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Sample records for 5-year local control

  1. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  2. Traditional endodontic surgery versus modern technique: a 5-year controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tortorici, Silvia; Difalco, Paolo; Caradonna, Luigi; Tetè, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared outcomes of traditional apicoectomy versus modern apicoectomy, by means of a controlled clinical trial with a 5-year follow-up. The study investigated 938 teeth in 843 patients. On the basis of the procedure performed, the teeth were grouped in 3 groups. Differences between the groups were the method of osteotomy (type of instruments used), type of preparation of retrograde cavity (different apicoectomy angles and instruments used for root-end preparation), and root-end filling material used (gray mineral trioxide aggregate or silver amalgam). Outcome (tooth healing) was estimated after 1 and 5 years, postoperatively. Clinical success rates after 1 year were 67% (306 teeth), 90% (186 teeth), and 94% (256 teeth) according to traditional apicoectomy (group 1), modern microsurgical apicoectomy using burns for osteotomy (group 2) or using piezo-osteotomy (group 3), respectively. After 1 year, group comparison results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Linear trend test was also statistically significant (P < 0.0001), pointing out larger healing from group 1 to group 3. After 5 years, teeth were classified into 2 groups on the basis of root-end filling material used. Clinical success was 90.8% (197 teeth) in the silver amalgam group versus 96% (309 teeth) in the mineral trioxide aggregate group (P < 0.00214). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that surgical technique was independently associated to tooth healing. In conclusion, modern apicoectomy resulted in a probability of success more than 5 times higher (odds ratio, 5.20 [95% confidence interval, 3.94-6.92]; P < 0.001) compared with the traditional technique. PMID:24469371

  3. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  4. Performance of eHealth Data Sources in Local Influenza Surveillance: A 5-Year Open Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Spreco, Armin; Dahlström, Örjan; Eriksson, Olle; Gursky, Elin; Ekberg, Joakim; Blomqvist, Eva; Strömgren, Magnus; Karlsson, David; Eriksson, Henrik; Nyce, James; Hinkula, Jorma; Holm, Einar

    2014-01-01

    Background There is abundant global interest in using syndromic data from population-wide health information systems—referred to as eHealth resources—to improve infectious disease surveillance. Recently, the necessity for these systems to achieve two potentially conflicting requirements has been emphasized. First, they must be evidence-based; second, they must be adjusted for the diversity of populations, lifestyles, and environments. Objective The primary objective was to examine correlations between data from Google Flu Trends (GFT), computer-supported telenursing centers, health service websites, and influenza case rates during seasonal and pandemic influenza outbreaks. The secondary objective was to investigate associations between eHealth data, media coverage, and the interaction between circulating influenza strain(s) and the age-related population immunity. Methods An open cohort design was used for a five-year study in a Swedish county (population 427,000). Syndromic eHealth data were collected from GFT, telenursing call centers, and local health service website visits at page level. Data on mass media coverage of influenza was collected from the major regional newspaper. The performance of eHealth data in surveillance was measured by correlation effect size and time lag to clinically diagnosed influenza cases. Results Local media coverage data and influenza case rates showed correlations with large effect sizes only for the influenza A (A) pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 (r=.74, 95% CI .42-.90; P<.001) and the severe seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2011-2012 (r=.79, 95% CI .42-.93; P=.001), with media coverage preceding case rates with one week. Correlations between GFT and influenza case data showed large effect sizes for all outbreaks, the largest being the seasonal A H3N2 outbreak in 2008-2009 (r=.96, 95% CI .88-.99; P<.001). The preceding time lag decreased from two weeks during the first outbreaks to one week from the 2009 A pH1N1 pandemic. Telenursing data

  5. [A 5-year survival case of locally advanced cancer of the pancreatic body treated by distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Iseki, Masahiro; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Mizuma, Masamichi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Kei; Okada, Takaho; Otsuka, Hideo; Ottomo, Shigeru; Sakata, Naoaki; Fukase, Koji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onogawa, Tohru; Naito, Takeshi; Katayose, Yu; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki

    2012-11-01

    A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with locally advanced cancer of the pancreatic body, involving the nerve plexus around the celiac axis, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery. He was treated with a combination of irradiation (2 Gy/day, total 24 Gy) and 600 mg/m2 of gemcitabine(GEM)biweekly. The tumor size and the involved plexus area were not diminished, but CA19-9 was reduced by half. Distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection(DP-CAR)was performed. The histological findings indicated extensive invasion into the nerve plexus, including that adjacent to the stump of the pancreas, and thus the R classification was R1. After surgery, 1,000 mg/m2 of GEM was administered biweekly. The chemotherapy has been performed for 5 years to prevent local and systemic recurrence. No recurrence has been found 5 years after surgery. Multidisciplinary treatment, combined with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, curative-intent resection, and postoperative chemotherapy is important for effective treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:23267939

  6. Local Wellness Policy 5 Years Later: Is It Making a Difference for Students in Low-Income, Rural Colorado Elementary Schools?

    PubMed Central

    Cutforth, Nick; Gilbert, Lynn; Litt, Jill; Reed, Hannah; Scarbro, Sharon; Marshall, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The federally mandated Local Wellness Policy (LWP) was intended to promote student health in schools. This study assesses the 5-year effects of the LWP on the health practices of rural elementary schools in Colorado. Methods One year before and 5 years after the LWP mandate, a survey was administered to a random sample of principals, physical education (PE) teachers, and food-service managers in 45 rural, low-income elementary schools in Colorado. Response rates were 71% in 2005 and 89% in 2011. Results Minutes for PE and recess did not increase, nor did offerings of fresh fruits and vegetables. More schools adopted policies prohibiting teachers from taking recess away as punishment (9.7% in 2005 vs 38.5% in 2011, P = .02) or for making up missed instructional time, class work, or tests in other subjects (3.2% in 2005 vs 28.2% in 2011, P = .03). More schools scheduled recess before lunch (22.6% in 2005 vs 46.2% in 2011, P = .04) and developed policies for vending machines (42.9% in 2005 vs 85.7% in 2011, P = .01) and parties (21.4% in 2005 vs 57.9% in 2011, P = .004). Conclusion Changes in school practices are modest, and arguably the important school practices such as increased PE and recess time and increased offerings of fruits and vegetables in the lunch line have not changed in the 5 years since the mandate went into effect. Further investigation is needed to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes as well as financial and physical resources required for school administrators to make changes in school practices. PMID:24199737

  7. 70 Gy Versus 80 Gy in Localized Prostate Cancer: 5-Year Results of GETUG 06 Randomized Trial;Prostate cancer; Dose escalation; Conformal radiotherapy; Randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Beckendorf, Veronique; Guerif, Stephane; Le Prise, Elisabeth; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Bougnoux, Agnes; Chauvet, Bruno; Salem, Naji; Chapet, Olivier; Bourdain, Sylvain; Bachaud, Jean-Marc; Maingon, Philippe; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Malissard, Luc; Simon, Jean-Marc; Pommier, Pascal; Hay, Men; Dubray, Bernard; Lagrange, Jean-Leon; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Bey, Pierre

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a randomized trial comparing 70 and 80 Gy radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A total of 306 patients with localized prostate cancer were randomized. No androgen deprivation was allowed. The primary endpoint was biochemical relapse according to the modified 1997-American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology and Phoenix definitions. Toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 1991 criteria and the late effects on normal tissues-subjective, objective, management, analytic scales (LENT-SOMA) scales. The patients' quality of life was scored using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30-item cancer-specific and 25-item prostate-specific modules. Results: The median follow-up was 61 months. According to the 1997-American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition, the 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 39% and 28% in the 70- and 80-Gy arms, respectively (p = .036). Using the Phoenix definition, the 5-year biochemical relapse rate was 32% and 23.5%, respectively (p = .09). The subgroup analysis showed a better biochemical outcome for the higher dose group with an initial prostate-specific antigen level >15 ng/mL. At the last follow-up date, 26 patients had died, 10 of their disease and none of toxicity, with no differences between the two arms. According to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, the Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity rate was 14% and 19.5% for the 70- and 80-Gy arms (p = .22), respectively. The Grade 2 or greater urinary toxicity was 10% at 70 Gy and 17.5% at 80 Gy (p = .046). Similar results were observed using the LENT-SOMA scale. Bladder toxicity was more frequent at 80 Gy than at 70 Gy (p = .039). The quality-of-life questionnaire results before and 5 years after treatment were available for 103 patients with no differences found between the 70- and 80-Gy arms. Conclusion: High-dose radiotherapy provided a

  8. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Localized and Locally Advanced Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer: 2,5 Year Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, V. A.; Dvoynikov, S. Y.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction & Objectives: High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be a successful treatment for localised prostate cancer (PC). Here we have explored the effectiveness of the HIFU treatment for hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). Materials & Methods: 341 patients were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2009; all of them showed treatment failure following hormone ablation. The median time before hormone-resistance was 20 (3-48) months. In the group with localised PC: number of patients 237, Gleason score ≤7, stage T1-2N0M0, age 69 (60-89) years, mean PSA before treatment 40,0 (5,8-92,9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—39,3 (28-92) cc; in the group with locally advanced PC: number of patients 104, Gleason score ≤9, stage T2-3N0M0, age 72 (52-83) years, PSA before treatment 30,3 (20,1-60) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—41,2 (25-198) cc. HIFU was delivered under spinal anesthesia using the Ablatherm HIFU device (EDAP, France). Pre HIFU transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed for all patients. Mean follow-up time 18 months (3-30). Results: The median PSA level 12 months after HIFU treatment was 0,04 (0-2,24) ng/ml—localised PC, and for locally advanced disease—0,05 (0-48,4) ng/ml, at 18 months after HIFU treatment this was 0,2 (0,02-2,0) ng/ml for localised PC, and for locally advanced disease 0,18 (0,04-7,45) ng/ml. Patients with localised PC has 4,5% recurrence, those with locally advanced PC 20%. Kaplan-Meir analyses of the total group indicated that the risk of recurrence after 1 year follow-up was 10%, the risk of recurrence was 19% after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that ultrasound ablation is safe, minimally invasive and effective as a treatment for localised and locally advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer.

  9. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  10. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... Physical and motor skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

  11. 5-Year control and treatment of edema and increased capillary filtration in venous hypertension and diabetic microangiopathy using O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides: a prospective comparative clinical registry.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, Gianni; Cesarone, Maria Rosaria; Ledda, Andrea; Cacchio, Marisa; Ruffini, Irma; Ricci, Andrea; Ippolito, Edmondo; Di Renzo, Andrea; Dugall, Mark; Corsi, Marcello; Marino Santarelli, Anna Rita; Grossi, Maria Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    This independent prospective controlled trial evaluates the efficacy of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (HR) during 5 years of administration against signs and symptoms and further degeneration of microcirculatory disturbances. The protective effect of HR in preventing end-point complications such as venous ulceration is evaluated. This study is based on evaluation of edema and the capillary filtration rate (CFR) in association with a clinical score scale. Patients having a severe degree of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and venous microangiopathy and completing at least 5 years of treatment are included. The following 4 groups are considered: group A (patients with CVI but without diabetes mellitus, receiving 1500 mg/d of HR), group B (patients with CVI and diabetes mellitus, receiving 2 g/d of HR), group C (control subjects receiving no pharmacologic or compression treatment), and group D (patients using elastic compression stockings only). All patients received the "best" available treatment. No adverse effects or intolerance is noted, with good compliance (>85%). In group A, there is a statistically significant decrease in the CFR during 5 years of follow-up. In group B, the decrease in the CFR is greater than that in group A. Reductions in edema, swelling, and the CFR during 5 years are notable, and values approach normal levels. During 5 years, HR is effective in treating venous edema and hypertension and in preventing deterioration of the distal venous system. The prevention of ulcerations with HR is another important observation. The effects of HR seem to be partially dose related, and tolerability and compliance are good.

  12. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  13. Case-control study on risk factors for leukaemia and brain tumours in children under 5 years in Germany.

    PubMed

    Spix, C; Schulze-Rath, R; Kaatsch, P; Blettner, M

    2009-01-01

    In the context of a case control study on the cancer risk for children under five by distance to the nearest nuclear power plant, we collected information on other risk factors in a subset. We present the interview study as if it had been an independent study. Parents of 471 cases with Leukaemia, Lymphoma or CNS (Central Nervous System)-tumour from the German Childhood Cancer Registry, diagnosed at age under 5 in the years 1993-2003, and 1,457 matched controls were to be interviewed. For Leukaemia, 243 cases/604 controls, and for CNS 102 cases/246 controls participated, lymphoma cases were too few. Questions related to social status, ionizing radiation, pregnancy and birth, immune system, and selected toxins. The analysis is exploratory in nature; variables were selected by backward elimination. For leukaemia we found a significant protective effect of social contacts (OR=0.50, 95% CI [0.29;0.87]) and a risk for high birth weight (OR=1.96 95% CI [1.12;3.41] comparing >4,000 g to "normal"). We could not reproduce other associations reported in the literature such as a negative association with allergies. For CNS tumours we found a significant protective effect of social contacts (OR=0.30 95% CI [0.13;0.72]), of pesticides and herbicides (OR=0.39 95% CI [0.18;0.83]) and an increased risk for low birth weight (p=0.0232). This study on risk factors for childhood leukaemia and brain tumours is relatively small and exploratory. We could reproduce some major associations reported in the literature (leukaemia: social contacts and high birth weight) but not others. Some observations may be reporting artefacts or self selection artefacts. PMID:19890788

  14. A 5-year prospective case-control study of the influence of early otitis media with effusion on reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Lous, J; Fiellau-Nikolajsen, M

    1984-10-01

    In a still ongoing prospective longitudinal study, more than 500 children--a total birth-cohort in a Danish municipality--were followed from their 3rd to their 9th year of life by multiple impedance tests in order to investigate a number of factors concerning epidemiology and long-term impacts of otitis media with effusion. This is a report on the influence of otitis media with effusion early in life on reading achievement. The study revealed no difference in school-class level between the 9% of the children (n = 46) who constantly had abnormal tympanometry during a 6-month period at the age of 3, and the other pupils in the municipality. At the Silent Reading Test (OS-400), done on 40 of the 46 case-pupils the results did not differ from (1) the other pupils in the municipality, (2) from other pupils of the same sex in the same classroom, or (3) from individual control-pupils matched by sex, social group and classroom.

  15. BST-CarGel® Treatment Maintains Cartilage Repair Superiority over Microfracture at 5 Years in a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, William D.; McCormack, Robert; Forriol, Francisco; Mohtadi, Nicholas; Pelet, Stéphane; Desnoyers, Jacques; Méthot, Stéphane; Vehik, Kendra; Restrepo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The efficacy and safety of BST-CarGel®, a chitosan scaffold for cartilage repair was compared with microfracture alone at 1 year during a multicenter randomized controlled trial in the knee. This report was undertaken to investigate 5-year structural and clinical outcomes. Design The international randomized controlled trial enrolled 80 patients, aged 18 to 55 years, with grade III or IV focal lesions on the femoral condyles. Patients were randomized to receive BST-CarGel® treatment or microfracture alone, and followed standardized 12-week rehabilitation. Co-primary endpoints of repair tissue quantity and quality were evaluated by 3-dimensional MRI quantification of the degree of lesion filling (%) and T2 relaxation times. Secondary endpoints were clinical benefit measured with WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) questionnaires and safety. General estimating equations were used for longitudinal statistical analysis of repeated measures. Results Blinded MRI analysis demonstrated that BST-CarGel®-treated patients showed a significantly greater treatment effect for lesion filling (P = 0.017) over 5 years compared with microfracture alone. A significantly greater treatment effect for BST-CarGel® was also found for repair tissue T2 relaxation times (P = 0.026), which were closer to native cartilage compared to the microfracture group. BST-CarGel® and microfracture groups showed highly significant improvement at 5 years from pretreatment baseline for each WOMAC subscale (P < 0.0001), and there were no differences between the treatment groups. Safety was comparable for both groups. Conclusions BST-CarGel® was shown to be an effective mid-term cartilage repair treatment. At 5 years, BST-CarGel® treatment resulted in sustained and significantly superior repair tissue quantity and quality over microfracture alone. Clinical benefit following BST-CarGel® and microfracture treatment were highly significant over baseline

  16. Local control stations

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted.

  17. Exaggerated morning blood pressure surge and cardiovascular events. A 5-year longitudinal study in normotensive and well-controlled hypertensive elderly.

    PubMed

    Amici, A; Cicconetti, P; Sagrafoli, C; Baratta, A; Passador, P; Pecci, T; Tassan, G; Verrusio, W; Marigliano, V; Cacciafesta, M

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular events (CE) occur most frequently in the morning hours in hypertensive subjects. We studied the association between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and CE in prognosis of 10 normotensive and 32 well-controlled hypertensive elderly, in whom ambulatory BP monitoring was performed and who were followed prospectively for 5 years. The morning surge (MS) of BP was calculated as mean systolic BP during 2h after awakening--mean systolic BP during 1h that included the lowest sleep BP. During an average of 60 months, five CE occurred. When the patients were divided into two groups according to MS, those in the top terzile (MS group; MS> or =34 mmHg, n=14) had a higher prevalence of CE (5 versus 0, p=0.001) during the follow-up period, than the others (non-MS group; MS<34 mmHg, n=28). The logistic regression analysis showed the MS sleep-trough surge as predictive variable of CE (odds ratio, OR=0.794, p=0.022). In conclusion, in older normotensives and well-controlled hypertensives, a higher BP MS is associated with vascular risk independently of clinical and ambulatory BP. Reduction of the MS could thus be a therapeutic target for preventing vascular events also in non-hypertensive patients.

  18. SU-E-J-265: Feasibility Study of Texture Analysis for Prognosis of Local Tumor Recurrence Within 5-Years for Pharyngeal-Laryngeal Carcinoma Patients Received Radiotherapy Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, W; Tu, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas (PLC) are among the top leading cancers in Asian populations. Typically the tumor may recur and progress in a short period of time if radiotherapy fails to deliver a successful treatment. Here we used image texture features extracted from images of computed tomography (CT) planning and conducted a retrospective study to evaluate whether texture analysis is a feasible approach to predict local tumor recurrence for PLC patients received radiotherapy treatment. Methods: CT planning images of 100 patients with PLC treated by radiotherapy at our facility between 2001 and 2010 are collected. These patients were received two separate CT scans, before and mid-course of the treatment delivery. Before the radiotherapy, a CT scanning was used for the first treatment planning. A total of 30 fractions were used in the treatment and patients were scanned with a second CT around the end of the fifteenth delivery for an adaptive treatment planning. Only patients who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy and RapidArc were selected. Treatment planning software of Eclipse was used. The changes of texture parameters between two CT acquisitions were computed to determine whether they were correlated to the local tumor recurrence. The following texture parameters were used in the preliminary assessment: mean, variance, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, energy, entropy, inverse difference moment, cluster shade, inertia, cluster prominence, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, and gray-level run-length matrix. The study was reviewed and approved by the committee of our institutional review board. Results: Our calculations suggested the following texture parameters were correlated with the local tumor recurrence: skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and inertia (p<0.0.05). Conclusion: The preliminary results were positive. However some works remain crucial to be completed, including addition of texture parameters for different image

  19. New automated synthesis of [18F]FP-CIT with base amount control affording high and stable radiochemical yield: a 1.5-year production report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ju; Oh, Seung Jun; Moon, Woo Yeon; Choi, Moon Seok; Kim, Jae Seung; Chi, Dae Yoon; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook

    2011-05-01

    We describe new [(18)F]Fluoropropylcarbomethoxyiodophenyl-nor-tropane ([(18)F]FP-CIT) automatic preparation method by (1) using 2-methyl-2-butanol as [(18)F]fluorination solvent, (2) base amount control to minimize side reaction and (3) salt elution method to elute trapped [(18)F]fluoride. We developed manual synthesis procedures for automatic synthesis application. In this manual synthesis, we trapped [(18)F]F(-) on ion exchange cartridge and eluted with 0.2 M potassium methanesulfonate solution. We have [(18)F]fluorination at 100°C with 2-methyl-2-butanol as protic solvent for [(18)F]fluorination. After high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, we have 69.3±3.2% of [(18)F]F(-) incorporation ratio on the manual synthesis and applied these conditions to automatic preparation with GE TracerLab FX module. After setting-up of automatic synthesis and quality control procedures for clinical procedures, we have routine production of [(18)F]FP-CIT with 86.9±9.5 GBq/2.5 ml of [(18)F]F(-) as initial radioactivity and have 192 productions for 1.5 year. We have 42.5±10.9% of decay corrected radiochemical yields and they were satisfied all quality control procedures and stability to 6 h. New [(18)F]FP-CIT automatic preparation method showed high and reliable radiochemical yield and we could have enough >35 patient doses of [(18)F]FP-CIT from one production.

  20. Radiographic Progression of Patients With Psoriatic Arthritis Who Achieve Minimal Disease Activity in Response to Golimumab Therapy: Results Through 5 Years of a Randomized, Placebo‐Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Beutler, Anna; Gladman, Dafna; Mease, Philip; Krueger, Gerald G.; McInnes, Iain B.; Helliwell, Philip; Coates, Laura C.; Xu, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate long‐term outcomes in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients who achieved or did not achieve minimal disease activity (MDA) through 5 years of golimumab treatment in the GO‐REVEAL trial. Methods The GO‐REVEAL trial was a phase III, randomized, double‐blind trial with placebo‐control through week 24 followed by an open‐label extension of golimumab 50/100 mg treatment up to 5 years. In these post‐hoc analyses, MDA was defined by the presence of ≥5 of 7 PsA outcome measures (≤1 swollen joint, ≤1 tender joint, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index [PASI] ≤1, patient pain score ≤15, patient global disease activity score ≤20 [range 0–100], Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index [HAQ DI] ≤0.5, and ≤1 tender enthesis point). Results Treatment with golimumab yielded significantly higher MDA response rates versus patients randomized to placebo at week 14 (23.5% versus 1.0%; P < 0.0001), week 24 (28.1% versus 7.7%; P < 0.0001), and week 52 (42.4% versus 30.2%; P = 0.037). MDA was achieved at least once by ∼50% of golimumab‐treated patients overall. Irrespective of treatment randomization, achievement of MDA at ≥3 and ≥4 consecutive visits was associated with significantly less radiographic progression and more improvement in MDA components allowing specific assessment of physical function (HAQ DI) and overall disease activity (patient global assessment of disease activity) at week 256 versus patients not achieving MDA. Logistic regression analyses indicated that a 1‐unit higher baseline HAQ DI score yielded a significantly lower likelihood of achieving MDA at ≥3 (odds ratio 0.514 [95% confidence interval 0.321–0.824]; P = 0.006) and ≥4 (odds ratio 0.480 [95% confidence interval 0.290–0.795]; P = 0.004) consecutive visits. Conclusion Among golimumab‐treated PsA patients, better long‐term functional improvement, patient global assessment, and radiographic outcomes were observed when

  1. Predictors of head start and child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices with children aged 2 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Dev, Dipti A; McBride, Brent A; Speirs, Katherine E; Donovan, Sharon M; Cho, Hyun Keun

    2014-09-01

    Few child-care providers meet the national recommendations for healthful feeding practices. Effective strategies are needed to address this disparity, but research examining influences on child-care providers' feeding practices is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of child-care providers' healthful and controlling feeding practices for children aged 2 to 5 years. In this cross-sectional study, child-care providers (n=118) from 24 center-based programs (six Head Start [HS], 11 Child and Adult Care Food Program [CACFP] funded, and seven non-CACFP) completed self-administered surveys during 2011-2012. Multilevel multivariate linear regression models were used to predict seven feeding practices. Working in an HS center predicted teaching children about nutrition and modeling healthy eating; that may be attributed to the HS performance standards that require HS providers to practice healthful feeding. Providers who reported being concerned about children's weight, being responsible for feeding children, and had an authoritarian feeding style were more likely to pressure children to eat, restrict intake, and control food intake to decrease or maintain children's weight. Providers with nonwhite race, who were trying to lose weight, who perceived nutrition as important in their own diet, and who had a greater number of nutrition training opportunities were more likely to use restrictive feeding practices. These findings suggest that individual- and child-care-level factors, particularly provider race, education, training, feeding attitudes and styles, and the child-care context may influence providers' feeding practices with young children. Considering these factors when developing interventions for providers to meet feeding practice recommendations may add to the efficacy of childhood obesity prevention programs. PMID:24618036

  2. Etiology and Factors Associated with Pneumonia in Children under 5 Years of Age in Mali: A Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Mélina; Sánchez Picot, Valentina; Telles, Jean-Noël; Diakite, Abdoul-Aziz; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Endtz, Hubert; Diallo, Souleymane; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background There are very limited data on children with pneumonia in Mali. The objective was to assess the etiology and factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children <5 years of age in Mali. Methods A prospective hospital-based case-control study was implemented in the Pediatric department of Gabriel Touré University Hospital at Bamako, Mali, between July 2011-December 2012. Cases were children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia; Controls were hospitalized children without respiratory features, matched for age and period. Respiratory specimens, were collected to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood was collected from cases only. Factors associated with pneumonia were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, 118 cases and 98 controls were analyzed; 44.1% were female, median age was 11 months. Among pneumonia cases, 30.5% were hypoxemic at admission, mortality was 4.2%. Pneumonia cases differed from the controls regarding clinical signs and symptoms but not in terms of past medical history. Multivariate analysis of nasal swab findings disclosed that S. pneumoniae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.6–7.0), human metapneumovirus (aOR = 17.2, 95% CI: 2.0–151.4), respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] (aOR = 7.4, 95% CI: 2.3–23.3), and influenza A virus (aOR = 10.7, 95% CI: 1.0–112.2) were associated with pneumonia, independently of patient age, gender, period, and other pathogens. Distribution of S. pneumoniae and RSV differed by season with higher rates of S. pneumoniae in January-June and of RSV in July-September. Pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 were more frequent in pneumonia cases than in the controls (P = 0.009, and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions In this non-PCV population from Mali, pneumonia in children was mainly attributed to S. pneumoniae, RSV, human metapneumovirus, and influenza A virus. Increased pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage in

  3. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China: experiences and lessons from a 5-year multi-intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Yap, Peiling; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The current global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis emphasises periodic administration of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations. However, this approach fails to address the root social and ecological causes of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. For sustainable control, it has been suggested that improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour are required. We designed a 5-year multi-intervention trial in Menghai county, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Three different interventions were implemented, each covering a village inhabited by 200-350 people. The interventions consisted of (i) initial health education at study inception and systematic treatment of all individuals aged ≥2 years once every year with a single dose of albendazole; (ii) initial health education and bi-annual albendazole administration; and (iii) bi-annual treatment coupled with latrine construction at family level and regular health education. Interventions were rigorously implemented for 3 years, whilst the follow-up, which included annual albendazole distribution, lasted for 2 more years. Before the third round of treatment, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced by only 2.8% in the annual treatment arm, whilst bi-annual deworming combined with latrine construction and health education resulted in a prevalence reduction of 53.3% (p<0.001). All three control approaches significantly reduced the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the highest reductions achieved when chemotherapy was combined with sanitation and health education. The prevalence of T. trichiura remained at 30% and above regardless of the intervention. Only bi-annual treatment combined with latrine construction and health education significantly impacted on the prevalence of Taenia spp., but none of the interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis. Our findings support the notion that in high-endemicity areas

  4. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China: experiences and lessons from a 5-year multi-intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Peter; Yap, Peiling; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Wu, Fang-Wei; Chen, Jia-Xu; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    The current global strategy for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis emphasises periodic administration of anthelminthic drugs to at-risk populations. However, this approach fails to address the root social and ecological causes of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. For sustainable control, it has been suggested that improvements in water, sanitation and hygiene behaviour are required. We designed a 5-year multi-intervention trial in Menghai county, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Three different interventions were implemented, each covering a village inhabited by 200-350 people. The interventions consisted of (i) initial health education at study inception and systematic treatment of all individuals aged ≥2 years once every year with a single dose of albendazole; (ii) initial health education and bi-annual albendazole administration; and (iii) bi-annual treatment coupled with latrine construction at family level and regular health education. Interventions were rigorously implemented for 3 years, whilst the follow-up, which included annual albendazole distribution, lasted for 2 more years. Before the third round of treatment, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was reduced by only 2.8% in the annual treatment arm, whilst bi-annual deworming combined with latrine construction and health education resulted in a prevalence reduction of 53.3% (p<0.001). All three control approaches significantly reduced the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the highest reductions achieved when chemotherapy was combined with sanitation and health education. The prevalence of T. trichiura remained at 30% and above regardless of the intervention. Only bi-annual treatment combined with latrine construction and health education significantly impacted on the prevalence of Taenia spp., but none of the interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis. Our findings support the notion that in high-endemicity areas

  5. Zinc as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of severe pneumonia in children <5 years: a meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Tie, Hong-Tao; Tan, Qi; Luo, Ming-Zhu; Li, Qiang; Yu, Jia-Lin; Wu, Qing-Chen

    2016-03-14

    The effect of Zn, as an adjunct to antibiotics, on the treatment of severe pneumonia in young children is still under debate; therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the therapeutic role of Zn for severe pneumonia in children younger than 5 years. PubMed, Cochrane library and Embase databases were systematically searched from inception until October 2015 for randomised-controlled trials (RCT) that assessed the effect of Zn as an adjunct to antibiotics for severe pneumonia. Random-effects model was used for calculating the pooled estimates, and intention-to-treat principle was also applied. Nine RCT involving 2926 children were included. Overall, the pooled results showed that adjunct treatment with Zn failed to reduce the time to recovery from severe pneumonia (hazard ratios (HR)=1·04; 95% CI 0·90, 1·19; I(2)=39%; P=0·58), hospital length of stay (HR=1·04; 95% CI 0·83, 1·33; I(2)=57%; P=0·74), treatment failure (relative risk (RR)=0·95; 95% CI 0·79, 1·14; I(2)=20%; P=0·58) or change of antibiotics (RR=1·07; 95% CI 0·79, 1·45; I(2)=44%; P=0·67). In addition, continuous outcomes were consistent while meta-analysed with standard mean difference, and all outcomes remained stable in intention-to-treat analysis. No significant differences were observed in the two groups between death rate, adverse events or recovery times of severe pneumonia indicators. Our results suggested that adjunct treatment with Zn failed to benefit young children in the treatment of severe pneumonia. Considering the clinical heterogeneity, baseline characteristics of children, definition of severe pneumonia and Zn supplement way should be taken into consideration in future research. This study was registered at PRESPERO as CRD42015019798.

  6. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-10-21

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  7. Progression of Dementia Assessed by Temporal Correlations of Physical Activity: Results From a 3.5-Year, Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kun; Riemersma - van der Lek, Rixt F.; Patxot, Melissa; Li, Peng; Shea, Steven A.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies show that activity fluctuations in healthy young adults possess robust temporal correlations that become altered with aging, and in dementia and depression. This study was designed to test whether or not within-subject changes of activity correlations (i) track the clinical progression of dementia, (ii) reflect the alterations of depression symptoms in patients with dementia, and (iii) can be manipulated by clinical interventions aimed at stabilizing circadian rhythmicity and improving sleep in dementia, namely timed bright light therapy and melatonin supplementation. We examined 144 patients with dementia (70–96 years old) who were assigned to daily treatment with bright light, bedtime melatonin, both or placebos only in a 3.5-year double-blinded randomized clinical trial. We found that activity correlations at temporal scales <~2 hours significantly decreased over time and that light treatment attenuated the decrease by ~73%. Moreover, the decrease of temporal activity correlations positively correlated with the degrees of cognitive decline and worsening of mood though the associations were relatively weak. These results suggest a mechanistic link between multiscale activity regulation and circadian/sleep function in dementia patients. Whether temporal activity patterns allow unobtrusive, long-term monitoring of dementia progression and mood changes is worth further investigation. PMID:27292543

  8. Self-Control, Gender, and Age: A Survival Analysis of Recidivism among Boot Camp Graduates in a 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benda, Brent B.; Toombs, Nancy J.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    2005-01-01

    This study of 572 male and 120 female graduates of a boot camp investigates the potency of self-control as a predictor of recidivism in comparison to gender, age, and elements of life-course theory. It also examines whether the effects of self-control on recidivism are commensurate within the categories of gender. Recidivism is defined as a felony…

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Motivational Interviewing in Impaired Driving Recidivists: A 5-Year Follow-Up of Traffic Offenses and Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dongier, Maurice; Di Leo, Ivana; Legault, Lucie; Tremblay, Jacques; Chanut, Florence; Brown, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previously published randomized controlled trial (Brown et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34, 292–301), our research team showed that a 30-minute brief motivational interviewing (BMI) session was more effective in reducing percentages of risky drinking days in drunk driving recidivists than a control information–advice intervention at 12-month follow-up. In this sequel to the initial study, 2 main hypotheses were tested: (i) exposure to BMI increases the time to further arrests and crashes compared with exposure to the control intervention (CTL) and (ii) characteristics, such as age, moderate the benefit of BMI. Methods A sample of 180 community-recruited recidivists who had drinking problems participated in the study. Participants gave access to their provincial driving records at baseline and were followed up for a mean of 1,684.5 days (SD = 155.7) after randomization to a 30-minute BMI or CTL session. Measured outcomes were driving arrests followed by convictions including driving while impaired (DWI), speeding, or other moving violations as well as crashes. Age, readiness to change alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse severity, and number of previous DWI convictions were included as potential moderators of the effect of the interventions. Results For arrests, Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed no significant differences between the BMI and the CTL group. When analyses were adjusted to age tertile categories, a significant effect of BMI in the youngest age tertile (<43 years old) emerged. For crashes, no between-group differences were detected. Conclusions BMI was better at delaying DWI and other dangerous traffic violations in at-risk younger drivers compared with a CTL similar to that provided in many remedial programs. BMI may be useful as an opportunistic intervention for DWI recidivism prevention in settings such as DWI courts. Treatment effectiveness studies are needed to ascertain how the present findings generalize to the

  10. Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

    2014-01-28

    Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous Māori and non-Māori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23867069

  11. An analysis of infection control of varicella-zoster virus infections in Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge over a 5-year period, 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Whipp, J.; Redpath, C.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study analyses infections with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge during 1987-92 and examines the spread of infection. In total, 93 patients and staff experienced VZV infection. Twenty-one patients had varicella and 49 experienced zoster. None of 101 patients and 1 of 625 staff members in contact with varicella cases acquired infection. By contrast, 2 of 227 patients, and 5 of 1039 staff in contact with zoster cases acquired varicella. One out of 28 (3.6%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with varicella acquired infection, compared with 5 out of 29 (17.2%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with zoster. Thus, zoster was found to be a more frequent cause of nosocomial infection than varicella. Fourteen members of staff had VZV infection during the study period. One of 99 patients and none of 389 staff members in contact with these cases developed varicella. The cost of dealing with infection control for VZV infections in our hospital is estimated to be Pounds 714 per patient case and a total of Pounds 13,204 per year. PMID:8760965

  12. Building the evaluation capacity of California's local tobacco control programs.

    PubMed

    Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana; Kipke, Robin; Kwon, Nicole; Satterlund, Travis

    2011-11-01

    Successful evaluation capacity building requires a dynamic balance between responding to local agency needs and ensuring that local staff have appropriate skills to conduct rigorous evaluations. In 2004, the California Tobacco Control Program established the Tobacco Control Evaluation Center (TCEC), based at a public research university, to provide evaluation technical assistance to approximately 100 local agencies implementing tobacco control programs. TCEC has been responsive to local needs, for instance, by answering 512 technical assistance requests in the first 5 years of operation and by tailoring training according to needs assessment results. About 50% of the technical assistance requests were for new data collection instruments (n = 255). TCEC has sought proactively to improve local evaluation skills, most recently in a data analysis and report writing skill building campaign that included a webinar, newsletter, and seven regional training meetings. Preliminary analysis suggests a 20% improvement in scores for the local final evaluation reports as a result of this campaign. It is concluded that evaluation technical assistance can be provided effectively by a university as long as the local context is kept in mind, and a balance of responsive and proactive technical assistance is provided. PMID:22068574

  13. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  14. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  15. Microbiological monitoring of endoscopes: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth E; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2008-07-01

    Periodic microbiological monitoring of endoscopes is a recommendation of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GENSA). The aim of monitoring has been to provide quality assurance of the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes; however, there is controversy regarding its frequency. This lack of consensus stimulated a review of the experience within our health service. At Southern Health, routine microbiological sampling has involved 4-weekly monitoring of bronchoscopes, duodenoscopes and automated flexible endoscope reprocessors (AFER), and 3-monthly monitoring of all other gastrointestinal endoscopes. Records of testing were reviewed from 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2006. A literature review was conducted, cost analysis performed and positive cultures investigated. There were 2374 screening tests performed during the 5-year period, including 287 AFER, 631 bronchoscopes for mycobacteria and 1456 endoscope bacterial screens. There were no positive results of the AFER or bronchoscopes for mycobacteria. Of the 1456 endoscopic bacterial samples, six were positive; however, retesting resulted in no growth. The overall cost of tests performed and cost in time for nursing staff to collect the samples was estimated at $AUD 100,400. Periodic monitoring of endoscopes is both time-consuming and costly. Our review demonstrates that AFER (Soluscope) perform well in cleaning endoscopes. Based on our 5-year experience, assurance of quality for endoscopic use could be achieved through process control as opposed to product control. Maintenance of endoscopes and AFER should be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and microbiological testing performed on commissioning, annually and following repair. Initial prompt manual leak testing and manual cleaning followed by mechanical leak testing, cleaning and disinfection should be the minimum standard in reprocessing of endoscopes. PMID:18086113

  16. Local Control: An Overview of Conflicting Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruss, Lyle R.

    To explore the issue of local control over public education, five major questions have been identified and followed by responses from a variety of sources that depict existing conflicts and diversity in opinion. The responses illustrate that resolutions of the local control problems are uncertain, not due to lack of direction by participants, but…

  17. Health behaviors in elderly people. A 5-year follow-up of 75-year-old people living in three Nordic localities. Smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and healthy eating, and attitudes to their importance.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Agnes N; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Maria, Aijö

    2002-06-01

    Few studies about health behavior among elderly persons in the Nordic countries are available, and our knowledge about longitudinal changes is especially limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of selected health behaviors as reported at age 75 years in Finland, Sweden and Denmark together with answers regarding attitudes to such habits, and study longitudinal changes between 75 and 80 years. The study population included 499 men and 704 women born in 1914/15 and examined in 1989/90 in Jyväskylä (Finland), Göteborg (Sweden), and Glostrup (Denmark). Survivors were re-examined in 1994/95. A self-administered validated questionnaire developed from the Danish Nationwide Health Surveys was given to the participants during a home visit and checked when the subjects came to the laboratory examination. The Danes had the highest proportion of smokers and persons with daily alcoholic beverage consumption and the smallest proportion of healthy eaters, but the Swedes had the most sedentary life-style. Women had the healthiest life-style. Between ages 75 and 80 years, the proportion of participants who tried to improve their health decreased, but there was no change in believing the importance of one's own effort in maintaining health. The free-time physical activity decreased, but there was no change in the attitude towards physical activity. There were major cross-national differences among the three Nordic localities, but the health behaviors were rather stable, though the proportion of participants who tried to improve their health decreased. Not more than 60 to 70% of the subjects believed that their own efforts are important to health.

  18. [5-year experience with BCG immunoprophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Rüssel, C

    1992-09-01

    Our 5-year experience with BCG in the tumor stage pTis, pTa and pT1, G I-II shows a lasting remission of 88.5% (73%) in 78 (26) patients treated with BCG preparation Pasteur (Connaught) after transurethral resection. A complete remission in patients with carcinoma in situ (12 patients) could be found in 92%. The local and systemic side-effects, which are of limited duration, are tolerable, well treatable and fully reversible.

  19. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  20. Patterns of Failure and Local Control After Intraoperative Electron Boost Radiotherapy to the Presacral Space in Combination with Total Mesorectal Excision in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, Falk; Treiber, Martina; Oertel, Susanne; Dinkel, Julien; Timke, Carmen; Funk, Angela; Garcia-Huttenlocher, Helena; Bischof, Marc; Weitz, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang; Hensley, Frank W.; Buchler, Markus W.; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert . E-mail: robert_krempien@med.uni-heidelberg.de

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local control and patterns of failure in patients treated with intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy (IOERT) after total mesorectal excision (TME), to appraise the effectiveness of intraoperative target definition. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the outcome of 243 patients with rectal cancer treated with IOERT (median dose, 10 Gy) after TME. Eighty-eight patients received neoadjuvant and 122 patients adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose, 41.4 Gy), and in 88% simultaneous chemotherapy was applied. Median follow-up was 59 months. Results: Local failure was observed in 17 patients (7%), resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 92%. Only complete resection and absence of nodal involvement correlated positively with local control. Considering IOERT fields, seven infield recurrences were seen in the presacral space, resulting in a 5-year local control rate of 97%. The remaining local relapses were located as follows: retrovesical/retroprostatic (5), anastomotic site (2), promontorium (1), ileocecal (1), and perineal (1). Conclusion: Intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy as part of a multimodal treatment approach including TME is a highly effective regimen to prevent local failure. The presacral space remains the site of highest risk for local failure, but IOERT can decrease the percentage of relapses in this area.

  1. The Local Control Index: A Proposed Model for Classifying Types of Local Control As a Function of Statutory Provisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Lonnie Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to derive an operational definition of local control and to devise a model, the Local Control Index, for classifying degrees of local control by using the education codes of eight states--Arizona, California, Illinois, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Local Control Index consists of four…

  2. Local Geometrical Machinery for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    In this Chapter, we present local geometrical machinery for studying complexity and control, consisting of dynamics on Kähler manifolds, which combine three geometrical structures-Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian)-in a mutually compatible way. In other words, every Kähler manifold is simultaneously Riemannian, symplectic and complex (Hermitian). It is well known that Riemannian manifolds represent the stage on which Lagrangian dynamics is set, symplectic manifolds represent the stage for Hamiltonian dynamics, and complex (Hermitian) varieties comprise the stage for quantum dynamics. Therefore, Kähler manifolds represent the richest dynamical stage available where Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and quantum dynamics all dance together.

  3. Local flow control for active building facades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaligotla, Srikar; Chen, Wayne; Glauser, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Existing building facade designs are for a passive and an impermeable shell to prevent migration of outdoor air into the building and to control heat transfers between the exterior environment and the building interior. An active facade that can respond in real time to changing environmental conditions like wind speed and direction, pollutant load, temperature, humidity and light can lower energy use and maximize occupant comfort. With an increased awareness of cost and environmental effects of energy use, cross or natural ventilation has become an attractive method to lower energy use. Separated flow regions around such buildings are undesirable due to high concentration of pollutants, especially if the vents or dynamic windows for cross ventilation are situated in these regions. Outside pollutant load redistribution through vents can be regulated via flow separation control to minimize transport of pollutants into the building. Flow separation has been substantially reduced with the application of intelligent flow control tools developed at Syracuse University for flow around "silo" (turret) like structures. Similar flow control models can be introduced into buildings with cross ventilation for local external flow separation control. Initial experiments will be performed for turbulent flow over a rectangular block (scaled to be a mid-rise building) that has been configured with dynamic vents and unsteady suction actuators in a wind tunnel at various wind speeds.

  4. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  5. Nonlinear and locally optimal controllers design for input affine locally controllable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahnoun, Mariem; Andrieu, Vincent; Nadri, Madiha

    2012-02-01

    Given a global nonlinear state feedback which globally stabilises an equilibrium, the aim of this article is to modify the local behaviour of the trajectories in order to get local optimality with respect to a given quadratic cost. A sufficient condition is given in terms of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) to design a locally optimal and globally stabilising control law. This approach is illustrated on an academic inverted pendulum model in order to stabilise its upper equilibrium point. An extension of the main result is then given to address the problematic cases. Moreover, the cases in which the previous LMI condition failed to be satisfied is addressed and a new sufficient condition is then given (which is not anymore linear).

  6. Natural history of alcoholic myopathy: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Sacanella, E; Fernández-Solá, J; Nicolás, J M; Rubin, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1998-12-01

    Chronic myopathy is a common complication of alcoholism, but its natural history has not been well described. We, therefore, studied muscle structure and function in a 5-year study of 30 chronic alcoholics who became abstinent and 20 who relapsed, and 40 control subjects. The mean strength of the abstaining alcoholics increased from 18.6 to 23.2 kg; but, after 5 years, they were still substantially weaker than controls. In a subset who showed histological myopathy, the strength of half of the patients remained two standard deviations below that of controls. Alcoholics who relapsed tended to become progressively weaker (21.7 kg vs. 18.2 kg) and develop histological evidence of myopathy. Thus, continued alcohol abuse was generally reflected in deterioration of muscle strength and the appearance of histological injury to muscle. Importantly, almost half of the sober patients did not recover to normal levels, indicating that alcoholic myopathy is only partially reversible. We also unexpectedly found that, in some alcoholics, a substantial reduction in the amount of alcohol consumed may be as effective as complete abstinence in improving muscle strength or preventing its deterioration.

  7. Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Kern, David W; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57-85 were studied in 2005-6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010-11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a "dose-dependent" effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process.

  8. Remote Control of Gene Function by Local Translation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hosung; Gkogkas, Christos G.; Sonenberg, Nahum; Holt, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    The subcellular position of a protein is a key determinant of its function. Mounting evidence indicates that RNA localization, where specific mRNAs are transported subcellularly and subsequently translated in response to localized signals, is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to control protein localization. On-site synthesis confers novel signaling properties to a protein and helps to maintain local proteome homeostasis. Local translation plays particularly important roles in distal neuronal compartments, and dysregulated RNA localization and translation cause defects in neuronal wiring and survival. Here, we discuss key findings in this area and possible implications of this adaptable and swift mechanism for spatial control of gene function. PMID:24679524

  9. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  10. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  11. National and Local Control of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antell, Will

    The crucial elements of control which have developed in the educational systems of the U.S. are: (1) the collective social power of government to require participation in formal education and to stipulate the conditions of that participation (i.e., legal control); (2) the authority to make and the power to enforce decisions that appropriate…

  12. Segmented nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2013-03-05

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  13. Caveolin-1 as a Prognostic Marker for Local Control After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Roedel, Franz Capalbo, Gianni; Roedel, Claus; Weiss, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: Caveolin-1 is a protein marker for caveolae organelles and has an essential impact on cellular signal transduction pathways (e.g., receptor tyrosine kinases, adhesion molecules, and G-protein-coupled receptors). In the present study, we investigated the expression of caveolin-1 in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma and correlated its expression pattern with the risk for disease recurrences after preoperative chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and surgical resection. Methods and Materials: Caveolin-1 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by Affymetrix microarray analysis (n = 20) and immunohistochemistry (n = 44) on pretreatment biopsy samples of patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum, and were correlated with clinical and histopathologic characteristics as well as with 5-year rates of local failure and overall survival. Results: A significantly decreased median caveolin-1 intracellular mRNA level was observed in tumor biopsy samples as compared with noncancerous mucosa. Individual mRNA levels and immunohistologic staining, however, revealed an overexpression in 7 of 20 patients (35%) and 17 of 44 patients (38.6%), respectively. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation, local control rates at 5 years for patients with tumors showing low caveolin-1 expression were significantly better than for patients with high caveolin-1-expressing carcinoma cells (p = 0.05; 92%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 82-102% vs. 72%, 95% CI = 49-84%). A low caveolin-1 protein expression was also significantly related to an increased overall survival rate (p = 0.05; 45%, 95% CI 16-60% vs. 82%, 95% CI = 67-97%). Conclusion: Caveolin-1 may provide a novel prognostic marker for local control and survival after preoperative CRT and surgical resection in rectal cancer.

  14. mRNA Localization and Translational Control in Drosophila Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Localization of an mRNA species to a particular subcellular region can complement translational control mechanisms to produce a restricted spatial distribution of the protein it encodes. mRNA localization has been studied most in asymmetric cells such as budding yeast, early embryos, and neurons, but the process is likely to be more widespread. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of mRNA localization and its functions in early embryonic development, focusing on Drosophila where the relevant knowledge is most advanced. Links between mRNA localization and translational control mechanisms also are examined. PMID:22865893

  15. Localized flow control with energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelgren, Russell Gene

    A series of experiments with energy deposition via laser-induced optical breakdown of air, i.e., a laser spark, have been performed. These experiments have demonstrated the possibility of using a laser spark for supersonic flow control. In the first of these experiments, Rayleigh scattering flow visualization was taken for energy deposition into quiescent air. A time sequence of images showed the post breakdown fluid motion created by the laser spark for different laser energy levels. Blast wave radius and wave speed measurements were made and correlated to five different laser energy deposition levels. Laser energy was deposited upstream of a sphere in Mach 3.45 flow. The energy was deposited one sphere diameter and 0.6 diameters upstream of the front of the sphere. The frontal surface pressure on the sphere was recorded as the laser spark perturbed region interacted with the flow about the sphere. Tests for three different energy levels and two different incident laser beam diameters were completed. It has been demonstrated that the peak surface pressure associated with the Edney IV interaction can be momentarily reduced by 30% by the interaction with the thermal spot created by the laser spark. The effects of laser energy deposition on another shock interaction phenomena were studied. Laser energy deposition was used to modify the shock structure formed by symmetric wedges at Mach 3.45 within the dual solution domain. It was demonstrated experimentally that the Mach reflection could be reduced by 80% momentarily. The numerical simulations show a transition from the stable Mach reflection to a stable regular reflection. Two energy deposition methods (electric arcing and laser energy deposition) were used to force and control compressible mixing layers of axisymmetric jets. The energy deposition forcing methods have been experimentally investigated with the schlieren technique, particle image velocimetry, Mie scattering, and static pressure probe diagnostic

  16. Golden Years? Further Education Colleges under Local Authority Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen years ago further education (FE) colleges in England were removed from local education authority (LEA) control and re-formed as "FE corporations". Now, it is proposed that, from 2010, local authorities will become re-involved in the running of FE. Given such a prospect, this article takes the opportunity to look back at colleges under LEA…

  17. Effect of local controlled heat on transdermal delivery of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristian Kjær; Rousing, Mark Lillelund; Jensen, Carina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2011-09-30

    Skin permeability and local blood perfusion are important factors for transdermal drug delivery. Application of heat is expected to enhance microcirculation and local perfusion and/or blood vessel permeability, thus facilitating drug transfer to the systemic circulation. In addition, heating prior to or during topical application of a drug may facilitate skin penetration, increase kinetic energy, and facilitate drug absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether application of controlled local heat would enhance transdermal delivery from the nicotine patch mounted on the upper arm of ten healthy non-smoking male Caucasian subjects. Local skin perfusion was monitored using Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) at baseline (32 °C) and following application of local controlled heat (43 °C) on the upper arm, where the patch was placed. The residue of the nicotine patches was then examined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to indicate the uptake of nicotine from the patch due to the local controlled heat. Controlled heat application (43°C) caused significant cutaneous hyperaemia (up to 9 folds increase in skin perfusion) with an increase in nicotine uptake (up to 13 folds). The method was well tolerated without causing any pain or discomfort. These data suggest that controlled heat application, which is a simple, non-invasive method, can significantly enhance local skin perfusion and drug uptake from patches.

  18. Salvage HDR Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Previous Definitive Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien Peter; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Roach, Mack; Nash, Marc; Gottschalk, Alexander; Chang, Albert J.; Hsu, I-Chow

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate efficacy and toxicity of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDRB between 1998 and 2009 for locally recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive RT. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, patients received 36 Gy in 6 fractions. Twenty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before salvage, and no patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Determination of biochemical failure after salvage HDRB was based on the Phoenix definition. Overall survival (OS) and bF distributions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), were documented. Results: Median follow-up after salvage HDRB was 59.6 months. The 5-year OS estimate was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-97%) with median survival not yet reached. Five-year biochemical control after salvage was 51% (95% CI: 34%-66%). Median PSA nadir postsalvage was 0.1 (range: 0-7.2) reached at a median of 10.2 months after completing HDRB. As for complications, acute and late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in only 2% and 2%, respectively. No grade 2 or higher acute GI events and 4% grade 2 GI late events were observed. On univariate analysis, disease-free interval after initial definitive RT (P=.07), percent of positive cores at the time of diagnosis (P=.08), interval from first recurrence to salvage HDRB (P=.09), and pre-HDRB prostate-specific antigen (P=.07) were each of borderline significance in predicting biochemical control after salvage HDRB. Conclusions: Prostate HDRB is an effective salvage modality with relatively few long-term toxicities. We

  19. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a 5-year retrospective of the structure, methodology, progress, and contributions to the broader scientific community that have resulted from this national USGS program. We evaluate ARMI’s success to date, with regard to the challenges faced by the program and the strengths that have emerged. We chart objectives for the next 5 years that build on current accomplishments, highlight areas meriting further research, and direct efforts to overcome existing weaknesses.

  20. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).

  1. Controlled release for local delivery of drugs: barriers and models.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Jennifer R; Saltzman, W Mark

    2014-09-28

    Controlled release systems are an effective means for local drug delivery. In local drug delivery, the major goal is to supply therapeutic levels of a drug agent at a physical site in the body for a prolonged period. A second goal is to reduce systemic toxicities, by avoiding the delivery of agents to non-target tissues remote from the site. Understanding the dynamics of drug transport in the vicinity of a local drug delivery device is helpful in achieving both of these goals. Here, we provide an overview of controlled release systems for local delivery and we review mathematical models of drug transport in tissue, which describe the local penetration of drugs into tissue and illustrate the factors - such as diffusion, convection, and elimination - that control drug dispersion and its ultimate fate. This review highlights the important role of controlled release science in development of reliable methods for local delivery, as well as the barriers to accomplishing effective delivery in the brain, blood vessels, mucosal epithelia, and the skin.

  2. Dynamic control of localized plasmonic modes using light polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hua; Ham, Byoung S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a dynamic control of localized plasmonic modes excited by optical fields with orthogonal "X" or "Y" polarization in a combined structure of metamaterials. In this work, a localized asymmetric mode selectively excited by a "Y" polarized light renders the incident light transparent as a result of destructive interference, which is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum physics. In contrast, a localized symmetric mode excited by an orthogonally "X" polarized light directly couples with the incident light resulting in absorption, which is analogous to optical nanoantennas. Dynamic control of localized asymmetric and symmetric plasmon modes in a near-field zone, resulting in highly contrasting responses in the far-field zone, holds potential for plasmonic switching in metamaterials.

  3. Knowledge-based control for robot self-localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Bonnie Kathleen Holte

    1993-01-01

    Autonomous robot systems are being proposed for a variety of missions including the Mars rover/sample return mission. Prior to any other mission objectives being met, an autonomous robot must be able to determine its own location. This will be especially challenging because location sensors like GPS, which are available on Earth, will not be useful, nor will INS sensors because their drift is too large. Another approach to self-localization is required. In this paper, we describe a novel approach to localization by applying a problem solving methodology. The term 'problem solving' implies a computational technique based on logical representational and control steps. In this research, these steps are derived from observing experts solving localization problems. The objective is not specifically to simulate human expertise but rather to apply its techniques where appropriate for computational systems. In doing this, we describe a model for solving the problem and a system built on that model, called localization control and logic expert (LOCALE), which is a demonstration of concept for the approach and the model. The results of this work represent the first successful solution to high-level control aspects of the localization problem.

  4. Local navigation and fuzzy control realization for autonomous guided vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Konyaly, El-Sayed H.; Saraya, Sabry F.; Shehata, Raef S.

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of local navigation for an autonomous guided vehicle (AGV) in a structured environment that contains static and dynamic obstacles. Information about the environment is obtained via a CCD camera. The problem is formulated as a dynamic feedback control problem in which speed and steering decisions are made on the fly while the AGV is moving. A decision element (DE) that uses local information is proposed. The DE guides the vehicle in the environment by producing appropriate navigation decisions. Dynamic models of a three-wheeled vehicle for driving and steering mechanisms are derived. The interaction between them is performed via the local feedback DE. A controller, based on fuzzy logic, is designed to drive the vehicle safely in an intelligent and human-like manner. The effectiveness of the navigation and control strategies in driving the AGV is illustrated and evaluated.

  5. Primary Tumor Necrosis Predicts Distant Control in Locally Advanced Soft-Tissue Sarcomas After Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    MacDermed, Dhara M.; Miller, Luke L.; Peabody, Terrance D.; Simon, Michael A.; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; Montag, Anthony G.; Undevia, Samir D.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Various neoadjuvant approaches have been evaluated for the treatment of locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas. This retrospective study describes a uniquely modified version of the Eilber regimen developed at the University of Chicago. Methods and Materials: We treated 34 patients (28 Stage III and 6 Stage IV) with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas of an extremity between 1995 and 2008. All patients received preoperative therapy including ifosfamide (2.5 g/m2 per day for 5 days) with concurrent radiation (28 Gy in 3.5-Gy daily fractions), sandwiched between various chemotherapy regimens. Postoperatively, 47% received further adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Most tumors (94%) were Grade 3, and all were T2b, with a median size of 10.3 cm. Wide excision was performed in 29 patients (85%), and 5 required amputation. Of the resected tumor specimens, 50% exhibited high (>=90%) treatment-induced necrosis and 11.8% had a complete pathologic response. Surgical margins were negative in all patients. The 5-year survival rate was 42.3% for all patients and 45.2% for Stage III patients. For limb-preservation patients, the 5-year local control rate was 89.0% and reoperation was required for wound complications in 17.2%. The 5-year freedom-from-distant metastasis rate was 53.4% (Stage IV patients excluded), and freedom from distant metastasis was superior if treatment-induced tumor necrosis was 90% or greater (84.6% vs. 19.9%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: This well-tolerated concurrent chemoradiotherapy approach yields excellent rates of limb preservation and local control. The resulting treatment-induced necrosis rates are predictive of subsequent metastatic risk, and this information may provide an opportunity to guide postoperative systemic therapies.

  6. Local control of non-adiabatic dissociation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomble, L.; Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2011-05-01

    We present a theoretical approach which consists of applying the strategy of local control to projectors based on asymptotic scattering states. This allows to optimize final state distributions upon laser excitation in cases where strong non-adiabatic effects are present. The approach, despite being based on a time-local formulation, can take non-adiabatic transitions that appear at later times fully into account and adopt a corresponding control strategy. As an example, we show various dissociation channels of HeH+, a system where the ultrafast dissociation dynamics is determined by strong non-Born-Oppenheimer effects.

  7. Controlled Delivery of Zoledronate Improved Bone Formation Locally In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jiang; Lu, Qiang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Aiyuan; Guo, Quanyi; Gao, Xupeng; Xu, Wenjing; Lu, Shibi

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) have been widely used in clinical treatment of bone diseases with increased bone resorption because of their strong affinity for bone and their inhibition of bone resorption. Recently, there has been growing interest in their improvement of bone formation. However, the effect of local controlled delivery of BPs is unclear. We used polylactide acid-glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA) as a drug carrier to deliver various doses of the bisphosphonate zoledronate (Zol) into the distal femur of 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. After 6 weeks, samples were harvested and analyzed by micro-CT and histology. The average bone mineral density and mineralized bone volume fraction were higher with medium- and high-dose PLGA-Zol (30 and 300 µg Zol, respectively) than control and low-dose Zol (3 µg PLGA-Zol; p<0.05). Local controlled delivery of Zol decreased the numbers of osteoclast and increased the numbers of osteoblast. Moreover, local controlled delivery of medium- and high-dose Zol accelerated the expression of bone-formation markers. PLGA used as a drug carrier for controlled delivery of Zol may promote local bone formation. PMID:24618585

  8. Nonlinear Spectral-Spatial Control and Localization of Supercontinuum Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshev, Dragomir N.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Dreischuh, Alexander; Fischer, Robert; Ha, Sangwoo; Bolger, Jeremy; Bui, Lam; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Mitchell, Arnan; Austin, Michael W.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2007-09-01

    We present the first observation of spatiospectral control and localization of supercontinuum light through the nonlinear interaction of spectral components in extended periodic structures. We use an array of optical waveguides in a LiNbO3 crystal and employ the interplay between diffraction and nonlinearity to dynamically control the output spectrum of the supercontinuum radiation. This effect presents an efficient scheme for optically tunable spectral filtering of supercontinua.

  9. Remote control of reversible localized protein adsorption in microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Hao, Nan; Li, Jin-Yi; Xiong, Meng; Xia, Xing-Hua; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-08-13

    We present a facilely prepared graphene oxide (GO)/ poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composite by dispersing nanosized GO in PDMS. On the basis of the combination of photothermal effects of GO and grafted thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), an optical-driving approach for remote control of localized wettability is realized. And this method has been successfully applied in the spatially controlled reversible protein adsorption in microfluidic devices. PMID:25068799

  10. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  11. 2001 IFT Education Standards: A 5-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    The current IFT Education Standards used to evaluate Food Science programs for IFT approval have been in place now for 5 years. Most Food Science programs in the United States (as well as some in Mexico and Canada) have been reviewed according to these standards. The transition to instruction based on assessment of student learning outcomes, in…

  12. WCTC 5-Year Graduation Rates. Retention for Learning Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Viktor; Sanford, Doug

    This study addresses Waukesha County Technical College's (WCTC) 5-year retention and graduate rates. Some of the key findings of the report are as follow: (1) overall, 35.4% of cohort students graduated; (2) a 4-year combined graduation rate for ethnic minorities was 26%, well below the overall average; (3) the percent of cohort that graduated…

  13. Stimulant Treatment over 5 Years: Effects on Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Figueroa, Max; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Long-term effects of psychostimulants on growth in height and in weight are investigated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Participants were 79 children, 6 to 12 years of age, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, who were followed annually for up to 5 years, between the years 1993 and 1994 and…

  14. Dynamic subcellular localization of a respiratory complex controls bacterial respiration.

    PubMed

    Alberge, François; Espinosa, Leon; Seduk, Farida; Sylvi, Léa; Toci, René; Walburger, Anne; Magalon, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Respiration, an essential process for most organisms, has to optimally respond to changes in the metabolic demand or the environmental conditions. The branched character of their respiratory chains allows bacteria to do so by providing a great metabolic and regulatory flexibility. Here, we show that the native localization of the nitrate reductase, a major respiratory complex under anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli, is submitted to tight spatiotemporal regulation in response to metabolic conditions via a mechanism using the transmembrane proton gradient as a cue for polar localization. These dynamics are critical for controlling the activity of nitrate reductase, as the formation of polar assemblies potentiates the electron flux through the complex. Thus, dynamic subcellular localization emerges as a critical factor in the control of respiration in bacteria.

  15. Dynamic subcellular localization of a respiratory complex controls bacterial respiration

    PubMed Central

    Alberge, François; Espinosa, Leon; Seduk, Farida; Sylvi, Léa; Toci, René; Walburger, Anne; Magalon, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Respiration, an essential process for most organisms, has to optimally respond to changes in the metabolic demand or the environmental conditions. The branched character of their respiratory chains allows bacteria to do so by providing a great metabolic and regulatory flexibility. Here, we show that the native localization of the nitrate reductase, a major respiratory complex under anaerobiosis in Escherichia coli, is submitted to tight spatiotemporal regulation in response to metabolic conditions via a mechanism using the transmembrane proton gradient as a cue for polar localization. These dynamics are critical for controlling the activity of nitrate reductase, as the formation of polar assemblies potentiates the electron flux through the complex. Thus, dynamic subcellular localization emerges as a critical factor in the control of respiration in bacteria. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05357.001 PMID:26077726

  16. Supporting tobacco control: stimulating local newspaper coverage with a technical assistance website for local coalitions.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Bettinghaus, Erwin P; Helme, Donald; Young, Walter F; Borland, Ron; Maloy, Julie A; Cutter, Gary R; Andersen, Peter A; Walther, Joseph B

    2011-11-01

    A large and growing literature confirms that well-designed web-based programs can be effective in preventing or treating several chronic diseases. This study examined how the Internet can deliver information and train community activists and specifically tested the effects of web-based technical assistance on local tobacco control coalitions' efforts to use media advocacy to advance their agendas. The authors compared a highly interactive, Enhanced website (intervention) to a noninteractive, Basic text-based website (comparison) in Colorado communities. A total of 24 tobacco control coalitions led by local county health departments and nursing services were enrolled in the project and randomly assigned to use either the intervention or comparison website. A total of 73 local daily and weekly newspapers were identified in the service areas of 23 of the 24 coalitions. A posttest assessment of newspaper coverage was conducted to locate all newspaper articles with tobacco control information published between January 1 and April 9, 2004, the last 3 months of the intervention. Although there was no evidence of a treatment effect on the frequency of newspaper articles on tobacco-related issues, there was, however, evidence that newspapers in counties where the coalition had access to the Enhanced website printed more stories focused on local/regional issues and more anti-tobacco local/regional stories than in the counties where coalitions had access to the Basic website. Coalitions can improve their influence on local media for community tobacco control when high-quality online technical assistance, training, and resources are available to them. PMID:22068581

  17. A Preliminary Analysis of California's New Local Control Funding Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Rebecca; Sands, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    California recently overhauled its K-12 public education finance system. Enacted in 2013, the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) replaced California's 40-year-old funding formula. The LCFF increases district officials' fiscal flexibility; provides more resources to districts serving larger proportions of low-income, English learner (EL), and…

  18. Local Control of Ultrafast Dynamics of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhov, A.; Berakdar, J.

    2009-02-06

    Using the local control theory we derive analytical expressions for magnetic field pulses that steer the magnetization of a monodomain magnetic nanoparticle to a predefined state. Finite-temperature full numerical simulations confirm the analytical results and show that a magnetization switching or freezing is achievable within few precessional periods and that the scheme is exploitable for fast thermal switching.

  19. Local Control and Self-Determination: The San Juan Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, Keats; Jack, Donald

    Rapidly increasing Navajo enrollment in San Juan County, Utah, public schools in the 1960's forced the rural school district to improve educational services to a sizable Navajo population while attempting to preserve local control in the face of changing Indian self-determination policy. The district implemented a Curriculum Development Center, a…

  20. Seizing the Moment for Transformation: California's Local Control Funding Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley; Feinberg, Randi

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 California adopted a new funding formula that includes a significant reinvestment in public education after years of budget cuts. The new law allocates funds differently, directing more resources to students with higher needs and providing more local control and greater transparency. This revolutionary change presents California districts…

  1. Excellent Local Control Rates and Distinctive Patterns of Failure in Myxoid Liposarcoma Treated With Conservation Surgery and Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh Zagars, Gunar K.; Ballo, Matthew T.; Patel, Shreyaskumar R.; Lewis, Valerae O.; Benjamin, Robert S.; Pollock, Raphael E.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the local control rates and patterns of metastatic relapse in patients with localized myxoid liposarcoma treated with conservation surgery and radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: Between 1960 and 2003, 127 patients with non-metastatic myxoid liposarcoma were treated with conservation surgery and RT at our institution. The median patient age was 39 years (range, 14-79 years). Of the 127 patients, 46% underwent preoperative RT (median dose, 50 Gy) and 54% underwent postoperative RT (median dose, 60 Gy). Also, 28% received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy as a part of their treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 9.1 years. The overall survival rate at 5 and 10 years was 87% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding disease-free survival rates were 81% and 73%. The local control rate at {>=}5 years was 97%. The actuarial rate of distant metastases at 5 and 10 years was 15% and 24%, respectively. Of the 27 patients who developed distant metastases, 48% did so in the retroperitoneum, 22% in other extrapulmonary soft tissues, 22% in the lung, 15% in bone, and 4% in the liver. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that RT and conservation surgery for localized myxoid liposarcoma provide excellent local control. Distant metastatic relapse tended to occur in the retroperitoneum and other nonpulmonary soft tissues. Therefore, staging and surveillance imaging should include the abdomen and pelvis, as well as the thorax, for patients with localized myxoid liposarcoma.

  2. Local Recurrence After Complete Clinical Response and Watch and Wait in Rectal Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: Impact of Salvage Therapy on Local Disease Control

    SciTech Connect

    Habr-Gama, Angelita; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; São Julião, Guilherme P.; Proscurshim, Igor; Sabbagh, Charles; Lynn, Patricio B.; Perez, Rodrigo O.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To review the risk of local recurrence and impact of salvage therapy after Watch and Wait for rectal cancer with complete clinical response (cCR) after chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal cancer treated with CRT (50.4-54 Gy + 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) and cCR at 8 weeks were included. Patients with cCR were enrolled in a strict follow-up program with no immediate surgery (Watch and Wait). Local recurrence-free survival was compared while taking into account Watch and Wait strategy alone and Watch and Wait plus salvage. Results: 90 of 183 patients experienced cCR at initial assessment after CRT (49%). When early tumor regrowths (up to and including the initial 12 months of follow-up) and late recurrences were considered together, 28 patients (31%) experienced local recurrence (median follow-up time, 60 months). Of those, 26 patients underwent salvage therapy, and 2 patients were not amenable to salvage. In 4 patients, local re-recurrence developed after Watch and Wait plus salvage. The overall salvage rate for local recurrence was 93%. Local recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 69% (all local recurrences) and 94% (after salvage procedures). Thirteen patients (14%) experienced systemic recurrence. The 5-year cancer-specific overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients (including all recurrences) were 91% and 68%, respectively. Conclusions: Local recurrence may develop in 31% of patients with initial cCR when early regrowths (≤12 months) and late recurrences are grouped together. More than half of these recurrences develop within 12 months of follow-up. Salvage therapy is possible in ≥90% of recurrences, leading to 94% local disease control, with 78% organ preservation.

  3. Excellent Local Control With Stereotactic Radiotherapy Boost After External Beam Radiotherapy in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Wendy; Loo, Billy W.; Goffinet, Don R.; Chang, Steven D.; Adler, John R.; Pinto, Harlan A.; Fee, Willard E.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine long-term outcomes in patients receiving stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) as a boost after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: Eight-two patients received an SRT boost after EBRT between September 1992 and July 2006. Nine patients had T1, 30 had T2, 12 had T3, and 31 had T4 tumors. Sixteen patients had Stage II, 19 had Stage III, and 47 had Stage IV disease. Patients received 66 Gy of EBRT followed by a single-fraction SRT boost of 7-15 Gy, delivered 2-6 weeks after EBRT. Seventy patients also received cisplatin-based chemotherapy delivered concurrently with and adjuvant to radiotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up of 40.7 months (range, 6.5-144.2 months) for living patients, there was only 1 local failure in a patient with a T4 tumor. At 5 years, the freedom from local relapse rate was 98%, freedom from nodal relapse 83%, freedom from distant metastasis 68%, freedom from any relapse 67%, and overall survival 69%. Late toxicity included radiation-related retinopathy in 3, carotid aneurysm in 1, and radiographic temporal lobe necrosis in 10 patients, of whom 2 patients were symptomatic with seizures. Of 10 patients with temporal lobe necrosis, 9 had T4 tumors. Conclusion: Stereotactic radiotherapy boost after EBRT provides excellent local control for patients with NPC. Improved target delineation and dose homogeneity of radiation delivery for both EBRT and SRT is important to avoid long-term complications. Better systemic therapies for distant control are needed.

  4. Local gate control in carbon nanotube quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biercuk, Michael Jordan

    This thesis presents transport measurements of carbon nanotube electronic devices operated in the quantum regime. Nanotubes are contacted by source and drain electrodes, and multiple lithographically-patterned electrostatic gates are aligned to each device. Transport measurements of device conductance or current as a function of local gate voltages reveal that local gates couple primarily to the proximal section of the nanotube, hence providing spatially localized control over carrier density along the nanotube length. Further, using several different techniques we are able to produce local depletion regions along the length of a tube. This phenomenon is explored in detail for different contact metals to the nanotube. We utilize local gating techniques to study multiple quantum dots in carbon nanotubes produced both by naturally occurring defects, and by the controlled application of voltages to depletion gates. We study double quantum dots in detail, where transport measurements reveal honeycomb charge stability diagrams. We extract values of energy-level spacings, capacitances, and interaction energies for this system, and demonstrate independent control over all relevant tunneling rates. We report rf-reflectometry measurements of gate-defined carbon nanotube quantum dots with integrated charge sensors. Aluminum rf-SETs are electrostatically coupled to carbon nanotube devices and detect single electron charging phenomena in the Coulomb blockade regime. Simultaneous correlated measurements of single electron charging are made using reflected rf power from the nanotube itself and from the rf-SET on microsecond time scales. We map charge stability diagrams for the nanotube quantum dot via charge sensing, observing Coulomb charging diamonds beyond the first order. Conductance measurements of carbon nanotubes containing gated local depletion regions exhibit plateaus as a function of gate voltage, spaced by approximately 1e2/h, the quantum of conductance for a single

  5. Locally oriented potential field for controlling multi-robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Roseli A. F.; Prestes, Edson; Idiart, Marco A. P.; Faria, Gedson

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of the boundary value problem path planner (BVP PP) to control multiple robots in a robot soccer scenario. This extension is called Locally Oriented Potential Field (LOPF) and computes a potential field from the numerical solution of a BVP using local relaxations in different patches of the solution space. This permits that a single solution of the BVP endows distinct robots with different behaviors in a team. We present the steps to implement LOPF as well as several results obtained in simulation.

  6. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica in a 5 year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; Pires-de-Mello, Paulo; Morgado, Maria de Fátima; March, Maria de Fátima Pombo

    2012-12-01

    Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is considered an orphan disease with exceptional occurrence in children. We report a 5 year old female child who was referred to us with chronic cough and recurrent pneumonia. After several investigations, bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in the tracheobronchial lumen, whose distribution was consistent with TO. The patient was followed for four years, with no change in the pattern of the disease.

  7. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, ARMI has partnered with an extensive list of government, academic, and private entities. These partnerships have been fruitful and have assisted ARMI in developing new field protocols and analytic tools, in using and refining emerging technologies to improve accuracy and efficiency of data handling, in conducting amphibian disease, malformation, and environmental effects research, and in implementing a network of mon

  8. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  9. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  10. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  11. Tuberculosis control: decentralization, local planning and management specificities.

    PubMed

    Trigueiro, Janaína Von Söhsten; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Trigueiro, Débora Raquel Soares Guedes

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to analyze, according to the perception of health managers, the practices that guide tuberculosis control actions in cities in the metropolitan region of João Pessoa - PB, Brazil. This qualitative study involved eight professionals in management functions. Testimonies were collected through semi-structured interviews between May and June 2009 and organized through content analysis. Despite the acknowledged benefits of tuberculosis control action decentralization, local planning indicates the predominance of a bureaucratic model that is restricted to negotiation and supplies. Local programming is centered on the coordinator, which shows a command line and vertical management that lead to the fragmentation of the work process. Management action should follow an innovative and transformative route that surpasses bureaucratic barriers and faces the biggest challenge it is proposed: to balance professional interrelations with a view to improving health work performance. PMID:22249661

  12. PRMT1-mediated arginine methylation controls ATXN2L localization

    SciTech Connect

    Kaehler, Christian; Guenther, Anika; Uhlich, Anja; Krobitsch, Sylvia

    2015-05-15

    Arginine methylation is a posttranslational modification that is of importance in diverse cellular processes. Recent proteomic mass spectrometry studies reported arginine methylation of ataxin-2-like (ATXN2L), the paralog of ataxin-2, a protein that is implicated in the neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. Here, we investigated the methylation state of ATXN2L and its significance for ATXN2L localization. We first confirmed that ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo, and observed that the nuclear localization of ATXN2L is altered under methylation inhibition. We further discovered that ATXN2L associates with the protein arginine-N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1). Finally, we showed that neither mutation of the arginine–glycine-rich motifs of ATXN2L nor methylation inhibition alters ATXN2L localization to stress granules, suggesting that methylation of ATXN2L is probably not mandatory. - Highlights: • ATXN2L is asymmetrically dimethylated in vivo. • ATXN2L interacts with PRMT1 under normal and stress conditions. • PRMT1-mediated dimethylation of ATXN2L controls its nuclear localization. • ATXN2L localization to stress granules appears independent of its methylation state.

  13. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica. PMID:25499184

  14. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica.

  15. Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor.

    PubMed

    Kuroyanagi, R; Nguyen, L M; Tsuchizawa, T; Ishikawa, Y; Yamada, K; Wada, K

    2013-07-29

    We have proposed a new approach to tune the operation wavelength of Franz-Keldysh Ge electro-absorption modulation in Si photonics by controlling the local strain environment to cover the whole range of C + L bands (1.53 - 1.62 μm). The present paper shows a proof of strain-tuning modulator concept by the shift of the Ge absorption edge using SiN(x) stressor films and Franz-Keldysh effect in strain-controlled Ge.

  16. Reference trajectory tracking for locally designed coherent quantum controls.

    PubMed

    Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Turinici, Gabriel; Rouchon, Pierre

    2005-03-24

    Local time control methods are used in the simulation of quantum control phenomena because they conveniently ensure an increase of a predefined performance index and also avoid singularities associated with tracking procedures. However, the drawback of the existing implementations is that they only take into account one-photon, direct transitions and may stop at nonoptimal values of the index. We propose in this paper a modification of the currently used algorithms that addresses this issue and explain how the convergence is improved. Furthermore, when iterations are required, we show that this approach can be inserted into a monotonically convergent algorithm. PMID:16833569

  17. Toward Reform in Land Reform: Coupling Local Control and Social Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, Charles C.

    An alternative to the traditional land reform movement in the United States and the recent land use reform movement would result in a merging of social control with local control over land. Traditional land reformers perceive that land is a private commodity subject to fee-simple ownership and near absolute control over its use and disposition.…

  18. Local control theory in trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Curchod, Basile F. E.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, we extend the implementation of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics within the framework of time-dependent density-functional theory in an external field described in Tavernelli et al.[Phys. Rev. A 81, 052508 (2010)] by calculating on-the-fly pulses to control the population transfer between electronic states using local control theory. Using Tully's fewest switches trajectory surface hopping method, we perform MD to control the photoexcitation of LiF and compare the results to quantum dynamics (QD) calculations performed within the Heidelberg multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree package. We show that this approach is able to calculate a field that controls the population transfer between electronic states. The calculated field is in good agreement with that obtained from QD, and the differences that arise are discussed in detail.

  19. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yujing; Oh, Julia L.; Whitman, Gary J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.

  20. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  1. Local thermal control of the human cutaneous circulation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, John M; Kellogg, Dean L

    2010-10-01

    The level of skin blood flow is subject to both reflex thermoregulatory control and influences from the direct effects of warming and cooling the skin. The effects of local changes in temperature are capable of maximally vasoconstricting or vasodilating the skin. They are brought about by a combination of mechanisms involving endothelial, adrenergic, and sensory systems. Local warming initiates a transient vasodilation through an axon reflex, succeeded by a plateau phase due largely to nitric oxide. Both phases are supported by sympathetic transmitters. The plateau phase is followed by the die-away phenomenon, a slow reversal of the vasodilation that is dependent on intact sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerves. The vasoconstriction with local skin cooling is brought about, in part, by a postsynaptic upregulation of α(2c)-adrenoceptors and, in part, by inhibition of the nitric oxide system at at least two points. There is also an early vasodilator response to local cooling, dependent on the rate of cooling. The mechanism for that transient vasodilation is not known, but it is inhibited by intact sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve function and by intact sensory nerve function.

  2. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  3. Quality of local control for simple sewer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolechkina, Alla; van Nooijen, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Combined sewer networks, where both foul water and storm water are transported through the same system, tend to develop into complex networks due to expansion of towns and villages. The transport capacity of these systems is always limited, so occasional controlled spills into surface water, combined sewer overflows (CSO), are part of the normal operating procedure. Occasionally the ideas and rules present in the original design are not respected when the system is extended to cover a larger area. One way to deal with this problem is to implement central control. Another is to add pipes and hardware to bring the extended system into line with the original rules and ideas. We show that for a design rule often followed in the Netherlands, local control does quite well as long as the rule is respected and there are no large variations in precipitation intensity over the area covered by the system.

  4. The acquired cardiac disease domain: the next 5 years.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John R

    2013-01-01

    At a recent in-house meeting at the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) headquarters in Windsor, the Chairs of the four domains were asked by the President to present their perception of the next 5 years in their respective domains. This review represents a distillation of our discussions on adult cardiac surgery. Advances in technology and imaging are having a radical effect on the working lives of surgeons. In clinical practice, the growth of heart teams and the breaking down of artificial barriers between specialities are altering the way we practice for the better. We see the development of hybrid approaches to many areas such as coronary artery surgery and operations on the thoracic aorta. These changes require careful analysis to ensure that they produce better outcomes that are also cost-effective. All health-care systems are at breaking point, and it is our responsibility to harness new technology to benefit our patients. This is all part of placing the patient at the centre of our activities. Hence, we see the involvement of patients in the design and analysis of clinical trials, which also require great mutual trust and cooperation between surgeons in different countries. Because of the dramatic changes in the pattern of working, we have had to alter our patterns of training and education, and we will continue to make significant innovations in the future. These are exciting challenges that will keep us all busy for the next 5 years at least.

  5. Predictive 5-Year Survivorship Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Theodore G.; Adler, Frederick R.; FitzSimmons, Stacey C.; Cahill, Barbara C.; Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 5-year survivorship model to identify key clinical features of cystic fibrosis. Such a model could help researchers and clinicians to evaluate therapies, improve the design of prospective studies, monitor practice patterns, counsel individual patients, and determine the best candidates for lung transplantation. The authors used information from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), which has collected longitudinal data on approximately 90% of cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed in the United States since 1986. They developed multivariate logistic regression models by using data on 5,820 patients randomly selected from 11,630 in the CFFPR in 1993. Models were tested for goodness of fit and were validated for the remaining 5,810 patients for 1993. The validated 5-year survivorship model included age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted normal, gender, weight-for-age z score, pancreatic sufficiency, diabetes mellitus, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Burkerholderia cepacia infection, and annual number of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The model provides insights into the complex nature of cystic fibrosis and supplies a rigorous tool for clinical practice and research. PMID:11207152

  6. MUSCLE COACTIVATION: A GENERALIZED OR LOCALIZED MOTOR CONTROL STRATEGY?

    PubMed Central

    FREY-LAW, LAURA A.; AVIN, KEITH G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We examined generalized versus joint-specific influences on muscle coactivation. Methods Muscle coactivation was assessed during maximal isometric and isokinetic knee and elbow joint extension moments in 48 healthy subjects (27 men). Local (joint-specific) and generalized (person-specific) contributions were examined using a combination of statistical tests, including regression with generalized estimating equations (GEEs), exploratory factor analysis, and cluster analysis. Results GEEs produced similar significant coefficients for gender and joint; contraction type and test condition (angle or velocity) were not significant. Factor analysis indicated 2 joint-based factors, and cluster analysis indicated 2 groups of individuals, those with and without elevated coactivation at the knee and elbow. Women exhibited greater coactivation at both joints, but no consistent influences of angle or velocity were observed at either joint. Conclusion Muscle coactivation is a neuromuscular control response determined by local, joint-specific, and generalized, individual-specific influences. PMID:24037745

  7. Loss of control during instrumental learning: a source localization study.

    PubMed

    Diener, Carsten; Kuehner, Christine; Flor, Herta

    2010-04-01

    This study used multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate cortical correlates of response-outcome contingency appraisal as indexed by the postimperative negative variation (PINV) during instrumental learning. PINV data were subjected to standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) for source localization. Forty-six healthy adult persons underwent a forewarned S1-S2 paradigm where response-outcome contingencies varied in three consecutive conditions. Initially subjects could control aversive stimulation by a correct behavioral response followed by loss of control and subsequent restitution of control. Throughout the experiment, reaction times, errors, ratings of controllability, arousal, emotional valence and helplessness were assessed. Topographical EEG analyses showed that in particular frontal PINV magnitudes covaried with the experimental manipulation. Loss of control induced extensive response-outcome uncertainty accompanied by a fronto-central PINV maximum. sLORETA functional analyses of the PINV revealed that dependent on the experimental conditions frontal, temporal and parietal areas seem to be related to PINV formation. In particular during loss of control, between-conditions sLORETA comparisons found Brodmann Area 24 in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to be associated with PINV generation, which was confirmed by correlational analyses. These results provide further evidence for the role of the ACC in detecting response conflict and its involvement in the generation of the PINV.

  8. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination.

  9. Control of tissue growth by locally produced activator: Liver regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-03-01

    In general, the tissue development is controlled by growth factors and depends on the biomechanics of cells. The corresponding kinetic models are focused primarily on the early stages of the development. The attempts to construct such models for the later stages are still rare. One of the notable examples here is liver regeneration. Referring to this process, the author proposes and analyzes a generic kinetic model describing the regulation of tissue growth by locally produced activator. The model includes activator diffusion and control of the rate of cell proliferation which is described by using the Hill expression. Although this control may be moderately or strongly non-linear, the qualitative changes in the regeneration kinetics are predicted to be modest. For moderately non-linear control, the evolution of the tissue volume to the steady-state value exhibits an initial relatively short linear stage and then becomes slightly slower so that the whole kinetics is close to exponential. For strongly non-linear control, the linear stage dominates and/or the kinetics may exhibit a S-like shape feature which is, however, rather weak. The identification of such qualitative features in experimentally measured kinetics is shown to be difficult, because the error bars in the experiments are typically too large.

  10. Maternal anxiety: a 5-year review of an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B; Schaafsma, M F; Guzman, A M; Parker, G B

    1991-03-01

    Primiparous women were divided into groups according to their post-partum trait anxiety scores. Professional or non-professional support for the first 12 months was offered to two subgroups of high trait anxiety subjects. At the 5-year follow-up the high-anxiety mothers (n = 57) manifested more psychological and social pathology than moderate- and low-anxiety mothers (n = 43), and their children also showed signs of poorer adaptation. There was evidence of improved outcome for mothers in the professional intervention group, but not for their children. Child psychopathology was predicted best by maternal psychosocial variables, and to a lesser extent by child temperament variables. The relation of infant attachment and temperament measures to subsequent psychopathology is discussed.

  11. Achalasia 5 years following Roux-en-y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Torghabeh, Mehyar Hefazi; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Saif, Taha; Dakin, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Oesophageal achalasia is a rare, but serious condition in which the motility of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) is inhibited. This disorder of idiopathic aetiology complicates the peristaltic function and relaxation of the LES that may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, epigastric pain, and regurgitation of an obstructed food. The following case describes achalasia in a patient 5 years following a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The patient underwent a laparoscopic Heller myotomy without a fundoplication. Although achalasia seems to be a rare occurrence in obese patients, this is the third case documented in a patient who previously had an RYGB. The role of performing a fundoplication in these patients remains to be elucidated. PMID:26195880

  12. [The readmission of schizophrenics: a retrospective study over 5 years].

    PubMed

    Antonioli, D; Rey-Bellet, J; Müller, C

    1988-05-01

    Since the introduction of neuroleptics, the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals has decreased progressively, but, in the same time, the number of readmissions has increased. For schizophrenic outpatients, we can estimate that 68% will be readmitted during the 5 years following their departure from the hospital. In our retrospective survey, we have studied the different factors which influence the readmissions. We have shown, with a statistical significancy, that an agricultural background, a fulltime job and brief hospitalizations prevent the readmissions. However patients aged less than 30 years, with long hospitalizations and living alone have a high risk of readmission. The most frequent causes are patient's omission to take prescribed drugs, environmental conflicts and alteration in the familial situation. PMID:3059911

  13. Spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound.

    PubMed

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2009-05-01

    Active control of sound has been employed to reduce noise levels around listeners' head using destructive interference from noise-canceling sound sources. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sound sources, capable of generating sound fields with high complexity. In this paper, the potential use of a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound is investigated. A theoretical analysis of the primary and secondary sound fields around a spherical sound source reveals that the natural quiet zones for the spherical source have a shell-shape. Using numerical optimization, quiet zones with other shapes are designed, showing potential for quiet zones with extents that are significantly larger than the well-known limit of a tenth of a wavelength for monopole sources. The paper presents several simulation examples showing quiet zones in various configurations.

  14. Localization/mapping motion control system for a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang-Syu, Jr.; Su, Chiun-Shiang; Yang, Chan-Yun

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a mobile robot with automatic motion behaviors and obstacle avoidance functions. The robot is also able to make the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) at an unknown environment. The robot position is calculated by the developed software program from the motor encoders. An obstacle avoidance controller is developed by the fuzzy theory. A LRF(laser ranger finder) is installed on the robot. The sensing data of this LRF are applied to calculate the environmental information for the obstacle avoidance controller. Then, the ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm is applied to compare the position error of the environmental data in order to obtain the estimated position of the LRF. Finally, these estimated position data are used to calculate the final SLAM of this mobile robot. Both the simulation and experimental results show that this developed robot system work very well.

  15. Controlling a microdisk laser by local refractive index perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Seng Fatt; Ge, Li; Redding, Brandon; Solomon, Glenn S.; Cao, Hui

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a simple yet effective approach of controlling lasing in a semiconductor microdisk by photo-thermal effect. A continuous wave green laser beam, focused onto the microdisk perimeter, can enhance or suppress lasing in different cavity modes, depending on the position of the focused beam. Its main effect is a local modification of the refractive index of the disk, which results in an increase in the power slope of some lasing modes and a decrease of others. The boundary roughness breaks the rotational symmetry of a circular disk, allowing the lasing process to be tuned by varying the green beam position. Using the same approach, we can also fine tune the relative intensity of a quasi-degenerate pair of lasing modes. Such post-fabrication control, enabled by an additional laser beam, is flexible and reversible, thus enhancing the functionality of semiconductor microdisk lasers.

  16. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  17. Immunologic memory 5 years after meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination in infancy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, J; Obaro, S; Deeks, J; Lake, D; Elie, C; Carlone, G; Moxon, E R; Greenwood, B

    2001-01-01

    Infant vaccination with meningococcal conjugates may provide long-term protection against disease. Antibody levels and immunologic memory were assessed in 5-year-old Gambian children who received meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination (MenA/C) in infancy. At 2 years, they were randomized to receive a booster of MenA/C (conjugate group), meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MPS group), or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV group). All groups were revaccinated with 10 microg MPS at 5 years of age, as were 39 previously unvaccinated age-matched control subjects. Before revaccination, titers were higher in the conjugate and MPS groups than in control subjects (P<.001); titers for the IPV group were similar to those for control subjects. Ten days after revaccination, the conjugate and IPV groups had similar serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody titers (3421 vs. 2790, respectively). These levels were significantly higher than those in the MPS (426) and control (485) groups (P<.001). Thus, immunologic memory was sustained for > or =5 years; however, MPS challenge at 2 years interfered with a subsequent memory response.

  18. Local problems, local solutions: improving tuberculosis control at the district level in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the causes of a low cure rate at the district level of a tuberculosis (TB) control programme and to formulate, implement, and evaluate an intervention to improve the situation. METHODS: The study setting was Mzuzu (population 60,000), where the annual smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence was 160 per 100,000 and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence was 67% among TB patients. There is one TB treatment unit, but several other organizations are involved with TB control. An examination of case-holding activities was carried out, potential areas for improvement were identified, and interventions performed. FINDINGS: In 1990-91, the cure rate was 24% among smear-positive cases (29% among survivors to end of treatment). Problems identified included a fragmented TB control programme; inadequate training and supervision; suboptimal recording of patients' addresses; and nonadherence to national TB control programme protocols. These problems were addressed, and in 1992-93 the cure rate rose to 68% (relative risk (RR) = 2.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 4.96)) and to 92% among survivors to the end of treatment (RR = 3.12 (95% CI = 1.84, 5.29)). High cure rates are therefore achievable despite high HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Simple, inexpensive, local programmatic interventions can dramatically improve TB case holding. This study demonstrates the need for evaluation, training, and supervision at all levels of the programme. PMID:11242817

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of localized control strategies to curtail chikungunya

    PubMed Central

    Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Durham, David P.; Skrip, Laura A.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Brownstein, John S.; Fish, Durland; Galvani, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya, a re-emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, causes debilitating disease characterized by an acute febrile phase and chronic joint pain. Chikungunya has recently spread to the island of St. Martin and subsequently throughout the Americas. The disease is now affecting 42 countries and territories throughout the Americas. While chikungunya is mainly a tropical disease, the recent introduction and subsequent spread of Ae. albopictus into temperate regions has increased the threat of chikungunya outbreaks beyond the tropics. Given that there are currently no vaccines or treatments for chikungunya, vector control remains the primary measure to curtail transmission. To investigate the effectiveness of a containment strategy that combines disease surveillance, localized vector control and transmission reduction measures, we developed a model of chikungunya transmission dynamics within a large residential neighborhood, explicitly accounting for human and mosquito movement. Our findings indicate that prompt targeted vector control efforts combined with measures to reduce transmission from symptomatic cases to mosquitoes may be highly effective approaches for controlling outbreaks of chikungunya, provided that sufficient detection of chikungunya cases can be achieved. PMID:27045523

  20. Flutter of wings involving a locally distributed flexible control surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari-Jovin, S.; Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Roshanian, J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper undertakes to facilitate appraisal of aeroelastic interaction of a locally distributed, flap-type control surface with aircraft wings operating in a subsonic potential flow field. The extended Hamilton's principle serves as a framework to ascertain the Euler-Lagrange equations for coupled bending-torsional-flap vibration. An analytical solution to this boundary-value problem is then accomplished by assumed modes and the extended Galerkin's method. The developed aeroelastic model considers both the inherent flexibility of the control surface displaced on the wing and the inertial coupling between these two flexible bodies. The structural deformations also obey the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, along with the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic constitutive law. Meanwhile, the unsteady thin-airfoil and strip theories are the tools of producing the three-dimensional airloads. The origin of aerodynamic instability undergoes analysis in light of the oscillatory loads as well as the loads owing to arbitrary motions. After successful verification of the model, a systematic flutter survey was conducted on the theoretical effects of various control surface parameters. The results obtained demonstrate that the flapping modes and parameters of the control surface can significantly impact the flutter characteristics of the wings, which leads to a series of pertinent conclusions.

  1. Interaction Between Strategic and Local Traffic Flow Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Son; Sridhar, Banavar; Mukherjee, Avijit; Morando, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The loosely coordinated sets of traffic flow management initiatives that are operationally implemented at the national- and local-levels have the potential to under, over, and inconsistently control flights. This study is designed to explore these interactions through fast-time simulations with an emphasis on identifying inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays. Two operationally derived scenarios were considered in which flights arriving into the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport were first controlled at the national-level, either with a Ground Delay Program or a playbook reroute. These flights were subsequently controlled at the local level. The Traffic Management Advisor assigned them arrival scheduling delays. For the Ground Delay Program scenarios, between 51% and 53% of all arrivals experience both pre-departure delays from the Ground Delay Program and arrival scheduling delays from the Traffic Management Advisor. Of the subset of flights that received multiple delays, between 5.7% and 6.4% of the internal departures were first assigned a pre-departure delay by the Ground Delay Program, followed by a second pre-departure delay as a result of the arrival scheduling. For the playbook reroute scenario, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport arrivals were first assigned pre-departure reroutes based on the MW_2_DALLAS playbook plan, and were subsequently assigned arrival scheduling delays by the Traffic Management Advisor. Since the airport was operating well below capacity when the playbook reroute was in effect, only 7% of the arrivals were observed to receive both rerouting and arrival scheduling delays. Findings from these initial experiments confirm field observations that Ground Delay Programs operated in conjunction with arrival scheduling can result in inequitable situations in which flights receive multiple uncoordinated delays.

  2. Malpractice and radiologists, update 1986: an 11. 5-year perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, L.

    1986-12-01

    All medical malpractice lawsuits filed in Cook County, IL, from January 1, 1980, through June 30, 1986, were reviewed and compared with similar data for the period of January 1, 1975, through December 30, 1979. A total of 11,203 suits were filed during the 11.5-year period; of these, 1391 (12%) were radiology related. The latter were categorized into six groups. The largest was missed radiologic diagnoses, which accounted for 40% of the total. The remaining groups included complications, 19%; failure to order, 17%; radiation therapy, 11%; slip and fall, 5%; and miscellaneous, 8%. Over the 1975-1986 period, the rise in the number of suits alleging radiologic misses outpaced all other groups. Although the most common type of miss continues to involve fractures, the frequency of missed carcinomas has grown at a disproportionately faster rate. Misses specifically involving CT, nuclear medicine, and sonography also are becoming more prevalent. Radiographic misses continue to occur at an average rate of 30%, with little hope of improvement. Methods to combat the rising number of malpractice suits are discussed. It is concluded that although programs to educate radiologists on risk management should continue, the ultimate solution may be a more enlightened public attitude as to what actually constitutes malpractice, and institution of tort reform measures by federal and state legislatures.

  3. Adhesion and friction control localized folding in supported graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-05-01

    Graphene deposited on planar surfaces often exhibits sharp and localized folds delimiting seemingly planar regions, as a result of compressive stresses transmitted by the substrate. Such folds alter the electronic and chemical properties of graphene, and therefore, it is important to understand their emergence, to either suppress them or control their morphology. Here, we study the emergence of out-of-plane deformations in supported and laterally strained graphene with high-fidelity simulations and a simpler theoretical model. We characterize the onset of buckling and the nonlinear behavior after the instability in terms of the adhesion and frictional material parameters of the graphene-substrate interface. We find that localized folds evolve from a distributed wrinkling linear instability due to the nonlinearity in the van der Waals graphene-substrate interactions. We identify friction as a selection mechanism for the separation between folds, as the formation of far apart folds is penalized by the work of friction. Our systematic analysis is a first step towards strain engineering of supported graphene, and is applicable to other compressed thin elastic films weakly coupled to a substrate.

  4. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  5. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the

  6. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  7. Impulse-induced localized control of chaos in starlike networks.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Ricardo; Palmero, Faustino; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Locally decreasing the impulse transmitted by periodic pulses is shown to be a reliable method of taming chaos in starlike networks of dissipative nonlinear oscillators, leading to both synchronous periodic states and equilibria (oscillation death). Specifically, the paradigmatic model of damped kicked rotators is studied in which it is assumed that when the rotators are driven synchronously, i.e., all driving pulses transmit the same impulse, the networks display chaotic dynamics. It is found that the taming effect of decreasing the impulse transmitted by the pulses acting on particular nodes strongly depends on their number and degree of connectivity. A theoretical analysis is given explaining the basic physical mechanism as well as the main features of the chaos-control scenario. PMID:27415258

  8. Impulse-induced localized control of chaos in starlike networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacón, Ricardo; Palmero, Faustino; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Locally decreasing the impulse transmitted by periodic pulses is shown to be a reliable method of taming chaos in starlike networks of dissipative nonlinear oscillators, leading to both synchronous periodic states and equilibria (oscillation death). Specifically, the paradigmatic model of damped kicked rotators is studied in which it is assumed that when the rotators are driven synchronously, i.e., all driving pulses transmit the same impulse, the networks display chaotic dynamics. It is found that the taming effect of decreasing the impulse transmitted by the pulses acting on particular nodes strongly depends on their number and degree of connectivity. A theoretical analysis is given explaining the basic physical mechanism as well as the main features of the chaos-control scenario.

  9. Impulse-induced localized control of chaos in starlike networks.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Ricardo; Palmero, Faustino; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Locally decreasing the impulse transmitted by periodic pulses is shown to be a reliable method of taming chaos in starlike networks of dissipative nonlinear oscillators, leading to both synchronous periodic states and equilibria (oscillation death). Specifically, the paradigmatic model of damped kicked rotators is studied in which it is assumed that when the rotators are driven synchronously, i.e., all driving pulses transmit the same impulse, the networks display chaotic dynamics. It is found that the taming effect of decreasing the impulse transmitted by the pulses acting on particular nodes strongly depends on their number and degree of connectivity. A theoretical analysis is given explaining the basic physical mechanism as well as the main features of the chaos-control scenario.

  10. Cholinergic interneurons control local circuit activity and cocaine conditioning.

    PubMed

    Witten, Ilana B; Lin, Shih-Chun; Brodsky, Matthew; Prakash, Rohit; Diester, Ilka; Anikeeva, Polina; Gradinaru, Viviana; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-12-17

    Cholinergic neurons are widespread, and pharmacological modulation of acetylcholine receptors affects numerous brain processes, but such modulation entails side effects due to limitations in specificity for receptor type and target cell. As a result, causal roles of cholinergic neurons in circuits have been unclear. We integrated optogenetics, freely moving mammalian behavior, in vivo electrophysiology, and slice physiology to probe the cholinergic interneurons of the nucleus accumbens by direct excitation or inhibition. Despite representing less than 1% of local neurons, these cholinergic cells have dominant control roles, exerting powerful modulation of circuit activity. Furthermore, these neurons could be activated by cocaine, and silencing this drug-induced activity during cocaine exposure (despite the fact that the manipulation of the cholinergic interneurons was not aversive by itself) blocked cocaine conditioning in freely moving mammals.

  11. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  12. Localized control of the orbit in the RHIC insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, S.

    1992-08-01

    It is proposed here that, for RHIC92 insertions, we remove the corrector from Ql and the beam position monitor (BPM) from Q2 in order to alleviate difficulties associated with the physical layout of the quadrupole triplet (Ql-Q2-Q3). Furthermore, it is suggested that there should be both (horizontal and vertical) types of BPMs at each end of the free space between Q3 and Q4 and between Q7 and Q8 so that one can measure the direction of the closed orbit. With this model, a localized control of the beam position and angle at the interaction point (IP) with either four or six correctors has been investigated. Similarly, a control of the orbit within an insertion for minimizing the orbit displacements at seven (or eight) BPM locations with nine (or ten) correctors in each transverse direction has been studied. Examples are given for the beta at IP = 2m, 10m, 20m, and 200m. It is shown that the design value of the integrated field strength of 0.3 T-m for each corrector should be sufficient for the tasks considered here except for some cases with extreme parameter values. At the same time, it is emphasized that the overall correction of the closed orbit for the entire ring (arcs and insertions) should be re-examined for RHIC92 lattice with the proposed arrangement of correctors and BPMS.

  13. Controlling the localization and migration of optical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S.

    2012-09-01

    In the nanoscale structure of a wide variety of material systems, a close juxtaposition of optically responsive components can lead to the absorption of light by one species producing fluorescence that is clearly attributable to another. The effect is generally evident in systems comprising two or more light-absorbing components (molecules, chromophores or quantum dots) with well-characterised fluorescence bands at similar, differentiable wavelengths. This enables the fluorescence associated with transferred energy to be discriminated against fluorescence from an initially excited component. The fundamental mechanism at the heart of the phenomenon, molecular (resonance) energy transfer, also operates in systems where the product of optical absorption is optical frequency up-conversion. In contrast to random media, structurally organised materials offer the possibility of pre-configured control over the delocalization of energy, through molecular energy transfer following optical excitation. The Förster mechanism that conveys energy between molecular-scale components is strongly sensitive to specific forms of correlation between the involved components, in terms of position, spectroscopic character, and orientation; one key factor is a spectroscopic gradient. Suitably designed materials offer a broad scope for the widespread exploitation of such features, in applications ranging from chemical and biological sensing to the detection of nanoscale motion or molecular conformations. Recently, attention has turned to the prospect of actively controlling the process of energy migration, for example by changing the relative efficiencies of fluorescence and molecular energy transfer. On application of static electric fields or off-resonant laser light - just two of the possibilities - each represents a means for achieving active control with ultrafast response, in suitably configured systems. As the principles are established and the theory is developed, a range of new

  14. A 5-year experience with an elective scholarly concentrations program

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul; Green, Emily P.; Park, Yoon S.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Programs that encourage scholarly activities beyond the core curriculum and traditional biomedical research are now commonplace among US medical schools. Few studies have generated outcome data for these programs. The goal of the present study was to address this gap. Intervention The Scholarly Concentration (SC) Program, established in 2006 at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, is a 4-year elective program that not only encourages students to pursue scholarly work that may include traditional biomedical research but also seeks to broaden students’ focus to include less traditional areas. We compared characteristics and academic performance of SC students and non-SC students for the graduating classes of 2010–2014. Context Approximately one-third of our students opt to complete an SC during their 4-year undergraduate medical education. Because this program is additional to the regular MD curriculum, we sought to investigate whether SC students sustained the academic achievement of non-SC students while at the same time producing scholarly work as part of the program. Outcome Over 5 years, 35% of students elected to enter the program and approximately 81% of these students completed the program. The parameters that were similar for both SC and non-SC students were age at matriculation, admission route, proportion of undergraduate science majors, and number of undergraduate science courses. Most academic indicators, including United States Medical Licensing Examinations scores, were similar for the two groups; however, SC students achieved more honors in the six core clerkships and were more likely to be inducted into the medical school's two honor societies. Residency specialties selected by graduates in the two groups were similar. SC students published an average of 1.3 peer-reviewed manuscripts per student, higher than the 0.8 manuscripts per non-SC student (p=0.013). Conclusions An elective, interdisciplinary scholarly program with

  15. Controlled localized buckling responses of orthodontic arch wires.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, R J; Chung, A Y

    1999-09-01

    The orthodontic arch wire is often activated locally, in transverse bending and/or longitudinal torsion, to engage an individual malaligned tooth. Arch wires with substantial flexibilities and elastic ranges in bending are available. Several clinical reports of distal displacements of molars with appliances activated by locally buckling the arch wire have appeared in the recent published literature. This article contains an explanation of buckling or "column" action and the postbuckling response of a wire, and a report of the results of a controlled, in-vitro study of a sample of 256 wire segments subjected to activation-deactivation, buckling-postbuckling-unbuckling cycles. Continuous force-displacement diagrams were obtained from mechanical tests run at oral temperature. Four orthodontics-relevant, mechanical characteristics were quantified from each diagram, and each specimen was subjected to posttest evaluation for inelastic behavior. Although the deformation of the buckled wire is, in fact, bending, the force-displacement diagrams obtained differed substantially from their familiar counterparts generated in transverse bending. Judging from the force magnitudes induced as the deactivation half-cycles commenced as well as the deactivation rates, not all of the 8 wires seem to be clinically suitable for activation initiated by buckling. Magnitudes of springback were substantial from activations as large as 6 mm, and only 2 of the 8 wires exhibited full deactivations less than 80% of their activating displacements. This relatively new mode of arch wire activation that enables delivery to the dentition of mesiodistal pushing forces has substantial potential for clinical application from several biomechanical standpoints. PMID:10474103

  16. Understanding Local Control in the Wake of State Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrman, Susan H.; Elmore, Richard F.

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that traditional notions of state-local relations as a zero-sum game need recasting. It appears that local effects of state policy are greater than those predicted on the basis of state capacity and that localities often gain, rather than lose, influence as a result of state policymaking. (TJH)

  17. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  18. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  19. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  20. Local control stations: Human engineering issues and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate current human engineering at local control stations (LCSs) in nuclear power plants, and to identify good human engineering practices relevant to the design of these operator interfaces. General literature and reports of operating experience were reviewed to determine the extent and type of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs in nuclear power plants. In-plant assessments were made of human engineering at single-function as well as multifunction LCSs. Besides confirming the existence of human engineering deficiencies at LCSs, the in-plant assessments provided information about the human engineering upgrades that have been made at nuclear power plants. Upgrades were typically the result of any of three influences regulatory activity, broad industry initiatives such as INPO, and specific in-plant programs (e.g. activities related to training). It is concluded that the quality of LCSs is quite variable and might be improved if there were greater awareness of good practices and existing human engineering guidance relevant to these operator interfaces, which is available from a variety of sources. To make such human engineering guidance more readily accessible, guidelines were compiled from such sources and included in the report as an appendix.

  1. Local effects of structure formation and control in self-organizing systems. II

    SciTech Connect

    Chugaev, V.I.

    1995-09-01

    This theoretical problem focuses on stability, controllability, and adaptation methods in nonlinear distributed dissipative systems subject to external local changes of diffusion coefficients. The control directly affect the main equations describing the controlled system, and it is applied in the form of a local change in the field of diffusion coefficients of the reactive system at the control point.

  2. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243

  3. Arterial identity of endothelial cells is controlled by local cues.

    PubMed

    Othman-Hassan, K; Patel, K; Papoutsi, M; Rodriguez-Niedenführ, M; Christ, B; Wilting, J

    2001-09-15

    The ephrins and their Eph receptors comprise the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Studies on mice have revealed an important function of ephrin-B2 and Eph-B4 for the development of the arterial and venous vasculature, respectively, but the mechanisms regulating their expression have not been studied yet. We have cloned a chick ephrin-B2 cDNA probe. Expression was observed in endothelial cells of extra- and intraembryonic arteries and arterioles in all embryos studied from day 2 (stage 10 HH, before perfusion of the vessels) to day 16. Additionally, expression was found in the somites and neural tube in early stages, and later also in the smooth muscle cells of the aorta, parts of the Müllerian duct, dosal neural tube, and joints of the limbs. We isolated endothelial cells from the internal carotid artery and the vena cava of 14-day-old quail embryos and grafted them separately into day-3 chick embryos. Reincubation was performed until day 6 and the quail endothelial cells were identified with the QH1 antibody. The grafted arterial and venous endothelial cells expressed ephrin-B2 when they integrated into the lining of arteries. Cells that were not integrated into vessels, or into vessels other than arteries, were ephrin-B2-negative. The studies show that the expression of the arterial marker ephrin-B2 is controlled by local cues in arterial vessels of older embryos. Physical forces or the media smooth muscle cells may be involved in this process.

  4. California's First Year with Local Control Finance and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee-Libey, David J.; Kerchner, Charles Taylor

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, Governor Jerry Brown and the California legislature radically restructured the state's school funding system and accountability systems with a weighted student formula and a mandated local planning process in each district. The new law substitutes local politics and grassroots agency for state-driven mandates and compliance reviews. While…

  5. Breast-Conserving Treatment With Partial or Whole Breast Irradiation for Low-Risk Invasive Breast Carcinoma-5-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Polgar, Csaba Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Nemeth, Gyoergy; Loevey, Katalin; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Kasler, Miklos

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a randomized study comparing the survival and cosmetic results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected patients with T1 N0-1mi, Grade 1-2, nonlobular breast cancer without presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after breast-conserving surgery to receive 50 Gy/25 fractions WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multicatheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy/25 fractions electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Results: At a median follow-up of 66 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 4.7% and 3.4% in the PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in the 5-year probability of overall survival (94.6% vs. 91.8%), cancer-specific survival (98.3% vs. 96.0%), and disease-free survival (88.3% vs. 90.3%). The rate of excellent to good cosmetic result was 77.6% in the PBI group (81.2% after HDR BT; 70.0% after EB) and 62.9% in the control group (52.2% after telecobalt; 65.6% after 6-9-MV photons; p{sub WBI/PBI} = 0.009). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using interstitial HDR implants or EB to deliver radiation to the tumor bed alone for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces 5-year results similar to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with carefully designed HDR multicatheter implants compared with the outcome after WBI.

  6. Supervisor Localization: A Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, K.; Wonham, W. M.

    2009-03-05

    A purely distributed control paradigm is proposed for discrete-event systems (DES). In contrast to control by one or more external supervisors, distributed control aims to design built-in strategies for individual agents. First a distributed optimal nonblocking control problem is formulated. To solve it, a top-down localization procedure is developed which systematically decomposes an external supervisor into local controllers while preserving optimality and nonblockingness. An efficient localization algorithm is provided to carry out the computation, and an automated guided vehicles (AGV) example presented for illustration. Finally, the 'easiest' and 'hardest' boundary cases of localization are discussed.

  7. Supervisor Localization: A Top-Down Approach to Distributed Control of Discrete-Event Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, K.; Wonham, W. M.

    2009-03-01

    A purely distributed control paradigm is proposed for discrete-event systems (DES). In contrast to control by one or more external supervisors, distributed control aims to design built-in strategies for individual agents. First a distributed optimal nonblocking control problem is formulated. To solve it, a top-down localization procedure is developed which systematically decomposes an external supervisor into local controllers while preserving optimality and nonblockingness. An efficient localization algorithm is provided to carry out the computation, and an automated guided vehicles (AGV) example presented for illustration. Finally, the 'easiest' and 'hardest' boundary cases of localization are discussed.

  8. 5-year review of Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) is to develop hydrogen storage materials with engineering properties that allow the use of these materials in a way that satisfies the DOE/FreedomCAR Program system requirements for automotive hydrogen storage. The Center is a multidisciplinary and collaborative effort with technical interactions divided into two broad areas: (1) mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials) and (2) materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized). Driving all of this work are the hydrogen storage system specifications outlined by the FreedomCAR Program for 2010 and 2015. The organization of the MHCoE during the past year is show in Figure 1. During the past year, the technical work was divided into four project areas. The purpose of the project areas is to organize the MHCoE technical work along appropriate and flexible technical lines. The four areas summarized are: (1) Project A - Destabilized Hydrides, The objective of this project is to controllably modify the thermodynamics of hydrogen sorption reactions in light metal hydrides using hydride destabilization strategies; (2) Project B - Complex Anionic Materials, The objective is to predict and synthesize highly promising new anionic hydride materials; (3) Project C - Amides/Imides Storage Materials, The objective of Project C is to assess the viability of amides and imides (inorganic materials containing NH{sub 2} and NH moieties, respectively) for onboard hydrogen storage; and (4) Project D - Alane, AlH{sub 3}, The objective of Project D is to understand the sorption and regeneration properties of AlH{sub 3} for hydrogen storage.

  9. The impact of age on local control in women with pT1 breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; van der Palen, J; Meerwaldt, J H

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of young age with regard to local control in a prospective cohort of 1085 women with pathological T1 tumours treated with breast conservative treatment (BCT). Patients were divided into two age groups: 40 years or younger, 7.8%, and older than 40 years, 92.2%. With a median follow-up of 71 months, the local recurrence rate was 10.6% in women < or =40 years, and 3.7% in older women. The local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was significantly different for the two age groups, respectively 89%, < or =40 years, and 97.6%, >40 years (P=0.0046). A separate analysis showed a significantly decreased LRFS for young women with a positive family history, 75.4% versus 98.4% 5-year LRFS for older women. A worse LRFS for young women with a negative lymph node status was also observed, respectively 84% versus 98% 5-year LRFS (both P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, taking into account the pre-treatment and treatment factors, age < or =40 years, was the only significant predictor of a decreased LRFS. Thus, young age is an important factor in relation to local control. In a subset analysis, this significant adverse effect of young age on outcome appears to be limited to the node-negative patients and those with a positive family history. To date, there is no evidence that young women with pT1 breast cancer, treated by mastectomy have an improved outcome when compared with those treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy. Taking into account results from a subset analysis suggests that giving systemic therapy to a subgroup of women who are < or =40 years, node-negative and/or have a positive family history might give a better local control. PMID:11576834

  10. The impact of age on local control in women with pT1 breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; van der Palen, J; Meerwaldt, J H

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of young age with regard to local control in a prospective cohort of 1085 women with pathological T1 tumours treated with breast conservative treatment (BCT). Patients were divided into two age groups: 40 years or younger, 7.8%, and older than 40 years, 92.2%. With a median follow-up of 71 months, the local recurrence rate was 10.6% in women < or =40 years, and 3.7% in older women. The local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was significantly different for the two age groups, respectively 89%, < or =40 years, and 97.6%, >40 years (P=0.0046). A separate analysis showed a significantly decreased LRFS for young women with a positive family history, 75.4% versus 98.4% 5-year LRFS for older women. A worse LRFS for young women with a negative lymph node status was also observed, respectively 84% versus 98% 5-year LRFS (both P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis, taking into account the pre-treatment and treatment factors, age < or =40 years, was the only significant predictor of a decreased LRFS. Thus, young age is an important factor in relation to local control. In a subset analysis, this significant adverse effect of young age on outcome appears to be limited to the node-negative patients and those with a positive family history. To date, there is no evidence that young women with pT1 breast cancer, treated by mastectomy have an improved outcome when compared with those treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy. Taking into account results from a subset analysis suggests that giving systemic therapy to a subgroup of women who are < or =40 years, node-negative and/or have a positive family history might give a better local control.

  11. Characterization and evolution of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Spanish shoemaking industry over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Carmen; Ferri, Francisca; Sogorb, Miguel Angel; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    This study measured inhalation exposure to 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among workers in the leatherwear industry in Spain, examined the changes in those exposures over a 5-year period, and documented local exhaust ventilation practices that affected exposure. In collaboration with an occupational risk prevention company, air samples were collected from 849 workers' personal breathing zones using personal air pumps with activated charcoal tubes. VOCs were analyzed using a GC/MS-optimized method modified in our laboratory from that proposed by Spanish authorities (INSHT). Airborne concentrations were compared with occupational exposure limit (OEL) values from the European authorities. The most frequently detected VOCs were acetone (98.1%), toluene (94.8%), n-hexane (71.2%) and other C6-C7 branched alkyl hydrocarbons (97.5%). Other frequently detected VOCs were MEK (64.9%), ethylacetate (60.7%), and cyclohexane (29.3%). Benzene was detected in 24.6% of samples. Although all the samples were taken while workers performed tasks judged to have the highest VOC exposure potential, only 14% of samples showed excessive aggregate exposure, and chemical-specific OELs were exceeded in a relatively small number of cases: 7.2% for n-hexane, 2.8% for toluene, 0.6% for acetone, and 0.4% for hexane isomers. Over the study period, a diminished use of n-hexane in solvent formulations and an increased use of branched hexane and heptane isomers were observed. Six factors relating to work location conditions and types were evaluated. Most high-exposure cases were associated with three task types. The presence of local exhaust ventilation was an important exposure control, but significant exposures despite the use of local exhaust were observed. Although n-hexane exposures significantly decreased over the study period, the overall level of VOC exposure did not decrease. More effective exposure prevention measures need to be implemented. PMID:23016600

  12. Specialist Pediatric Palliative Care Referral Practices in Pediatric Oncology: A Large 5-year Retrospective Audit

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Damani, Anuja; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To audit referral practices of pediatric oncologists referred to specialist pediatric palliative care services. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of medical case records of pediatric palliative care patients over a period of 5 years from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Descriptive summaries of demographic, clinical variables, and patient circumstances at the time of referral and during end-of-life care were examined. Results: A total of 1135 patients were referred from pediatric oncology with a gradual increasing trend over 5 years. About 84.6% consultations took place in the outpatient setting. In 97.9% of the cases, parents were the primary caregivers. Availability of specialist pediatric health-care services at local places was available in 21.2% cases and 48% families earned <5000 INR (approximately 73 USD) in a month. Around 28.3% of the referrals were from leukemia clinic and maximum references were late with 72.4% patients having advanced disease at presentation. 30.3% of the referrals were made for counseling and communication and 54.2% had high symptom burden during referral. After referral, 21.2% patients continued with oral metronomic chemotherapy and 10.5% were referred back to oncology services for palliative radiotherapy. Only 4.9% patients had more than 2 follow-ups. 90.8% of the patients were cared for at home in the last days of illness by local general practitioners. 70.6% of the deaths were anticipated. Conclusions: Oncologists referred patients late in the course of disease trajectory. Most of the referrals were made for counseling and communication, but many patients had high symptom burden during referral. PMID:27559254

  13. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  14. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  15. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  16. Thailand Momentum on Policy and Practice in Local Legislation on Dengue Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Chujun, Suriyo; Kaewwaen, Wuthichai; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Koyadun, Surachart

    2014-01-01

    Over a past decade, an administrative decentralization model, adopted for local administration development in Thailand, is replacing the prior centralized (top-down) command system. The change offers challenges to local governmental agencies and other public health agencies at all the ministerial, regional, and provincial levels. A public health regulatory and legislative framework for dengue vector control by local governmental agencies is a national topic of interest because dengue control program has been integrated into healthcare services at the provincial level and also has been given priority in health plans of local governmental agencies. The enabling environments of local administrations are unique, so this critical review focuses on the authority of local governmental agencies responsible for disease prevention and control and on the functioning of local legislation with respect to dengue vector control and practices. PMID:24799896

  17. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Improves Local Control After Surgical Resection in Patients With Localized Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolch, Aaron; Else, Tobias; Griffith, Kent A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Williams, Andrew; Miller, Barbra S.; Worden, Francis; Jolly, Shruti

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed.

  18. Promoting Equalization and Local Control in Financing Colorado's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Judith K.; King, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Per-pupil property valuation extremes among Colorado school districts are as varied as the landscape. A foundation plan levels funding disparities for school operations, but financing of major capital outlay projects still depends on local property taxation. Funds are needed to finance classroom technologies and Internet connections. (MLH)

  19. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy

  20. Scalable quantum computation via local control of only two qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Burgarth, Daniel; Maruyama, Koji; Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Calarco, Tommaso; Nori, Franco; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-04-15

    We apply quantum control techniques to a long spin chain by acting only on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on these qubits and indirect swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging.

  1. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  2. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager: 5 years on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Ong, Lawrence; Barsi, Julia A.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Morfitt, Ron

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALI's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  3. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  4. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... local control. Whenever the Commissioner of Food and Drugs determines that the measures taken by...

  5. Local Control, Democracy, and the Separation in the Public Opinion of School Finance Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    What role does a person's support for local educational control play in determining her attitude towards equity-minded school finance reform? This article reports estimations of binary and ordered probit models of two state public opinion polls and discusses newspaper coverage from the same two states to determine if and how local control has such…

  6. Control synthesis of continuous-time T-S fuzzy systems with local nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiuxiang; Wang, Youyi; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2009-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of designing fuzzy controllers for a class of nonlinear dynamic systems. The considered nonlinear systems are described by T-S fuzzy models with nonlinear local models, and the fuzzy models have fewer fuzzy rules than conventional T-S fuzzy models with local linear models. A new fuzzy control scheme with local nonlinear feedbacks is proposed, and the corresponding control synthesis conditions are given in terms of solutions to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). In contrast to the existing methods for fuzzy control synthesis, the new proposed control design method is based on fewer fuzzy rules and less computational burden. Moreover, the local nonlinear feedback laws in the new fuzzy controllers are also helpful in achieving good control effects. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. What controls the local time extent of flux transfer events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, S. E.; Imber, S. M.; Carter, J. A.; Walach, M.-T.; Hubert, B.

    2016-02-01

    Flux transfer events (FTEs) are the manifestation of bursty and/or patchy magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause. We compare two sequences of the ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events observed in global auroral imagery and coherent ionospheric radar measurements. Both sequences were observed during very similar seasonal and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, though with differing solar wind speed. A key observation is that the signatures differed considerably in their local time extent. The two periods are 26 August 1998, when the IMF had components BZ≈-10 nT and BY≈9 nT and the solar wind speed was VX≈650 km s-1, and 31 August 2005, IMF BZ≈-7 nT, BY≈17 nT, and VX≈380 km s-1. In the first case, the reconnection rate was estimated to be near 160 kV, and the FTE signatures extended across at least 7 h of magnetic local time (MLT) of the dayside polar cap boundary. In the second, a reconnection rate close to 80 kV was estimated, and the FTEs had a MLT extent of roughly 2 h. We discuss the ramifications of these differences for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

  8. A procedure concept for local reflex control of grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Chang, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    An architecture is proposed for the control of robotic devices, and in particular of anthropomorphic hands, characterized by a hierarchical structure in which every level of the architecture contains data and control function with varying degree of abstraction. Bottom levels of the hierarchy interface directly with sensors and actuators, and process raw data and motor commands. Higher levels perform more symbolic types of tasks, such as application of boolean rules and general planning operations. Layers implementation has to be consistent with the type of operation and its requirements for real time control. It is proposed to implement the rule level with a Boolean Artificial Neural Network characterized by a response time sufficient for producing reflex corrective action at the actuator level.

  9. Review of the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R D; Marryatt, G; Henderson, R F

    1988-09-01

    Symptoms in patients with hiatal hernia often respond to treatment consisting of diet and medication. Operative procedures, designed to control gastroesophageal reflux and avoid surgically induced problems, are reserved for those with intractable symptoms. When these operative procedures fail, reoperation may be necessary. The reoperative procedure is often technically complex because of esophageal and gastric scar fixation. The authors reviewed the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia in 168 patients followed up to 5 years or more; 43 of them had undergone gastric surgery previously.Radiologically, 97% patients studied (142 of 146) had no evidence of anatomic recurrence or reflux post operatively. Manometric studies postoperatively in 114 patients showed that the mean tone of the high pressure zone was within the normal range and lower esophageal disordered motor activity was decreased by 34.5% from the preoperative level. Symptoms of recurrent hiatal hernia were abolished by operation in 88% of the patients; only 4.8% had serious or recurrent symptoms.

  10. [The results of 5-year-long research of sclerotherapy of liver metastases by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Borsukov, A V

    2001-01-01

    64 patients with liver metastases have been studied (mammary gland--6 cases, stomach--15, colon--32, other locations--11) and US metastasis semiotics and the fine aspiration biopsy have been identified. 12 cases had underwent intraoperative 96% ethanol infusion, 52 had got transdermal infusions under US control. The survival rate of colon cases with dissemination was: 1 year S.--100%, 3 year S.--53.1%, 5 year S.--3.1%. In cases with noncolon dissemination the percentage of survival was: 1 year S.--68.8%, 2 year S.--9.4%, 3 year S.--3.0%. 96% ethanol sclerotherapy proved to be more effective in single metachronic metastases of the colon malignancies.

  11. Corticothalamic Projections Control Synchronization in Locally Coupled Bistable Thalamic Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Schuster, Heinz Georg; Claussen, Jens Christian; Mölle, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    Thalamic circuits are able to generate state-dependent oscillations of different frequencies and degrees of synchronization. However, little is known about how synchronous oscillations, such as spindle oscillations in the thalamus, are organized in the intact brain. Experimental findings suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of spindle oscillations over widespread territories of the thalamus is due to the corticothalamic projections, as the synchrony is lost in the decorticated thalamus. In this Letter we study the influence of corticothalamic projections on the synchrony in a thalamic network, and uncover the underlying control mechanism, leading to a control method which is applicable for several types of oscillations in the central nervous system.

  12. Percutaneous dermal drug delivery for local pain control

    PubMed Central

    Tadicherla, Sujatha; Berman, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Topical anesthetics have evolved from a simple solution of cocaine to creams, ointments, gels, liposomal preparations, and to the latest sophisticated patches and peels. Topical anesthetics are essential for performing diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic dermatology procedures. These anesthetics noninvasively deliver anesthesia in locally required areas. In this review, we present an overview on the mechanism of precutaneous absorption of skin and address the composition, duration of onset of anesthetic effect, uses, and side effects that are applicable for the products. Also discussed are the novel advances of using heat to enhance penetration of the anesthetic as seen in Synera™ patch and delivery of anesthesia using a peel method as seen in the yet to be US Food and Drug Administration-approved S-Caine peel. PMID:18360585

  13. Stable and metastable nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOEpatents

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2014-11-18

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  14. Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Vincenzo; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Roschuk, Tyler; Fernández-García, Roberto; Maier, Stefan A

    2010-11-22

    Nanoplasmonics is the emerging research field that studies light-matter interactions mediated by resonant excitations of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures. It allows the manipulation of the flow of light and its interaction with matter at the nanoscale (10(-9) m). One of the most promising characteristics of plasmonic resonances is that they occur at frequencies corresponding to typical electronic excitations in matter. This leads to the appearance of strong interactions between localized surface plasmons and light emitters (such as molecules, dyes, or quantum dots) placed in the vicinity of metals. Recent advances in nanofabrication and the development of novel concepts in theoretical nanophotonics have opened the way to the design of structures aimed to reduce the lifetime and enhance the decay rate and quantum efficiency of available emitters. In this article, some of the most relevant experimental and theoretical achievements accomplished over the last several years are presented and analyzed.

  15. [Eutrophication control in local area by physic-ecological engineering].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Hua; Xia, Pin-Hua; Wu, Hong; Lin, Tao; Zhang, You-Chun; Li, Cun-Xiong; Chen, Li-Li; Yang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    An integrated physical and ecological engineering experiment for ecological remediation was performed at the Maixi River bay in Baihua Reservoir Guizhou Province, China. The results show that eutrophic parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and chemical oxygen demand from the experimental site (enclosed water) were significantly lower than those of the reference site. The largest differences between the sites were 0.61 mg x L(-1), 0.041 mg x L(-1), 23.06 microg x L(-1), 8.4 mg x L(-1) respectively; experimental site transparency was > 1.50 m which was significantly higher than that of the reference site. The eutrophic index of the experimental site was oligo-trophic and mid-trophic, while the control site was mid-trophic state and eutrophic state. Phytoplankton abundance was 2 125.5 x 10(4) cells x L(-1) in June, 2011 at the control site,but phytoplankton abundance was lower at the experimental site with 33 x 10(4) cells x L(-1). Cyanobacteria dominated phytoplankton biomass at both sites, however the experimental site consisted of a higher proportion of diatoms and dinoflagellates. After more than one year of operation, the ecological engineering technology effectively controlled the occurrence of algae blooms, changed phytoplankton community structure, and controlled the negative impacts of eutrophication. Integrating physical and ecological engineering technology could improve water quality for reservoirs on the Guizhou plateau. PMID:23002605

  16. [Eutrophication control in local area by physic-ecological engineering].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu-Hua; Xia, Pin-Hua; Wu, Hong; Lin, Tao; Zhang, You-Chun; Li, Cun-Xiong; Chen, Li-Li; Yang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    An integrated physical and ecological engineering experiment for ecological remediation was performed at the Maixi River bay in Baihua Reservoir Guizhou Province, China. The results show that eutrophic parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a and chemical oxygen demand from the experimental site (enclosed water) were significantly lower than those of the reference site. The largest differences between the sites were 0.61 mg x L(-1), 0.041 mg x L(-1), 23.06 microg x L(-1), 8.4 mg x L(-1) respectively; experimental site transparency was > 1.50 m which was significantly higher than that of the reference site. The eutrophic index of the experimental site was oligo-trophic and mid-trophic, while the control site was mid-trophic state and eutrophic state. Phytoplankton abundance was 2 125.5 x 10(4) cells x L(-1) in June, 2011 at the control site,but phytoplankton abundance was lower at the experimental site with 33 x 10(4) cells x L(-1). Cyanobacteria dominated phytoplankton biomass at both sites, however the experimental site consisted of a higher proportion of diatoms and dinoflagellates. After more than one year of operation, the ecological engineering technology effectively controlled the occurrence of algae blooms, changed phytoplankton community structure, and controlled the negative impacts of eutrophication. Integrating physical and ecological engineering technology could improve water quality for reservoirs on the Guizhou plateau.

  17. Peguis School; Local Control, and Patterns of Student Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlburt, Graham; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Largely English-speaking female (31) and male (29) students in grades 10-12, ages 15 to 20, with grade point averages from 50 to over 65, in a Native-controlled school, answered questionnaires related to academic success, job interests, travel, off-reserve experiences, and spare time activities (reading, television viewing). (MH)

  18. Endoscopic vs. open surgery for treating large, locally advanced juvenile angiofibromas: a comparison of local control and morbidity outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bosraty, Hossam; Atef, Ahmed; Aziz, Mossad

    2011-11-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a combined vascular and fibrous neoplasm that most commonly affects prepubertal and adolescent boys. These tumors have traditionally been managed with open surgery, but interest in endoscopic resection-particularly for small tumors-has increased in recent years. To the best of our knowledge, no comparative study of open and endoscopic approaches for treating large, locally advanced tumors has been previously published in the literature. We conducted a retrospective study of 42 males, aged 6 to 21 years (mean: 13 ± 2.1), who had been treated for histologically proven and locally advanced juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with either open surgery (n = 29) or endoscopic excision (n = 13). Our two primary outcomes measures were local control and surgical morbidity. We found that the endoscopic approach was as good as or better than open approaches for patients with large tumors.

  19. Controllable injector for local flux entry into superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, D.; Colauto, F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Oliveira, A. A. M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Johansen, T. H.

    2016-09-01

    A superconducting flux injector (SFI) has been designed to allow for controlled injections of magnetic flux into a superconducting film from a predefined location along the edge. The SFI is activated by an external current pulse, here chosen to be 200 ms long, and it is demonstrated on films of Nb that the amount of injected flux is controlled by the pulse height. Examples of injections at two different temperatures where the flux enters by stimulated flux-flow and by triggered thermomagnetic avalanches are presented. The boundary between the two types of injection is determined and discussed. The SFI opens up for active use of phenomena which up to now have been considered hazardous for a safe operation of superconducting devices.

  20. Reversible control of current across lipid membranes by local heating

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Patrick; Kirchner, Silke R.; Mühlbauer, Christian; Lohmüller, Theobald; Feldmann, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Lipid membranes are almost impermeable for charged molecules and ions that can pass the membrane barrier only with the help of specialized transport proteins. Here, we report how temperature manipulation at the nanoscale can be employed to reversibly control the electrical resistance and the amount of current that flows through a bilayer membrane with pA resolution. For this experiment, heating is achieved by irradiating gold nanoparticles that are attached to the bilayer membrane with laser light at their plasmon resonance frequency. We found that controlling the temperature on the nanoscale renders it possible to reproducibly regulate the current across a phospholipid membrane and the membrane of living cells in absence of any ion channels. PMID:26940847

  1. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  2. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  3. Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Joshua N; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Carroll, Raymond J; Müller, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of "false positives" in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, λn, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given λn to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing λn to λn-δ is not associated with the outcome, where δ is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and λn, show lFDR =1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select λn so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen.

  4. Radiotherapy for solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma in the head-and-neck region: A dose greater than 45 gy to the target volume improves the local control

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier-Rangeard, Laetitia . E-mail: l.tournier@nancy.fnclcc.fr; Lapeyre, Michel; Graff-Caillaud, Pierre; Mege, Alice; Dolivet, Gilles; Toussaint, Bruno; Charra-Brunaud, Claire; Hoffstetter, Sylvette; Marchal, Christian; Peiffert, Didier

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: Our aim was to determine the dose to the clinical target volume (CTV) required for solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) in the head and neck (HN). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (15 Stage I and 2 Stage II) were treated for HN EMP at our institution between 1979 and 2003. The mean International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU) dose prescribed to the CTV was 52.6 Gy (range, 40-65 Gy) over 24 fractions (range: 20-30). The Stage II patients received neck irradiation doses of 40 and 60 Gy. A mean dose of 36.4 Gy was used for 5 Stage I patients who received elective neck irradiation. Dose administrated to the CTV was evaluated from dosimetric data or from planning films when dosimetric data were not available. Two groups of patients were distinguished: CTV covered with a dose greater than 40 Gy and CTV covered with a dose greater than 45 Gy. Results: The 5-year local control was 72.8%. It was 100% for patients who received dose to the CTV {<=} 45 Gy vs. 50% for dose to the CTV <45 Gy (p = 0.034). The prognostic factor for 5-year disease-specific survival (81.6%) was local control (p = 0.058). The prognostic factors for disease-free survival (64.1%) were monoclonal immunoglobulin secretion (p = 0.008) and a CTV dose {<=} 45 Gy (p = 0.056) Conclusions: Local control of EMP in the HN seems to be improved when the dose to the CTV is {<=} 45 Gy. A minimum dose of 45 Gy should be recommended to the CTV.

  5. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  6. Controlling local temperature in water using femtosecond optical tweezer

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Dipankar; Goswami, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    A novel method of directly observing the effect of temperature rise in water at the vicinity of optical trap center is presented. Our approach relies on changed values of corner frequency of the optical trap that, in turn, is realized from its power spectra. Our two color experiment is a unique combination of a non-heating femtosecond trapping laser at 780 nm, coupled to a femtosecond infrared heating laser at 1560 nm, which precisely controls temperature at focal volume of the trap center using low powers (100-800 µW) at high repetition rate. The geometric ray optics model quantitatively supports our experimental data. PMID:26417491

  7. 5-year Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up of Coil-embolised Intradural Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the paper is the follow-up of embolised intradural saccular Arterial Aneurysms (AA), excluding giant, dissecting, inflammatory, fusiform or AA associated to BVAM. Since its introduction in 1991, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil has offered protection against aneurysmal rebleeding in the critical few days and months after SAH regardless of the grade. A number of questions remain: is complete angiographic obliteration necessary at first embolisation? What duration of clinical / angiographic follow-up (FU) is required to ensure the risk of haemorrhage has been eliminated? What is the long-term protection against rebleeding? One hundred and two patients with 160 intradural saccular AA embolised before april 1997 were selected for this study. They had at least 5-yrs clinical FU, of which 22 patients had a midterm (3 years) and 45 patients had a 5year or more angiographic FU (mean 67,7 months per patient). Twenty-eight embolised AAs with 100% occlusion at 1 year, remained unchanged on the 5year angiograms. A further 14 patients with complete occlusion at 1 year showed persisting complete occlusion on angiogram at 3-years FU, which in our series means that complete occlusion after the first year post-embolisation implies that the aneurysm will remain completely occluded. All secondary spontaneous thromboses (27.6% of cases), occurred during the first year pos-embolisation. In six patients with subtotal or partial occlusion no change was seen for three consecutive years of FU; none showed later change at 5-year angiography. Below 80% occlusion our series does not provide enough information but we consider the situation instable. No mortality related to the procedure was observed in the unruptured AA group. No bleeding or re-bleeding has occurred since the beginning of our experience (1993) in saccular AA treated by GDC-Coil. Coil-embolisation of properly selected patients is effective in protecting against bleeding or re-bleeding at short and long

  8. Local Control, Toxicity, and Cosmesis in Women >70 Years Enrolled in the American Society of Breast Surgeons Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Registry Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Atif J.; Vicini, Frank A.; Beitsch, Peter; Goyal, Sharad; Kuerer, Henry M.; Keisch, Martin; Quiet, Coral; Zannis, Victor; Keleher, Angela; Snyder, Howard; Gittleman, Mark; Whitworth, Pat; Fine, Richard; Lyden, Maureen; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: The American Society of Breast Surgeons enrolled women in a registry trial to prospectively study patients treated with the MammoSite Radiation Therapy System breast brachytherapy device. The present report examined the outcomes in women aged >70 years enrolled in the trial. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,449 primary early stage breast cancers were treated in 1,440 women. Of these, 537 occurred in women >70 years old. Fisher's exact test was performed to correlate age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) with toxicity and with cosmesis. The association of age with local recurrence (LR) failure times was investigated by fitting a parametric model. Results: Older women were less likely to develop telangiectasias than younger women (7.9% vs. 12.4%, p = 0.0083). The incidence of other toxicities was similar. Cosmesis was good or excellent in 92% of the women >70 years old. No significant difference was found in LR as a function of age. The 5-year actuarial LR rate with invasive disease for the older vs. younger population was 2.79% and 2.92%, respectively (p = 0.5780). In women >70 years with hormone-sensitive tumors {<=}2 cm who received hormonal therapy (n = 195), the 5-year actuarial rate of LR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival was 2.06%, 89.3%, 87%, and 97.5%, respectively. These outcomes were similar in women who did not receive hormonal therapy. Women with small, estrogen receptor-negative disease had worse LR, overall survival, and disease-free survival compared with receptor-positive patients. Conclusions: Accelerated partial breast irradiation with the MammoSite radiation therapy system resulted in low toxicity and produced similar cosmesis and local control at 5 years in women >70 years compared with younger women. This treatment should be considered as an alternative to omitting adjuvant radiotherapy for older women with small-volume, early-stage breast cancer.

  9. Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, Gary M.; Anderson, Penny R.; Bleicher, Richard J.; Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu; Swaby, Ramona F.; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Morrow, Monica; Goldstein, Lori J.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

  10. Molecular designs for controlling the local environments around metal ions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Sarah A; Borovik, A S

    2015-08-18

    The functions of metal complexes are directly linked to the local environment in which they are housed; modifications to the local environment (or secondary coordination sphere) are known to produce changes in key properties of the metal centers that can affect reactivity. Noncovalent interactions are the most common and influential forces that regulate the properties of secondary coordination spheres, which leads to complexities in structure that are often difficult to achieve in synthetic systems. Using key architectural features from the active sites of metalloproteins as inspiration, we have developed molecular systems that enforce intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) around a metal center via incorporation of H-bond donors and acceptors into rigid ligand scaffolds. We have utilized these molecular species to probe mechanistic aspects of biological dioxygen activation and water oxidation. This Account describes the stabilization and characterization of unusual M-oxo and heterobimetallic complexes. These types of species have been implicated in a range of oxidative processes in biology but are often difficult to study because of their inherent reactivity. Our H-bonding ligand systems allowed us to prepare an Fe(III)-oxo species directly from the activation of O2 that was subsequently oxidized to form a monomeric Fe(IV)-oxo species with an S = 2 spin state, similar to those species proposed as key intermediates in non-heme monooxygenases. We also demonstrated that a single Mn(III)-oxo center that was prepared from water could be converted to a high-spin Mn(V)-oxo species via stepwise oxidation, a process that mimics the oxidative charging of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II. Current mechanisms for photosynthetic O-O bond formation invoke a Mn(IV)-oxyl species rather than the isoelectronic Mn(V)-oxo system as the key oxidant based on computational studies. However, there is no experimental information to support the existence of a Mn

  11. PADF electromagnetic source localization using extremum seeking control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Issa, Huthaifa A.; Ordóñez, Raúl

    2014-10-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a significant technology attracting considerable research interest. Recent advances in wireless communications and electronics have enabled the development of low-cost, low-power and multi-functional sensors that are small in size and communicate over short distances. Most WSN applications require knowing or measuring locations of thousands of sensors accurately. For example, sensing data without knowing the sensor location is often meaningless. Locations of sensor nodes are fundamental to providing location stamps, locating and tracking objects, forming clusters, and facilitating routing. This research focused on the modeling and implementation of distributed, mobile radar sensor networks. In particular, we worked on the problem of Position-Adaptive Direction Finding (PADF), to determine the location of a non- collaborative transmitter, possibly hidden within a structure, by using a team of cooperative intelligent sensor networks. Position-Adaptive radar concepts have been formulated and investigated at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) within the past few years. In this paper, we present the simulation performance analysis on the application aspect. We apply Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) schemes by using the swarm seeking problem, where the goal is to design a control law for each individual sensor that can minimize the error metric by adapting the sensor positions in real-time, thereby minimizing the unknown estimation error. As a result we achieved source seeking and collision avoidance of the entire group of the sensor positions.

  12. Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: 5-Year Results of the German-Austrian Multicenter Phase II Trial Using Interstitial Multicatheter Brachytherapy Alone After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, Vratislav; Hildebrandt, Guido; Poetter, Richard; Hammer, Josef; Hindemith, Marion; Resch, Alexandra; Spiegl, Kurt; Lotter, Michael; Uter, Wolfgang; Bani, Mayada; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of accelerated partial breast irradiation on local control, side effects, and cosmesis using multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy as the sole method for the adjuvant local treatment of patients with low-risk breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 274 patients with low-risk breast cancer were treated on protocol. Patients were eligible for the study if the tumor size was < 3 cm, resection margins were clear by at least 2 mm, no lymph node metastases existed, age was >35 years, hormone receptors were positive, and histologic grades were 1 or 2. Of the 274 patients, 175 (64%) received pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 50 Gy). and 99 (36%) received high-dose-rate brachytherapy (D{sub ref} = 32.0 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 63 months (range, 9-103). Only 8 of 274 (2.9%) patients developed an ipsilateral in-breast tumor recurrence at the time of analysis. The 5-year actuarial local recurrence-free survival probability was 98%. The 5- year overall and disease-free survival probabilities of all patients were 97% and 96%, respectively. Contralateral in-breast malignancies were detected in 2 of 274 (0.7%) patients, and distant metastases occurred in 6 of 274 (2.2%). Late side effects {>=}Grade 3 (i.e., breast tissue fibrosis and telangiectasia) occurred in 1 patient (0.4%, 95%CI:0.0-2.0%) and 6 patients (2.2%, 95%CI:0.8-4.7%), respectively. Cosmetic results were good to excellent in 245 of 274 patients (90%). Conclusions: The long-term results of this prospective Phase II trial confirm that the efficacy of accelerated partial breast irradiation using multicatheter brachytherapy is comparable with that of whole breast irradiation and that late side effects are negligible.

  13. Controlled Release System for Localized and Sustained Drug Delivery Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Lidia Betsabe

    Current controlled release formulations has many drawbacks such as excess of initial burst release, low drug efficiency, non-degradability of the system and low reproducibility. The present project aims to offer an alternative by developing a technique to prepare uniform, biodegradable particles ( ˜19 mum ) that can sustainably release a drug for a specific period of time. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has many characteristics to be used for biomedical applications. In the last two decades, there have been a considerable number of studies affirming that chitosan could be used for pharmaceutical applications. However, chitosan suffers from inherent weaknesses such as low mechanical stability and dissolution of the system in acidic media. In the present study, chitosan microparticles were prepared by emulsification process. The model drug chosen was acetylsalicylic acid as it is a small and challenging molecule. The maximum loading capacity obtained for the microparticles was approximately 96%. The parameters for the preparation of uniform particles with a narrow size distribution were identified in a triangular phase diagram. Moreover, chitosan particles were successfully coated with thin layers of poly lactic-coglycolic acid (PLGA) and poly lactic acid (PLA). The performance of different layerswas tested for in vitro drug release and degradation studies. Additionally, the degradability of the system was evaluated by measuring the weight loss of the system when exposed to enzyme and without enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to characterize the controlled release system. Additionally, the in vitro drug release was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from this project showed that it is

  14. HIV-Positive–to–HIV-Positive Kidney Transplantation — Results at 3 to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The outcome of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients who receive organs from HIV-negative donors has been reported to be similar to the outcome in HIV-negative recipients. We report the outcomes at 3 to 5 years in HIV-positive patients who received kidneys from HIV-positive deceased donors. METHODS We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized study of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count of 200 per cubic millimeter or higher and an undetectable plasma HIV RNA level. All the patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The patients received kidneys from deceased donors who tested positive for HIV with the use of fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the time of referral. All the donors either had received no ART previously or had received only first-line ART. RESULTS From September 2008 through February 2014, a total of 27 HIV-positive patients underwent kidney transplantation. Survivors were followed for a median of 2.4 years. The rate of survival among the patients was 84% at 1 year, 84% at 3 years, and 74% at 5 years. The corresponding rates of graft survival were 93%, 84%, and 84%. (If a patient died with a functioning graft, the calculation was performed as if the graft had survived.) Rejection rates were 8% at 1 year and 22% at 3 years. HIV infection remained well controlled, with undetectable virus in blood after the transplantation. CONCLUSIONS Kidney transplantation from an HIV-positive donor appears to be an additional treatment option for HIV-infected patients requiring renal-replacement therapy. PMID:25671253

  15. Edge localized mode control with an edge resonant magnetic perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, R.A.; Boedo, J.A.; Rudakov, D.L.; Evans, T.E.; Osborne, T.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Jackson, G.L.; La Haye, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Schaffer, M.J.; Snyder, P.B.; West, W.P.; Thomas, P.R.; Becoulet, M.; Harris, J.; Finken, K.-H.; Doyle, E.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Wang, G.

    2005-05-15

    A low amplitude ({delta}b{sub r}/B{sub T}=1 part in 5000) edge resonant magnetic field perturbation with toroidal mode number n=3 and poloidal mode numbers between 8 and 15 has been used to suppress most large type I edge localized modes (ELMs) without degrading core plasma confinement. ELMs have been suppressed for periods of up to 8.6 energy confinement times when the edge safety factor q{sub 95} is between 3.5 and 4. The large ELMs are replaced by packets of events (possibly type II ELMs) with small amplitude, narrow radial extent, and a higher level of magnetic field and density fluctuations, creating a duty cycle with long 'active' intervals of high transport and short 'quiet' intervals of low transport. The increased transport associated with these events is less impulsive and slows the recovery of the pedestal profiles to the values reached just before the large ELMs without the n=3 perturbation. Changing the toroidal phase of the perturbation by 60 deg. with respect to the best ELM suppression case reduces the ELM amplitude and frequency by factors of 2-3 in the divertor, produces a more stochastic response in the H-mode pedestal profiles, and displays similar increases in small scale events, although significant numbers of large ELMs survive. In contrast to the best ELM suppression case where the type I ELMs are also suppressed on the outboard midplane, the midplane recycling increases until individual ELMs are no longer discernable. The ELM response depends on the toroidal phase of the applied perturbation because intrinsic error fields make the target plasma nonaxisymmetric, and suggests that at least some of the variation in ELM behavior in a single device or among different devices is due to differences in the intrinsic error fields in these devices. These results indicate that ELMs can be suppressed by small edge resonant magnetic field perturbations. Extrapolation to next-step burning plasma devices will require extending the regime of operation to

  16. Cardiovascular events in acromegaly: distinct role of Agatston and Framingham score in the 5-year prediction.

    PubMed

    Ragonese, Marta; Alibrandi, Angela; Di Bella, Gianluca; Salamone, Ignazio; Puglisi, Soraya; Cotta, Oana Ruxandra; Torre, Maria Luisa; Ferrau, Francesco; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena; Trimarchi, Francesco; Cannavo, Salvatore

    2014-09-01

    Prediction of ischemic cardiovascular events (ICE) in acromegalic patients stratified accordingly with Framingham (FS) and Agatston score (AS). 32 patients with active (group A (0)) and 20 with controlled (group B (0)) acromegaly have been enrolled. During the 5-year follow-up, 19 out of 32 patients in group A (0) reached disease control. At entry, FS and AS, by an eight-slice MDCT scanner, were calculated in all patients. ICE were diagnosed by autopsy, if lethal, and by electrocardiography and/or echocardiography, if non-lethal. Overall, 9.6 % of patients died for lethal ICE. AS >400, but not high FS at entry, was associated with increased risk of lethal ICE. Lethal ICE had occurred in two patients of group A (0) and three of group B (0) (p NS), while a non-lethal ICE had occurred in two cases of the former and in other two of the latter group (p NS). Either FS or AS was correlated with the risk for ICE overall (p < 0.02), but only AS correlated with that of lethal ICE (p < 0.0003). Survival analysis demonstrated reduced life expectancy in patients with high FS (p < 0.02). In acromegalics, AS >400 is associated with increased risk of lethal ICE, while high FS is associated with reduced life expectancy, regardless of disease control.

  17. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations.

  18. Electroosmotic micro-pump array for local control of droplets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amit; Hirsa, Amir; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra

    2006-11-01

    Droplet-based microfluidic devices have a wide range of applications in various fields such as diagnostics and clinical testing, drug delivery and opto-electronics. This paper presents a novel microfluidic device for actuation and control of individual droplets employing electroosmotic pumping across a nanoporous membrane. To fabricate the device, arrays of gold electrodes pairs are first patterned on both sides of an anodic alumina membrane (Whatman, ˜50 μm in thickness, with parallel cylindrical pores of 150 nm in diameter). One side of the membrane is then attached to a liquid reservoir while the other side is covered partially with Teflon to prevent droplet spreading. When voltage is applied between the two aligned top and bottom gold electrodes electroosmotic flow occurs from the liquid reservoir through the membrane and a droplet forms onto the Teflon-coated surface of the membrane. Actuation time and droplet shape are investigated by video microscopy in order to assess the effect of electrode configuration and electrolyte ionic strength Possible applications for the device include addressable liquid microlens arrays, fast-response droplet switches and fast, sample collection devices for brain microdialysis.

  19. Control of actin-based motility through localized actin binding.

    PubMed

    Banigan, Edward J; Lee, Kun-Chun; Liu, Andrea J

    2013-12-01

    A wide variety of cell biological and biomimetic systems use actin polymerization to drive motility. It has been suggested that an object such as a bacterium can propel itself by self-assembling a high concentration of actin behind it, if it is repelled by actin. However, it is also known that it is essential for the moving object to bind actin. Therefore, a key question is how the actin tail can propel an object when it both binds and repels the object. We present a physically consistent Brownian dynamics model for actin-based motility that includes the minimal components of the dendritic nucleation model and allows for both attractive and repulsive interactions between actin and a moveable disc. We find that the concentration gradient of filamentous actin generated by polymerization is sufficient to propel the object, even with moderately strong binding interactions. Additionally, actin binding can act as a biophysical cap, and may directly control motility through modulation of network growth. Overall, this mechanism is robust in that it can drive motility against a load up to a stall pressure that depends on the Young's modulus of the actin network and can explain several aspects of actin-based motility.

  20. Controlled local delivery of tetracycline HCl in the treatment of periimplant mucosal hyperplasia and mucositis. A controlled case series.

    PubMed

    Schenk, G; Flemmig, T F; Betz, T; Reuther, J; Klaiber, B

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this controlled case series was to assess the adjunctive efficacy of controlled topical tetracycline HCl application in the treatment of infection associated periimplant mucositis or mucosal hyperplasia. Eight patients with at least 2 endosseous implants showing clinical signs of periimplant mucosal hyperplasia or mucositis were enrolled. All implants received supra- and subgingival scaling, with half of the implants receiving adjunctive controlled local delivery of tetracycline HCl (test). Control implants did not receive any other therapy aside from scaling. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks. Scaling plus controlled local delivery of tetracycline HCl markedly reduced periimplant mucosal hyperplasia in 4 of 5 test implants and demonstrated a trend towards a reduction of bleeding on probing scores. Scaling alone had no effect on mucosal hyperplasia in the 2 control implants presenting with this condition nor bleeding on probing scores. In both groups, plaque index scores were slightly reduced at 4 weeks but returned to baseline values at 12 weeks, whereas pocket probing depths, clinical attachment levels, and probing bone levels remained unchanged during the course of the trial. The observed trends suggest that scaling plus controlled local delivery of tetracycline HCl may have beneficial effects. Randomized controlled trials employing a sample size high enough to reach sufficient statistical power are needed to definitively assess the efficacy of controlled local tetracycline HCl delivery on periimplant diseases.

  1. Low-Dose Atypical Antipsychotic Risperidone Improves the 5-Year Outcome in Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Sleep Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Yin, You; Liu, Yan; Zhuang, Jianhua; Pan, Xiao; Li, Peng; Yang, Yuechang; Li, Yan-Peng; Zhao, Zheng-Qing; Huang, Liu-Qing; Zhao, Zhong-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances (SD) accelerate the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and increase the stress of caregivers. However, the long-term outcome of disturbed nocturnal sleep/wake patterns in AD and on increased stress of spousal caregivers is unclear. This study assessed the 5-year effect of nocturnal SD on the long-term outcome in AD patients. A total of 156 donepezil-treated mild-moderate AD patients (93 AD + SD and 63 AD - SD as a control group) were recruited. The AD + SD patients were formed into 4 subgroups according to the preferences of spousal caregivers for treatment with atypical antipsychotics (0.5-1 mg risperidone, n = 22), non-benzodiazepine hypnotic (5-10 mg zolpidem tartrate, n = 33), melatonin (2.55 mg, n = 9), or no-drug treatment (n = 29). SD were evaluated by polysomnography, sleep scale, and cognitive scale examinations. Moreover, all spousal caregivers of AD patients were assessed using a series of scales, including sleep, anxiety, mood, and treatment attitude scales. Our data showed that nocturnal sleep/wake disturbances were significantly associated with lower 5-year outcomes for AD patients, earlier nursing home placement, and more negative emotions of spousal caregivers. Treatment with low-dose atypical antipsychotic risperidone improved the 5-year outcome in AD + SD patients. In conclusion, low-dose atypical antipsychotic risperidone improves the 5-year outcome in AD patients with SD. Moreover, improvement of nocturnal sleep problems in AD patients will also bring better emotional stability for AD caregivers.

  2. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  3. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... update, if necessary, the Northern DPS' status in five years time (70 FR 17386; April 6, 2005). Therefore...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green...

  4. Treatment of Chronic PTSD by Cognitive Therapy and Exposure: 5-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Sommerfield, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Patients who had taken part in a randomized clinical trial of the treatment of chronic PTSD by either cognitive therapy or imaginal exposure were reassessed after 5 years. At 5-year follow-up a clear superiority of cognitive therapy over imaginal exposure emerged, although there had been no difference between the two treatment groups up to 12…

  5. Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

  6. Child and Mother Cardiac Vagal Tone: Continuity, Stability, and Concordance across the First 5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Measured vagal tone and heart period at 2 months and 5 years in children and their mothers to evaluate the development of vagal regulation at rest and during an environmental task. Found that children reached adult levels of baseline vagal tone by 5 years and did not differ from mothers in baseline-to-task change in vagal tone or heart period.…

  7. Infectious disease and health systems modelling for local decision making to control neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have complex life cycles and are challenging to control. The “2020 goals” of control and elimination as a public health programme for a number of NTDs are the subject of significant international efforts and investments. Beyond 2020 there will be a drive to maintain these gains and to push for true local elimination of transmission. However, these diseases are affected by variations in vectors, human demography, access to water and sanitation, access to interventions and local health systems. We therefore argue that there will be a need to develop local quantitative expertise to support elimination efforts. If available now, quantitative analyses would provide updated estimates of the burden of disease, assist in the design of locally appropriate control programmes, estimate the effectiveness of current interventions and support ‘real-time’ updates to local operations. Such quantitative tools are increasingly available at an international scale for NTDs, but are rarely tailored to local scenarios. Localised expertise not only provides an opportunity for more relevant analyses, but also has a greater chance of developing positive feedback between data collection and analysis by demonstrating the value of data. This is essential as rational program design relies on good quality data collection. It is also likely that if such infrastructure is provided for NTDs there will be an additional impact on the health system more broadly. Locally tailored quantitative analyses can help achieve sustainable and effective control of NTDs, but also underpin the development of local health care systems.

  8. Two Years of California's Local Control Funding Formula: Time to Reaffirm the Grand Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.; Humphrey, Daniel C.; Marsh, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    California ended 40 years of reliance on categorical funding for schools when Governor Jerry Brown signed the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) into law on July 1, 2013. LCFF intends to enhance services for high-needs students through new flexibility, targeted student funding, and local accountability. Two years into LCFF implementation,…

  9. The Long Goodbye: How Local Authorities Lost Control of Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Following the 1992 Further and Higher Education Act, local education authorities (LEAs) lost control of further education in England. Now, after spending almost two decades out in the cold, from 2010, local authorities are set to become re-involved in the further education system. Given this, this paper takes the opportunity to look back on the…

  10. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  11. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one’s own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children’s abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology. PMID:26517260

  12. Tuning the local temperature during feedback controlled electromigration in gold nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, An; Hou, Shimin Liao, Jianhui

    2014-06-02

    Feedback controlled electromigration (FCE) in metallic nanowires has been widely used for various purposes. However, the control of the local temperature during FCE remains a challenge. Here, we report that the environment temperature can be used as a knob to tune the local temperature during FCE in gold nanowires. FCE was performed in gold nanowires at various environment temperatures ranging from 4.2 K to 300 K. We find that the dissipated power normalized by the cross section area of the nano constriction is linearly proportional to the environment temperature. Interestingly, the estimated local maximum temperature parabolically depends on the environment temperature. A minimum in the local temperature can be reached if an appropriate environment temperature is chosen. Our findings are well supported by the finite element simulation. Moreover, the data indicates the coupling between FCE triggering current density and local temperature.

  13. Alveolar Ridge Contouring with Free Connective Tissue Graft at Implant Placement: A 5-Year Consecutive Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Hanser, Thomas; Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated volume stability after alveolar ridge contouring with free connective tissue grafts at implant placement in single-tooth gaps. A total of 52 single-tooth gaps with labial volume deficiencies in the maxilla (incisors, canines, and premolars) were consecutively treated with implants and concomitant free palatal connective tissue grafts in 46 patients between 2006 and 2009. Implants had to be covered with at least 2 mm peri-implant local bone after insertion. At implant placement, a free connective tissue graft from the palate was fixed inside a labial split-thickness flap to form an existing concave buccal alveolar ridge contour due to tissue volume deficiency into a convex shape. Standardized volumetric measurements of the labial alveolar contour using a template were evaluated before connective tissue grafting and at 2 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after implantprosthetic incorporation. Tissue volume had increased significantly (P < .05) in all six reference points representing the outer alveolar soft tissue contour of the implant before connective tissue grafting to baseline (2 weeks after implant-prosthetic incorporation). Statistically, 50% of the reference points (P > .05) kept their volume from baseline to 1 year after prosthetic incorporation and from baseline to 5 years after prosthetic incorporation, respectively, whereas reference points located within the area of the implant sulcus showed a significant (P < .05) decrease in volume. Clinically, 5 years after prosthetic incorporation the originally concave buccal alveolar contour was still convex in all implants, leading to a continuous favorable anatomical shape and improved esthetic situation. Intraoral radiographs confirmed osseointegration and stable peri-implant parameters with a survival rate of 100% after a follow-up of approximately 5 years. Implant placement with concomitant free connective tissue grafting appears to be an appropriate long-term means to contour preexisting buccal

  14. SU-E-J-52: Decreasing Frequency of Performing TG-142 Imaging QA – 5 Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose This study is an update to check if the frequency of imaging QA suggested by AAPM Task Group Report 142 (TG142) is necessary with our 5 year experience. TG142 presents recommendations for QA criteria of IGRT treatment. ACR has adopted it to be the requirements for any radiatiotherapy practices; however, we propose to reduce the frequency on image quality QA according to this 5 year study.Method and Materials: This study uses VarianIX2100 and Siemens Artiste Linacs to perform QAs on KV, MV, CBCT modalities. The QA was designed following under the recommendations of TG142. This study reports the daily imaging positioning/repositioning and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. QA results on kV, MV and CBCT from 4/7/2010∼3/11/15 are analyzed. KV, MV, CBCT images are taken with the Varian isocube localized at the isocenter. Digital graticule is used in the software to verify the isocenter position. CBCT images are taken with the cube placed at 1cm superior, lateral and anterior of the isocenter. In-line fusion software is used to verify the contrived shift. Digital ruler provided at the on-board-imaging software or adaptive-targeting software was used to measure the position differences. The position differences were recorded at AP,LR,SI directions. Results 5 year records on kV, MV, CBCT show the shifts in all three directions are within the tolerance of 1mm suggested in TG142 for stereotactic radiation treatment(SRS/SRT). There is no occasion where shifts are outside 1mm tolerance. Conclusions The daily imaging QA suggested in TG142 is useful in ensuring the accuracy needed for SRS/SRT in IGRT. 5 year measurements presented suggest that decreasing the frequency of imaging QA may be acceptable, in particular for institutions reporting no violation of tolerance over periods of few years.

  15. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  16. 21 CFR 1240.30 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 1240.30 Section 1240.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Administrative Procedures § 1240.30 Measures in the event of...

  17. Friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil after 5 years of biochar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Wani; Ganika, Shaory; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Islami, Titiek

    2016-04-01

    The effect of biochar application on soil friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil was studied at Brawijaya University field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The soil has been planted with cassava for 4 years continuously and 1 year planted with maiz. The biochar applied was made from cassava stem and farm yard manure. It was found that biochar application, either made from cassava stem or farm yard manure improved soil qualities. Soil applied with biochar was more friable compared to that of the no biochar soil, although biochar application did not influence Atterberg limits. It seems that the higher friability of biochar applied soil was associated with the higher soil organic matter. It was found that until 5 years application, the biochar treated soil had a higher soil organic matter content. Soil applied with biochar possessed a better soil aggregate stability, both dry and wet stability. This was shown by the higher aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) of biochar applied soil. The cassava biochar applied soil had MWD of 2.22 mm (dry stability) and 1.56 mm (wet stability), whereas the control soil had MWD of 1.45 mm (dry stability) and 1.25 (wet stability). There was a significant positive correlation between soil friability and dry aggregate stability. The biochar applied soils also had higher soil permeability. Key words: soil qualities, soil physical properties, Atterberg limits, hydraulic conductivity

  18. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  19. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  20. Dimensionality and Reliability of Letter Writing in 3- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality and reliability of letter writing skills in preschool children with the aim of determining whether a sequence existed in how children learn to write the letters of the alphabet. Additionally, we examined gender differences in the development of letter writing skills. 471 children aged 3 to 5 years old completed a letter writing task. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter writing represented a unidimensional skill. Similar to research findings that the development of letter-names and letter-sound knowledge varies in acquisition, our findings indicate that the ability to write some letters is acquired earlier than the ability to write other letters. Although there appears to be an approximate sequence for the easiest and most difficult letters, there appears to be a less clear sequence for letters in the middle stages of development. Overall, girls had higher letter writing scores compared to boys. Gender differences regarding difficulty writing specific letters was less conclusive; however, results indicated that when controlling for ability level, girls had a higher probability of writing a letter correctly than boys. Implications of these findings for the assessment and instruction of letter writing are discussed. PMID:26346443

  1. Diabetic Gastroparesis: what we have learned and had to unlearn in the past 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Purna; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic gastroparesis is a disorder that occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is associated with considerable morbidity among these patients and resultant economic burden on the health system. It is primarily a disease seen in middle aged women though the increased predisposition in women still remains unexplained. Patients often present with nausea, vomiting, bloating, early satiety, and abdominal pain. The pathogenesis of this complex disorder is still not well understood but involves abnormalities in multiple interacting cell types including the extrinsic nervous system, enteric nervous system, Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC), smooth muscles and immune cells. The primary diagnostic test remains gastric scintigraphy though other modalities such as breath test, capsule, ultrasound, MRI and SPECT imaging show promise as alternative diagnostic modalities. The mainstay of treatment for diabetic gastroparesis has been antiemetics, prokinetics, nutritional support and pain control. In recent years, gastric stimulation has been used in refractory cases with nausea and vomiting. As we better understand the pathophysiology, newer treatment modalities are emerging which aim to correct the underlying defect. In this review we highlight what has been learned about diabetic gastroparesis in the past 5 years. We review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of diabetic gastroparesis focusing on the areas that are still controversial and those that require more studies. We also focus on advances in our understanding of the cellular changes that underlie development of diabetic gastroparesis highlighting new opportunities for targeted therapy. PMID:20871131

  2. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  3. Excellent Local Control From Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gatcombe, Heather G.; Marcus, R.B.; Katzenstein, Howard M.; Tighiouart, Mourad; Esiashvili, Natia

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence has been demonstrated in previous studies to be one of the obstacles to cure in neuroblastoma. Radiation therapy indications, optimal dose, and technique are still evolving. Here we report our experience of high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received local radiation therapy as part of their cancer management. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of 34 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received radiation therapy to local sites of disease from March 2001 until February 2007 at our institution as part of their multimodality therapy. Results: At a median follow-up of 33.6 months, 6 patients died of disease, 7 patients were alive with disease, and 21 patients were in clinical remission. Eleven patients relapsed, all distantly. Two patients failed locally in addition to distant sites. Both of these patients had persistent gross disease after induction chemotherapy and surgery. Our 3-year local control, event-free survival, overall survival were 94%, 66%, and 86%, respectively. Conclusion: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in our series achieved excellent local control. Doses of 21-24 Gy to the primary tumor site appear to be adequate for local control for patients in the setting of minimal residual disease after induction chemotherapy and surgery. Patients with significant residual disease may benefit from radiation dose escalation, and this should be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial.

  4. Local Knowledge, Science, and Institutional Change: The Case of Desertification Control in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  5. Explaining variation in gun control policy advocacy tactics among local organizations.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well four organizational characteristics (structure, resources, motivation, or political capacity) explained local organizations' use of a variety of advocacy tactics aimed at promoting state gun control laws. In 1998, 679 local organizations were identified as potentially active on state gun control issues; a questionnaire was mailed to each group's leader. Seventy-nine percent (n = 538) responded to the survey, with 81% (n = 207) of eligible organizations completing questionnaires. The four organizational characteristics explained approximately half the variation in local groups' use of a wide range of advocacy tactics. Organizations with stronger motivation to address the gun control issue and greater political capacity engaged in more diverse gun control advocacy tactics; the authors found organizational structure and resources unlikely to be related. Leaders of advocacy organizations should consider ways to encourage members' motivations on the issue while fostering greater capacity for political action. PMID:19731501

  6. Explaining variation in gun control policy advocacy tactics among local organizations.

    PubMed

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2003-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how well four organizational characteristics (structure, resources, motivation, or political capacity) explained local organizations' use of a variety of advocacy tactics aimed at promoting state gun control laws. In 1998, 679 local organizations were identified as potentially active on state gun control issues; a questionnaire was mailed to each group's leader. Seventy-nine percent (n = 538) responded to the survey, with 81% (n = 207) of eligible organizations completing questionnaires. The four organizational characteristics explained approximately half the variation in local groups' use of a wide range of advocacy tactics. Organizations with stronger motivation to address the gun control issue and greater political capacity engaged in more diverse gun control advocacy tactics; the authors found organizational structure and resources unlikely to be related. Leaders of advocacy organizations should consider ways to encourage members' motivations on the issue while fostering greater capacity for political action.

  7. [Strategy to control methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the 5 year experience of a hospital].

    PubMed

    Peres, David; Neves, Isabel; Vieira, Fernanda; Devesa, Ilda

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina é um dos microrganismos multirresistentes mais frequentemente implicados em infeções associadas a cuidados de saúde. Definiu-se como objetivo implementar uma estratégia multimodal para controlar este microrganismo num hospital.Material e Métodos: Procedimento baseado em rastreio ativo e medidas de isolamento numa população selecionada (doentes provenientes de outras instituições de saúde e lares ou com historial de internamento/ staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina; doentes dos cuidados intensivos e intermédios e, nos restantes serviços, rastreio aos contactos diretos se detetado um novo caso de staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina e, desde 2012, hemodialisados). Outras ações paralelas: (1) revisão das normas Precauções Básicas e Isolamento; (2) reforço dos pontos de desinfeção alcoólica das mãos; (3) sessões de esclarecimento aos profissionais de saúde; (4) folha ‘Alerta de staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina’ no processo dos doentes; (5) panfleto de informação aos doentes/ visitas; (6) monitorização do procedimento através de auditoria e (7) descolonização de doentes nos cuidados intensivos e intermédios, com rastreios de follow-up.Resultados: Entre 2007 e 2012 registou-se um decréscimo da proporção de staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina de 66% para 57% e da densidade de incidência de 1,80 para 0,68 casos por mil dias de internamento (p < 0,001; RR 0,38; IC95%: 0,29-0,49).Discussão/Conclusão: De acordo com dados europeus publicados, referentes a isolados no sangue e líquor, Portugal foi o país com maior proporção de staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina em 2011. Utilizando este critério de inclusão, o nosso hospital revelou uma proporção de staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina inferior à média nacional (34% versus 55%). A estratégia multimodal demonstrou ser eficaz na diminuição dos casos de staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina. Salvaguarda-se a necessidade de realizar vigilância epidemiológica deste agente, bem como monitorização da aplicação do procedimento, com feedback aos profissionais de saúde.

  8. Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160811.html Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years But number ... 6, 2016 TUESDAY, Sept. 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Gluten-free diets seem to be the latest fad, ...

  9. Supporting countries in establishing and strengthening NITAGs: lessons learned from 5 years of the SIVAC initiative.

    PubMed

    Adjagba, Alex; Senouci, Kamel; Biellik, Robin; Batmunkh, Nyambat; Faye, Pape Coumba; Durupt, Antoine; Gessner, Bradford D; da Silva, Alfred

    2015-01-29

    To empower governments to formulate rational policies without pressure from any group, and to increase the use of evidence-based decision-making to adapt global recommendations on immunization to their local context, the WHO has recommended on multiple occasions that countries should establish National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). The World Health Assembly (WHA) reinforced those recommendations in 2012 when Member States endorsed the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). NITAGs are multidisciplinary groups of national experts responsible for providing independent, evidence-informed advice to health authorities on all policy-related issues for all vaccines across all populations. In 2012, according to the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form, among 57 countries eligible for immunization program financial support from the GAVI Alliance, only 9 reported having a functional NITAG. Since 2008, the Supporting Independent Immunization and Vaccine Advisory Committees (SIVAC) Initiative (at the Agence de Médecine Préventive or AMP) in close collaboration with the WHO and other partners has been working to accelerate and systematize the establishment of NITAGs in low- and middle-income countries. In addition to providing direct support to countries to establish advisory groups, the initiative also supports existing NITAGs to strengthen their capacity in the use of evidence-based processes for decision-making aligned with international standards. After 5 years of implementation and based on lessons learned, we recommend that future efforts should target both expanding new NITAGs and strengthening existing NITAGs in individual countries, along three strategic lines: (i) reinforce NITAG institutional integration to promote sustainability and credibility, (ii) build technical capacity within NITAG secretariats and evaluate NITAG performance, and (iii) increase networking and regional collaborations. These should be done through the development

  10. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131) were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5%) patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4%) achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context, acceptable cultural explanations

  11. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Fatima I.; Lunze, Karsten; Tsorieva, Zemfira M.; Esenov, Constantin T.; Reutov, Alexandr; Eichhorn, Thomas; Offergeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53%) and for indications not related to violence (47%). None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism) who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include specialized

  12. Liberty and the New Localism: Toward an Evaluation of the Trade-Off between Educational Equity and Local Control of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    The value of local control of school systems is discussed. Local control is defined, and its connection with justice explored. Implications for school finance based on personal and participatory liberty rules for distributing costs are given. Robert K. Winpelberg offers comments on this article. (DF)

  13. The influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on local postural muscle and central sensory feedback balance control.

    PubMed

    Toosizadeh, Nima; Mohler, Jane; Armstrong, David G; Talal, Talal K; Najafi, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  14. The Influence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy on Local Postural Muscle and Central Sensory Feedback Balance Control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Poor balance control and increased fall risk have been reported in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Traditional body sway measures are unable to describe underlying postural control mechanism. In the current study, we used stabilogram diffusion analysis to examine the mechanism under which balance is altered in DPN patients under local-control (postural muscle control) and central-control (postural control using sensory cueing). DPN patients and healthy age-matched adults over 55 years performed two 15-second Romberg balance trials. Center of gravity sway was measured using a motion tracker system based on wearable inertial sensors, and used to derive body sway and local/central control balance parameters. Eighteen DPN patients (age = 65.4±7.6 years; BMI = 29.3±5.3 kg/m2) and 18 age-matched healthy controls (age = 69.8±2.9; BMI = 27.0±4.1 kg/m2) with no major mobility disorder were recruited. The rate of sway within local-control was significantly higher in the DPN group by 49% (healthy local-controlslope = 1.23±1.06×10-2 cm2/sec, P<0.01), which suggests a compromised local-control balance behavior in DPN patients. Unlike local-control, the rate of sway within central-control was 60% smaller in the DPN group (healthy central-controlslope-Log = 0.39±0.23, P<0.02), which suggests an adaptation mechanism to reduce the overall body sway in DPN patients. Interestingly, significant negative correlations were observed between central-control rate of sway with neuropathy severity (rPearson = 0.65-085, P<0.05) and the history of diabetes (rPearson = 0.58-071, P<0.05). Results suggest that in the lack of sensory feedback cueing, DPN participants were highly unstable compared to controls. However, as soon as they perceived the magnitude of sway using sensory feedback, they chose a high rigid postural control strategy, probably due to high concerns for fall, which may increase the energy cost during extended period of standing; the adaptation mechanism

  15. Specialist Pediatric Palliative Care Prescribing Practices: A Large 5-year Retrospective Audit

    PubMed Central

    Damani, Anuja; Salins, Naveen; Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is a gradual increasing trend in childhood cancers in India and pediatric palliative care in India is an emerging specialty. Prescribing pain and symptom control drugs in children with cancer requires knowledge of palliative care formulary, dosing schedules, and prescription guidelines. This study is a retrospective audit of prescribing practices of a specialist palliative care service situated in a tertiary cancer center. Methods: A total of 1135 medication records of children receiving specialist pediatric palliative care services were audited for 5 years (2010–2014) to evaluate prescribing practices in children with advanced cancer. Results: A total of 51 types of drugs were prescribed with an average of 4.2 drugs per prescription. 66.9% of the prescriptions had paracetamol, and 33.9% of the prescriptions had morphine. Most common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed was ibuprofen (23.9%), and more than 50% of the prescriptions had aperients. The most commonly prescribed aperient was a combination of liquid paraffin and sodium-picosulfate. Dexamethasone was prescribed in 51.9% of patients and in most cases this was part of oral chemotherapy regimen. Generic names in prescription were used only in 33% of cases, and adverse effects of the drugs were documented in only 9% of cases. In 25% of cases, noncompliance to the WHO prescription guidelines was seen, and patient compliance to prescription was seen in 40% of cases. Conclusions: Audit of the prescribing practices in specialist pediatric palliative care service shows that knowledge of pediatric palliative care formulary, rational drug use, dosing, and prescribing guidelines is essential for symptom control in children with advanced life-limiting illness. Noncompliance to WHO prescribing guidelines in one fourth of cases and using nongeneric names in two-thirds of prescription indicates poor prescribing practices and warrants prescriber education. Prescription noncompliance by

  16. An integrative model of the cardiac ventricular myocyte incorporating local control of Ca2+ release.

    PubMed Central

    Greenstein, Joseph L; Winslow, Raimond L

    2002-01-01

    The local control theory of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in cardiac muscle asserts that L-type Ca(2+) current tightly controls Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via local interaction of closely apposed L-type Ca(2+) channels (LCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). These local interactions give rise to smoothly graded Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR), which exhibits high gain. In this study we present a biophysically detailed model of the normal canine ventricular myocyte that conforms to local control theory. The model formulation incorporates details of microscopic EC coupling properties in the form of Ca(2+) release units (CaRUs) in which individual sarcolemmal LCCs interact in a stochastic manner with nearby RyRs in localized regions where junctional SR membrane and transverse-tubular membrane are in close proximity. The CaRUs are embedded within and interact with the global systems of the myocyte describing ionic and membrane pump/exchanger currents, SR Ca(2+) uptake, and time-varying cytosolic ion concentrations to form a model of the cardiac action potential (AP). The model can reproduce both the detailed properties of EC coupling, such as variable gain and graded SR Ca(2+) release, and whole-cell phenomena, such as modulation of AP duration by SR Ca(2+) release. Simulations indicate that the local control paradigm predicts stable APs when the L-type Ca(2+) current is adjusted in accord with the balance between voltage- and Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation processes as measured experimentally, a scenario where common pool models become unstable. The local control myocyte model provides a means for studying the interrelationship between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors in a manner that would not be possible in experiments. PMID:12496068

  17. Direct subwavelength imaging and control of near-field localization in individual silver nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Mårsell, Erik; Svärd, Robin; Miranda, Miguel; Guo, Chen; Harth, Anne; Lorek, Eleonora; Mauritsson, Johan; Arnold, Cord L.; L'Huillier, Anne; Mikkelsen, Anders; Losquin, Arthur; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate the control of near-field localization within individual silver nanocubes through photoemission electron microscopy combined with broadband, few-cycle laser pulses. We find that the near-field is concentrated at the corners of the cubes, and that it can be efficiently localized to different individual corners depending on the polarization of the incoming light. The experimental results are confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulations, which also provide an intuitive picture of polarization dependent near-field localization in nanocubes.

  18. Output feedback fuzzy controller design with local nonlinear feedback laws for discrete-time nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiuxiang; Wang, Youyi; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2010-12-01

    This paper considers the output feedback control problem for nonlinear discrete-time systems, which are represented by a type of fuzzy systems with local nonlinear models. By using the estimations of the states and nonlinear functions in local models, sufficient conditions for designing observer-based controllers are given for discrete-time nonlinear systems. First, a separation property, i.e., the controller and the observer can be independently designed, is proved for the class of fuzzy systems. Second, a two-step procedure with cone complementarity linearization algorithms is also developed for solving the H( ∞) dynamic output feedback (DOF) control problem. Moreover, for the case where the nonlinear functions in local submodels are measurable, a convex condition for designing H(∞) controllers is given by a new DOF control scheme. In contrast to the existing methods, the new methods can design output feedback controllers with fewer fuzzy rules as well as less computational burden, which is helpful for controller designs and implementations. Lastly, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions.

    PubMed

    Lal, Aparna; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-09-18

    The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2-1.7, p < 0.001), and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2-2.9, p < 0.001), and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3-6.2, p < 0.001) and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9-9.8, p < 0.001) areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years.

  20. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Aparna; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2–1.7, p < 0.001), and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2–2.9, p < 0.001), and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3–6.2, p < 0.001) and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9–9.8, p < 0.001) areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years. PMID:26393636

  1. Efficacy of Pyrimethamine/Sulfadoxine versus Chloroquine for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Children Aged Under 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, W; Jiang, H; Xiong, Z; Jiang, Z; Chen, H

    2013-01-01

    The children aged under 5 years from vast African areas badly suffer from falciparum malaria and many of them die of this disease. Therapeutic efficacy of anti-malaria drugs, especially pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS) and chloroquine (CQ) to falciparum malaria is frequently evaluated and reported in recent 10 years. Unfortunately, to date, these widespread materials and researches have not been systematically collected and analyzed. In our study, two investigators were employed to widely and independently gather researches on efficacy of PS vs. CQ mono-therapy of falciparum malaria in children aged below 5 years in unpublished and published databases. Meta-analyses were conducted in categories of PS group and CQ group respectively. Pooled OR of PS vs. CQ was 0.11 (95%CI, 0.05-0.24). PS showed higher therapeutic efficacy to falciparum malaria in less-than-5-year children than CQ. Random model was chosen to analyze for the heterogeneity existence between different studies. Subgroup analyses were performed, but heterogeneity was still presented. Heterogeneity might be caused by different resistance of falciparum malaria to PS and CQ in different settings. Malaria type associated with parasite species, basic information of PS and CQ, and PS & CQ resistant malaria control measures were demonstrated and discussed respectively in detail in this article. PMID:23682255

  2. Local fluctuation control of papain by changing a highly fluctuating residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To control the local fluctuation of the amino acid residues of papain, ARG59, a highly fluctuating residue in papain, has been changed to GLY. We investigated the binding properties of 2-10GLY (peptides with between 2 and 10 glycine residues) to the modified papain structure via molecular dynamics and docking simulations. The change of the ARG59 residue to GLY alters the binding sites for some peptides, and changed its substrate specificity. Furthermore, the modification alters the binding stability of some peptides. Thus, control of the local fluctuations of residues in proteins has the potential to alter the protein's function.

  3. PID controller design for nonlinear systems represented by discrete-time local model networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hametner, Christoph; Mayr, Christian H.; Kozek, Martin; Jakubek, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller design for nonlinear systems represented by local model networks. The proposed method is based on the concept of parallel distributed compensators where the scheduling of the local model network is adopted for the PID parameters. The proposed design method for nonlinear PID controllers considers closed-loop stability by means of a Lyapunov stability criterion as well as closed-loop performance. All PID parameters are determined by a multi-objective genetic algorithm (multiGA), which handles the trade-off between stability and performance. A simulation example demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Local Tumor Control, Visual Acuity, and Survival After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman; Dieckmann, Karin; Gleiss, Andreas; Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Poetter, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term local tumor control, visual acuity, and survival after hypofractionated linear accelerator-based stereotactic photon radiotherapy in patients with choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1997 and 2007, 212 patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at a linear accelerator with 6-MV photon beams at the Medical University of Vienna in five fractions over 7 days. Twenty-four patients received a total dose of 70 Gy (five fractions of 14 Gy), 158 a total dose of 60 Gy (five fractions of 12 Gy) and 30 patients a total dose of 50 Gy (five fractions of 10 Gy) applied on the 80% isodose. Ophthalmologic examinations were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, every 6 months until 5 years, and once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Assessment of visual acuity, routine ophthalmologic examinations, and measurement of tumor base dimension and height using standardized A-scan and B-scan echography were done at each visit. Funduscopy and fluorescein angiography were done when necessary to document tumor response. Results: Median tumor height and volume decreased from 4.8 mm and 270.7 mm{sup 3} at baseline to 2.6 mm and 86.6 mm{sup 3} at the last individual follow-up, respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Median visual acuity decreased from 0.55 at baseline to hand motion at the last individual follow-up (p < 0.001). Local tumor control was 95.9% after 5 years and 92.6% after 10 years. Thirty-two patients developed metastatic disease, and 22 of these patients died during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy with 70 to 50 Gy delivered in five fractions in 7 days is sufficient to achieve excellent local tumor control in patients with malignant melanoma of the choroid. Disease outcome and vision are comparable to those achieved with proton beam radiotherapy. Decreasing the

  5. The epidemiology of chickenpox in UK 5-year olds: an analysis to inform vaccine policy.

    PubMed

    Manikkavasagan, Gayatri; Dezateux, Carol; Wade, Angie; Bedford, Helen

    2010-11-10

    Varicella vaccine is not routinely administered to children in many countries including the UK. Longitudinal data are lacking to inform optimal schedules. We report the prevalence of VZV infection at 5 years of age, cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years and socio-demographic associations with risk of infection using longitudinal data on 12,509 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. VZV prevalence by 5 years was 76.9% [95% CI: 75.9%, 78.0%]. The cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years was 32.2% [95% CI: 31.1%, 33.3%]. Risk of infection by 5 years was associated with higher maternal socio-economic status, larger household size and formal day-care attendance at 9 months and 3 years. If universal varicella immunisation were introduced in the UK, where 40% children have attended some formal day-care by 3 years, a schedule commencing early in the second year of life would be indicated.

  6. Persistence and progression of masked hypertension: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Xavier; Milot, Alain; Brisson, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine masked hypertension persistence over 5 years. Methods. White-collar workers were recruited from three public organizations. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using Spacelabs 90207. Manually operated BP was defined as the mean of the first three readings taken at rest. Ambulatory BP was defined as the mean of the next readings taken every 15 minutes and recorded during working hours. BP was assessed three times over 5 years. Masked hypertension was defined as manually operated BP less than 140 and less than 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg. Sustained hypertension was defined as manually operated BP at least 140 or at least 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg or being treated for hypertension. Results. BP measurements were obtained from 1669 participants from whom 232 had masked hypertension at baseline. Persistence of masked hypertension was 38% and 18.5%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Progression to sustained hypertension was 26% and 37%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Conclusion. Among baseline masked hypertensives, one-third progressed to sustained hypertension and about one out of five remained masked after 5 years, potentially delaying diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24455208

  7. Do you want to see the tree? Ignore the forest: inhibitory control during local processing: a negative priming study of local-global processing.

    PubMed

    Poirel, Nicolas; Krakowski, Claire Sara; Sayah, Sabrina; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    The visual environment consists of global structures (e.g., a forest) made up of local parts (e.g., trees). When compound stimuli are presented (e.g., large global letters composed of arrangements of small local letters), the global unattended information slows responses to local targets. Using a negative priming paradigm, we investigated whether inhibition is required to process hierarchical stimuli when information at the local level is in conflict with the one at the global level. The results show that when local and global information is in conflict, global information must be inhibited to process local information, but that the reverse is not true. This finding has potential direct implications for brain models of visual recognition, by suggesting that when local information is conflicting with global information, inhibitory control reduces feedback activity from global information (e.g., inhibits the forest) which allows the visual system to process local information (e.g., to focus attention on a particular tree).

  8. Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Audrey; Ulbricht, Ronald; Bonn, Mischa; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2010-10-25

    Localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPPs) provide an efficient means of achieving extreme light concentration. In recent years, their active control has become a major aspiration of plasmonic research. Here, we demonstrate direct control of semiconductor bowtie antennas, enabling active excitation of LSPPs, at terahertz (THz) frequencies. We modify the LSPPs by ultrafast optical modulation of the free carrier density in the plasmonic structure itself, allowing for active control of the semiconductor antennas on picosecond timescales. Moreover, this control enables the manipulation of the field intensity enhancements in ranges of four orders of magnitude. PMID:21164664

  9. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pulmonary Metastases From Soft-Tissue Sarcomas: Excellent Local Lesion Control and Improved Patient Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Sughosh; Corbin, Kimberly S.; Milano, Michael T.; Philip, Abraham; Sahasrabudhe, Deepak; Jones, Carolyn

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Patients with pulmonary metastases (PM) from soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) have historically been treated with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Since 2001, we have treated PM with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). We postulated that SBRT for PM from STS would yield excellent local control (LC) and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Fifty-two patients with PM from STS, diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 at University of Rochester, were retrospectively reviewed. Most patients received multimodality treatment comprising of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation. SBRT used the Novalis ExacTrac patient positioning platform, vacuum bag immobilization, and relaxed end-expiratory breath hold techniques. Results: Leiomyosarcoma (23%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (19%), and synovial sarcoma (15%) were the most common histologies. Forty-eight percent initially presented with PM, whereas 52% developed PM at a median of 0.7 (0.3-7.3) years after initial diagnosis. Median follow-up from diagnosis of PM was 0.9 (0.3-7.3) years. Fifteen patients underwent SBRT to 74 lesions. Median number of lesions treated was 4 (1-16) per patient and 3.5 (1-6) per session. Preferred dose and fractionation was 50 Gy in 5 Gy fractions. Three-year LC was 82%. No patients experienced Grade {>=}3 toxicity. Median OS was 2.1 (0.8-11.5) years for patients treated with SBRT, and 0.6 (0.1-7.8) years for those who never received SBRT (p = 0.002). Conclusions: SBRT provides excellent LC of PM and may extend OS. SBRT should be considered for all patients with PM from STS, particularly those who are not surgical candidates. Further investigation is warranted to establish criteria for the use of SBRT for STS patients with PM.

  10. Quantification of local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Mckinley, Galen; Zuk, Miriam; Höjer, Morten; Avalos, Montserrat; González, Isabel; Iniestra, Rodolfo; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Miguel A; Osnaya, Patricia; Reynales, Luz M; Valdés, Raydel; Martínez, Julia

    2005-04-01

    Complex sociopolitical, economic, and geographical realities cause the 20 million residents of Mexico City to suffer from some of the worst air pollution conditions in the world. Greenhouse gas emissions from the city are also substantial, and opportunities for joint local-global air pollution control are being sought. Although a plethora of measures to improve local air quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions have been proposed for Mexico City, resources are not available for implementation of all proposed controls and thus prioritization must occur. Yet policy makers often do not conduct comprehensive quantitative analyses to inform these decisions. We reanalyze a subset of currently proposed control measures, and derive cost and health benefit estimates that are directly comparable. This study illustrates that improved quantitative analysis can change implementation prioritization for air pollution and greenhouse gas control measures in Mexico City.

  11. Local and Distant Input Controlling Excitation in Layer II of the Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Elke C; Neitz, Angela; Pinna, Roberta; Melzer, Sarah; Caputi, Antonio; Monyer, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Layer II (LII) of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) comprises grid cells that support spatial navigation. The firing pattern of grid cells might be explained by attractor dynamics in a network, which requires either direct excitatory connectivity between phase-specific grid cells or indirect coupling via interneurons. However, knowledge regarding local networks that support in vivo activity is incomplete. Here we identified essential components of LII networks in the MEC. We distinguished four types of excitatory neurons that exhibit cell-type-specific local excitatory and inhibitory connectivity. Furthermore, we found that LII neurons contribute to the excitation of contralateral neurons in the corresponding layer. Finally, we demonstrated that the medial septum controls excitation in the MEC via two subpopulations of long-range GABAergic neurons that target distinct interneurons in LII, thereby disinhibiting local circuits. We thus identified local connections that could support attractor dynamics and external inputs that likely govern excitation in LII. PMID:26711115

  12. Supervisory autonomous local-remote control system design: Near-term and far-term applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Backes, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Supervisory Telerobotics Laboratory (STELER) has developed a unique local-remote robot control architecture which enables management of intermittent bus latencies and communication delays such as those expected for ground-remote operation of Space Station robotic systems via the TDRSS communication platform. At the local site, the operator updates the work site world model using stereo video feedback and a model overlay/fitting algorithm which outputs the location and orientation of the object in free space. That information is relayed to the robot User Macro Interface (UMI) to enable programming of the robot control macros. The operator can then employ either manual teleoperation, shared control, or supervised autonomous control to manipulate the object under any degree of time-delay. The remote site performs the closed loop force/torque control, task monitoring, and reflex action. This paper describes the STELER local-remote robot control system, and further describes the near-term planned Space Station applications, along with potential far-term applications such as telescience, autonomous docking, and Lunar/Mars rovers.

  13. Community-Based School Finance and Accountability: A New Era for Local Control in Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Ward, Derrick R.; Weisman, Eric; Cole, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Top-down accountability policies have arguably had very limited impact over the past 20 years. Education stakeholders are now contemplating new forms of bottom-up accountability. In 2013, policymakers in California enacted a community-based approach that creates the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) process for school finance to increase…

  14. Industry/Government Teleconference on Pollution Control. Proceedings National Telecast and Local Panel Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Manufacturers, New York, NY.

    Proceedings of the closed-circuit Teleconference on Pollution Control conducted by the National Association of Manufacturers on May 26, 1971 are supplied in this compendium. Edited transcripts are provided for the national programs and local panel sessions. Seeking to bring business and government together for cooperative problem solving, the…

  15. Local Control in the Era of Accountability: A Case Study of Wisconsin PreK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graue, M. Elizabeth; Wilinski, Bethany; Nocera, Amato

    2016-01-01

    The opposing principles of local control and increased standardization are a prominent tension in the United States' education system. Since at least the early 1990s, this tension has taken shape around the accountability movement, defined by educational reforms that hold schools, teachers, and students accountable for performance on new…

  16. Control of dynamical localization by an additional quantum degree of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, K.; Törmä, P.; Savichev, V.; Schleich, W. P.

    1999-01-01

    We identify a parameter that controls the localization length in a driven quantum system. This parameter results from an additional quantum degree of freedom. The center-of-mass motion of a two-level ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing-wave laser field exhibits this phenomenon. We also discuss the influence of spontaneous emission.

  17. LandScape Command Set: Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Burchard, R.L.; Small, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Local Area Network Distributed Supervisory Control and Programming Environment (LandScape) commands set that provides a Generic Device Subsystem Application Programmers Interface (API). These commands are implemented using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification with Orbix from Iona Technologies.

  18. 42 CFR 70.2 - Measures in the event of inadequate local control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measures in the event of inadequate local control. 70.2 Section 70.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING INTERSTATE QUARANTINE § 70.2 Measures in the event of inadequate...

  19. Local Control Funding Formula in California: How to Monitor Progress and Learn from a Grand Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Tobben, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) was enacted by the California legislature in June 2013 and fundamentally changes the distribution of education dollars to districts. The legislation simplifies the formula for sending money to districts and now takes into account the higher costs of educating certain groups of students, specifically those…

  20. Assessing local planning to control groundwater depletion: California as a microcosm of global issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater pumping has caused excessive groundwater depletion around the world, yet regulating pumping remains a profound challenge. California uses more groundwater than any other U.S. state, and serves as a microcosm of the adverse effects of pumping felt worldwide—land subsidence, impaired water quality, and damaged ecosystems, all against the looming threat of climate change. The state largely entrusts the control of depletion to the local level. This study uses internationally accepted water resources planning theories systematically to investigate three key aspects of controlling groundwater depletion in California, with an emphasis on local-level action: (a) making decisions and engaging stakeholders; (b) monitoring groundwater; and (c) using mandatory, fee-based and voluntary approaches to control groundwater depletion (e.g., pumping restrictions, pumping fees, and education about water conservation, respectively). The methodology used is the social science-derived technique of content analysis, which involves using a coding scheme to record these three elements in local rules and plans, and State legislation, then analyzing patterns and trends. The study finds that Californian local groundwater managers rarely use, or plan to use, mandatory and fee-based measures to control groundwater depletion. Most use only voluntary approaches or infrastructure to attempt to reduce depletion, regardless of whether they have more severe groundwater problems, or problems which are more likely to have irreversible adverse effects. The study suggests legal reforms to the local groundwater planning system, drawing upon its empirical findings. Considering the content of these recommendations may also benefit other jurisdictions that use a local groundwater management planning paradigm.

  1. Implementation of local feedback controllers for vibration supression of a truss using active struts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, Robert; Lim, Tae W.; Bosse, Albert; Fisher, Shalom

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of local feedback controllers for active vibration suppression of a laboratory truss referred to as the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) space truss. The NRL space truss is a 3.7 meter, 12-bay aluminum laboratory truss used as a testbed to explore smart structures technologies for future Navy spacecraft missions. To conduct real-time control and data acquisition for the implementation of controllers, a digital signal processor based system is used. Two piezoceramic active struts are employed in this experimental study. Each strut is instrumented with a force transducer and a displacement sensor. Modal strain energy computed using a refined finite element model was used to select the optimum locations of the two actuators to ensure controllability of the first two structural modes. Two local feedback controllers were designed and implemented, an integral force feedback and an integral plus double-integral force feedback. The controllers were designed independently for each active strut using classical control design techniques applied to an identified model of the system dynamics. System identification results and controller design procedure are described along with closed loop test results. The test results show up to a factor of 1/110 attenuation of the truss tip motion due to sinusoidal resonant input disturbances and up to 100 times increase in damping of the lower frequency modes of the truss.

  2. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27146373

  3. Investigation of spherical loudspeaker arrays for local active control of sound.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Tomer; Rafaely, Boaz

    2011-10-01

    Active control of sound can be employed globally to reduce noise levels in an entire enclosure, or locally around a listener's head. Recently, spherical loudspeaker arrays have been studied as multiple-channel sources for local active control of sound, presenting the fundamental theory and several active control configurations. In this paper, important aspects of using a spherical loudspeaker array for local active control of sound are further investigated. First, the feasibility of creating sphere-shaped quiet zones away from the source is studied both theoretically and numerically, showing that these quiet zones are associated with sound amplification and poor system robustness. To mitigate the latter, the design of shell-shaped quiet zones around the source is investigated. A combination of two spherical sources is then studied with the aim of enlarging the quiet zone. The two sources are employed to generate quiet zones that surround a rigid sphere, investigating the application of active control around a listener's head. A significant improvement in performance is demonstrated in this case over a conventional headrest-type system that uses two monopole secondary sources. Finally, several simulations are presented to support the theoretical work and to demonstrate the performance and limitations of the system.

  4. Neural Network with Local Memory for Nuclear Reactor Power Level Control

    SciTech Connect

    Uluyol, Oender; Ragheb, Magdi; Tsoukalas, Lefteri

    2001-02-15

    A methodology is introduced for a neural network with local memory called a multilayered local output gamma feedback (LOGF) neural network within the paradigm of locally-recurrent globally-feedforward neural networks. It appears to be well-suited for the identification, prediction, and control tasks in highly dynamic systems; it allows for the presentation of different timescales through incorporation of a gamma memory. A learning algorithm based on the backpropagation-through-time approach is derived. The spatial and temporal weights of the network are iteratively optimized for a given problem using the derived learning algorithm. As a demonstration of the methodology, it is applied to the task of power level control of a nuclear reactor at different fuel cycle conditions. The results demonstrate that the LOGF neural network controller outperforms the classical as well as the state feedback-assisted classical controllers for reactor power level control by showing a better tracking of the demand power, improving the fuel and exit temperature responses, and by performing robustly in different fuel cycle and power level conditions.

  5. Controlling the Localization of Liquid Droplets in Polymer Matrices by Evaporative Lithography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huaixia; Xu, Jiajia; Jing, Guangyin; Prieto-López, Lizbeth Ofelia; Deng, Xu; Cui, Jiaxi

    2016-08-26

    Localized inclusions of liquids provide solid materials with many functions, such as self-healing, secretion, and tunable mechanical properties, in a spatially controlled mode. However, a strategy to control the distribution of liquid droplets in solid matrices directly obtained from a homogeneous solution has not been reported thus far. Herein, we describe an approach to selectively localize liquid droplets in a supramolecular gel directly obtained from its solution by using evaporative lithography. In this process, the formation of droplet-embedded domains occurs in regions of free evaporation where the non-volatile liquid is concentrated and undergoes a phase separation to create liquid droplets prior to gelation, while a homogeneous gel matrix is formed in the regions of hindered evaporation. The different regions of a coating with droplet embedment patterns display different secretion abilities, enabling the control of the directional movement of water droplets. PMID:27460600

  6. Radiation therapy, local tumor control, and prognosis in bronchogenic carcinoma: current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Byfield, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    While the overall prognosis for cure of bronchogenic carcinoma remains poor for most patients, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that rationally optimized local therapy may benefit a significant subset of patients. Local therapy in this context includes any systemic therapy (such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy) that enhances local tumor control in the chest. Compared with many other human epithelial cancers, the total local tumor burden is large for many nonresectable lung cancers and not within the tolerance for control by radiation alone. Thus there is growing evidence that combined surgery and radiation treatment will improve results, especially in the differentiated tumors. Proper selection of patients is important and must include histologic stratification in addition to conventional TNM staging. It is projected that much useful research can be conducted during this decade using clinical tools now available and those that are being tested in early clinical trials throughout the world. Likely candidates for such improvements are both oxic and hypoxic radiosensitizing drugs that should decrease the death rate from uncontrolled local cancer in the chest.

  7. Dynamic localization of a cytoplasmic signal transduction response regulator controls morphogenesis during the Caulobacter cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Christine; Hung, Dean; Shapiro, Lucy

    2001-01-01

    We present evidence that a bacterial signal transduction cascade that couples morphogenesis with cell cycle progression is regulated by dynamic localization of its components. Previous studies have implicated two histidine kinases, DivJ and PleC, and the response regulator, DivK, in the regulation of morphogenesis in the dimorphic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic response regulator, DivK, exhibits a dynamic, cyclical localization that culminates in asymmetric distribution of DivK within the two cell types that are characteristic of the Caulobacter cell cycle; DivK is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm of the progeny swarmer cell and is localized to the pole of the stalked cell. The membrane-bound DivJ and PleC histidine kinases, which are asymmetrically localized at the opposite poles of the predivisional cell, control the temporal and spatial localization of DivK. DivJ mediates DivK targeting to the poles whereas PleC controls its release from one of the poles at times and places that are consistent with the activities and location of DivJ and PleC in the late predivisional cell. Thus, dynamic changes in subcellular location of multiple components of a signal transduction cascade may constitute a novel mode of prokaryotic regulation to generate and maintain cellular asymmetry. PMID:11274434

  8. Characterization and application of controllable local chemical changes produced by reagent delivery from a nanopipet.

    PubMed

    Piper, Joe D; Li, Chao; Lo, Chien-Jung; Berry, Richard; Korchev, Yuri; Ying, Liming; Klenerman, David

    2008-08-01

    We introduce a versatile method that allows local and repeatable delivery (or depletion) of any water-soluble reagent from a nanopipet in ionic solution to make localized controlled changes in reagent concentration at a surface. In this work, Na(+) or OH(-) ions were dosed from the pipet using pulsed voltage-driven delivery. Total internal reflection fluorescence from CoroNa Green dye in the bath for Na(+) ions or fluorescein in the bath for pH quantified the resulting changes in local surface concentration. These changes had a time response as short as 10 ms and a radius of 1-30 microm and depended on the diameter of the pipet used, the applied voltage, and the pipet-surface separation. After the pipet dosing was characterized in detail, two proof-of-concept experiments on single cells and single molecules were then performed. We demonstrated local control of the sodium-sensitive flagellar motor in single Escherichia coli chimera on the time scale of 1 s by dosing sodium and monitoring the rotation of a 1 microm diameter bead fixed to the flagellum. We also demonstrated triggered single-molecule unfolding by dosing acid from the pipet to locally melt individual molecules of duplex DNA, as observed using fluorescent resonance energy transfer.

  9. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  10. The 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology 1981. Source Materials Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This is the second of two volumes of source documents commissioned by the National Science Foundation in preparing the second 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology for transmission to the Congress. This volume consists of the views of individuals selected by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy of the American Association for…

  11. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  12. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  13. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  14. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  15. Delayed refractory hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Merola, J; Liang, E; Hoskins, J; Balakrishnan, V; Gan, P

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who developed a delayed onset intractable hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The proposed aetiology of this exceptionally rare phenomenon is discussed. To our knowledge, previous cases have only been reported in the adult population.

  16. A Multiple-Data Analysis of the 3.5-Year Development of EFL Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes in Japanese students English writing behaviors over a 3.5-year period using multiple data sources including written texts, videotaped writing behaviors, and stimulated-recall protocols. Data from student interviews supplemented the analyses. Because 6 (henceforth, English as a second language [ESL]…

  17. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  18. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  19. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  20. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  1. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  2. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... limited to, population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics; (2) habitat conditions...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Comment'' icon on the right of that line. Mail or hand-delivery: Angela Somma, National Marine...

  3. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  4. Secondary Science Teachers' Use of Technology in the Classroom during Their First 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Luft, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technology use of beginning secondary science teachers and explored factors facilitating or inhibiting their use of technology. The researchers collected and analyzed interviews and observational data from 95 teachers over a 5-year period. The results show that teachers used PowerPoint the most and other software the least…

  5. Introducing Engineering in Elementary Education: A 5-Year Study of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering, when integrated into K-12 education, may offer a number of potential student learning and future success benefits. In a 5-year study, four cohorts of elementary teachers of grades 2 to 4 in a single US school district were provided with teacher professional development with engineering education. Teachers were prepared to teach…

  6. 76 FR 50447 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 5 Evolutionarily Significant Units of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ..., Oregon, Washington, and Idaho (75 FR 13082). Both ESUs and DPSs are treated as ``species'' under the ESA... FR 37204). The 5-year review reports prepared by the Southwest Region, the Southwest Science Center's... since they were previously reviewed in 2005 (70 FR 37160) and 2006 (71 FR 834), respectively....

  7. 76 FR 50448 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 17 Evolutionarily Significant Units and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Regional Offices announced initiation of 5-year reviews of Pacific salmon ESUs and steelhead DPSs (75 FR...-promulgating the threatened listing for Oregon Coast coho salmon (76 FR 35755). This notice also addresses the... Salmon and Steelhead in Listing Determinations under the ESA (70 FR 37204) to complete this...

  8. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  9. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  10. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  11. Story Contexts Increase Susceptibility to the DRM Illusion in 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Pursglove, Rhian C.; Lewis, Charlie

    2007-01-01

    False recognition in children aged 5, 8, and 11 years was investigated using the standard version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and an alternative version in which the DRM stimuli were embedded in stories designed to emphasize their overall theme. Relative to the 8- and 11-year-olds, the 5-year-olds falsely recognized fewer…

  12. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  13. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  14. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  15. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  16. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  17. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  18. Open Air Silicon Deposition by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma under Local Ambient Gas Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Teruki; Konno, Nobuaki; Yoshida, Yukihisa

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report open air silicon (Si) deposition by combining a silane free Si deposition technology and a newly developed local ambient gas control technology. Recently, material processing in open air has been investigated intensively. While a variety of materials have been deposited, there were only few reports on Si deposition due to the susceptibility to contamination and the hazardous nature of source materials. Since Si deposition is one of the most important processes in device fabrication, we have developed open air silicon deposition technologies in BEANS project. For a clean and safe process, a local ambient gas control head was designed. Process gas leakage was prevented by local evacuation, and air contamination was shut out by inert curtain gas. By numerical and experimental investigations, a safe and clean process condition with air contamination less than 10 ppm was achieved. Si film was deposited in open air by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical transport under the local ambient gas control. The film was microcrystalline Si with the crystallite size of 17 nm, and the Hall mobility was 2.3 cm2/V .s. These properties were comparable to those of Si films deposited in a vacuum chamber. This research has been conducted as one of the research items of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization ``BEANS'' project.

  19. Air contaminant control investigation of a jet augmented local exhaust system

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, D.B.; Johnston, W.L.; Konzen, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of a jet augmented local exhaust system to control air contaminants was investigated in a scale model hood. Tracer gas concentrations were mapped on top of idealized airflow streamlines to illustrate the jet's interaction with air contaminants. A key findings was the possibility of contaminant loss from the hood if the jet flow was not recaptured completely. Airflow design parameters, which had been identified previously to affect the airflow pattern, were evaluation for their effect on air contaminant control. The results indicated that tracer gas recovery was affected by a single airflow design parameters. An inverse linear relationship between the design parameter and control levels indicated that the recovery rate was controllable in design and that 100% control was achievable at a low total airflow rate. Important potential design advantages include the ability to specify the contaminant control level prior to installation, system flexibility to change contaminant control levels by adjusting airflow design parameters, and lower installation and operation costs than a comparable local exhaust system. The next research step is to test a full-scale prototype system to evaluate its performance efficiency and economy under realistic operating conditions.

  20. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  1. Extended Long-Term (5 Years) Outcomes of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Methods: Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Results: Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. Conclusions: The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients. PMID:23730369

  2. Dopaminergic therapy and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of 5-year reports.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD) is described in several recent papers. This procedure has been reported to permit a stable reduction of dopaminergic therapy requirements for up to 5 years, although some expectation of deterioration in non-dopaminergic signs has been recently stated. Our aim is to perform a literature-based review of papers available describing long-term post-operative follow-up after a bilateral implant for subthalamic DBS (STN-DBS). Only peer-reviewed published papers with a post-operative follow-up of at least 5 years were considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 2 (or 3 years) and 5 years after surgery. Seven papers were included in the review. A total of 238 patients were analyzed. STN-DBS was confirmed to be an effective treatment for selected patients with PD. In all studies, off-related motor symptoms improved dramatically, compared with pre-implant, at 2 (or 3, according to the study) years and this result persisted at 5-year evaluations. Antiparkinsonian drug reductions, improvements in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and the progression of underlying PD were also reported in all series. Some axial scores, in particular postural stability and speech, improved transiently. Persisting adverse effects included eyelid opening apraxia, weight gain, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysarthria, dyskinesias, and apathy. The present review of the 5-year observations confirms that STN-DBS is a powerful method in the management of PD, but its long-term effects must be thoroughly assessed.

  3. Durable control of locally recurrent renal cell carcinoma using stereotactic body radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Jillian; Breau, Rodney H; Scheida, Nicola; Malone, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is generally poorly responsive to conventional radiation doses, and patients with inoperable local recurrence have limited therapeutic options. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an increasingly available technology that allows delivery of a radiation schedule providing doses far more biologically effective against cancer cells than conventional radiotherapy. We present a case where durable disease control was achieved using SBRT in a patient with inoperable locally recurrent RCC who presented 18 years from original nephrectomy. The patient remains asymptomatic with no evidence of active disease 30 months following SBRT. This case highlights the need to reconsider the role of therapies with continuing advances in technology. PMID:25199199

  4. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, Anne M.; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in two college communities, the present study: 1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol over-service in on-premise outlets; 2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems; and 3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. Methods We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents ages 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Results Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. Conclusions It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and

  5. Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: Beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den . E-mail: a.c.m.van.den.bergh@rt.umcg.nl; Berg, Gerrit van den; Schoorl, Michiel A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Hoving, Eelco W.; Szabo, Ben G.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of 122 patients, operated for NFA between 1979 and 1998. Recurrence was defined as regrowth on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The occurrence of hormonal deficiencies was defined as the starting date of hormonal substitution therapy. Results: Seventy-six patients had residual NFA after surgery and received immediate postoperative radiotherapy (Group 1); three patients developed a recurrence, resulting in a 95% local control rate at 10 years. Twenty-eight patients had residual NFA after surgery, but were followed by a wait-and-see policy (Group 2). Sixteen developed a recurrence, resulting in a local control rate of 49% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (p < 0.001 compared with Group 1). There were no differences between Group 1 and 2 regarding the need for substitution with thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones before first surgery, directly after surgery and at end of follow-up. There were no differences in hormone substitution free survival between Group 1 and Group 2 during the study period after first surgery. Life expectancy was similar in Group 1 and 2, and their median life expectancy did not differ from median life expectancy in the general population. Conclusions: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.

  6. Stormwater runoff control: a model ordinance for meeting local water-quality-management needs

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, F.E.; Hamann, R.G.; Canter, B.D.E.

    1980-10-01

    The Model Stormwater Runoff Control Ordinance gives local governments a way to regulate land uses. When land is developed, stormwater accelerates erosion and flushes pollutants into receiving waters faster. Appropriate control measures are site-specific, but there are general control techniques to reduce runoff in water treatment plants, litter and pollution laws, and proper placement and design of urban development. The common law approach to diffused surface water deals with drainage rights and liability for water pollution, but it has been expensive and ineffective. Federal laws have tried to develop control mechanism for non-point source pollution with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. The Model Ordinance deals with the legal aspects of the power to regulate, delegation of authority, reasonable police power regulation, equal protection, and the taking issue. A section-by-section review of the ordinance includes commentary. 20 references. (DCK)

  7. Participation in an Intensive Longitudinal Study with Weekly Web Surveys Over 2.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Schulz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Technological advances have made it easier for researchers to collect more frequent longitudinal data from survey respondents via personal computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices. Although technology has led to an increase in data-intensive longitudinal studies, little is known about attrition from such studies or the differences between respondents who complete frequently administered surveys in a timely manner, and respondents who do not. Objective We examined respondent characteristics and behaviors associated with continued and on-time participation in a population-based intensive longitudinal study, using weekly web-based survey interviews over an extended period. Methods We analyzed data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, an intensive longitudinal study that collected weekly web-based survey interviews for 2.5 years from 1003 18- and 19-year-olds to investigate factors shaping the dynamics of their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancies. Results Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses showed background respondent characteristics measured at baseline were associated with the number of days respondents remained enrolled in the study, the number of interviews they completed, and the odds that they were late completing interviews. In addition, we found that changes in pregnancy-related behaviors reported in the weekly interviews were associated with late completion of interviews. Specifically, after controlling for sociodemographic, personality, contact information, and prior experience variables, we found that weekly reports such as starting to have sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32, P=.01), getting a new partner (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.53-2.03, P<.001), stopping the use of contraception (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49, P=.001), and having a new pregnancy (OR 5.57, 95% CI 4.26-7.29, P<.001) were significantly associated with late survey completion. However, young women who reported changes in

  8. Investigating local controls on soil moisture temporal stability using an inverse modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogena, Heye; Qu, Wei; Huisman, Sander; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    A better understanding of the temporal stability of soil moisture and its relation to local and nonlocal controls is a major challenge in modern hydrology. Both local controls, such as soil and vegetation properties, and non-local controls, such as topography and climate variability, affect soil moisture dynamics. Wireless sensor networks are becoming more readily available, which opens up opportunities to investigate spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture with unprecedented resolution. In this study, we employed the wireless sensor network SoilNet developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich to investigate soil moisture variability of a grassland headwater catchment in Western Germany within the framework of the TERENO initiative. In particular, we investigated the effect of soil hydraulic parameters on the temporal stability of soil moisture. For this, the HYDRUS-1D code coupled with a global optimizer (DREAM) was used to inversely estimate Mualem-van Genuchten parameters from soil moisture observations at three depths under natural (transient) boundary conditions for 83 locations in the headwater catchment. On the basis of the optimized parameter sets, we then evaluated to which extent the variability in soil hydraulic conductivity, pore size distribution, air entry suction and soil depth between these 83 locations controlled the temporal stability of soil moisture, which was independently determined from the observed soil moisture data. It was found that the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was the most significant attribute to explain temporal stability of soil moisture as expressed by the mean relative difference (MRD).

  9. Controlling surface plasmons and local field by two-dimensional arrays of metallic nano-bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iu, Hei; Ong, Daniel H. C.; Wan, Jones T. K.; Li, Jia

    2008-03-01

    In recent years, studies of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have been intensive. It is of great interest to control SPPs with great precision and flexibility. In this talk, we present our recent work on SPPs manipulation by using two-dimensional arrays of bottle-shaped, metallic cavities. We propose that by tuning the geometry of such ``nano-bottle'' contained in a two-dimensional nano-scale array it is possible to control the resonance frequencies and near field patterns of different SPP modes. The dispersion relations are not sensitive to the sizes and depths of the nano-bottles, but depends strongly on the polarization In particular, by using different polarizations, it is observed that different types of SPPs, either propagating or localized, can be excited independently. Moreover, we attempt to control the local field by closing up the aperture of the nano-bottle. We have found that the local field slowly moves up from the bottom to the neck of bottle by increasing its depth. In addition, the field intensity can be fine-tuned by controlling the topology of the bottleneck, for example, a smaller and thinner neck leads to stronger field intensity. As a result, we believe these nano-bottle arrays are good candidates for making high sensitivity chemical and biological sensors.

  10. Epileptogenic zone localization and seizure control in coupled neural mass models.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen; Zhou, Weidong; Zhang, Yanli; Geng, Shujuan

    2015-12-01

    Exact localization of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is the first priority for ensuring epilepsy treatments and reducing side effects. The results of traditional visual methods for localizing the origin of seizures are far from satisfactory in some cases. Signal processing methods could extract substantial information that may complement visual inspection of EEG signals. In this study, EZ localization is changed into a driver identification problem, and a nonlinear interdependence measure, the weighted rank interdependence, is proposed and used as a driver indicator because it can detect coupling information, especially directionality, from EEG signals. A proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is then explored, using simulations, to establish its suitability for seizure control. The seizure control we propose rests on identifying the EZ using nonlinear interdependence measures of directed functional connectivity. Two directionally coupled neural mass models are employed for simulation investigation. Two parameters can adjust the sensitivity and completeness of the weighted rank interdependence for different applications, and their effect is discussed in the context of neural mass models. Simulation results demonstrate that use of the weighted rank interdependence for EZ identification can be applied to different EZ types, and the approach achieves an overall identification rate of 98.84 % for several EZ types. Simulations also indicate that PID control can effectively regulate synchronization between neural masses. PMID:26585963

  11. Enhancement of local piezoresponse in polymer ferroelectrics via nanoscale control of microstructure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Sharma, Pankaj; Phatak, Charudatta; Gosztola, David J; Liu, Yunya; Lee, Joonseok; Lee, Byeongdu; Li, Jiangyu; Gruverman, Alexei; Ducharme, Stephen; Hong, Seungbum

    2015-02-24

    Polymer ferroelectrics are flexible and lightweight electromechanical materials that are widely studied due to their potential application as sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. However, one of the biggest challenges is their low piezoelectric coefficient. Here, we report a mechanical annealing effect based on local pressure induced by a nanoscale tip that enhances the local piezoresponse. This process can control the nanoscale material properties over a microscale area at room temperature. We attribute this improvement to the formation and growth of β-phase extended chain crystals via sliding diffusion and crystal alignment along the scan axis under high mechanical stress. We believe that this technique can be useful for local enhancement of piezoresponse in ferroelectric polymer thin films.

  12. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating.

    PubMed

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J; Rotello, Vincent M; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these 'hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient 'top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid 'bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication. PMID:26961708

  13. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S.; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O.; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these ‘hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient ‘top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid ‘bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication. PMID:26961708

  14. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-12-01

    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  15. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Sills, Erin O.; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A. Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts’ selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal “blacklist” that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on

  16. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  17. Estimating the Impacts of Local Policy Innovation: The Synthetic Control Method Applied to Tropical Deforestation.

    PubMed

    Sills, Erin O; Herrera, Diego; Kirkpatrick, A Justin; Brandão, Amintas; Dickson, Rebecca; Hall, Simon; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Shoch, David; Vedoveto, Mariana; Young, Luisa; Pfaff, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-experimental methods increasingly are used to evaluate the impacts of conservation interventions by generating credible estimates of counterfactual baselines. These methods generally require large samples for statistical comparisons, presenting a challenge for evaluating innovative policies implemented within a few pioneering jurisdictions. Single jurisdictions often are studied using comparative methods, which rely on analysts' selection of best case comparisons. The synthetic control method (SCM) offers one systematic and transparent way to select cases for comparison, from a sizeable pool, by focusing upon similarity in outcomes before the intervention. We explain SCM, then apply it to one local initiative to limit deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. The municipality of Paragominas launched a multi-pronged local initiative in 2008 to maintain low deforestation while restoring economic production. This was a response to having been placed, due to high deforestation, on a federal "blacklist" that increased enforcement of forest regulations and restricted access to credit and output markets. The local initiative included mapping and monitoring of rural land plus promotion of economic alternatives compatible with low deforestation. The key motivation for the program may have been to reduce the costs of blacklisting. However its stated purpose was to limit deforestation, and thus we apply SCM to estimate what deforestation would have been in a (counterfactual) scenario of no local initiative. We obtain a plausible estimate, in that deforestation patterns before the intervention were similar in Paragominas and the synthetic control, which suggests that after several years, the initiative did lower deforestation (significantly below the synthetic control in 2012). This demonstrates that SCM can yield helpful land-use counterfactuals for single units, with opportunities to integrate local and expert knowledge and to test innovations and permutations on policies

  18. 'A potential fifth column': conflicts and struggles for control in the context of local NHS privatization.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Rachel

    2009-09-01

    This article uses case study data to discuss how a new procurement policy (Local Improvement Finance Trust, or LIFT) in English primary care may affect general practitioners' control over their work. LIFT, a series of 51 public-private partnerships, will enable over the medium term a shift towards the corporate ownership of surgeries and the creation of polyclinics or 'onestop-shops'. In this article, I explore the struggles over work autonomy and control within these new LIFT structures, as expressed by clinicians and managers in meetings and in research interviews. More generally, I consider how the findings inform debates over the changing position of professionals within increasingly financialized 'local health economies'. PMID:19696135

  19. Preparation of subradiant states using local qubit control in circuit QED

    SciTech Connect

    Filipp, S.; Loo, A. F. van; Baur, M.; Steffen, L.; Wallraff, A.

    2011-12-15

    Transitions between quantum states by photon absorption or emission are intimately related to the symmetries of the system which lead to selection rules and the formation of dark states. In a circuit quantum electrodynamics setup, in which two resonant superconducting qubits are coupled through an on-chip cavity and driven via the common cavity field, one single-excitation state remains dark. Here, we demonstrate that this dark state can be excited using local phase control of individual qubit drives to change the symmetry of the excitation field. We observe that the dark state decay via spontaneous emission into the cavity is suppressed, a characteristic signature of subradiance. This local control technique could be used to prepare and study highly correlated quantum states of cavity-coupled qubits.

  20. Attenuating microwave radiation by absorption through controlled nanoparticle localization in PC/PVDF blends.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Kar, Goutam Prasanna; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2015-11-01

    Nanoscale ordering in a polymer blend structure is indispensable to obtain materials with tailored properties. It was established here that controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles, with different characteristics, in co-continuous PC/PVDF (polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluoride)) blends can result in outstanding microwave absorption (ca. 90%). An excellent reflection loss (RL) of ca. -71 dB was obtained for a model blend structure wherein the conducting (multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs) and the magnetic inclusions (Fe3O4) are localized in PVDF and the dielectric inclusion (barium titanate, BT) is in PC. The MWNTs were modified using polyaniline, which facilitates better charge transport in the blends. Furthermore, by introducing surface active groups on BT nanoparticles and changing the macroscopic processing conditions, the localization of BT nanoparticles can be tailored, otherwise BT nanoparticles would localize in the preferred phase (PVDF). In this study, we have shown that by ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, the incoming EM radiation can be attenuated. For instance, when PANI-MWNTs were localized in PVDF, the shielding was mainly through reflection. Now by localizing the conducting inclusion and the magnetic lossy materials in PVDF and the dielectric materials in PC, an outstanding shielding effectiveness of ca. -37 dB was achieved where shielding was mainly through absorption (ca. 90%). Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that lightweight microwave absorbers can be designed using polymer blends as a tool. PMID:26431367

  1. folded gastrulation, cell shape change and the control of myosin localization.

    PubMed

    Dawes-Hoang, Rachel E; Parmar, Kush M; Christiansen, Audrey E; Phelps, Chris B; Brand, Andrea H; Wieschaus, Eric F

    2005-09-01

    The global cell movements that shape an embryo are driven by intricate changes to the cytoarchitecture of individual cells. In a developing embryo, these changes are controlled by patterning genes that confer cell identity. However, little is known about how patterning genes influence cytoarchitecture to drive changes in cell shape. In this paper, we analyze the function of the folded gastrulation gene (fog), a known target of the patterning gene twist. Our analysis of fog function therefore illuminates a molecular pathway spanning all the way from patterning gene to physical change in cell shape. We show that secretion of Fog protein is apically polarized, making this the earliest polarized component of a pathway that ultimately drives myosin to the apical side of the cell. We demonstrate that fog is both necessary and sufficient to drive apical myosin localization through a mechanism involving activation of myosin contractility with actin. We determine that this contractility driven form of localization involves RhoGEF2 and the downstream effector Rho kinase. This distinguishes apical myosin localization from basal myosin localization, which we find not to require actinomyosin contractility or FOG/RhoGEF2/Rho-kinase signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that once localized apically, myosin continues to contract. The force generated by continued myosin contraction is translated into a flattening and constriction of the cell surface through a tethering of the actinomyosin cytoskeleton to the apical adherens junctions. Our analysis of fog function therefore provides a direct link from patterning to cell shape change. PMID:16123312

  2. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  3. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  4. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  5. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  6. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  7. 78 FR 33113 - Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan Program Years 2012-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan... Administration's (USDOL/ ETA) 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan for 2012-2017. Under Section 171 of... a strategic plan for pilots, demonstrations, and research over the next 5 years in areas related...

  8. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised.

  9. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions.

  10. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised. PMID:27489968

  11. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions. PMID:24952286

  12. Controllable local modification of fractured Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, T. Y.; Santos, T. S.; Bode, M.; Guisinger, N. P.; Freeland, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale surface modification of a fractured Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} surface is demonstrated in a controlled way by scanning tunneling microscopy. By applying positive voltage pulses, holes can be created and the width and depth of the hole can be controlled by selecting the appropriate bias and pulse duration. The process shows a threshold condition for creation of the holes and change in the local electronic density of state consistent with exposure of the underlying TiO{sub 2} layer by removal of SrO. By applying negative bias, the hole can be partially refilled from the transfer of adsorbates on the tip.

  13. Fundamental Study on Localized Heating in Hyperthermia Using Phase Control of Long-wavelength Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi; Kawai, Shigeaki; Mitani, Tomohiko; Shinohara, Naoki; Namiki, Hironori

    For the treatment of cancer using hyperthermia, high frequency electromagnetic fields are used to heat the cancer cells. These electromagnetic fields fall into two general frequency ranges, one relatively low, and the other in the microwave range. Both produce some side effects such as the heating of healthy cells or the impact on the body of invasive surgery required to expose deep-lying cells. To reduce these side reactions, the use of lower microwave frequencies with phase control was proposed. In this paper, we present a very basic study to prove the viability of the proposed scheme. This includes the selection of a suitable frequency, demonstration of localized heating using the selected frequency, and a three-dimensional numerical analysis of the electromagnetic fields involved. In the heating demonstration, a tissue-equivalent phantom made from agar was irradiated by phase-controlled electromagnetic waves from a pair of circular patch antennas operating at 430MHz. This produced localized heating. The numerical analysis produced a field distribution that corresponded closely to the results from the heating experiment. It confirmed that the phase control technique for long-wavelength microwaves was effective in producing localized heating.

  14. Equatorial Annual Oscillation with QBO-driven 5-year Modulation in NCEP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the zonal wind and temperature variations supplied by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which have been assimilated in the Reanalysis and the Climate Prediction Center (CCP) data sets. The derived zonal-mean variations are employed. Stimulated by modeling studies, the data are separated into the hemispherically symmetric and anti-symmetric components, and spectral analysis is applied to study the annual 12-month oscillation and Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). For data samples that cover as much as 40 years, the results reveal a pronounced 5-year modulation of the symmetric AO in the lower stratosphere, which is confined to equatorial latitudes. This modulation is also inferred for the temperature variations but extends to high latitudes, qualitatively consistent with published model results. A comparison between different data samples indicates that the signature of the 5-year oscillation is larger when the QBO of 30 months is more pronounced. Thus there is circumstantial evidence that this periodicity of the QBO is involved in generating the oscillation. The spectral analysis shows that there is a weak anti-symmetric 5-year oscillation in the zonal winds, which could interact with the large antisymmetric A0 to produce the modulation of the symmetric AO as was shown in earlier modeling studies. According to these studies, the 30-month QBO tends to be synchronized by the equatorial Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO), and this would explain why the inferred 5-year modulation is observed to persist and is phase locked over several cycles.

  15. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in a 5-year-old boy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Sabnis, Rajesh; Bhuta, Bansari A; Yadav, Archana

    2015-03-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), formerly known as calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a rare developmental neoplasm/cyst of odontogenic epithelial origin with considerable histopathologic diversity and variable clinical behaviour. The occurrence of CCOT in the first decade of life is very uncommon. We report an interestingly rare variant of CCOT with ameloblastomatous proliferation affecting the mandibular left posterior region associated with an impacted permanent tooth in a 5-year-old boy.

  16. King 2 2519 ATM residual gyros: Reestablishing 5 year life requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayal, B.; Carbocci, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The technical expertise required to assess the condition of the residual ATM 2519 Singer gyros is discussed. Past build history records, past performance characteristics, and recommendations for particular tests (which were performed by NASA personnel) are summarized. Test results are analyzed. A study of motor performance data and recommendations concerning gyro spin bearing life was performed. A method of reestablishing potential reliability of the bearing for the 5-year life requirement of the power module is also included.

  17. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  18. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  19. A 5-year Journey with Cutis Laxa in an Indian Child: The De Barsy Syndrome Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Roy, Sutirtha

    2016-01-01

    De Barsy syndrome (DBS), synonymously known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III, is an extremely rare condition clinically characterized by cutis laxa, a progeroid appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. We present here an account of 5-year follow-up since the birth of an Indian boy with DBS, who had a few rare and unusual manifestations. In addition, our case probably represents the first reported case of DBS from India. PMID:26955101

  20. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  1. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Rebecca J.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS: We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, and television viewing. RESULTS: Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10–1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children. PMID:23918897

  2. Preventive education and birth order as co-determinants of IQ in disadvantaged 5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Boat, B W; Campbell, F A; Ramey, C T

    1986-01-01

    The effects of preventive education and birth order on IQ scores of 95 economically disadvantaged children at risk for retarded intellectual development were studied. Experimental first- and later-born children participated from birth in a 5-year programme of systematic educational intervention. An equal number of children served as controls and received no systematic intervention. First-borns prevailed as the brighter children in both the educational treatment group and the control group when Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) full scale and verbal IQ scores were compared. Furthermore, mothers of first-borns (70% of whom were only-born at age 5) achieved significantly higher WAIS scores than did mothers of later-born children. Results suggest that later-born disadvantaged children are at greatest risk for developmental retardation. PMID:3955795

  3. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively.

  4. Soil microbial properties after 5 years of consecutive amendment with composted tannery sludge.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima; Oliveira, Mara Lucia Jacinto; Santos, Vilma Maria; Nunes, Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; Melo, Wanderley José

    2015-01-01

    Composting has been recognised an alternative method to tannery sludge recycling and afterwards to be used in agriculture. As the tannery sludge contains salts and chromium, the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) should be performed carefully to minimise negative effects on soil microbial properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on soil microbial biomass (SMB) and enzyme activities in a tropical soil. CTS was applied during 5 years at 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha(-1), and at the fifth year, the microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), basal and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), metabolic quotient (qCO₂) and dehydrogenase (DHA) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were determined in the soil samples. Soil MBC and MBN showed the highest values with the amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. Soil respiration increased with the increase in CTS rates, while SIR showed the highest values with the amendment of 0, 2.5 and 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. DHA activity showed the highest values with the amendment up to 2.5 Mg ha(-1), while FDA hydrolysis increased up to the rate of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. The results show that after 5 years of permanent amendment of CTS, soils amended with 2.5 Mg ha(-1) have SMB and enzymatic activities similar to those in unamended soil.

  5. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  6. The Treatment of Parasomnias with Hypnosis: a 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Peter J.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study involves a replication and extension of a previous one reported by Hurwitz et al (1991) on the treatment of certain parasomnias with hypnosis. Methods: Thirty-six patients (17 females), mean age 32.7 years (range 6–71). Four were children aged 6 to 16. All had chronic, “functionally autonomous” (self-sustaining) parasomnias. All underwent 1 or 2 hypnotherapy sessions and were then followed by questionnaire for 5 years. Results: Of the 36 patients, 45.4% were symptom-free or at least much improved at the 1-month follow-up, 42.2% at the 18-month follow-up, and 40.5% at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusions: One or 2 sessions of hypnotherapy might be an efficient first-line therapy for patients with certain types of parasomnias. Citation: Hauri PJ; Silber MH; Boeve BF. The treatment of parasomnias with hypnosis: a 5-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):369-373. PMID:17694725

  7. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 5 Years of Age--Uganda, 2009.

    PubMed

    Menon, Manoj P; Yoon, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dL, is a global public health problem. According to the 2006 Demographic Health Survey, the prevalence of anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda.

  8. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  9. Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Traumatic Endophthalmitis over a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nicoară, Simona Delia; Călinici, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcome and identify the prognostic factors of traumatic endophthalmitis over a 5-year period. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all the traumatic endophthalmities that we treated in our department over the last 5 years (2009–2013). We extracted the following parameters: age, gender, wound anatomy, associated ocular lesions, treatment, and initial and final visual acuities. We used the program SPSS version 20.0.0. for the statistical analysis of our data. Results. During the last 5 years, we treated 14 traumatic endophthalmities, representing 46.66% of all types of endophthalmities. The infection rate in open globe injuries was 8.13% and 34.78%, if an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) was associated. All the patients were males with the median age of 37 years. Initial visual acuities varied between light perception and 0.4 and the timing of treatment from a few hours to 10 days. We administered antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, systemically and intravitreally, in all cases. We performed pars plana vitrectomy in 64.28% of cases. In 57.14% of cases, the final visual acuity was 0.1 or more. Conclusions. IOFBs increased significantly the risk for endophthalmitis. The worse prognostic factors were retinal detachment at presentation and delayed treatment. This trial is registered with IRCT2014082918966N1. PMID:25302113

  10. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  11. Sports activities 5 years after total knee or hip arthroplasty: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Huch, K; Muller, K; Sturmer, T; Brenner, H; Puhl, W; Gunther, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse sports activities of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) over lifetime, preoperatively, and 5 years after arthroplasty. Methods: In a longitudinal four centre study, 809 consecutive patients with advanced OA of the hip (420) or the knee (389) joint under the age of 76 years who required total joint replacement were recruited. A completed questionnaire about sports activities at 5 year follow up was received from 636 (79%) of the 809 patients. Results: Although most patients with hip (97%) and knee (94%) OA had performed sports activities during their life, only 36% (hip patients) and 42% (knee patients) had maintained sports activities at the time of surgery. Five years postoperatively, the proportion of patients performing sports activities increased to 52% among patients with hip OA, but further declined to 34% among those with knee OA. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with hip OA performing sports activities for more than 2 hours a week increased from 8 to 14%, whereas this proportion decreased from 12 to 5% among patients with knee OA. Pain in the replaced joint was reported by 9% of patients with hip and by >16% with knee OA. Conclusion: Differences in pain 5 years after joint replacement may explain some of the difference of sports activities between patients with hip and knee OA. Reasons for reduction of sports activities may include the increasing age of the patients, their worries about an "artificial joint", and the advice of their surgeon to be cautious. PMID:15843453

  12. Bone balance within a cortical BMU: local controls of bone resorption and formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Dunstan, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining bone volume during bone turnover by a BMU is known as bone balance. Balance is required to maintain structural integrity of the bone and is often dysregulated in disease. Consequently, understanding how a BMU controls bone balance is of considerable interest. This paper develops a methodology for identifying potential balance controls within a single cortical BMU. The theoretical framework developed offers the possibility of a directed search for biological processes compatible with the constraints of balance control. We first derive general control constraint equations and then introduce constitutive equations to identify potential control processes that link key variables that describe the state of the BMU. The paper describes specific local bone volume balance controls that may be associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Because bone resorption and formation both involve averaging over time, short-term fluctuations in the environment are removed, leaving the control systems to manage deviations in longer-term trends back towards their desired values. The length of time for averaging is much greater for bone formation than for bone resorption, which enables more filtering of variability in the bone formation environment. Remarkably, the duration for averaging of bone formation may also grow to control deviations in long-term trends of bone formation. Providing there is sufficient bone formation capacity by osteoblasts, this leads to an extraordinarily robust control mechanism that is independent of either osteoblast number or the cellular osteoid formation rate. A complex picture begins to emerge for the control of bone volume. Different control relationships may achieve the same objective, and the 'integration of information' occurring within a BMU may be interpreted as different sets of BMU control systems coming to the fore as different information is supplied to the BMU, which in turn leads to different observable BMU behaviors.

  13. Retrospective Analysis of Local Control and Cosmetic Outcome of 147 Periorificial Carcinomas of the Face Treated With Low-Dose Rate Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ducassou, Anne; David, Isabelle; Filleron, Thomas; Rives, Michel; Bonnet, Jacques; Delannes, Martine

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in white populations. We evaluated the local cure rate and cosmetic outcome of patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the face treated with low-dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between February 1990 and May 2000, 147 facial carcinomas in 132 patients were treated by {sup 192}Ir wire implantation. Side effects of brachytherapy were noted. Follow-up was 2 years or more. Locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and overall survival were recorded. Group A included patients treated by primary brachytherapy, and Group B included those treated after recurrence. Results: A total of 121 carcinomas were BCCs (82.3%) and 26 were SCCs (17.7%); the median tumor size was 10 mm. Of the tumors, 86 (58.5%) were in men and 61 (41.5%) were in women; the median age was 71 years. Group A comprised 116 lesions (78.9%), and Group B, 31 (21.1%). There were 17 relapses (11.6%) after a median follow-up of 72 months: 12 local, 4 nodal, and 1 local and nodal. Locoregional-free survival was 96.6% at 2 years and 87.3% at 5 years. Five-year LRFS was 82.6% in men and 93.3% in women (p = 0.027). After adjustment for gender, LRFS was better after primary treatment than after recurrence (hasard ratio HR, 2.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-8.03; p = 0.039). Five-year LRFS was 90.4% for BCC and 70.8% for SCC (p = 0.03). There were no Grade 3 complications. Conclusions: Low-dose rate brachytherapy offers good local control and cosmetic outcome in patients with periorificial skin carcinomas, with no Grade 3 complications. Brchytherapy is more efficient when used as primary treatment.

  14. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  15. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Relation between Executive Function and Theory of Mind at 3, 4, and 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Marcovitch, Stuart; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Weaver, Jennifer M.; Levine, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study contributes to the growing literature on the predictive nature of the relation between executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM). A latent variable model was fit to the data acquired from 226 socioeconomically and racially diverse children (52% female) at 3, 4, and 5 years of age on a number of age-appropriate tasks designed to assess EF and ToM. After controlling for sex, income-to-needs, and receptive language ability, there was substantial stability within each construct as children aged. In addition, EF at 3 years predicted ToM at 4 years but ToM did not predict EF, replicating earlier results. This pattern also appeared from 4 to 5 years of age, suggesting that the developmental precedence of EF persists later in development. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of contemporary cognitive development theories, as well as the relation between EF and social reasoning in general. PMID:25642021

  16. [Coronary heart diseases and associated risk factors in newly manifested type II diabetic patients over the course of 5 years].

    PubMed

    Schmechel, H; Schulze, J; Hanefeld, M; Lippold, C; Schwanebeck, U; Rössger, G; Haller, H

    1989-03-15

    Using the baseline data of the diabetes intervention study (DIS) from 1126 newly manifested type II-diabetics our analysis demonstrates higher mean-values of some components of the so-called metabolic syndrome in patients with ECG-abnormalities indicating coronary heart disease (CHD) in diagnosis of diabetes compared with subjects without ECG-findings. The impact of general risk factors for the prevalence of CHD in diagnosis and after a 5-year follow-up is obviously different in both sexes. In multivariate analysis only systolic blood pressure was persistently a significant predictor in both sex groups. With increasing age life-duration gets as time-related factor importance for the development of CHD. The mathematically demonstrated association of triglyceride levels to the presence of ECG-abnormalities agrees with the results of WHO multinational study of vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. In the interventions as well as in the control-groups diabetic subjects with CHD after 5 year follow-up showed in comparison to diabetics without CHD higher levels of investigated risk factors which develop their pathogenetic effect probably by their clustering impact, because the differences of their mean-values are only in some cases significant. The common lower level of the most risk factors at the intervention group compared with the conventionally treated group is the result of the intervention measures. PMID:2728558

  17. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16464703

  18. Medium-term outcomes and complications after total replacement of the temporomandibular joint. Prospective outcome analysis after 3 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E A; McCullough, J; Sidebottom, A J

    2015-05-01

    In this prospective analysis, we assess the medium-term benefits, efficacy, and safety of the TMJ Concepts joint replacement system in the United Kingdom. Outcome measures of pain, maximum mouth opening, and diet were recorded preoperatively and at intervals up to 3 and 5 years. All patients who had replacement temporomandibular joints (TMJ) within a 6-year period were included. A total of 58 patients (84 joints) were followed up for 3 years (mean age 47, range 19-72) and 26 (42 joints) for 5 years (mean age 46, range 27-70). The female to male ratio was 52:6 at 3 years and 23:3 at 5 years. The most common diagnosis was degenerative disease, and the mean number of previous TMJ procedures was 2.4 (range 0-14). There were significant improvements in pain scores (7.4 reduced to 0.6 at 3 years and 0.8 at 5 years), maximum mouth opening (21.0-35.5mm at 3 years and 23.8-33.7mm at 5 years), and dietary scores (4.1-9.7 at 3 years and 3.7-9.6 at 5 years). Revision operations were required in 2 patients (not included in the outcome data) for biofilm infection of the prosthesis secondary to local infection in the head and neck. One patient had weakness of the temporal branch of the facial nerve that needed correction. TMJ replacement is an effective form of management for an irreparably damaged joint, particularly in cases of ankylosis. It lessens pain and improves function with minimal long-term morbidity. PMID:25818493

  19. External Beam Radiation Therapy Enhances Local Control in Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

    SciTech Connect

    Horoschak, Melissa; Tran, Phuoc T. Bachireddy, Pavan; West, Robert B.; Mohler, David; Beaulieu, Christopher F.; Kapp, Daniel S.; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder of the synovium with locally aggressive behavior. We reviewed our experience using radiation therapy in the treatment of PVNS. Materials and Methods: Seventeen patients with 18 sites of PVNS were treated with radiation between 1993 and 2007. Cases were retrospectively reviewed for patient information, treatment parameters, complications, and outcome. Seven sites were primary presentations and 11 were recurrent with an average of 2.5 prior surgical interventions. The most common location was the knee joint (67%). Cytoreductive surgery was performed before radiation therapy in 16/18 sites with all having proven or suspected residual disease. Radiation was delivered using 4-15 MV photons with an average total dose 34 Gy (range, 20-36 Gy). Seventeen of 18 sites (94%) had postradiotherapy imaging. Results: With average follow-up of 46 months (range, 8-181 months), initial local control was achieved in 75% (12/16) of the sites with prior cytoreductive surgery (mean time to recurrence, 38 months). Ultimate local control was 100% after repeat resection (mean follow-up, 61 months). Two additional sites without prior cytoreductive surgery showed growth after radiotherapy (mean time to documented growth, 10.5 months). Seventeen of the 18 involved joints (94%) were scored as excellent or good PVNS-related function, one site (5%) as fair function, and no site with poor function. No patient required amputation; and there were no Grade 3/4 treatment-related complications. Conclusion: Postoperative external beam radiation is effective in preventing disease recurrence and should be offered following maximal cytoreduction to enhance local control in PVNS.

  20. The design schemes of graphic user interface database and intelligent local controller in the SRRC control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. J.; Chen, Jenny; Chen, J. S.; Jan, G. J.

    1994-12-01

    The control system of the SRRC has been utilized to facilitate commisioning since the beginning, and it provides operators an easy to use environment. Hence, we would like to discuss the design schemes and relationships between the user's interface, the database and the ILC (Intelligent Local Controller) levels. The whole control system in SRRC is a two-level design connected by Ethernet. From operator's view, the upper level is the CONSOLE level and the lower one is the ILC level. Those signals from, or to, equipment are connected to ILCs through analog/digital interfaces, GPIB buses, RS232 serial links, etc.; the ILC is an IEEE 1014 bus (VMEbus) based system running PSOS + real-time multi-tasking kernel and PNA + (TCP/IP protocols) communication software. The control software of CONSOLE level is developed in the VMS operating system on DEC workstations, and The Graphic User Interfaces are built on the X-Window/Motif environment. The control system has fulfilled the expectations of the facility commissioning group. It has also proved to be a simple, stable, accurate, easily maintained system.

  1. An evaluation of a local exhaust ventilation control system for a foundry casting-cleaning operation.

    PubMed

    Gressel, M G

    1997-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a local exhaust ventilation system for a foundry casting-cleaning operation in which a worker cleaned gray iron castings using a variety of handheld chipping and grinding tools. The operation originally had an exhaust system consisting only of an exhaust duct terminating approximately 1 m (3 ft) above the floor and 2 m (6 ft) from the casting-cleaning workstation. An earlier evaluation of this original control system found time-weighted average exposures to respirable silica ranging from 124 to 160 micrograms/m3. The local exhaust ventilation system evaluated in this present study consisted of a downdraft booth outfitted with a turntable for manipulating the castings. The modified local exhaust ventilation system was installed at this facility and connected to the existing plant exhaust ventilation system through the original ductwork. A direct-reading instrument was used to measure the operator's respirable aerosol exposure concentrations during a single day both before and after the installation of the new workstation. The same worker was sampled both times. The operator's activities were recorded on videotape so that the exposures associated with the various tools could be determined. While day-to-day variability could not be accounted for, depending on the type of tool used the local exhaust ventilation system reduced exposures by 59 to 79% during casting cleaning by the sampled worker when compared with the original configuration. These reductions were statistically significant. PMID:9134666

  2. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Li, Shuyuan

    2016-01-01

    Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD) to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost. PMID:27258272

  3. Blind RSSD-Based Indoor Localization with Confidence Calibration and Energy Control.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tengyue; Lin, Shouying; Li, Shuyuan

    2016-01-01

    Indoor localization based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an important field of research with numerous applications, such as elderly care, miner security, and smart buildings. In this paper, we present a localization method based on the received signal strength difference (RSSD) to determine a target on a map with unknown transmission information. To increase the accuracy of localization, we propose a confidence value for each anchor node to indicate its credibility for participating in the estimation. An automatic calibration device is designed to help acquire the values. The acceleration sensor and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are also introduced to reduce the influence of measuring noise in the application. Energy control is another key point in WSN systems and may prolong the lifetime of the system. Thus, a quadtree structure is constructed to describe the region correlation between neighboring areas, and the unnecessary anchor nodes can be detected and set to sleep to save energy. The localization system is implemented on real-time Texas Instruments CC2430 and CC2431 embedded platforms, and the experimental results indicate that these mechanisms achieve a high accuracy and low energy cost. PMID:27258272

  4. Concurrent delivery of dexamethasone and VEGF for localized inflammation control and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Siddhesh D; Papadmitrakopoulos, Fotios; Burgess, Diane J

    2007-01-22

    Localized elution of corticosteroids has been used in suppressing inflammation and fibrosis associated with implantation and continuous in vivo residence of bio-medical devices. However, these agents also inhibit endogenous growth factors preventing angiogenesis at the local tissue, interface thereby delaying the healing process and negatively impacting device performance. In this work, a combination of dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was investigated for concurrent localized delivery using PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites. Pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated by histopathological examination of subcutaneous tissue surrounding implanted composites using a rat model. The hydrogel composites were capable of simultaneously releasing VEGF and dexamethasone with approximately zero order kinetics. Composites were successful in controlling the implant/tissue interface by suppressing inflammation and fibrosis as well as facilitating neo-angiogenesis at a fraction of their typical oral or i.v. bolus doses. Implants containing VEGF showed a significantly higher number of mature blood vessels at the end of the 4 week study irrespective of the presence of dexamethasone. Thus, localized concurrent elution of VEGF and dexamethasone can overcome the anti-angiogenic effects of the corticosteroid and can be used to engineer inflammation-free and well-vascularized tissue in the vicinity of the implant. These PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel composites show promise as coatings for implantable bio-medical devices to improve biocompatibility and ensure in vivo performance.

  5. Controlling the activation energy of graphene-like thin films through disorder induced localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Christopher; McIntosh, Ross; Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2013-07-01

    The influence of disorder on the activation energy in few layer graphitic films is demonstrated through combined Raman and temperature dependent transport studies. A laser ablation technique is employed which allows the level of disorder in the sp2-C phase to be controlled and conditions for minimizing the level of disorder are determined. As conditions vary from optimal, Raman measurements show increasing D and G bandwidths while the activation energy, negligible for optimal growth conditions, can be correlated with the level of disorder. This laser ablation technique allows the specific effects of structural disorder in the sp2 phase to be probed while defects act as effective barriers resulting in localization of charge carriers. Electron transmission spectra, calculated with a tight-binding model, account for the change of localization length as a result of disorder in the sp2 hybridized phase. This tandem experimental and theoretical approach shows that the localization length of the thin graphitic films can be tuned with the level of disorder which is controlled through synthesis parameters. This study, which addresses the role of disorder in graphene-like materials, is a prerequisite for device applications.

  6. Characterization of a polyurethane-based controlled release system for local delivery of chlorhexidine diacetate.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Truc Thanh Ngoc; Padois, Karine; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Zani, Franca; Pirot, Fabrice; Doury, Jacques; Falson, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    Conventional formulations of chlorhexidine usually provide short-term efficiency, requiring repeated applications to maintain antibacterial activity. Therefore, appropriate release system of chlorhexidine controlling local drug delivery would reduce the number of applications and enhance patient compliance. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release system based on medical polyurethane for the local delivery of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA). CDA-loaded polyurethane films (CDA-Films) and CDA-loaded polyurethane sandwiches (CDA-Sandwiches) were obtained by casting and solvent evaporation. The physico-chemical aspects of CDA-loaded polyurethane systems were investigated, and the crystalline state of CDA in the polymeric system was highlighted. CDA-Films exhibited appropriate mechanical properties for further applications. Drug release was measured in two different media: (i) distilled water and (ii) physiological saline solution to mimic in vivo conditions. Drug release studies were performed up to 11days on CDA-Films and 29days for CDA-Sandwiches. Release of CDA depended on drug loading and the structure of the system. In particular, release of CDA from the sandwich system followed zero-order kinetic. The release rate was significantly lower in physiological solution. Antibacterial studies were carried out on CDA-Films against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis showing 35days persisting antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the polyurethane-based system developed in this study is potentially useful as a local delivery system for CDA and could be used not only in surgery but also in dental and clinical applications. PMID:19909814

  7. Auxin controls local cytokinin biosynthesis in the nodal stem in apical dominance.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mina; Takei, Kentaro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Mori, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    In intact plants, the shoot apex grows predominantly and inhibits outgrowth of axillary buds. After decapitation of the shoot apex, outgrowth of axillary buds begins. This phenomenon is called an apical dominance. Although the involvement of auxin, which represses outgrowth of axillary buds, and cytokinin (CK), which promotes outgrowth of axillary buds, has been proposed, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In the present study, we demonstrated that auxin negatively regulates local CK biosynthesis in the nodal stem by controlling the expression level of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene adenosine phosphate-isopentenyltransferase (PsIPT), which encodes a key enzyme in CK biosynthesis. Before decapitation, PsIPT1 and PsIPT2 transcripts were undetectable; after decapitation, they were markedly induced in the nodal stem along with accumulation of CK. Expression of PsIPT was repressed by the application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In excised nodal stem, PsIPT expression and CK levels also increased under IAA-free conditions. Furthermore, beta-glucuronidase expression, under the control of the PsIPT2 promoter region in transgenic Arabidopsis, was repressed by an IAA. Our results indicate that in apical dominance one role of auxin is to repress local biosynthesis of CK in the nodal stem and that, after decapitation, CKs, which are thought to be derived from the roots, are locally biosynthesized in the nodal stem rather than in the roots. PMID:16507092

  8. Characterization of a polyurethane-based controlled release system for local delivery of chlorhexidine diacetate.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Truc Thanh Ngoc; Padois, Karine; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Zani, Franca; Pirot, Fabrice; Doury, Jacques; Falson, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    Conventional formulations of chlorhexidine usually provide short-term efficiency, requiring repeated applications to maintain antibacterial activity. Therefore, appropriate release system of chlorhexidine controlling local drug delivery would reduce the number of applications and enhance patient compliance. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled release system based on medical polyurethane for the local delivery of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA). CDA-loaded polyurethane films (CDA-Films) and CDA-loaded polyurethane sandwiches (CDA-Sandwiches) were obtained by casting and solvent evaporation. The physico-chemical aspects of CDA-loaded polyurethane systems were investigated, and the crystalline state of CDA in the polymeric system was highlighted. CDA-Films exhibited appropriate mechanical properties for further applications. Drug release was measured in two different media: (i) distilled water and (ii) physiological saline solution to mimic in vivo conditions. Drug release studies were performed up to 11days on CDA-Films and 29days for CDA-Sandwiches. Release of CDA depended on drug loading and the structure of the system. In particular, release of CDA from the sandwich system followed zero-order kinetic. The release rate was significantly lower in physiological solution. Antibacterial studies were carried out on CDA-Films against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis showing 35days persisting antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the polyurethane-based system developed in this study is potentially useful as a local delivery system for CDA and could be used not only in surgery but also in dental and clinical applications.

  9. A tether tension control law for tethered subsatellites deployed along local vertical. [space shuttle orbiters - satellite control/towed bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupp, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    A tethered subsatellite deployed along the local vertical is in stable equilibrium. This applies equally to subsatellites deployed in the direction towards the earth from the main spacecraft or away from the earth. Momentary perturbations from this stable equilibrium will result in a swinging motion, which decays very slowly if passive means are relied upon to provide damping. A control law is described which actively damps the swinging motion by employing a reel, or other mechanism, to apply appropriate tension as a function of tetherline length, rate of change of length, and desired length. The same control law is shown to be useful for deployment and retrieval of tethered subsatellites in addition to damping to steady state.

  10. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  11. Comment on controlling dental post-operative pain and the intraoral local delivery of drugs.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Elliot V; Moore, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    The results of numerous double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials consistently demonstrate that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs should be the first line agents in treating postsurgical dental pain. Additive and potential opioid-sparing effects have also been reported in oral surgery pain by combining an optimal dose of an NSAID with acetaminophen 500 mg. While opioid combination drugs are indicated in some dental postsurgical patients, clinicians can no longer ignore the scourge of prescription opioid abuse in the United States. Other potential opioid sparing strategies include the use of locally delivered antimicrobial/antiinflammatory agents such as Bexident Post or extended duration local anesthetic agents such as liposomal bupivacaine placed directly in or in the vicinity of the extraction socket. PMID:26471741

  12. Local Stable and Unstable Manifolds and Their Control in Nonautonomous Finite-Time Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that stable and unstable manifolds strongly influence fluid motion in unsteady flows. These emanate from hyperbolic trajectories, with the structures moving nonautonomously in time. The local directions of emanation at each instance in time is the focus of this article. Within a nearly autonomous setting, it is shown that these time-varying directions can be characterised through the accumulated effect of velocity shear. Connections to Oseledets spaces and projection operators in exponential dichotomies are established. Availability of data for both infinite- and finite-time intervals is considered. With microfluidic flow control in mind, a methodology for manipulating these directions in any prescribed time-varying fashion by applying a local velocity shear is developed. The results are verified for both smoothly and discontinuously time-varying directions using finite-time Lyapunov exponent fields, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  13. SIMULATING LOCAL DENSE AREAS USING PMMA TO ASSESS AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROL IN DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, R W; Binst, J; Dance, D R; Young, K C; Broeders, M J M; den Heeten, G J; Veldkamp, W J H; Bosmans, H; van Engen, R E

    2016-06-01

    Current digital mammography (DM) X-ray systems are equipped with advanced automatic exposure control (AEC) systems, which determine the exposure factors depending on breast composition. In the supplement of the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, a phantom-based test is included to evaluate the AEC response to local dense areas in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study evaluates the proposed test in terms of SNR and dose for four DM systems. The glandular fraction represented by the local dense area was assessed by analytic calculations. It was found that the proposed test simulates adipose to fully glandular breast compositions in attenuation. The doses associated with the phantoms were found to match well with the patient dose distribution. In conclusion, after some small adaptations, the test is valuable for the assessment of the AEC performance in terms of both SNR and dose. PMID:26977073

  14. Excitatory Projection Neuron Subtypes Differentially Control the Distribution of Local Inhibitory Interneurons in the Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lodato, Simona; Rouaux, Caroline; Quast, Kathleen B.; Jantrachotechatchawan, Chanati; Studer, Michèle; Hensch, Takao K.; Arlotta, Paola

    2011-01-01

    In the mammalian cerebral cortex, the developmental events governing the integration of excitatory projection neurons and inhibitory interneurons into balanced local circuitry are poorly understood. We report that different subtypes of projection neurons uniquely and differentially determine the laminar distribution of cortical interneurons. We find that in Fezf2−/− cortex, the exclusive absence of subcerebral projection neurons and their replacement by callosal projection neurons cause distinctly abnormal lamination of interneurons and altered GABAergic inhibition. In addition, experimental generation of either corticofugal neurons or callosal neurons below the cortex is sufficient to recruit cortical interneurons to these ectopic locations. Strikingly, the identity of the projection neurons generated, rather than strictly their birthdate, determines the specific types of interneurons recruited. These data demonstrate that in the neocortex individual populations of projection neurons cell-extrinsically control the laminar fate of interneurons and the assembly of local inhibitory circuitry. PMID:21338885

  15. Bovine serum albumin nanoparticles as controlled release carrier for local drug delivery to the inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhan; Yu, Min; Zhang, Zhibao; Hong, Ge; Xiong, Qingqing

    2014-07-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for local drug delivery to the inner ear recently. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method followed by glutaraldehyde fixation or heat denaturation. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average diameter of 492 nm. The heat-denatured nanoparticles had good cytocompatibility. The nanoparticles could adhere on and penetrate through the round window membrane of guinea pigs. The nanoparticles were analyzed as drug carriers to investigate the loading capacity and release behaviors. Rhodamine B was used as a model drug in this paper. Rhodamine B-loaded nanoparticles showed a controlled release profile and could be deposited on the osseous spiral lamina. We considered that the bovine serum albumin nanoparticles may have potential applications in the field of local drug delivery in the treatment of inner ear disorders.

  16. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  17. Renal amyloidosis followed more than 5 years: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, H; Boubaker, K; Béji, S; Abderrahim, E; Moussa, F Ben; Turki, S; Goucha, R; Hedri, H; El Younsi, F; Kheder, A; Maiz, H Ben

    2004-01-01

    Renal involvement with amyloidosis is common but causes patient survival to be poor, rarely reaching 5 years. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and biological characteristics as well as treatments and outcomes of patients with renal amyloidosis followed for more than 5 years. Between 1975 and 2003, 485 patients were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis including only 12 patients who were followed more than 5 years. The six men and six women of mean age 42.4 years (range 18 to 66 years) displayed renal signs of lower limb edema in all cases; hypertension in four cases, proteinuria on urinalysis in all cases with microscopic hematuria in five cases. Biological tests showed nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients, normal renal function in nine patients, and renal failure in three patients whose mean creatinine was 481.6 micromol/L (range 294 to 726). The amyloidosis was AA type in 11 cases and non-AA in one case. An etiologic survey revealed spondylarthropathy in one patient, pulmonary tuberculosis in two patients, chronic bronchitis in three patients, hepatic hydatic cyst in one patient, Mediterranean familial fever in two patients, Crohn's disease in one patient, Hodgkin's lymphoma in one patient, and multiple myeloma in one patient. Specific treatment was initiated with colchicine in seven patients. At a 110-month mean follow-up (range 53 to 153 months), remission of nephrotic syndrome was observed in four cases, progression to chronic renal failure in two patients, and to end-stage renal failure in five cases (range 53 to 196 months), with stabilization of renal function in seven patients. In conclusion, primary amyloid disease should be optimally suppressed in patients with renal involvement. The role of this treatment in remission of renal amyloidosis is not well established. This efficacy of the treatment has been demonstrated in some patients with improved survival.

  18. Calcineurin activity in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients early after and 5 years after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, D M; Koefoed-Nielsen, P B; Jørgensen, K A

    2006-10-01

    The pharmacodynamic (PD) action of tacrolimus (FK) within the T-cell is inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase (CaN). Determination of CaN activity provides us with an important PD marker. Eleven renal transplant patients treated with FK were investigated on day 14 following transplantation and 5 years later. Blood samples drawn before as well as 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after oral intake of FK were analyzed for CaN activity and blood FK concentrations. Twenty healthy subjects had one blood sample drawn for CaN activity, which was measured as the release of (32)P from a phosphorylated peptide. Radioactivity of (32)P was quantitated by liquid scintillation counting with the results converted to units of CaN utilizing a calibration curve. On day 14, we observed significant inhibition of CaN activity at T:1, 2, and 3 compared with the predose level (P = .002; P = .015; P = .015). Furthermore, all measured CaN activities were significantly different from those observed in healthy nonmedicated subjects. In contrast, at 5 years posttransplant only the CaN activity at T:2 was significantly inhibited compared with the predose level (P = .02). Additionally, all CaN activities at this time were not significantly different from CaN activities in the healthy subjects. We were not able to demonstrate individual CaN activity profiles in the patients. The lack of CaN inhibition at 5 years after transplantation despite relevant drug concentrations, probably reflected the lower drug dose used long after transplantation. This result raises the question of whether CaN inhibition is necessary to hold graft function and whether FK possess CaN-independent mechanisms of action. PMID:17098028

  19. A Performance Management Initiative for Local Health Department Vector Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Gerding, Justin; Kirshy, Micaela; Moran, John W.; Bialek, Ron; Lamers, Vanessa; Sarisky, John

    2016-01-01

    Local health department (LHD) vector control programs have experienced reductions in funding and capacity. Acknowledging this situation and its potential effect on the ability to respond to vector-borne diseases, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Public Health Foundation partnered on a performance management initiative for LHD vector control programs. The initiative involved 14 programs that conducted a performance assessment using the Environmental Public Health Performance Standards. The programs, assisted by quality improvement (QI) experts, used the assessment results to prioritize improvement areas that were addressed with QI projects intended to increase effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of services such as responding to mosquito complaints and educating the public about vector-borne disease prevention. This article describes the initiative as a process LHD vector control programs may adapt to meet their performance management needs. This study also reviews aggregate performance assessment results and QI projects, which may reveal common aspects of LHD vector control program performance and priority improvement areas. LHD vector control programs interested in performance assessment and improvement may benefit from engaging in an approach similar to this performance management initiative. PMID:27429555

  20. Identifying and avoiding singularity-induced local traps over control landscapes of spin chain systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiuyang; Pelczer, István; Riviello, Gregory; Wu, Re-Bing; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-11-28

    The wide success of quantum optimal control in experiments and simulations is attributed to the properties of the control landscape, defined by the objective value as a functional of the controls. Prior analysis has shown that on satisfaction of some underlying assumptions, the landscapes are free of suboptimal traps that could halt the search for a global optimum with gradient-based algorithms. However, violation of one particular assumption can give rise to a so-called singular control, possibly bringing about local traps on the corresponding landscapes in some particular situations. This paper theoretically and experimentally demonstrates the existence of singular traps on the landscape in linear spin-1/2 chains with Ising couplings between nearest neighbors and with certain field components set to zero. The results in a two-spin example show how a trap influences the search trajectories passing by it, and how to avoid encountering such traps in practice by choosing sufficiently strong initial control fields. The findings are also discussed in the context of the generally observed success of quantum control. PMID:26478216

  1. Upbeat nystagmus in a 3.5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Matalia, Jyoti; Rajput, Vimal K; Chillal, Geetanjali J; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-02-01

    Upbeat nystagmus is usually a central vestibular nystagmus attributable to structural brainstem or cerebellar lesions. Adult-onset upbeat nystagmus calls for a thorough neurological evaluation. In children, however, it can occur as a transient phenomenon in healthy neonates or as a sensory form of nystagmus that usually transforms into horizontal nystagmus by 2 years of age. We report the case of 3.5-year-old boy with upbeat nystagmus. His ocular examination was within normal limits. Neurological evaluation was normal. Optical coherence tomography testing and Electroretinogram confirmed cone dysfunction. Over the next 6 months the upbeat nystagmus converted to horizontal nystagmus.

  2. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Savant, Hemant V.; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed. PMID:26167224

  3. Infantile fibrosarcoma of ethmoid sinus, misdiagnosed as an adenoid in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519

  4. The Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating: Design, Fabrication, Ground Calibration, and 5 Years in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, Claude R.; Davis, John E.; Dewey, Daniel; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Galton, Eugene B.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Markert, Thomas H.; Marshall, Herman L.; McGuirk, Michael; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Smith, Henry I.; Wise, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication techniques, and the results of ground testing and calibration of the HETG. For nearly 6 years the HETG has operated essentially as designed, although it has presented some subtle flight calibration effects.

  5. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-05-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

  6. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  7. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  8. Drifter-based estimate of the 5-year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2014-12-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time-scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Excellent agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  9. Drifter-based estimate of the 5 year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K.

    2014-11-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Good agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  10. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811

  11. Bilateral renal leiomyoma with 5 year follow-up: Case report.

    PubMed

    Goren, Mehmet Resit; Erbay, Gurcan; Ozer, Cevahir; Goren, Vinil; Bal, Nebil

    2015-01-01

    Renal leiomyomas are exceptionally rare benign tumours of the kidney. Although the renal leiomyomas usually do not metastasize, the differential diagnosis between renal leiomyomas and malign lesions (leiomyosarcoma or renal cell carcinoma) cannot be done by radiological examinations, but is possible by histological examination. Surgery is the preferred treatment. After surgery, the prognosis is excellent without recurrence. Although uterine leiomyomas can be multicentric, renal leiomyomas have been single lesions. We report an incidentally detected case of bilateral renal leiomyoma in a 50-year-old woman with a 5-year follow-up. We also review the literature and discuss clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:26664510

  12. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  13. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  14. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  15. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  16. The TREX1 C-terminal Region Controls Cellular Localization through Ubiquitination*

    PubMed Central

    Orebaugh, Clinton D.; Fye, Jason M.; Harvey, Scott; Hollis, Thomas; Wilkinson, John C.; Perrino, Fred W.

    2013-01-01

    TREX1 is an autonomous 3′-exonuclease that degrades DNA to prevent inappropriate immune activation. The TREX1 protein is composed of 314 amino acids; the N-terminal 242 amino acids contain the catalytic domain, and the C-terminal region (CTR) localizes TREX1 to the cytosolic compartment. In this study, we show that TREX1 modification by ubiquitination is controlled by a highly conserved sequence in the CTR to affect cellular localization. Transfection of TREX1 deletion constructs into human cells demonstrated that this sequence is required for ubiquitination at multiple lysine residues through a “non-canonical” ubiquitin linkage. A proteomic approach identified ubiquilin 1 as a TREX1 CTR-interacting protein, and this interaction was verified in vitro and in vivo. Cotransfection studies indicated that ubiquilin 1 localizes TREX1 to cytosolic punctate structures dependent upon the TREX1 CTR and lysines within the TREX1 catalytic core. Several TREX1 mutants linked to the autoimmune diseases Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus that exhibit full catalytic function were tested for altered ubiquitin modification and cellular localization. Our data show that these catalytically competent disease-causing TREX1 mutants exhibit differential levels of ubiquitination relative to WT TREX1, suggesting a novel mechanism of dysfunction. Furthermore, these differentially ubiquitinated disease-causing mutants also exhibit altered ubiquilin 1 co-localization. Thus, TREX1 post-translational modification indicates an additional mechanism by which mutations disrupt TREX1 biology, leading to human autoimmune disease. PMID:23979357

  17. Focused ultrasound treatment of VX2 tumors controlled by local harmonic motion.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Laura; Huang, Yuexi; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using localized harmonic motion (LHM) to monitor and control focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) in VX2 tumors in vivo. FUS exposures were performed on 13 VX2 tumors implanted in nine rabbits. The same transducer induced coagulation and generated a localized oscillatory motion by periodically varying the radiation force. A separate diagnostic ultrasound transducer tracked motion by cross-correlating echo signals at different instances. A threshold in motion amplitude was instituted to cease exposure. Coagulation was confirmed by T2-weighted MR images, thermal dose obtained through MR thermometry and histological examinations. For tumor locations achieving coagulation, the LHM amplitude was 9% (p = 0.04) to 57% (p < 0.0001) lower than that before exposure. Control was successful for 74 (69%) out of 108 cases, with 52 (48%) reaching the threshold and achieving coagulation and 22 (21%) never reaching threshold nor coagulating. For the 34 (31%) unsuccessful exposures, 16 (15%) never reached the threshold but coagulation occurred, and 18 (16%) reached threshold without coagulation confirmed. Noise or radio-frequency signal changes explained motion over- or underestimation in 24 (22%) cases; the remaining 10 (9%) had other causes of error. The control was generally successful, but sudden change or noise in the acquired echo signal caused failure. Coagulation after exposure could be validated by comparing amplitudes before and after exposure.

  18. Cancer mortality among local authority pest control officers in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, H F; Winter, P D; Donaldson, L J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine cancer mortality by tumour site among local authority pest control officers. METHODS: Prospective mortality study, and follow up to the end of 1994, of 1485 male pest control officers aged between 17 and 69 and employed in 296 local authorities in England and Wales for at least six months between January 1980 and April 1984. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with those expected on the basis of the rates for relevant calendar year, cause, sex, and age specific groups for England and Wales. RESULTS: 200 deaths occurred during the follow up period of which 65 were certified as due to malignant neoplasms. No tumour type showed significantly more deaths than expected. Total all cause, lung cancer, and respiratory disease mortality were significantly lower than expected. CONCLUSIONS: 15 year follow up of a group of men handling a wide range of pesticides did not show any significant risk of cancer. This may be partially explained by the healthy worker effect and also the limited power of the study to detect significant increases in the less common tumours. Further long term follow up of this cohort will continue. Chemical control of pests that can cause human disease and can contaminate food and water has been, and will continue to be, a major public health measure. It is important to ensure that the health of those applying pesticides is not at excess risk. Negative results are important. PMID:9038805

  19. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  20. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  1. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  2. Global aspirations, local realities: the role of social science research in controlling neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bardosh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are both drivers and manifestations of poverty and social inequality. Increased advocacy efforts since the mid-2000s have led to ambitious new control and elimination targets set for 2020 by the World Health Organisation. While these global aspirations represent significant policy momentum, there are multifaceted challenges in controlling infectious diseases in resource-poor local contexts that need to be acknowledged, understood and engaged. However a number of recent publications have emphasised the "neglected" status of applied social science research on NTDs. In light of the 2020 targets, this paper explores the social science/NTD literature and unpacks some of the ways in which social inquiry can help support effective and sustainable interventions. Five priority areas are discussed, including on policy processes, health systems capacity, compliance and resistance to interventions, education and behaviour change, and community participation. The paper shows that despite the multifaceted value of having anthropological and sociological perspectives integrated into NTD programmes, contemporary efforts underutilise this potential. This is reflective of the dominance of top-down information flows and technocratic approaches in global health. To counter this tendency, social research needs to be more than an afterthought; integrating social inquiry into the planning, monitoring and evaluating process will help ensure that flexibility and adaptability to local realities are built into interventions. More emphasis on social science perspectives can also help link NTD control to broader social determinants of health, especially important given the major social and economic inequalities that continue to underpin transmission in endemic countries.

  3. Variability in lateralised blood flow response to language is associated with language development in children aged 1-5 years.

    PubMed

    Kohler, M; Keage, H A D; Spooner, R; Flitton, A; Hofmann, J; Churches, O F; Elliott, S; Badcock, N A

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of language lateralisation over the preschool years is unclear. We explored the relationship between lateralisation of cerebral blood flow velocity response to object naming and cognitive performance in children aged 1-5 years. Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record blood flow velocity bilaterally from middle cerebral arteries during a naming task in 58 children (59% male). At group level, the Lateralisation Index (LI) revealed a greater relative increase in cerebral blood flow velocity within the left as compared to right middle cerebral artery. After controlling for maternal IQ, left-lateralised children displayed lower expressive language scores compared to right- and bi-lateralised children, and reduced variability in LI. Supporting this, greater variability in lateralised response, rather than mean response, was indicative of greater expressive language ability. Findings suggest that a delayed establishment of language specialisation is associated with better language ability in the preschool years.

  4. Local and synoptic controls on rapid supraglacial lake drainage in West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Andrew; Banwell, Alison; Arnold, Neil; Willis, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Many supraglacial lakes within the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) are known to drain rapidly (in <1 day) in the mid- to late melt season, delivering large meltwater pulses to the subglacial drainage system, thus affecting basal water pressures and ice-sheet dynamics. Although it is now generally recognised that rapid lake drainage is caused by hydrofracture, the precise controls on hydrofracture initiation remain poorly understood: they may be linked to a local critical water-volume threshold, or they may be associated with synoptic-scale factors, such as ice thickness, driving stresses, ice velocities and strain rates. A combination of the local water-volume threshold and one or more synoptic-scale factors may explain the overall patterns of rapid lake drainage, but this requires verification using targeted field- and remotely-based studies that cover large areas of the GrIS and span long timescales. Here, we investigate a range of potential controls on rapid supraglacial lake drainage in the land-terminating Paakitsoq region of the ice sheet, northeast of Jakobshavn Isbræ, for the 2014 melt season. We have analysed daily 250-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in order to calculate lake areas, depths and volumes, and have developed an automatic lake-tracking algorithm to determine the dates on which all rapid lake drainage events occur. For each rapidly draining lake, the water volumes immediately prior to drainage are compared with other local factors, notably lake-filling rate and ice thickness, and with a variety of synoptic-scale features, such as slope angles, driving stresses, surface velocities, surface strain rates and the incidence of nearby lake-drainage events. We present the outcomes of our statistical analysis to elicit the statistically significant controls on hydrofracture beneath supraglacial lakes.

  5. Simultaneous control of emission localization and two-photon absorption efficiency in dissymmetrical chromophores.

    PubMed

    Katan, Claudine; Charlot, Marina; Mongin, Olivier; Le Droumaguet, Céline; Jouikov, Viatcheslav; Terenziani, Francesca; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Tretiak, Sergei; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2010-03-11

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that combined spatial tuning of fluorescence and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of multipolar chromophores can be achieved by introduction of slight electronic chemical dissymmetry. In that perspective, two model series of structurally related chromophores have been designed and investigated. One is based on rod-like quadrupolar chromophores bearing either two identical or different electron-donating (D) end groups and the other on three-branched octupolar chromophores built from a trigonal donating moiety bearing identical or different acceptor (A) peripheral groups. The influence of the electronic dissymmetry is investigated by combined experimental and theoretical studies of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of dissymmetrical chromophores compared to their symmetrical counterparts. In both types of systems (i.e., quadrupoles and octupoles), experiments and theory reveal that excitation is essentially delocalized and that excitation involves synchronized charge redistribution (i.e., concerted intramolecular charge transfer) between the different D and A moieties within the multipolar structure. In contrast, the emission stems only from a particular dipolar subunit bearing the strongest D or A moiety due to fast excitation localization after excitation, prior to emission. Hence, control of emission characteristics (polarization and emission spectrum), can be achieved, in addition to localization, by controlled introduction of electronic dissymmetry (i.e., replacement of one of the D or A end-groups by a slightly stronger D' or A' unit). Interestingly, slight dissymmetrical functionalization of both quadrupolar and octupolar compounds does not lead to significant loss in TPA responses and can even be beneficial due to the spectral broadening and peak position tuning that it allows. This study thus reveals an original molecular engineering route allowing TPA enhancement in multipolar structures, due to

  6. Multichannel active noise control system for local spectral reshaping of multifrequency noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Diego, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Ferrer, M.; Piñero, G.

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the development of a multichannel active system for local spectral reshaping of multitone noise. The aim of this work is to design a real practical system that performs well in local active noise control (ANC) applications, and so improving the comfort sensation produced by enclosed sound fields. The adaptive algorithm implemented in the controller is a multichannel extension of the multifrequency adaptive equalizer developed by Kuo. The philosophy behind these equalizers lies in independently controlling some given frequencies of a primary signal. Moreover, the algorithm should manage to generate usefully sized zones of equalization in order to allow for the head motion of somebody with restricted mobility; for example, a passenger seated in a car. To verify the successful implementation of the multichannel system, experiments were carried out under listening room conditions. The developed prototype consists of an array of up to four microphones used as error sensors and two secondary sources. A 4100-type Bruel and Kjaer mannequin with two calibrated microphones at the ear canals was used to measure sound levels in a hypothetical listener's head. Different synthesized repetitive noises were used, as reference signals, specifically repetitive noise with harmonics of 15, 20, and 28 Hz, as well as an 80 Hz single tone. The equalized points include an area around the error sensor positions, and these are measured using the mannequin and an x- y moving platform. The extent to which the experimental equalization zones obtained favourable results validates the multichannel local ANC equalization system. Different error sensor positions around the listener head were also tested. The residual field inside the equalization zone was measured in all cases.

  7. Simultaneous control of emission localization and two-photon absorption efficiency in dissymmetrical chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that combined spectral tuning of fluorescence and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of multipolar chromophores can be achieved by introduction of slight electronic chemical dissymmetry. In that perspective, two novel series of structurally related chromophores have been designed and studied: a first series based on rod-like quadrupolar chromophores bearing different electron-donating (D) end groups and a second series based on three-branched octupolar chromophores built from a trigonal donating moiety and bearing various acceptor (A) peripheral groups. The influence of the electronic dissymmetry is investigated by combined experimental and theoretical studies of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of dissymmetric chromophores compared to their symmetrical counterparts. In both types of systems (i.e. quadrupoles and octupoles) experiments and theory reveal that excitation is essentially delocalized and that excitation involves synchronized charge redistribution between the different D and A moieties within the multipolar structure (i.e. concerted intramolecular charge transfer). In contrast, the emission stems only from a particular dipolar subunit bearing the strongest D or A moieties due to fast excitation localization after excitation prior to emission. Hence control of emission characteristics (polarization and emission spectrum) in addition to localization can be achieved by controlled introduction of electronic dissymmetry (i.e. replacement of one of the D or A end-groups by a slightly stronger D{prime} or A{prime} units). Interestingly dissymmetrical functionalization of both quadrupolar and octupolar compounds does not lead to significant loss in TPA responses and can even be beneficial due to the spectral broadening and peak position tuning that it allows. This study thus reveals an original molecular engineering route strategy allowing major TPA enhancement in multipolar structures due to concerted

  8. Externally controlled local magnetic field in a conducting mesoscopic ring coupled to a quantum wire

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2015-01-14

    In the present work, the possibility of regulating local magnetic field in a quantum ring is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to a quantum wire and subjected to an in-plane electric field. Under a finite bias voltage across the wire a net circulating current is established in the ring which produces a strong magnetic field at its centre. This magnetic field can be tuned externally in a wide range by regulating the in-plane electric field, and thus, our present system can be utilized to control magnetic field at a specific region. The feasibility of this quantum system in designing spin-based quantum devices is also analyzed.

  9. Control of pattern formation by time-delay feedback with global and local contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stich, Michael; Beta, Carsten

    2010-09-01

    We consider the suppression of spatiotemporal chaos in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation by a combined global and local time-delay feedback. Feedback terms are implemented as a control scheme, i.e., they are proportional to the difference between the time-delayed state of the system and its current state. We perform a linear stability analysis of uniform oscillations with respect to space-dependent perturbations and compare with numerical simulations. Similarly, for the fixed-point solution that corresponds to amplitude death in the spatially extended system, a linear stability analysis with respect to space-dependent perturbations is performed and complemented by numerical simulations.

  10. What is the effect of local controls on the temporal stability of soil water contents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, G.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Vereecken, H.; Vanderlinden, K.; Hardelauf, H.; Herbst, M.

    2012-04-01

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) reflects the spatio-temporal organization of SWC. Factors and their interactions that control this organization, are not completely understood and have not been quantified yet. It is understood that these factors should be classified into groups of local and non-local controls. This work is a first attempt to evaluate the effects of soil properties at a certain location as local controls Time series of SWC were generated by running water flow simulations with the HYDRUS6 code. Bare and grassed sandy loam, loam and clay soils were represented by sets of 100 independent soil columns. Within each set, values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were generated randomly assuming for the standard deviation of the scaling factor of ln Ks a value ranging from 0.1 to 1.0. Weather conditions were the same for all of the soil columns. SWC at depths of 0.05 and 0.60 m, and the average water content of the top 1 m were analyzed. The temporal stability was characterized by calculating the mean relative differences (MRD) of soil water content. MRD distributions from simulations, developed from the log-normal distribution of Ks, agreed well with the experimental studies found in the literature. Generally, Ks was the leading variable to define the MRD rank for a specific location. Higher MRD corresponded to the lowest values of Ks when a single textural class was considered. Higher MRD were found in the finer texture when mixtures of textural classes were considered and similar values of Ks were compared. The relationships between the spread of the MRD distributions and the scaling factor of ln Ks were nonlinear. Variation in MRD was higher in coarser textures than in finer ones and more variability was seen in the topsoil than in the subsoil. Established vegetation decreased variability of MRD in the root zone and increased variability below. The dependence of MRD on Ks opens the possibility of using SWC sensor networks to

  11. Hybrid phononic crystals for broad-band frequency noise control by sound blocking and localization.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sungmin; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Yoon Young

    2012-11-01

    A bandgap cannot be enlarged sufficiently enough to suppress a broad-band noise only with a single type of finite-length phononic crystals. Here, a hybrid phononic crystal consisting of a bi-prism and an inverted bi-prism is proposed for noise control in a broad band; a stop band is formed in a central frequency range while positive-positive and positive-negative refractions occur in lower and higher frequency ranges to concentrate acoustic energy in a central localized zone. Thereby, the remaining zone becomes little affected by the noise. Analysis and numerical simulations are given for the justification of the proposed configuration. PMID:23145703

  12. Control-Theoretic Framework for a Quasi-Newton Local Volatility Surface Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turinici, Gabriel

    2009-08-01

    We investigate in this paper the recovery of the local volatility surface in a parametric framework similar to that of Coleman, Li and Verma [1]. The quality of a surface is assessed through a functional which is optimized; the specificity of the approach is to separate the optimization on the parametric space (performed with any suitable optimization algorithm) from the computation of the functional where we use an adjoint formulation similar to that of the optimal control; the procedure can thus incorporate information from any derivative contract compatible with the adjoint approach. The procedure was implemented and was shown to perform satisfactory on real-world data.

  13. An electrochemical platform for localized pH control on demand.

    PubMed

    Fomina, N; Johnson, C A; Maruniak, A; Bahrampour, S; Lang, C; Davis, R W; Kavusi, S; Ahmad, H

    2016-06-21

    Solution pH is a powerful tool for regulating many kinds of chemical activity, but is generally treated as a static property defined by a pre-selected buffer. Introducing dynamic control of pH in space, time, and magnitude can enable richer and more efficient chemistries, but is not feasible with traditional methods of titration or buffer exchange. Recent reports have featured electrochemical strategies for modifying bulk pH in constrained volumes, but only demonstrate switching between two preset values and omit spatial control entirely. Here, we use a combination of solution-borne quinones and galvanostatic excitation to enable quantitative control of pH environments that are highly localized to an electrode surface. We demonstrate highly reproducible acidification and alkalinization with up to 0.1 pH s(-1) (±0.002 pH s(-1)) rate of change across the dynamic range of our pH sensor (pH 4.5 to 7.5) in buffered solutions. Using dynamic current control, we generate and sustain 3 distinct pH microenvironments simultaneously to within ±0.04 pH for 13 minutes in a single solution, and we leverage these microenvironments to demonstrate spatially-resolved, pH-driven control of enzymatic activity. In addition to straightforward applications of spatio-temporal pH control (e.g. efficiently studying pH-dependencies of chemical interactions), the technique opens completely new avenues for implementing complex systems through dynamic control of enzyme activation, protein binding affinity, chemical reactivity, chemical release, molecular self-assembly, and many more pH-controlled processes. PMID:27199277

  14. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  15. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  16. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  17. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino de; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children's individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother's level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  18. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  19. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years.

  20. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  1. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  2. A 5-year study of adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdin, Begüm Nalça; Pas, Suzan D; Durak, İsmet; Schutten, Martin; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2015-03-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of conjunctivitis. Genotypes are diverse and differ according to population and geographical distribution of the virus. There is limited data regarding ocular adenoviral infections and genotype distribution in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the adenovirus genotypes and their epidemiological features among patients with conjunctivitis between 2006 and 2010, in Izmir, Turkey. Adenoviral DNA was detected by PCR in 213 of 488 (44%) of the ocular samples collected from patients with viral conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Of these, 101 (47%) were randomly chosen and genotyped by sequence analysis. Seven genotypes were identified, including 3, 4, 8, 11, 19, 37, and 53. Genotype 8 and 4 were the dominant types detected in 67 (66.3%) and 25 (24.7%) of the samples, respectively. Other five genotypes (3, 11, 19, 37, 53) were detected in 9 (8.9%) samples. Genotype and seasonal differences observed throughout the study. Human adenoviruse (HAdV)-8 was the most frequent type, except 2008. The prevalence of genotype 4 increased starting from 2006, became dominant in 2008 and decreased in the following years. The peak season was mostly spring months, although it was possible to detect positive samples throughout the year. In conclusion, genotype 8 followed by genotype 4 was the most frequent adenoviral types causing conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Findings suggest that there is a slow shift between genotypes throughout the years.

  3. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA AMONG CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 5 YEARS IN RURAL SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Alegria, Iñaki; Tessema, Dalu; Mohamed, Nuri; Tissiano, Gabrel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus infection among children aged less than 5 years in rural southern Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital-based, prospective study among children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration attending the outpatient department of Gambo Rural Hospital, Ethiopia during September-November 2012. Three hundred fourteen children were included in the study, of whom 137 (43.6%) had rotavirus infection. The average age of children with rotavirus infection was lower than those without it [odds ratio (OR): 0.94]. Finding severe dehydration on skin pinch test (adjusted OR: 3.76) and having diarrhea for !3 days (adjusted OR: 2.50) were associated with rotavirus infection. The mortality rate was 4.4% among rotavirus infection children and 0% among non-rotavirus diarrhea cases (p=0.006). Rotavirus infection should be suspected in children with severe dehydration on a skin pinch test and among those presenting with diarrhea for 3 days in rural southern Ethiopia. PMID:26521516

  5. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  6. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  7. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  8. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schulze, J; Riegel, H; Brade, V

    1999-01-01

    Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who developed a large effusion of the right knee joint. The titer for antinuclear antibodies was 1:80 and the test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Investigations for antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi demonstrated remarkable elevation of IgG antibody and no specific IgM response. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting reactivity with the bands p83/100, p58, p43, p41, p39, OspA, p30, OspC, p21, and p17. We subsequently learned that the child had suffered a tick bite followed by an EM 5 years earlier and had been treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at that time. The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days. In the absence of clinical improvement 3 weeks later a knee joint aspiration was performed which resulted in a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for B. burgdorferi DNA (OspA) in the synovial fluid. The patient fully recovered 2 months later without further treatment. The case indicates that the latency period between EM and onset of LA may last up to 5 years. In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA.

  9. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community. PMID:27295701

  10. Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591

  11. Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (≤2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: β = −3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: β = −3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children’s IQ adversely. PMID:19620194

  12. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs. PMID:17124330

  13. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26039393

  14. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cueto, Santiago; Glewwe, Paul; Richter, Linda; Strupp, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data—the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty—to use as indicators of poor development. We show that both indicators are closely associated with poor cognitive and educational performance in children and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility, and provide poor care for their children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. PMID:17208643

  15. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years. PMID:21827523

  16. Focused Ultrasound Surgery Control Using Local Harmonic Motion: VX2 Tumor Study

    SciTech Connect

    Curiel, Laura; Chopra, Rajiv; Goertz, David; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-04-14

    The objective of this study was to develop a real-time method for controlling focused ultrasound surgery using ultrasound imaging. The approach uses measurements of localized harmonic motion (LHM) in order to perform controlled FUS exposures by detecting changes in the elastic properties of tissues during coagulation. Methods: Nine New Zealand rabbits with VX2 tumors implanted in the thigh were used for this study. LHM was generated within the tumors by periodic induction of radiation force using a FUS transducer (80-mm focal length, 100-mm diameter, 20-mm central hole, 1.485-MHz). Tissue motion was tracked by collecting and cross-correlating RF signals during the motion using a separate diagnostic transducer (3-kHz PRF, 5-MHz). After locating the tumor in MR images, a series of sonications were performed to treat the tumors using a reduction in LHM amplitude to control the exposure. Results: LHM was successfully used to control the sonications. A LHM amplitude threshold value was determined at which changes were considered significant and then the exposure was started and stopped when the LHM amplitude dropped below the threshold. The appearance of a lesion was then verified by MRI. The feasibility of LHM measurements to control FUS exposure was validated.

  17. Bending Two-Dimensional Materials To Control Charge Localization and Fermi-Level Shift.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liping; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P

    2016-04-13

    High-performance electronics requires the fine control of semiconductor conductivity. In atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials, traditional doping technique for controlling carrier concentration and carrier type may cause crystal damage and significant mobility reduction. Contact engineering for tuning carrier injection and extraction and carrier type may suffer from strong Fermi-level pinning. Here, using first-principles calculations, we predict that mechanical bending, as a unique attribute of thin 2D materials, can be used to control conductivity and Fermi-level shift. We find that bending can control the charge localization of top valence bands in both MoS2 and phosphorene nanoribbons. The donor-like in-gap edge-states of armchair MoS2 ribbon and their associated Fermi-level pinning can be removed by bending. A bending-controllable new in-gap state and accompanying direct-indirect gap transition are predicted in armchair phosphorene nanoribbon. We demonstrate that such emergent bending effects are realizable. The bending stiffness as well as the effective thickness of 2D materials are also derived from first principles. Our results are of fundamental and technological relevance and open new routes for designing functional 2D materials for applications in which flexuosity is essential.

  18. Similarity of the CDC and WHO weight-for-length growth charts in predicting risk of obesity at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-length (WFL) or BMI growth charts are now recommended as the new standard for children under 24 months. The objective of this study was to examine associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months, based on the older Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO cutpoints, with risk of obesity at age 5 years. From well-child visits to a Massachusetts multi-site group practice during 1980-2008, we studied 15,488 children with length/height and weight measurements at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and at 5 years. The main exposures were ever being overweight during 1-24 months using each of three cutpoints: CDC WFL ≥ 95th percentile, WHO WFL or BMI ≥ 97.7th percentile. The main outcome was obesity at 5 years (CDC BMI ≥ 95th percentile). We calculated multivariable odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year. At 5 years, 10.8% of participants were obese. During 1-24 months, 21.3, 18.3, and 20.2% were ever overweight using CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints, respectively. ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months with obesity at 5 years were 6.0 (5.4, 6.6), 6.3 (5.7, 7.0), and 6.0 (5.4, 6.7), respectively. Ever being overweight in the first 2 years of life is a strong predictor of obesity at 5 years. CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints for overweight in early childhood provided similar estimates of later obesity risk.

  19. Control of vertebrate core planar cell polarity protein localization and dynamics by Prickle 2

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mitchell T.; Wallingford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a ubiquitous property of animal tissues and is essential for morphogenesis and homeostasis. In most cases, this fundamental property is governed by a deeply conserved set of ‘core PCP’ proteins, which includes the transmembrane proteins Van Gogh-like (Vangl) and Frizzled (Fzd), as well as the cytoplasmic effectors Prickle (Pk) and Dishevelled (Dvl). Asymmetric localization of these proteins is thought to be central to their function, and understanding the dynamics of these proteins is an important challenge in developmental biology. Among the processes that are organized by the core PCP proteins is the directional beating of cilia, such as those in the vertebrate node, airway and brain. Here, we exploit the live imaging capabilities of Xenopus to chart the progressive asymmetric localization of fluorescent reporters of Dvl1, Pk2 and Vangl1 in a planar polarized ciliated epithelium. Using this system, we also characterize the influence of Pk2 on the asymmetric dynamics of Vangl1 at the cell cortex, and we define regions of Pk2 that control its own localization and those impacting Vangl1. Finally, our data reveal a striking uncoupling of Vangl1 and Dvl1 asymmetry. This study advances our understanding of conserved PCP protein functions and also establishes a rapid, tractable platform to facilitate future in vivo studies of vertebrate PCP protein dynamics. PMID:26293301

  20. Controlling spin-dependent localization and directed transport in a bipartite lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yunrong; Lu, Gengbiao; Kong, Chao; Hai, Wenhua

    2016-04-01

    We study coherent control of spin-dependent dynamical localization (DL) and directed transport (DT) of a spin-orbit-coupled single atom held in a driven optical bipartite lattice. Under the high-frequency limit and nearest-neighbor tight-binding approximation, we find a new decoupling mechanism between states with the same (different) spins, which leads to two sets of analytical solutions describing DL and DT with (without) spin flipping. The analytical results are numerically confirmed, and perfect agreements are found. Extending the research to a system of spin-orbit-coupled single atoms, the spin current and quantum information transport with controllable propagation speed and distance are investigated. The results can be experimentally tested in the current setups and may be useful in quantum information processing.

  1. Mitochondrial Localization of Telomeric Protein TIN2 Links Telomere Regulation to Metabolic Control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liuh-Yow; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Qinfen; Li, Hongzhi; Luo, Zhenhua; Fang, Hezhi; Kim, Sok Ho; Qin, Li; Yotnda, Patricia; Xu, Jianmin; Tu, Benjamin P.; Bai, Yidong; Songyang, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Summary Both mitochondria, which are metabolic powerhouses, and telomeres, which help maintain genomic stability, have been implicated in cancer and aging. However, the signaling events that connect these two cellular structures remain poorly understood. Here we report that the canonical telomeric protein TIN2 is also a regulator of metabolism. TIN2 is recruited to telomeres and associates with multiple telomere regulators including TPP1. TPP1 interacts with TIN2 N-terminus, which contains overlapping mitochondrial and telomeric targeting sequences, and controls TIN2 localization. We have found that TIN2 is post-translationally processed in mitochondria, and regulates mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation. Reducing TIN2 expression by RNAi knockdown inhibited glycolysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and production, and enhanced ATP levels and oxygen consumption in cancer cells. These results suggest a link between telomeric proteins and metabolic control, providing an additional mechanism by which telomeric proteins regulate cancer and aging. PMID:22885005

  2. Control Strategies for Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Using Renewables and Local Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Castello, Charles C; LaClair, Tim J; Maxey, L Curt

    2014-01-01

    The increase of electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption creates a need for more EV supply equipment (EVSE) infrastructure (i.e., EV chargers). The impact of EVSE installations could be significant due to limitations in the electric grid and potential demand charges for residential and commercial customers. The use of renewables (e.g., solar) and local storage (e.g., battery bank) can mitigate loads caused by EVSE on the electric grid. This would eliminate costly upgrades needed by utilities and decrease demand charges for consumers. This paper aims to explore control systems that mitigate the impact of EVSE on the electric grid using solar energy and battery banks. Three control systems are investigated and compared in this study. The first control system discharges the battery bank at a constant rate during specific times of the day based on historical data. The second discharges the battery bank based on the number of EVs charging (linear) and the amount of solar energy being generated. The third discharges the battery bank based on a sigmoid function (non-linear) in response to the number of EVs charging, and also takes into consideration the amount of renewables being generated. The first and second control systems recharge the battery bank at night when demand charges are lowest. The third recharges the battery bank at night and during times of the day when there is an excess of solar. Experiments are conducted using data from a private site that has 25 solar-assisted charging stations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN and 4 at a public site in Nashville, TN. Results indicate the third control system having better performance, negating up to 71% of EVSE load, compared with the second control system (up to 61%) and the first control system (up to 58%).

  3. Control of in vivo microvessel ingrowth by modulation of biomaterial local architecture and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Joan E.; Baker, Aaron B.; Golledge, Stephen

    2002-04-01

    We developed a method for controlling local architecture and chemistry simultaneously in biomaterial implants to control microvessel ingrowth in vivo. Porous polypropylene disks (5 mm in diameter and 40 um thick) were plasma-coated with a fluoropolymer and then laser-drilled with 50-*m-diameter holes through their thickness. We then oxidized the disks to create hydroxyl functionality on the exposed polypropylene (inside the holes). Acrylamide was grafted to the hydroxyl groups through polymerization in the presence of activating ceric ions. Staining with toluidine blue O demonstrated that grafting occurred only inside the holes. We used the Hoffman degradation reaction to convert the amide groups of acrylamide to amine groups, and then we used ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether to attach biomolecules of interest inside the holes: secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) peptide Lys-Gly-His-Lys (KGHK; angiogenic), thrombospondin-2 (TSP; antiangiogenic), or albumin (rat; neutral). In vivo testing in a rat subcutaneous dorsum model for a 3-week interval demonstrated a greater vessel surface area (p = 0.032) and a greater number of vessels (p = 0.043) in tissue local to the holes with KGHKimmobilized disks than with TSP-immobilized disks. However, differences between KGHK-immobilized and albuminimmobilized disks were less significant (p = 0.120 and p = 0.289 for the vessel surface area and number of vessels, respectively). The developed methods have potential applications in biomaterial design applications for which selective neovascularization is desired.

  4. Subcellular optogenetic activation of Cdc42 controls local and distal signaling to drive immune cell migration

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Patrick R.; Kalyanaraman, Vani; Gautam, N.

    2016-01-01

    Migratory immune cells use intracellular signaling networks to generate and orient spatially polarized responses to extracellular cues. The monomeric G protein Cdc42 is believed to play an important role in controlling the polarized responses, but it has been difficult to determine directly the consequences of localized Cdc42 activation within an immune cell. Here we used subcellular optogenetics to determine how Cdc42 activation at one side of a cell affects both cell behavior and dynamic molecular responses throughout the cell. We found that localized Cdc42 activation is sufficient to generate polarized signaling and directional cell migration. The optically activated region becomes the leading edge of the cell, with Cdc42 activating Rac and generating membrane protrusions driven by the actin cytoskeleton. Cdc42 also exerts long-range effects that cause myosin accumulation at the opposite side of the cell and actomyosin-mediated retraction of the cell rear. This process requires the RhoA-activated kinase ROCK, suggesting that Cdc42 activation at one side of a cell triggers increased RhoA signaling at the opposite side. Our results demonstrate how dynamic, subcellular perturbation of an individual signaling protein can help to determine its role in controlling polarized cellular responses. PMID:26941336

  5. A conductive nanostructured polymer electrodeposited on titanium as a controllable, local drug delivery platform.

    PubMed

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Pareta, Rajesh A; Webster, Thomas J

    2011-12-15

    Infection and inflammation associated with orthopedic implants can be life threatening, time consuming, and expensive, thus, motivating the development of a local drug delivery platform that could prevent such deleterious events. For this purpose, nanostructured polypyrrole (PPy) incorporating antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs (penicillin/streptomycin (P/S) or dexamethasone (Dex), respectively) were coated on commercially pure titanium through an easy to use electrochemical deposition method. As shown in our previous study, about 80% (compared with initial amount) of these incorporated drugs were released after electrical stimulation spanning five cycles (voltage was varied between -1 V and 1 V). In a further continuation of this work, nanostructured P/S incorporated PPy coatings on titanium were demonstrated to be bactericidal against Staphylococcus epidermis after 1 h, and when incorporated with Dex, inhibited macrophage (an inflammatory and immune response cell) growth after 8 and 13 h of in vitro culture. Moreover, nanostructured PPy-drug films coated on titanium enhanced osteoblast (bone forming cells) proliferation, while at the same time, suppressed fibroblast (fibrous tissue forming cells) proliferation for up to 5 days. After electrical stimulation, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory-coated devices yielded lower bacteria colonies and macrophage growth compared with unincorporated-drug PPy films (controls). This study, thus, suggests that drug incorporated nanostructured PPy coatings on titanium are capable of effectively treating potential orthopedic implant infection and inflammation, and lays the foundation for the further development of local and controllable on-demand drug delivery coatings to improve orthopedic implant efficacy. PMID:21953843

  6. [Infiltrating bladder carcinoma: influence of complementary treatment on local control and survival].

    PubMed

    Berián Polo, J M; Zudaire Bergera, J J; Robles García, J E; de Castro Barbosa, F

    1994-05-01

    We analyzed 82 patients with transitional bladder cancer stages (T2-T4) M0. According to treatment, 3 different groups were considered: Group 1: 25 patients treated with TUR and radical cystectomy. Group 2: 33 patients also received external beam radiotherapy (45-60 Gy/5 weeks) prior cystectomy. Group 3: 24 patients were also treated with intraoperative radiotherapy (15 Gy) and 3 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Our results suggest that local control rate increases significantly with the intensity of treatment (Group 3: 62% patients were PT0). Similar results were achieved in multivariate analysis. Univariate analysis of survival shows ganglionar status, vascular embolism and treatment intensity as covariates associated. Multivariate analysis demonstrate that renal function and type of complementary treatment were the covariates associated with survival. Taking both groups 2 and 3, survival was related to pathologic stage, vascular embolism and renal function. In conclusion, the significant influence of complementary treatment on the local control and survival suggest strongly their systematic utilization in infiltrating bladder cancer.

  7. SN-38-loaded nanofiber matrices for local control of pediatric solid tumors after subtotal resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Monterrubio, Carles; Pascual-Pasto, Guillem; Cano, Francisco; Vila-Ubach, Monica; Manzanares, Alejandro; Schaiquevich, Paula; Tornero, Jose A; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mora, Jaume; Carcaboso, Angel M

    2016-02-01

    In addition to surgery, local tumor control in pediatric oncology requires new treatments as an alternative to radiotherapy. SN-38 is an anticancer drug with proved activity against several pediatric solid tumors including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Taking advantage of the extremely low aqueous solubility of SN-38, we have developed a novel drug delivery system (DDS) consisting of matrices made of poly(lactic acid) electrospun polymer nanofibers loaded with SN-38 microcrystals for local release in difficult-to-treat pediatric solid tumors. To model the clinical scenario, we conducted extensive preclinical experiments to characterize the biodistribution of the released SN-38 using microdialysis sampling in vivo. We observed that the drug achieves high concentrations in the virtual space of the surgical bed and penetrates a maximum distance of 2 mm within the tumor bulk. Subsequently, we developed a model of subtotal tumor resection in clinically relevant pediatric patient-derived xenografts and used such models to provide evidence of the activity of the SN-38 DDS to inhibit tumor regrowth. We propose that this novel DDS could represent a potential future strategy to avoid harmful radiation therapy as a primary tumor control together with surgery.

  8. DISCHARGE IMPROVEMENT THROUGH CONTROL OF NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODES BY LOCALIZED ECCD IN DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    PRATER,R; LAHAYE,RJ; LOHR,J; LUCE,TC; PETTY,CC; FERRON,JR; HUMPHREYS,DA; STRAIT,EJ; PERKINS,FW; HARVEY,RW

    2002-10-01

    A271 DISCHARGE IMPROVEMENT THROUGH CONTROL OF NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODES BY LOCALIZED ECCD IN DIII-D. Neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are MHD modes which can limit the performance of high beta discharges in tokamaks, in some cases leading to a major disruption. The destabilizing effect which results in NTM growth is a helical decrease in the bootstrap current caused by a local reduction of the plasma pressure gradient by seed magnetic islands. The NTM is particularly well suited to control since the mode is linearly stable although nonlinearly unstable, so if the island amplitude can be decreased below a threshold size the mode will decay and vanish. One means of shrinking the island is the replacement of the missing bootstrap current by a localized current generated by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). This method has been applied to the m=3/n=2 neoclassical tearing mode in DIII-D, in H-mode plasmas with ongoing ELMs and sawteeth, both of which generate seed islands periodically. In the case of the 3/2 mode, full suppression was obtained robustly by applying about 1.5 MW of ECCD very near the rational surface of the mode. When the mode first appears in the plasma the stored energy decreases by 20%, but after the mode is stabilized by the ECCD the beta may be raised above the initial threshold pressure by 20% by additional neutral beam heating, thereby generating an improvement in the limiting beta of nearly a factor 2. An innovative automated search algorithm was implemented to find and retain the optimum location for the ECCD in the presence of the mode.

  9. Modeling local control effects on the temporal stability of soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Gonzalo; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Vereecken, Harry; Hardelauf, Horst; Herbst, Michael; Vanderlinden, Karl

    2013-02-01

    SummaryOccurrence of temporal stability of soil water content has been observed for a range of soil and landscape conditions and is generally explained as a consequence of local and non-local controls. However, the underlying factors for this phenomenon are not completely understood and have not been quantified. This work attempts to elucidate and quantify the effects of several local controls, such as soil hydraulic properties and root water uptake, through water flow simulations. One-dimensional water flow was simulated with the HYDRUS code for bare and grassed sandy loam, loam and clay soils at different levels of variability in the saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat. Soil water content at 0.05 and 0.60 m and the average water content of the top 1 m were analyzed. Temporal stability was characterized by calculating the mean relative differences of soil water content in 100 soil columns used for each combination of soil and season. Using log-normal distributions of Ksat resulted in mean relative differences distributions that were commonly observed in experimental studies of soil water content variability. Linear relationships were observed between scaling factor of ln Ksat and spread of the mean relative differences distributions. For the same scaling factor and soil texture, simulated shapes of the mean relative differences distributions depended on the duration of the simulation period and the season. Variation in mean relative differences was higher in coarser textures than in finer ones and more variability was seen in the topsoil than in the subsoil. Root water uptake decreased the mean relative differences variability in the root zone and increased variability below it. This work presents a preliminary research to promote the use of water flow simulations under site-specific conditions to better understand the temporal stability of soil water contents. The estimation of the spatial variability of Ksat from soil water content monitoring presents an

  10. Preferred states in spatial soil moisture patterns: Local and nonlocal controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Rodger B.; Western, Andrew W.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; BlöSchl, Günter

    1997-12-01

    In this paper we develop a conceptual and observational case in which soil water patterns in temperate regions of Australia switch between two preferred states. The wet state is dominated by lateral water movement through both surface and subsurface paths, with catchment terrain leading to organization of wet areas along drainage lines. We denote this as nonlocal control. The dry state is dominated by vertical fluxes, with soil properties and only local terrain (areas of high convergence) influencing spatial patterns. We denote this as local control. The switch is described in terms of the dominance of lateral over vertical water fluxes and vice versa. When evapotranspiration exceeds rainfall, the soil dries to the point where hydraulic conductivity is low and any rainfall that occurs essentially wets up the soil uniformly and is evapotranspired before any significant lateral redistribution takes place. As evapotranspiration decreases and/or rainfall increases, areas of high local convergence become wet, and runoff that is generated moves downslope, rapidly wetting up the drainage lines. In the wet to dry transitional period a rapid increase in potential evapotranspiration (and possibly a decrease in rainfall) causes drying of the soil and "shutting down" of lateral flow. Vertical fluxes dominate and the "dry" pattern is established. Three data sets from two catchments are presented to support the notion of preferred states in soil moisture, and the results of a modeling exercise on catchments from a range of climatic conditions illustrate that the conclusions from the field studies may apply to other areas. The implications for hydrological modeling are discussed in relation to methods for establishing antecedent moisture conditions for event models, for distribution models, and for spatially distributing bulk estimates of catchment soil moisture using indices.

  11. Adaptive deep brain stimulation (aDBS) controlled by local field potential oscillations.

    PubMed

    Priori, Alberto; Foffani, Guglielmo; Rossi, Lorenzo; Marceglia, Sara

    2013-07-01

    Despite their proven efficacy in treating neurological disorders, especially Parkinson's disease, deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems could be further optimized to maximize treatment benefits. In particular, because current open-loop DBS strategies based on fixed stimulation settings leave the typical parkinsonian motor fluctuations and rapid symptom variations partly uncontrolled, research has for several years focused on developing novel "closed-loop" or "adaptive" DBS (aDBS) systems. aDBS consists of a simple closed-loop model designed to measure and analyze a control variable reflecting the patient's clinical condition to elaborate new stimulation settings and send them to an "intelligent" implanted stimulator. The major problem in developing an aDBS system is choosing the ideal control variable for feedback. Here we review current evidence on the advantages of neurosignal-controlled aDBS that uses local field potentials (LFPs) as a control variable, and describe the technology already available to create new aDBS systems, and the potential benefits of aDBS for patients with Parkinson's disease. PMID:23022916

  12. Localized controlled release of stratifin reduces implantation-induced dermal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rahmani-Neishaboor, Elham; Hartwell, Ryan; Jalili, Reza; Jackson, John; Brown, Erin; Ghahary, Aziz

    2012-10-01

    Localized controlled release of anti-fibrogenic factors can potentially prevent tissue fibrosis surrounding biomedical prostheses, such as vascular stents and breast implants. We have previously demonstrated that therapeutic intervention with topically applied stratifin in a rabbit ear fibrotic model not only prevents dermal fibrosis but also promotes more normal tissue repair by regulating extracellular matrix deposition. In this work, the anti-fibrogenic effect of a controlled release form of stratifin was investigated in the prevention of fibrosis induced by dermal poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microsphere/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel implants. Pharmacodynamic effects were evaluated by histopathological examination of subcutaneous tissue surrounding implanted composites. Controlled release of stratifin from PLGA microsphere/PVA hydrogel implants significantly moderated dermal fibrosis and inflammation by reducing collagen deposition (30%), total tissue cellularity (48%) and infiltrated CD3(+) immune cells (81%) in the surrounding tissue compared with the stratifin-free implants. The controlled release of stratifin from implants markedly increased the level of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in the surrounding tissue, which resulted in less collagen deposition. These stratifin-eluting PLGA/PVA composites show promise as coatings to decrease the typical fibrosis exhibited around implanted biomedical prostheses, such as breast implants and vascular stents. PMID:22743110

  13. Morphogenetic fields in embryogenesis, regeneration, and cancer: Non-local control of complex patterning

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of shape during embryonic development, and the maintenance of shape against injury or tumorigenesis, requires constant coordination of cell behaviors toward the patterning needs of the host organism. Molecular cell biology and genetics have made great strides in understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell function. However, generalized rational control of shape is still largely beyond our current capabilities. Significant instructive signals function at long range to provide positional information and other cues to regulate organism-wide systems properties like anatomical polarity and size control. Is complex morphogenesis best understood as the emergent property of local cell interactions, or as the outcome of a computational process that is guided by a physically-encoded map or template of the final goal state? Here I review recent data and molecular mechanisms relevant to morphogenetic fields: large-scale systems of physical properties that have been proposed to store patterning information during embryogenesis, regenerative repair, and cancer suppression that ultimately controls anatomy. Placing special emphasis on the role of endogenous bioelectric signals as an important component of the morphogenetic field, I speculate on novel approaches for the computational modeling and control of these fields with applications to synthetic biology, regenerative medicine, and evolutionary developmental biology. PMID:22542702

  14. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  15. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  16. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp.

  17. Full-mouth rehabilitation of Class II deep-bite patient: A 5-year clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Gulfem; Bozkaya, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the full-mouth rehabilitation of a 45-year-old male patient with severe deep-bite by increasing vertical dimension. The technique of anterior maxillary osteotomy performed in the present situation has been found to be effective, requiring anterior and inferior repositioning of the anterior maxilla to provide an esthetic and functional implant supported fixed prosthesis. Four months after surgery, the fixation system was removed, and 6 dental implants were placed. The anterior and inferior movements of the segment allowed for natural tooth anatomy and size in the definitive implant supported partial fixed prosthesis. A satisfactory functional and esthetic result was obtained after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27403066

  18. Delayed Replantation after Endodontic and Fluoride Treatment: A 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abi Mathew; Akkara, Francis; Fernandes, Kristlee Sabrin

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate if endodontic and fluoride treatment of the root before delayed replantation would render the tooth a favorable prognosis. Methods A 10-year-old boy reported 10 hours after he had avulsed his maxillary right permanent central incisor. The pulp and PDL cells were considered to be nonviable. Endodontic treatment for the tooth was performed extraorally and obturated with gutta-percha. Prior to replantation, the root was treated with 1.23% APSF for 15 minutes. Result An intraoral radiograph taken 6 months after replantation revealed narrowing of the PDL space around the replanted tooth due to apposition from the surrounding alveolar bone. A radiograph taken 5 years after replantation revealed no evidence of external root resorption. There was no abnormal mobility either. Conclusion Extraoral endodontic treatment and root treatment with 1.23% APSF prior to delayed replantation might prevent the occurrence of external root resorption.

  19. Constraints on the Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant by the 5-Year WMAP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, M.; Nagata, R.; Yokoyama, J.

    2008-12-01

    The constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant at recombination epoch relative to its present value, Δα/α ≡ (α_{rec} - α_{now})/α_{now}, are obtained from the analysis of the 5-year WMAP cosmic microwave background data. As a result of Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that, contrary to the analysis based on the previous WMAP data, the mean value of Δα/α = -0.0009 does not change significantly whether we use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measurement of the Hubble parameter as a prior or not. The resultant 95% confidence ranges of Δα/α are -0.028 < Δα/α < 0.026 with HST prior and -0.050 < Δα/α < 0.042 without HST prior.

  20. [The geriatric psychiatric day hospital: an analysis of 5 years of activities].

    PubMed

    Trifonov, E G; Ognev, A E

    1997-01-01

    233 patients (53 men and 180 women) at the age of 60 years and older were treated in day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic for 5 years. 60-69 year old patients prevailed (146 individuals). Nearly all mental diseases characteristic for the old age were found in such patients; majority of patients suffered from schizophrenia (31.3%) and affective pathology (25.8%). Vascular form of dementia prevailed among the patients with dementia while atrophic degenerative dementia was rarely observed (2 patients). Syndromological distribution revealed that the main groups were formed by patients with depressions (41.6%) as well as individuals with neurosis- and psychopathic-like conditions (37.3%). Mental disorders with paranoid syndromes were observed in 8.6% of the patients. It is shown that day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic had some preferences in comparison with usual mental hospitals and psychoneurological out-patient clinic.

  1. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:26744159

  2. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia Affiliation When The Manuscript Was Written Department Of Paediatrics K J Somaiya Medical College And Hospital Mumbai India, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2014-11-19

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:25410687

  3. Performance of the MIR Cooperative Solar Array After 2.5 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States and Russia to produce 6 kW of power for the Russian space station Mir. Four, multi-orbit test sequences were executed between June 1996 and December 1998 to measure MCSA electrical performance. A dedicated Fortran computer code was developed to analyze the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. The computational performance results compared very favorably with the measured flight data in most cases. Minor performance degradation was detected in one current generating section of the MCSA. Yet overall, the flight data indicated the MCSA was meeting and exceeding performance expectations. There was no precipitous performance loss due to contamination or other causes after 2.5 years of operation. In this paper, we review the MCSA flight electrical performance tests, data and computational modeling and discuss findings from data comparisons with the computational results.

  4. The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from over 5 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Eldakar, Omar T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years numerous reports have confirmed and replicated the specific brain cooling and thermal window predictions derived from the thermoregulatory theory of yawning, and no study has found evidence contrary to these findings. Here we review the comparative research supporting this model of yawning among homeotherms, while highlighting a recent report showing how the expression of contagious yawning in humans is altered by seasonal climate variation. The fact that yawning is constrained to a thermal window of ambient temperature provides unique and compelling support in favor of this theory. Heretofore, no existing alternative hypothesis of yawning can explain these results, which have important implications for understanding the potential functional role of this behavior, both physiologically and socially, in humans and other animals. In discussion we stress the broader applications of this work in clinical settings, and counter the various criticisms of this theory. PMID:23293583

  5. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-05-15

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications.

  6. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  7. Salter-Harris type-IV displaced distal radius fracture in a 5-year-old.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission is not associated with recent immigration (≤5 years) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Lauzardo, Michael

    2015-12-01

    As tuberculosis (TB) incidence decreases in the US, foreign-born persons continue to account for a larger proportion of the burden. In these cross-sectional analyses of 1149 culture-confirmed TB cases genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU, we show that over a quarter of cases among the foreign-born population in Florida resulted from recent transmission of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In addition, over a third of these cases occurred among persons who had immigrated 5 years or less prior to their diagnosis. Although recent immigration was not a significant predictor of TB transmission, younger age, birthplace in the Americas, homelessness, drug use and TB lineage are risk factors for TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida. These data provide actionable insights into TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida.

  9. Neurological Recovery of Upper Extremity in Stroke Woman after 5 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vejabhuti, Chayanin

    2016-02-01

    Strokes are common neurological disorders in Thailand. Rehabilitation programs significantly improve arm function outcomes if performed during the sub-acute period of stroke rehabilitation, within 6 months of the attack. This report describes the case of a stroke patient who gained upper extremity motor recovery after 5 years, which is beyond the normal recovery period. Although the patient does not have functionality, she has partial motor recovery, and she is enthusiastic about learning to gain better use of her hand. However there is still limited evidence to use in designing effective intervention and proper timing of rehabilitation administered by personnel in training chronic stroke patients. Therefore, evidence based on neuroplasticity and neurological recovery in chronic stroke patients, including rehabilitation intervention, is presented in this report. PMID:27266238

  10. Estimating rates of land falling US hurricanes on a 5-year timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, K.; Turner, J.; Jewson, S.; Bellone, E.; Rowlands, D.; Laepple, T.

    2010-03-01

    Atlantic hurricanes are the costliest of US natural disasters. Their frequency, intensity and likelihood of landfall are highly variable, being impacted by sea-surface and upper-atmosphere temperatures, wind shear, El Niño and other climatic variables. Risk Management Solutions has created a set of over 500,000 synthetic Atlantic hurricanes for use in catastrophe modelling. Until 2005, the rates associated with each of these storms were based on the averaged historical rate since 1900. However, there is evidence that hurricane frequencies are non-stationary and this means that long-term averaged rates may not be the best estimate of future rates. Furthermore, the insurance/reinsurance industry is particularly interested in 5-year projections of land falling US hurricanes. We show, using hindcasting, that simple statistical models can significantly improve estimates of the number of Atlantic hurricanes hitting land on this timescale.

  11. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-05-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154.

  12. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154. PMID:25206158

  13. Being overweight and obese: Black children ages 2-5 years.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Cindy E

    2008-01-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of obesity in Black preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) is slightly higher than in whites. However, by age 6, Black children experience higher obesity prevalence. The consequences to health throughout childhood and into adulthood have both medical and economic cost to individuals and society. Factors associated with obesity in preschool children are lifestyle behaviors such as diet, level of activity, culture, environment, and parental perceptions. Programs should target young Black children and their families to reduce the incidence of obesity and promoting healthy behaviors could aid in eliminating health disparities and improving quality of life. Nurses need to provide comprehensive culturally appropriate strategies at community and individual/family levels to prevent overweight and obesity in children.

  14. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  15. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  16. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, p<0.0001); provider satisfaction (65.4–79.2, p<0.01); capacity for service provision (47.4–76.4, p<0.0001); quality of services (40.5–67.4, p<0.0001); and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0–52.6). The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4–95.7, p<0.01), after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. Conclusions The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  17. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  18. Surgical resection of colorectal recurrence of gastric cancer more than 5 years after primary resection

    PubMed Central

    Noji, Takehiro; Yamamura, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Jun; Kuroda, Aki; Koinuma, Junkichi; Yoshioka, Tatsuya; Murakawa, Katsuhiko; Otake, Setsuyuki; Hirano, Satoshi; Ono, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intestinal metastasis from gastric cancer is rare, although the most common cause of secondary neoplastic infiltration of the colon is gastric cancer. However, little data is available on recurrence or death in patients with gastric cancer surviving >5 years post-gastrectomy. Here we report two cases of lower intestinal metastasis from gastric cancer >5 years after primary resection and discuss with reference to the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE Case 1: A 61-year-old man with a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 9 years earlier was referred to our hospital with constipation and abdominal distention. We diagnosed primary colon cancer and subsequently performed extended left hemicolectomy. Histological examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma resembling the gastric tumor he had 9 years earlier. The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and remained alive with cancerous peritonitis and skin metastases as of 17 months later. Case 2: A 46-year-old woman with a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 9 years earlier presented with constipation. She also had a history of Krukenberg tumor 3 years earlier. We diagnosed metastatic rectal cancer and subsequently performed low anterior resection and hysterectomy. Pathological examination revealed poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, resembling the gastric tumor. The patient remained alive without recurrence as of 17 months later. DISCUSSION We found 19 reported cases of patients with resection of colon metastases from gastric cancer. Median disease-free interval was 74 months. CONCLUSION Resection of late-onset colorectal recurrence from gastric cancer appears worthwhile for selected patients. PMID:25460445

  19. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment.

  20. Severity of brain injury following neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and outcome at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Glass, P; Bulas, D I; Wagner, A E; Rajasingham, S R; Civitello, L A; Papero, P H; Coffman, C E; Short, B L

    1997-07-01

    Neurodevelopmental evaluation in childhood provides an opportunity to study complex neurological compensation following documented neonatal brain injury, and furnishes important clinical information which may have an impact on patient care. We studied 152 term children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as neonates and who received routine neonatal neuroimaging and comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluation at age 5 years. The cohort was divided into four groups based on an independent neuroimaging score: No lesion, N=88; Mild lesion, N=38; Moderate lesion, N=12; and Severe lesion, N=14. Standardized testing at age 5 included complete neuropsychological assessment, neurological evaluation, and assessment of motor function. All testing was conducted without knowledge of the neuroimaging score. The occurrence of disability by severity of neuroimaging was: No lesion=10%; Mild=13%; Moderate=33%; Severe=57%. The relative risk within the ECMO population for disability at age 5 after moderate or severe neonatal lesion was 4.3 (CI=1.0 to 17.5) and 11.7 (CI=3.3 to 41.3), respectively. The remaining non-disabled children who had moderate to severe lesions functioned within normal limits. Severity of neonatal neuroimaging was inversely associated with IQ scores, pre-academic skills, and neuromotor function. The effect size was small but the rank order was predictable. Our data identify in 5-year-old children an impact of brain lesion severity demonstrated on routine neonatal neuroimaging. The results indicate potential compensation following moderate and severe lesions, and suggest a subtle but consistent influence of even mild neonatal brain injury.

  1. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers. PMID:26237718

  2. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment. PMID:26863863

  3. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers.

  4. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  5. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  6. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes. PMID:27545977

  7. Tracking Control of Mobile Robots Localized via Chained Fusion of Discrete and Continuous Epipolar Geometry, IMU and Odometry.

    PubMed

    Tick, David; Satici, Aykut C; Shen, Jinglin; Gans, Nicholas

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel navigation and control system for autonomous mobile robots that includes path planning, localization, and control. A unique vision-based pose and velocity estimation scheme utilizing both the continuous and discrete forms of the Euclidean homography matrix is fused with inertial and optical encoder measurements to estimate the pose, orientation, and velocity of the robot and ensure accurate localization and control signals. A depth estimation system is integrated in order to overcome the loss of scale inherent in vision-based estimation. A path following control system is introduced that is capable of guiding the robot along a designated curve. Stability analysis is provided for the control system and experimental results are presented that prove the combined localization and control system performs with high accuracy. PMID:26502433

  8. State preemption of local tobacco control policies restricting smoking, advertising, and youth access--United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-08-26

    Preemptive state tobacco control legislation prohibits localities from enacting tobacco control laws that are more stringent than state law. State preemption provisions can preclude any type of local tobacco control policy. The three broad types of state preemption tracked by CDC include preemption of local policies that restrict 1) smoking in workplaces and public places, 2) tobacco advertising, and 3) youth access to tobacco products. A Healthy People 2020 objective (TU-16) calls for eliminating state laws that preempt any type of local tobacco control law. A previous study reported that the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings (government worksites, private-sector worksites, and restaurants) has decreased substantially in recent years. To measure progress toward achieving Healthy People 2020 objectives, this study expands on the previous analysis to track changes in state laws that preempt local advertising and youth access restrictions and to examine policy changes from December 31, 2000, to December 31, 2010. This new analysis found that, in contrast with the substantial progress achieved during the past decade in reducing the number of states that preempt local smoking restrictions, no progress has been made in reducing the number of states that preempt local advertising restrictions and youth access restrictions. Increased progress in removing state preemption provisions will be needed to achieve the relevant Healthy People 2020 objective.

  9. Multimodality Local Therapy for Retroperitoneal Sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paryani, Nitesh N.; Zlotecki, Robert A.; Swanson, Erika L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Hochwald, Steven N.; Marcus, Robert B.; Indelicato, Daniel J.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Soft-tissue sarcomas of the retroperitoneum are rare tumors comprising less than 1% of all malignancies. Although surgery continues as the mainstay of treatment, the large size of these tumors coupled with their proximity to critical structures make resection with wide margins difficult to achieve. The role and timing of radiotherapy are controversial. This study updates our institutional experience using multimodality local therapy for resectable retroperitoneal sarcoma and identifies prognostic factors impacting disease control and survival. Methods and Materials: Between 1974 and 2007, 58 patients with nonmetastatic retroperitoneal sarcoma were treated with surgery and radiation at University of Florida. The median age at radiotherapy was 57 years old (range, 18-80 years). Forty-two patients received preoperative radiotherapy and 16 received postoperative radiotherapy. Nineteen patients received 1.8 Gy once daily and 39 patients received 1.2 Gy twice daily. Variables analyzed for prognostic value included age, grade, kidney involvement, histology, de novo versus recurrent presentation, tumor diameter, margin status, radiotherapy sequencing (preoperative vs. postoperative), total radiation dose, fractionation scheme, and treatment era. Results: The 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rates were 49%, 58%, and 62%, respectively. Nearly two-thirds of disease failures involved a component of local progression. On multivariate analysis, only margin status was significantly associated with improved 5-year local control (85%, negative margins; 63%, microscopic positive margins; 0%, gross positive margins; p < 0.0001) and 5-year overall survival (64%, negative margins; 56%, microscopic positive margins; 13%, gross positive margins; p = 0.0012). Thirty-one Grade 3 or greater toxicities were observed in 22 patients, including two treatment-related deaths (3%). Conclusion: For retroperitoneal sarcoma, local control remains a

  10. Intraoperative Radiotherapy as a Boost During Breast-Conserving Surgery Using Low-Kilovoltage X-Rays: The First 5 Years of Experience With a Novel Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Frederik; Welzel, Grit; Blank, Elena; Hermann, Brigitte; Steil, Volker; Suetterlin, Marc; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) during breast-conserving surgery (BCS) has been recently introduced using different devices. We report the first 5 years of a single-center experience after introduction of a novel approach to deliver IORT as a tumor bed boost during BCS for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 155 breast cancers in 154 women (median age, 63 years; range, 30-83 years; T1/T2 = 100/55; N0/N+ = 108/47) were treated between February 2002 and December 2007 at the University Medical Center Mannheim, in whom IORT as tumor bed boost was applied using 50-kV X-rays (20 Gy) followed by 46-50 Gy whole-breast external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Chemotherapy, if indicated, was given before EBRT. The median interval between BCS plus IORT and EBRT was 40 days. Median follow-up was 34 months (maximum 80 months, 1 patient lost to follow-up). Overall survival and local relapse-free survival were calculated at 5 years using the Kaplan-Meier method. Seventy-nine patients were evaluated at 3-year follow-up for late toxicity according to the Late Effects in Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic system. Results: Ten patients died, 2 had in-breast relapse, and 8 developed distant metastases (5-year overall survival = 87.0%; 5-year local relapse-free survival = 98.5%). Grade 3 fibroses of the tumor bed were detected in 5% of the patients after 3 years. Skin toxicity was mild (telangiectases and hyperpigmentations in approximately 6% each). Conclusions: Intraoperative radiotherapy as a tumor bed boost during BCS for breast cancer using low-kilovoltage X-rays followed by EBRT yields low recurrence and toxicity rates.

  11. Clinical, Radiographic, and Histologic Evaluation of Regional Odontodysplasia: a Case Report with 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jahanimoghadam, Fatemeh; Pishbin, Lida; Rad, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a developmental anomaly that affects the primary and permanent dentitions. This disorder is generally localized in only one arch and its etiology is still unknown. Clinically, the affected teeth have an abnormal morphology and are typically discolored. Radiographically, these teeth show a ghost-like appearance. This paper reported the results of radiographic, histologic and laboratory findings about the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting this rare anomaly. Her familial history was negative for any genetic anomaly, regional odontodysplasia or other dental anomalies. The patient’s general health was good and no congenital or acquired disease was reported. She was kept under follow-up care until she reached the age of 10 years. Panoramic radiograph showed the involvement of permanent teeth on the right maxillary quadrant. The affected edentulous quadrant was rehabilitated with temporary acrylic maxillary partial denture. The presentation of this case would hopefully have valuable information for pediatric dentists to review the clinical and radiographic features of regional odontodysplasia, yet expediting the diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition. PMID:27284563

  12. Clinical, Radiographic, and Histologic Evaluation of Regional Odontodysplasia: a Case Report with 5-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jahanimoghadam, Fatemeh; Pishbin, Lida; Rad, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is a developmental anomaly that affects the primary and permanent dentitions. This disorder is generally localized in only one arch and its etiology is still unknown. Clinically, the affected teeth have an abnormal morphology and are typically discolored. Radiographically, these teeth show a ghost-like appearance. This paper reported the results of radiographic, histologic and laboratory findings about the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting this rare anomaly. Her familial history was negative for any genetic anomaly, regional odontodysplasia or other dental anomalies. The patient's general health was good and no congenital or acquired disease was reported. She was kept under follow-up care until she reached the age of 10 years. Panoramic radiograph showed the involvement of permanent teeth on the right maxillary quadrant. The affected edentulous quadrant was rehabilitated with temporary acrylic maxillary partial denture. The presentation of this case would hopefully have valuable information for pediatric dentists to review the clinical and radiographic features of regional odontodysplasia, yet expediting the diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition.

  13. Gorham-Stout syndrome presenting in a 5-year-old girl with a successful bisphosphonate therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, MIN-WEN; YANG, MIN; QIU, JIAN-XIN; NAN, XUE-PING; HUANG, LU-YU; ZHANG, WEN-DONG; GONG, LI; HUANG, ZHI-ZHONG

    2012-01-01

    Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS), also known as Gorham-Stout disease, massive osteolysis, disappearing bone disease or phantom bone, is a rare disorder of the musculo-skeletal system. It most commonly involves the skull, shoulder and pelvic girdle. Histological examination reveals a progressive osteolysis always associated with an angiomatosis of blood vessels and sometimes of lymphatics, which seemingly is responsible for the destruction of the bone. It is extremely rare that Gorham-Stout syndrome involves the bones of the entire body. A 5-year-old girl complaining of intermittent and dull back pain for 3 months was admitted to a local hospital. X-ray revealed left pleural effusion, and the patient was diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy. Thus, anti-tuberculosis therapy was performed. However, it was not effective. A soft mass with significant tenderness was found in the upper segment of the right leg 50 days afterwards. X-ray revealed multiple osteolysis of the bilateral clavicle, scapula, rib, vertebral body, ilium, sacrum, femur and tibia. The biopsy from the right tibia disclosed that the lesion was composed of hyperplastic blood vessels and fibrous tissues similar to hemangioma. Based on the above clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, the clinical physician confirmed a diagnosis of Gorham-Stout disease, and prescribed oral anti-osteoclastic medications consisting of bisphosphonates. At present, the girl is alive and healthy, and new lesions have not been noted. PMID:23181116

  14. 76 FR 70156 - Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...-2011), a paper expanding upon the energy alternatives likely to replace OCS oil and gas in the absence... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing... on the Proposed 5-Year OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (``Proposed Program''). This...

  15. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term Insurance § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a)...

  16. 75 FR 38979 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... for the eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller sea lion (75 FR 37385). NMFS inadvertently... of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller Sea Lion AGENCY... of a 5-year review of the eastern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the Steller Sea...

  17. Industry Speed Bumps on Local Tobacco Control in Japan? The Case of Hyogo

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Keiko; Mori, Nagisa; Kashiwabara, Mina; Yasuda, Sakiko; Horie, Rumi; Yamato, Hiroshi; Garçon, Loic; Armada, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a signatory since 2004, Japan has not yet fully implemented Article 8 of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control regarding 100% protection against exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The Japanese government still recognizes designated smoking rooms (DSRs) in public space as a valid control measure. Furthermore, subnational initiatives for tobacco control in Japan are of limited effectiveness. Through an analysis of the Hyogo initiative in 2012, we identified key barriers to the achievement of a smoke-free environment. Methods Using a descriptive case-study approach, we analyzed the smoke-free policy development process. The information was obtained from meeting minutes and other gray literature, such as public records, well as key informant interviews. Results Hyogo Prefecture established a committee to propose measures against SHS, and most committee members agreed with establishing completely smoke-free environments. However, the hospitality sector representatives opposed regulation, and tobacco companies were allowed to make a presentation to the committee. Further, political power shifted against completely smoke-free environments in the context of upcoming local elections, which was an obvious barrier to effective regulation. Throughout the approving process, advocacy by civil society for stronger regulation was weak. Eventually, the ordinance approved by the Prefectural Assembly was even weaker than the committee proposal and included wide exemptions. Conclusions The analysis of Hyogo’s SHS control initiative shed light on three factors that present challenges to implementing tobacco control regulations in Japan, from which other countries can also draw lessons: incomplete national legislation, the weakness of advocacy by the civil society, and the interference of the tobacco industry. PMID:26155758

  18. LOCAL CASE-CONTROL SAMPLING: EFFICIENT SUBSAMPLING IN IMBALANCED DATA SETS

    PubMed Central

    Fithian, William; Hastie, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    For classification problems with significant class imbalance, subsampling can reduce computational costs at the price of inflated variance in estimating model parameters. We propose a method for subsampling efficiently for logistic regression by adjusting the class balance locally in feature space via an accept–reject scheme. Our method generalizes standard case-control sampling, using a pilot estimate to preferentially select examples whose responses are conditionally rare given their features. The biased subsampling is corrected by a post-hoc analytic adjustment to the parameters. The method is simple and requires one parallelizable scan over the full data set. Standard case-control sampling is inconsistent under model misspecification for the population risk-minimizing coefficients θ*. By contrast, our estimator is consistent for θ* provided that the pilot estimate is. Moreover, under correct specification and with a consistent, independent pilot estimate, our estimator has exactly twice the asymptotic variance of the full-sample MLE—even if the selected subsample comprises a miniscule fraction of the full data set, as happens when the original data are severely imbalanced. The factor of two improves to 1+1c if we multiply the baseline acceptance probabilities by c > 1 (and weight points with acceptance probability greater than 1), taking roughly 1+c2 times as many data points into the subsample. Experiments on simulated and real data show that our method can substantially outperform standard case-control subsampling. PMID:25492979

  19. Localized control of light-matter interactions by using nanoscale asymmetric TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shifeng; Matsuoka, Tomoyo; Shimotsuma, Yasuhiko; Sakakura, Masaaki; Nishi, Masayuki; Hong, Zhanglian; Qiu, Jianrong; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Miura, Kiyotaka

    2012-11-23

    This paper reports an asymmetry structure-mediated route for highly localized control of light-matter interactions by using tapered TiO(2). We demonstrate for the first time that the growth habit of Ag nanostructures on tapered TiO(2) can be tuned by controllable photolysis. Site-selective anchoring of Ag nanoparticles or nanowires on tapered TiO(2) can be achieved by simply changing the external light. We further show that the obtained tapered TiO(2)-Ag hetero-nanostructures present excellent light-trapping ability over a wide range of wavelengths which is considered to originate from the unique synergistic effects of graded waveguiding and plasmonic light trapping. This improved photon-management capability renders the prepared substrate a very promising candidate for optical sensing application. For this purpose, an enhanced sensitivity for trace detection is confirmed. These findings open up promising avenues for tailoring of light-matter interactions which are of special interest for studying controllable photolysis activation processes and diverse applications such as nanostructure growth, trace detection, photocatalysis and solar cells.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Evaluation After Initial Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Predicts Local Control in Rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Gavane, Somali; Fox, Josef J.; Schoder, Heiko; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Price, Alison N.; Meyers, Paul A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) is already an integral part of staging in rhabdomyosarcoma. We investigated whether primary-site treatment response characterized by serial PET imaging at specific time points can be correlated with local control. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively examined 94 patients with rhabdomyosarcoma who received initial chemotherapy 15 weeks (median) before radiotherapy and underwent baseline, preradiation, and postradiation PET. Baseline PET standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and the presence or absence of abnormal uptake (termed PET-positive or PET-negative) both before and after radiation were examined for the primary site. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) was calculated according to baseline SUVmax, PET-positive status, and PET-negative status by the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons were tested with the log-rank test. Results: The median patient age was 11 years. With 3-year median follow-up, LRFS was improved among postradiation PET-negative vs PET-positive patients: 94% vs 75%, P=.02. By contrast, on baseline PET, LRFS was not significantly different for primary-site SUVmax {<=}7 vs >7 (median), although the findings suggested a trend toward improved LRFS: 96% for SUVmax {<=}7 vs 79% for SUVmax >7, P=.08. Preradiation PET also suggested a statistically insignificant trend toward improved LRFS for PET-negative (97%) vs PET-positive (81%) patients (P=.06). Conclusion: Negative postradiation PET predicted improved LRFS. Notably, 77% of patients with persistent postradiation uptake did not experience local failure, suggesting that these patients could be closely followed up rather than immediately referred for intervention. Negative baseline and preradiation PET findings suggested statistically insignificant trends toward improved LRFS. Additional study may further understanding of relationships between PET findings at these time points and outcome in rhabdomyosarcoma.