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Sample records for 5-year period methods

  1. Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Traumatic Endophthalmitis over a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nicoară, Simona Delia; Călinici, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcome and identify the prognostic factors of traumatic endophthalmitis over a 5-year period. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all the traumatic endophthalmities that we treated in our department over the last 5 years (2009–2013). We extracted the following parameters: age, gender, wound anatomy, associated ocular lesions, treatment, and initial and final visual acuities. We used the program SPSS version 20.0.0. for the statistical analysis of our data. Results. During the last 5 years, we treated 14 traumatic endophthalmities, representing 46.66% of all types of endophthalmities. The infection rate in open globe injuries was 8.13% and 34.78%, if an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) was associated. All the patients were males with the median age of 37 years. Initial visual acuities varied between light perception and 0.4 and the timing of treatment from a few hours to 10 days. We administered antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, systemically and intravitreally, in all cases. We performed pars plana vitrectomy in 64.28% of cases. In 57.14% of cases, the final visual acuity was 0.1 or more. Conclusions. IOFBs increased significantly the risk for endophthalmitis. The worse prognostic factors were retinal detachment at presentation and delayed treatment. This trial is registered with IRCT2014082918966N1. PMID:25302113

  2. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schulze, J; Riegel, H; Brade, V

    1999-01-01

    Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who developed a large effusion of the right knee joint. The titer for antinuclear antibodies was 1:80 and the test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Investigations for antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi demonstrated remarkable elevation of IgG antibody and no specific IgM response. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting reactivity with the bands p83/100, p58, p43, p41, p39, OspA, p30, OspC, p21, and p17. We subsequently learned that the child had suffered a tick bite followed by an EM 5 years earlier and had been treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at that time. The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days. In the absence of clinical improvement 3 weeks later a knee joint aspiration was performed which resulted in a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for B. burgdorferi DNA (OspA) in the synovial fluid. The patient fully recovered 2 months later without further treatment. The case indicates that the latency period between EM and onset of LA may last up to 5 years. In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA.

  3. Fungal epidemiology and diversity in cystic fibrosis patients over a 5-year period in a national reference center.

    PubMed

    Ziesing, S; Suerbaum, S; Sedlacek, L

    2016-11-01

    The knowledge on prevalence rates of yeasts and moulds in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in Germany is scarce. The aim of this report is to give an overview of the diversity and epidemiology of fungal species in CF patients. Over a 5-year period, all fungal isolates cultured from microbiological specimen from CF patients were recorded. Beside standard bacteriological culture media two fungal media were used for cultivation. Species were identified by microscopy, biochemical profiling, MALDI-TOF analysis or DNA sequencing methods. In sum, 25,975 clinical samples from CF patients were analyzed. About 75% of CF patients were colonized by yeasts, mainly Candida albicans (38%) and Candida dubliniensis (12%). In 35% of the patients Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus: 29%) were detected, followed by Exophiala dermatitidis and Scedosporium/Lomentospora complex isolates (4% each). Data for other fungal species are shown. Over a 5-year period, the epidemiology of fungal species detected in CF patients was relatively constant. Clinical microbiology laboratories should carefully monitor samples from CF patients for newly occurring fungal pathogens. PMID:27364649

  4. Glioblastoma occurring at the site of a previous medulloblastoma following a 5-year remission period.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sarah E; Brat, Daniel J; Vance, Gail H; Stohler, Ryan; Choi, Haki; Douglas-Akinwande, Annette C; Hattab, Eyas M

    2012-10-01

    We describe a case of a 14-year-old boy who developed a cerebellar and brainstem glioblastoma 5 years after treatment for a medulloblastoma. The patient first presented in 2003 with 9 months of vomiting and a 9-kg weight loss. A head MRI showed a heterogeneously enhancing posterior fossa mass with hydrocephalus. Gross total resection was performed and the tumor was consistent with a classic medulloblastoma. Postoperative chemotherapy and craniospinal radiation was administered. The patient remained tumor-free until 2008, at which time he presented with right-sided weakness and numbness, left eye pain, vomiting and weight loss. Imaging showed abnormalities within the posterior pons, medulla, inferior cerebellar peduncles, cerebellar hemispheres and cervicomedullary junction with expansion of the medulla and cervical spinal cord. Due to the location of the lesion, biopsy was felt to be too risky and was avoided. Despite receiving chemotherapy, his symptoms continued to worsen and he died 4 months later. Post mortem examination limited to the brain and spinal cord confirmed the radiographic extent of the tumor. Microscopic examination showed a highly cellular infiltrative glial neoplasm with extensive palisading necrosis. A diagnosis of glioblastoma was rendered. The question of whether the first and second tumors were related is of potential clinical and academic interest. The first tumor was synaptophysin-positive and GFAP-negative, consistent with medulloblastoma. The second tumor was synaptophysin-negative and focally GFAP-positive, consistent with glioblastoma. The glioblastoma displayed EGF receptor amplification, and interestingly, it also displayed MYCN amplification; both tumors showed low level PTEN deletion. The medulloblastoma displayed a signal pattern consistent with an isochromosome 17q, while the glioblastoma showed some cells with an isochromosome 17q signal pattern amid a background of cells with abundant chromosomal instability. The relationship

  5. [Falls and accidents in the nursing home--review of a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Fisch, H P

    1983-07-01

    61 falls and accidents and one suicide needed medical attention in our nursing home during a five-year period. Most frequent sequelae were scalp lacerations, followed by fractures of the femoral neck. 73% of the patients who got hurt by falls suffered of dementia. 38% were being treated with neuroleptic, antihypertensive or diuretic drugs. It was not possible however to document a relationship between drug treatment and falls. Most falls occurred while patients were walking on the floor without obstacles and without external influences. 3 patients died as immediate consequence of their falls. We observed falls more often in the first period of the patient's stay in our institution and again shortly before the patient's death. Prophylactic measures against falls include bed-rails, little tables that can be fixed to the wheel-chairs in order to hinder unassisted standing up of patients, unable to walk alone and judicious treatment with sedative drugs. The most important measure however seems to be compassionate and attentive patient care that conveys trust and confidence between patients and the nursing personnel. Possibly the incidence of falls and accidents could be used as a measure of the quality of nursing care in geriatric institutions.

  6. Characterization and evolution of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Spanish shoemaking industry over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Carmen; Ferri, Francisca; Sogorb, Miguel Angel; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    This study measured inhalation exposure to 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among workers in the leatherwear industry in Spain, examined the changes in those exposures over a 5-year period, and documented local exhaust ventilation practices that affected exposure. In collaboration with an occupational risk prevention company, air samples were collected from 849 workers' personal breathing zones using personal air pumps with activated charcoal tubes. VOCs were analyzed using a GC/MS-optimized method modified in our laboratory from that proposed by Spanish authorities (INSHT). Airborne concentrations were compared with occupational exposure limit (OEL) values from the European authorities. The most frequently detected VOCs were acetone (98.1%), toluene (94.8%), n-hexane (71.2%) and other C6-C7 branched alkyl hydrocarbons (97.5%). Other frequently detected VOCs were MEK (64.9%), ethylacetate (60.7%), and cyclohexane (29.3%). Benzene was detected in 24.6% of samples. Although all the samples were taken while workers performed tasks judged to have the highest VOC exposure potential, only 14% of samples showed excessive aggregate exposure, and chemical-specific OELs were exceeded in a relatively small number of cases: 7.2% for n-hexane, 2.8% for toluene, 0.6% for acetone, and 0.4% for hexane isomers. Over the study period, a diminished use of n-hexane in solvent formulations and an increased use of branched hexane and heptane isomers were observed. Six factors relating to work location conditions and types were evaluated. Most high-exposure cases were associated with three task types. The presence of local exhaust ventilation was an important exposure control, but significant exposures despite the use of local exhaust were observed. Although n-hexane exposures significantly decreased over the study period, the overall level of VOC exposure did not decrease. More effective exposure prevention measures need to be implemented. PMID:23016600

  7. Clinical performance and survival of space maintainers: evaluation over a period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Lamis D

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the clinical performance of 387 space maintainers fitted in 358 patients aged from 3 to 9 years in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at the Faculty of Dentistry-University of Jordan from 1996 to 2000. Failure occurred in 119 appliances (30.7%), of which 49.6% were due to solder breakage, 32.8% from cement loss, 11% from soft tissue lesions, 4.2% from eruption interference, and 2.5% were completely lost. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the estimated median survival time for space maintainers was 18 months. Lingual arches had the lowest median survival time of 14 months. Bands and loops, Nance appliances, and removable partial dentures had similar probability of survival. Fixed bilateral mandibular appliances recorded lower survival time than fixed bilateral maxillary appliances. Gender, age, type of dentition, fixed vs. removable, year of placement of the appliance and number of space maintainers fitted simultaneously in the same patient had no significant effect on survival of the appliances.

  8. Factors attributed to fatal occupational accidents in a period of 5 years preceding the Athens 2004 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Katsakiori, Panagiota; Manatakis, Emmanuel; Goutsos, Stavros; Athanassiou, George

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors attributed to occupational fatalities occurring in the region of East Attica, Greece, in all industry types over a 5-year period preceding the 2004 Olympic Games. Questionnaires, based on the attribution theory, were completed by labor inspectors and were analyzed with principal component analysis. The results showed that most accidents occurred in the construction industry due to large-scale civil works, which took place in East Attica prior to the 2004 Olympic Games. Poor work practices arising from lack of orientation and job training, performance pressure and workers' inexperience associated with knowledge- and skill-based errors were revealed by the questionnaire as the most common factors attributed to occupational fatalities. Our findings help to identify areas where prevention efforts should be directed to effectively manage safety in Greece. PMID:18954538

  9. Congenital myopathies--clinical features and frequency of individual subtypes diagnosed over a 5-year period in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Maggi, L; Scoto, M; Cirak, S; Robb, S A; Klein, A; Lillis, S; Cullup, T; Feng, L; Manzur, A Y; Sewry, C A; Abbs, S; Jungbluth, H; Muntoni, F

    2013-03-01

    The congenital myopathies are a group of inherited neuromuscular disorders mainly defined on the basis of characteristic histopathological features. We analysed 66 patients assessed at a single centre over a 5 year period. Of the 54 patients where muscle biopsy was available, 29 (54%) had a core myopathy (central core disease, multi-minicore disease), 9 (17%) had nemaline myopathy, 7 (13%) had myotubular/centronuclear myopathy, 2 (4%) had congenital fibre type disproportion, 6 (11%) had isolated type 1 predominance and 1 (2%) had a mixed core-rod myopathy. Of the 44 patients with a genetic diagnosis, RYR1 was mutated in 26 (59%), ACTA1 in 7 (16%), SEPN1 in 7 (16%), MTM1 in 2 (5%), NEB in 1 (2%) and TPM3 in 1 (2%). Clinically, 77% of patients older than 18 months could walk independently. 35% of all patients required ventilatory support and/or enteral feeding. Clinical course was stable or improved in 57/66 (86%) patients, whilst 4 (6%) got worse and 5 (8%) died. These findings indicate that core myopathies are the most common form of congenital myopathies and that more than half can be attributed to RYR1 mutations. The underlying genetic defect remains to be identified in 1/3 of congenital myopathies cases. PMID:23394784

  10. Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Hospital- and Community-Acquired Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Isolates over 5-Year Period in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Wafaa Y.; Rotimi, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading and an important cause of diarrhea in a healthcare setting especially in industrialized countries. Community-associated CDI appears to add to the burden on healthcare setting problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of healthcare-associated and community-acquired C. difficile infection over 5 years (2008–2012) in Kuwait. A total of 111 hospital-acquired (HA-CD) and 35 community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CA-CD) clinical isolates from stool of patients with diarrhoea were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobial agents against these pathogens was performed using E test method. There was no evidence of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, daptomycin, linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, teicoplanin and vancomycin by both HA-CD and CA-CD isolates. Metronidazole had excellent activity against CA-CD but there was a 2.9% resistance rate against HA-CD isolates. Ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and imipenem resistance rates among the HC-CD vs. CA-CD isolates were 100 vs. 47.4%; 43 vs. 47.4%; 100 vs. 100% and 100 vs. 89%, respectively. An unexpected high rifampicin resistance rate of 15.7% emerged amongst the HA-CD isolates. In conclusion, vancomycin resistance amongst the HA-CD and CA-CD isolates was not encountered in this series but few metronidazole resistant hospital isolates were isolated. High resistance rates of ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and imipenem resistance were evident among both CA-CD and HA-CD isolates. Rifampicin resistance is emerging among the HA-CD isolates. PMID:27536994

  11. [Corpse disposal by embedding it in concrete--a rare form of preserving a body over a period of 5 years and 10 months].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Final disposal of a homicide victim in concrete is rare. Often missing persons are reported to the police, but the right of adults to determine their whereabouts can make it very difficult to locate them. A 40-year-old woman had been missing for 5 years and 10 months. She was found by the police in the cellar of the family's house, packed in airtight plastic film and embedded in concrete. The husband admitted to have killed her by manual strangulation after an argument during which she fell on the head. His statements were confirmed by the findings obtained from the very well preserved body. The autopsy results were generally consistent with manual strangulation. The literature does not contain many case reports on this rare method of disposing of a body. In the reported case, the postmortem period was remarkably long and the corpse was in a good state of preservation.

  12. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  13. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  14. Characteristics of the spatio-temporal network of cattle movements in France over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhagat Lal; Ezanno, Pauline; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2014-11-01

    A good knowledge of the specificities of the animal trade network is highly valuable to better control pathogen spread on a large regional to transnational scale. Because of their temporal dynamical nature, studying multi-annual datasets is particularly needed to investigate whether structural patterns are stable over the years. In this study, we analysed the French cattle movement network from 2005 to 2009 for different spatial granularities and temporal windows, with the three-fold objective of exploring temporal variations of the main network characteristics, computing proxies for pathogen spread on this network, which accounts for its time-varying properties and identifying specificities related to the main types of animals and farms (dairy versus beef). Network properties did not qualitatively vary among different temporal and spatial granularities. About 40% of the holdings and 80% of the communes were directly interconnected. The width of the aggregation time window barely impacted normalised distributions of indicators. A period of 8-16 weeks would suffice for robust estimation of their main trends, whereas longer periods would provide more details on tails. The dynamic nature of the network could be seen through the small overlap between consecutive networks with 65% of common active nodes for only 3% of common links over 2005-2009. To control pathogen spread on such a network, by reducing the largest strongly connected component by more than 80%, movements should be prevented from 1 to 5% of the holdings with the highest centrality in the previous year network. The analysis of breed-wise and herd-wise subnetworks, dairy, beef and mixed, reveals similar trends in temporal variation of average indicators and their distributions. The link-based backbones of beef subnetworks seem to be more stable over time than those of other subnetworks. At a regional scale, node reachability accounting for time-respecting paths, as proxy of epidemic burden, is greater for

  15. Preventive Health Perspective in Sports Medicine: The Trend at the Use of Medications and Nutritional Supplements during 5 Years Period between 2003 and 2008 in Football

    PubMed Central

    Kavukcu, Ethem; Burgazlı, Kamil Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of medication and nutritional supplement use in male Football Super League players and to observe the long term changes of players’ attitudes during 5 years period (4 seasons). Study Design: Retrospective study. Material and Methods: Review and analysis of 4176 doping control forms -declaration reports- about players’ medication intake including; Super League, UEFA Cup and the UEFA Champions League matches. Team physician was asked to document all medications and nutritional supplements taken by the Football Super League players in the last 72 hours before each match. Results: A total intake of 5939 substances were documented, of which almost half 49.2% (n=2921) were classified as medications and 50.8% (n=3018) were nutritional supplements. The average consumption per player was 1.42 substance/match; 0.70 were medications and 0.72 of nutritional supplements. The supplements used most frequently were NSAIDs 24.6% (n=1460) accounting for almost one in four of all reported supplements. Diclofenac Sodium was the most frequently reported active pharmaceutical ingredient. Second most frequently used supplements were vitamins (22.2%). The average drug consumption reported per player has been increasing every passing year. It was 0.7 substance/match/player (0.4 medication; 0.3 nutritional supplement) in 2003–2004 season; was increased to 1.8 substance/match (0.8 medication; 1.0 nutritional supplement) in 2006–2007 season. Conclusion: The trends seen in this survey point to an overuse of NSAIDs and vitamins in comparison with other medications, amoung Turkish Super League football players (p<0.001). The use of NSAIDs has increased but the medication groups did not differ significantly between seasons, in terms of distribution. This increasing use of medications especially of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nutritional supplements is alarming and needs to be argued. PMID:25207073

  16. Spectral variability in hard X-rays and discovery of a 13,5 years period in bright quasar 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.

    SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. ravi@tifr.res.in/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.

  17. Drowning-related fatalities during a 5-year period (2008-2012) in South-West Hungary--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Evelin; Könczöl, Franciska; Mészáros, Hajnalka; Kozma, Zsolt; Mayer, Mátyás; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Poór, Viktor S; Sipos, Katalin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate all the drowning-related cases in South-West Hungary between 2008 and 2012. It is a retrospective and descriptive study of 114 drowning-related deaths during that 5-year period. The investigation includes both unintentional and intentional drowning cases. We found that the most considerable risk factor of drowning in this area of Hungary is alcohol consumption, because in more than half of the cases the victims were under the influence of alcohol. We also concluded that more than two third of the cases included males. The cause of drowning in younger victims was mostly accident. In both genders subjects aged 50-70 had the highest risk of drowning in the period investigated. Seniors frequently committed suicide by drowning. Drowning deaths occurred in all types of water, mostly in lakes, rivers, canals and other types of catchment in the vicinity of victims' homes (most commonly in wells). This study might help to understand the circumstances and the causes leading to drowning and it may draw the attention to the possible preventive interventions.

  18. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging.

  19. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging. PMID:26374140

  20. Diagnosis of tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency using filter paper blood spots: further development of the method and 5 years experience.

    PubMed

    Opladen, Thomas; Abu Seda, Bettina; Rassi, Anahita; Thöny, Beat; Hoffmann, Georg F; Blau, Nenad

    2011-06-01

    In every newborn with even mild hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) deficiencies need to be excluded as soon as possible. Differential diagnosis is most commonly performed by analysis of urinary neopterin and biopterin. In 2005 a new method for the measurement of neopterin, biopterin and other pterins in dried blood spot (DBS) on filter paper was introduced. In order to evaluate the usefulness of this method as a standard tool for differential diagnosis of HPAs we analyzed neopterin, biopterin, pterin and dihydropteridine reductase activity in DBS from 362 patients with HPA over the period of five years. Age-dependent reference values were established for the HPA population. Sixty-four patients with BH(4) deficiency (27 patients with 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase deficiency, seven with GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency, and 30 with dihydropteridine reductase) were identified. Reference values for neopterin and biopterin in DBS were calculated for each of the variants. 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase and GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency can be diagnosed by neopterin and biopterin analysis alone, while for diagnosis of dihydropteridine reductase deficiency additional determination of enzyme activity from the same DBS is essential. Regarding test sensitivity, the interpretation of neopterin and biopterin concentration per hemoglobin is more valid than the interpretation of neopterin and biopterin per liter. Percentage of biopterin, of the sum of neopterin and biopterin should always be calculated. In addition, determination of hemoglobin concentration is essential as a measure for efficient extraction of neopterin and biopterin. Although the measurement of neopterin and biopterin in urine is more sensitive due to the higher concentrations present, our data prove the usefulness of their measurement from DBS for the routine diagnosis of BH(4) deficiencies.

  1. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  2. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  3. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  4. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  5. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  6. Case Series of HIV Infection-Associated Arteriopathy: Diagnosis, Management, and Outcome Over a 5-Year period at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai University.

    PubMed

    Orrapin, Saritphat; Reanpang, Termpong; Orrapin, Saranat; Arwon, Supapong; Kattipathanapong, Thanate; Lekwanavijit, Suree; Rerkasem, Kittipan

    2015-09-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can present with 4 pathology types: drug-induced vasospasm (ergotism), arterial limb ischemia, critical limb ischemia, and aneurysm. Although these problems are common vascular problems, they result in increased morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients, especially aneurysm. Patients with these problems tend to be diagnosed with difficulty because of atypical symptoms and signs. Because of lack of data in treatment outcome literature, our report explores and provides information on HIV infection-related arteriopathy. There were 17 patients in our 5-year review. There was no death in patients except the aneurysm type. The survival of aneurysm patients was significantly lower than from other pathologies (P = .003). Our case series showed good short-term outcome, and patients were not at risk for less beneficial surgical procedures.

  7. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... Physical and motor skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

  8. Emission measurements of alkenes, alkanes, SO2, and NO2 from stationary sources in Southeast Texas over a 5 year period using SOF and mobile DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, John K. E.; Mellqvist, Johan; Samuelsson, Jerker; Offerle, Brian; Lefer, Barry; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Flynn, James; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-02-01

    A mobile platform for flux measurements of VOCs (alkanes and alkenes), SO2, and NO2 emissions using the Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) method and mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was used in four different studies to measure industrial emissions. The studies were carried out in several large conglomerates of oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Southeast and East Texas in 2006, 2009, 2011, and 2012. The measured alkane emissions from the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) have been fairly stable between 2006 and 2011, averaging about 11,500 kg/h, while the alkene emissions have shown greater variations. The ethene and propene emissions measured from the HSC were 1511 kg/h and 878 kg/h, respectively, in 2006, while dropping to roughly 600 kg/h for both species in 2009 and 2011. The results were compared to annual inventory emissions, showing that measured VOC emissions were typically 5-15 times higher, while for SO2 and NO2 the ratio was typically 0.5-2. AP-42 emission factors were used to estimate meteorological effects on alkane emissions from tanks, showing that these emissions may have been up to 35-45% higher during the studies than the annual average. A more focused study of alkene emissions from a petrochemical complex in Longview in 2012 identified two upset episodes, and the elevation of the total emissions during the measurement period due to the upsets was estimated to be approximately 20%. Both meteorological and upset effects were small compared to the factor of 5-15, suggesting that VOC emissions are systematically and substantially underestimated in current emission inventories.

  9. [From bedside to evidence - and back to bedside. 5 years evidence-based guidelines in South Tyrol: methods and experiences].

    PubMed

    Langer, Gero; Siller, Marianne; Tappeiner, Waltraud

    2013-06-01

    In South Tyrol we developed guidelines with two different methodological approaches: one relates to the autonomous development of a nursing guideline for oral care using GRADE, and the other relates to the adaptation process of the NICE guideline on the prevention of venous thromboembolism. Both methods do have advantages and disadvantages: by autonomously developing guidelines the guideline panel identifies more with the product but time and effort is much higher than adapting and amending existing (high quality) guidelines. On the other hand there are only few high quality nursing guidelines. Additionally, the experiences in South Tyrol show that nursing guidelines seem to be not really suitable for a 1:1 application into practice because nearly half of the nurses have not changed their practice - although they knew the content of the guideline. Therefore, in order to promote the implementation process multimodal strategies on different organisational levels were adopted. Amongst these was the involvement of management through the negotiations of objectives, training and active participation of staff in the development of user-friendly application tools.

  10. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams.

  11. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams. PMID:26339996

  12. An analysis of infection control of varicella-zoster virus infections in Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge over a 5-year period, 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Whipp, J.; Redpath, C.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study analyses infections with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge during 1987-92 and examines the spread of infection. In total, 93 patients and staff experienced VZV infection. Twenty-one patients had varicella and 49 experienced zoster. None of 101 patients and 1 of 625 staff members in contact with varicella cases acquired infection. By contrast, 2 of 227 patients, and 5 of 1039 staff in contact with zoster cases acquired varicella. One out of 28 (3.6%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with varicella acquired infection, compared with 5 out of 29 (17.2%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with zoster. Thus, zoster was found to be a more frequent cause of nosocomial infection than varicella. Fourteen members of staff had VZV infection during the study period. One of 99 patients and none of 389 staff members in contact with these cases developed varicella. The cost of dealing with infection control for VZV infections in our hospital is estimated to be Pounds 714 per patient case and a total of Pounds 13,204 per year. PMID:8760965

  13. Prevalence of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies in general population: estimates from annual physical examinations of residents of a small town over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuhide; Koshiba, Masahiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Tomoko; Morinobu, Sahoko; Kawano, Seiji; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the types and prevalence of disease-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and their relationship to rheumatic diseases in the general Japanese population. An immunofluorescence (IF) method was used for the first screening of ANA levels in serum samples obtained from 2181 residents of a small Japanese town. Individuals positive for IF-ANA were then further tested for disease-specific ANAs using eight enzyme immunoassays. Physical status and the presence of illness were determined by means of questionnaires and medical examinations. Based on the result of the IF-ANA assay, the rates of positive samples at 1:40 and 1:160 dilutions were 26.0 and 9.5%, respectively, with females have significantly higher positivity rates than males (P < 0.0001). Among 566 IF-ANA-positive individuals, 100 individuals were found to have 114 disease-specific ANAs. Anti-SSA/Ro, anti-centromere, and anti-U1RNP antibodies were detected in 58, 30, and 11 individuals, respectively, but anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were undetectable. Questionnaires and medical examinations revealed that among 60 disease-specific ANA-positive individuals that were available for testing, six had Sjögren's syndrome (SS), five were suspected of having SS, and five had rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly, 34 (57%) of the disease-specific ANA-positive individuals were clinically healthy. Anti-SSA/Ro, anti-centromere, and anti-U1RNP antibodies were quite frequent among clinically healthy Japanese subjects, although anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were not. Of the 60 individuals who tested positive for disease-specific ANAs, 30% (18/60) actually manifested systemic rheumatic diseases, while 50% showed no detectable signs or symptoms of rheumatic diseases.

  14. Mid-Term Quasi-Periodicities and Solar Cycle Variation of the White-Light Corona from 18.5 Years (1996.0 - 2014.5) of LASCO Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlyaeva, T.; Lamy, P.; Llebaria, A.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the analysis of the temporal evolution of the solar corona based on 18.5 years (1996.0 - 2014.5) of white-light observations with the SOHO/LASCO-C2 coronagraph. This evolution is quantified by generating spatially integrated values of the K-corona radiance, first globally, then in latitudinal sectors. The analysis considers time series of monthly values and 13-month running means of the radiance as well as several indices and proxies of solar activity. We study correlation, wavelet time-frequency spectra, and cross-coherence and phase spectra between these quantities. Our results give a detailed insight on how the corona responds to solar activity over timescales ranging from mid-term quasi-periodicities (also known as quasi-biennial oscillations or QBOs) to the long-term 11 year solar cycle. The amplitude of the variation between successive solar maxima and minima (modulation factor) very much depends upon the strength of the cycle and upon the heliographic latitude. An asymmetry is observed during the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24, prominently in the royal and polar sectors, with north leading. Most prominent QBOs are a quasi-annual period during the maximum phase of Solar Cycle 23 and a shorter period, seven to eight months, in the ascending and maximum phases of Solar Cycle 24. They share the same properties as the solar QBOs: variable periodicity, intermittency, asymmetric development in the northern and southern solar hemispheres, and largest amplitudes during the maximum phase of solar cycles. The strongest correlation of the temporal variations of the coronal radiance - and consequently the coronal electron density - is found with the total magnetic flux. Considering that the morphology of the solar corona is also directly controlled by the topology of the magnetic field, this correlation reinforces the view that they are intimately connected, including their variability at all timescales.

  15. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  16. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Using the forward period analysis (FPA), we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit) solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT) scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested. PMID:27727295

  17. Microbiological monitoring of endoscopes: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth E; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2008-07-01

    Periodic microbiological monitoring of endoscopes is a recommendation of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GENSA). The aim of monitoring has been to provide quality assurance of the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes; however, there is controversy regarding its frequency. This lack of consensus stimulated a review of the experience within our health service. At Southern Health, routine microbiological sampling has involved 4-weekly monitoring of bronchoscopes, duodenoscopes and automated flexible endoscope reprocessors (AFER), and 3-monthly monitoring of all other gastrointestinal endoscopes. Records of testing were reviewed from 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2006. A literature review was conducted, cost analysis performed and positive cultures investigated. There were 2374 screening tests performed during the 5-year period, including 287 AFER, 631 bronchoscopes for mycobacteria and 1456 endoscope bacterial screens. There were no positive results of the AFER or bronchoscopes for mycobacteria. Of the 1456 endoscopic bacterial samples, six were positive; however, retesting resulted in no growth. The overall cost of tests performed and cost in time for nursing staff to collect the samples was estimated at $AUD 100,400. Periodic monitoring of endoscopes is both time-consuming and costly. Our review demonstrates that AFER (Soluscope) perform well in cleaning endoscopes. Based on our 5-year experience, assurance of quality for endoscopic use could be achieved through process control as opposed to product control. Maintenance of endoscopes and AFER should be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and microbiological testing performed on commissioning, annually and following repair. Initial prompt manual leak testing and manual cleaning followed by mechanical leak testing, cleaning and disinfection should be the minimum standard in reprocessing of endoscopes. PMID:18086113

  18. Numerical matrix method for quantum periodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vot, Felipe; Meléndez, Juan J.; Yuste, Santos B.

    2016-06-01

    A numerical matrix methodology is applied to quantum problems with periodic potentials. The procedure consists essentially in replacing the true potential by an alternative one, restricted by an infinite square well, and in expressing the wave functions as finite superpositions of eigenfunctions of the infinite well. A matrix eigenvalue equation then yields the energy levels of the periodic potential within an acceptable accuracy. The methodology has been successfully used to deal with problems based on the well-known Kronig-Penney (KP) model. Besides the original model, these problems are a dimerized KP solid, a KP solid containing a surface, and a KP solid under an external field. A short list of additional problems that can be solved with this procedure is presented.

  19. Malpractice and radiologists, update 1986: an 11. 5-year perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, L.

    1986-12-01

    All medical malpractice lawsuits filed in Cook County, IL, from January 1, 1980, through June 30, 1986, were reviewed and compared with similar data for the period of January 1, 1975, through December 30, 1979. A total of 11,203 suits were filed during the 11.5-year period; of these, 1391 (12%) were radiology related. The latter were categorized into six groups. The largest was missed radiologic diagnoses, which accounted for 40% of the total. The remaining groups included complications, 19%; failure to order, 17%; radiation therapy, 11%; slip and fall, 5%; and miscellaneous, 8%. Over the 1975-1986 period, the rise in the number of suits alleging radiologic misses outpaced all other groups. Although the most common type of miss continues to involve fractures, the frequency of missed carcinomas has grown at a disproportionately faster rate. Misses specifically involving CT, nuclear medicine, and sonography also are becoming more prevalent. Radiographic misses continue to occur at an average rate of 30%, with little hope of improvement. Methods to combat the rising number of malpractice suits are discussed. It is concluded that although programs to educate radiologists on risk management should continue, the ultimate solution may be a more enlightened public attitude as to what actually constitutes malpractice, and institution of tort reform measures by federal and state legislatures.

  20. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  1. Stimulant Treatment over 5 Years: Effects on Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Figueroa, Max; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Long-term effects of psychostimulants on growth in height and in weight are investigated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Participants were 79 children, 6 to 12 years of age, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, who were followed annually for up to 5 years, between the years 1993 and 1994 and…

  2. Linear Scaling Electronic Structure Methods with Periodic Boundary Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavo E. Scuseria

    2008-02-08

    The methodological development and computational implementation of linear scaling quantum chemistry methods for the accurate calculation of electronic structure and properties of periodic systems (solids, surfaces, and polymers) and their application to chemical problems of DOE relevance.

  3. Statistical methods for detecting periodic fragments in DNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Period 10 dinucleotides are structurally and functionally validated factors that influence the ability of DNA to form nucleosomes, histone core octamers. Robust identification of periodic signals in DNA sequences is therefore required to understand nucleosome organisation in genomes. While various techniques for identifying periodic components in genomic sequences have been proposed or adopted, the requirements for such techniques have not been considered in detail and confirmatory testing for a priori specified periods has not been developed. Results We compared the estimation accuracy and suitability for confirmatory testing of autocorrelation, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), integer period discrete Fourier transform (IPDFT) and a previously proposed Hybrid measure. A number of different statistical significance procedures were evaluated but a blockwise bootstrap proved superior. When applied to synthetic data whose period-10 signal had been eroded, or for which the signal was approximately period-10, the Hybrid technique exhibited superior properties during exploratory period estimation. In contrast, confirmatory testing using the blockwise bootstrap procedure identified IPDFT as having the greatest statistical power. These properties were validated on yeast sequences defined from a ChIP-chip study where the Hybrid metric confirmed the expected dominance of period-10 in nucleosome associated DNA but IPDFT identified more significant occurrences of period-10. Application to the whole genomes of yeast and mouse identified ~ 21% and ~ 19% respectively of these genomes as spanned by period-10 nucleosome positioning sequences (NPS). Conclusions For estimating the dominant period, we find the Hybrid period estimation method empirically to be the most effective for both eroded and approximate periodicity. The blockwise bootstrap was found to be effective as a significance measure, performing particularly well in the problem of period detection in the

  4. Child and Mother Cardiac Vagal Tone: Continuity, Stability, and Concordance across the First 5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Measured vagal tone and heart period at 2 months and 5 years in children and their mothers to evaluate the development of vagal regulation at rest and during an environmental task. Found that children reached adult levels of baseline vagal tone by 5 years and did not differ from mothers in baseline-to-task change in vagal tone or heart period.…

  5. A method of periodic pattern localization on document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, Timofey S.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Kliatskine, Vitali M.

    2015-12-01

    Periodic patterns often present on document images as holograms, watermarks or guilloche elements which are mostly used for fraud protection. Localization of such patterns lets an embedded OCR system to vary its settings depending on pattern presence in particular image regions and improves the precision of pattern removal to preserve as much useful data as possible. Many document images' noise detection and removal methods deal with unstructured noise or clutter on documents with simple background. In this paper we propose a method of periodic pattern localization on document images which uses discrete Fourier transform that works well on documents with complex background.

  6. Hybrid transfer-matrix FDTD method for layered periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2009-03-15

    A hybrid transfer-matrix finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for modeling the optical properties of finite-width planar periodic structures. This method can also be applied for calculation of the photonic bands in infinite photonic crystals. We describe the procedure of evaluating the transfer-matrix elements by a special numerical FDTD simulation. The accuracy of the new method is tested by comparing computed transmission spectra of a 32-layered photonic crystal composed of spherical or ellipsoidal scatterers with the results of direct FDTD and layer-multiple-scattering calculations.

  7. Periodicity detection method for small-sample time series datasets.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Time series of gene expression often exhibit periodic behavior under the influence of multiple signal pathways, and are represented by a model that incorporates multiple harmonics and noise. Most of these data, which are observed using DNA microarrays, consist of few sampling points in time, but most periodicity detection methods require a relatively large number of sampling points. We have previously developed a detection algorithm based on the discrete Fourier transform and Akaike's information criterion. Here we demonstrate the performance of the algorithm for small-sample time series data through a comparison with conventional and newly proposed periodicity detection methods based on a statistical analysis of the power of harmonics.We show that this method has higher sensitivity for data consisting of multiple harmonics, and is more robust against noise than other methods. Although "combinatorial explosion" occurs for large datasets, the computational time is not a problem for small-sample datasets. The MATLAB/GNU Octave script of the algorithm is available on the author's web site: http://www.cbrc.jp/%7Etominaga/piccolo/. PMID:21151841

  8. Strengths and Limitations of Period Estimation Methods for Circadian Data

    PubMed Central

    Troup, Eilidh; Halliday, Karen J.; Millar, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    A key step in the analysis of circadian data is to make an accurate estimate of the underlying period. There are many different techniques and algorithms for determining period, all with different assumptions and with differing levels of complexity. Choosing which algorithm, which implementation and which measures of accuracy to use can offer many pitfalls, especially for the non-expert. We have developed the BioDare system, an online service allowing data-sharing (including public dissemination), data-processing and analysis. Circadian experiments are the main focus of BioDare hence performing period analysis is a major feature of the system. Six methods have been incorporated into BioDare: Enright and Lomb-Scargle periodograms, FFT-NLLS, mFourfit, MESA and Spectrum Resampling. Here we review those six techniques, explain the principles behind each algorithm and evaluate their performance. In order to quantify the methods' accuracy, we examine the algorithms against artificial mathematical test signals and model-generated mRNA data. Our re-implementation of each method in Java allows meaningful comparisons of the computational complexity and computing time associated with each algorithm. Finally, we provide guidelines on which algorithms are most appropriate for which data types, and recommendations on experimental design to extract optimal data for analysis. PMID:24809473

  9. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  10. New actigraphic assessment method for periodic leg movements (PLM).

    PubMed

    Kazenwadel, J; Pollmächer, T; Trenkwalder, C; Oertel, W H; Kohnen, R; Künzel, M; Krüger, H P

    1995-10-01

    A new actigraphic method by which periodic leg movements (PLM) can be measured is presented. Data acquistion and analysis were brought into line to distinguish short-lasting repetive leg movements from random motor restlessness. The definition of PLM follows the generally accepted criteria for PLM scoring. Thirty restless legs patients, all also suffering from PLM, were investigated three times by polysomnography, including tibialis anterior surface electromyography and actigraphy. A high correlation (reliability) was found for the number of PLM per hour spent in bed between the two methods. Furthermore, the actigraph records PLM specifically. An index of random motor restlessness is not sufficient for a reliable PLM according. In addition, periodic movements in sleep (PMS) and PLM show comparable variability in general. The actigraphic assessment of PLM, however, gives a better measure because PMS recordings may result in a substantial underestimation of PLM when sleep efficiency is reduced. This method is an ambulatory assessment tool that can also be used for screening purposes.

  11. Geometric method for forming periodic orbits in the Lorenz system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, S. B.; Kim, Eun-jin

    2016-04-01

    Many systems in nature are out of equilibrium and irreversible. The non-detailed balance observable representation (NOR) provides a useful methodology for understanding the evolution of such non-equilibrium complex systems, by mapping out the correlation between two states to a metric space where a small distance represents a strong correlation [1]. In this paper, we present the first application of the NOR to a continuous system and demonstrate its utility in controlling chaos. Specifically, we consider the evolution of a continuous system governed by the Lorenz equation and calculate the NOR by following a sufficient number of trajectories. We then show how to control chaos by converting chaotic orbits to periodic orbits by utilizing the NOR. We further discuss the implications of our method for potential applications given the key advantage that this method makes no assumptions of the underlying equations of motion and is thus extremely general.

  12. Periodic local MP2 method employing orbital specific virtuals

    SciTech Connect

    Usvyat, Denis Schütz, Martin; Maschio, Lorenzo

    2015-09-14

    We introduce orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) to represent the truncated pair-specific virtual space in periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (LMP2). The OSVs are constructed by diagonalization of the LMP2 amplitude matrices which correspond to diagonal Wannier-function (WF) pairs. Only a subset of these OSVs is adopted for the subsequent OSV-LMP2 calculation, namely, those with largest contribution to the diagonal pair correlation energy and with the accumulated value of these contributions reaching a certain accuracy. The virtual space for a general (non diagonal) pair is spanned by the union of the two OSV sets related to the individual WFs of the pair. In the periodic LMP2 method, the diagonal LMP2 amplitude matrices needed for the construction of the OSVs are calculated in the basis of projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), employing very large PAO domains. It turns out that the OSVs are excellent to describe short range correlation, yet less appropriate for long range van der Waals correlation. In order to compensate for this bias towards short range correlation, we augment the virtual space spanned by the OSVs by the most diffuse PAOs of the corresponding minimal PAO domain. The Fock and overlap matrices in OSV basis are constructed in the reciprocal space. The 4-index electron repulsion integrals are calculated by local density fitting and, for distant pairs, via multipole approximation. New procedures for determining the fit-domains and the distant-pair lists, leading to higher efficiency in the 4-index integral evaluation, have been implemented. Generally, and in contrast to our previous PAO based periodic LMP2 method, the OSV-LMP2 method does not require anymore great care in the specification of the individual domains (to get a balanced description when calculating energy differences) and is in that sense a black box procedure. Discontinuities in potential energy surfaces, which may occur for PAO-based calculations if one is not

  13. Periodic local MP2 method employing orbital specific virtuals.

    PubMed

    Usvyat, Denis; Maschio, Lorenzo; Schütz, Martin

    2015-09-14

    We introduce orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) to represent the truncated pair-specific virtual space in periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (LMP2). The OSVs are constructed by diagonalization of the LMP2 amplitude matrices which correspond to diagonal Wannier-function (WF) pairs. Only a subset of these OSVs is adopted for the subsequent OSV-LMP2 calculation, namely, those with largest contribution to the diagonal pair correlation energy and with the accumulated value of these contributions reaching a certain accuracy. The virtual space for a general (non diagonal) pair is spanned by the union of the two OSV sets related to the individual WFs of the pair. In the periodic LMP2 method, the diagonal LMP2 amplitude matrices needed for the construction of the OSVs are calculated in the basis of projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), employing very large PAO domains. It turns out that the OSVs are excellent to describe short range correlation, yet less appropriate for long range van der Waals correlation. In order to compensate for this bias towards short range correlation, we augment the virtual space spanned by the OSVs by the most diffuse PAOs of the corresponding minimal PAO domain. The Fock and overlap matrices in OSV basis are constructed in the reciprocal space. The 4-index electron repulsion integrals are calculated by local density fitting and, for distant pairs, via multipole approximation. New procedures for determining the fit-domains and the distant-pair lists, leading to higher efficiency in the 4-index integral evaluation, have been implemented. Generally, and in contrast to our previous PAO based periodic LMP2 method, the OSV-LMP2 method does not require anymore great care in the specification of the individual domains (to get a balanced description when calculating energy differences) and is in that sense a black box procedure. Discontinuities in potential energy surfaces, which may occur for PAO-based calculations if one is not

  14. Periodic local MP2 method employing orbital specific virtuals.

    PubMed

    Usvyat, Denis; Maschio, Lorenzo; Schütz, Martin

    2015-09-14

    We introduce orbital specific virtuals (OSVs) to represent the truncated pair-specific virtual space in periodic local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of second order (LMP2). The OSVs are constructed by diagonalization of the LMP2 amplitude matrices which correspond to diagonal Wannier-function (WF) pairs. Only a subset of these OSVs is adopted for the subsequent OSV-LMP2 calculation, namely, those with largest contribution to the diagonal pair correlation energy and with the accumulated value of these contributions reaching a certain accuracy. The virtual space for a general (non diagonal) pair is spanned by the union of the two OSV sets related to the individual WFs of the pair. In the periodic LMP2 method, the diagonal LMP2 amplitude matrices needed for the construction of the OSVs are calculated in the basis of projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), employing very large PAO domains. It turns out that the OSVs are excellent to describe short range correlation, yet less appropriate for long range van der Waals correlation. In order to compensate for this bias towards short range correlation, we augment the virtual space spanned by the OSVs by the most diffuse PAOs of the corresponding minimal PAO domain. The Fock and overlap matrices in OSV basis are constructed in the reciprocal space. The 4-index electron repulsion integrals are calculated by local density fitting and, for distant pairs, via multipole approximation. New procedures for determining the fit-domains and the distant-pair lists, leading to higher efficiency in the 4-index integral evaluation, have been implemented. Generally, and in contrast to our previous PAO based periodic LMP2 method, the OSV-LMP2 method does not require anymore great care in the specification of the individual domains (to get a balanced description when calculating energy differences) and is in that sense a black box procedure. Discontinuities in potential energy surfaces, which may occur for PAO-based calculations if one is not

  15. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  16. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  17. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  18. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  19. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a 5-year retrospective of the structure, methodology, progress, and contributions to the broader scientific community that have resulted from this national USGS program. We evaluate ARMI’s success to date, with regard to the challenges faced by the program and the strengths that have emerged. We chart objectives for the next 5 years that build on current accomplishments, highlight areas meriting further research, and direct efforts to overcome existing weaknesses.

  20. Medicaid program; state plan home and community-based services, 5-year period for waivers, provider payment reassignment, and home and community-based setting requirements for Community First Choice and home and community-based services (HCBS) waivers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-01-16

    This final rule amends the Medicaid regulations to define and describe state plan section 1915(i) home and community-based services (HCBS) under the Social Security Act (the Act) amended by the Affordable Care Act. This rule offers states new flexibilities in providing necessary and appropriate services to elderly and disabled populations. This rule describes Medicaid coverage of the optional state plan benefit to furnish home and community based-services and draw federal matching funds. This rule also provides for a 5-year duration for certain demonstration projects or waivers at the discretion of the Secretary, when they provide medical assistance for individuals dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare benefits, includes payment reassignment provisions because state Medicaid programs often operate as the primary or only payer for the class of practitioners that includes HCBS providers, and amends Medicaid regulations to provide home and community-based setting requirements related to the Affordable Care Act for Community First Choice State plan option. This final rule also makes several important changes to the regulations implementing Medicaid 1915(c) HCBS waivers.

  1. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  2. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, p<0.0001); provider satisfaction (65.4–79.2, p<0.01); capacity for service provision (47.4–76.4, p<0.0001); quality of services (40.5–67.4, p<0.0001); and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0–52.6). The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4–95.7, p<0.01), after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. Conclusions The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  3. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers. PMID:26237718

  4. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers.

  5. 24 CFR 203.269 - Method of payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Method of payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.269 Method of payment of periodic MIP. In cases that the Commissioner deems..., that periodic MIP be remitted electronically. Open-end Insurance Charges—All Mortgages...

  6. 24 CFR 203.269 - Method of payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Method of payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.269 Method of payment of periodic MIP. In cases that the Commissioner deems..., that periodic MIP be remitted electronically. Open-end Insurance Charges—All Mortgages...

  7. 24 CFR 203.269 - Method of payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.269 Method of payment of periodic MIP. In cases that the Commissioner deems..., that periodic MIP be remitted electronically. Open-end Insurance Charges—All Mortgages...

  8. 24 CFR 203.269 - Method of payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Method of payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.269 Method of payment of periodic MIP. In cases that the Commissioner deems..., that periodic MIP be remitted electronically. Open-end Insurance Charges—All Mortgages...

  9. 24 CFR 203.269 - Method of payment of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Method of payment of periodic MIP...-Periodic Payment § 203.269 Method of payment of periodic MIP. In cases that the Commissioner deems..., that periodic MIP be remitted electronically. Open-end Insurance Charges—All Mortgages...

  10. A Multiple-Data Analysis of the 3.5-Year Development of EFL Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes in Japanese students English writing behaviors over a 3.5-year period using multiple data sources including written texts, videotaped writing behaviors, and stimulated-recall protocols. Data from student interviews supplemented the analyses. Because 6 (henceforth, English as a second language [ESL]…

  11. Secondary Science Teachers' Use of Technology in the Classroom during Their First 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Luft, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technology use of beginning secondary science teachers and explored factors facilitating or inhibiting their use of technology. The researchers collected and analyzed interviews and observational data from 95 teachers over a 5-year period. The results show that teachers used PowerPoint the most and other software the least…

  12. A novel gene detection method based on period-3 property.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lun; Bataineh, Mohammad Al; Atkin, G E; Wang, Siyun; Zhang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Processing of biomolecular sequences using communication theory techniques provides powerful approaches for solving highly relevant problems in bioinformatics by properly mapping character strings into numerical sequences. We provide an optimized procedure for predicting protein-coding regions in DNA sequences based on the period-3 property of coding region. We present a digital correlating and filtering approach in the process of predicting these regions, and find out their locations by using the magnitude of the output sequence. These approaches result in improved computational techniques for the solution of useful problems in genomic information science and technology. PMID:19963599

  13. Orthodontic treatment in a patient with unilateral open-bite and Becker muscular dystrophy. A 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Aristizabal, Juan Fernando; Smit, Rosana Martínez

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-chromosomal linked anomaly characterized by progressive muscle wear and weakness. This case report shows the orthodontic treatment of a Becker muscular dystrophy patient with unilateral open bite. METHODS: To correct patient's malocclusion, general anesthesia and orthognathic surgery were not considered as an option. Conventional orthodontic treatment with intermaxillary elastics and muscular functional therapy were employed instead. RESULTS: After 36 months, open bite was corrected. The case remains stable after a 5-year post-treatment retention period. PMID:25628078

  14. Background Oriented Schlieren Method Using Multi-scale Periodic Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatanaka, Kazuaki; Saito, Tsutomu

    Background oriented schlieren (BOS) method is an optical visualization technique for flow fields utilizing the phenomenon that the refractive index of fluid changes when a disturbance occurs in the flow field [1, 2].

  15. Construction of Large Period Symplectic Maps by Interpolative Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warnock, Robert; Cai, Yunhai; Ellison, James A.; /New Mexico U.

    2009-12-17

    The goal is to construct a symplectic evolution map for a large section of an accelerator, say a full turn of a large ring or a long wiggler. We start with an accurate tracking algorithm for single particles, which is allowed to be slightly non-symplectic. By tracking many particles for a distance S one acquires sufficient data to construct the mixed-variable generator of a symplectic map for evolution over S, given in terms of interpolatory functions. Two ways to find the generator are considered: (1) Find its gradient from tracking data, then the generator itself as a line integral. (2) Compute the action integral on many orbits. A test of method (1) has been made in a difficult example: a full turn map for an electron ring with strong nonlinearity near the dynamic aperture. The method succeeds at fairly large amplitudes, but there are technical difficulties near the dynamic aperture due to oddly shaped interpolation domains. For a generally applicable algorithm we propose method (2), realized with meshless interpolation methods.

  16. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  17. 2001 IFT Education Standards: A 5-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    The current IFT Education Standards used to evaluate Food Science programs for IFT approval have been in place now for 5 years. Most Food Science programs in the United States (as well as some in Mexico and Canada) have been reviewed according to these standards. The transition to instruction based on assessment of student learning outcomes, in…

  18. WCTC 5-Year Graduation Rates. Retention for Learning Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Viktor; Sanford, Doug

    This study addresses Waukesha County Technical College's (WCTC) 5-year retention and graduate rates. Some of the key findings of the report are as follow: (1) overall, 35.4% of cohort students graduated; (2) a 4-year combined graduation rate for ethnic minorities was 26%, well below the overall average; (3) the percent of cohort that graduated…

  19. Hodgkin's disease. A clinico-pathological study of 250 cases with a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Newton, K A; Mackenzie, D H; Spittle, M F; Mikolajczuk, A

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty cases of histologically proven Hodgkin's disease have been reviewed. These cases were classified according to the Rye Conference histological classification (Lukes et al., 1966a) and according to the Cross classification (Cross, 1969). Overall, both classifications were reasonably effective in predicting prognosis but that of Cross with its seven sub-groups proved more difficult to use than the simpler Rye classification. In all cases the follow-up period exceeded 5 years. A study was made of the influence of clinical symptoms on survival with particular reference to night sweats, fever, pruritus, anorexia, lassitude, weight loss, haematological abnormalities and splenic enlargement. The presence of these abnormalities adversely affected prognosis. The spread of the disease from one group of nodes to the next was also documented. Considering all cases the 5-year survival was 54%. The 5-year survivals according to histological type were: lymphocytic predominance 69%, nodular sclerosis 57%, mixed cellularity 41%, lymphocytic depletion 40%. The 10-year survival was 23% which, when corrected by the actuarial method (Berkson and Gage, 1950), rose to 36%. The importance of symptomatology as well as histological grading in the prognosis of Hodgkin's disease is confirmed.

  20. A prospective study of the survival of chemically activated anterior resin composite restorations in general dental practice: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    van Noort, R; Davis, L G

    1993-08-01

    The principals of 26 general dental practices agreed to use six chemically activated resin composite restorative materials to restore Class III and Class V lesions and record information concerning their performance over a period of 5 years. The information collected was analysed by actuarial methods to assess the clinical longevity and reasons for replacement as perceived by the dentists operating in the General Dental Service in England. At the end of 5 years, 14 dentists provided sufficient returns for their data to be considered suitable for analysis. The database consisted of 2399 Class III and 1093 Class V restorations. The overall probability of survival at 5 years of Class III and Class V restorations was 62.9% and 71.8% respectively. The difference in performance between the six restorative materials was small, with the probability of survival varying from 70.4 +/- 2.9% to 56.3 +/- 2.9% for the Class III restorations and 78.6 +/- 3.7% to 67.7 +/- 4.2% for the Class V restorations. The main reasons for replacement were general surface discoloration, secondary caries and fracture. The chemically activated composite restorative materials available at the time of initiating this study produced comparable performances in general dental practice when used without enamel and dentine bonding techniques. This suggests that more general practice-based clinical studies are needed to determine whether or not improvements in materials and techniques are effectively transferred to the general practice situation.

  1. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica. PMID:25499184

  2. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica.

  3. Specialist Pediatric Palliative Care Referral Practices in Pediatric Oncology: A Large 5-year Retrospective Audit

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Damani, Anuja; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To audit referral practices of pediatric oncologists referred to specialist pediatric palliative care services. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of medical case records of pediatric palliative care patients over a period of 5 years from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Descriptive summaries of demographic, clinical variables, and patient circumstances at the time of referral and during end-of-life care were examined. Results: A total of 1135 patients were referred from pediatric oncology with a gradual increasing trend over 5 years. About 84.6% consultations took place in the outpatient setting. In 97.9% of the cases, parents were the primary caregivers. Availability of specialist pediatric health-care services at local places was available in 21.2% cases and 48% families earned <5000 INR (approximately 73 USD) in a month. Around 28.3% of the referrals were from leukemia clinic and maximum references were late with 72.4% patients having advanced disease at presentation. 30.3% of the referrals were made for counseling and communication and 54.2% had high symptom burden during referral. After referral, 21.2% patients continued with oral metronomic chemotherapy and 10.5% were referred back to oncology services for palliative radiotherapy. Only 4.9% patients had more than 2 follow-ups. 90.8% of the patients were cared for at home in the last days of illness by local general practitioners. 70.6% of the deaths were anticipated. Conclusions: Oncologists referred patients late in the course of disease trajectory. Most of the referrals were made for counseling and communication, but many patients had high symptom burden during referral. PMID:27559254

  4. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  5. 26 CFR 601.204 - Changes in accounting periods and in methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes in accounting periods and in methods of... (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.204 Changes in accounting periods and in methods of accounting. (a) Accounting periods. A taxpayer...

  6. 26 CFR 601.204 - Changes in accounting periods and in methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Changes in accounting periods and in methods of... (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.204 Changes in accounting periods and in methods of accounting. (a) Accounting periods. A taxpayer...

  7. SU-E-J-52: Decreasing Frequency of Performing TG-142 Imaging QA – 5 Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose This study is an update to check if the frequency of imaging QA suggested by AAPM Task Group Report 142 (TG142) is necessary with our 5 year experience. TG142 presents recommendations for QA criteria of IGRT treatment. ACR has adopted it to be the requirements for any radiatiotherapy practices; however, we propose to reduce the frequency on image quality QA according to this 5 year study.Method and Materials: This study uses VarianIX2100 and Siemens Artiste Linacs to perform QAs on KV, MV, CBCT modalities. The QA was designed following under the recommendations of TG142. This study reports the daily imaging positioning/repositioning and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. QA results on kV, MV and CBCT from 4/7/2010∼3/11/15 are analyzed. KV, MV, CBCT images are taken with the Varian isocube localized at the isocenter. Digital graticule is used in the software to verify the isocenter position. CBCT images are taken with the cube placed at 1cm superior, lateral and anterior of the isocenter. In-line fusion software is used to verify the contrived shift. Digital ruler provided at the on-board-imaging software or adaptive-targeting software was used to measure the position differences. The position differences were recorded at AP,LR,SI directions. Results 5 year records on kV, MV, CBCT show the shifts in all three directions are within the tolerance of 1mm suggested in TG142 for stereotactic radiation treatment(SRS/SRT). There is no occasion where shifts are outside 1mm tolerance. Conclusions The daily imaging QA suggested in TG142 is useful in ensuring the accuracy needed for SRS/SRT in IGRT. 5 year measurements presented suggest that decreasing the frequency of imaging QA may be acceptable, in particular for institutions reporting no violation of tolerance over periods of few years.

  8. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica in a 5 year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; Pires-de-Mello, Paulo; Morgado, Maria de Fátima; March, Maria de Fátima Pombo

    2012-12-01

    Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is considered an orphan disease with exceptional occurrence in children. We report a 5 year old female child who was referred to us with chronic cough and recurrent pneumonia. After several investigations, bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in the tracheobronchial lumen, whose distribution was consistent with TO. The patient was followed for four years, with no change in the pattern of the disease.

  9. [5-year experience with BCG immunoprophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Rüssel, C

    1992-09-01

    Our 5-year experience with BCG in the tumor stage pTis, pTa and pT1, G I-II shows a lasting remission of 88.5% (73%) in 78 (26) patients treated with BCG preparation Pasteur (Connaught) after transurethral resection. A complete remission in patients with carcinoma in situ (12 patients) could be found in 92%. The local and systemic side-effects, which are of limited duration, are tolerable, well treatable and fully reversible.

  10. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, ARMI has partnered with an extensive list of government, academic, and private entities. These partnerships have been fruitful and have assisted ARMI in developing new field protocols and analytic tools, in using and refining emerging technologies to improve accuracy and efficiency of data handling, in conducting amphibian disease, malformation, and environmental effects research, and in implementing a network of mon

  11. Surgical treatment of cardiac tumors: a 5-year experience from a single cardiac center

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liang; He, Dengke; Shen, Hua; Ling, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Xue, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare but manifested with various clinical presentations and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. The objective is to review the clinical presentation, histopathological spectrum, mortality and follow-up data of patients with cardiac tumors following surgery treatment over a period of 5 years. Methods We retrospectively collected the medical records of all patients diagnosed of cardiac tumors in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 at the cardiac center of our university. Clinical histories, perioperative data, surgical findings, efficacy and follow-up data were reviewed in our study. Patients were divided into two groups according to site distribution of the tumors in the heart. Results A total of 131 patients underwent surgical treatment of cardiac tumors were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 51.39±16.37. The result of analysis showed that 79.47% (n=104) of the primary intracardiac tumors were benign, while primary malignant neoplasms accounted for 16.03% (n=21) of all patients, with the remainder (n=6, 4.6%) metastatic tumors transferred from other organs. Among all patients there were 2 in-hospital deaths and the survival rate in all patients at 1-year, 3-year and 5-year follow up was 83.20%, 78.62% and 66.41% respectively. Both patients with tumors in the left and right heart had similar basic characteristics except sex gender (P=0.002), BSA (P=0.045) and weight (P=0.033). Compared with patients with tumors in the right heart, patients with tumors in the left heart had significant higher CPB time (P<0.001), cross clamp time (P<0.001) and time of mechanical ventilation (P<0.001), and they also had longer ICU stay (P<0.001) but not total hospital stay (P=0.434). Conclusions Surgical resection represents an effective protocol in treating cardiac tumors. Data in our study of cardiac tumors on frequency and allocation were consistent with previous reports which may provide useful clinical evidence on

  12. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  13. Persistence and progression of masked hypertension: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Xavier; Milot, Alain; Brisson, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine masked hypertension persistence over 5 years. Methods. White-collar workers were recruited from three public organizations. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using Spacelabs 90207. Manually operated BP was defined as the mean of the first three readings taken at rest. Ambulatory BP was defined as the mean of the next readings taken every 15 minutes and recorded during working hours. BP was assessed three times over 5 years. Masked hypertension was defined as manually operated BP less than 140 and less than 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg. Sustained hypertension was defined as manually operated BP at least 140 or at least 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg or being treated for hypertension. Results. BP measurements were obtained from 1669 participants from whom 232 had masked hypertension at baseline. Persistence of masked hypertension was 38% and 18.5%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Progression to sustained hypertension was 26% and 37%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Conclusion. Among baseline masked hypertensives, one-third progressed to sustained hypertension and about one out of five remained masked after 5 years, potentially delaying diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24455208

  14. Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Kern, David W; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57-85 were studied in 2005-6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010-11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a "dose-dependent" effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process.

  15. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  16. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  17. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  18. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  19. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  20. Prevalence of Candida dubliniensis among cancer patients in Kuwait: a 5-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mokaddas, Eiman; Khan, Zia U; Ahmad, Suhail

    2011-07-01

    Despite close genetic and phenotypic relationship of Candida dubliniensis with Candida albicans, its role in human disease is mostly restricted to oral colonisation, particularly among HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of C. dubliniensis in association with other disease conditions has been infrequently reported. In this study, we present data on the prevalence of C. dubliniensis among yeast species isolated from cancer patients over a 5-year period. A total of 1445 yeast isolates recovered from respiratory specimens, blood, urine and oral swabs were analysed. Candida dubliniensis isolates were provisionally identified by phenotypic methods and their identity was further confirmed by species-specific amplification and/or sequencing of internally transcribed spacer region of rDNA. Antifungal susceptibility for fluconazole was determined by Etest. The number of isolates identified as C. dubliniensis, C. albicans and other yeast species were 71 (4.9%), 862 (59.6%) and 512 (35%) respectively. All the C. dubliniensis isolates originated from respiratory (5.9%) or oral (3.2%) specimens with an overall prevalence of 4.9%, and were found to be susceptible to fluconazole. The isolation of C. dubliniensis from respiratory or oral specimens and not from blood or urine specimens suggests that this species has preference to colonise these sites of human body.

  1. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  2. Changes in antibiotic use in a general surgery unit over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Ayazi, K; Khabaz, A; Ayazi, L; Ghorbani, B; Eslami, M; Ebrahimi, M

    2015-02-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the overuse of antibiotics in inpatient settings. We compared the pattern of antibiotic use in 2010 in a surgical unit of a university hospital in the Islamic Republic of Iran with similar data from 2006. Defined daily doses per 100 bed-days (DBD) were calculated. Overall use of antibiotics in our surgical unit increased significantly from a mean of 4.9 (SD 5.1) DBD in 2006 to 7.7 (SD 10.3) DBD in 2010. This increase was mainly due to increases in the use of antibiotics for treatment of infections; the prophylactic use of antibiotics did not show a significant increase. There was an increase in the consumption of ceftriaxone, imipenem, cefalotin, metronidazole and vancomycin, a decrease in the use of erythromycin and ceftazidime and no change in the use of ciprofloxacin and clindamycin. Ceftriaxone showed the greatest increase (5.1-fold) and erythromycin the sharpest decrease (8-fold) in use.

  3. Period analysis of hydrologic series through moving-window correlation analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yangyang; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Saiyan; Wang, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    Period analysis is of great significance for understanding various hydrologic processes and predicting the future hydrological regime of a watershed or region. Hence, many period analysis methods including fast Fourier transform (FFT), maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and wavelet analysis (WA) have been developed to study this issue. However, due to the complex components of hydrologic series and the limitations of these conventional methods, the problem is still difficult to be solved. In this paper, the moving-window correlation analysis method (MWCA) has been proposed for analyzing the periodic component of hydrologic series, which includes construction of periodic processes, significant test of periods and time frequency analysis. Three commonly used methods (FFT, MESA and WA) and MWCA are employed to investigate the periods of synthetic series and observed hydrologic series, respectively. The results show that FFT, MESA and WA are not always as good as expected when detecting periods of a time series. By contrast, MWCA has better application effects, which could identify the true periods of time series, extract the reliable periodic components, find the active time ranges of periodic components and resist the disturbance of noises. In conclusion, MWCA is suitable to identify the true periods of hydrologic time series.

  4. Natural history of alcoholic myopathy: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Sacanella, E; Fernández-Solá, J; Nicolás, J M; Rubin, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1998-12-01

    Chronic myopathy is a common complication of alcoholism, but its natural history has not been well described. We, therefore, studied muscle structure and function in a 5-year study of 30 chronic alcoholics who became abstinent and 20 who relapsed, and 40 control subjects. The mean strength of the abstaining alcoholics increased from 18.6 to 23.2 kg; but, after 5 years, they were still substantially weaker than controls. In a subset who showed histological myopathy, the strength of half of the patients remained two standard deviations below that of controls. Alcoholics who relapsed tended to become progressively weaker (21.7 kg vs. 18.2 kg) and develop histological evidence of myopathy. Thus, continued alcohol abuse was generally reflected in deterioration of muscle strength and the appearance of histological injury to muscle. Importantly, almost half of the sober patients did not recover to normal levels, indicating that alcoholic myopathy is only partially reversible. We also unexpectedly found that, in some alcoholics, a substantial reduction in the amount of alcohol consumed may be as effective as complete abstinence in improving muscle strength or preventing its deterioration.

  5. The acquired cardiac disease domain: the next 5 years.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John R

    2013-01-01

    At a recent in-house meeting at the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) headquarters in Windsor, the Chairs of the four domains were asked by the President to present their perception of the next 5 years in their respective domains. This review represents a distillation of our discussions on adult cardiac surgery. Advances in technology and imaging are having a radical effect on the working lives of surgeons. In clinical practice, the growth of heart teams and the breaking down of artificial barriers between specialities are altering the way we practice for the better. We see the development of hybrid approaches to many areas such as coronary artery surgery and operations on the thoracic aorta. These changes require careful analysis to ensure that they produce better outcomes that are also cost-effective. All health-care systems are at breaking point, and it is our responsibility to harness new technology to benefit our patients. This is all part of placing the patient at the centre of our activities. Hence, we see the involvement of patients in the design and analysis of clinical trials, which also require great mutual trust and cooperation between surgeons in different countries. Because of the dramatic changes in the pattern of working, we have had to alter our patterns of training and education, and we will continue to make significant innovations in the future. These are exciting challenges that will keep us all busy for the next 5 years at least.

  6. Predictive 5-Year Survivorship Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Theodore G.; Adler, Frederick R.; FitzSimmons, Stacey C.; Cahill, Barbara C.; Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 5-year survivorship model to identify key clinical features of cystic fibrosis. Such a model could help researchers and clinicians to evaluate therapies, improve the design of prospective studies, monitor practice patterns, counsel individual patients, and determine the best candidates for lung transplantation. The authors used information from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), which has collected longitudinal data on approximately 90% of cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed in the United States since 1986. They developed multivariate logistic regression models by using data on 5,820 patients randomly selected from 11,630 in the CFFPR in 1993. Models were tested for goodness of fit and were validated for the remaining 5,810 patients for 1993. The validated 5-year survivorship model included age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted normal, gender, weight-for-age z score, pancreatic sufficiency, diabetes mellitus, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Burkerholderia cepacia infection, and annual number of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The model provides insights into the complex nature of cystic fibrosis and supplies a rigorous tool for clinical practice and research. PMID:11207152

  7. Energy Expansion for the Period of Anharmonic Oscillators by the Method of Lindstedt-Poincare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple, straightforward and efficient method is proposed for the calculation of the period of anharmonic oscillators as an energy series. The approach is based on perturbation theory and the method of Lindstedt-Poincare.

  8. A sampling method for the reconstruction of a periodic interface in a layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guanying; Zhang, Ruming

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the inverse problem of reconstructing periodic interfaces in a two-layered medium with TM-mode. We propose a sampling-type method to recover the top periodic interface from the near-field data measured on a straight line above the total structure. Finally, numerical experiments are illustrated to show the effectiveness of the method.

  9. An improved correlation method for determining the period of a torsion pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Jie; Wang Dianhong

    2008-09-15

    Considering variation of environment temperature and unhomogeneity of background gravitational field, an improved correlation method was proposed to determine the variational period of a torsion pendulum with high precision. The result of processing experimental data shows that the uncertainty of determining the period with this method has been improved about twofolds than traditional correlation method, which is significant for the determination of gravitational constant with time-of-swing method.

  10. An improved correlation method for determining the period of a torsion pendulum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Dian-Hong

    2008-09-01

    Considering variation of environment temperature and unhomogeneity of background gravitational field, an improved correlation method was proposed to determine the variational period of a torsion pendulum with high precision. The result of processing experimental data shows that the uncertainty of determining the period with this method has been improved about twofolds than traditional correlation method, which is significant for the determination of gravitational constant with time-of-swing method.

  11. On the capabilities of the multi-channel singular spectrum method for extracting the main periodic and non-periodic variability from weekly GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangelova, E.; Sideris, M. G.; Kim, J. W.

    2012-03-01

    We study the capabilities of the method of multi-channel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) to extract periodic signals from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field solutions. As a non-parametric method and because of the data-adaptive nature of the base functions, the MSSA allows for modelling of non-periodic variations. In addition, it can identify modulated oscillations in the presence of noise. In our study, we analyze a complete 6-year weekly time series of the GFZ-produced GRACE spherical harmonic coefficients of degree and order 30. The MSSA filtering reduces the average root-mean-square (RMS) of the mass variability over the oceans by more than 60% when all but the annual, semi-annual and long-term variations in the spherical harmonic coefficients are filtered out. While the high variance annual signal can be extracted from the GRACE data straightforwardly, the semi-annual and long-term modes identified in the low variance portion of the data eigen-spectrum are mixed. Moreover, the semi-annual variability is contaminated by the S2 tidal alias signal shown in an example for the Hudson Bay region to possibly alter the typical two-peak seasonal cycle of the water mass anomalies. Also, some long-term modes indicate that a variation exists with a 2.1-2.5 years period, possibly of a hydrology origin, which was found by previous studies in the GFZ GRACE data. On land, we analyze time series of basin averages in Amazon, Congo, Mississippi and Nelson rivers basins computed from the filtered GRACE and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)/Noah model coefficients. The analysis is performed in two steps: (1) an approximation of the series of basin average is computed from the identified annual, semi-annual and long-term variations in the spherical harmonic coefficients and (2) to improve the approximation, the residual variability in the basin average series is analyzed by means of singular spectrum analysis. Time lags between the

  12. Quadrature methods for periodic singular and weakly singular Fredholm integral equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, Avram; Israeli, Moshe

    1988-01-01

    High-accuracy numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions are proposed. These methods are based on the appropriate Euler-Maclaurin expansions of trapezoidal rule approximations and their extrapolations. They are subsequently used to obtain accurate quadrature methods for the solution of singular and weakly singular Fredholm integral equations. Throughout the development the periodic nature of the problem plays a crucial role. Such periodic equations are used in the solution of planar elliptic boundary value problems such as those that arise in elasticity, potential theory, conformal mapping, and free surface flows. The use of the quadrature methods is demonstrated with numerical examples.

  13. Maternal anxiety: a 5-year review of an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B; Schaafsma, M F; Guzman, A M; Parker, G B

    1991-03-01

    Primiparous women were divided into groups according to their post-partum trait anxiety scores. Professional or non-professional support for the first 12 months was offered to two subgroups of high trait anxiety subjects. At the 5-year follow-up the high-anxiety mothers (n = 57) manifested more psychological and social pathology than moderate- and low-anxiety mothers (n = 43), and their children also showed signs of poorer adaptation. There was evidence of improved outcome for mothers in the professional intervention group, but not for their children. Child psychopathology was predicted best by maternal psychosocial variables, and to a lesser extent by child temperament variables. The relation of infant attachment and temperament measures to subsequent psychopathology is discussed.

  14. Achalasia 5 years following Roux-en-y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Torghabeh, Mehyar Hefazi; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Saif, Taha; Dakin, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Oesophageal achalasia is a rare, but serious condition in which the motility of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) is inhibited. This disorder of idiopathic aetiology complicates the peristaltic function and relaxation of the LES that may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, epigastric pain, and regurgitation of an obstructed food. The following case describes achalasia in a patient 5 years following a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The patient underwent a laparoscopic Heller myotomy without a fundoplication. Although achalasia seems to be a rare occurrence in obese patients, this is the third case documented in a patient who previously had an RYGB. The role of performing a fundoplication in these patients remains to be elucidated. PMID:26195880

  15. [The readmission of schizophrenics: a retrospective study over 5 years].

    PubMed

    Antonioli, D; Rey-Bellet, J; Müller, C

    1988-05-01

    Since the introduction of neuroleptics, the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals has decreased progressively, but, in the same time, the number of readmissions has increased. For schizophrenic outpatients, we can estimate that 68% will be readmitted during the 5 years following their departure from the hospital. In our retrospective survey, we have studied the different factors which influence the readmissions. We have shown, with a statistical significancy, that an agricultural background, a fulltime job and brief hospitalizations prevent the readmissions. However patients aged less than 30 years, with long hospitalizations and living alone have a high risk of readmission. The most frequent causes are patient's omission to take prescribed drugs, environmental conflicts and alteration in the familial situation. PMID:3059911

  16. Health transitions in sub-Saharan Africa: overview of mortality trends in children under 5 years old (1950-2000).

    PubMed Central

    Garenne, Michel; Gakusi, Enéas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reconstruct and analyse mortality trends in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa between 1950 and 2000. METHODS: We selected 66 Demographic and Health Surveys and World Fertility Surveys from 32 African countries for analysis. Death rates were calculated by yearly periods for each survey. When several surveys were available for the same country, overlapping years were combined. Country-specific time series were analysed to identify periods of monotonic trends, whether declining, steady or increasing. We tested changes in trends using a linear logistic model. FINDINGS: A quarter of the countries studied had monotonic declining mortality trends: i.e. a smooth health transition. Another quarter had long-term declines with some minor rises over short periods of time. Eight countries had periods of major increases in mortality due to political or economic crises, and in seven countries mortality stopped declining for several years. In eight other countries mortality has risen in recent years as a result of paediatric AIDS. Reconstructed levels and trends were compared with other estimates made by international organizations, usually based on indirect methods. CONCLUSION: Overall, major progress in child survival was achieved in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the twentieth century. However, transition has occurred more slowly than expected, with an average decline of 1.8% per year. Additionally, transition was chaotic in many countries. The main causes of mortality increase were political instability, serious economic downturns, and emerging diseases. PMID:16799731

  17. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  18. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  19. Time trends in intracranial bleeding associated with direct oral anticoagulants: a 5-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, Kerstin; Bahl, Bharat; Latrous, Meriem; Scaffidi Argentina, Sarina; Thompson, Jesse; Chatha, Aasil Ayyaz; Castellucci, Lana; Stiell, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the past 5 years, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban were approved for stroke prevention. Phase III studies have shown a lower risk of intracranial bleeding with these direct oral anticoagulants than with warfarin; however, there is a lack of real-life data to validate this. We analyzed time trends in atraumatic intracranial bleeding from 2009 to 2013 among patients prescribed oral anticoagulants and those not prescribed oral anticoagulants. Methods: We used ICD-10-CA (enhanced Canadian version of the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems) codes to identify all patients with atraumatic intracranial bleeding who presented to our neurosurgical centre (serving a population of more than 1.2 million). Trained researchers extracted data on anticoagulant medications used in the week before diagnosis of the intracranial bleed. Provincial prescription data for oral anticoagulants were obtained from IMS Brogan CompuScript Market Dynamics. The primary outcome was the time trend in incident intracranial bleeds associated with oral anticoagulation during the period 2009-2013. The secondary outcomes were the time trend in intracranial bleeds not associated with oral anticoagulation and the provincial prescribing patterns for oral anticoagulants during the same period. Results: A total of 2050 patients presented with atraumatic intracranial bleeds during the study period. Of the 371 (18%) prescribed an anticoagulant in the week before presentation, 335 were prescribed an oral anticoagulant. There was an increasing time trend in intracranial bleeding associated with oral anticoagulants (p = 0.009; 6 additional events per year) and in intracranial bleeding not associated with oral anticoagulation (p = 0.06). During 2013, prescriptions for warfarin decreased to 70% of all oral anticoagulant prescriptions in the province, whereas those for dabigatran and rivaroxaban increased to 17% and 12

  20. Particle mesh Ewald method for three-dimensional systems with two-dimensional periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Masaaki; Nagashima, Umpei

    2001-05-01

    A particle mesh Ewald method for calculating Coulomb interactions in three-dimensional (3D) systems with two-dimensional (2D) periodicity was developed. Computational efficiency and accuracy of this method were evaluated for a TIP3P water system with 2928 particles in a cubic box with 2D periodicity. The accuracy of this method for calculating Coulomb interactions is comparable to our previous method that uses Fourier integral. For calculations with maximum errors in the Coulomb force of 0.4- 20.0 kJ mol -1 nm-1, the current method was up to five times faster than the previous method.

  1. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction: A Longitudinal Study Comparison of 2 Techniques with 2 and 5-Years Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Astur, Diego C; Gouveia, Gustavo B; Borges, José H. de Souza; Astur, Nelson; Arliani, Gustavo G; Kaleka, Camila C; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Background : The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two popular surgical techniques for medial patellofemoral ligament MPFL reconstruction with a minimum of two-year follow-up. Methods : Fifty-eight patients with traumatic tear of the medial patellofemoral ligament were included in one of the two surgical groups. Group 1 MPFLs were reconstructed through graft endobutton fixation and Group 2 through graft anchor fixation into the patella. After two to five-year follow-up, patients were asked to answer knee function questionnaires (Fulkerson and Kujala) as well as the SF-36 life quality score. Results : There were no statistical difference among postoperative Kujala, Fulkerson, and SF-36 questionnaires scores between Groups 1 and 2. There were statistical significant differences favorable to patients in Group 1 with a shorter follow-up length (2-5 years) compared to those with a longer period of 5-10 years for both Kujala and Fulkerson scores and no difference for group 2. Conclusion : Both medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction techniques had similar results in a two to ten-year follow-up according to functions and life quality questionnaires. Furthermore, endobutton fixation for the patellar edge of the graft had better results in patients with 2 years of follow-up than those with 5 years. Gender was not significant for surgical results. Moreover, group 1 patients had higher number of complications. PMID:26161157

  2. Spectral Methods for Detecting Periodicity in Library Circulation Data: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decroos, Francis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an investigation that was conducted to show the feasibility of spectral methods in information science, particularly for analyzing academic library circulation data. Signal analysis methods were used to detect periodicity, and spectral methods show promise for analyzing time series and other signals in information science. (Author/LRW)

  3. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  4. Extended Long-Term (5 Years) Outcomes of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Methods: Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Results: Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. Conclusions: The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients. PMID:23730369

  5. Dopaminergic therapy and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of 5-year reports.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD) is described in several recent papers. This procedure has been reported to permit a stable reduction of dopaminergic therapy requirements for up to 5 years, although some expectation of deterioration in non-dopaminergic signs has been recently stated. Our aim is to perform a literature-based review of papers available describing long-term post-operative follow-up after a bilateral implant for subthalamic DBS (STN-DBS). Only peer-reviewed published papers with a post-operative follow-up of at least 5 years were considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 2 (or 3 years) and 5 years after surgery. Seven papers were included in the review. A total of 238 patients were analyzed. STN-DBS was confirmed to be an effective treatment for selected patients with PD. In all studies, off-related motor symptoms improved dramatically, compared with pre-implant, at 2 (or 3, according to the study) years and this result persisted at 5-year evaluations. Antiparkinsonian drug reductions, improvements in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and the progression of underlying PD were also reported in all series. Some axial scores, in particular postural stability and speech, improved transiently. Persisting adverse effects included eyelid opening apraxia, weight gain, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysarthria, dyskinesias, and apathy. The present review of the 5-year observations confirms that STN-DBS is a powerful method in the management of PD, but its long-term effects must be thoroughly assessed.

  6. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively.

  7. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  8. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  9. Homogenization of Periodic Masonry Using Self-Consistent Scheme and Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Lambadi, Harish; Pandey, Manoj; Rajagopal, Amirtham

    2016-01-01

    Masonry is a heterogeneous anisotropic continuum, made up of the brick and mortar arranged in a periodic manner. Obtaining the effective elastic stiffness of the masonry structures has been a challenging task. In this study, the homogenization theory for periodic media is implemented in a very generic manner to derive the anisotropic global behavior of the masonry, through rigorous application of the homogenization theory in one step and through a full three-dimensional behavior. We have considered the periodic Eshelby self-consistent method and the finite element method. Two representative unit cells that represent the microstructure of the masonry wall exactly are considered for calibration and numerical application of the theory.

  10. The direct approach to gravitation and electrostatics method for periodic systems.

    PubMed

    Losilla, S A; Sundholm, D; Jusélius, J

    2010-01-14

    The direct approach to gravitation and electrostatics (DAGE) algorithm is an accurate, efficient, and flexible method for calculating electrostatic potentials. In this paper, we show that the algorithm can be easily extended to consider systems with many different kinds of periodicities, such as crystal lattices, surfaces, or wires. The accuracy and performance are nearly the same for periodic and aperiodic systems. The electrostatic potential for semiperiodic systems, namely defects in crystal lattices, can be obtained by combining periodic and aperiodic calculations. The method has been applied to an ionic model system mimicking NaCl, and to a corresponding covalent model system.

  11. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  12. King 2 2519 ATM residual gyros: Reestablishing 5 year life requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayal, B.; Carbocci, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The technical expertise required to assess the condition of the residual ATM 2519 Singer gyros is discussed. Past build history records, past performance characteristics, and recommendations for particular tests (which were performed by NASA personnel) are summarized. Test results are analyzed. A study of motor performance data and recommendations concerning gyro spin bearing life was performed. A method of reestablishing potential reliability of the bearing for the 5-year life requirement of the power module is also included.

  13. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131) were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5%) patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4%) achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context, acceptable cultural explanations

  14. A 5-Year Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Silicone Metacarpophalangeal Arthroplasty in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Squitieri, Lee; Chung, Kevin C.; Hutton, David W.; Burns, Patricia B.; Kim, H. Myra; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of research evaluating the cost-effectiveness of surgical interventions for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Previous reports have challenged the sustainability of improved outcomes after silicone metacarpophalangeal arthroplasty (SMPA). The objective of this study is to conduct an economic evaluation of the long-term health outcomes after SMPA. Methods We performed a five-year prospective cohort study of 170 patients with RA (73 surgical, 97 non-surgical). Objective functional measurements and patient- rated outcomes using the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), and the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale 2(AIMS2) were collected at three and five years. A cost-effectiveness analysis using direct costs from Medicare outpatient claims data (2006-2010) was performed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for both MHQ and AIMS2 measurements. Results At five years, we observed a statistically significant difference in upper extremity outcomes (MHQ) between the two groups, with surgical patients having higher outcomes. The cost associated with improved outcomes five years after surgery was $787-$1,150 when measured by MHQ and $49,843-$149,530 when measured by AIMS2. We found that the ICERs did not substantially increase with our observed surgical revision rate of 5.5% (approximately 4% increase in ICER) or with previously published long-term revision rates of 6.2% (approximately 6% increase in ICER). Conclusion Short term improvements in upper extremity outcomes after SMPA are maintained over the 5 year follow-up period. Given this information, these outcomes are achieved at a relatively low cost, even with the addition of potential surgical complications. PMID:25909303

  15. Equatorial Annual Oscillation with QBO-driven 5-year Modulation in NCEP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the zonal wind and temperature variations supplied by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which have been assimilated in the Reanalysis and the Climate Prediction Center (CCP) data sets. The derived zonal-mean variations are employed. Stimulated by modeling studies, the data are separated into the hemispherically symmetric and anti-symmetric components, and spectral analysis is applied to study the annual 12-month oscillation and Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). For data samples that cover as much as 40 years, the results reveal a pronounced 5-year modulation of the symmetric AO in the lower stratosphere, which is confined to equatorial latitudes. This modulation is also inferred for the temperature variations but extends to high latitudes, qualitatively consistent with published model results. A comparison between different data samples indicates that the signature of the 5-year oscillation is larger when the QBO of 30 months is more pronounced. Thus there is circumstantial evidence that this periodicity of the QBO is involved in generating the oscillation. The spectral analysis shows that there is a weak anti-symmetric 5-year oscillation in the zonal winds, which could interact with the large antisymmetric A0 to produce the modulation of the symmetric AO as was shown in earlier modeling studies. According to these studies, the 30-month QBO tends to be synchronized by the equatorial Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO), and this would explain why the inferred 5-year modulation is observed to persist and is phase locked over several cycles.

  16. A 5-year experience with an elective scholarly concentrations program

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul; Green, Emily P.; Park, Yoon S.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Programs that encourage scholarly activities beyond the core curriculum and traditional biomedical research are now commonplace among US medical schools. Few studies have generated outcome data for these programs. The goal of the present study was to address this gap. Intervention The Scholarly Concentration (SC) Program, established in 2006 at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, is a 4-year elective program that not only encourages students to pursue scholarly work that may include traditional biomedical research but also seeks to broaden students’ focus to include less traditional areas. We compared characteristics and academic performance of SC students and non-SC students for the graduating classes of 2010–2014. Context Approximately one-third of our students opt to complete an SC during their 4-year undergraduate medical education. Because this program is additional to the regular MD curriculum, we sought to investigate whether SC students sustained the academic achievement of non-SC students while at the same time producing scholarly work as part of the program. Outcome Over 5 years, 35% of students elected to enter the program and approximately 81% of these students completed the program. The parameters that were similar for both SC and non-SC students were age at matriculation, admission route, proportion of undergraduate science majors, and number of undergraduate science courses. Most academic indicators, including United States Medical Licensing Examinations scores, were similar for the two groups; however, SC students achieved more honors in the six core clerkships and were more likely to be inducted into the medical school's two honor societies. Residency specialties selected by graduates in the two groups were similar. SC students published an average of 1.3 peer-reviewed manuscripts per student, higher than the 0.8 manuscripts per non-SC student (p=0.013). Conclusions An elective, interdisciplinary scholarly program with

  17. Steady-periodic method for modeling mode instability in fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Arlee V; Smith, Jesse J

    2013-02-11

    We present a detailed description of the methods used in our model of mode instability in high-power, rare earth-doped, large-mode-area fiber amplifiers. Our model assumes steady-periodic behavior, so it is appropriate to operation after turn on transients have dissipated. It can be adapted to transient cases as well. We describe our algorithm, which includes propagation of the signal field by fast-Fourier transforms, steady-state solutions of the laser gain equations, and two methods of solving the time-dependent heat equation: alternating-direction-implicit integration, and the Green's function method for steady-periodic heating.

  18. Very Weak Signals (VWS) detected by stacking method according to different astronomical periodicities (HiCum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ruymbeke, M.; Zhu, P.; Cadicheanu, N.; Naslin, S.

    2007-11-01

    A stacking method to detect very weak signals is introduced in this paper. This method is to stack observed data in different well known periodicities according to the astronomical clock since majority geophysical observations are time based. We validated this method by applying it in four different cases. Interactions behind the observed parameters become obviously after it is stacked in two diurnal and semidiurnal tidal periodical waves. Amplitude and phase variations will be also measurable when a sliding windows stacking is used. This could be an important reference to find precursors before some earthquakes and volcanic events, corresponding to attenuations of medium patterns.

  19. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  20. A novel sensitivity-based method for damage detection of structures under unknown periodic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseralavi, S. S.; Salajegheh, E.; Fadaee, M. J.; Salajegheh, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a technique for damage detection in structures under unknown periodic excitations using the transient displacement response. The method is capable of identifying the damage parameters without finding the input excitations. We first define the concept of displacement space as a linear space in which each point represents displacements of structure under an excitation and initial condition. Roughly speaking, the method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering this novel geometrical viewpoint, an equation called kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic excitations and a sensitivity-based algorithm for solving KPE is proposed accordingly. The method is evaluated via three case studies under periodic excitations, which confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. An Analysis of Periodic Components in BL Lac Object S5 0716 +714 with MUSIC Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithms are introduced to the estimation of the period of variation of BL Lac objects.The principle of MUSIC spectral analysis method and theoretical analysis of the resolution of frequency spectrum using analog signals are included. From a lot of literatures, we have collected a lot of effective observation data of BL Lac object S5 0716 + 714 in V, R, I bands from 1994 to 2008. The light variation periods of S5 0716 +714 are obtained by means of the MUSIC spectral analysis method and periodogram spectral analysis method. There exist two major periods: (3.33±0.08) years and (1.24±0.01) years for all bands. The estimation of the period of variation of the algorithm based on the MUSIC spectral analysis method is compared with that of the algorithm based on the periodogram spectral analysis method. It is a super-resolution algorithm with small data length, and could be used to detect the period of variation of weak signals.

  2. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  3. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  4. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  5. Long period perturbations of earth satellite orbits. [Von Zeipel method and zonal harmonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, K. C.

    1979-01-01

    All the equations involved in extending the PS phi solution to include the long periodic and second order secular effects of the zonal harmonics are presented. Topics covered include DSphi elements and relations for their conconical transformation into the PS phi elements; the solution algorithm based on the Von Zeipel method; and the elimination of long periodic terms and analytical integration of primed variables. The equations were entered into the ASOP program, checked out, and verified. Comparisons with numerical integrations show the long period theory to be accurate within several meters after 800 revolutions.

  6. Method for detection and correction of errors in speech pitch period estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskar, Udaya (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method of detecting and correcting received values of a pitch period estimate of a speech signal for use in a speech coder or the like. An average is calculated of the nonzero values of received pitch period estimate since the previous reset. If a current pitch period estimate is within a range of 0.75 to 1.25 times the average, it is assumed correct, while if not, a correction process is carried out. If correction is required successively for more than a preset number of times, which will most likely occur when the speaker changes, the average is discarded and a new average calculated.

  7. Method for minimization of solution costs for transient dynamic analysis of nonlinear periodic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, J.S.; Bogard, W.T.; Wood, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques are described for the transient dynamic analysis of nonlinear periodic structures subjected to time history excitations. These techniques consider the special characteristics of periodic structures in conjunction with the psuedo-force approach in numerical integration to reduce computerized solution costs. A special purpose computer code, based on these techniques, is applied to a specific nonlinear periodic structure: the response of a pressurized water reactor core to a postulated main coolant pipe rupture. Comparisons with a general purpose finite element code, using consistent integration methods, demonstrate the savings in solution cost.

  8. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  9. A 5-year study of adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdin, Begüm Nalça; Pas, Suzan D; Durak, İsmet; Schutten, Martin; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2015-03-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of conjunctivitis. Genotypes are diverse and differ according to population and geographical distribution of the virus. There is limited data regarding ocular adenoviral infections and genotype distribution in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the adenovirus genotypes and their epidemiological features among patients with conjunctivitis between 2006 and 2010, in Izmir, Turkey. Adenoviral DNA was detected by PCR in 213 of 488 (44%) of the ocular samples collected from patients with viral conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Of these, 101 (47%) were randomly chosen and genotyped by sequence analysis. Seven genotypes were identified, including 3, 4, 8, 11, 19, 37, and 53. Genotype 8 and 4 were the dominant types detected in 67 (66.3%) and 25 (24.7%) of the samples, respectively. Other five genotypes (3, 11, 19, 37, 53) were detected in 9 (8.9%) samples. Genotype and seasonal differences observed throughout the study. Human adenoviruse (HAdV)-8 was the most frequent type, except 2008. The prevalence of genotype 4 increased starting from 2006, became dominant in 2008 and decreased in the following years. The peak season was mostly spring months, although it was possible to detect positive samples throughout the year. In conclusion, genotype 8 followed by genotype 4 was the most frequent adenoviral types causing conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Findings suggest that there is a slow shift between genotypes throughout the years.

  10. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  11. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community. PMID:27295701

  12. Modeling habit forms of sapphire crystals using the principles of periodic-bond-chain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakholdin, S. I.; Maslov, V. N.

    2015-03-01

    The potential of the periodic-bond-chain method for calculating the sequence of manifestation of faces of corundum single crystals is considered. The leading role of the faces of the pinacoid, high rhombohedron, and hexagonal prism is demonstrated. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data on faceting the lateral surface of cylindrical sapphire single crystals grown by the Stepanov method and with the faceting data for crystals grown by the flux method and natural crystals.

  13. Reabuse Rates in a Sample of Children Followed for 5 Years after Discharge from a Child Abuse Inpatient Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Howard B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined reabuse rates across a 5-year follow-up period in 304 children admitted to a hospital-based child abuse assessment unit. A 16.8 percent incidence of reabuse was found, with the greatest risk occurring during the 2 years immediately following a discharge diagnosis of maltreatment. Neglect was the most frequent type of reabuse.…

  14. Neurological Recovery of Upper Extremity in Stroke Woman after 5 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vejabhuti, Chayanin

    2016-02-01

    Strokes are common neurological disorders in Thailand. Rehabilitation programs significantly improve arm function outcomes if performed during the sub-acute period of stroke rehabilitation, within 6 months of the attack. This report describes the case of a stroke patient who gained upper extremity motor recovery after 5 years, which is beyond the normal recovery period. Although the patient does not have functionality, she has partial motor recovery, and she is enthusiastic about learning to gain better use of her hand. However there is still limited evidence to use in designing effective intervention and proper timing of rehabilitation administered by personnel in training chronic stroke patients. Therefore, evidence based on neuroplasticity and neurological recovery in chronic stroke patients, including rehabilitation intervention, is presented in this report. PMID:27266238

  15. Comparison of Recharge Estimation Methods During a Wet Period in a Karst Aquifer.

    PubMed

    Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Martos-Rosillo, Sergio; Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Durán Valsero, Juan José; Pedrera, Antonio; Jiménez-Gavilán, Pablo; Liñán Baena, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Management of water resources, implying their appropriate protection, calls for a sound evaluation of recharge. Such assessment is very complex in karst aquifers. Most methods are developed for application to detrital aquifers, without taking into account the extraordinary heterogeneity of porosity and permeability of karst systems. It is commonly recommended to estimate recharge using multiple methods; however, differences inherent to the diverse methods make it difficult to clarify the accuracy of each result. In this study, recharge was estimated in a karst aquifer working in a natural regime, in a Mediterranean-type climate, in the western part of the Sierra de las Nieves (southern Spain). Mediterranean climate regions are characterized by high inter-annual rainfall variability featuring long dry periods and short intense wet periods, the latter constituting the most important contribution to aquifer water input. This paper aims to identify the methods that provide the most plausible range of recharge rate during wet periods. Six methods were tested: the classical method of Thornthwaite-Mather, the Visual Balan code, the chloride balance method, and spatially distributed methods such as APLIS, a novel spatiotemporal estimation of recharge, and ZOODRM. The results help determine valid methods for application in the rest of the unit of study and in similar karst aquifers.

  16. Soil microbial properties after 5 years of consecutive amendment with composted tannery sludge.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima; Oliveira, Mara Lucia Jacinto; Santos, Vilma Maria; Nunes, Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; Melo, Wanderley José

    2015-01-01

    Composting has been recognised an alternative method to tannery sludge recycling and afterwards to be used in agriculture. As the tannery sludge contains salts and chromium, the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) should be performed carefully to minimise negative effects on soil microbial properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on soil microbial biomass (SMB) and enzyme activities in a tropical soil. CTS was applied during 5 years at 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha(-1), and at the fifth year, the microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), basal and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), metabolic quotient (qCO₂) and dehydrogenase (DHA) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were determined in the soil samples. Soil MBC and MBN showed the highest values with the amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. Soil respiration increased with the increase in CTS rates, while SIR showed the highest values with the amendment of 0, 2.5 and 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. DHA activity showed the highest values with the amendment up to 2.5 Mg ha(-1), while FDA hydrolysis increased up to the rate of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. The results show that after 5 years of permanent amendment of CTS, soils amended with 2.5 Mg ha(-1) have SMB and enzymatic activities similar to those in unamended soil.

  17. The Treatment of Parasomnias with Hypnosis: a 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Peter J.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study involves a replication and extension of a previous one reported by Hurwitz et al (1991) on the treatment of certain parasomnias with hypnosis. Methods: Thirty-six patients (17 females), mean age 32.7 years (range 6–71). Four were children aged 6 to 16. All had chronic, “functionally autonomous” (self-sustaining) parasomnias. All underwent 1 or 2 hypnotherapy sessions and were then followed by questionnaire for 5 years. Results: Of the 36 patients, 45.4% were symptom-free or at least much improved at the 1-month follow-up, 42.2% at the 18-month follow-up, and 40.5% at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusions: One or 2 sessions of hypnotherapy might be an efficient first-line therapy for patients with certain types of parasomnias. Citation: Hauri PJ; Silber MH; Boeve BF. The treatment of parasomnias with hypnosis: a 5-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):369-373. PMID:17694725

  18. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  19. Sports activities 5 years after total knee or hip arthroplasty: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Huch, K; Muller, K; Sturmer, T; Brenner, H; Puhl, W; Gunther, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse sports activities of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) over lifetime, preoperatively, and 5 years after arthroplasty. Methods: In a longitudinal four centre study, 809 consecutive patients with advanced OA of the hip (420) or the knee (389) joint under the age of 76 years who required total joint replacement were recruited. A completed questionnaire about sports activities at 5 year follow up was received from 636 (79%) of the 809 patients. Results: Although most patients with hip (97%) and knee (94%) OA had performed sports activities during their life, only 36% (hip patients) and 42% (knee patients) had maintained sports activities at the time of surgery. Five years postoperatively, the proportion of patients performing sports activities increased to 52% among patients with hip OA, but further declined to 34% among those with knee OA. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with hip OA performing sports activities for more than 2 hours a week increased from 8 to 14%, whereas this proportion decreased from 12 to 5% among patients with knee OA. Pain in the replaced joint was reported by 9% of patients with hip and by >16% with knee OA. Conclusion: Differences in pain 5 years after joint replacement may explain some of the difference of sports activities between patients with hip and knee OA. Reasons for reduction of sports activities may include the increasing age of the patients, their worries about an "artificial joint", and the advice of their surgeon to be cautious. PMID:15843453

  20. Domain decomposition method for Maxwell’s equations: Scattering off periodic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädle, Achim; Zschiedrich, Lin; Burger, Sven; Klose, Roland; Schmidt, Frank

    2007-09-01

    We present a domain decomposition approach for the computation of the electromagnetic field within periodic structures. We use a Schwarz method with transparent boundary conditions at the interfaces of the domains. Transparent boundary conditions are approximated by the perfectly matched layer method (PML). An adaptive strategy to determine optimal PML parameters is developed. Thus we can treat Wood anomalies appearing in periodic structures. We focus on the application to typical EUV lithography line masks. Light propagation within the multilayer stack of the EUV mask is treated analytically. This results in a drastic reduction of the computational costs and allows for the simulation of next generation lithography masks on a standard personal computer.

  1. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  2. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Rebecca J.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS: We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, and television viewing. RESULTS: Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10–1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children. PMID:23918897

  3. Periodicity of flare index revisited using the Hilbert-Huang transform method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. X.; Liang, H. F.; Zhu, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) method, we investigate the periodicity in the monthly mean flare indices from 1966 to 2007 (corresponding to almost four complete solar cycles), calculated by T. Atac and A. Ozguc. The results show as following. (1) The periods of 9.37 ± 2.53, 11.8 ± 0.172 and 23.6 ± 0.316 years are found to be statistically significant in the flare index. The most eminent period is 9.37 ± 2.53 years. (2) Other periods of 0.237 ± 0.196 years (86.6 ± 71.6 days), 0.525 ± 0.0508 years (191 ± 18.5 days), 1.05 ± 0.478 years (383 ± 174 days) and 2.37 ± 0.395 years are below the 99% confidence level line, suggesting they are due to stochastic random noise.

  4. Stochastic response and bifurcation of periodically driven nonlinear oscillators by the generalized cell mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qun; Xu, Wei; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-09-01

    The stochastic response of nonlinear oscillators under periodic and Gaussian white noise excitations is studied with the generalized cell mapping based on short-time Gaussian approximation (GCM/STGA) method. The solutions of the transition probability density functions over a small fraction of the period are constructed by the STGA scheme in order to construct the GCM over one complete period. Both the transient and steady-state probability density functions (PDFs) of a smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator are computed to illustrate the application of the method. The accuracy of the results is verified by direct Monte Carlo simulations. The transient responses show the evolution of the PDFs from being Gaussian to non-Gaussian. The effect of a chaotic saddle on the stochastic response is also studied. The stochastic P-bifurcation in terms of the steady-state PDFs occurs with the decrease of the smoothness parameter, which corresponds to the deterministic pitchfork bifurcation.

  5. Snowmobile-related deaths in Ontario: a 5-year review.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, B; Milner, R; Johnson, C; Bota, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the demographic characteristics and circumstances surrounding fatal snowmobile accidents in Ontario, to examine the risk factors and to observe any fatality trends over the study period. DESIGN: Case series. PATIENTS: All 131 people who died accidentally while operating a snowmobile in Ontario from 1985-86 to 1989-90. Records were obtained from the chief coroner's office; registration data were obtained from the Ministry of Transportation. RESULTS: Although the absolute number of deaths increased each year, owing to a rapid increase in the number of registered snowmobiles, the risk of death from snowmobile accidents remained relatively constant. Deaths occurred most frequently in northeastern Ontario. Youths and men predominated among the victims. Fatal accidents occurred more often on lakes (in 66% of the cases in which this information was known) than on roads (in 26%) or trails (in 8%). Weekend fatalities predominated, and deaths occurred most often during times of suboptimal lighting (from 4 pm to 8 am). The driver was killed in 84% of the cases in which the person's role was known. Alcohol use before death was implicated in 69% of the cases, the level exceeding the Ontario legal limit in 59%. CONCLUSION: Snowmobile-related deaths result from factors that are generally avoidable. Strategies need to be instituted to reduce the rate of these events. PMID:1735039

  6. A robust direct-integration method for rotorcraft maneuver and periodic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Brahmananda

    1992-01-01

    The Newmark-Beta method and the Newton-Raphson iteration scheme are combined to develop a direct-integration method for evaluating the maneuver and periodic-response expressions for rotorcraft. The method requires the generation of Jacobians and includes higher derivatives in the formulation of the geometric stiffness matrix to enhance the convergence of the system. The method leads to effective convergence with nonlinear structural dynamics and aerodynamic terms. Singularities in the matrices can be addressed with the method as they arise from a Lagrange multiplier approach for coupling equations with nonlinear constraints. The method is also shown to be general enough to handle singularities from quasisteady control-system models. The method is shown to be more general and robust than the similar 2GCHAS method for analyzing rotorcraft dynamics.

  7. Semi-Periodic Sequences and Extraneous Events in Earthquake Forecasting: I. Theory and Method, Parkfield Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava Pichardo, Fidencio Alejandro; Quinteros Cartaya, Claudia Beatriz; Glowacka, Ewa; Frez Cárdenas, José Duglas

    2014-07-01

    We present a new method to identify semi-periodic sequences in the occurrence times of large earthquakes, which allows for the presence of multiple semi-periodic sequences and/or events not belonging to any identifiable sequence in the time series. The method, based on the analytic Fourier transform, yields estimates of the departure from periodicity of an observed sequence, and of the probability that the sequence is not due to chance. These estimates are used to make and to evaluate forecasts of future events belonging to each sequence. Numerous tests with synthetic catalogs show that the method is surprisingly capable of correctly identifying sequences, unidentifiable by eye, in complicated time series. Correct identification of a given sequence depends on the number of events it contains, on the sequence's departure from periodicity, and, in some cases, on the choice of starting and ending times of the analyzed time window; as well as on the total number of events in the time series. Some particular data combinations may result in spectra where significant periods are obscured by large amplitudes artifacts of the transform, but artifacts can be usually recognized because they lack harmonics; thus, in most of these cases, true semi-periodic sequences may not be identified, but no false identifications will be made. A first example of an application of the method to real seismicity data is the analysis of the Parkfield event series. The analysis correctly aftcasts the September 2004 earthquake. Further applications to real data from Japan and Venezuela are shown in a companion paper.

  8. Fourier Representation Methods for Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory in One-Dimensionally Periodic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fripiat, J. G.; Delhalle, J.; Harris, Frank E.

    2007-12-01

    Ab initio studies of one-dimensionally periodic systems are advantageously carried out by methods that employ Fourier representations and the Ewald method for accelerating the lattice sums. This communication desribes the first investigation in which these techniques have been applied at the Mo/ller-Plesset level of perturbation theory, MBPT(2). Second-order corrections to the restricted Hartree-Fock energy and energy bands are reported for H2, Be, and LiH chains, and these results are compared to direct-space extended-system and oligomer computations. The methods described herein exhibit improved convergence relative to the other methods to which they are compared.

  9. 26 CFR 601.204 - Changes in accounting periods and in methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Changes in accounting periods and in methods of accounting. 601.204 Section 601.204 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601.204 Changes in accounting...

  10. Method of electric field flow fractionation wherein the polarity of the electric field is periodically reversed

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1992-01-01

    A novel method of electric field flow fractionation for separating solute molecules from a carrier solution is disclosed. The method of the invention utilizes an electric field that is periodically reversed in polarity, in a time-dependent, wave-like manner. The parameters of the waveform, including amplitude, frequency and wave shape may be varied to optimize separation of solute species. The waveform may further include discontinuities to enhance separation.

  11. Comparative analysis of computational methods for periodic transonic flows at low and high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaghegh, M. R.; Malek-Jafarian, M.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis via simulation of time-periodic unsteady inviscid flow at low and high frequencies using Time Spectral Method (TSM) and comparing it with the traditional methods such as BDF and Explicit Structured Adaptive Grid Method. The TSM uses a Fourier representation in time. Mathematical tools used here are discrete Fourier transformations. The TSM has been proposed for the fast and efficient computation of periodic unsteady flows. This method has been evaluated and has been validated with NACA pitching airfoils that are widely used and prevalent 2D external aerodynamics test cases. To validate the results presented by the TSM are compared with experimental data and two the other methods. It shows a significant reduction in the computational expense compared to the conventional time-accurate methods, due to taking advantage of the periodic nature of flow by Fourier representation for temporal discretization that has a high accuracy. Also it has shown that TSM can be applied accurately for ample rang of variations of frequency (NACA 64A010 (CT6)) and variations in angle of attacks (NACA 0012 (CT1)).

  12. High-Fidelity Generalization Method of Cells for Inelastic Periodic Multiphase Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    An extension of a recently-developed linear thermoelastic theory for multiphase periodic materials is presented which admits inelastic behavior of the constituent phases. The extended theory is capable of accurately estimating both the effective inelastic response of a periodic multiphase composite and the local stress and strain fields in the individual phases. The model is presently limited to materials characterized by constituent phases that are continuous in one direction, but arbitrarily distributed within the repeating unit cell which characterizes the material's periodic microstructure. The model's analytical framework is based on the homogenization technique for periodic media, but the method of solution for the local displacement and stress fields borrows concepts previously employed by the authors in constructing the higher-order theory for functionally graded materials, in contrast with the standard finite-element solution method typically used in conjunction with the homogenization technique. The present approach produces a closed-form macroscopic constitutive equation for a periodic multiphase material valid for both uniaxial and multiaxial loading. The model's predictive accuracy in generating both the effective inelastic stress-strain response and the local stress said inelastic strain fields is demonstrated by comparison with the results of an analytical inelastic solution for the axisymmetric and axial shear response of a unidirectional composite based on the concentric cylinder model, and with finite-element results for transverse loading.

  13. Predictors of long term survival after hepatic resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A retrospective study of 5-year survivors

    PubMed Central

    Abd ElWahab, Mohamed; El Nakeeb, Ayman; El Hanafy, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad M; Elghawalby, Ahmed; Askr, Waleed; Ali, Mahmoud; Abd El Gawad, Mohamed; Salah, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine predictors of long term survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) by comparing patients surviving > 5 years with those who survived < 5 years. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with pathologically proven HC who underwent surgical resection at the Gastroenterology Surgical Center, Mansoura University, Egypt between January 2002 and April 2013. All data of the patients were collected from the medical records. Patients were divided into two groups according to their survival: Patients surviving less than 5 years and those who survived > 5 years. RESULTS: There were 34 (14%) long term survivors (5 year survivors) among the 243 patients. Five-year survivors were younger at diagnosis than those surviving less than 5 years (mean age, 50.47 ± 4.45 vs 54.59 ± 4.98, P = 0.001). Gender, clinical presentation, preoperative drainage, preoperative serum bilirubin, albumin and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were similar between the two groups. The level of CA 19-9 was significantly higher in patients surviving < 5 years (395.71 ± 31.43 vs 254.06 ± 42.19, P = 0.0001). Univariate analysis demonstrated nine variables to be significantly associated with survival > 5 year, including young age (P = 0.001), serum CA19-9 (P = 0.0001), non-cirrhotic liver (P = 0.02), major hepatic resection (P = 0.001), caudate lobe resection (P = 0.006), well differentiated tumour (P = 0.03), lymph node status (0.008), R0 resection margin (P = 0.0001) and early postoperative liver cell failure (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Liver status, resection of caudate lobe, lymph node status, R0 resection and CA19-9 were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for long term survival. PMID:27358676

  14. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years.

  15. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years. PMID:21827523

  16. Refractive outcome of prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity treated by diode laser: follow-up at 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuoc Huu; Catt, Caroline; Nguyen, Tinh Xuan; Pham, Van Trong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the refraction of eyes treated with diode laser photocoagulation for prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at a mean of 5 years after treatment. Materials and methods Fifty infants with prethreshold ROP treated with diode laser at Hanoi Childrens’ Hospital during the period 2008 to 2009 were reviewed. Refractive error was identified by cycloplegic refraction with Cyclogyl 1%. Myopia was divided into two categories based on magnitude: high myopia (more than −5.00 D) and low myopia (between 0 and −5.00 D). Hypermetropia was subdivided into low hypermetropia (between 0 and +5.00 D) and high hypermetropia (greater than +5.00 D). Astigmatism was classified as high if >2.00 D. Eyes with media opacification that interferes with retinoscopy were excluded. The refractive outcome was correlated with birth weight and gestational age. The anatomical and visual outcomes were recorded. Results One hundred eyes from 50 infants were included in the study. The mean birth weight was 1,426.4 g and the mean gestational age was 29.88 weeks. After 5 years of follow-up, the average spherical equivalent for 100 eyes was −2.87 D. On cycloplegic retinoscopy, high myopia (more than −5.00 D) was seen in 32% of eyes. Twenty (20%) eyes had nonsignificant hypermetropia, and high hypermetropia (more +5.00 D) was seen in only one eye (1%). The prevalence of astigmatism and high astigmatism (more than −2.00 D) was 79% and 49%, respectively. Three infants (6%) had esotropia and two infants (4%) had exotropia. None of the infants had nystagmus. Conclusion The majority of patients who underwent diode laser therapy for prethreshold ROP had favourable anatomical and visual outcomes. High refractive error is common and may be the cause of visual impairment. PMID:26445521

  17. Drifter-based estimate of the 5-year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2014-12-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time-scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Excellent agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  18. Drifter-based estimate of the 5 year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K.

    2014-11-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Good agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  19. Participation in an Intensive Longitudinal Study with Weekly Web Surveys Over 2.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Schulz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Technological advances have made it easier for researchers to collect more frequent longitudinal data from survey respondents via personal computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices. Although technology has led to an increase in data-intensive longitudinal studies, little is known about attrition from such studies or the differences between respondents who complete frequently administered surveys in a timely manner, and respondents who do not. Objective We examined respondent characteristics and behaviors associated with continued and on-time participation in a population-based intensive longitudinal study, using weekly web-based survey interviews over an extended period. Methods We analyzed data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, an intensive longitudinal study that collected weekly web-based survey interviews for 2.5 years from 1003 18- and 19-year-olds to investigate factors shaping the dynamics of their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancies. Results Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses showed background respondent characteristics measured at baseline were associated with the number of days respondents remained enrolled in the study, the number of interviews they completed, and the odds that they were late completing interviews. In addition, we found that changes in pregnancy-related behaviors reported in the weekly interviews were associated with late completion of interviews. Specifically, after controlling for sociodemographic, personality, contact information, and prior experience variables, we found that weekly reports such as starting to have sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32, P=.01), getting a new partner (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.53-2.03, P<.001), stopping the use of contraception (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49, P=.001), and having a new pregnancy (OR 5.57, 95% CI 4.26-7.29, P<.001) were significantly associated with late survey completion. However, young women who reported changes in

  20. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Do, Sharon; Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  1. Percutaneous Nucleoplasty Using Coblation Technique for the Treatment of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: 5-year Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Du, Sui-Yong; Sun, Tian-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous nucleoplasty using coblation technique for the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP), after 5 years of follow-up. Methods: From September 2004 to November 2006, 172 patients underwent percutaneous nucleoplasty for chronic LBP in our department. Forty-one of these patients were followed up for a mean period of 67 months. Nucleoplasty was performed at L3/4 in 1 patient; L4/5 in 25 patients; L5/S1 in 2 patients; L3/4 and L4/5 in 2 patients; L4/5 and L5/S1 in 7 patients; and L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 in 4 patients. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years postoperatively. Pain was graded using a 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the percentage reduction in pain score was calculated at each postoperative time point. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to assess disability-related to lumbar spine degeneration, and patient satisfaction was assessed using the modified MacNab criteria. Results: There were significant differences among the preoperative, 1-week postoperative, and 3-year postoperative VAS and ODI scores, but not between the 3- and 5-year postoperative scores. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or preoperative symptoms between patients with effective and ineffective treatment, but there were significant differences in the number of levels treated, Pfirrmann grade of intervertebral disc degeneration, and provocative discography findings between these two groups. Excellent or good patient satisfaction was achieved in 87.9% of patients after 1 week, 72.4% after 1 year, 67.7% after 3 years, and 63.4% at the last follow-up. Conclusions: Although previously published short- and medium-term outcomes after percutaneous nucleoplasty appeared to be satisfactory, our long-term follow-up results show a significant decline in patient satisfaction over time. Percutaneous nucleoplasty is a safe and simple technique, with therapeutic

  2. Microscopy image analysis of p63 immunohistochemically stained laryngeal cancer lesions for predicting patient 5-year survival.

    PubMed

    Ninos, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Sakellaropoulos, George; Panayiotakis, George; Economou, George; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design a microscopy image analysis (MIA) system for predicting the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, employing histopathology images of lesions, which had been immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for p63 expression. Biopsy materials from 42 patients, with verified laryngeal cancer and follow-up, were selected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Twenty six patients had survived more than 5 years and 16 less than 5 years after the first diagnosis. Histopathology images were IHC stained for p63 expression. Images were first processed by a segmentation method for isolating the p63-expressed nuclei. Seventy-seven features were evaluated regarding texture, shape, and physical topology of nuclei, p63 staining, and patient-specific data. Those features, the probabilistic neural network classifier, the leave-one-out (LOO), and the bootstrap cross-validation methods, were used to design the MIA-system for assessing the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal cancer. MIA-system accuracy was about 90 % and 85 %, employing the LOO and the Bootstrap methods, respectively. The image texture of p63-expressed nuclei appeared coarser and contained more edges in the 5-year non-survivor group. These differences were at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study has proposed an MIA-system that may be of assistance to physicians, as a second opinion tool in assessing the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal cancer, and it has revealed useful information regarding differences in nuclei texture between 5-year survivors and non-survivors. PMID:26285779

  3. Alternative exact method for random walks on finite and periodic lattices with traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Jose M.

    1982-07-01

    An alternative general method for random walks in finite or periodic lattices with traps is presented. The method gives, in a straightforward manner and in very little computing time, the exact probability that a random walker, starting from a given site, will undergo n steps before trapping. Another version gives the probability that the walker is at any other given position after n steps. The expected walk lengths calculated for simple lattices agree exactly with those given by a previous exact method by Walsh and Kozak.

  4. Sustained maintenance of exercise induced muscle strength gains and normal bone mineral density in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: a 5 year follow up

    PubMed Central

    Hakkinen, A; Sokka, T; Kautiainen, H; Kotaniemi, A; Hannonen, P

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate at 5 years whether an initial 2 year home based strength training period imposes sustained effects on muscle strength, bone mineral density (BMD), structural joint damage, and on disease activity in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Seventy patients were randomised either to perform home based strength training with loads of 50–70% of repetition maximum (EG) or range of motion exercises (CG). Both groups were encouraged to take part in aerobic activities 2–3 times a week. Maximal muscle strength of different muscle groups was measured by dynamometers, and BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual x ray densitometry. Disease activity was assessed by the 28 joint disease activity score, and joint damage by x ray findings. Results: 62 patients completed 2 years' training and 59 patients attended check up at 5 years. Mean (SD) maximum muscle strength indices increased from baseline to 2 years—in EG from 212 (78) kg by a mean (95% CI) of 68 (55 to 80) and in CG from 195 (72) kg by 35 (13 to 60) kg—and remained at that level for the next 3 years. Development of BMD in EG tended to be more favourable than that in CG. Muscle strength training was not detrimental to joint structures or disease activity. Conclusion: The patients' exercise induced muscle strength gains during a 2 year training period were maintained throughout a subsequent self monitored training period of 3 years. Despite substantial training effects in muscle strength, BMD values remained relatively constant. Radiographic damage remained low even at 5 years. PMID:15249317

  5. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243

  6. The nucleonic matter LOCV calculations in a periodic box versus the FHNC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, M.; Tafrihi, A.

    2013-10-01

    The lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method is reformulated for a fixed number of nucleons in a period box (PBLOCV) with the inter-nucleon interactions such as the Bethe homework potential, vB, and the scalar (v4) part of the Argonne interaction (. The two-body cluster approximation is used in the (PB)LOCV formalism to obtain the energy per particle subjected to the normalization constraint for an infinite (a finite) number of nucleons. It is shown that our (PB)LOCV results are reasonably consistent with those of Fantoni and Schmidt (Periodic-Box) Fermi HyperNetted Chain ((PB)FHNC) calculations. In addition, unlike the thermodynamic limit, it is found that the normalization constraint in the periodic box is not exactly satisfied. However, it is realized that, by increasing the number of particles, the value of normalization constraint in the periodic box improves. Therefore, the two-body cluster approximation in the PBLOCV method becomes more reliable in the larger periodic boxes than the smaller ones. On the other hand, the PBLOCV energy per particle approaches the corresponding LOCV prediction for the large number of particles. The anisotropic behavior of the PB two-body distribution function, which is one of the main point of this report, is discussed. Finally, it is found that the PBLOCV results, i.e. the total (two-body cluster) energy and the normalization constraint, similar to the PBFHNC calculations depend on the number of particles in the periodic box and this dependence principally becomes negligible for the large number of particles.

  7. Carbodiimide or periodate method to prepare peroxidase hydrazide for its use in immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Tulsidas G

    2004-01-01

    Peroxidase hydrazides were prepared by conjugating horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) by carbodiimide or periodate oxidation method. The resulting HRP hydrazides (ADH-HRP) were conjugated to cortisol-21-hemisuccinate (cortisol-21-HS) by forming diimide bonds using the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) carbodiimide mediated reaction. The prepared cortisol-21-HS-ADH-HRP enzyme conjugates were utilized for the development of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for direct estimation of cortisol. To the cortisol antibody coated microtiter wells, standard or serum sample (50 microL), along with 100 microL of cortisol-21-HS-ADH-HRP enzyme conjugate (ADH-HRP used is prepared by either carbodiimide or periodate oxidation method), was incubated for 1 hr at 37 degrees C. Bound enzyme activity was measured by using tetramethyl benzidine/hydrogen peroxide (TMB/H202) as substrate. The sensitivity, specificity, and recovery of the assays were found to be identical when ELISAs were employed with cortisol enzyme conjugates prepared by conjugating cortisol-21-HS to HRP hydrazide, made either by the carbodiimide method or periodate oxidation method. PMID:15461389

  8. Linear-scaling explicitly correlated treatment of solids: Periodic local MP2-F12 method

    SciTech Connect

    Usvyat, Denis

    2013-11-21

    Theory and implementation of the periodic local MP2-F12 method in the 3*A fixed-amplitude ansatz is presented. The method is formulated in the direct space, employing local representation for the occupied, virtual, and auxiliary orbitals in the form of Wannier functions (WFs), projected atomic orbitals (PAOs), and atom-centered Gaussian-type orbitals, respectively. Local approximations are introduced, restricting the list of the explicitly correlated pairs, as well as occupied, virtual, and auxiliary spaces in the strong orthogonality projector to the pair-specific domains on the basis of spatial proximity of respective orbitals. The 4-index two-electron integrals appearing in the formalism are approximated via the direct-space density fitting technique. In this procedure, the fitting orbital spaces are also restricted to local fit-domains surrounding the fitted densities. The formulation of the method and its implementation exploits the translational symmetry and the site-group symmetries of the WFs. Test calculations are performed on LiH crystal. The results show that the periodic LMP2-F12 method substantially accelerates basis set convergence of the total correlation energy, and even more so the correlation energy differences. The resulting energies are quite insensitive to the resolution-of-the-identity domain sizes and the quality of the auxiliary basis sets. The convergence with the orbital domain size is somewhat slower, but still acceptable. Moreover, inclusion of slightly more diffuse functions, than those usually used in the periodic calculations, improves the convergence of the LMP2-F12 correlation energy with respect to both the size of the PAO-domains and the quality of the orbital basis set. At the same time, the essentially diffuse atomic orbitals from standard molecular basis sets, commonly utilized in molecular MP2-F12 calculations, but problematic in the periodic context, are not necessary for LMP2-F12 treatment of crystals.

  9. Unification of some biochemical methods of research in the pre- and post-flight periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tigranyan, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical methods for determination of various parameters and factors during pre- and post-flight periods, as used by American and Soviet teams dealing with space flight medicine are compared. The emphasis is on the exchange of information on the study of the blood and urine content of space travelers before and after space flight. A series of electrolytic, enzymatic, and hormonal factors is discussed.

  10. Traditional endodontic surgery versus modern technique: a 5-year controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tortorici, Silvia; Difalco, Paolo; Caradonna, Luigi; Tetè, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared outcomes of traditional apicoectomy versus modern apicoectomy, by means of a controlled clinical trial with a 5-year follow-up. The study investigated 938 teeth in 843 patients. On the basis of the procedure performed, the teeth were grouped in 3 groups. Differences between the groups were the method of osteotomy (type of instruments used), type of preparation of retrograde cavity (different apicoectomy angles and instruments used for root-end preparation), and root-end filling material used (gray mineral trioxide aggregate or silver amalgam). Outcome (tooth healing) was estimated after 1 and 5 years, postoperatively. Clinical success rates after 1 year were 67% (306 teeth), 90% (186 teeth), and 94% (256 teeth) according to traditional apicoectomy (group 1), modern microsurgical apicoectomy using burns for osteotomy (group 2) or using piezo-osteotomy (group 3), respectively. After 1 year, group comparison results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Linear trend test was also statistically significant (P < 0.0001), pointing out larger healing from group 1 to group 3. After 5 years, teeth were classified into 2 groups on the basis of root-end filling material used. Clinical success was 90.8% (197 teeth) in the silver amalgam group versus 96% (309 teeth) in the mineral trioxide aggregate group (P < 0.00214). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that surgical technique was independently associated to tooth healing. In conclusion, modern apicoectomy resulted in a probability of success more than 5 times higher (odds ratio, 5.20 [95% confidence interval, 3.94-6.92]; P < 0.001) compared with the traditional technique. PMID:24469371

  11. Evaluation of selected methods for determining streamflow during periods of ice effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, Norwood B.; Walker, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Seventeen methods for estimating ice-affected streamflow are evaluated for potential use with the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station network. The methods evaluated were identified by written responses from U.S. Geological Survey field offices and by a comprehensive literature search. The methods selected and techniques used for applying the methods are described in this report. The methods are evaluated by comparing estimated results with data collected at three streamflow-gaging stations in Iowa during the winter of 1987-88. Discharge measurements were obtained at 1- to 5-day intervals during the ice-affected periods at the three stations to define an accurate baseline record. Discharge records were compiled for each method based on data available, assuming a 6-week field schedule. The methods are classified into two general categories-subjective and analytical--depending on whether individual judgment is necessary for method application. On the basis of results of the evaluation for the three Iowa stations, two of the subjective methods (discharge ratio and hydrographic-and-climatic comparison) were more accurate than the other subjective methods and approximately as accurate as the best analytical method. Three of the analytical methods (index velocity, adjusted rating curve, and uniform flow) could potentially be used at streamflow-gaging stations, where the need for accurate ice-affected discharge estimates justifies the expense of collecting additional field data. One analytical method (ice-adjustment factor) may be appropriate for use at stations with extremely stable stage-discharge ratings and measuring sections. Further research is needed to refine the analytical methods. The discharge-ratio and multiple-regression methods produce estimates of streamflow for varying ice conditions using information obtained from the existing U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging network.

  12. Improvement of the periodate-borohydride surface-labeling method for human blood platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, B.; Clemetson, K.J.; Luescher, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    The periodate/sodium boro(/sup 3/H)hydride ((/sup 3/H)-NaBH4) method is extensively used for the specific labeling of cell surface glycoproteins. Reduction with tritiated borohydride is also used in other surface-labeling techniques, the neuraminidase/galactose oxidase/(/sup 3/H)-NaBH4 method (specific for terminal galactose and N-acetyl-galactosamine residues) and the pyridoxal phosphate/(/sup 3/H)-NaBH4 method (specific for protein). By modification of the reaction conditions during the periodate-oxidation and borohydride-reduction, the ratio of the incorporated to the total added radioactivity could be increased by a factor of 50, while the specific activity of the labeled material was twice as high as in the original method. Alternatively, by another modification, the specific activity of the labeled material could be increased about 10-fold. The influence of the most important parameters was investigated in detail. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and fluorography demonstrate that the labeling pattern of the membrane glycoproteins is the same as with the conventional method.

  13. Perturbation method for the floquet eigenvalues and stability boundary of periodic linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.-T.; Griffin, J. H.; Wickert, J. A.

    1995-04-01

    A multiple parameter perturbation method is developed to determine the Floquet eigenvalues and stability boundary of a linear discrete system that is described by a system of ordinary differential equations with periodic coefficients. In the method, the state of the system is determined by solving a number of decoupled problems and, as a result, implementation of the method is computationally efficient even when the dimension of the system is large. The method is first applied to Mathieu's equation in order to illustrate its application to a relatively straightforward, standard problem. It is then applied to the torsional analysis of a boat's drive train to show application to a large scale system of some practical importance.

  14. Is flow cytometric evaluation of DNA degradation a reliable method to investigate the early postmortem period?

    PubMed

    Di Nunno, N R; Costantinides, F; Bernasconi, P; Bottin, C; Melato, M

    1998-03-01

    The time of death can be established by determining the length of the postmortem interval. Many methods have been proposed to achieve this goal. Flow cytometric evaluation of DNA degradation seems to be reliable for the first 72 hours after death. Our study evaluated the correspondence of the corruption process between in vitro and corpse tissues. We chose spleen tissue to perform our investigation because it is rich in nucleated cells. Results showed a precise correspondence between the two kinds of samples in the time period between 24 and 36 hours. The period from 36 to 72 hours is characterized by a much looser correspondence than that found in the first period. After the first 72 hours, DNA denaturation is massive and does not allow useful cytofluorimetric readings. The spleen does not seem to be the most suitable organ for this type of investigation because it tends to colliquate very rapidly. We therefore are evaluating other organs to identify a more suitable tissue source for the investigation of longer postmortem period using flow cytometry.

  15. Conservative, non-surgical management of patients presenting with impacted lower third molars: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Hill, C M; Walker, R V

    2006-10-01

    Our aim was to find out what happened over a period of 5 years to fully or partially impacted mandibular third molars that were left alone. The change in emphasis towards non-intervention in patients with asymptomatic impacted wisdom teeth over the past few years was accompanied by considerable debate as to the eventual outcome of such teeth. Examination of a number of factors including smoking, extent of eruption, depth of periodontal pocket, and history of pericoronitis failed to show any predictive factors that would indicate which teeth would subsequently require removal. However, about one-third of the teeth in this series had to be removed within the 5-year period. Although this does not allow a 'lifetime extrapolation', it blurs the edges of our current thinking about asymptomatic wisdom teeth and certainly suggests that further (possibly longer term) studies need to be completed. It does, however, provide little support for the reintroduction of prophylactic removal of wisdom teeth.

  16. Analysis of all-optically tunable functionalities in subwavelength periodic structures by the Fourier modal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bej, Subhajit; Tervo, Jani; Francés, Jorge; Svirko, Yuri P.; Turunen, Jari

    2016-05-01

    We propose the nonlinear Fourier Modal Method (FMM) [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31, 2371 (2014)] as a convenient and versatile numerical tool for the design and analysis of grating based next generation all-optical devices. Here, we include several numerical examples where the FMM is used to simulate all-optically tunable functionalities in sub-wavelength periodic structures. At first, we numerically investigate a 1-D periodic nonlinear binary grating with amorphous TiO2. We plot the diffraction efficiency in the transmitted orders against the structure depth for normally incident plane wave. Change in diffraction efficiencies for different incident field amplitudes are evident from the plots. We verify the accuracy of our implementation by comparing our results with the results obtained with the nonlinear Split Field-Finite Difference Time Domain (SF-FDTD) method. Next we repeat the same experiment with vertically standing amorphous Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays grown on top of quartz which are periodic in two mutually perpendicular directions and examine the efficiencies in the direct transmitted light for different incident field amplitudes. Our third example includes analysis of a form birefringent linear grating with Kerr medium. With FMM we demonstrate that the birefringence of such a structure can be tuned by all-optical means. As a final example, we design a narrow band Guided Mode Resonance Filter (GMRF). Numerical experiments based on the nonlinear FMM reveal that the spectral tunability of such a filter can be obtained by all-optical means.

  17. Fringe-period selection for a multifrequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Jiang, Kejian

    2016-08-01

    The multi-frequency fringe-projection phase unwrapping method (MFPPUM) is a typical phase unwrapping algorithm for fringe projection profilometry. It has the advantage of being capable of correctly accomplishing phase unwrapping even in the presence of surface discontinuities. If the fringe frequency ratio of the MFPPUM is too large, fringe order error (FOE) may be triggered. FOE will result in phase unwrapping error. It is preferable for the phase unwrapping to be kept correct while the fewest sets of lower frequency fringe patterns are used. To achieve this goal, in this paper a parameter called fringe order inaccuracy (FOI) is defined, dominant factors which may induce FOE are theoretically analyzed, a method to optimally select the fringe periods for the MFPPUM is proposed with the aid of FOI, and experiments are conducted to research the impact of the dominant factors in phase unwrapping and demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Some novel phenomena are revealed by these experiments. The proposed method helps to optimally select the fringe periods and detect the phase unwrapping error for the MFPPUM.

  18. Periodic nonlinear Fourier transform for fiber-optic communications, Part I: theory and numerical methods.

    PubMed

    Kamalian, Morteza; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Le, Son Thai; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we introduce the periodic nonlinear Fourier transform (PNFT) method as an alternative and efficacious tool for compensation of the nonlinear transmission effects in optical fiber links. In the Part I, we introduce the algorithmic platform of the technique, describing in details the direct and inverse PNFT operations, also known as the inverse scattering transform for periodic (in time variable) nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). We pay a special attention to explaining the potential advantages of the PNFT-based processing over the previously studied nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) based methods. Further, we elucidate the issue of the numerical PNFT computation: we compare the performance of four known numerical methods applicable for the calculation of nonlinear spectral data (the direct PNFT), in particular, taking the main spectrum (utilized further in Part II for the modulation and transmission) associated with some simple example waveforms as the quality indicator for each method. We show that the Ablowitz-Ladik discretization approach for the direct PNFT provides the best performance in terms of the accuracy and computational time consumption. PMID:27505799

  19. A 5-Year Follow-up Study on the Relationship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Li-Ting; Chung, Shiu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep disturbances are among the most common nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease. However, no large epidemiological data regarding the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Parkinson disease have been reported. The goal of this study was to investigate the risk for Parkinson disease during a 5-y follow-up period after a diagnosis of OSA using a population-based dataset. Methods: The data for this retrospective longitudinal cohort study were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We identified 1,532 patients with OSA as the study cohort and randomly selected 7,660 patients as the comparison cohort. Each subject was individually followed up for a 5-y period to identify those in whom Parkinson disease subsequently developed. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed as a means of comparing the 5-y risk of subsequent Parkinson disease between the study cohort and comparison cohort. Results: Of the 9,192 total patients, Parkinson disease developed in 0.73% during the 5-y follow-up period: 1.24% and 0.63% in the OSA and control cohorts, respectively. After censoring patients who died during the follow-up period and adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, the hazard ratio (HR) of Parkinson disease during the 5-y follow-up period for patients with OSA was 2.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32–3.88) compared with comparison patients. In addition, among females, the adjusted HR of Parkinson disease was 3.54 (95% CI = 1.50–8.34) for patients with OSA compared to patients without OSA. However, among males, there was no significantly increased hazard of Parkinson disease for patients with OSA compared to those without OSA. Conclusions: Female patients with OSA were found to be at a significant risk of subsequent Parkinson disease during a 5-y follow-up period. Citation: Sheu JJ, Lee HC, Lin HC, Kao LT, Chung SD. A 5-year follow-up study on the relationship between

  20. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino de; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children's individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother's level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  1. Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (≤2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: β = −3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: β = −3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children’s IQ adversely. PMID:19620194

  2. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26039393

  3. Periodic dielectric structure for production of photonic band gap and method for fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Ozbay, Ekmel; Tuttle, Gary; Michel, Erick; Ho, Kai-Ming; Biswas, Rana; Chan, Che-Ting; Soukoulis, Costas

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating a periodic dielectric structure which exhibits a photonic band gap. Alignment holes are formed in a wafer of dielectric material having a given crystal orientation. A planar layer of elongate rods is then formed in a section of the wafer. The formation of the rods includes the step of selectively removing the dielectric material of the wafer between the rods. The formation of alignment holes and layers of elongate rods and wafers is then repeated to form a plurality of patterned wafers. A stack of patterned wafers is then formed by rotating each successive wafer with respect to the next-previous wafer, and then placing the successive wafer on the stack. This stacking results in a stack of patterned wafers having a four-layer periodicity exhibiting a photonic band gap.

  4. Periodic dielectric structure for production of photonic band gap and method for fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Ozbay, E.; Tuttle, G.; Michel, E.; Ho, K.M.; Biswas, R.; Chan, C.T.; Soukoulis, C.

    1995-04-11

    A method is disclosed for fabricating a periodic dielectric structure which exhibits a photonic band gap. Alignment holes are formed in a wafer of dielectric material having a given crystal orientation. A planar layer of elongate rods is then formed in a section of the wafer. The formation of the rods includes the step of selectively removing the dielectric material of the wafer between the rods. The formation of alignment holes and layers of elongate rods and wafers is then repeated to form a plurality of patterned wafers. A stack of patterned wafers is then formed by rotating each successive wafer with respect to the next-previous wafer, and then placing the successive wafer on the stack. This stacking results in a stack of patterned wafers having a four-layer periodicity exhibiting a photonic band gap. 42 figures.

  5. Second-order two-scale method for bending behaviors of composite plate with periodic configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guoqing; Cui, Junzhi

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, the second-order two-scale analysis method for bending behaviors of the plate made from composites with 3-D periodic configuration is presented by means of construction way. It can capture the microscopic 3-D mechanics behaviors caused from 3-D micro-structures. First, directly starting from the 3-D elastic plate model of composite materials with 3-D periodic configuration, three cell models are defined, and correspondingly the three classes of cell functions only defined on 3 normalized cells are constructed. And then, the effective homogenization parameters of composites are calculated from those local functions, it leads to a 2-D homogenized laminar plate problem. Next, to solve it the homogenization solution is obtained. Finally, the second-order two-scale solution is constructed from the micro-cell functions and the homogenization solution.

  6. Second-Order Two-Scale Method for Bending Behaviors of Composite Plate with Periodic Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guoqing; Cui, Junzhi

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the second-order two-scale analysis method for bending behaviors of the plate made from composites with 3-D periodic configuration is presented by means of construction way. It can capture the microscopic 3-D mechanics behaviors caused from 3-D micro-structures. First, directly starting from the 3-D elastic plate model of composite materials with 3-D periodic configuration, three cell models are defined, and correspondingly the three classes of cell functions only defined on 3 normalized cells are constructed. And then, the effective homogenization parameters of composites are calculated from those local functions, it leads to a 2-D homogenized laminar plate problem. Next, to solve it the homogenization solution is obtained. Finally, the second-order two-scale solution is constructed from the micro-cell functions and the homogenization solution.

  7. DNS of Flows over Periodic Hills using a Discontinuous-Galerkin Spectral-Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent compressible flows is performed using a higher-order space-time discontinuous-Galerkin finite-element method. The numerical scheme is validated by performing DNS of the evolution of the Taylor-Green vortex and turbulent flow in a channel. The higher-order method is shown to provide increased accuracy relative to low-order methods at a given number of degrees of freedom. The turbulent flow over a periodic array of hills in a channel is simulated at Reynolds number 10,595 using an 8th-order scheme in space and a 4th-order scheme in time. These results are validated against previous large eddy simulation (LES) results. A preliminary analysis provides insight into how these detailed simulations can be used to improve Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling

  8. An Effective Method of Introducing the Periodic Table as a Crossword Puzzle at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joag, Sushama D.

    2014-01-01

    A simple method to introduce the modern periodic table of elements at the high school level as a game of solving a crossword puzzle is presented here. A survey to test the effectiveness of this new method relative to the conventional method, involving use of a wall-mounted chart of the periodic table, was conducted on a convenience sample. This…

  9. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  10. Interactive Reading Experiences of African American Fathers and Social Fathers and Their 4- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Clarissa R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate the patterns of book choice and interaction during book reading sessions of six African American fathers and social fathers and their 4- to 5-year-old children. The fathers/social fathers selected and read aloud expository text, narrative text, and poetry to their children while…

  11. Epidemiology of Speech and Language Impairment in a Nationally Representative Sample of 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Sharynne; Harrison, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To draw on multiple sources of information to determine prevalence of speech and language impairment in young Australian children. Method: Information about 4,983 children (ages 4-5 years) from Growing Up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2007) was obtained via parent…

  12. Changes in Weight over the School Year and Summer Vacation: Results of a 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Jennette P.; Johnston, Craig A.; Woehler, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that children gain more weight during the summer months compared with the school year. To examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight further, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standardized BMI (zBMI) of students entering kindergarten. Methods: Heights…

  13. 75 FR 42684 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of a 5-year Review of the Baiji/Chinese River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... of a 5-year Review of the Baiji/Chinese River Dolphin/Yangtze River Dolphin AGENCY: National Marine... submit comments, identified by , by either of the following methods: Mail: Angela Somma, National Marine... recent status review. Categories of requested information include the following: (A) species...

  14. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  15. A unique trend of murder-suicide in the Jamnagar region of Gujarat, India (a retrospective study of 5 years).

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Gambhir Singh, O

    2008-05-01

    Jamnagar region, Gujarat state, enjoys a relatively low incidence of homicide in India. In the 5 year period from 2000 to 2004, 8 mothers committed 13 murders involving 3 male and 10 female victims and in every case it was followed by suicide of the assailant mothers. During the study the annual incidence of murder-suicide was about 1.8 cases. All the assailants were mothers and the victims were their small children in the age group of 6 months to 7 years. Five incidents took place in rural areas and three in urban areas. It was prevalent only in low socio-economic families. Methods both for killing and suicide were either burning or drowning. All the mothers were legally married and living with the family. Family and family related matters were the main motives for killing. In one case there was history of depression of the mother due to her previous miscarriage. Alcohol consumption or drug abuse was not seen even in a single case. All cases fell in the altruistic category of filicide-suicide. PMID:18423359

  16. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  17. Three-dimensional periodic complex structures in soft matter: investigation using scattering methods.

    PubMed

    Impéror-Clerc, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    Three-dimensional periodic complex structures are encountered in various soft matter systems such as liquid crystals, block-copolymer phases and the related nano-structured materials. Here, we review several well-defined topologies: two-dimensional hexagonal phase, three-dimensional packing of spheres, tetrahedral close packing (tcp) bi-continuous and tri-continuous cubic phases. We illustrate how small-angle X-ray scattering experiments help us to investigate these different structures and introduce the main available structural models based on both direct and inverse methods.

  18. Three-dimensional periodic complex structures in soft matter: investigation using scattering methods

    PubMed Central

    Impéror-Clerc, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional periodic complex structures are encountered in various soft matter systems such as liquid crystals, block-copolymer phases and the related nano-structured materials. Here, we review several well-defined topologies: two-dimensional hexagonal phase, three-dimensional packing of spheres, tetrahedral close packing (tcp) bi-continuous and tri-continuous cubic phases. We illustrate how small-angle X-ray scattering experiments help us to investigate these different structures and introduce the main available structural models based on both direct and inverse methods. PMID:24098843

  19. Apparatus and method for automatically and periodically introducing a fluid into a producing oil well

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, P.B.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes a method for periodically and automatically introducing a fluid into a producing well through a tubing drain valve in a string of production tubing, comprising: disabling temporarily, automatically and at periodic time intervals a string of sucker rods disposed within the string of production tubing between a surface-located means for operating the sucker rods and a downhole pump so that a mechanical actuator on the string of sucker rods is stopped in a predetermined position on one side of a lever means of the tubing drain valve. An apparatus is described useful for periodically and automatically introducing a fluid into a producing well through a tubing drain valve located in a production string, comprising: a string of production tubing suitable for suspension in a producing well; surface and downhole pumps connected by a string of sucker rods for lifting well fluids through the production tubing; a tubing drain valve within the production string, the tubing drain valve actuated to its opened position by increased pressure within the production tubing and actuated to its closed position by movement of a lever means of the value; means in communication with the interior of the production tubing for pressurizing the production tubing to a pressure sufficient to open the tubing drain valve; means in communication with the interior of the production tubing for introducing a fluid into the production tubing; an actuator means disposed on the string of sucker rods for mechanically closing the tubing drain valve by cooperation with the lever means on the valve; and means for controlling automatically the operation of the above components at periodic time intervals for automatically conveying a fluid into the production tubing and through the tubing drain valve.

  20. Finite difference method to find period-one gait cycles of simple passive walkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardel, Morteza; Safartoobi, Masoumeh; Pashaei, Mohammad Hadi; Ghasemi, Mohammad Hassan; Navaei, Mostafa Kazemi

    2015-01-01

    Passive dynamic walking refers to a class of bipedal robots that can walk down an incline with no actuation or control input. These bipeds are sensitive to initial conditions due to their style of walking. According to small basin of attraction of passive limit cycles, it is important to start with an initial condition in the basin of attraction of stable walking (limit cycle). This paper presents a study of the simplest passive walker with point and curved feet. A new approach is proposed to find proper initial conditions for a pair of stable and unstable period-one gait limit cycles. This methodology is based on finite difference method which can solve the nonlinear differential equations of motion on a discrete time. Also, to investigate the physical configurations of the walkers and the environmental influence such as the slope angle, the parameter analysis is applied. Numerical simulations reveal the performance of the presented method in finding two stable and unstable gait patterns.

  1. Periodical capacity setting methods for make-to-order multi-machine production systems

    PubMed Central

    Altendorfer, Klaus; Hübl, Alexander; Jodlbauer, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents different periodical capacity setting methods for make-to-order, multi-machine production systems with stochastic customer required lead times and stochastic processing times to improve service level and tardiness. These methods are developed as decision support when capacity flexibility exists, such as, a certain range of possible working hours a week for example. The methods differ in the amount of information used whereby all are based on the cumulated capacity demand at each machine. In a simulation study the methods’ impact on service level and tardiness is compared to a constant provided capacity for a single and a multi-machine setting. It is shown that the tested capacity setting methods can lead to an increase in service level and a decrease in average tardiness in comparison to a constant provided capacity. The methods using information on processing time and customer required lead time distribution perform best. The results found in this paper can help practitioners to make efficient use of their flexible capacity. PMID:27226649

  2. Assessing the accuracy of the isotropic periodic sum method through Madelung energy computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda-May, Pedro; Pu, Jingzhi

    2014-04-01

    We tested the isotropic periodic sum (IPS) method for computing Madelung energies of ionic crystals. The performance of the method, both in its nonpolar (IPSn) and polar (IPSp) forms, was compared with that of the zero-charge and Wolf potentials [D. Wolf, P. Keblinski, S. R. Phillpot, and J. Eggebrecht, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 8254 (1999)]. The results show that the IPSn and IPSp methods converge the Madelung energy to its reference value with an average deviation of ˜10-4 and ˜10-7 energy units, respectively, for a cutoff range of 18-24a (a/2 being the nearest-neighbor ion separation). However, minor oscillations were detected for the IPS methods when deviations of the computed Madelung energies were plotted on a logarithmic scale as a function of the cutoff distance. To remove such oscillations, we introduced a modified IPSn potential in which both the local-region and long-range electrostatic terms are damped, in analogy to the Wolf potential. With the damped-IPSn potential, a smoother convergence was achieved. In addition, we observed a better agreement between the damped-IPSn and IPSp methods, which suggests that damping the IPSn potential is in effect similar to adding a screening potential in IPSp.

  3. Performance of the radial semblance method for the location of very long period volcanic signals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the performance of a source location method that combines multichannel semblance and particle motions and is being increasingly used to obtain estimates of the source locations of very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded on volcanoes. The method makes use of the radial particle motions and large wavelengths that characterize the VLP events. To assess the capabilities of this radial semblance method, and to better understand its limitations, we quantify the effects of window length, noise contents of the signal, inaccurate velocity models, receiver coverage, and orientation errors in the horizontal components of the receivers. Our results show that the semblance method performs best when (1) the noise level is low enough to allow a good characterization of the waveforms, (2) the sources are located at distances between one half of the average receiver spacing and about two times the network aperture, and (3) the orientations of the horizontal components of the seismometers are known with relative accuracy. When these requirements are met, the radial semblance method constitutes an adequate tool to obtain preliminary locations of VLP volcanic signals recorded by broadband networks. Moreover, we provide a formula to determine the radial semblance level that should be used to define error regions associated to the estimated source locations.

  4. Delayed Replantation after Endodontic and Fluoride Treatment: A 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abi Mathew; Akkara, Francis; Fernandes, Kristlee Sabrin

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate if endodontic and fluoride treatment of the root before delayed replantation would render the tooth a favorable prognosis. Methods A 10-year-old boy reported 10 hours after he had avulsed his maxillary right permanent central incisor. The pulp and PDL cells were considered to be nonviable. Endodontic treatment for the tooth was performed extraorally and obturated with gutta-percha. Prior to replantation, the root was treated with 1.23% APSF for 15 minutes. Result An intraoral radiograph taken 6 months after replantation revealed narrowing of the PDL space around the replanted tooth due to apposition from the surrounding alveolar bone. A radiograph taken 5 years after replantation revealed no evidence of external root resorption. There was no abnormal mobility either. Conclusion Extraoral endodontic treatment and root treatment with 1.23% APSF prior to delayed replantation might prevent the occurrence of external root resorption.

  5. Germination rate of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds relative to storage methods and periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Im; Lee, Kun-Seop; Son, Min Ho

    2014-03-01

    To determine the optimal storage method and longest possible storage period of Phyllospadix japonicus seeds, we examined post-storage germination rates using different storage methods and periods for P. japonicus seeds harvested in Korean coastal waters. P. japonicus seeds are classified as recalcitrant seeds with an average moisture content of 45.4%. Germination rates of P. japonicus seeds stored in seawater at 4 °C, seawater at room temperature with air supply, and an aquarium with continuous seawater circulation ranged from 35.0% to 43.5%, whereas seeds stored in seawater at 30°C, a refrigerator at -20°C, and a desiccator at room temperature did not germinate. Seeds stored at 4°C maintained germination rates of 72.5˜73.0% until 30 days of storage, but showed rapidly decreasing germination rates after 60 days and no germination after 180 days. Since few studies have investigated seed storage of P. japonicus, these results will serve as useful data for seed-based P. japonicus habitat restoration.

  6. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  7. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present. PMID:27213008

  8. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography.

    PubMed

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present.

  9. Observational clinical study of 22 adult-onset Pompe disease patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy over 5years.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Karolina M; Hendriksz, Christian J; Roberts, Mark; Sharma, Reena

    2016-04-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from deficiency of the acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The late-onset Pompe Disease (LOPD) patients develop muscular and respiratory complications later in life. We describe a retrospective observational cohort study including 22 patients with LOPD. The cohort was assessed at baseline before Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alpha (20mg/kg biweekly) was commenced and subsequently relevant information was collected at 2, 4 and 5years later. The median age of the patients at study entry was 44years (16-64years), with median disease duration of 11.5years (4-31years). At baseline, 10 patients (45%) could walk without support, 12 (55%) could walk with unilateral or bilateral support including 3/12 were wheelchair bound. Mean predicted FVC % was 55.7 (95% CI 45-66) of predicted normal at baseline and showed no significant change after 5years (54.6 (95% CI 43-66)), (all p=0.9815). Mean FVC % supine was 41.8 (95% CI 33.8-49) of predicted normal at baseline and remained significantly unchanged at 5years (48.4 (95% CI 37-59.6)), (all p=0.8680). The overnight non-invasive ventilator dependence increased by 18.2% as compared with baseline and requirement of mobility aids increased during this period by 5.2% as compared with the baseline. Mean walking distance at 6min walk test was 411.5 (95% CI 338-485) at baseline, 266.5 (95% CI 187-346) m at 2years, 238.6 (95% CI 162-315) m at 4years and 286.8 (95% CI 203-370) m at 5years (p=0.1981; ANOVA was completed only for 14 patients). A gradual decline in FVC% predicted was noted only in four cases and a decline in FVC% supine in two other. Only one patient showed a decline in both pulmonary function tests. In all remaining cases (17/22) respiratory function remains stable. In conclusion overall pulmonary function tests and mobility remained stable for 5years in majority of patients on ERT. However, in some patients they continued to decline in spite of ERT

  10. Estimation of the free core nutation period by the sliding-window complex least-squares fit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yonghong; Zhu, Qiang; Salstein, David A.; Xu, Xueqing; Shi, Si; Liao, Xinhao

    2016-05-01

    Estimation of the free core nutation (FCN) period is a challenging prospect. Mostly, two methods, one direct and one indirect, have been applied in the past to address the problem by analyzing the Earth orientation parameters observed by the very long baseline interferometry. The indirect method estimates the FCN period from resonance effects of the FCN on forced nutation terms, whereas the direct method estimates the FCN period using the Fourier Transform (FT) approach. However, the FCN period estimated by the direct FT technique suffers from the non-stationary characteristics of celestial pole offsets (CPO). In this study, the FCN period is estimated by another direct method, i.e., the sliding-window complex least-squares fit method (SCLF). The estimated values of the FCN period for the full set of 1984.0-2014.0 and four subsets (1984.0-2000.0, 2000.0-2014.0, 1984.0-1990.0, 1990.0-2014.0) range from -428.8 to -434.3 mean solar days. From the FT to the SCLF method, the estimate uncertainty of the FCN period falls from several tens of days to several days. Thus, the SCLF method may serve as an independent direct way to estimate the FCN period, complementing and validating the indirect resonance method that has been frequently used before.

  11. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  12. A 5-year retrospective study of cobalt-chromium-based single crowns inserted in a private practice.

    PubMed

    Ortorp, Anders; Ascher, Aron; Svanborg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical performance of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) single crowns. Ninety restorations were placed in 55 patients, and follow-up examinations were performed annually for 5 years. Six patients (8 crowns) were regarded as dropouts. During the follow-up period, 15 (17%) crowns/abutment teeth experienced some type of complication; 8 (9%) of these were regarded as failures. The cumulative survival rate was estimated at 90.3% over 5 years, though only 3 (3%) crowns had complications that could be related to the crown material. The results suggest that Co-Cr single crowns are a promising alternative to other alloys used in fixed prosthodontics. PMID:22930770

  13. A Method for Calculation of the Upper Limit of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazan, Albert

    2010-03-01

    40 years ago some scientists claimed that elements heaviest than No.110 are impossible. The technics got much progress in the last years: element 118 has already been registered. Now, the researchers of Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) claim that the Periodic Table will end with element 150. However they do not provide theoretical proofs to this claim, because the stability limits of electronic shells they calculated by means of Quantum Mechanics do not answer this question in exact. In contrast, I focused onto the contents of chemical compounds along the Table. The used method is as follows. First, it was found that, given any chemical compound, the contents of any element in it (per 1 gram-atom) is described by the equation of a equilateral hyperbola Y=K/X. Then the scaling coefficient was deduced for the hyperbolas, thus the atomic mass of the last (heaviest) element, 411.66, was found as the abscissa of the ultimate point of the arc drawn by the tops of the hyperbolas. With it, the number of the last element, 155, was found as a consequence. See: Khazan A. Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table --- Element No.155. Svenska fysikarkivet, 2009.

  14. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  15. HIV-Positive–to–HIV-Positive Kidney Transplantation — Results at 3 to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The outcome of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients who receive organs from HIV-negative donors has been reported to be similar to the outcome in HIV-negative recipients. We report the outcomes at 3 to 5 years in HIV-positive patients who received kidneys from HIV-positive deceased donors. METHODS We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized study of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count of 200 per cubic millimeter or higher and an undetectable plasma HIV RNA level. All the patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The patients received kidneys from deceased donors who tested positive for HIV with the use of fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the time of referral. All the donors either had received no ART previously or had received only first-line ART. RESULTS From September 2008 through February 2014, a total of 27 HIV-positive patients underwent kidney transplantation. Survivors were followed for a median of 2.4 years. The rate of survival among the patients was 84% at 1 year, 84% at 3 years, and 74% at 5 years. The corresponding rates of graft survival were 93%, 84%, and 84%. (If a patient died with a functioning graft, the calculation was performed as if the graft had survived.) Rejection rates were 8% at 1 year and 22% at 3 years. HIV infection remained well controlled, with undetectable virus in blood after the transplantation. CONCLUSIONS Kidney transplantation from an HIV-positive donor appears to be an additional treatment option for HIV-infected patients requiring renal-replacement therapy. PMID:25671253

  16. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  17. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... update, if necessary, the Northern DPS' status in five years time (70 FR 17386; April 6, 2005). Therefore...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green...

  18. Treatment of Chronic PTSD by Cognitive Therapy and Exposure: 5-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Sommerfield, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Patients who had taken part in a randomized clinical trial of the treatment of chronic PTSD by either cognitive therapy or imaginal exposure were reassessed after 5 years. At 5-year follow-up a clear superiority of cognitive therapy over imaginal exposure emerged, although there had been no difference between the two treatment groups up to 12…

  19. Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

  20. Numerical method for the computation of flow in irregular domains that exhibit geometric periodicity using nonstaggered grids

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, K.M.; Choudhury, D.; Minkowycz, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    Flows in many engineering applications occur in devices that exhibit geometric periodicity, giving rise to flow characteristics that are spatially periodic. This periodicity can be of two types, translational and rotational. Since the geometries encountered in practice are often complex, periodic boundary-fitted grids are used over a typical module to predict such flows. Nonstaggered grids are frequently used for discretizing the equations governing the flow. These methods employ Cartesian velocities as the primary unknowns. In rotationally periodic geometries, these components themselves are not periodic, necessitating special considerations in incorporating the periodicity conditions over the periodic modules. The aim of the present study is to propose modifications to the conventional nonstaggered grid methods for computations of spatially periodic flows, so that geometric periodicities can be treated in a unified manner. The proposed formulation represents a generalization of the existing formulations for nonstaggered grids and can be applied for the discretization of the governing equations in domains with or without periodicity. The proposed formulation is first validated by comparing the computed solutions with the exact solutions for Couette flows in a parallel-plate channel and a cylindrical annulus. The method is then applied to three physical situations to illustrate its utility.

  1. Blunt abdominal trauma. A 5-year analysis of 870 patients requiring celiotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, E F

    1984-01-01

    This study represents the experience with blunt trauma to the abdomen of patients from a major regional trauma center. Eight hundred and seventy patients with blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed, representing 12.89% of the total admissions over a 5-year period. The motor vehicle continues to be the major cause (89.5%) of injury to these patients. Thirty per cent had positive blood alcohol. Intra-abdominal injuries in this group necessitating operative intervention were based on the use of peritoneal lavage. Negative celiotomies occurred in 10.2% of these patients. Of the injuries incurred, the spleen was involved 42%, the liver 35.6%, the serosa, diaphragm, bowel, and blood vessels were involved to a lesser extent. Only 0.4% of the patients suffered direct injury to the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas, data which should preclude routine exploration of retroperitoneal structures unless by obvious retroperitoneal injury is noted. Additional surgical intervention for associated injuries was seen in 50.54% of this patient group. PMID:6712323

  2. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  3. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  4. ‘Workshops in healing’ for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of ‘physician know thyself’ (Workshop 1) and ‘confronting suffering’ (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008–2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  5. Gallstone disease in a teaching hospital, Addis Ababa: a 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Ersumo, Tessema

    2006-01-01

    There are not many studies of gallbladder disease in Africa. The disease appears to be not uncommon in Ethiopia. To determine the prevalence and evaluate the management of gallstone disease in a central teaching hospital, a 5-year retrospective study was undertaken in 747 patients surgically treated for gallbladder disease in the period 1995-99 in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa. The sex ratio (M:F) was 1:5, narrower ratio in complicated cholelithiasis. The mean age was 42 years. About 80% of patients were in the age group between 30 and 60 years. The median duration of symptoms at admission was 2 years. Abdominal pain, in 96% of cases situated in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) and usually aching type, was the most frequent presenting symptom; RUQ tenderness was the most common sign. Clinically, 29.4% of patients were categorized obese. Gallstone detection rate by ultrasound was about 96% but cholecystitis appeared to be overlooked. At operation, about 77% of cases had features of chronic cholecystitis, 2% acalculous cholecystitis. Majority of the stones were grossly cholesterol stones. Cholecystectomy was performed in 99% of cases, most often through the oblique subcostal and transverse routes. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 0.4%. Nearly 87% of cases had postoperative course without incident. The etiologic factors and the type of gallstones, we believe, are not different from that of the developed world. Cholecystectomy is a safe and most effective procedure that provides ultimate cure for symptomatic gallstone disease. PMID:17447363

  6. Results of proximal gastric vagotomy over 1-5 years in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Tovey, F I; Heald, R J

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-three underwent proximal gastric vagotomy for duodenal ulceration over a 6-year period. One hundred and fifteen of these have been followed up for 1-5 years. The operative mortality was nil and the result was satisfactory in 91 per cent. The incidence of side effects was small, notably that of dumping being 2.4 per cent and of diarrhoea, 3.6 per cent. Incidence of postoperative heartburn was reduced from 13 per cent to 4 per cent by the introduction of hepatic interposition. The incidence of recurrent ulceration was 5.1 per cent after an average interval of 2 years and that of new gastric ulceration 2.6 per cent after an average of 4 years. There were no recurrent ulcers in those who had peroperative Burge tests, although secretory studies showed no difference between those tested and those not tested. Most recurrences occurred in the earliest cases operated on before Burge testing was introduced and when only 2 cm of the lower oesophagus were exposed.

  7. Serious anaphylactic shock induced by hemocoagulase agkistrodon during anesthesia in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying-Yi; Li, Bi-Lian; Jin, Yu-Lin; Wang, Zi-Xin; Song, Xing-Rong; Ni, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of serious anaphylactic shock in a 5-year-old child undergoing scheduled surgery blank space of a right femoral intramedullary nail removal. The boy had undergone right femoral elastic intramedullary nail fixation surgery 14 months prior, but had no history of allergies. Within 5 minutes of intravenous bonus injection of hemocoagulase agkistrodon (HCA) 1 unit, a widespread transient diffuse erythema was seen on the front of his chest. After 20 minutes, sudden, profound cardiovascular collapse occurred. The child was treated effectively and sent to a ward 5 hours later. In this period, he received intravenously infused 200 ml hydroxyethyl starch solution and epinephrine at a rate of 0.05-0.01 μg kg(-1) min(-1). Total amount of dexamethasone sodium phosphate 14 mg was used. To the best of our knowledge, few case reports of HCA-induced anaphylactic shock in children exist. Our report will, therefore, increase awareness of the allergic potential of HCA among pediatric anesthesiologists. PMID:26064413

  8. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. PMID:26922086

  9. 'Workshops in healing' for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of 'physician know thyself' (Workshop 1) and 'confronting suffering' (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  10. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008.

  11. Epidemiology and mortality of burns in the Lucknow Region, India--a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Ali, Wahid; Verma, Anoop K; Pandey, Abhishek; Rathore, Shiuli

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 95% of global burn deaths and disabilities are estimated to occur in low and middle income countries of the world. Burns are extremely common and are a major public health problem in a developing country like India. The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burns retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 2225 (10.7%) cases of burns among the total autopsies done over 5 years period (1st January 2008-27th November 2012) in the mortuary of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, K.G.M.U., Lucknow. The majority of deaths (88.8%) occurred between 10 and 49 years of age group with a preponderance of females (87.5%). The flame burns were seen in 60.1% of the victims. The majority of burn incidents were suicidal (38.6%) in nature followed by accidental (37.3%) and homicidal (24.1%) deaths. The percentages of burns with a total body surface area (TBSA) over 50% were observed in most of the cases (82.5%). In most of the cases deaths occurred within a week (82%) and most of the victims died from septicaemia and pneumonia (43.7%) followed by neurogenic shock (28.5%). The results of this study provide the necessary information to implement programmes for health education relating to prevention of burns focusing on the domestic setting.

  12. A periodic energy decomposition analysis method for the investigation of chemical bonding in extended systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2015-05-01

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the bonding energy between two fragments (e.g., the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic, Pauli repulsion, and orbital relaxation energies. This is complemented by consideration of dispersion interactions via a pairwise scheme. One major extension toward a previous implementation [Philipsen and Baerends, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 12470 (2006)] lies in the separate discussion of electrostatic and Pauli and the addition of a dispersion term. The pEDA presented here for an implementation based on atomic orbitals can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy, and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface-adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight the performance of the method representing insulating (CO on MgO(001)), metallic (H2 on M(001), M = Pd, Cu), and semiconducting (CO and C2H2 on Si(001)) substrates. These examples cover diverse substrates as well as bonding scenarios ranging from weakly interacting to covalent (shared electron and donor acceptor) bonding. The results presented lend confidence that the pEDA will be a powerful tool for the analysis of surface-adsorbate bonding in the future, enabling the transfer of concepts like ionic and covalent bonding, donor-acceptor interaction, steric repulsion, and others to extended systems.

  13. A periodic energy decomposition analysis method for the investigation of chemical bonding in extended systems.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2015-05-21

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the bonding energy between two fragments (e.g., the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic, Pauli repulsion, and orbital relaxation energies. This is complemented by consideration of dispersion interactions via a pairwise scheme. One major extension toward a previous implementation [Philipsen and Baerends, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 12470 (2006)] lies in the separate discussion of electrostatic and Pauli and the addition of a dispersion term. The pEDA presented here for an implementation based on atomic orbitals can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy, and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface-adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight the performance of the method representing insulating (CO on MgO(001)), metallic (H2 on M(001), M = Pd, Cu), and semiconducting (CO and C2H2 on Si(001)) substrates. These examples cover diverse substrates as well as bonding scenarios ranging from weakly interacting to covalent (shared electron and donor acceptor) bonding. The results presented lend confidence that the pEDA will be a powerful tool for the analysis of surface-adsorbate bonding in the future, enabling the transfer of concepts like ionic and covalent bonding, donor-acceptor interaction, steric repulsion, and others to extended systems. PMID:26001445

  14. A periodic energy decomposition analysis method for the investigation of chemical bonding in extended systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2015-05-21

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the bonding energy between two fragments (e.g., the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic, Pauli repulsion, and orbital relaxation energies. This is complemented by consideration of dispersion interactions via a pairwise scheme. One major extension toward a previous implementation [Philipsen and Baerends, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 12470 (2006)] lies in the separate discussion of electrostatic and Pauli and the addition of a dispersion term. The pEDA presented here for an implementation based on atomic orbitals can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy, and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface-adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight the performance of the method representing insulating (CO on MgO(001)), metallic (H{sub 2} on M(001), M = Pd, Cu), and semiconducting (CO and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} on Si(001)) substrates. These examples cover diverse substrates as well as bonding scenarios ranging from weakly interacting to covalent (shared electron and donor acceptor) bonding. The results presented lend confidence that the pEDA will be a powerful tool for the analysis of surface-adsorbate bonding in the future, enabling the transfer of concepts like ionic and covalent bonding, donor-acceptor interaction, steric repulsion, and others to extended systems.

  15. Premature death of children aged 2 months to 5 years: the case of the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Nguefack, Félicitée; Mbassi Awa, Hubert D.; Dongmo, Roger; Nkwonkam Mafotso, Josiane; Ngo Um, Suzanne; Ambomatei, Calson; Koki Ndombo, Paul O.

    2016-01-01

    Background In hospital premature deaths of children less than 5 years of age admitted for different reasons still remains very high in our context warranting study in order to reverse the tendency (using appropriate means). Our study was aimed at describing and analyzing cases of those children aged from 2 months to 5 years who died within the first 48 hours of their admission at the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation (MCC/CBF). Methods It was a retrospective descriptive study. Data were extracted from the clinical records of the patients admitted from 2008 to 2012. Cases of accidental trauma were excluded from the study. Level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. The approval of the ethical committee of the Université des Montagnes was also obtained. Results During the period of our study, out of the 14,200 patients aged 2 months and 5 years who were hospitalized 522 premature deaths were registered. This gives an incidence of 4.9%, representing 74.3% of all hospitalized deaths in this age group. Considering the fact that some of the files had very little information, only 373 files were studied. The sex ratio was 1.2. More astonishing was that a majority of the deaths occurred between midnight and 8 am. The most frequent registered cases were patients with severe malaria (42.6%), severe sepsis (20.6%), and acute lower respiratory tract infections (RTI) (16.1%) cases. One third of the patients had a poor nutritional status. Conclusions The reinforcement of preventive measures and programs targeting the health of children such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Diseases (IMCD) would be a major priority in proffering a solution to this phenomenon. PMID:26835403

  16. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  17. Trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department in Taiwan: a 5-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sung-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Shun; Lin, Meng-Yu; Hsu, Chiann-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; How, Chorng-Kuang; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Jeffrey Che-Hung; Wu, Yu-Hui; Chang, Yan-Zin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department (ED) and changes in clinical imaging practice and patients' disposition. Setting A hospital-based retrospective observational study of a public 1520-bed referral medical centre in Taiwan. Participants Adult ED visits (aged ≥18 years) during 2009–2013, with or without receiving CT, were enrolled as the study participants. Main outcome measures For all enrolled ED visits, we retrospectively analysed: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) triage categories, (3) whether CT was performed and the type of CT scan, (4) further ED disposition, (5) ED cost and (6) ED length of stay. Results In all, 269 239 adult ED visits (148 613 male patients and 120 626 female patients) were collected during the 5-year study period, comprising 38 609 CT scans. CT utilisation increased from 11.10% in 2009 to 17.70% in 2013 (trend test, p<0.001). Four in 5 types of CT scan (head, chest, abdomen and miscellaneous) were increasingly utilised during the study period. Also, CT was increasingly ordered annually in all age groups. Although ED CT utilisation rates increased markedly, the annual ED visits did not actually increase. Moreover, the subsequent admission rate, after receiving ED CT, declined (59.9% in 2009 to 48.2% in 2013). Conclusions ED CT utilisation rates increased significantly during 2009–2013. Emergency physicians may be using CT for non-emergent studies in the ED. Further investigation is needed to determine whether increasing CT utilisation is efficient and cost-effective. PMID:27279477

  18. An empirical analysis of suicidal death trends in India: a 5 year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Badiye, Ashish; Kapoor, Neeti; Ahmed, Shagufa

    2014-10-01

    Suicide, a major problem worldwide, continues to be a criminal offence in most of the developing countries of the world, including India. This paper retrospectively examines the latest trends and the relevant determinants of the suicidal deaths in one of the most important city of central India- Nagpur of Maharashtra state, carried out for a period of 5 years i.e. 2009-2013. Total 2036 cases were analyzed. An alarmingly increasing trend in the rate of suicides has been observed in the region, which increased from 16% to 22.68% during the study period. The male to female suicide ratio was found to be 2.50:1. The rate of suicidal deaths ranged from 15.34 to 21.74 per 100,000 populations. Hanging was found to be the most preferred mean adopted for suicide by males (54.77%) and females (47.65%), while, Family problems was the most common cause of suicide among both male (38.25%) and female (52.65%). The Suicides were concentrated in the age group of 30-44 years for males (35.76%), while in the age group of 15-29 years for females (51.75%). The prevalence was higher among the people who were married, being as high as 1099 (66.73%) males and 372 (56.45%) females. Highest trend has been found among the people with matriculate/secondary education level. The males with job in private sector accounted for 1007 suicides (61.14%) and 434 (65.86%) females in the category of housewives (non-working, homemakers) committed the same.

  19. 24 CFR 232.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Amortization period. (1) The loan shall have an amortization of either 5, 10, or 15 years by providing for... period in excess of 15 years unless the amount of the loan exceeds $50,000.00, in which event the amortization period may be increased to 20 years, with a provision for 240 monthly amortization payments....

  20. 24 CFR 232.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Amortization period. (1) The loan shall have an amortization of either 5, 10, or 15 years by providing for... period in excess of 15 years unless the amount of the loan exceeds $50,000.00, in which event the amortization period may be increased to 20 years, with a provision for 240 monthly amortization payments....

  1. 24 CFR 232.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Amortization period. (1) The loan shall have an amortization of either 5, 10, or 15 years by providing for... period in excess of 15 years unless the amount of the loan exceeds $50,000.00, in which event the amortization period may be increased to 20 years, with a provision for 240 monthly amortization payments....

  2. 24 CFR 232.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Amortization period. (1) The loan shall have an amortization of either 5, 10, or 15 years by providing for... period in excess of 15 years unless the amount of the loan exceeds $50,000.00, in which event the amortization period may be increased to 20 years, with a provision for 240 monthly amortization payments....

  3. 24 CFR 232.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Amortization period. (1) The loan shall have an amortization of either 5, 10, or 15 years by providing for... period in excess of 15 years unless the amount of the loan exceeds $50,000.00, in which event the amortization period may be increased to 20 years, with a provision for 240 monthly amortization payments....

  4. Accuracy of the Generalized Self-Consistent Method in Modelling the Elastic Behaviour of Periodic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Freed, Alan D.; Jordan, Eric H.

    1993-01-01

    Local stress and strain fields in the unit cell of an infinite, two-dimensional, periodic fibrous lattice have been determined by an integral equation approach. The effect of the fibres is assimilated to an infinite two-dimensional array of fictitious body forces in the matrix constituent phase of the unit cell. By subtracting a volume averaged strain polarization term from the integral equation we effectively embed a finite number of unit cells in a homogenized medium in which the overall stress and strain correspond to the volume averaged stress and strain of the constrained unit cell. This paper demonstrates that the zeroth term in the governing integral equation expansion, which embeds one unit cell in the homogenized medium, corresponds to the generalized self-consistent approximation. By comparing the zeroth term approximation with higher order approximations to the integral equation summation, both the accuracy of the generalized self-consistent composite model and the rate of convergence of the integral summation can be assessed. Two example composites are studied. For a tungsten/copper elastic fibrous composite the generalized self-consistent model is shown to provide accurate, effective, elastic moduli and local field representations. The local elastic transverse stress field within the representative volume element of the generalized self-consistent method is shown to be in error by much larger amounts for a composite with periodically distributed voids, but homogenization leads to a cancelling of errors, and the effective transverse Young's modulus of the voided composite is shown to be in error by only 23% at a void volume fraction of 75%.

  5. Estimation of the Unextendable Dead Time Period in a Flow of Physical Events by the Method of Maximum Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhel'skaya, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, and other elementary particles) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the modulated MAP flow of events circulating under conditions of unextendable dead time period. It is assumed that the dead time period is an unknown fixed value. The problem of estimation of the dead time period from observations of arrival times of events is solved by the method of maximum likelihood.

  6. Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Harboring blaOXA-23 and bap for 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been reported worldwide, and A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23 are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance can be particularly strong for biofilm-forming A. baumannii isolates. We investigated the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance and biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. Ninety-two MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected from one university hospital located in the Chungcheong area of Korea over a 5-year period. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize carbapenemase and bap genes. Clonal characteristics were analyzed using REP-PCR. In addition, imaging and quantification of biofilms were performed using a crystal violet assay. All 92 MDR A. baumannii isolates involved in our study contained the blaOXA-23 and bap genes. The average absorbance of biomass in Bap-producing strains was much greater than that in non-Bap-producing strains. In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance. These results suggest that the isolates have persisted and colonized for 5 years, and biofilm formation ability has been responsible for their persistence and colonization.

  7. Polyethylene wear with an entirely HA-coated total hip replacement: 79 hips followed for 5 years.

    PubMed

    Røkkum, M; Reigstad, A

    1998-06-01

    We measured the eccentricity of the femoral head in the metal backing annually during 5 years in 79 consecutive total hip replacements (73 patients). The mean age of the patients was 57 (32-73) years and the female/male ratio 63/22. The prostheses were entirely coated with hydroxyapatite. Modular 32 mm stainless steel heads and hemispherical, self-tapping screw cups with polyethylene liners were used. We found accelerating eccentricity throughout the observation period. The mean eccentricity at 5 years was 0.71 mm (95% CI 0.53-0.90), resulting in a mean eccentricity rate of 0.14 mm (0.11-0.18) per year. The 5-year eccentricity was 0.5 mm or less in 45 hips and more than 1.5 mm in 13 hips, 2 in the latter group apparently having worn through the polyethylene liner. The true wear may be twice as great. The use of 32 mm stainless steel heads and thin polyethylene inlays may have aggravated the wear problems. These HA-coated prostheses must all be checked regularly, so that cases with excessive polyethylene wear can be reoperated on before wear-through of the liner. PMID:9703398

  8. Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Harboring blaOXA-23 and bap for 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been reported worldwide, and A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23 are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance can be particularly strong for biofilm-forming A. baumannii isolates. We investigated the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance and biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. Ninety-two MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected from one university hospital located in the Chungcheong area of Korea over a 5-year period. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize carbapenemase and bap genes. Clonal characteristics were analyzed using REP-PCR. In addition, imaging and quantification of biofilms were performed using a crystal violet assay. All 92 MDR A. baumannii isolates involved in our study contained the blaOXA-23 and bap genes. The average absorbance of biomass in Bap-producing strains was much greater than that in non-Bap-producing strains. In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance. These results suggest that the isolates have persisted and colonized for 5 years, and biofilm formation ability has been responsible for their persistence and colonization. PMID:27221112

  9. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors.

  10. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors. PMID:25761524

  11. Baseline ambulatory knee kinematics are associated with changes in cartilage thickness in osteoarthritic patients over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Favre, Julien; Erhart-Hledik, Jennifer C; Chehab, Eric F; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2016-06-14

    Although kinematic alterations during walking have been reported with knee osteoarthritis (OA), there is a paucity of longitudinal data, therefore limiting our understanding of the role of kinematics in OA development. This study tested the hypothesis that less knee extension angle and less posterior displacement of the femur relative to the tibia during the heel-strike portion of the gait cycle are associated with greater loss of medial cartilage thickness during a follow-up period of five years. This study also tested for associations between flexion-extension angle and anterior-posterior displacement during other periods of the gait cycle and 5-year cartilage thinning. 16 subjects with moderate medial knee OA were tested with gait analysis and MRI at baseline and had a follow-up MRI after 5 years. Linear regressions were used to assess the relationship between changes in cartilage thickness and baseline kinematics using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multivariate regressions were also performed to adjust for gender, baseline age, BMI, walking speed, Kellgren/Lawrence grade, and baseline knee pain score. As hypothesized, baseline knee flexion angle and femoral displacement during heel-strike and other gait cycle periods were significantly associated with medial femoral and tibial cartilage thinning at the 5 year follow-up; these associations were strengthened after adjustment for covariates. This study provided new insight into the pathogenesis of knee OA where baseline knee kinematics were associated with longitudinal disease progression. These results could serve as a basis for developing newer gait modification interventions to reduce the risk for developing knee OA. PMID:27178021

  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children up to 5 Years of Age in Spain: Epidemiology and Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Marín-García, Patricia; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This epidemiological survey in Spain estimates the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children up to 5 year of age during a 15-year period (1997–2011). Observational retrospective survey was conducted by reviewing data of the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data, including >98% of Spanish hospitals. All hospitalizations related to RSV infection for children up to 5 years, reported during 1997–2011 period, were analyzed. Codes were selected by using the International Classification of Diseases 9th Clinical Modification 466.0–466.19, 480.1, and 079.6. A total of 326,175 and 286,007 hospital discharges for children up to 5 and 2 years of age were reported during the study period. The annual incidence was 1072 and 2413 patients per 100,000, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 (standard deviation 8.2) days. Four hundred forty-six deaths were reported; of those, 403 occurred in children <2 years and 355 (80%) occurred in children <12 months of age. Hospitalization and mortality rates were significantly higher in boys and decrease significantly with age. The higher rate of hospitalization and mortality rates were found in the first year of life. Annual average cost for National Health Care System was € 47 M with a mean hospitalization cost of €2162. The average length of hospitalization and costs were significantly higher in high-risk children. RSV infections in children up to 5 year of age still pose a significant health threat in Spain, especially in the infants. The development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic guidelines focused in children with comorbidities may help reduce the hospital and economic burden of the disease. PMID:26020386

  13. A Simple yet Accurate Method for Students to Determine Asteroid Rotation Periods from Fragmented Light Curve Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Professional astronomers use specialized software not normally available to students to determine the rotation periods of asteroids from fragmented light curve data. This paper describes a simple yet accurate method based on Microsoft Excel[R] that enables students to find periods in asteroid light curve and other discontinuous time series data of…

  14. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

  15. Numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions and their application to singular and weakly singular integral equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidi, A.; Israeli, M.

    1986-01-01

    High accuracy numerical quadrature methods for integrals of singular periodic functions are proposed. These methods are based on the appropriate Euler-Maclaurin expansions of trapezoidal rule approximations and their extrapolations. They are used to obtain accurate quadrature methods for the solution of singular and weakly singular Fredholm integral equations. Such periodic equations are used in the solution of planar elliptic boundary value problems, elasticity, potential theory, conformal mapping, boundary element methods, free surface flows, etc. The use of the quadrature methods is demonstrated with numerical examples.

  16. Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Using the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device and 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Ezgi; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the treatment of a 14-year-and-8-month-old boy with Class II division 2 mandibular retrusion, severe deep bite, and concave profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device (FRD) was effective in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. At 5-year posttreatment follow-up, the teeth were well aligned and the occlusion was stable. FRD application with appropriate treatment time can result with prominent changes in the facial profile and dentition, and the outcomes can be maintained at the long-term follow-up periods. PMID:27034855

  17. Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancer–specific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy

  18. Acoustic anechoic layers with singly periodic array of scatterers: Computational methods, absorption mechanisms, and optimal design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yue; Zhao, Hong-Gang; Wen, Ji-Hong; Wen, Xi-Sen

    2014-10-01

    The acoustic properties of anechoic layers with a singly periodic array of cylindrical scatterers are investigated. A method combined plane wave expansion and finite element analysis is extended for out-of-plane incidence. The reflection characteristics of the anechoic layers with cavities and locally resonant scatterers are discussed. The backing is a steel plate followed by an air half space. Under this approximate zero transmission backing condition, the reflection reduction is induced by the absorption enhancement. The absorption mechanism is explained by the scattering/absorption cross section of the isolated scatterer. Three types of resonant modes which can induce efficient absorption are revealed. Due to the fact that the frequencies of the resonant modes are related to the size of the scatterers, anechoic layers with scatterers of mixed size can broaden the absorption band. A genetic optimization algorithm is adopted to design the anechoic layer with scatterers of mixed size at a desired frequency band from 2 kHz to 10 kHz for normal incidence, and the influence of the incident angle is also discussed.

  19. An autocorrelation method to detect periodic gravitational waves from neutron stars in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viceré, Andrea; Yvert, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Rotating, non-axisymmetric neutron stars are expected to emit continuous gravitational waves at a nearly stable frequency. Nowadays about 2500 pulsars have been detected, thanks to their beamed electromagnetic emission, and many more of these objects should exist, whose electromagnetic beam does not include Earth and cannot be detected. The gravitational emission is not beamed, and could be accessible to gravitational observatories, even though no detection as been claimed yet. About half of the pulsars predicted to possibly emit gravitational waves in the frequency range accessible to ground-based interferometers belongs to binary systems; this is an additional complication, because the frequencies of these pulsars are Doppler-shifted due to their orbital motion, and an optimal detection strategy would require a computing power far beyond the present capabilities. We present here an approach which allows searching all-sky for such sources, over a broad range of frequencies, orbital periods and binary system eccentricities, reaching sensitivities potentially good enough to provide candidates for more sophisticated hierarchical detection methods. We test this new technique using real data taken during the first science run of Virgo, and estimating the sensitivity to a set of simulated pulsar signals.

  20. Proposed method for measurement of flow rate in turbulent periodic pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werzner, E.; Ray, S.; Trimis, D.

    2011-12-01

    The present investigation deals with a previously proposed flow metering technique for laminar, fully-developed, time-periodic pipe flow. Employing knowledge of the pulsation frequency-dependent relationship between the mass flow rate and the pressure gradient, the method allows reconstruction of the instantaneous mass flow rate on the basis of a recorded pressure gradient time series. In order to explore if the procedure can be extended for turbulent flows, numerical simulations for turbulent, fully-developed, sinusoidally pulsating pipe flow with low pulse amplitude have been carried out using a ν2-f turbulence model. The study covers pulsation frequencies, ranging from the quasi-steady up to the inertia-dominated frequency regime, and three cycle-averaged Reynolds numbers of 4360, 9750 and 15400. After providing the theoretical background of the flow rate reconstruction principle, the numerical model and an experimental facility for the verification of simulations are explained. The obtained results, presented in time and frequency domain, show good agreement with each other and indicate a frequency dependence, similar to that used for the signal reconstruction for laminar flows. A modified dimensionless frequency definition has been introduced, which allows a generalised representation of the results considering the influence of Reynolds number.

  1. Comparison of Columnar Water Vapor Measurements During The Fall 1997 ARM Intensive Observation Period: Optical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Michalsky, J.; Slater, D.; Barnard, J.; Halthore, R.; Liljegren, J.; Holben, B.; Eck, T.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1997 the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program conducted an intensive Observation Period (IOP) to study water vapor at its Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Among the large number of instruments, four sun-tracking radiometers were present to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV). All four solar radiometers retrieve CWV by measuring solar transmittance in the 0.94-micrometer water vapor absorption band. As one of the steps in the CWV retrievals the aerosol component is subtracted from the total transmittance, in the 0.94-micrometer band. The aerosol optical depth comparisons among the same four radiometers are presented elsewhere. We have used three different methods to retrieve CWV. Without attempting to standardize on the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water vapor spectroscopy we found the CWV to agree within 0.13 cm (rms) for CWV values ranging from 1 to 5 cm. Preliminary results obtained when using the same updated radiative transfer model with updated spectroscopy for all instruments will also be shown. Comparisons to the microwave radiometer results will be included in the comparisons.

  2. 77 FR 26361 - Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for Waivers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ..., 2008 Federal Register (73 FR 18676), we published a proposed rule to amend Medicaid regulations to... institutional LOC, such as some individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder, diabetes, acquired immune...

  3. Contribution of self-reported health ratings to predicting frailty, institutionalization, and death over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Gutman, G M; Stark, A; Donald, A; Beattie, B L

    2001-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from Phase 1 of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was used to examine the relationship between two self-report health measures: "How would you say your health is these days?"(HEALTH) and "How much do your health troubles stand in the way of your doing the things you want to do?"(TROUBLE). The contribution of these measures to predictive models for institutionalization and mortality is examined, using linked data from Phases 1 and 2. Their relationship to a proposed frailty measure is also examined. At CSHA-1, a majority of respondents perceived that they were in good health and did not feel that their health problems interfered with their preferred activities. At all frailty levels, a majority of both males and females rated their health as "very good" or "pretty good." As frailty increased, health problems increasingly interfered with normal activities. Logistic regression of the longitudinal data indicated that, despite their correlation, HEALTH and TROUBLE cannot act as proxies for each other. They appear to predict independently; adding one to the other significantly improved prediction of institutionalization and mortality. PMID:11892970

  4. 77 FR 26232 - Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for Waivers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Waivers, Provider Payment Reassignment, and Setting Requirements for Community First Choice; Correction... for Waivers, Provider Payment Reassignment, and Setting Requirements for Community First Choice.''...

  5. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  6. A 5-year Surveillance Study on Antimicrobial Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Isolates from a Tertiary Greek Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks. It is particularly associated with nosocomial pneumonia and bloodstream infections in immunocompromised and debilitated patients with serious underlying pathologies. Over the last two decades, a remarkable rise in the rates of multidrug resistance to most antimicrobial agents that are active against A. baumannii has been noted worldwide. We evaluated the rates of antimicrobial resistance and changes in resistance over a 5-year period (2010–2014) in A. baumannii strains isolated from hospitalized patients in a tertiary Greek hospital. Materials and Methods Identification of A. baumannii was performed by standard biochemical methods and the Vitek 2 automated system, which was also used for susceptibility testing against 18 antibiotics: ampicillin/sulbactam, ticarcillin, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, tigecycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and colistin. Interpretation of susceptibility results was based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria, except for tigecycline, for which the Food and Drug Administration breakpoints were applied. Multidrug resistance was defined as resistance to ≥3 classes of antimicrobial agents. Results Overall 914 clinical isolates of A. baumannii were recovered from the intensive care unit (ICU) (n = 493), and medical (n = 252) and surgical (n = 169) wards. Only 4.9% of these isolates were fully susceptible to the antimicrobials tested, while 92.89% of them were multidrug resistant (MDR), i.e., resistant to ≥3 classes of antibiotics. ICU isolates were the most resistant followed by isolates from surgical and medical wards. The most effective antimicrobial agents were, in descending order: colistin, amikacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, and tobramycin

  7. Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160811.html Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years But number ... 6, 2016 TUESDAY, Sept. 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Gluten-free diets seem to be the latest fad, ...

  8. Intraoperative assessment of ovarian tumors: a 5-year review with assessment of discrepant diagnostic cases.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; Brennan, Barbara A; Hammond, Ian G; Leung, Yee C; McCartney, Anthony J

    2006-07-01

    Frozen section is often requested in the intraoperative assessment of patients, presenting with ovarian masses, to provide guidance for appropriate surgical management. To assess the accuracy of frozen section and identify causes of diagnostic error, we reviewed 914 consecutive ovarian frozen sections performed over a 5-year period in 2 laboratories; one of which provides a general surgical pathology service and, the other, a specialist gynecologic pathology service. Cases, in which there were significant diagnostic discrepancies between the intraoperative and the final histological diagnoses, were reviewed. The series included 552 benign lesions (60.4%), 96 borderline (atypical proliferating) epithelial tumors (10.5%), and 266 malignancies (29.1%). The overall accuracy of frozen section diagnosis was 95.3%. There were 43 cases with diagnostic discrepancy; 20 (3.8% cases) of which were reported in the specialist laboratory and 23 (5.9% cases) in the general laboratory. Underdiagnosis of tumor type accounted for 32 of 43 discrepant cases and was most frequent in borderline mucinous tumors. The most common cause of overdiagnosis was the misinterpretation of serous cystadenofibroma as borderline serous tumor. Slide review of the 41 assessable cases indicated that sampling error, pathologist misinterpretation, and suboptimal slide preparations contributed to misdiagnoses in 17, 23, and 9 tumors, respectively (in 9 cases, 2 factors were contributory), whereas no specific error was identified in the remaining case. Technical factors and pathologist misinterpretation were more common in the general pathology laboratory. This study confirms that ovarian frozen section is a generally reliable technique, but there are problematic areas, particularly involving the assessment of borderline tumors.

  9. 5 years of continuous seismic monitoring of snowmelt cycles in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar; Gallart, Josep

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the analysis of background seismic noise variations in the proximity of river channels has revealed as a useful tool to monitor river flow, even for modest discharges. We will focus here in the application of this methodology to study the snowmelt cycle in an Pyrenean valley during the last 5 years, using data from the seismic geophysical station located inside the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Central Pyrenees). Diaz et al. (2014) first identified in the seismic data the signature of river flow increases associated to snowmelt episodes in the catchment area of the Aragon River, based on the marked correlation between the seismic energy variations in the 2-8 Hz frequency band and the estimated variations in water resources from snowfall. The analysis of seismic data during the snowmelt periods allows to identify a clear 24h cycle, with energy increasing from about 14:00 GMT, remaining at a relatively high level for 12 hours and then smoothly vanishing. The spectrogram reveals richer information, as clear variations in the frequency content can be detected during the time intervals in which the amplitude of the seismic signal remains constant. The data available so far allow to compare the evolution of snowmelt in five seasons with very different hydrological behavior. The 2011 and 2012 seasons have been dry, with snow volumes 30-50 % beneath the average values, while the 2013, 2014 and in particular the 2015 seasons have been largely above the mean. Those variations are reflected in the seismic data, which allow to monitor the time occurrence of the main snowmelt stages for each season and to estimate the intensity of the different snowmelt episodes. Therefore, seismic data can be useful for long term monitoring of snowmelt in Alpine-style mountains.

  10. Nonconventional Methods in Teaching Matter, Atoms, Molecules and the Periodic Table for Nonmajor Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Abour A.; Adams, Gerald E.; Cannon, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes several activities used to teach students from middle school age to college nonmajors about the nature of matter, atoms, molecules and the periodic table. Strategies integrate such approaches as hands-on activities, visualization, writing, demonstrations, role play, and guided inquiry. For example, the periodic table is viewed as a town…

  11. 26 CFR 601.204 - Changes in accounting periods and in methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accounting. 601.204 Section 601.204 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601... changes his accounting period shall, before using the new period for income tax purposes, comply with...

  12. 26 CFR 601.204 - Changes in accounting periods and in methods of accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accounting. 601.204 Section 601.204 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Rulings and Other Specific Matters § 601... changes his accounting period shall, before using the new period for income tax purposes, comply with...

  13. Sepsis After Cardiac Surgery Early in Infancy and Adverse 4.5-Year Neurocognitive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Naveen; Joffe, Ari R; Doughty, Paul; Vatanpour, Shabnam; Dinu, Irina; Alton, Gwen; Acton, Bryan; Robertson, Charlene M T

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether sepsis is associated with neurocognitive outcomes 4.5 years after congenital heart disease surgery in early infancy. Methods and Results A secondary analysis from a prospective inception cohort included all children having congenital heart disease surgery done at ≤6 weeks of age with cardiopulmonary bypass at the Western Canadian referral center from 1996 to 2009. Follow-up at the referral center determined the primary outcomes at 4.5 years with full-scale, performance, and verbal intelligence quotients on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Perioperative variables were collected prospectively, and confirmation of blood culture–positive sepsis was done retrospectively. Multiple linear regression models for neurocognitive outcomes and multiple Cox proportional hazards regression for mortality were determined. Sepsis occurred in 97 of 502 patients (19%) overall and in 76 of 396 survivors (19%) with 4.5-year follow-up. By 4.5 years, there were 91 (18%) deaths, and 396 of 411 survivors (96%) had follow-up completed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with worse scores on all neurocognitive outcomes on multivariable regression; the association between extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and full-scale intelligence quotient had a regression coefficient of −13.6 (95% CI −21.3 to −5.9; P =0.001). Sepsis perioperatively was associated with performance and verbal intelligence quotients, with a trend for full-scale intelligence quotient (P =0.058) on multivariable regression. The regression coefficient for sepsis was strongest for performance intelligence quotient (−5.31; 95% CI −9.84 to −0.78; P =0.022). Sepsis was not but extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with mortality by 4.5 years. Conclusions Perioperative sepsis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes on multivariable regression. Quality improvement to

  14. A Method of Speech Periodicity Enhancement Using Transform-domain Signal Decomposition☆

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tan; Kleijn, W. Bastiaan; Kong, Ying-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Periodicity is an important property of speech signals. It is the basis of the signal’s fundamental frequency and the pitch of voice, which is crucial to speech communication. This paper presents a novel framework of periodicity enhancement for noisy speech. The enhancement is applied to the linear prediction residual of speech. The residual signal goes through a constant-pitch time warping process and two sequential lapped-frequency transforms, by which the periodic component is concentrated in certain transform coefficients. By emphasizing the respective transform coefficients, periodicity enhancement of noisy residual signal is achieved. The enhanced residual signal and estimated linear prediction filter parameters are used to synthesize the output speech. An adaptive algorithm is proposed for adjusting the weights for the periodic and aperiodic components. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated via experimental evaluation. It is observed that harmonic structure of the original speech could be properly restored to improve the perceptual quality of enhanced speech. PMID:26150679

  15. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28–60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  16. [Analysis on moxibustion papers in SCI journals during the recent 5 years].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-chun; Jiang, Xiu-li

    2014-11-01

    The papers regarding moxibustion published in science citation index (SCI) journals for the recent 5 years were searched to explore the international tendency of moxibustion researches, which provided references for moxibustion to have a better internationalization. With methods of internet search and database search, a total of 116 papers regarding moxibustion were included. These papers were published in 40 kinds of journals, mostly in Britain and the United States. The journal with the highest impact factor was Stroke, which had 5729 points. The number and impact factor of these journals were inferior to those of acupuncture journal. Compared among these journals, the depth and width of moxibustion research were increasing year by year. The category of diseases related with moxibustion is mainly digestive system diseases, motor system diseases and urinary-genital system diseases. The type of papers was characterized with clinical observation and mechanism research. Researches related with moxibustion included moxibustion dose and safety. It was believed that the international recognition of moxibustion effectiveness, standardization of moxibustion manipulation, standardization research, etc. were needed to be solved in the further. PMID:25675578

  17. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  18. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28-60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  19. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy training for primary care physicians: results of a 5-year experience.

    PubMed

    Schertz, R D; Baskin, W N; Frakes, J T

    1989-01-01

    The first 5 years of a flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy (FFS) training program for primary care physicians was analyzed in an attempt to assess clinical competence and develop a procedure learning curve. A total of 47 primary care physicians (26 third-year family practice residents, 15 family practitioners, and 6 internists) were successfully trained in 60-cm FFS by five gastroenterologists. Didactic teaching methods included 5 hours of videotapes, slides, endoscopic models, and the use of a photo atlas. Following a patient demonstration, each trainee completed 25 examinations supervised with a teaching attachment. Criteria used to assess trainee competence included unassisted length of scope insertion and examination duration. Mean depth of scope insertion was 35.9 cm for the first five examinations, increasing to a mean of 51.7 cm for the final five examinations. Average examination duration decreased from 19.1 min for examinations 1 through 5 to 17.0 min for examinations 21 through 25. Out of 1236 examinations, one or more polyps were found in 222 patients (18.0%). Carcinoma was found in 15 of 1236 examinations (1.4%). In summary, experienced endoscopists can teach primary care physicians to perform 60-cm FFS. Completion of 25 supervised cases appears to be adequate for achieving technical competence in flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy.

  20. Time History of Repeating Low-Frequency Earthquakes Spanning 5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, J. R.; Creager, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    intend to extend the search for repeating events to the 5-year continuous recording period of the CAFE experiment. By analyzing the time history of individual LFEs and comparing LFEs from nearby locations, we are likely to be able to better unravel the relation between tremor generation and slow slip.

  1. Measuring the band structures of periodic beams using the wave superposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junyi, L.; Ruffini, V.; Balint, D.

    2016-11-01

    Phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials are artificially engineered periodic structures that have several interesting properties, such as negative effective stiffness in certain frequency ranges. An interesting property of phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials is the presence of band gaps, which are bands of frequencies where elastic waves cannot propagate. The presence of band gaps gives this class of materials the potential to be used as vibration isolators. In many studies, the band structures were used to evaluate the band gaps. The presence of band gaps in a finite structure is commonly validated by measuring the frequency response as there are no direct methods of measuring the band structures. In this study, an experiment was conducted to determine the band structure of one dimension phononic crystals with two wave modes, such as a bi-material beam, using the frequency response at only 6 points to validate the wave superposition method (WSM) introduced in a previous study. A bi-material beam and an aluminium beam with varying geometry were studied. The experiment was performed by hanging the beams freely, exciting one end of the beams, and measuring the acceleration at consecutive unit cells. The measured transfer function of the beams agrees with the analytical solutions but minor discrepancies. The band structure was then determined using WSM and the band structure of one set of the waves was found to agree well with the analytical solutions. The measurements taken for the other set of waves, which are the evanescent waves in the bi-material beams, were inaccurate and noisy. The transfer functions at additional points of one of the beams were calculated from the measured band structure using WSM. The calculated transfer function agrees with the measured results except at the frequencies where the band structure was inaccurate. Lastly, a study of the potential sources of errors was also conducted using finite element modelling and the errors in

  2. 24 CFR 241.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Supplemental Loans To Finance Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems.... No energy saving loan shall have an amortization period in excess of 15 years unless the amount...

  3. 24 CFR 241.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Supplemental Loans To Finance Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems.... No energy saving loan shall have an amortization period in excess of 15 years unless the amount...

  4. 24 CFR 241.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Supplemental Loans To Finance Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems.... No energy saving loan shall have an amortization period in excess of 15 years unless the amount...

  5. 24 CFR 241.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Supplemental Loans To Finance Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems.... No energy saving loan shall have an amortization period in excess of 15 years unless the amount...

  6. 24 CFR 241.540 - Method of loan payment and amortization period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Supplemental Loans To Finance Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems.... No energy saving loan shall have an amortization period in excess of 15 years unless the amount...

  7. Sensitivity and Specificity of Procalcitonin to Determine Etiology of Diarrhea in Children Younger Than 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Mujë; Azemi, Mehmedali; Spahiu, Shqipe; Hoxha, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Lidvana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine bacterial etiology of diarrhea. The examinees and methods: For this purpose we conducted the study comprising 115 children aged 1 to 60 months admitted at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Clinic, divided in three groups based on etiology of the diarrhea that has been confirmed with respective tests during the hospitalization. Each group has equal number of patients – 35. The first group was confirmed to have bacterial diarrhea, the second viral diarrhea and the third extra intestinal diarrhea. The determination of procalcitonin has been established with the ELFA methods of producer B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, (Germany). Results: From the total number of 1130 patient with acute diarrhea procalcitonin was assessed in 105. 67 (63.8%) of these patient were male. More than one third (38.14%) of the children in our study were younger then 12 months. Approximately the same was the number of children 13-24 months (33 patients or 31.43%) and 25-60 months (32 patients or 30.43%). The mean value of PRC in children with viral diarrhea was 0.13±0.5 ng/mL in children with bacterial diarrhea was 5.3±4.9 ng/m Land in children with extra intestinal diarrhea was 1.7±2.8 ng/mL. When measured using ANOVA and Turkey HSD tests, results have shown the statistical significance when comparing viral with bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea but were statistically insignificant when comparing bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea. Conclusion: Procalcitonin is an important but not conclusive marker of bacterial etiology of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years. PMID:24944526

  8. Salvage HDR Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Previous Definitive Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien Peter; Weinberg, Vivian; Shinohara, Katsuto; Roach, Mack; Nash, Marc; Gottschalk, Alexander; Chang, Albert J.; Hsu, I-Chow

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate efficacy and toxicity of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDRB between 1998 and 2009 for locally recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive RT. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, patients received 36 Gy in 6 fractions. Twenty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before salvage, and no patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Determination of biochemical failure after salvage HDRB was based on the Phoenix definition. Overall survival (OS) and bF distributions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), were documented. Results: Median follow-up after salvage HDRB was 59.6 months. The 5-year OS estimate was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-97%) with median survival not yet reached. Five-year biochemical control after salvage was 51% (95% CI: 34%-66%). Median PSA nadir postsalvage was 0.1 (range: 0-7.2) reached at a median of 10.2 months after completing HDRB. As for complications, acute and late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in only 2% and 2%, respectively. No grade 2 or higher acute GI events and 4% grade 2 GI late events were observed. On univariate analysis, disease-free interval after initial definitive RT (P=.07), percent of positive cores at the time of diagnosis (P=.08), interval from first recurrence to salvage HDRB (P=.09), and pre-HDRB prostate-specific antigen (P=.07) were each of borderline significance in predicting biochemical control after salvage HDRB. Conclusions: Prostate HDRB is an effective salvage modality with relatively few long-term toxicities. We

  9. Integration of a Psychiatric Service in a Long-Term Charitable Facility for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A 5-Year Medication Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggerini, Ciro; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo; Russo, Angela; Neviani, Vittoria; Castagnini, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    Since the implementation of a psychiatric service in a long-term facility for people with intellectual disability, the usage of psychotropic and anti-convulsant drugs has been surveyed over the 5-year period 1994-1999. At that time, although the overall prevalence rate of residents on medication was not declining significantly, a decrease in…

  10. A new method for the characterization of micro-/nano-periodic structures based on microscopic Moiré fringes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xie, Huimin; Tang, Minjin; Hu, Zhenxing

    2014-01-01

    Linewidth and opening ratio (ratio of linewidth to period) are important parameters in characterizing micro-/nano-periodic and quasi-periodic structures. Periodic structures are conventionally characterized by the direct observation of specimens under a microscope. However, the field of view is relatively small, and only certain details can be acquired under a microscope. Moreover, the non-uniformity of the linewidth in quasi-periodic structures cannot be detected. This paper proposes a new characterization method for determining the linewidth and opening ratio of periodic structures based on Moiré fringe analysis. This method has the advantage of full-field characterization of the linewidth of micro-/nano-structures over a larger area than that afforded by direct observation. To validate the method, the linewidth of scanning electron microscope (SEM) scan lines was first calibrated with a standard grating. Next, a microperiodic structure with known geometry was characterized using this calibrated SEM system. The results indicate that the proposed method is simple and effective, indicating a potential approach for the characterization of gratings over large areas. This technique can be extended to various high-power scanning microscopes to characterize micro-/nano-structures.

  11. The epidemiology of chickenpox in UK 5-year olds: an analysis to inform vaccine policy.

    PubMed

    Manikkavasagan, Gayatri; Dezateux, Carol; Wade, Angie; Bedford, Helen

    2010-11-10

    Varicella vaccine is not routinely administered to children in many countries including the UK. Longitudinal data are lacking to inform optimal schedules. We report the prevalence of VZV infection at 5 years of age, cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years and socio-demographic associations with risk of infection using longitudinal data on 12,509 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. VZV prevalence by 5 years was 76.9% [95% CI: 75.9%, 78.0%]. The cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years was 32.2% [95% CI: 31.1%, 33.3%]. Risk of infection by 5 years was associated with higher maternal socio-economic status, larger household size and formal day-care attendance at 9 months and 3 years. If universal varicella immunisation were introduced in the UK, where 40% children have attended some formal day-care by 3 years, a schedule commencing early in the second year of life would be indicated.

  12. A reproducible radiation delivery method for unanesthetized rodents during periods of hind limb unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walb, M. C.; Black, P. J.; Payne, V. S.; Munley, M. T.; Willey, J. S.

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to the spaceflight environment has long been known to be a health challenge concerning many body systems. Both microgravity and/or ionizing radiation can cause acute and chronic effects in multiple body systems. The hind limb unloaded (HLU) rodent model is a ground-based analogue for microgravity that can be used to simulate and study the combined biologic effects of reduced loading with spaceflight radiation exposure. However, studies delivering radiation to rodents during periods of HLU are rare. Herein we report the development of an irradiation protocol using a clinical linear accelerator that can be used with hind limb unloaded, unanesthetized rodents that is capable of being performed at most academic medical centers. A 30.5 cm × 30.5 cm × 40.6 cm rectangular chamber was constructed out of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheets (0.64 cm thickness). Five centimeters of water-equivalent material were placed outside of two PMMA inserts on either side of the rodent that permitted the desired radiation dose buildup (electronic equilibrium) and helped to achieve a flatter dose profile. Perforated aluminum strips permitted the suspension dowel to be placed at varying heights depending on the rodent size. Radiation was delivered using a medical linear accelerator at an accelerating potential of 10 MV. A calibrated PTW Farmer ionization chamber, wrapped in appropriately thick tissue-equivalent bolus material to simulate the volume of the rodent, was used to verify a uniform dose distribution at various regions of the chamber. The dosimetry measurements confirmed variances typically within 3%, with maximum variance <10% indicated through optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD) measurements, thus delivering reliable spaceflight-relevant total body doses and ensuring a uniform dose regardless of its location within the chamber. Due to the relative abundance of LINACs at academic medical centers and the reliability of their dosimetry properties, this

  13. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for nonmetastatic lung cancer: An analysis of 75 patients treated over 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, Jonathan J. . E-mail: jbeitler92@alumni.gsb.columbia.edu; Badine, Edgard A.; El-Sayah, Danny; Makara, Denise; Friscia, Phillip; Silverman, Phillip; Terjanian, Terenig

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may not be medically operable even in patients with surgically resectable disease. For patients who either refuse surgery or are medically inoperable, radiation therapy may be the best therapeutic choice. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) employs external fixation and hypofractionation to deliver a high dose per fraction of radiation to a small target volume. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 75 patients treated over 5 years at Staten Island University Hospital as definitive treatment for NSCLC or presumed NSCLC. Patients received a median of 5 fractions of 8 Gy per fraction over 27 days. Results: Overall 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial survivals were 63%, 45%, and 17%. Patients with a gross tumor volume (GTV) less than 65 cm{sup 3} enjoyed a longer median survival (25.7 vs. 9.9 months, p < 0.003), and at 5 years, the actuarial survival for the patients with GTVs less than 65 cm{sup 3} was 24% vs. 0% for those with GTVs larger than 65 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy as delivered was ineffective for curing the patients whose GTVs were larger than 65 cm{sup 3}. SBRT was promising for those with GTVs less than 65 cm{sup 3}.

  14. Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients up to 5 years after initiation of HAART: collaborative analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prognosis over 5 years of HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive patients starting HAART, taking into account the immunological and virological response to therapy. Design A collaborative analysis of data from 12 cohorts in Europe and north America on 20 379 adults who started HAART between 1995 and 2003. Methods Parametric survival models were used to predict the cumulative incidence at 5 years of a new AIDS-defining event or death, and death alone, first from the start of HAART and second from 6 months after the start of HAART. Data were analysed by intention-to-continue-treatment, ignoring treatment changes and interruptions. Results During 61 798 person-years of follow-up, 1005 patients died and an additional 1303 developed AIDS. A total of 10 046 (49%) patients started HAART either with a CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/μl or with a diagnosis of AIDS. The 5-year risk of AIDS or death (death alone) from the start of HAART ranged from 5.6 to 77% (1.8–65%), depending on age, CD4 cell count, HIV-1-RNA level, clinical stage, and history of injection drug use. From 6 months the corresponding figures were 4.1–99% for AIDS or death and 1.3–96% for death alone. Conclusion On the basis of data collected routinely in HIV care, prognostic models with high discriminatory power over 5 years were developed for patients starting HAART in industrialized countries. A risk calculator that produces estimates for progression rates at years 1 to 5 after starting HAART is available from www.art-cohort-collaboration.org. PMID:17502729

  15. New method for analyzing the periodic structure of multilayer by differential anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Matsubara, E.; Saito, M.; Kosaka, T.; Waseda, Y.; Inomata, K.

    1995-03-01

    A new method has been proposed for analyzing the periodic structure of a multilayered sample by the differential anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering method in the reflection geometry. The scattering peaks due to the periodically layered structure in the small angle region are often observed with a large background intensity. These peak intensities strongly depend upon the anomalous dispersion terms of the constituent element near its absorption edge. Thus, by taking a difference of these peak intensities observed at two energies near the edge, the scattering intensity attributed to various causes can be accurately eliminated except the periodically layered structure. Namely, only the intrinsic peak intensities are precisely determined by this method. Furthermore, this method is the most effective for analyzing the periodic structures of multilayers composed of the next neighboring elements in the periodic table. The experimental details and the usefulness of the present new method have been presented by obtaining the concentration profile of a Cu/Co multilayer using the peak intensity variation arising from the anomalous dispersion terms of Cu and Co near their K absorption edges.

  16. An efficient method to detect periodic behavior in botnet traffic by analyzing control plane traffic

    PubMed Central

    AsSadhan, Basil; Moura, José M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Botnets are large networks of bots (compromised machines) that are under the control of a small number of bot masters. They pose a significant threat to Internet’s communications and applications. A botnet relies on command and control (C2) communications channels traffic between its members for its attack execution. C2 traffic occurs prior to any attack; hence, the detection of botnet’s C2 traffic enables the detection of members of the botnet before any real harm happens. We analyze C2 traffic and find that it exhibits a periodic behavior. This is due to the pre-programmed behavior of bots that check for updates to download them every T seconds. We exploit this periodic behavior to detect C2 traffic. The detection involves evaluating the periodogram of the monitored traffic. Then applying Walker’s large sample test to the periodogram’s maximum ordinate in order to determine if it is due to a periodic component or not. If the periodogram of the monitored traffic contains a periodic component, then it is highly likely that it is due to a bot’s C2 traffic. The test looks only at aggregate control plane traffic behavior, which makes it more scalable than techniques that involve deep packet inspection (DPI) or tracking the communication flows of different hosts. We apply the test to two types of botnet, tinyP2P and IRC that are generated by SLINGbot. We verify the periodic behavior of their C2 traffic and compare it to the results we get on real traffic that is obtained from a secured enterprise network. We further study the characteristics of the test in the presence of injected HTTP background traffic and the effect of the duty cycle on the periodic behavior. PMID:25685512

  17. The periodicities of Solar Magnetic Activity with the Wavelet Coherence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    The origin, behavior and evolution of the solar magnetic field is one of the main challenges of observational and theoretical solar physics. Up to now the Dynamo theory gives us the best approach to the problem. However, it is not yet able to predict many features of the solar activity, which seems not to be strictly a periodical phenomenon. Among the indicators of solar magnetic variability there is the 11-years cycle of sunspots, as well as the solar magnetic cycle of 22 years (the Hale cycle). In order to provide more elements to the Dynamo theory that could help it in the predicting task, we analyze here the plausible existence of other periodicities associated with the solar magnetic field. In this preliminary work we use historical data (sunspots and aurora borealis), proxies (10 Be and 14 C) and modern instrumental data (Coronal Holes, Cosmic Rays, sunspots, flare indexes and solar radio flux at 10.7 cm). To find relationships between different time-frequency series we have employed the Wavelet Coherence technique: this technique indicates if two time-series of solar activity have the same periodicities in a given time interval. If so, it determines whether such relation is a linear one or not. Such a powerful tool indicates that, if some periodicity at a given frequency has a confidence level below 95%, it appears very lessened or does not appear in the Wavelet Spectral Analysis, such periodicity does not exist. Our results show that the so called Glaisberg cycle of 80-90 years and the periodicity of 205 years (the Suess cycle) do not exist. It can be speculated that such fictitious periodicities have been the result of using the Fourier transform with series with are not of stationary nature, as it is the case of the Be10 and C14 series. In contrast we confirm the presence of periodicities of 1.3, 1.7, quasi-triennial, quasi-quinquennial, Shawabe-cycle, Gale-cycle 60, 120 and 240 years.

  18. Three-dimensional full waveform inversion of short-period teleseismic wavefields based upon the SEM-DSM hybrid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiller, Vadim; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Wang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    We present a method for high-resolution imaging of lithospheric structures based on full waveform inversion of teleseismic waveforms. We model the propagation of seismic waves using our recently developed direct solution method/spectral-element method hybrid technique, which allows us to simulate the propagation of short-period teleseismic waves through a regional 3-D model. We implement an iterative quasi-Newton method based upon the L-BFGS algorithm, where the gradient of the misfit function is computed using the adjoint-state method. Compared to gradient or conjugate-gradient methods, the L-BFGS algorithm has a much faster convergence rate. We illustrate the potential of this method on a synthetic test case that consists of a crustal model with a crustal discontinuity at 25 km depth and a sharp Moho jump. This model contains short- and long-wavelength heterogeneities along the lateral and vertical directions. The iterative inversion starts from a smooth 1-D model derived from the IASP91 reference Earth model. We invert both radial and vertical component waveforms, starting from long-period signals filtered at 10 s and gradually decreasing the cut-off period down to 1.25 s. This multiscale algorithm quickly converges towards a model that is very close to the true model, in contrast to inversions involving short-period waveforms only, which always get trapped into a local minimum of the cost function.

  19. The evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian hospitals: 5 years of national surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Simor, Andrew E.; Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Bryce, Elizabeth; Green, Karen; McGeer, Allison; Mulvey, Michael; Paton, Shirley

    2001-01-01

    Background To better understand the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Canadian hospitals, surveillance has been conducted in sentinel hospitals across the country since 1995. We report the results of the first 5 years of the program. Methods For each newly identified inpatient with MRSA, medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results A total of 4507 patients infected or colonized with MRSA were identified between January 1995 and December 1999. The rate of MRSA increased each year from a mean of 0.95 per 100 S. aureus isolates in 1995 to 5.97 per 100 isolates in 1999 (0.46 per 1000 admissions in 1995 to 4.12 per 1000 admissions in 1999) (p < 0.05). Most of the increase in MRSA occurred in Ontario, Quebec and the western provinces. Of the 3009 cases for which the site of MRSA acquisition could be determined, 86% were acquired in a hospital, 8% were acquired in a long-term care facility and 6% were acquired in the community. A total of 1603 patients (36%) were infected with MRSA. The most common sites of infection were skin or soft tissue (25% of MRSA infections), pulmonary tissues (24%) and surgical sites (23%); 13% of the patients were bacteremic. An epidemiologic link with a previously identified MRSA patient was suspected in 53% of the cases. Molecular typing indicated that most (81%) of the isolates could be classified as related to 1 of the 4 Canadian epidemic strains of MRSA. Interpretation There has been a significant increase in the rate of isolating MRSA in many Canadian hospitals, related to the transmission of a relatively small number of MRSA strains. PMID:11468949

  20. Specialist Pediatric Palliative Care Prescribing Practices: A Large 5-year Retrospective Audit

    PubMed Central

    Damani, Anuja; Salins, Naveen; Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is a gradual increasing trend in childhood cancers in India and pediatric palliative care in India is an emerging specialty. Prescribing pain and symptom control drugs in children with cancer requires knowledge of palliative care formulary, dosing schedules, and prescription guidelines. This study is a retrospective audit of prescribing practices of a specialist palliative care service situated in a tertiary cancer center. Methods: A total of 1135 medication records of children receiving specialist pediatric palliative care services were audited for 5 years (2010–2014) to evaluate prescribing practices in children with advanced cancer. Results: A total of 51 types of drugs were prescribed with an average of 4.2 drugs per prescription. 66.9% of the prescriptions had paracetamol, and 33.9% of the prescriptions had morphine. Most common nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed was ibuprofen (23.9%), and more than 50% of the prescriptions had aperients. The most commonly prescribed aperient was a combination of liquid paraffin and sodium-picosulfate. Dexamethasone was prescribed in 51.9% of patients and in most cases this was part of oral chemotherapy regimen. Generic names in prescription were used only in 33% of cases, and adverse effects of the drugs were documented in only 9% of cases. In 25% of cases, noncompliance to the WHO prescription guidelines was seen, and patient compliance to prescription was seen in 40% of cases. Conclusions: Audit of the prescribing practices in specialist pediatric palliative care service shows that knowledge of pediatric palliative care formulary, rational drug use, dosing, and prescribing guidelines is essential for symptom control in children with advanced life-limiting illness. Noncompliance to WHO prescribing guidelines in one fourth of cases and using nongeneric names in two-thirds of prescription indicates poor prescribing practices and warrants prescriber education. Prescription noncompliance by

  1. Depressive Symptom Clusters and 5-Year Incidence of Coronary Artery Calcification: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jesse C.; Zielke, Desiree J.; Hawkins, Misty A.W.; Williams, David R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knox, Sarah S.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Because depression is a multidimensional construct and few studies have compared the relative importance of its facets in predicting cardiovascular risk, we evaluated the utility of depressive symptom clusters in predicting the 5-year incidence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods and Results Participants were 2,171 middle-aged adults (58% female, 43% black) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who were free of cardiovascular disease. Depressive symptom clusters (z scores) were measured by questionnaires in 2000–2001, and CAC was measured by electron beam computed tomography in 2000–2001 and 2005–2006. There were 243 (11%) cases of incident CAC, defined as the absence of CAC at baseline and the presence of CAC at follow-up. Total depressive symptoms (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.33, p = .03) and the depressed affect cluster (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03–1.33, p = .02) predicted incident CAC; however, the somatic, interpersonal distress, low positive affect, and pessimism clusters did not. The depressed affect-incident CAC relationship was independent of age, sex, race, education, and antidepressant use; was similar across gender and racial groups; and was partially accounted for by tobacco use and mean arterial pressure. Conclusions In contrast to recent results indicating that the somatic cluster is the most predictive of cardiovascular outcomes, we found that the prospective association between depressive symptoms and incident CAC was driven by the depressed affect cluster. Our findings raise the possibility that there may not be one facet of depression that is the most cardiotoxic across all contexts. PMID:22711275

  2. Vertical distribution of the Saharan Air Layer from 5 years of CALIPSO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamalis, C.; Chédin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Saharan Air Layer (SAL) forms as dry and hot air moves across the Sahara desert. SAL, containing substantial amounts of mineral dust, is a dominant feature that influences the large scale environment from West Africa to eastern tropical America, inhibiting tropical cyclogenesis and Atlantic hurricane formation. Furthermore, SAL dust aerosols have a strong impact on the energy budget through the so-called direct and indirect effects. The SAL has been studied with dedicated campaigns at the two sides of the Atlantic or using space observations due to lack of systematic in situ measurements away from the continents. However the campaigns are restricted in time, while satellite observations of thermodynamic variables are affected by the presence of dust. Moreover, satellite measurements of aerosols, particularly in the visible, mostly provide column integrated properties like the optical depth, without information about the vertical distribution. On the other hand, new generation infrared sounders now bring reliable information on the dust layer mean altitude, but their new established results need further validation. However, the two-wavelength lidar CALIOP, launched on board CALIPSO in April 2006, permits an accurate determination of the aerosol vertical distribution, on a global scale. Thanks to depolarisation at 532 nm, CALIOP is able to discriminate between dust and other types of aerosols, which generally do not depolarize light. Here, the L2 5 km aerosol layer product (version 3.01) is used to calculate the vertical distribution of the dust aerosols above the Atlantic during the last 5 years (June 2006 - May 2011) with a horizontal resolution of 1 degree for the four seasons. More specifically, two classes of aerosols are used from the L2 product: dust and polluted dust, in order to take into account the change of dust aerosols optical properties with transport. Results show the latitudinal displacement of the SAL between winter [-5, 15]°N and summer [10

  3. Changes in children hair-Hg concentrations during the first 5 years: maternal, environmental and iatrogenic modifying factors.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2007-10-01

    Children are exposed to Hg from mothers (via placenta and lactation), environment (food), and in many parts of the world by thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) during immunization. Neurodevelopment studies based on infant hair-Hg (HHg) have been designed without explicit attention to the factors associated with changes in infant physiology and Hg sources of exposure. A longitudinal study of changes in HHg concentrations from birth to 5 years was done in a sample of children from Porto Velho (Rondonia), Brazilian Amazonia. The study extracted information from the asymmetry associated with maternal and infant HHg changes at specified sampling: birth (fetal exposure), 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, 36 months (weaning) and 60 months (pre-school). The distribution of HHg in breastfed infants followed a pattern different from their mothers. While mothers had the highest HHg concentrations at childbirth, infants showed the highest HHg values at 6 months after the recommended full schedule (six shots) of immunization with TCV; after that, the downward trend in HHg shown by children coincided with both weaning and less frequent vaccination period (5 years). Extended lactation (up to 36 months) was not significantly associated with HHg of infants or mothers; however, significant association (Spearman's r) between maternal and infant HHg concentration was seen at birth (r=0.3534; P=0.001), 6 months (r=0.4793; P<0.0001), 3 years (r=0.0122; P=0.012) and 5 years (r=0.0357; P=0.005). Maternal postpartum metabolic changes, infant development and transitional diets and possibly Hg from TCV contribute to the asymmetry of HHg changes between mothers and children.

  4. Hepatocyte isolation from resected benign tissues: Results of a 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fan-Ying; Liu, Li; Liu, Jun; Li, Chun-You; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Feng-Hui; Chen, Zhi-Shui; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze retrospectively a 5-year experience of human hepatocyte isolation from resected liver tissues with benign disease. METHODS We established a method of modified four-step retrograde perfusion to isolate primary human hepatocytes. Samples were collected from the resected livers of patients with intrahepatic duct calculi (n = 7) and liver hemangioma (n = 17). Only the samples weighing ≥ 15 g were considered suitable for hepatocyte isolation. By using the standard trypan blue exclusion technique, hepatocyte viability and yield were immediately determined after isolation. RESULTS Twenty-four liver specimens, weighing 15-42 g, were immediately taken from the margin of the removed samples and transferred to the laboratory for hepatocyte isolation. Warm ischemia time was 5-35 min and cold ischemia time was 15-45 min. For the 7 samples of intrahepatic duct calculi, the method resulted in a hepatocyte yield of 3.49 ± 2.31 × 106 hepatocytes/g liver, with 76.4% ± 10.7% viability. The 17 samples of liver hemangioma had significantly higher yield of cells (5.4 ± 1.71 × 106 cells/g vs 3.49 ± 2.31 × 106 cells/g, P < 0.05) than the samples of intrahepatic duct calculi. However, there seems to be no clear difference in cell viability (80.3% ± 9.67% vs 76.4% ± 10.7%, P > 0.05). We obtained a cell yield of 5.31 ± 1.87 × 106 hepatocytes/g liver when the samples weighed > 20 g. However, for the tissues weighing ≤ 20 g, a reduction in yield was found (3.08 ± 1.86 × 106 cells/g vs 5.31 ± 1.87 × 106 cells/g, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Benign diseased livers are valuable sources for large-number hepatocyte isolation. Our study represents the largest number of primary human hepatocytes isolated from resected specimens from patients with benign liver disease. We evaluated the effect of donor liver characteristics on cell isolation, and we found that samples of liver hemangioma can provide better results than intrahepatic duct calculi, in terms of cell yield

  5. Hepatocyte isolation from resected benign tissues: Results of a 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fan-Ying; Liu, Li; Liu, Jun; Li, Chun-You; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Feng-Hui; Chen, Zhi-Shui; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze retrospectively a 5-year experience of human hepatocyte isolation from resected liver tissues with benign disease. METHODS We established a method of modified four-step retrograde perfusion to isolate primary human hepatocytes. Samples were collected from the resected livers of patients with intrahepatic duct calculi (n = 7) and liver hemangioma (n = 17). Only the samples weighing ≥ 15 g were considered suitable for hepatocyte isolation. By using the standard trypan blue exclusion technique, hepatocyte viability and yield were immediately determined after isolation. RESULTS Twenty-four liver specimens, weighing 15-42 g, were immediately taken from the margin of the removed samples and transferred to the laboratory for hepatocyte isolation. Warm ischemia time was 5-35 min and cold ischemia time was 15-45 min. For the 7 samples of intrahepatic duct calculi, the method resulted in a hepatocyte yield of 3.49 ± 2.31 × 106 hepatocytes/g liver, with 76.4% ± 10.7% viability. The 17 samples of liver hemangioma had significantly higher yield of cells (5.4 ± 1.71 × 106 cells/g vs 3.49 ± 2.31 × 106 cells/g, P < 0.05) than the samples of intrahepatic duct calculi. However, there seems to be no clear difference in cell viability (80.3% ± 9.67% vs 76.4% ± 10.7%, P > 0.05). We obtained a cell yield of 5.31 ± 1.87 × 106 hepatocytes/g liver when the samples weighed > 20 g. However, for the tissues weighing ≤ 20 g, a reduction in yield was found (3.08 ± 1.86 × 106 cells/g vs 5.31 ± 1.87 × 106 cells/g, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Benign diseased livers are valuable sources for large-number hepatocyte isolation. Our study represents the largest number of primary human hepatocytes isolated from resected specimens from patients with benign liver disease. We evaluated the effect of donor liver characteristics on cell isolation, and we found that samples of liver hemangioma can provide better results than intrahepatic duct calculi, in terms of cell yield

  6. Prediction of long-term (5 years) conversion to dementia using neuropsychological tests in a memory clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Silva, Dina; Guerreiro, Manuela; Santana, Isabel; Rodrigues, Ana; Cardoso, Sandra; Maroco, João; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The use of neuropsychological tests to detect cognitive decline in the initial phases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has faced significant limitations, namely the fact that most cohort studies of conversion to dementia had relatively short follow-up periods. The aim of the present study is to assess the predictive value for future conversion to dementia of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery applied to a cohort of non-demented patients followed-up for 5 years. Participants (n = 250) were selected from the Cognitive Complaints Cohort (CCC) having cognitive complaints, assessment with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, and a follow-up period of 5 years (unless patients have converted to dementia earlier). During the follow-up period (2.6 ± 1.8 years for converters and 6.1 ± 2.1 years for non-converters), 162 patients (64.8%) progressed to dementia (mostly AD), and 88 (35.2%) did not. A Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model constituted by Digit Span backward, Semantic Fluency, Logical Memory (immediate recall), and Forgetting Index significantly discriminated converters from non-converters (λ Wilks = 0.64; χ(2) (4) = 81.95; p < 0.001; RCanonical = 0.60). Logical Memory (immediate recall) was the strongest predictor with a standardized canonical discriminant function coefficient of 0.70. The LDA classificatory model showed good sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values (78.8%, 79.9% and 78.6%, respectively) of the neuropsychological tests to predict long-term conversion to dementia. The present results show that it is possible to predict, on the basis of the initial clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, whether non-demented patients with cognitive complaints will probably convert to dementia, or remain stable, at a reasonably long and clinically relevant term. PMID:23263232

  7. Medicaid Program; Methods for Assuring Access to Covered Medicaid Services. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    This final rule with comment period provides for a transparent data-driven process for states to document whether Medicaid payments are sufficient to enlist providers to assure beneficiary access to covered care and services consistent with section 1902(a)(30)(A) of the Social Security Act (the Act) and to address issues raised by that process. The final rule with comment period also recognizes electronic publication as an optional means of providing public notice of proposed changes in rates or ratesetting methodologies that the state intends to include in a Medicaid state plan amendment (SPA). We are providing an opportunity for comment on whether future adjustments would be warranted to the provisions setting forth requirements for ongoing state reviews of beneficiary access. PMID:26524772

  8. Medicaid Program; Methods for Assuring Access to Covered Medicaid Services. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    This final rule with comment period provides for a transparent data-driven process for states to document whether Medicaid payments are sufficient to enlist providers to assure beneficiary access to covered care and services consistent with section 1902(a)(30)(A) of the Social Security Act (the Act) and to address issues raised by that process. The final rule with comment period also recognizes electronic publication as an optional means of providing public notice of proposed changes in rates or ratesetting methodologies that the state intends to include in a Medicaid state plan amendment (SPA). We are providing an opportunity for comment on whether future adjustments would be warranted to the provisions setting forth requirements for ongoing state reviews of beneficiary access.

  9. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  10. The 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology 1981. Source Materials Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This is the second of two volumes of source documents commissioned by the National Science Foundation in preparing the second 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology for transmission to the Congress. This volume consists of the views of individuals selected by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy of the American Association for…

  11. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  12. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  13. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  14. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  15. Delayed refractory hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Merola, J; Liang, E; Hoskins, J; Balakrishnan, V; Gan, P

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who developed a delayed onset intractable hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The proposed aetiology of this exceptionally rare phenomenon is discussed. To our knowledge, previous cases have only been reported in the adult population.

  16. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  17. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  18. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  19. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  20. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  1. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... limited to, population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics; (2) habitat conditions...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Comment'' icon on the right of that line. Mail or hand-delivery: Angela Somma, National Marine...

  2. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  3. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  4. Introducing Engineering in Elementary Education: A 5-Year Study of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering, when integrated into K-12 education, may offer a number of potential student learning and future success benefits. In a 5-year study, four cohorts of elementary teachers of grades 2 to 4 in a single US school district were provided with teacher professional development with engineering education. Teachers were prepared to teach…

  5. 76 FR 50447 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 5 Evolutionarily Significant Units of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ..., Oregon, Washington, and Idaho (75 FR 13082). Both ESUs and DPSs are treated as ``species'' under the ESA... FR 37204). The 5-year review reports prepared by the Southwest Region, the Southwest Science Center's... since they were previously reviewed in 2005 (70 FR 37160) and 2006 (71 FR 834), respectively....

  6. 76 FR 50448 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 17 Evolutionarily Significant Units and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Regional Offices announced initiation of 5-year reviews of Pacific salmon ESUs and steelhead DPSs (75 FR...-promulgating the threatened listing for Oregon Coast coho salmon (76 FR 35755). This notice also addresses the... Salmon and Steelhead in Listing Determinations under the ESA (70 FR 37204) to complete this...

  7. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  8. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  9. Story Contexts Increase Susceptibility to the DRM Illusion in 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Pursglove, Rhian C.; Lewis, Charlie

    2007-01-01

    False recognition in children aged 5, 8, and 11 years was investigated using the standard version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and an alternative version in which the DRM stimuli were embedded in stories designed to emphasize their overall theme. Relative to the 8- and 11-year-olds, the 5-year-olds falsely recognized fewer…

  10. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  11. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  12. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  13. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  14. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  15. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  16. Periodicity of the solar radius revisited by using empirical mode decomposition and the Lomb-Scargle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhi-Ning; Feng, Wen; Liang, Hong-Fei

    2015-06-01

    Using the Hilbert-Huang transform and the Lomb-Scargle method, we investigate periodicities in the daily solar radius data during the time interval from February 1978 to October 1999 derived from Calern Observatory. The following prominent periods are found: (1) the rotation cycle signal; (2) several mid-term periods including 122, 162.9 and 225 days, annual-variation periodicities (319 and 359 days), quasi-triennial oscillations (3.46 and 3.94 years); (3) the 11-year Schwabe cycle, which is in anti-phase with solar activity. This result indicates that the strong magnetic field associated with the Sun has a greater inhibitive effect on the radius variation. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  17. Perinatal periods of risk: analytic preparation and phase 1 analytic methods for investigating feto-infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Sappenfield, William M; Peck, Magda G; Gilbert, Carol S; Haynatzka, Vera R; Bryant, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    The Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) methods provide the necessary framework and tools for large urban communities to investigate feto-infant mortality problems. Adapted from the Periods of Risk model developed by Dr. Brian McCarthy, the six-stage PPOR approach includes epidemiologic methods to be used in conjunction with community planning processes. Stage 2 of the PPOR approach has three major analytic parts: Analytic Preparation, which involves acquiring, preparing, and assessing vital records files; Phase 1 Analysis, which identifies local opportunity gaps; and Phase 2 Analyses, which investigate the opportunity gaps to determine likely causes of feto-infant mortality and to suggest appropriate actions. This article describes the first two analytic parts of PPOR, including methods, innovative aspects, rationale, limitations, and a community example. In Analytic Preparation, study files are acquired and prepared and data quality is assessed. In Phase 1 Analysis, feto-infant mortality is estimated for four distinct perinatal risk periods defined by both birthweight and age at death. These mutually exclusive risk periods are labeled Maternal Health and Prematurity, Maternal Care, Newborn Care, and Infant Health to suggest primary areas of prevention. Disparities within the study community are identified by comparing geographic areas, subpopulations, and time periods. Excess mortality numbers and rates are estimated by comparing the study population to an optimal reference population. This excess mortality is described as the opportunity gap because it indicates where communities have the potential to make improvement.

  18. The relationship of left ventricular trabeculation to ventricular function and structure over 9.5 years follow up: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zemrak, Filip; Ahlman, Mark A.; Captur, Gabriella; Mohiddin, Saidi A; Kawel-Boehm, Nadine; Prince, Martin R.; Moon, James C.; Hundley, William G.; Lima, João A.C.; Bluemke, David A; Petersen, Steffen E

    2015-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation is highly variable between individuals, is increased in some diseases (e.g. congenital heart disease or cardiomyopathies), but its significance in population representative individuals is unknown. Objectives To determine if excessive LV trabeculation in population representative subjects is associated with preceding changes in cardiac volumes and function. Methods The extent of trabeculation, expressed as the ratio of non-compacted to compacted (NC/C) myocardium was measured for technical reasons on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) long-axis cine images in 2742 subjects in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (mean age 68.7 years, 52.3% women, 56.4% with hypertension, 16.8% with diabetes) at the exam 5. These were considered in quintiles of trabeculation extent, with quintile 5’s NC/C 2.46 – 5.41. We determined the relationship between maximal NC/C ratio and preceding change (9.5 year between exam 1 and 5) in end-systolic volume indexed to the body surface area (ESVi). Secondary analysis assessed associations between maximal NC/C and preceding changes in end-diastolic volume indexed to the body surface area (EDVi) and ejection fraction (EF). Results Over 9.5 years, ESVi decreased by 1.3 ml/m2, EDVi decreased by 5.1 ml/m2 and EF decreased by 0.6% (p<0.0001). There were no clinically relevant differences in LV volumes and systolic function change between the quintiles of trabeculation extent, even in subjects with the excessive trabeculation. Conclusions Greater extent of and even excessive LV trabeculations measured in end-diastole in asymptomatic population representative individuals appears benign and is not associated with deterioration in left ventricular volumes or function over an almost 10 year period. PMID:25440091

  19. Evaluation of selected methods for determining streamflow during periods of ice effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melcher, N.B.; Walker, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The methods are classified into two general categories, subjective and analytical, depending on whether individual judgement is necessary for method application. On the basis of results of the evaluation for the three Iowa stations, two of the subjective methods (discharge ratio and hydrographic-and-climatic comparison) were more accurate than the other subjective methods, and approximately as accurate as the best analytical method. Three of the analytical methods (index velocity, adjusted rating curve, and uniform flow) could potentially be used for streamflow-gaging stations where the need for accurate ice-affected discharge estimates justifies the expense of collecting additional field data. One analytical method (ice adjustment factor) may be appropriate for use for stations with extremely stable stage-discharge ratings and measuring sections. Further research is needed to refine the analytical methods. The discharge ratio and multiple regression methods produce estimates of streamflow for varying ice conditions using information obtained from the existing U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging network.

  20. A mapping method for distributive mixing with diffusion: Interplay between chaos and diffusion in time-periodic sine flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Conor P.; Christov, Ivan C.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2013-05-01

    We present an accurate and efficient computational method for solving the advection-diffusion equation in time-periodic chaotic flows. The method uses operator splitting, which allows the advection and diffusion steps to be treated independently. Taking advantage of flow periodicity, the advection step is solved using a mapping method, and diffusion is "added" discretely after each iteration of the advection map. This approach results in the construction of a composite mapping matrix over an entire period of the chaotic advection-diffusion process and provides a natural framework for the analysis of mixing. To test the approach, we consider two-dimensional time-periodic sine flow. By comparing the numerical solutions obtained by our method to reference solutions, we find qualitative agreement for large time steps (structure of concentration profile) and quantitative agreement for small time steps (low error). Further, we study the interplay between mixing through chaotic advection and mixing through diffusion leading to an analytical model for the evolution of the intensity of segregation with time. Additionally, we demonstrate that our operator splitting mapping approach can be readily extended to three dimensions.

  1. Excitation of plasmonic terahertz photovoltaic effects in a periodic two-dimensional electron system by the attenuated total reflection method

    SciTech Connect

    Fateev, D. V. Mashinsky, K. V.; Bagaeva, T. Yu.; Popov, V. V.

    2015-01-15

    The problem of the rectification of terahertz radiation due to plasmonic nonlinearities in a periodic two-dimensional electron system upon the excitation of plasma oscillations by the attenuated total reflection method is solved. This model allows the independent study of different plasmonic rectification mechanisms, i.e., plasmonic electron drag and plasmonic ratchet effects.

  2. Optical filter including a sub-wavelength periodic structure and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Kaushik, S.; Stallard, B.R.

    1998-03-10

    An optical filter includes a dielectric layer formed within a resonant optical cavity, with the dielectric layer having formed therein a sub-wavelength periodic structure to define, at least in part, a wavelength for transmission of light through the resonant optical cavity. The sub-wavelength periodic structure can be formed either by removing material from the dielectric layer (e.g. by etching through an electron-beam defined mask), or by altering the composition of the layer (e.g. by ion implantation). Different portions of the dielectric layer can be patterned to form one or more optical interference filter elements having different light transmission wavelengths so that the optical filter can filter incident light according to wavelength and/or polarization. For some embodiments, the optical filter can include a detector element in optical alignment with each optical interference filter element to quantify or measure the filtered light for analysis thereof. The optical filter has applications to spectrometry, colorimetry, and chemical sensing. 17 figs.

  3. Optical filter including a sub-wavelength periodic structure and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Kaushik, Sumanth; Stallard, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    An optical filter includes a dielectric layer formed within a resonant optical cavity, with the dielectric layer having formed therein a sub-wavelength periodic structure to define, at least in part, a wavelength for transmission of light through the resonant optical cavity. The sub-wavelength periodic structure can be formed either by removing material from the dielectric layer (e.g. by etching through an electron-beam defined mask), or by altering the composition of the layer (e.g. by ion implantation). Different portions of the dielectric layer can be patterned to form one or more optical interference filter elements having different light transmission wavelengths so that the optical filter can filter incident light according to wavelength and/or polarization. For some embodiments, the optical filter can include a detector element in optical alignment with each optical interference filter element to quantify or measure the filtered light for analysis thereof. The optical filter has applications to spectrometry, colorimetry, and chemical sensing.

  4. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  5. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the

  6. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  7. A method for the background reduction of solid state detectors during low-flux periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, E.

    The pulse height analysis of the signals in traditional energetic particle telescopes provides a tool to separate a background arising from various factors from "genuine" particles. Commonly used methods, however, prove unsatisfactory at low intensity levels. A method based on the distribution of pulse heights of coincident signals in two detectors, approximating them by a 5-parameter function, is suggested. The method can effectively reduce the background at low-flux times as demonstrated for energetic particle intensity measurements by ERNE and EPHIN aboard SOHO during the recent solar activity minimum.

  8. Motor vehicle occupants, neck injuries, and seat belt utilization: a 5-year study of fatalities in New York City.

    PubMed

    Sgarlato, Anthony; Deroux, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    Despite the implementation of numerous safety devices in automobiles, vehicular occupant fatalities following collisions remain common. We reviewed all fatalities of vehicular occupants in New York City over a 5-year period on whom autopsies were performed (437) to determine the incidence of neck injuries and correlate them with seat belt utilization; 26.5% had neck injuries (mild to severe) and only 10.3% of these occupants were confirmed to be wearing seatbelts. Of those that had documentation of seat belt utilization there were twice as many neck injuries in the unbelted group. We highlight two cases of submarining with severe neck injuries that were related to automatic 2-point shoulder harness restraints without engagement of the lap belt. PMID:20070463

  9. Motor vehicle occupants, neck injuries, and seat belt utilization: a 5-year study of fatalities in New York City.

    PubMed

    Sgarlato, Anthony; Deroux, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    Despite the implementation of numerous safety devices in automobiles, vehicular occupant fatalities following collisions remain common. We reviewed all fatalities of vehicular occupants in New York City over a 5-year period on whom autopsies were performed (437) to determine the incidence of neck injuries and correlate them with seat belt utilization; 26.5% had neck injuries (mild to severe) and only 10.3% of these occupants were confirmed to be wearing seatbelts. Of those that had documentation of seat belt utilization there were twice as many neck injuries in the unbelted group. We highlight two cases of submarining with severe neck injuries that were related to automatic 2-point shoulder harness restraints without engagement of the lap belt.

  10. Effect of water content and temperature on seed longevity of seven Brassicaceae species after 5 years of storage.

    PubMed

    Mira, S; Estrelles, E; González-Benito, M E

    2015-01-01

    Maximising seed longevity is crucial for genetic resource preservation and longevity of orthodox seeds is determined by environmental conditions (water content and temperature). The effect of water content (down to 0.01 g·H₂O·g(-1) ) on seed viability was studied at different temperatures for a 5-year storage period in taxonomically related species. Seeds of seven Brassicaceae species (Brassica repanda, Eruca vesicaria, Malcolmia littorea, Moricandia arvensis, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium runcinatum) were stored at 48 environments comprising a combination of eight water contents, from 0.21 to 0.01 g·H₂O·g(-1) DW and six temperatures (45, 35, 20, 5, -25, -170 °C). Survival curves were modelled and P50 calculated for those conditions where germination was reduced over the 5-year assay period. Critical water content for storage of seeds of six species at 45 °C ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 g·H₂O·g(-1) . The effect of extreme desiccation at 45 °C showed variability among species: three species showed damaging effects of drying below the critical water content, while for three species it was neither detrimental nor beneficial to seed longevity. Lipid content could be related to longevity, depending on the storage conditions. A variable seed longevity response to water content among taxonomically related species was found. The relative position of some of the species as long- or short-lived at 45 °C varied depending on the humidity at which storage behaviour was evaluated. Therefore, predictions of survival under desiccated conditions based on results obtained at high humidity might be problematic for some species.

  11. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  12. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  13. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  14. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  15. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  16. 78 FR 33113 - Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan Program Years 2012-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan... Administration's (USDOL/ ETA) 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan for 2012-2017. Under Section 171 of... a strategic plan for pilots, demonstrations, and research over the next 5 years in areas related...

  17. [Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].

    PubMed

    Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S

    2015-01-01

    Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed. PMID:26016038

  18. [Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].

    PubMed

    Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S

    2015-01-01

    Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed.

  19. A vector method for synthesis of orbits and the structure of satellite constellations for multiswath periodic coverage of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saulskiy, V. K.

    2016-07-01

    Single satellites and multisatellite constellations for the periodic coverage of the Earth are considered. The main feature is the use of several cameras with different swath widths. A vector method is proposed which makes it possible to find orbits minimizing the periodicities of coverage of a given area of Earth uniformly for all swaths. Their number is not limited, but the relative dimensions should satisfy the Fibonacci series or some new numerical sequences. The results apply to constellations of any number of satellites. Formulas were derived for calculating their structure, i.e., relative position in the constellation. Examples of orbits and the structure of constellations for the Earth's multiswath coverage are presented.

  20. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised.

  1. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions.

  2. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised. PMID:27489968

  3. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions. PMID:24952286

  4. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in a 5-year-old boy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Sabnis, Rajesh; Bhuta, Bansari A; Yadav, Archana

    2015-03-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), formerly known as calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a rare developmental neoplasm/cyst of odontogenic epithelial origin with considerable histopathologic diversity and variable clinical behaviour. The occurrence of CCOT in the first decade of life is very uncommon. We report an interestingly rare variant of CCOT with ameloblastomatous proliferation affecting the mandibular left posterior region associated with an impacted permanent tooth in a 5-year-old boy.

  5. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  6. A 5-year Journey with Cutis Laxa in an Indian Child: The De Barsy Syndrome Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Roy, Sutirtha

    2016-01-01

    De Barsy syndrome (DBS), synonymously known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III, is an extremely rare condition clinically characterized by cutis laxa, a progeroid appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. We present here an account of 5-year follow-up since the birth of an Indian boy with DBS, who had a few rare and unusual manifestations. In addition, our case probably represents the first reported case of DBS from India. PMID:26955101

  7. Immunologic memory 5 years after meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination in infancy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, J; Obaro, S; Deeks, J; Lake, D; Elie, C; Carlone, G; Moxon, E R; Greenwood, B

    2001-01-01

    Infant vaccination with meningococcal conjugates may provide long-term protection against disease. Antibody levels and immunologic memory were assessed in 5-year-old Gambian children who received meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination (MenA/C) in infancy. At 2 years, they were randomized to receive a booster of MenA/C (conjugate group), meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MPS group), or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV group). All groups were revaccinated with 10 microg MPS at 5 years of age, as were 39 previously unvaccinated age-matched control subjects. Before revaccination, titers were higher in the conjugate and MPS groups than in control subjects (P<.001); titers for the IPV group were similar to those for control subjects. Ten days after revaccination, the conjugate and IPV groups had similar serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody titers (3421 vs. 2790, respectively). These levels were significantly higher than those in the MPS (426) and control (485) groups (P<.001). Thus, immunologic memory was sustained for > or =5 years; however, MPS challenge at 2 years interfered with a subsequent memory response.

  8. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 5 Years of Age--Uganda, 2009.

    PubMed

    Menon, Manoj P; Yoon, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dL, is a global public health problem. According to the 2006 Demographic Health Survey, the prevalence of anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda.

  9. The Prevalence of Dental Caries in Primary Dentition in 4- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children in Northern Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine the prevalence of dental caries among a representative sample of preschool children (4-5 years old) who were accompanied by their parents to the dental centre of the Arab American University in Jenin whether they come seeking dental treatment or as visitors with adult patients. Materials and Methods. 1376 children of both sexes were investigated by three calibrated and trained examiners for dental caries using the dmft index according to the WHO method. Results. 76% of the studied children have already experienced dental caries at the age of 4-5 years (1046 children). The mean dmft score was found to be 2.46 while the other 24% of children were caries-free. There was no significant difference in caries prevalence between boys and girls (77.2% versus 74.6%). Children of highly educated and college graduated mothers were found to have more fillings (restored teeth) in comparison to those who belong to mothers who did not finish their secondary (high school) education. Conclusion. The number of caries-free children in northern Palestine is still far from numbers found in developed countries. There is a real need to make improvements at the level of parents dental health education, application of preventive measures, and dietary habits among preschool children. PMID:25328526

  10. Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age With Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Jedari Seifi, Sirus; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Abdoli Oskuei, Shahram; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Memar, Mohammad Yousef; Alizadeh, Naser; Seifi Yarijan Sofla, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is the most frequent health problem among children in developing countries. Defining the etiology of acute diarrhea is critical to disease therapy and prevention. Some anaerobic bacteria such as Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains cause diarrheal disease by production of enterotoxin in children less than 5 years old. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ETBF among common bacteria and viruses causing diarrhea in children aged less than five years. Materials and Methods One hundred diarrheal stools were cultured for detection of aerobic and anaerobic pathogen bacteria by direct plating on selective media and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines on isolates of ETBF. The enterotoxigenic gene among B. fragilis isolates was also investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Detection of viral pathogens was carried out using the latex agglutination test. Results Ten B. fragilis were isolated from 100 diarrheal fecal specimens. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, while 10% were susceptible to clindamycin. Four (40%) ETBF were isolated. Rotaviruses (57.2%) and adenoviruses (18.6%) were the most frequently detected etiological agents. Conclusions ETBF is one of the etiological agents that may cause diarrhea in children but it is not the commonest of them. Metronidazole is still an effective antibiotic against B. fragilis. Viruses are the most important etiological agents of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. PMID:27635209

  11. Role of Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age With Diarrhea in Tabriz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Jedari Seifi, Sirus; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Abdoli Oskuei, Shahram; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Memar, Mohammad Yousef; Alizadeh, Naser; Seifi Yarijan Sofla, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is the most frequent health problem among children in developing countries. Defining the etiology of acute diarrhea is critical to disease therapy and prevention. Some anaerobic bacteria such as Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains cause diarrheal disease by production of enterotoxin in children less than 5 years old. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ETBF among common bacteria and viruses causing diarrhea in children aged less than five years. Materials and Methods One hundred diarrheal stools were cultured for detection of aerobic and anaerobic pathogen bacteria by direct plating on selective media and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) guidelines on isolates of ETBF. The enterotoxigenic gene among B. fragilis isolates was also investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Detection of viral pathogens was carried out using the latex agglutination test. Results Ten B. fragilis were isolated from 100 diarrheal fecal specimens. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, while 10% were susceptible to clindamycin. Four (40%) ETBF were isolated. Rotaviruses (57.2%) and adenoviruses (18.6%) were the most frequently detected etiological agents. Conclusions ETBF is one of the etiological agents that may cause diarrhea in children but it is not the commonest of them. Metronidazole is still an effective antibiotic against B. fragilis. Viruses are the most important etiological agents of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age.

  12. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  13. Estimated Cerebrospina Fluid Pressure and the 5-Year Incidence of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Tao, Yijin; Yuan, Yuansheng; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aim to assess the longitudinal association between baseline estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) and 5-year incident primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a population-based sample of Bai Chinese living in rural China. Methods Among the 2133 Bai Chinese aged 50 years or older who had participated in the baseline examination of the Yunnan Minority Eye Study, 1520 (71.3%) attended the follow-up examination after five years and 1485 were at risk of developing POAG. Participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations at both baseline and follow-up surveys. CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)-0.18 × age (years)-1.91. Glaucoma was defined using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification criteria. Multivariate logistic regression models were established to determine the association between baseline CSFP and incident POAG. Results After a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 19 new cases of POAG were detected, with an incidence rate of 1.3% (95% confidence interval, 0.7–1.9%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, gender, education, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, hypertension and diabetes, no significant associations, nor any trends, were evident between baseline estimated CSFP and incident POAG. The association between estimated CSFP per mmHg increase in baseline and 5-year incidence of POAG was also non-significant, with adjusted relative risk of 0.96 (P = 0.11) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This longitudinal cohort study does not support previously observed cross-sectional association between estimated CSFP and POAG in population-based studies. PMID:27611879

  14. Efficacy and safety of maraviroc vs. efavirenz in treatment-naive patients with HIV-1: 5-year findings

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, David A.; Heera, Jayvant; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette; Dejesus, Edwin; Burnside, Robert; Clumeck, Nathan; Walmsley, Sharon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Mukwaya, Geoffrey; Saag, Michael; van Der Ryst, Elna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Maraviroc, a chemokine co-receptor type 5 (CCR5) antagonist, has demonstrated comparable efficacy and safety to efavirenz, each in combination with zidovudine/lamivudine, over 96 weeks in the Maraviroc vs. Efavirenz Regimens as Initial Therapy (MERIT) study. Here we report 5-year findings. Design: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase IIb/III study with an open-label extension phase. Methods: Treatment-naive patients with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection (Trofile) received maraviroc 300 mg twice daily or efavirenz 600 mg once daily, and zidovudine/lamivudine 300 mg/150 mg twice daily. After the last patient's week 96 visit, the study was unblinded and patients could enter a nominal 3-year open-label phase. Endpoints at the 5-year nominal visit (week 240) included proportion of patients (CCR5 tropism re-confirmed by enhanced sensitivity Trofile) with viral load (plasma HIV-1 RNA) below 50 and 400 copies/ml, and change from baseline in CD4+ cell count, as well as safety. Results: The proportion of patients maintaining viral load below 50 copies/ml was similar between treatment arms throughout the study and at week 240 (maraviroc 50.8% vs. efavirenz 45.9%). Maraviroc-treated patients had a greater increase from baseline in mean CD4+ cell count than efavirenz-treated patients at week 240 (293 vs. 271 cells/μl, respectively). Fewer patients on maraviroc vs. efavirenz experienced treatment-related adverse events (68.9 vs. 81.7%) and discontinued as a result of any adverse event (10.6 vs. 21.3%). Conclusion: Maraviroc maintained similar long-term antiviral efficacy to efavirenz over 5 years in treatment-naive patients with CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Maraviroc was generally well tolerated with no unexpected safety findings or evidence of long-term safety concerns. PMID:24983542

  15. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  16. Systems and methods for controlling energy use during a demand limiting period

    DOEpatents

    Wenzel, Michael J.; Drees, Kirk H.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  17. Density functional theory for molecular and periodic systems using density fitting and continuous fast multipole method: Analytical gradients.

    PubMed

    Łazarski, Roman; Burow, Asbjörn Manfred; Grajciar, Lukáš; Sierka, Marek

    2016-10-30

    A full implementation of analytical energy gradients for molecular and periodic systems is reported in the TURBOMOLE program package within the framework of Kohn-Sham density functional theory using Gaussian-type orbitals as basis functions. Its key component is a combination of density fitting (DF) approximation and continuous fast multipole method (CFMM) that allows for an efficient calculation of the Coulomb energy gradient. For exchange-correlation part the hierarchical numerical integration scheme (Burow and Sierka, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 2011, 7, 3097) is extended to energy gradients. Computational efficiency and asymptotic O(N) scaling behavior of the implementation is demonstrated for various molecular and periodic model systems, with the largest unit cell of hematite containing 640 atoms and 19,072 basis functions. The overall computational effort of energy gradient is comparable to that of the Kohn-Sham matrix formation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on manufacturers expected inventory costs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics.

  19. The effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on manufacturers expected inventory costs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics. PMID:25302332

  20. [Approaches to pregnancy diagnosis in the sable (Martes zibellina, Mustelidae, Carnivora) by noninvasive methods: postimplantation period].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Chernova, I E; Naĭdenko, S V

    2008-01-01

    To develop a reliable approach to pregnancy diagnosis in sables based on noninvasive methods of hormonal status assessment, the concentrations of immunoreactive compounds (IRC) binding with antibodies to progesterone have been measured in the feces of females at different stages of the reproductive cycle. The results show that this concentration is higher in truly pregnant than in mated but nonreproducing females. An increase in the IRC concentration relative to its individual baseline level may be regarded as a reliable indication of true pregnancy.

  1. [The Study about Spectrum Characteristic Analysis Method in the Induction Period of Gas Explosion Flame].

    PubMed

    Liu, Kui; Li, Xiao-bin; Zheng, Dan

    2015-08-01

    Through analyzing the spectroscopic data of gas explosion flame whose volume fraction is 10% under a small scale experimental condition based on the target emission spectrum analysis methods; presents the gas explosion flame spectrum characteristic analysis methods about frequency domain feature parameters which include spectral density, band radiation light intensity, band average deviation, the time domain characteristic parameter which include band radiation energy, time average and deviation and the characteristic parameters which include skewness, kurtosis and half width; obtain the results that in the vicinity of somewhere, the spectral density converts between positive and negative in the range of 1 nm that the light intensity of gas explosion flame changes dramatically; the definite integral of gas explosion flame spectral waveband is strongest in the 550~900 nm; with the wavelength increases the detected time grow, the gas explosion flame spectral signal strength attenuation trends on the whole and after the peak interval appeared in the process of decay have weaken the strength of the enhanced; results show tha the target emission spectrum analysis methods can be applied to do the semi-quantitative analysis of dynamic process of gas explosion, the analysis spectral characteristics can be taken as a standard to detecting gas explosion flame.

  2. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  3. A new method to assess damage to RCMRFs from period elongation and Park-Ang damage index using IDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghagholizadeh, Mehrdad; Massumi, Ali

    2016-09-01

    Despite a significant progress in loading and design codes of seismic resistant structures and technology improvements in building structures, the field of civil engineering is still facing critical challenges. An example of those challenges is the assessment of the state of damage that has been imposed to a structure after earthquakes of different intensities. To determine the operability of a structure and its resistance to probable future earthquakes, quick assessment of damages and determining the operability of a structure after an earthquake are crucial. Present methods to calculate damage to structures are time consuming and do not accurately provide the rate of damage. Damage estimation is important task in the fields of structural health monitoring and decision-making. This study examines the relationship between period elongation and the Park-Ang damage index. A dynamic non-linear analysis is employed with IDARC program to calculate the amount of damage and period of the current state. This new method is shown to be a quick and accurate technique for damage assessment. It is easy to calculate the period of an existing structure and changes in the period which reflects changes in the stiffness matrix.

  4. Medium-term outcomes and complications after total replacement of the temporomandibular joint. Prospective outcome analysis after 3 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E A; McCullough, J; Sidebottom, A J

    2015-05-01

    In this prospective analysis, we assess the medium-term benefits, efficacy, and safety of the TMJ Concepts joint replacement system in the United Kingdom. Outcome measures of pain, maximum mouth opening, and diet were recorded preoperatively and at intervals up to 3 and 5 years. All patients who had replacement temporomandibular joints (TMJ) within a 6-year period were included. A total of 58 patients (84 joints) were followed up for 3 years (mean age 47, range 19-72) and 26 (42 joints) for 5 years (mean age 46, range 27-70). The female to male ratio was 52:6 at 3 years and 23:3 at 5 years. The most common diagnosis was degenerative disease, and the mean number of previous TMJ procedures was 2.4 (range 0-14). There were significant improvements in pain scores (7.4 reduced to 0.6 at 3 years and 0.8 at 5 years), maximum mouth opening (21.0-35.5mm at 3 years and 23.8-33.7mm at 5 years), and dietary scores (4.1-9.7 at 3 years and 3.7-9.6 at 5 years). Revision operations were required in 2 patients (not included in the outcome data) for biofilm infection of the prosthesis secondary to local infection in the head and neck. One patient had weakness of the temporal branch of the facial nerve that needed correction. TMJ replacement is an effective form of management for an irreparably damaged joint, particularly in cases of ankylosis. It lessens pain and improves function with minimal long-term morbidity. PMID:25818493

  5. A Handling Study to Assess Use of the Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler in Children Under 5 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion; Kattenbeck, Sabine; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Wachtel, Herbert; Zielen, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) is a hand-held device that generates an aerosol with a high, fine-particle fraction, enabling efficient lung deposition. The study objective was to assess inhalation success among children using Respimat SMI, and the requirement for assistance by the parent/caregiver and/or a valved holding chamber (VHC). Methods: This open-label study enrolled patients aged <5 years with respiratory disease and history of coughing and/or recurrent wheezing. Patients inhaled from the Respimat SMI (air only; no aerosol) using a stepwise configuration: “1” (dose released by child); “2” (dose released by parent/caregiver), and “3” (Respimat SMI with VHC, facemask, and parent/caregiver help). Co-primary endpoints included the ability to perform successful inhalation as assessed by the investigators using a standardized handling questionnaire and evaluation of the reasons for success. Inhalation profile in the successful handling configuration was verified with a pneumotachograph. Patient satisfaction and preferences were investigated in a questionnaire. Results: Of the children aged 4 to <5 years (n=27) and 3 to <4 years (n=30), 55.6% and 30.0%, respectively, achieved success without a VHC or help; with assistance, another 29.6% and 10.0%, respectively, achieved success, and the remaining children were successful with VHC. All children aged 2 to <3 years (n=20) achieved success with the Respimat SMI and VHC. Of those aged <2 years (n=22), 95.5% had successful handling of the Respimat SMI with VHC and parent/caregiver help. Inhalation flow profiles generally confirmed the outcome of the handling assessment by the investigators. Most parent/caregiver and/or child respondents were satisfied with operation, instructions for use, handling, and ease of holding the Respimat SMI with or without a VHC. Conclusions: The Respimat SMI is suitable for children aged <5 years; however, children aged <5 years are advised to add a

  6. Analysis of the spectral vanishing viscosity method for periodic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maday, Yvon; Tadmor, Eitan

    1988-01-01

    The convergence of the spectral vanishing method for both the spectral and pseudospectral discretizations of the inviscid Burgers' equation is analyzed. It is proven that this kind of vanishing viscosity is responsible for a spectral decay of those Fourier coefficients located toward the end of the computed spectrum; consequently, the discretization error is shown to be spectrally small independent of whether the underlying solution is smooth or not. This in turn implies that the numerical solution remains uniformly bounded and convergence follows by compensated compactness arguments.

  7. First principles simulation of laser-induced periodic surface structure using the particle-in-cell method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Schumacher, Douglass W.; Chowdhury, Enam A.

    2015-11-01

    We present our results of a fundamental simulation of a periodic grating structure formation on a copper target during the femtosecond-pulse laser damage process, and compare our results to recent experiment. The particle-in-cell (PIC) method is used to model the initial laser heating of the electrons, a two-temperature model (TTM) is used to model the thermalization of the material, and a modified PIC method is employed to model the atomic transport leading to a damage crater morphology consistent with experimental grating structure formation. This laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) is shown to be directly related to the formation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) and their interference with the incident laser pulse.

  8. Raised Speed Limits, Speed Spillover, Case-Fatality Rates, and Road Deaths in Israel: A 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Elihu D.; Barach, Paul; Friedman, Lee; Krikler, Samuel; Israeli, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the 5-year, nationwide impact on road deaths of the raise in the speed limit (November 1, 1993) on 3 major interurban highways in Israel from 90 to 100 kph. Methods. We compared before–after trends in deaths as well as case fatality—an outcome independent of exposure (defined as vehicle-kilometers traveled). Results. After the raise, speeds rose by 4.5%–9.1%. Over 5 years, there was a sustained increase in deaths (15%) and case fatality rates (38%) on all interurban roads. Corresponding increases in deaths (13%) and case fatality (24%) on urban roads indicated “speed spillover.” Conclusions. Immediate increases in case fatality predicted and tracked the sustained increase in deaths from increased speeds of impact. Newtonian fourth power models predicted the effects of “small” increases in speed on large rises in case fatality rates. Countermeasures and congestion reduced the impact on deaths and case-fatality rates by more than half. PMID:15054007

  9. Treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration with anti-VEGF agents: retrospective analysis of 5-year outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ana Catarina; Reis-Silva, Adriana; Pinheiro-Costa, João; Beato, João; Freitas-da-Costa, Paulo; Falcão, Manuel S; Falcão-Reis, Fernando; Carneiro, Ângela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the 5-year results obtained in clinical practice in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with anti-VEGF agents. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed all patients with nAMD who initiated anti-VEGF treatment before October 2009. We collected data regarding visual and anatomical outcomes. Results A total of 278 patients met the selection criteria. The mean number of intravitreal injections was 5.7 in the first year and 3.7 in the fifth year. A positive mean visual acuity variation of +3.7 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters occurred in the first year, but no significant differences relative to baseline were observed thereafter. The majority of patients (71%) maintained stable visual acuity throughout follow-up. At 5 years, mean central macular thickness remained substantially inferior to baseline (−96.6 μm), and 56% of patients maintained dry retinas. Conclusion Anti-VEGF therapy leads to long-term visual stabilization in the great majority of patients. PMID:27099460

  10. Prevalence of early childhood caries among 3-5 year old pre-schoolers in schools of Marathahalli, Bangalore

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shilpi; Vijayakumar, N.; Priyadarshini, H. R.; Shobha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental caries among preschool children is still a major public health problem in many developing countries including India. Hence the aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries among 3-5 year old pre-schoolers in schools of Marathahalli, Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 717 pre-schoolers in 6 schools of Marathahalli. Clinical examination was performed and deft index was recorded using Gruebell's criteria. Early Childhood Caries was diagnosed using Early Childhood Caries Diagnostic Criteria, consistent with the NIDCR workshop statement. Data was analysed using SPSS 15.0 and descriptive statistics was applied. Chi-square test was used to find out the significant differences. The level of significance was taken at P value < 0.05. Results: Prevalence of early childhood caries was 40% with a mean deft of 1.89 (+3.3) and Significant Caries Index score was 5.51. 44.8% of 3 year old had Early Childhood Caries, 35% of 4 year old children and 41% of 5 year old had Early Childhood Caries. Almost, all of deft was due to untreated caries. Conclusion: The results of the present study calls for a need to focus on pre-schoolers’ oral health and parental education for prevention and early detection of Early Childhood Caries. A high Significant Caries Index in this study population indicates a more targeted approach for high risk pre-schoolers. PMID:23559946

  11. Canonical integration and analysis of periodic maps using non-standard analysis and life methods

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, E.; Berz, M.

    1988-06-01

    We describe a method and a way of thinking which is ideally suited for the study of systems represented by canonical integrators. Starting with the continuous description provided by the Hamiltonians, we replace it by a succession of preferably canonical maps. The power series representation of these maps can be extracted with a computer implementation of the tools of Non-Standard Analysis and analyzed by the same tools. For a nearly integrable system, we can define a Floquet ring in a way consistent with our needs. Using the finite time maps, the Floquet ring is defined only at the locations s/sub i/ where one perturbs or observes the phase space. At most the total number of locations is equal to the total number of steps of our integrator. We can also produce pseudo-Hamiltonians which describe the motion induced by these maps. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Blunted sodium excretion in response to a saline load in 5 year old female sheep following fetal uninephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lankadeva, Yugeesh R; Singh, Reetu R; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Moritz, Karen M; Denton, Kate M

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that fetal uninephrectomy (uni-x) causes hypertension in female sheep by 2 years of age. Whilst the hypertension was not exacerbated by 5 years of age, these uni-x sheep had greater reductions in renal blood flow (RBF). To further explore these early indications of a decline in renal function, we investigated the renal response to a saline load (25 ml/kg/40 min) in 5-year old female uni-x and sham sheep. Basal mean arterial pressure was ∼15 mmHg greater (P(Group)<0.001), and sodium excretion (∼50%), glomerular filtration rate (∼30%, GFR) and RBF (∼40%) were all significantly lower (P(Group)<0.01) in uni-x compared to sham animals. In response to saline loading, sodium excretion increased significantly in both groups (P(Time)<0.001), however this response was blunted in uni-x sheep (P(GroupxTime)<0.01). This was accompanied with an attenuated increase in GFR and fractional sodium excretion (both P(GroupxTime)<0.05), and reduced activation of the renin-angiotensin system (both P<0.05), as compared to the sham group. The reduction in sodium excretion was associated with up-regulations in the renal gene expression of NHE3 and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase α and β subunits in the kidney cortex of the uni-x compared to the sham animals (P<0.05). Notably, neither group completely excreted the saline load within the recovery period, but the uni-x retained a higher percentage of the total volume (uni-x: 48±7%; sham: 22±9%, P<0.05). In conclusion, a reduced ability to efficiently regulate extracellular fluid homeostasis is evident in female sheep at 5 years of age, which was exacerbated in animals born with a congenital nephron deficit. Whilst there was no overt exacerbation of hypertension and renal insufficiency with age in the uni-x sheep, these animals may be more vulnerable to secondary renal insults. PMID:23077628

  13. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  14. Renal amyloidosis followed more than 5 years: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, H; Boubaker, K; Béji, S; Abderrahim, E; Moussa, F Ben; Turki, S; Goucha, R; Hedri, H; El Younsi, F; Kheder, A; Maiz, H Ben

    2004-01-01

    Renal involvement with amyloidosis is common but causes patient survival to be poor, rarely reaching 5 years. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and biological characteristics as well as treatments and outcomes of patients with renal amyloidosis followed for more than 5 years. Between 1975 and 2003, 485 patients were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis including only 12 patients who were followed more than 5 years. The six men and six women of mean age 42.4 years (range 18 to 66 years) displayed renal signs of lower limb edema in all cases; hypertension in four cases, proteinuria on urinalysis in all cases with microscopic hematuria in five cases. Biological tests showed nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients, normal renal function in nine patients, and renal failure in three patients whose mean creatinine was 481.6 micromol/L (range 294 to 726). The amyloidosis was AA type in 11 cases and non-AA in one case. An etiologic survey revealed spondylarthropathy in one patient, pulmonary tuberculosis in two patients, chronic bronchitis in three patients, hepatic hydatic cyst in one patient, Mediterranean familial fever in two patients, Crohn's disease in one patient, Hodgkin's lymphoma in one patient, and multiple myeloma in one patient. Specific treatment was initiated with colchicine in seven patients. At a 110-month mean follow-up (range 53 to 153 months), remission of nephrotic syndrome was observed in four cases, progression to chronic renal failure in two patients, and to end-stage renal failure in five cases (range 53 to 196 months), with stabilization of renal function in seven patients. In conclusion, primary amyloid disease should be optimally suppressed in patients with renal involvement. The role of this treatment in remission of renal amyloidosis is not well established. This efficacy of the treatment has been demonstrated in some patients with improved survival.

  15. Calcineurin activity in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients early after and 5 years after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, D M; Koefoed-Nielsen, P B; Jørgensen, K A

    2006-10-01

    The pharmacodynamic (PD) action of tacrolimus (FK) within the T-cell is inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase (CaN). Determination of CaN activity provides us with an important PD marker. Eleven renal transplant patients treated with FK were investigated on day 14 following transplantation and 5 years later. Blood samples drawn before as well as 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after oral intake of FK were analyzed for CaN activity and blood FK concentrations. Twenty healthy subjects had one blood sample drawn for CaN activity, which was measured as the release of (32)P from a phosphorylated peptide. Radioactivity of (32)P was quantitated by liquid scintillation counting with the results converted to units of CaN utilizing a calibration curve. On day 14, we observed significant inhibition of CaN activity at T:1, 2, and 3 compared with the predose level (P = .002; P = .015; P = .015). Furthermore, all measured CaN activities were significantly different from those observed in healthy nonmedicated subjects. In contrast, at 5 years posttransplant only the CaN activity at T:2 was significantly inhibited compared with the predose level (P = .02). Additionally, all CaN activities at this time were not significantly different from CaN activities in the healthy subjects. We were not able to demonstrate individual CaN activity profiles in the patients. The lack of CaN inhibition at 5 years after transplantation despite relevant drug concentrations, probably reflected the lower drug dose used long after transplantation. This result raises the question of whether CaN inhibition is necessary to hold graft function and whether FK possess CaN-independent mechanisms of action. PMID:17098028

  16. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  17. Renormalization of the periodic scalar field theory by Polchinski's renormalization group method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nándori, I.; Sailer, K.; Jentschura, U. D.; Soff, G.

    2002-04-01

    The renormalization group (RG) flow for the two-dimensional sine-Gordon model is determined by means of Polchinski's RG equation at next-to-leading order in the derivative expansion. In this paper, we have two different goals, (i) to consider the renormalization scheme-dependence of Polchinski's method by matching Polchinski's equation with the Wegner-Houghton equation and with the real space RG equations for the two-dimensional dilute Coulomb-gas, (ii) to go beyond the local potential approximation in the gradient expansion in order to clarify the supposed role of the field-dependent wave-function renormalization. The well-known Coleman fixed point of the sine-Gordon model is recovered after linearization, whereas the flow exhibits strong dependence on the choice of the renormalization scheme when non-linear terms are kept. The RG flow is compared to those obtained in the Wegner-Houghton approach and in the dilute gas approximation for the two-dimensional Coulomb-gas.

  18. Upbeat nystagmus in a 3.5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Matalia, Jyoti; Rajput, Vimal K; Chillal, Geetanjali J; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-02-01

    Upbeat nystagmus is usually a central vestibular nystagmus attributable to structural brainstem or cerebellar lesions. Adult-onset upbeat nystagmus calls for a thorough neurological evaluation. In children, however, it can occur as a transient phenomenon in healthy neonates or as a sensory form of nystagmus that usually transforms into horizontal nystagmus by 2 years of age. We report the case of 3.5-year-old boy with upbeat nystagmus. His ocular examination was within normal limits. Neurological evaluation was normal. Optical coherence tomography testing and Electroretinogram confirmed cone dysfunction. Over the next 6 months the upbeat nystagmus converted to horizontal nystagmus.

  19. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Savant, Hemant V.; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed. PMID:26167224

  20. Infantile fibrosarcoma of ethmoid sinus, misdiagnosed as an adenoid in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519

  1. The Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating: Design, Fabrication, Ground Calibration, and 5 Years in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, Claude R.; Davis, John E.; Dewey, Daniel; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Galton, Eugene B.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Markert, Thomas H.; Marshall, Herman L.; McGuirk, Michael; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Smith, Henry I.; Wise, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication techniques, and the results of ground testing and calibration of the HETG. For nearly 6 years the HETG has operated essentially as designed, although it has presented some subtle flight calibration effects.

  2. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-05-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

  3. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  4. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  5. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811

  6. Bilateral renal leiomyoma with 5 year follow-up: Case report.

    PubMed

    Goren, Mehmet Resit; Erbay, Gurcan; Ozer, Cevahir; Goren, Vinil; Bal, Nebil

    2015-01-01

    Renal leiomyomas are exceptionally rare benign tumours of the kidney. Although the renal leiomyomas usually do not metastasize, the differential diagnosis between renal leiomyomas and malign lesions (leiomyosarcoma or renal cell carcinoma) cannot be done by radiological examinations, but is possible by histological examination. Surgery is the preferred treatment. After surgery, the prognosis is excellent without recurrence. Although uterine leiomyomas can be multicentric, renal leiomyomas have been single lesions. We report an incidentally detected case of bilateral renal leiomyoma in a 50-year-old woman with a 5-year follow-up. We also review the literature and discuss clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:26664510

  7. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  8. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  9. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  10. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  11. A Prospective Hospital-based Surveillance to Estimate Rotavirus Disease Burden in Bhutanese Children under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Wangchuk, Sonam; Dorji, Tshering; Tsheten; Tshering, Karchung; Zangmo, Sangay; Pem Tshering, Kunzang; Dorji, Tandin; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2015-01-01

    As part of efforts to develop an informed policy for rotavirus vaccination, this prospective study was conducted to estimate the burden of rotavirus diarrhea among children less than 5 years old attended to the Department of Pediatrics, Jigme Dorji Wangchuk National Referral Hospital (JDWNRH), Thimphu, Bhutan. The duration of the study was three years, extending from February 2010 through December 2012. We estimated the frequency of hospitalization in the pediatric ward and dehydration treatment unit (DTU) for diarrhea and the number of events attributable to rotavirus infection among children under 5 years of age. During the study period, a total of 284 children (1 in 45) were hospitalized in the pediatric ward, and 2,220 (1 in 6) in the DTU with diarrhea among children residing in the Thimphu district. Group A rotavirus was detected in 32.5% and 18.8% of the stool samples from children hospitalized in the pediatric ward, respectively. Overall, 22.3% of the stool samples were rotavirus-positive, and the majority (90.8%) of them was detected in children under 2 years of age. From this study, we estimated that the annual incidence of hospitalization in the pediatric ward and DTU due to rotavirus diarrhea was 2.4/1000 (95% CI 1.7–3.4) and 10.8/1000 (95% CI 9.1–12.7) children, respectively. This study revealed that rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhea in Bhutanese children in Thimphu district and since no study has been performed previously, represents an important finding for policy discussions regarding the adoption of a rotavirus vaccine in Bhutan. PMID:25859154

  12. Construction of quasi-periodic solutions of state-dependent delay differential equations by the parameterization method II: Analytic case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaolong; de la Llave, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    We construct analytic quasi-periodic solutions of a state-dependent delay differential equation with quasi-periodically forcing. We show that if we consider a family of problems that depends on one dimensional parameters (with some non-degeneracy conditions), there is a positive measure set Π of parameters for which the system admits analytic quasi-periodic solutions. The main difficulty to be overcome is the appearance of small divisors and this is the reason why we need to exclude parameters. Our main result is proved by a Nash-Moser fast convergent method and is formulated in the a-posteriori format of numerical analysis. That is, given an approximate solution of a functional equation which satisfies some non-degeneracy conditions, we can find a true solution close to it. This is in sharp contrast with the finite regularity theory developed in [18]. We conjecture that the exclusion of parameters is a real phenomenon and not a technical difficulty. More precisely, for generic families of perturbations, the quasi-periodic solutions are only finitely differentiable in open sets in the complement of parameters set Π.

  13. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  14. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period.

  15. Determinants and Outcomes of Emergency Caesarean Section following Failed Instrumental Delivery: 5-Year Observational Review at a Tertiary Referral Centre in London

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Sian; Chandraharan, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To review the determinants for a failed operative vaginal delivery and to examine associated fetal and maternal morbidity. Design. Retrospective observational study. Setting. Large London Teaching Hospital. Method. A retrospective review of case notes during a 5-year period was carried out. Results. Overall 119 women (0.44%) out of 26,856 births had a caesarean section following a failed instrumental delivery, which comprised 5.1% of all operative vaginal births. 73% had a spontaneous onset of labour and 63% required syntocinon at some time prior to delivery. 71.5% of deliveries were complicated by malposition. Only 20% of deliveries were attended by a consultant obstetrician. Almost 50% of women and 8.4% of neonates sustained trauma at the time of either their failed instrumental delivery or the caesarean section. Conclusions. Emergency caesarean section during the second stage of labour is associated with maternal and fetal complications. A ‘failed instrumental delivery score' (FIDS) may aid practitioners in predicting an increased likelihood of a failed operative vaginal birth and therefore to consider a trial of operative vaginal delivery in the theatre. Senior input should also be sought because a failed operative vaginal birth is associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidity. PMID:26078882

  16. Epidemiology and medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age in the central-east of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltani, M S; Salah, A Ben; Bouanene, I; Trabelsi, A; Sfar, M T; Harbi, A; Gueddiche, M N; Farhat, E Ben

    2015-08-01

    Data on the economic burden of rotavirus infection in Tunisia are needed to inform the decision to include rotavirus in routine childhood immunizations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of rotavirus disease in central-east Tunisia and to estimate its hospital cost. In the first stage - the prospective collection of epidemiological data - we enrolled all patients < 5 years old who were hospitalized for acute diarrhoea at 5 university paediatric departments in central-east Tunisia during the period 2009-2011. Rotavirus was responsible for 65 (23.3%) of the 279 cases enrolled. In the second stage, cost data were collected retrospectively using an activity-based costing method from the medical records of the children who were positively diagnosed with rotavirus. The average cost of care per child was TD 433 (SD 134). This is a significant economic burden in Tunisia, where a safe and effective vaccine is available but not yet introduced to the immunization schedule. PMID:26446530

  17. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  18. Self-Reported Periodontitis and Incident Type 2 Diabetes among Male Workers from a 5-Year Follow-Up to MY Health Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Atsushi; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Miyoshi, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this study was to examine whether periodontitis is associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a Japanese male worker cohort. Methods The study participants were Japanese men, aged 36–55 years, without diabetes. Data were extracted from the MY Health Up study, consisting of self-administered questionnaire surveys at baseline and following annual health examinations for an insurance company in Japan. The oral health status of the participants was classified by two self-reported indicators: (1) gingival hemorrhage and (2) tooth loosening. Type 2 diabetes incidence was determined by self-reporting or blood test data. Modified Poisson regression approach was used to estimate the relative risks and the 95% confidence intervals of incident diabetes with periodontitis. Covariates included age, body mass index, family history of diabetes, hypertension, current smoking habits, alcohol use, dyslipidemia, and exercise habits. Results Of the 2895 candidates identified at baseline in 2004, 2469 men were eligible for follow-up analysis, 133 of whom were diagnosed with diabetes during the 5-year follow-up period. Tooth loosening was associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.64] after adjusting for other confounding factors. Gingival hemorrhage displayed a similar trend but was not significantly associated with incident diabetes [adjusted relative risk = 1.32, 95% confidence interval = 0.95–1.85]. Conclusions Tooth loosening is an independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. PMID:27115749

  19. Cellphone camera imaging of a periodically patterned chip as a potential method for point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Reifenberger, Ronald G; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2014-03-26

    In this study, we demonstrate that a disposable chip periodically patterned with suitable ligands, an ordinary cellphone camera, and a simple pattern recognition software, can potentially be used for quantitative diagnostics. A key factor in this demonstration is the design of a calibration grid around the chip that, through a contrast transfer process, enables reliable analysis of the images collected under variable ambient lighting conditions. After exposure to a dispersion of amine terminated silica beads used as analyte mimicking pathogens, an epoxy-terminated glass substrate microcontact printed with octadecyltrichlorosilane (250 μm periodicity) developed a characteristic pattern of beads which could be easily imaged with a cellphone camera of 3.2 MP pixels. A simple pattern recognition algorithm using fast Fourier transform produced a quantitative estimate of the analyte concentration present in the test solution. In this method importantly, neither the chip fabrication process nor the fill-factor of the periodic pattern need be perfect to arrive at a conclusive diagnosis. The method suggests a viable platform that may potentially find use in fault-tolerant and robust point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  20. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  1. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  2. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  3. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  4. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  5. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA AMONG CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 5 YEARS IN RURAL SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Alegria, Iñaki; Tessema, Dalu; Mohamed, Nuri; Tissiano, Gabrel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus infection among children aged less than 5 years in rural southern Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital-based, prospective study among children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration attending the outpatient department of Gambo Rural Hospital, Ethiopia during September-November 2012. Three hundred fourteen children were included in the study, of whom 137 (43.6%) had rotavirus infection. The average age of children with rotavirus infection was lower than those without it [odds ratio (OR): 0.94]. Finding severe dehydration on skin pinch test (adjusted OR: 3.76) and having diarrhea for !3 days (adjusted OR: 2.50) were associated with rotavirus infection. The mortality rate was 4.4% among rotavirus infection children and 0% among non-rotavirus diarrhea cases (p=0.006). Rotavirus infection should be suspected in children with severe dehydration on a skin pinch test and among those presenting with diarrhea for 3 days in rural southern Ethiopia. PMID:26521516

  7. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  8. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager: 5 years on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Ong, Lawrence; Barsi, Julia A.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Morfitt, Ron

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALI's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  9. Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591

  10. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs. PMID:17124330

  11. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  12. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cueto, Santiago; Glewwe, Paul; Richter, Linda; Strupp, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data—the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty—to use as indicators of poor development. We show that both indicators are closely associated with poor cognitive and educational performance in children and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility, and provide poor care for their children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. PMID:17208643

  13. Efficient sparse matrix-matrix multiplication for computing periodic responses by shooting method on Intel Xeon Phi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykov, S.; Atanassov, E.; Margenov, S.

    2016-10-01

    Many of the scientific applications involve sparse or dense matrix operations, such as solving linear systems, matrix-matrix products, eigensolvers, etc. In what concerns structural nonlinear dynamics, the computations of periodic responses and the determination of stability of the solution are of primary interest. Shooting method iswidely used for obtaining periodic responses of nonlinear systems. The method involves simultaneously operations with sparse and dense matrices. One of the computationally expensive operations in the method is multiplication of sparse by dense matrices. In the current work, a new algorithm for sparse matrix by dense matrix products is presented. The algorithm takes into account the structure of the sparse matrix, which is obtained by space discretization of the nonlinear Mindlin's plate equation of motion by the finite element method. The algorithm is developed to use the vector engine of Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. It is compared with the standard sparse matrix by dense matrix algorithm and the one developed by Intel MKL and it is shown that by considering the properties of the sparse matrix better algorithms can be developed.

  14. A Robust Apnea Period Detection Method in Changing Sleep Posture by Average Mutual Information of Heartbeat and Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tanaka

    Sleep disorders disturb the recovery from mental and physical fatigues, one of the functions of the sleep. The majority of those who with the disorders are suffering from Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS). Continuous Hypoxia during sleep due to SAS cause Circulatory Disturbances, such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease, and Malfunction of Autonomic Nervous System, and other severe complications, often times bringing the suffers to death. In order to prevent these from happening, it is important to detect the SAS in its early stage by monitoring the daily respirations during sleep, and to provide appropriate treatments at medical institutions. In this paper, the Pneumatic Method to detect the Apnea period during sleep is proposed. Pneumatic method can measure heartbeat and respiration signal. Respiration signal can be considered as noise against heartbeat signal, and the decrease in the respiration signal due to Apnea increases the Average Mutual Information of heartbeat. The result of scaling analysis of the average mutual information is defined as threshold to detect the apnea period. The root mean square error between the lengths of Apnea measured by Strain Gauge using for reference and those measured by using the proposed method was 3.1 seconds. And, error of the number of apnea times judged by doctor and proposal method in OSAS patients was 3.3 times.

  15. A procedure of multiple period searching in unequally spaced time-series with the Lomb-Scargle method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, H. P.; Olofsen, E.; VanHartevelt, J. H.; Kruyt, E. W.; Dinges, D. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Periodogram analysis of unequally spaced time-series, as part of many biological rhythm investigations, is complicated. The mathematical framework is scattered over the literature, and the interpretation of results is often debatable. In this paper, we show that the Lomb-Scargle method is the appropriate tool for periodogram analysis of unequally spaced data. A unique procedure of multiple period searching is derived, facilitating the assessment of the various rhythms that may be present in a time-series. All relevant mathematical and statistical aspects are considered in detail, and much attention is given to the correct interpretation of results. The use of the procedure is illustrated by examples, and problems that may be encountered are discussed. It is argued that, when following the procedure of multiple period searching, we can even benefit from the unequal spacing of a time-series in biological rhythm research.

  16. [Study of analgesic efficacy of propacetamol in the postoperative period using a double blind placebo controlled method].

    PubMed

    Nikoda, V V; Maiachkin, R B

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency and safety of postoperative use of propacetamol was estimated in 30 patients by means of double blind placebo controlled method. The first group consisted of 15 patients to whom propacetamol was introduced intravenously in single dose of 2 g along with patient controlled anesthesia with promedol. Placebo in combination with patient control anesthesia were used in 15 patients from the 2nd group. Intravenous introducing of propacetamol in dose of 2 g in 15 minutes provides relief of pain intensity in postoperative period. So it permits to consider propacetamol as basic non-opioid analgesic. In early postoperative period combination of propacetamol and opioid analgesic (promedol) reduces demands in the latter by 44%. PMID:12462772

  17. Management of intractable postpartum haemorrhage in a tertiary center: A 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Yaşar, Levent; Ekin, Murat; Kaya, Cihan; Karakaş, Sema

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to describe treatment alternatives to prevent postpartum hysterectomy after failure of conventional therapies. Prevention of hysterectomy was the main outcome studied. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 19 patients diagnosed to have intractable postpartum hemorrhage and not managed with medical treatment who were subsequently treated with operative interventions in our unit between January 2004 and January 2009. The cases were identified by review of medical records. Results: In the period under review, a total of 17,341 deliveries were conducted, out of which 19 women were managed for intractable PPH. The incidence of severe PPH unresponsive to standard medical treatment was 0.1%. The mean maternal age was 33.5±3.4 years (range 27–39 years). The mean gestational age was 38.3±1.3 weeks (range 37–41 weeks). Organ preserving surgery methods were utilized in all the patients with a success rate 78.9%. The mean duration of surgery was 95 minutes (range 50–130 minutes) and the mean hospital stay was for 5 days. The mean transfused blood volume was 2.4 units as packed red cells. Among these 19 cases, 4 cases were resorted to hysterectomy. Conclusions: In the presence of uncontrolled hemorrhage, this simple procedure should be tried before other complex treatment alternatives are undertaken. Our case series suggests that the combination of uterine artery ligation with B-Lynch sutures might be the best surgical approach because it preserves future fertility better than other methods and avoids high operative risks and morbidity. PMID:23271852

  18. Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Acute Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years of Age in Wuhan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xu-Hui; Tian, Lei; Cheng, Zhong-Ju; Liu, Wei-Yong; Li, Song; Yu, Wei-Ting; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Xiang, Xu; Sun, Zi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrhea remains the serious problem in developing countries, especially among children under 5 years of age. Currently, only two or three common diarrhea pathogens were screened at most hospitals in China. The aim of this study was to provide a wide variety of diarrhea pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in children under 5 years of age. Methods: Totally 381 stool samples collected from Tongji Hospital between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 were tested by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction for eight kinds of bacteria and five kinds of viruses. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Viral infections were mainly identified in infants (0–11 months), whereas bacterial infections were more prevalent in the age of 24–59 months. About 69.8% of samples were positive for at least one pathogen, 51.7% of samples were virus positive, followed by bacteria positive cases (19.4%), and 12.6% of cases displayed co-infections with two viruses or a virus and a bacterium. Rotavirus was the most prevalent pathogen, followed closely by norovirus, while Salmonella was the most commonly isolated bacteria, followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and Campylobacter. More than 40% of Salmonella spp. and DEC isolates were resistant to first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline). Around 10% of Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin simultaneously. Campylobacter spp. displayed high resistance to ciprofloxacin but kept low resistance to azithromycin and doxycycline. Conclusions: The etiology of acute diarrhea varies in children of different age groups. The high frequency of infection with viruses suggests the urgent demand for new viral vaccine development. Proper use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea is crucial due to the high level of antibiotic

  19. 5-year Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up of Coil-embolised Intradural Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the paper is the follow-up of embolised intradural saccular Arterial Aneurysms (AA), excluding giant, dissecting, inflammatory, fusiform or AA associated to BVAM. Since its introduction in 1991, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil has offered protection against aneurysmal rebleeding in the critical few days and months after SAH regardless of the grade. A number of questions remain: is complete angiographic obliteration necessary at first embolisation? What duration of clinical / angiographic follow-up (FU) is required to ensure the risk of haemorrhage has been eliminated? What is the long-term protection against rebleeding? One hundred and two patients with 160 intradural saccular AA embolised before april 1997 were selected for this study. They had at least 5-yrs clinical FU, of which 22 patients had a midterm (3 years) and 45 patients had a 5year or more angiographic FU (mean 67,7 months per patient). Twenty-eight embolised AAs with 100% occlusion at 1 year, remained unchanged on the 5year angiograms. A further 14 patients with complete occlusion at 1 year showed persisting complete occlusion on angiogram at 3-years FU, which in our series means that complete occlusion after the first year post-embolisation implies that the aneurysm will remain completely occluded. All secondary spontaneous thromboses (27.6% of cases), occurred during the first year pos-embolisation. In six patients with subtotal or partial occlusion no change was seen for three consecutive years of FU; none showed later change at 5-year angiography. Below 80% occlusion our series does not provide enough information but we consider the situation instable. No mortality related to the procedure was observed in the unruptured AA group. No bleeding or re-bleeding has occurred since the beginning of our experience (1993) in saccular AA treated by GDC-Coil. Coil-embolisation of properly selected patients is effective in protecting against bleeding or re-bleeding at short and long

  20. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  1. Randomized Comparison of Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) with Surgical Treatment in Patients with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids (REST Trial): Subanalysis of 5-Year MRI Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; Murray, Lilian; Ritchie, Moira; Murray, Gordon; Bryden, Fiona; Lassman, Sue; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Moss, Jon G.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To report 5-year contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings of the REST trial recruits who underwent either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. Methods. A total of 157 patients were randomized to UAE or surgery (hysterectomy or myomectomy). Ninety-nine patients who had UAE and eight patients who had myomectomy were analyzed. MRI scans at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years were independently interpreted by two radiologists. Dominant fibroid diameter, uterine volume, total fibroid infarction (complete 100 %, almost complete 90-99 %, partial <90 %), and new fibroid formation were the main parameters assessed and related to the need for reintervention. Results. In the UAE group, mean {+-} standard deviation uterine volume was 670 {+-} 503, 422 {+-} 353, and 292 {+-} 287 mL at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years, respectively. Mean dominant fibroid diameter was 7.6 {+-} 3.0, 5.8 {+-} 2.9, and 5 {+-} 2.9 cm at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years. Fibroid infarction at 6 months was complete in 35 % of women, almost complete in 29 %, and partial in 36 %. Need for reintervention was 19, 10, and 33 % in these groups, respectively (p = 0.123). No myomectomy cases had further intervention. At 5 years, the prevalence of new fibroid was 60 % in the myomectomy group and 7 % in the UAE group (p = 0.008). Conclusion. There is a further significant reduction in both uterine volume and dominant fibroid diameter between 6 months and 5 years after UAE. Complete fibroid infarction does not translate into total freedom from a subsequent reintervention. New fibroid formation is significantly higher after myomectomy.

  2. Creation of mortality risk charts using 123I meta-iodobenzylguanidine heart-to-mediastinum ratio in patients with heart failure: 2- and 5-year risk models

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Nakata, Tomoaki; Matsuo, Shinro; Jacobson, Arnold F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims 123I meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging has been extensively used for prognostication in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The purpose of this study was to create mortality risk charts for short-term (2 years) and long-term (5 years) prediction of cardiac mortality. Methods and results Using a pooled database of 1322 CHF patients, multivariate analysis, including 123I-MIBG late heart-to-mediastinum ratio (HMR), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and clinical factors, was performed to determine optimal variables for the prediction of 2- and 5-year mortality risk using subsets of the patients (n = 1280 and 933, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to create risk charts. Cardiac mortality was 10 and 22% for the sub-population of 2- and 5-year analyses. A four-parameter multivariate logistic regression model including age, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, LVEF, and HMR was used. Annualized mortality rate was <1% in patients with NYHA Class I–II and HMR ≥ 2.0, irrespective of age and LVEF. In patients with NYHA Class III–IV, mortality rate was 4–6 times higher for HMR < 1.40 compared with HMR ≥ 2.0 in all LVEF classes. Among the subset of patients with b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) results (n = 491 and 359 for 2- and 5-year models, respectively), the 5-year model showed incremental value of HMR in addition to BNP. Conclusion Both 2- and 5-year risk prediction models with 123I-MIBG HMR can be used to identify low-risk as well as high-risk patients, which can be effective for further risk stratification of CHF patients even when BNP is available. PMID:26705487

  3. A Simple Method to Check the Reliability of Annual Sunspot Number in the Historical Period 1610 - 1847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Gallego, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    A simple method to detect inconsistencies in low annual sunspot numbers based on the relationship between these values and the annual number of active days is described. The analysis allowed for the detection of problems in the annual sunspot number series clustered in a few explicit periods, namely: i) before Maunder minimum, ii) the year 1652 during the Maunder minimum, iii) the year 1741 in Solar Cycle -1, and iv) the so-called "lost" solar cycle in the 1790s and the subsequent onset of the Dalton Minimum.

  4. Using Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods to Investigate the Periodic and Spectral Characteristic of Superstructure Fiber Bragg Gratings.

    PubMed

    He, Yue-Jing; Hung, Wei-Chih; Lai, Zhe-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a numerical simulation method was employed to investigate and analyze superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (SFBGs) with five duty cycles (50%, 33.33%, 14.28%, 12.5%, and 10%). This study focuses on demonstrating the relevance between design period and spectral characteristics of SFBGs (in the form of graphics) for SFBGs of all duty cycles. Compared with complicated and hard-to-learn conventional coupled-mode theory, the result of the present study may assist beginner and expert designers in understanding the basic application aspects, optical characteristics, and design techniques of SFBGs, thereby indirectly lowering the physical concepts and mathematical skills required for entering the design field. To effectively improve the accuracy of overall computational performance and numerical calculations and to shorten the gap between simulation results and actual production, this study integrated a perfectly matched layer (PML), perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB), object meshing method (OMM), and boundary meshing method (BMM) into the finite element method (FEM) and eigenmode expansion method (EEM). The integrated method enables designers to easily and flexibly design optical fiber communication systems that conform to the specific spectral characteristic by using the simulation data in this paper, which includes bandwidth, number of channels, and band gap size. PMID:26861322

  5. Using Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods to Investigate the Periodic and Spectral Characteristic of Superstructure Fiber Bragg Gratings

    PubMed Central

    He, Yue-Jing; Hung, Wei-Chih; Lai, Zhe-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a numerical simulation method was employed to investigate and analyze superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (SFBGs) with five duty cycles (50%, 33.33%, 14.28%, 12.5%, and 10%). This study focuses on demonstrating the relevance between design period and spectral characteristics of SFBGs (in the form of graphics) for SFBGs of all duty cycles. Compared with complicated and hard-to-learn conventional coupled-mode theory, the result of the present study may assist beginner and expert designers in understanding the basic application aspects, optical characteristics, and design techniques of SFBGs, thereby indirectly lowering the physical concepts and mathematical skills required for entering the design field. To effectively improve the accuracy of overall computational performance and numerical calculations and to shorten the gap between simulation results and actual production, this study integrated a perfectly matched layer (PML), perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB), object meshing method (OMM), and boundary meshing method (BMM) into the finite element method (FEM) and eigenmode expansion method (EEM). The integrated method enables designers to easily and flexibly design optical fiber communication systems that conform to the specific spectral characteristic by using the simulation data in this paper, which includes bandwidth, number of channels, and band gap size. PMID:26861322

  6. Persistence of rabies antibody 5 years after postexposure prophylaxis with vero cell antirabies vaccine and antibody response to a single booster dose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wang, Chuanlin

    2011-09-01

    This study was done to investigate the antibody response to a Vero cell antirabies vaccine, the persistence of antibody for 5 years, and the effect of a booster dose after this interval. From August 2005 to February 2011, a total of 195 patients were enrolled into our study due to an animal bite. The Essen intramuscular (i.m.) regimen, which is recommended by the WHO for modern vaccines used in postexposure treatment, was adopted in this study. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, day 7, day 14, day 45, year 1, year 2, year 3, year 4, year 5, and year 5 plus 14 days. Immunogenicity was evaluated by the titration of neutralizing antibodies with a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Seroconversion was expressed as the seroconversion rate (SCR). A secondary quantitative evaluation criterion, other than the seroconversion level, was the geometric mean titer (GMT). Of the 195 enrolled patients, 168 (86.4%) of them completed the whole study. No serious adverse reactions to the vaccine were reported during vaccination, the 5-year follow-up period, or revaccination. On day 14, the rabies antibody GMT value was 8.87 IU/ml in the vaccinees. During the next 5 years, the SCR in the ChengDa vaccine group gradually decreased to 34.0% at year 5, down from 90.5% at year 1. There was a significant booster effect: the GMT was 15.22 IU/ml on year 5 plus 14 days. Our findings demonstrate that the ChengDa rabies vaccine offers an alternative with a high degree of efficacy and yet limited side effects and ensures that the exposed patient will be on the safe side of the risk of rabies by the 14th day. Moreover, when followed by a booster dose 5 years later, it could boost the immunity. A further booster is effective in inducing a good neutralizing antibody response even after an interval of 5 years.

  7. Comparison between visual clinical examination and the replica method for assessments of sealant retention over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuan; Chen, Xi; Ye, Lu; Fan, Ming-Wen; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-06-01

    To compare the levels of agreement and the survival rates of sealant retention for different sealing materials over a 2-year period assessed using the visual clinical examination and replica methods, sealant retention data were obtained by visual clinical examination and from replicas of the same sealed tooth at baseline and at 0.5-, 1- and 2-year evaluation points in 407 children and were compared for agreement using kappa coefficients. Survival curves of retained sealants on occlusal surfaces were created using modified categorisation (fully retained sealants and those having all pits and fissures partly covered with the sealant material versus completely lost sealants that included pit and fissure systems that had ≥1 pit re-exposed) according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The kappa coefficient for the agreement between both assessment methods over the three evaluation time points combined was 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.41). More sealant retention was observed from replicas than through visual clinical examination. Cumulative survival curves at the three evaluation times were not statistically significantly higher when assessed from replicas (P=0.47). Using the replica method, more retained sealant material was observed than through visual clinical examination during the 2-year period. This finding did not result in a difference in the survival rates of sealants assessed by the two assessment methods. When replicas cast in die stone are used for assessing sealant retention, the level of reliability of the data is higher than that of data obtained through the commonly used visual clinical examination, particularly if such assessments are conducted over time.

  8. Methods for Computing Accurate Atomic Spin Moments for Collinear and Noncollinear Magnetism in Periodic and Nonperiodic Materials.

    PubMed

    Manz, Thomas A; Sholl, David S

    2011-12-13

    The partitioning of electron spin density among atoms in a material gives atomic spin moments (ASMs), which are important for understanding magnetic properties. We compare ASMs computed using different population analysis methods and introduce a method for computing density derived electrostatic and chemical (DDEC) ASMs. Bader and DDEC ASMs can be computed for periodic and nonperiodic materials with either collinear or noncollinear magnetism, while natural population analysis (NPA) ASMs can be computed for nonperiodic materials with collinear magnetism. Our results show Bader, DDEC, and (where applicable) NPA methods give similar ASMs, but different net atomic charges. Because they are optimized to reproduce both the magnetic field and the chemical states of atoms in a material, DDEC ASMs are especially suitable for constructing interaction potentials for atomistic simulations. We describe the computation of accurate ASMs for (a) a variety of systems using collinear and noncollinear spin DFT, (b) highly correlated materials (e.g., magnetite) using DFT+U, and (c) various spin states of ozone using coupled cluster expansions. The computed ASMs are in good agreement with available experimental results for a variety of periodic and nonperiodic materials. Examples considered include the antiferromagnetic metal organic framework Cu3(BTC)2, several ozone spin states, mono- and binuclear transition metal complexes, ferri- and ferro-magnetic solids (e.g., Fe3O4, Fe3Si), and simple molecular systems. We briefly discuss the theory of exchange-correlation functionals for studying noncollinear magnetism. A method for finding the ground state of systems with highly noncollinear magnetism is introduced. We use these methods to study the spin-orbit coupling potential energy surface of the single molecule magnet Fe4C40H52N4O12, which has highly noncollinear magnetism, and find that it contains unusual features that give a new interpretation to experimental data.

  9. Full-mouth rehabilitation of Class II deep-bite patient: A 5-year clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Gulfem; Bozkaya, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the full-mouth rehabilitation of a 45-year-old male patient with severe deep-bite by increasing vertical dimension. The technique of anterior maxillary osteotomy performed in the present situation has been found to be effective, requiring anterior and inferior repositioning of the anterior maxilla to provide an esthetic and functional implant supported fixed prosthesis. Four months after surgery, the fixation system was removed, and 6 dental implants were placed. The anterior and inferior movements of the segment allowed for natural tooth anatomy and size in the definitive implant supported partial fixed prosthesis. A satisfactory functional and esthetic result was obtained after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27403066

  10. Constraints on the Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant by the 5-Year WMAP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, M.; Nagata, R.; Yokoyama, J.

    2008-12-01

    The constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant at recombination epoch relative to its present value, Δα/α ≡ (α_{rec} - α_{now})/α_{now}, are obtained from the analysis of the 5-year WMAP cosmic microwave background data. As a result of Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that, contrary to the analysis based on the previous WMAP data, the mean value of Δα/α = -0.0009 does not change significantly whether we use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measurement of the Hubble parameter as a prior or not. The resultant 95% confidence ranges of Δα/α are -0.028 < Δα/α < 0.026 with HST prior and -0.050 < Δα/α < 0.042 without HST prior.

  11. [The geriatric psychiatric day hospital: an analysis of 5 years of activities].

    PubMed

    Trifonov, E G; Ognev, A E

    1997-01-01

    233 patients (53 men and 180 women) at the age of 60 years and older were treated in day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic for 5 years. 60-69 year old patients prevailed (146 individuals). Nearly all mental diseases characteristic for the old age were found in such patients; majority of patients suffered from schizophrenia (31.3%) and affective pathology (25.8%). Vascular form of dementia prevailed among the patients with dementia while atrophic degenerative dementia was rarely observed (2 patients). Syndromological distribution revealed that the main groups were formed by patients with depressions (41.6%) as well as individuals with neurosis- and psychopathic-like conditions (37.3%). Mental disorders with paranoid syndromes were observed in 8.6% of the patients. It is shown that day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic had some preferences in comparison with usual mental hospitals and psychoneurological out-patient clinic.

  12. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:26744159

  13. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia Affiliation When The Manuscript Was Written Department Of Paediatrics K J Somaiya Medical College And Hospital Mumbai India, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2014-11-19

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:25410687

  14. Performance of the MIR Cooperative Solar Array After 2.5 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States and Russia to produce 6 kW of power for the Russian space station Mir. Four, multi-orbit test sequences were executed between June 1996 and December 1998 to measure MCSA electrical performance. A dedicated Fortran computer code was developed to analyze the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. The computational performance results compared very favorably with the measured flight data in most cases. Minor performance degradation was detected in one current generating section of the MCSA. Yet overall, the flight data indicated the MCSA was meeting and exceeding performance expectations. There was no precipitous performance loss due to contamination or other causes after 2.5 years of operation. In this paper, we review the MCSA flight electrical performance tests, data and computational modeling and discuss findings from data comparisons with the computational results.

  15. The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from over 5 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Eldakar, Omar T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years numerous reports have confirmed and replicated the specific brain cooling and thermal window predictions derived from the thermoregulatory theory of yawning, and no study has found evidence contrary to these findings. Here we review the comparative research supporting this model of yawning among homeotherms, while highlighting a recent report showing how the expression of contagious yawning in humans is altered by seasonal climate variation. The fact that yawning is constrained to a thermal window of ambient temperature provides unique and compelling support in favor of this theory. Heretofore, no existing alternative hypothesis of yawning can explain these results, which have important implications for understanding the potential functional role of this behavior, both physiologically and socially, in humans and other animals. In discussion we stress the broader applications of this work in clinical settings, and counter the various criticisms of this theory. PMID:23293583

  16. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-05-15

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications.

  17. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  18. Salter-Harris type-IV displaced distal radius fracture in a 5-year-old.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.

  19. Review of the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R D; Marryatt, G; Henderson, R F

    1988-09-01

    Symptoms in patients with hiatal hernia often respond to treatment consisting of diet and medication. Operative procedures, designed to control gastroesophageal reflux and avoid surgically induced problems, are reserved for those with intractable symptoms. When these operative procedures fail, reoperation may be necessary. The reoperative procedure is often technically complex because of esophageal and gastric scar fixation. The authors reviewed the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia in 168 patients followed up to 5 years or more; 43 of them had undergone gastric surgery previously.Radiologically, 97% patients studied (142 of 146) had no evidence of anatomic recurrence or reflux post operatively. Manometric studies postoperatively in 114 patients showed that the mean tone of the high pressure zone was within the normal range and lower esophageal disordered motor activity was decreased by 34.5% from the preoperative level. Symptoms of recurrent hiatal hernia were abolished by operation in 88% of the patients; only 4.8% had serious or recurrent symptoms.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission is not associated with recent immigration (≤5 years) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Lauzardo, Michael

    2015-12-01

    As tuberculosis (TB) incidence decreases in the US, foreign-born persons continue to account for a larger proportion of the burden. In these cross-sectional analyses of 1149 culture-confirmed TB cases genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU, we show that over a quarter of cases among the foreign-born population in Florida resulted from recent transmission of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In addition, over a third of these cases occurred among persons who had immigrated 5 years or less prior to their diagnosis. Although recent immigration was not a significant predictor of TB transmission, younger age, birthplace in the Americas, homelessness, drug use and TB lineage are risk factors for TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida. These data provide actionable insights into TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida.

  1. Estimating rates of land falling US hurricanes on a 5-year timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, K.; Turner, J.; Jewson, S.; Bellone, E.; Rowlands, D.; Laepple, T.

    2010-03-01

    Atlantic hurricanes are the costliest of US natural disasters. Their frequency, intensity and likelihood of landfall are highly variable, being impacted by sea-surface and upper-atmosphere temperatures, wind shear, El Niño and other climatic variables. Risk Management Solutions has created a set of over 500,000 synthetic Atlantic hurricanes for use in catastrophe modelling. Until 2005, the rates associated with each of these storms were based on the averaged historical rate since 1900. However, there is evidence that hurricane frequencies are non-stationary and this means that long-term averaged rates may not be the best estimate of future rates. Furthermore, the insurance/reinsurance industry is particularly interested in 5-year projections of land falling US hurricanes. We show, using hindcasting, that simple statistical models can significantly improve estimates of the number of Atlantic hurricanes hitting land on this timescale.

  2. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-05-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154.

  3. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154. PMID:25206158

  4. [The results of 5-year-long research of sclerotherapy of liver metastases by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Borsukov, A V

    2001-01-01

    64 patients with liver metastases have been studied (mammary gland--6 cases, stomach--15, colon--32, other locations--11) and US metastasis semiotics and the fine aspiration biopsy have been identified. 12 cases had underwent intraoperative 96% ethanol infusion, 52 had got transdermal infusions under US control. The survival rate of colon cases with dissemination was: 1 year S.--100%, 3 year S.--53.1%, 5 year S.--3.1%. In cases with noncolon dissemination the percentage of survival was: 1 year S.--68.8%, 2 year S.--9.4%, 3 year S.--3.0%. 96% ethanol sclerotherapy proved to be more effective in single metachronic metastases of the colon malignancies.

  5. Being overweight and obese: Black children ages 2-5 years.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Cindy E

    2008-01-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of obesity in Black preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) is slightly higher than in whites. However, by age 6, Black children experience higher obesity prevalence. The consequences to health throughout childhood and into adulthood have both medical and economic cost to individuals and society. Factors associated with obesity in preschool children are lifestyle behaviors such as diet, level of activity, culture, environment, and parental perceptions. Programs should target young Black children and their families to reduce the incidence of obesity and promoting healthy behaviors could aid in eliminating health disparities and improving quality of life. Nurses need to provide comprehensive culturally appropriate strategies at community and individual/family levels to prevent overweight and obesity in children.

  6. A significant and consistent reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization of children under 5 years of age, following the introduction of universal rotavirus immunization in Israel.

    PubMed

    Muhsen, Khitam; Rubenstein, Uri; Kassem, Eias; Goren, Sophy; Schachter, Yaakov; Kremer, Adi; Shulman, Lester M; Ephros, Moshe; Cohen, Dani

    2015-01-01

    Universal rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq was introduced in Israel in December 2010. We examined hospitalization rates of children under 5 years of age due to all-cause and rotavirus gastroenteritis, both before and 3 years after universal introduction of the vaccination. An ongoing hospital-based surveillance network that was established in November 2007, accessed information regarding hospitalization of children due to gastroenteritis (n = 6205) in 3 hospitals in northern Israel, with an annual average of about 60,000 children under 5 years of age living in the catchment area of these hospitals. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus by immunochromatography. Compared to the period preceding implementation of the universal rotavirus vaccination (2008-2010), hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children <5 years of age decreased significantly, by 55% (95% CI 43%-67%) during the period of universal vaccination (2011-2013), a decrease that was sustained throughout the 3 year period. This reduction was greater in children aged 0-23 months (60-61%) than in toddlers aged 24-59 months (36%). A 32% (95% CI 21%-45%) decrease in the incidence of all-cause gastroenteritis was also observed. During the period preceding universal vaccination, rotavirus diarrhea showed typical winter seasonality, with highest incidence in December. However, the winter peak was substantially blunted during the period of universal immunization. Surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis should continue to assess the long-term impact of such a program. Our findings are of relevance to high and middle-income countries considering the introduction of a universal rotavirus immunization program.

  7. Surgical resection of colorectal recurrence of gastric cancer more than 5 years after primary resection

    PubMed Central

    Noji, Takehiro; Yamamura, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Jun; Kuroda, Aki; Koinuma, Junkichi; Yoshioka, Tatsuya; Murakawa, Katsuhiko; Otake, Setsuyuki; Hirano, Satoshi; Ono, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intestinal metastasis from gastric cancer is rare, although the most common cause of secondary neoplastic infiltration of the colon is gastric cancer. However, little data is available on recurrence or death in patients with gastric cancer surviving >5 years post-gastrectomy. Here we report two cases of lower intestinal metastasis from gastric cancer >5 years after primary resection and discuss with reference to the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE Case 1: A 61-year-old man with a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 9 years earlier was referred to our hospital with constipation and abdominal distention. We diagnosed primary colon cancer and subsequently performed extended left hemicolectomy. Histological examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma resembling the gastric tumor he had 9 years earlier. The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and remained alive with cancerous peritonitis and skin metastases as of 17 months later. Case 2: A 46-year-old woman with a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 9 years earlier presented with constipation. She also had a history of Krukenberg tumor 3 years earlier. We diagnosed metastatic rectal cancer and subsequently performed low anterior resection and hysterectomy. Pathological examination revealed poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, resembling the gastric tumor. The patient remained alive without recurrence as of 17 months later. DISCUSSION We found 19 reported cases of patients with resection of colon metastases from gastric cancer. Median disease-free interval was 74 months. CONCLUSION Resection of late-onset colorectal recurrence from gastric cancer appears worthwhile for selected patients. PMID:25460445

  8. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment.

  9. Severity of brain injury following neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and outcome at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Glass, P; Bulas, D I; Wagner, A E; Rajasingham, S R; Civitello, L A; Papero, P H; Coffman, C E; Short, B L

    1997-07-01

    Neurodevelopmental evaluation in childhood provides an opportunity to study complex neurological compensation following documented neonatal brain injury, and furnishes important clinical information which may have an impact on patient care. We studied 152 term children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as neonates and who received routine neonatal neuroimaging and comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluation at age 5 years. The cohort was divided into four groups based on an independent neuroimaging score: No lesion, N=88; Mild lesion, N=38; Moderate lesion, N=12; and Severe lesion, N=14. Standardized testing at age 5 included complete neuropsychological assessment, neurological evaluation, and assessment of motor function. All testing was conducted without knowledge of the neuroimaging score. The occurrence of disability by severity of neuroimaging was: No lesion=10%; Mild=13%; Moderate=33%; Severe=57%. The relative risk within the ECMO population for disability at age 5 after moderate or severe neonatal lesion was 4.3 (CI=1.0 to 17.5) and 11.7 (CI=3.3 to 41.3), respectively. The remaining non-disabled children who had moderate to severe lesions functioned within normal limits. Severity of neonatal neuroimaging was inversely associated with IQ scores, pre-academic skills, and neuromotor function. The effect size was small but the rank order was predictable. Our data identify in 5-year-old children an impact of brain lesion severity demonstrated on routine neonatal neuroimaging. The results indicate potential compensation following moderate and severe lesions, and suggest a subtle but consistent influence of even mild neonatal brain injury.

  10. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment. PMID:26863863

  11. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  12. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes. PMID:27545977

  13. Management of Late Onset Perthes: Evaluation of Distraction by External Fixator—5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rajeshwar N.; Shukla, Prashant; Pushkar, Amit; Ali, Sabir

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hip distraction in Perthes' disease unloads the joint, which negates the harmful effect of the stresses on the articular surfaces, which may promote the sound healing of the area of necrosis. We have examined the effect of arthrodiastasis on the preservation of the femoral head in older children with Perthes' disease. Methods and Materials. Twelve children with age more than 8 years with Perthes' disease of less than one year were treated with hip distraction by a hinged monolateral external fixator. Observation and Results. Mean duration of distraction was 13.9 days. These children were evaluated by clinicoradiological parameters for a mean period of 32.4 months. There was a significant improvement in the range of movements and mean epiphyseal index, but the change in the percentage of uncovered head femur was insignificant. There was significant improvement in Harris Hip score. Conclusions. Hip distraction by hinged monolateral external fixator seems to be a valid treatment option in cases with Perthes' disease in the selected group of patients, where poor results are expected from conventional treatment. PMID:25580302

  14. A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Fungal Keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Tahir, Fadzillah; Norhayati, A.; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Ibrahim, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Corneal blindness from healed infected keratitis is one of the most preventable causes of monocular blindness in developing countries, including Malaysia. Our objectives were to identify the causative fungi, predisposing risk factors, the proportion of correct clinical diagnosis, and visual outcome of patients treated in our hospital. Methods. A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was conducted for all patients who were treated for fungal keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2007 until December 2011. Results. Forty-seven patients (47/186, 25.27%) were treated for fungal keratitis during the study period. This demonstrated that the incidence of fungal keratitis has increased each year from 2007 to 2011 by 12.50%, 17.65%, 21.21%, 26.83%, and 28.57%, respectively. The most common predisposing factors were injury to the eye followed by use of topical steroid, and preexisting ocular surface disease. Fusarium species were the most common fungal isolated, followed by Candida species. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 26 of the 41 (63.41%) cases of positive isolates. Of these, in eleven cases (23.40%) patients required surgical intervention. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 34 (72.34%) cases. Conclusions. The percentage of positive fungal isolated has steadily increased and the trend of common fungal isolated has changed. The latest review regarding fungal keratitis is important for us to improve patients' outcome in the future. PMID:23304138

  15. Spanish Network on Effects of Wildfires on Soils. The view after 5 years of networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Antonio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    1. WHAT IS FUEGORED? The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" (FUEGORED, http://grupo.us.es/fuegored) has been working for over 5 years at becoming a point of reference for the study of fire-affected soils and restoration strategies. FUEGORED started in 2007, originally scheduled to run three years, as a result of the interest of Spanish researchers for developing better strategies and scientific interchange of ideas, people and collaboration between research groups. The first steps towards the establishment of a working group were a series of fieldtrips through Spain (2003), USA (2004) and Portugal (2005), where discussions about problems and research strategies arised. In its early years the network was supported by the former Ministry of Science and Innovation. This is a project to review scientific knowledge developed to date and discuss and propose future developments in scientific research about the effects of wildfires on soils. The objectives of the network are to promote and disseminate scientific research findings, provide technical and management information, and facilitate transference of knowledge between scientists, forest managers, students and society. 2. WHO IS IN THE NETWORK? The research group consists of the leading names of Spanish science in the topic and young talents, which are currently developing the most innovative research lines. Currently, the network is formed by 245 members, researchers from over 30 Spanish universities and research centers to provide the experience of decades of scientific and technical work in areas affected by forest fires and outstanding foreign researchers from Europe, Australia and America, including countries such as Australia, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, UK, USA and others. Forest managers and technicians from various institutions are also present. 3. MAIN ACHIEVEMENTS Four international congresses have been promoted by the network in Valencia, 2008, Seville, 2009, Santiago de Compostela

  16. Construction of invariant whiskered tori by a parameterization method. Part II: Quasi-periodic and almost periodic breathers in coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontich, Ernest; de la Llave, Rafael; Sire, Yannick

    2015-09-01

    We construct quasi-periodic and almost periodic solutions for coupled Hamiltonian systems on an infinite lattice which is translation invariant. The couplings can be long range, provided that they decay moderately fast with respect to the distance. For the solutions we construct, most of the sites are moving in a neighborhood of a hyperbolic fixed point, but there are oscillating sites clustered around a sequence of nodes. The amplitude of these oscillations does not need to tend to zero. In particular, the almost periodic solutions do not decay at infinity. The main result is an a posteriori theorem. We formulate an invariance equation. Solutions of this equation are embeddings of an invariant torus on which the motion is conjugate to a rotation. We show that, if there is an approximate solution of the invariance equation that satisfies some non-degeneracy conditions, there is a true solution close by. This does not require that the system is close to integrable, hence it can be used to validate numerical calculations or formal expansions. The proof of this a posteriori theorem is based on a Nash-Moser iteration, which does not use transformation theory. Simpler versions of the scheme were developed in [28]. One technical tool, important for our purposes, is the use of weighted spaces that capture the idea that the maps under consideration are local interactions. Using these weighted spaces, the estimates of iterative steps are similar to those in finite dimensional spaces. In particular, the estimates are independent of the number of nodes that get excited. Using these techniques, given two breathers, we can place them apart and obtain an approximate solution, which leads to a true solution nearby. By repeating the process infinitely often, we can get solutions with infinitely many frequencies which do not tend to zero at infinity.

  17. Locations and focal mechanisms of deep long period events beneath Aleutian Arc volcanoes using back projection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, A. C.; Roman, D. C.; Haney, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep long period (DLP) earthquakes are commonly observed in volcanic settings such as the Aleutian Arc in Alaska. DLPs are poorly understood but are thought to be associated with movements of fluids, such as magma or hydrothermal fluids, deep in the volcanic plumbing system. These events have been recognized for several decades but few studies have gone beyond their identification and location. All long period events are more difficult to identify and locate than volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes because traditional detection schemes focus on high frequency (short period) energy. In addition, DLPs present analytical challenges because they tend to be emergent and so it is difficult to accurately pick the onset of arriving body waves. We now expect to find DLPs at most volcanic centers, the challenge lies in identification and location. We aim to reduce the element of human error in location by applying back projection to better constrain the depth and horizontal position of these events. Power et al. (2004) provided the first compilation of DLP activity in the Aleutian Arc. This study focuses on the reanalysis of 162 cataloged DLPs beneath 11 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc (we expect to ultimately identify and reanalyze more DLPs). We are currently adapting the approach of Haney (2014) for volcanic tremor to use back projection over a 4D grid to determine position and origin time of DLPs. This method holds great potential in that it will allow automated, high-accuracy picking of arrival times and could reduce the number of arrival time picks necessary for traditional location schemes to well constrain event origins. Back projection can also calculate a relative focal mechanism (difficult with traditional methods due to the emergent nature of DLPs) allowing the first in depth analysis of source properties. Our event catalog (spanning over 25 years and volcanoes) is one of the longest and largest and enables us to investigate spatial and temporal variation in DLPs.

  18. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. PMID:25413353

  19. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil.

  20. [Analysis of food allergy incidence in children up to 5 years of age in the Wielikopolska region].

    PubMed

    Hofman, T

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was found the most frequent food allergens and analysis of food allergy incidence in children with food allergy from region Wielkopolska. 78 children in age from 2 months to 5 years of life with the first symptoms of food allergy: gastrointestinals symptoms and atopic dermatitis was examined. The specific IgE using the immunoenzymatic Quidel and AlaSTAT method to wheat, peanut, hazel nut, tomato, soya been, cow milk, egg, corn, orange and cod was percentage of the lymphocytes ThCD4+ in peripheral blood of allergy children was estimated. The normal results ranging from 29-42%. During the analysis established that in children from region Wielkopolska the most frequent allergen in each age was cow milk. Allergy to wheat found in 50% children with food allergy. It was observed increase allergy to new products as soya been, corn and nuts which are the more frequent used in our region. The causes apparent the food allergy among the children in age to 5 years are: so early given the cow's milk and other foreign protein to diet of infants, and infections the intestinal, airways and urine tracts. It is necessary breast-feeding the infants minimum up to 6 months of life and varying light diet without a big amounts of cow's milk or other foreign proteins during lactation and pregnancy. About a half of patients had a decreased number of lymphocytes T CD4+. Among the causes of food allergy the most important are in 40% the genetic factors but in 60% the infections factors and feedings defects.