair SNPs. Interactions of six SNPs in multiple DNA repair pathways with physical activity were evident prior to correction for FDR, following which there was support for only one of the interaction terms (P < 0.05). No consistent associations between variants in DNA repair genes and breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  17. Outcomes of Breast Cancer Patients With Triple Negative Receptor Status Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, J. Ben; Reid, Robert E.; Shaitelman, Simona F.; Chen, Peter Y.; Mitchell, Christine K.; Wallace, Michelle F.; Marvin, Kimberly S.; Grills, Inga S.; Margolis, Jeffrey M.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Triple negative receptor status (TNRS) of patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy treated with whole-breast irradiation has been associated with increased distant metastasis and decreased disease-free and overall survival. This paper reports the outcomes of TNRS patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: We studied 455 patients who received APBI at our institution, using interstitial, intracavitary, and three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. TNRS was assigned if a patient tested negative for all three (ER [estrogen receptor], PR [progesterone receptor], and HER2/neu) receptors. Of 202 patients with all receptor results available, 20 patients were designated TNRS, and 182 patients had at least one receptor positive (RP). We analyzed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional nodal failure (RNF), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Results: Mean follow-up was 4.1 years for the TNRS group and 5.1 years for the RP cohort (p = 0.11). TNRS patients had a higher histologic grade (59% TNRS vs. 13% RP; p < 0.001). Mean tumor size, stage N1 disease, and margin status were similar. Based on a 5-year actuarial analysis, the TNRS cohort experienced no IBTR, RNF, or DM, with an OS of 100% versus rates of 1.4% IBTR, 1.5% RNF, and 2.8% DM in the RP cohort (p > 0.52). OS for the RP cohort was 93% at 5 years (p > 0.28). Conclusions: In our patient population, TNRS conferred a clinical outcome similar to that of patients with RP disease treated with APBI. Further investigation with larger patient populations and longer follow-up periods is warranted to confirm that APBI is a safe and effective treatment for patients with localized TNRS breast cancer.

  18. [Study of Her-2/neu oncogene in relation to prognosis of human breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, R S

    1993-10-01

    A follow-up study of 143 cases of human breast cancer for over 5 years proved that Her-2/neu oncogene overexpression is much more common in the high risk group (patients died within 5 years) in comparison with the low risk group (patients survived over 5 years). The difference between these 2 groups was statistically significant. The Her-2/neu oncogene positive rate in infiltrative ductal carcinoma was 33.3%, the lower the differentiation, the higher the positive rate. Histological typing is also related to the positive rate, comedocarcinoma (intraductal carcinoma) expresses the highest positive rate while lobular carcinoma the lowest. Selection of fixation fluid and the mastering of diagnostic criteria are also important. In the author's opinion, only membrane staining in monoclonal antibody C-erbB-2 can be recognized as truly positive. In conclusion, Her-2/neu oncogene expression can be used as a supplemental marker when considering prognosis in breast cancer. PMID:7909501

  19. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Breast Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B; Lourenco, Ana; Mahoney, Mary C; Newell, Mary S; Bailey, Lisa; Barke, Lora D; D'Orsi, Carl; Harvey, Jennifer A; Hayes, Mary K; Huynh, Phan Tuong; Jokich, Peter M; Lee, Su-Ju; Lehman, Constance D; Mankoff, David A; Nepute, Joshua A; Patel, Samir B; Reynolds, Handel E; Sutherland, M Linda; Haffty, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is the recommended method for breast cancer screening of women in the general population. However, mammography alone does not perform as well as mammography plus supplemental screening in high-risk women. Therefore, supplemental screening with MRI or ultrasound is recommended in selected high-risk populations. Screening breast MRI is recommended in women at high risk for breast cancer on the basis of family history or genetic predisposition. Ultrasound is an option for those high-risk women who cannot undergo MRI. Recent literature also supports the use of breast MRI in some women of intermediate risk, and ultrasound may be an option for intermediate-risk women with dense breasts. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of other imaging modalities, such as thermography, breast-specific gamma imaging, positron emission mammography, and optical imaging, for breast cancer screening. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review includes an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:23290667

  20. Stromal influences on breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed Central

    van Roozendaal, C. E.; van Ooijen, B.; Klijn, J. G.; Claassen, C.; Eggermont, A. M.; Henzen-Logmans, S. C.; Foekens, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    Paracrine influences from fibroblasts derived from different sources of breast tissue on epithelial breast cancer cell growth in vitro were investigated. Medium conditioned (CM) by fibroblasts derived from tumours, adjacent normal breast tissue, and normal breast tissue obtained from reduction mammoplasty or from skin tissue significantly stimulated the growth of the steroid-receptor positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR 75.1. The proliferation index (PI) on MCF-7 cells with CM from fibroblasts derived from breast tumour tissue was significantly higher than that obtained with fibroblasts derived from adjacent normal breast tissue (2p less than 0.05, n = 8). The PI obtained with CM from normal fibroblast cultures from reduction mammoplasty tissue, like normal tissue adjacent to the tumour, fell in the lower range of values. Skin fibroblast, like tumour tissue derived fibroblast, CM caused a high range PI. MDA-MB-231 and Evsa-T, two steroid-receptor negative cell lines, showed only a minor growth stimulatory responses with some of the fibroblast CM's. Evsa-T was occasionally inhibited by CM's. In conclusion, stromal factors play a role in the growth regulation of human breast cancer cells. The effects on cancer cell growth are, however, varying depending on the source of the stroma and the characteristics of the epithelial tumour cells. PMID:1733444

  1. Long Term Results (>5 Years) in Patients With Peritoneovenous Shunting for Intractable Ascites: Liver Function and Cancer Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Meakins, Jonathan L.; Wu, Andrew; Smadja, Claude; Bonnet, Patrick; Gouffier, Etienne; Campillo, Bernard

    1989-01-01

    This report is based on twenty-eight (26%) of 107 patients included in a protocol for prospective evaluation of elective peritoneo-venous shunting for intractable ascites in cirrhosis. These patients had no other procedures and survived more than 5 years after the operation. All patients were free of ascites except one in whom it was mild. One patient refused follow-up. Shunt patency was assessed in 23 patients. In 14 patients (60.9%), the shunt was obstructed and the superior vena cava was occluded in 5 of them. In 9 patients (39.1%), the shunt was still functioning. No clinical or biological parameters differentiated these two groups of patients. Of the 24 patients who were alcoholics, 2 abstained completely and 20 significantly reduced their drinking habits. In 25 patients, the Pugh's score improved and was A at the time of the study. Seven patients (25.9%) developed a malignant tumor of the oro-pharynx or digestive tract, all other patients were alive and in good health. This study suggests that patients with intractable ascites treated by a peritoneo-venous shunt may survive for a long period. In patients abstaining from heavy drinking, it may function as a therapeutic bridge permitting spontaneous improvement of liver function. The risk of supervening neoplasms suggests that a continuous follow-up of these patients is warranted. PMID:2487384

  2. Perceived and objective breast cancer risk assessment in Chilean women living in an underserved area

    PubMed Central

    Banegas, Matthew P.; Püschel, Klaus; Martinez, Javiera; Anderson, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Beti

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among Chilean women and an increasingly significant public health threat. This study assessed the accuracy of breast cancer risk perception among underserved, Chilean women. Methods Women aged 50 to 70 years, with no mammogram during the last two years, were randomly selected from a community clinic registry in Santiago, Chile (n=500). Perceived risk was measured using three methods: absolute risk, comparative risk and numerical risk. Risk comprehension was measured by comparing women’s perceived and objective risk estimates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess overestimation of perceived risk. Results Women at high risk of breast cancer were more likely than average risk women to perceive themselves at high or higher risk, using absolute and comparative risk approaches (p<0.001). The majority of participants (67%) overestimated their breast cancer risk, based on risk comprehension; although, participants achieved higher accuracy with comparative risk (40%) and absolute risk (31.6%) methods. [Age, breast cancer knowledge and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) 5-year risk were significantly associated (p<0.01) with accuracy of perceived risk]. Conclusion Chilean women residing in an underserved community may not accurately assess their breast cancer risk, though risk perception and level of accuracy differed between perceived risk measures. Comparative and absolute risk methods may better reflect women’s interpretation and accuracy of risk perception. Impact Improving our understanding of Chilean women’s perceptions of developing breast cancer may lead to the development of culturally relevant efforts to reduce the breast cancer burden in this population. PMID:22837144

  3. Metastatic breast cancer with right ventricular erosion.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Han; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Wang, Yi-Chia; Huang, Chi-Hsiang

    2016-03-01

    Cancer that has metastasized to the heart and pericardium has a dismal outcome. Individualized treatment to preserve the quality of life and reduce surgical mortality is important. We describe a 57-year old woman who had a recurrence of breast cancer 23 years after the initial complete treatment. Cardiac metastasis with poor anterior chest wall healing led to right ventricular rupture, which caused hypovolaemic shock. The right ventricular wall defect was repaired with a percutaneous patch and a myocutaneous flap without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient was discharged home after intensive wound care. Our patient shows that even with complete initial treatment, clinicians should be alert for the recurrence of breast cancer. PMID:25890934

  4. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  5. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Veta, Mitko; Pluim, Josien P W; van Diest, Paul J; Viergever, Max A

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology slide digitization, and which aim at replacing the optical microscope as the primary tool used by pathologist. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancers among women, and image analysis methods that target this disease have a huge potential to reduce the workload in a typical pathology lab and to improve the quality of the interpretation. This paper is meant as an introduction for nonexperts. It starts with an overview of the tissue preparation, staining and slide digitization processes followed by a discussion of the different image processing techniques and applications, ranging from analysis of tissue staining to computer-aided diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer patients. PMID:24759275

  6. Etiology of breast cancer. II. Epidemiologic aspects *

    PubMed Central

    Vakil, Damodar V.; Morgan, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    The epidemiology of breast cancer is reviewed with particular emphasis on its etiology. A number of studies suggest that differences in breast cancer incidence are associated with differences in marital status, number of pregnancies, age at menarche, age at menopause, height and weight, socioeconomic status, geographic location and residence. However, in no case is the evidence adequate to establish a “cause and effect” relationship. The genetic component of these associations may be of primary importance, while other conditions such as marital status are probably indirect reflections of the operation of more fundamental factors. There is a general consensus that endocrine factors play an important part in mammary cancer occurrence. At present, the association between breast cancer and the presence of the virus-like (type B) particles in human milk is not established. PMID:4353980

  7. Synthetic lethal approaches to breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Farah L; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan

    2010-12-01

    The promise of personalized therapy for breast cancer is that therapeutic efficacy will be increased while toxic effects are reduced to a minimum. To achieve this goal, there is now an emphasis on the design of therapies that are based not only on the clinical manifestations of the disease, but also on the underlying molecular and cellular biology of cancer. However, identifying targets for personalized therapies in breast cancer is challenging. Here, we describe how biological concepts such as synthetic lethality and oncogene addiction can be used to identify new therapeutic targets and approaches. We discuss the current clinical developments in implementing synthetic lethality therapies, and highlight new ways in which this approach could be used to target specific subsets of breast cancer. PMID:20956981

  8. Many Breast Cancer Patients Try Alternative Medicine First

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158806.html Many Breast Cancer Patients Try Alternative Medicine First: Study But delay ... 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with early stage breast cancer who turn to alternative medicine may delay recommended ...

  9. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Genomic Resources Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. February 2016. Family Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and ...

  10. Race, Poverty May Affect Early Stage Breast Cancer Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Breast Cancer Health Disparities Women's Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Cancer Health Disparities Women's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  11. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Investigation to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  12. Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles » My ACS » Lymphedema: What Every Woman With Breast Cancer Should Know Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Women who have been treated for breast cancer may be at risk for lymphedema in the ...

  13. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Aromatase inhibitors and other compounds for lowering breast cancer risk Aromatase inhibitors (drugs that lower estrogen levels) ... day. Can aromatase inhibitors lower the risk of breast cancer? Aromatase inhibitors are used mainly to treat hormone ...

  14. Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island

    Cancer.gov

    The cornerstone of the LIBCSP is the Breast Cancer and the Environment on Long Island Study, which was undertaken to determine whether certain environmental contaminants increase risk of breast cancer among women on Long Island.

  15. Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (Past Initiative)

    Cancer.gov

    The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project is a multistudy effort to investigate whether environmental factors are responsible for breast cancer in Suffolk and Nassau counties, NY, as well as in Schoharie County, NY, and Tolland County, CT.

  16. New Guidelines Set Safe Surgery Margins for Some Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... New Guidelines Set Safe Surgery Margins for Some Breast Cancers 2 millimeters is enough to guard against recurrences ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New surgery guidelines for certain breast cancer patients could reduce both unnecessary surgeries and recurrence ...

  17. [Public policies for the detection of breast cancer in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Montañez, Olga Georgina; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Breast Cancer is a significant public health problem associated with epidemiological and demographic transitions that are currently taking place in Mexico. Aging and increased exposure to risk factors are thought to increase breast cancer incidence, having great relevance for the society and health services. Under this scenario, the health system must respond to the growing needs for better breast cancer screening services. In this paper we present an update of breast cancer mortality, general international recommendations for breast cancer screening programs and key aspects of the Mexico Action Program for Breast Cancer Screening and Control 2007-2012. Breast cancer policies are aimed at organizing and increasing the infrastructure to develop a National Program for Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer with optimal quality, friendliness and respect for patient's rights. PMID:19967293

  18. Dataset of STAT5A status in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Utpal K.; Cass, Jamaica; Raptis, Leda; Craig, Andrew W.; Bourdeau, Véronique; Varma, Sonal; Gupta, Sandip Sen; Elliott, Bruce E.; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We analysed STAT5A gene expression in breast cancer using the Oncomine database. We exemplify four representative studies showing that STAT5A is generally downregulated in breast cancer. PMID:27014737

  19. Many Breast Cancer Patients Try Alternative Medicine First

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158806.html Many Breast Cancer Patients Try Alternative Medicine First: Study But delay in getting chemotherapy may ... with early stage breast cancer who turn to alternative medicine may delay recommended chemotherapy, a new study suggests. ...

  20. Healthy Living May Offset Genetic Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159053.html Healthy Living May Offset Genetic Breast Cancer Risk Lifestyle may matter even more ... be especially powerful for women at relatively high genetic risk of breast cancer, researchers found. "Those genetic ...