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Sample records for 5-year period studied

  1. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  2. Clinical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysm in Germany: a nationwide observational study over a 5-year period (2005–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Walendy, Victor; Stang, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to provide nationwide age-standardised rates (ASR) on the usage of endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) treatment in Germany. Setting Nationwide observational study using the Diagnosis-Related-Groups (DRG) statistics for the years 2005–2009 (overall 83 million hospitalisations). Participants From 2005 to 2009, overall 39 155 hospitalisations with a diagnosis of UIA occurred in Germany. Primary outcome measures Age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for UIA with the midyear population of Germany in 2007 as the standard. Results Of the 10 221 hospitalisations with UIA during the observation period, 6098 (59.7%) and 4123 (40.3%) included coiling and clipping, respectively. Overall hospitalisation rates for UIA increased by 39.5% (95% CI 24.7% to 56.0%) and 50.4% (95% CI 39.6% to 62.1%) among men and women, respectively. In 2005, the ASR per 100 000 person years for coiling was 0.7 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.78) for men and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82) for women. In 2009, the ASR was 1.0 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.10) and 2.4 (95% CI 2.24 to 2.56), respectively. Similarly, the ASR for clipping in 2005 amounted to 0.6 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.68) for men and 1.1 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.20) for women. These rates increased in 2009 to 0.8 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.88) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.82), respectively. We observed a marked geographical variation of ASR for coiling and less pronounced for clipping. For the federal state of Saarland, the ASR for coiling was 5.64 (95% CI 4.76 to 6.52) compared with 0.68 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.88; per 100 000 person years) in Saxony-Anhalt, whereas, ASR for clipping were highest in Rhineland-Palatinate (2.48, 95% CI 2.17 to 4.75) and lowest in Saxony-Anhalt (0.52, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.70). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we presented the first representative, nationwide analysis of the clinical management of UIA in Germany. The ASR increased markedly and showed

  3. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood.

  4. Drowning-related fatalities during a 5-year period (2008-2012) in South-West Hungary--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rácz, Evelin; Könczöl, Franciska; Mészáros, Hajnalka; Kozma, Zsolt; Mayer, Mátyás; Porpáczy, Zoltán; Poór, Viktor S; Sipos, Katalin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate all the drowning-related cases in South-West Hungary between 2008 and 2012. It is a retrospective and descriptive study of 114 drowning-related deaths during that 5-year period. The investigation includes both unintentional and intentional drowning cases. We found that the most considerable risk factor of drowning in this area of Hungary is alcohol consumption, because in more than half of the cases the victims were under the influence of alcohol. We also concluded that more than two third of the cases included males. The cause of drowning in younger victims was mostly accident. In both genders subjects aged 50-70 had the highest risk of drowning in the period investigated. Seniors frequently committed suicide by drowning. Drowning deaths occurred in all types of water, mostly in lakes, rivers, canals and other types of catchment in the vicinity of victims' homes (most commonly in wells). This study might help to understand the circumstances and the causes leading to drowning and it may draw the attention to the possible preventive interventions.

  5. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams.

  6. Electrical burns: a retrospective analysis across a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Luz, D P; Millan, L S; Alessi, M S; Uguetto, W F; Paggiaro, A; Gomez, D S; Ferreira, M C

    2009-11-01

    This study aims to review the experience, at an institution, with patients who suffered electrical burns and study the peculiar characteristics of this type of burn as well as its complications and epidemiological aspects. The study includes medical records of patients with electrical burns who were admitted to the Burn Unit of Hospital das Clínicas in São Paulo, Brazil, from November 2001 to October 2006. They were classified into four categories: high voltage (> or =1000 V), low voltage (<1000 V), 'flash burn' (in which there is no electrical current flow through the body of the patient) and burns caused by lightning. The complications were more severe and common in the high-voltage group, while longer hospital stays and more complex surgical procedures due to the greater depth of burns were also observed in this group. High-voltage burns are mainly labour-/occupation-related. The majority of the patients were young men at the beginning of their professional lives. This factor generates an important socio-economic impact due to the high incidence of sequelae, resulting in amputations, rendering them unable to maintain their occupations.

  7. Parenteral iron therapy: a single institution's experience over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Laman, Christopher A; Silverstein, Scott B; Rodgers, George M

    2005-11-01

    Many patients require parenteral iron therapy for optimal correction of anemia, including cancer patients who require erythropoietic drugs. Available parenteral iron therapy options include iron dextran, iron gluconate, and iron sucrose. The purpose of this study is to summarize our institution's experience with parenteral iron therapy over a 5-year period, with a focus on comparative safety profiles. All patients receiving parenteral iron therapy over this period were included in the analysis. Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the adverse event rates of each product. A total of 121 patients received 444 infusions of parenteral iron over this period. Iron dextran was the most commonly used product (85 patients) and iron sucrose was the least used (2 patients). Iron gluconate was used by 34 patients. Overall adverse event rates per patient with iron dextran and iron gluconate were 16.5% and 5.8%, respectively (P = .024). Premedication with diphenhydramine and acetaminophen before infusions of iron dextran reduced adverse event rates per infusion from 12.3% to 4.4% (P = .054). Test doses of iron dextran were used 88% of the time for initial infusions of iron dextran. All adverse events for all parenteral iron products were mild or moderate. There were no serious adverse events and no anaphylaxis was observed. Our results suggest that, if test doses and premedications are used, iron dextran is an acceptable product to treat iron deficiency.

  8. Esthetic restorations: observations and insights gained over a 5-year period demonstrated with three case reports.

    PubMed

    Obama, Tadakazu

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two prosthodontically treated patient cases that were observed over a period of at least 5 years after treatment. The evaluation, diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment stages were critically reviewed and reassessed from different perspectives. The conclusions drawn from this evaluation were subsequently implemented in a third clinical case. To ensure the long-term success of a restoration, certain biologic and mechanical principles must be observed, and the appropriate prosthodontic treatment must be chosen accordingly.

  9. Music Student Teachers: Pre-Student Teaching Concerns and Post-Student Teaching Perceptions over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Dye, Keith G.; Wayman, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In this descriptive study, we examined self-reported concerns of 159 music student teachers pre- and post-student teaching, over a period of 5 years. Resulting comments ("N" = 867) were analyzed on the basis of (a) stages of teacher concern (focus on self, subject matter [music and teaching], and students) modeled after Fuller and Bown…

  10. 77 FR 26232 - Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for Waivers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... 447 RIN 0938-AO53 Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for... Federal Register entitled ``Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5- Year Period... read ``July 2, 2012''. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.778, Medical...

  11. A Study on Mental Disorders: 5-year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Celine, Thalappillil Mathew; Antony, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Mental disorder” is the most common used term in the modern life and the main reason behind this may be the mechanical way of life or stress and strain among youth. Aim: To find the pattern of mental disorders of hospitalized patients in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Settings and Design: A retrospective study conducted among the patients admitted with mental disorders in a medical college hospital from 1st April 2005 to 31st March 2010. Materials and Methods: Data collected from the registers maintained in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis: Z test is used for the comparison of proportions. Results: A total of 7908 mental disorder cases reported in the medical college hospital, 5564 (70.36%) were males and 2344 (29.64%) were females. Most cases occurred in the age group of 30-44 years. Mental disorder was more among females than males in 0-29 years and ≥ 60 years, but in 30-59 years males were more. In each year, mental disorders were reported more in males than females. Of the cases, most of them were mood disorders. Mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use were more among males but schizophrenia, delusional disorders, mood disorders, stress-related disorders, mental retardation, and so on were more among females. Conclusion: Mood disorder was the most occurred mental disorder and the next leading mental disorder was mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Counseling can be helpful for preventing most of the mental disorders. Improve the mental health care facilities will be the solution for controlling the mental disorders. PMID:24791229

  12. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  13. Causative Microorganisms of Infectious Endophthalmitis: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Fang; Liao, Jingyu; Zheng, Yongxin; Tan, Junlian

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the microbial etiology of infectious endophthalmitis and to determine the antibacterial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates at an eye hospital in South China. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 330 patients with clinically diagnosed infectious endophthalmitis who underwent microbiological evaluation from January 2010 to December 2014. Of the 330 patients, 193 patients (58.5%) had posttraumatic endophthalmitis, 67 patients (20.3%) had postoperative endophthalmitis, 61 patients (18.5%) had endogenous endophthalmitis, and 9 patients (2.7%) had postcorneal infective endophthalmitis. Of the 105 cases (31.8%) of culture-positive endophthalmitis, 79 cases (75.2%) had bacterial growth and 26 cases (24.8%) had fungal growth. In posttraumatic endophthalmitis, Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant species, followed by Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In endogenous endophthalmitis, Gram-negative bacteria were the predominant species, followed by fungi and Gram-positive bacteria. In postsurgical endophthalmitis, all infections were bacterial. However, in postcorneal infective endophthalmitis, all infections were fungal. Overall, levofloxacin showed the highest activity against bacterial isolates. There was a significant difference in the susceptibility to tobramycin between the isolates from posttraumatic and postoperative endophthalmitis (p < 0.05). The results of this study identify the microbial spectrum of infectious endophthalmitis in this clinical setting. PMID:27413545

  14. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS.

  15. [The PTFE plastic prosthesis as an arterial replacement: experiences over a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Polterauer, P; Contreras, F; Kretschmer, G; Wagner, O; Piza, F; Waneck, R; Lechner, G; Schemper, M

    1984-03-30

    Unilateral iliac femoral reconstructions with PTFE are yielding good results-similar to those with Dacron, with patency rates of 75, 67, and 65% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively (Kaplan-Meier). PTFE has additional advantages compared with other materials: a) no need of preclotting; b) smooth inner surface-easy thrombectomy in case of thrombosis and c) good handling characteristics. In view of the above-mentioned facts PTFE can be recommended without restriction for unilateral pelvic reconstructions. The functional early results of bilateral aorto-femoral Goretex-Y bifurcation grafts in 50 cases after 2 years are encouraging. Long-term results are still pending. Reports of other groups using this material as aorto-bifemoral substitute are not yet available. The functional results with PTFE for femoro-popliteal grafts are not satisfactory: 35% after 2.5 years. Extra-anatomical bypasses yielded 70% one-year functioning rate. Especially the ring-or spiral-armoured PTFE grafts seem to be suitable for these reconstruction procedures.

  16. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  17. Characterization and evolution of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the Spanish shoemaking industry over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Estevan, Carmen; Ferri, Francisca; Sogorb, Miguel Angel; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    This study measured inhalation exposure to 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among workers in the leatherwear industry in Spain, examined the changes in those exposures over a 5-year period, and documented local exhaust ventilation practices that affected exposure. In collaboration with an occupational risk prevention company, air samples were collected from 849 workers' personal breathing zones using personal air pumps with activated charcoal tubes. VOCs were analyzed using a GC/MS-optimized method modified in our laboratory from that proposed by Spanish authorities (INSHT). Airborne concentrations were compared with occupational exposure limit (OEL) values from the European authorities. The most frequently detected VOCs were acetone (98.1%), toluene (94.8%), n-hexane (71.2%) and other C6-C7 branched alkyl hydrocarbons (97.5%). Other frequently detected VOCs were MEK (64.9%), ethylacetate (60.7%), and cyclohexane (29.3%). Benzene was detected in 24.6% of samples. Although all the samples were taken while workers performed tasks judged to have the highest VOC exposure potential, only 14% of samples showed excessive aggregate exposure, and chemical-specific OELs were exceeded in a relatively small number of cases: 7.2% for n-hexane, 2.8% for toluene, 0.6% for acetone, and 0.4% for hexane isomers. Over the study period, a diminished use of n-hexane in solvent formulations and an increased use of branched hexane and heptane isomers were observed. Six factors relating to work location conditions and types were evaluated. Most high-exposure cases were associated with three task types. The presence of local exhaust ventilation was an important exposure control, but significant exposures despite the use of local exhaust were observed. Although n-hexane exposures significantly decreased over the study period, the overall level of VOC exposure did not decrease. More effective exposure prevention measures need to be implemented.

  18. A 5-year study of adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdin, Begüm Nalça; Pas, Suzan D; Durak, İsmet; Schutten, Martin; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2015-03-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of conjunctivitis. Genotypes are diverse and differ according to population and geographical distribution of the virus. There is limited data regarding ocular adenoviral infections and genotype distribution in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the adenovirus genotypes and their epidemiological features among patients with conjunctivitis between 2006 and 2010, in Izmir, Turkey. Adenoviral DNA was detected by PCR in 213 of 488 (44%) of the ocular samples collected from patients with viral conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Of these, 101 (47%) were randomly chosen and genotyped by sequence analysis. Seven genotypes were identified, including 3, 4, 8, 11, 19, 37, and 53. Genotype 8 and 4 were the dominant types detected in 67 (66.3%) and 25 (24.7%) of the samples, respectively. Other five genotypes (3, 11, 19, 37, 53) were detected in 9 (8.9%) samples. Genotype and seasonal differences observed throughout the study. Human adenoviruse (HAdV)-8 was the most frequent type, except 2008. The prevalence of genotype 4 increased starting from 2006, became dominant in 2008 and decreased in the following years. The peak season was mostly spring months, although it was possible to detect positive samples throughout the year. In conclusion, genotype 8 followed by genotype 4 was the most frequent adenoviral types causing conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Findings suggest that there is a slow shift between genotypes throughout the years.

  19. [The Octabaix study. Baseline assessment and 5 years of follow-up].

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Padrós, Gloria; Badia, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Octabaix, Grupo Estudio

    This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group.

  20. Bipolar disorder recurrence prevention using self-monitoring daily mood charts: case reports from a 5 year period

    PubMed Central

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Mood symptoms in bipolar disorders are significantly related to psychosocial events, and the personalized identification of symptom triggers is important. Ecological momentary assessments have been used in paper-and-pencil form to explore emotional reactivity to daily life stress in patients with bipolar disorder. However, there are few data on long-term recurrence prevention effects using ecological momentary assessments. Subjects were three outpatients with bipolar disorder who had a history of at least one admission. They recorded self-monitoring daily mood charts using a 5-point Likert scale. Paper-and-pencil mood charts included mood, motivation, thinking speed, and impulsivity. Additionally, they recorded waking time, bedtime, and medication compliance. Fewer manic or depressive episodes including admissions occurred after self-monitoring daily mood charts compared to patients’ admissions in the past 3 years. This study suggests that self-monitoring daily mood in addition to mood stabilizing medication has some effect on recurrence prevention in follow-up periods of at least 5 years. Further studies with rigorous designs and large sample sizes are needed. PMID:28331323

  1. Cost of glaucoma treatment in a developing country over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Ramos-Cadena, María de Los Angeles; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Hernandez de Oteyza, Alejandra; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Jimenez-Román, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose a realistic estimate of primary open-angle glaucoma treatment, follow-up costs, and patients' monthly glaucoma-economic burden in an ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City.Prospective survey of 462 primary open-angle glaucoma patients from 2007 to 2012 was carried out. Costs from visits, glaucoma follow-up studies, laser, and glaucoma surgical procedures were obtained from hospital pricings. Education, employment, and monthly income were interrogated. Total cost was divided into hypotensive treatment cost, nonpharmacologic treatment cost (laser and surgeries), and follow-up studies and consults. Average wholesale price for drugs analyzed was obtained from IMS Health data; monthly cost was calculated using: Monthly cost  = ([average wholesale price/number of drops per eye dropper] × number of daily applications) × 30 days.Patients were classified according to their glaucoma severity, and data were analyzed based on monthly income (average annual exchange rate: 12.85 Mexican pesos = 1 USD).The mean age was 70 ± 10 years, women = 81%, elementary school = 39%, and unemployed = 53%. Low-income group = 266 patients (57%), 146 with mild glaucoma; moderate-income group = 176 patients (38%), 81 with mild glaucoma; high-income group = 20 patients (4.3%), 10 with mild glaucoma. Patients' monthly average economic burden in glaucoma treatment: low-income patients = 61.5%, moderate-income patients = 19.5%, and high-income patients = 7.9%.Glaucoma-economic burden is substantial not only for health systems, but for the family and the patient. Therefore, screening plans for earlier diagnosis, and health policies that lessen the cost of disease management and increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the prevalence of blindness attributed to glaucoma are essential. These would improve quality of life, reduce personal and national expenditure, and help increase national economy.

  2. Cost of glaucoma treatment in a developing country over a 5-year period

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano-Gomez, Gabriel; Ramos-Cadena, María de los Angeles; Torres-Tamayo, Margarita; Hernandez de Oteyza, Alejandra; Turati-Acosta, Mauricio; Jimenez-Román, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to disclose a realistic estimate of primary open-angle glaucoma treatment, follow-up costs, and patients’ monthly glaucoma-economic burden in an ophthalmology hospital in Mexico City. Prospective survey of 462 primary open-angle glaucoma patients from 2007 to 2012 was carried out. Costs from visits, glaucoma follow-up studies, laser, and glaucoma surgical procedures were obtained from hospital pricings. Education, employment, and monthly income were interrogated. Total cost was divided into hypotensive treatment cost, nonpharmacologic treatment cost (laser and surgeries), and follow-up studies and consults. Average wholesale price for drugs analyzed was obtained from IMS Health data; monthly cost was calculated using: Monthly cost  = ([average wholesale price/number of drops per eye dropper] × number of daily applications) × 30 days. Patients were classified according to their glaucoma severity, and data were analyzed based on monthly income (average annual exchange rate: 12.85 Mexican pesos = 1 USD). The mean age was 70 ± 10 years, women = 81%, elementary school = 39%, and unemployed = 53%. Low-income group = 266 patients (57%), 146 with mild glaucoma; moderate-income group = 176 patients (38%), 81 with mild glaucoma; high-income group = 20 patients (4.3%), 10 with mild glaucoma. Patients’ monthly average economic burden in glaucoma treatment: low-income patients = 61.5%, moderate-income patients = 19.5%, and high-income patients = 7.9%. Glaucoma-economic burden is substantial not only for health systems, but for the family and the patient. Therefore, screening plans for earlier diagnosis, and health policies that lessen the cost of disease management and increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the prevalence of blindness attributed to glaucoma are essential. These would improve quality of life, reduce personal and national expenditure, and help increase national

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis in Germany over a 5-year period (2005-2009).

    PubMed

    Schleicher, X; Higgins, P G; Wisplinghoff, H; Körber-Irrgang, B; Kresken, M; Seifert, H

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the species distribution within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex and the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, 376 Acinetobacter isolates were collected prospectively from hospitalized patients at 15 medical centres in Germany during three surveillance studies conducted over a 5-year period. Species identification was performed by molecular methods. Imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by broth microdilution. The prevalence of the most common carbapenemase-encoding genes was investigated by oxacillinase (OXA) -multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The molecular epidemiology was investigated by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR; DiversiLab™). Acinetobacter pittii was the most prevalent Acinetobacter species (n = 193), followed by A. baumannii (n = 140), A. calcoaceticus (n = 10) and A. nosocomialis (n = 8). The majority of A. baumannii was represented by sporadic isolates (n = 70, 50%) that showed unique rep-PCR patterns, 25 isolates (18%) clustered with one or two other isolates, and only 45 isolates (32%) belonged to one of the previously described international clonal lineages. The most prevalent clonal lineage was international clone (IC) 2 (n = 34) and IC 1 (n = 6). According to CLSI, 25 A. baumannii isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem (MIC ≥ 8 mg/L), all of which produced an OXA-58-like or OXA-23-like carbapenemase. The rate of imipenem susceptibility among A. baumannii isolates decreased from 96% in 2005 to 76% in 2009. All other Acinetobacter isolates were susceptible to imipenem. The population structure of carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii in Germany is highly diverse. Imipenem non-susceptibility was strongly associated with the clonal lineages IC 2 and IC 1. These data underscore the high clonality of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates.

  4. Epidemiology and mortality of burns in the Lucknow Region, India--a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Ali, Wahid; Verma, Anoop K; Pandey, Abhishek; Rathore, Shiuli

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 95% of global burn deaths and disabilities are estimated to occur in low and middle income countries of the world. Burns are extremely common and are a major public health problem in a developing country like India. The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burns retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 2225 (10.7%) cases of burns among the total autopsies done over 5 years period (1st January 2008-27th November 2012) in the mortuary of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, K.G.M.U., Lucknow. The majority of deaths (88.8%) occurred between 10 and 49 years of age group with a preponderance of females (87.5%). The flame burns were seen in 60.1% of the victims. The majority of burn incidents were suicidal (38.6%) in nature followed by accidental (37.3%) and homicidal (24.1%) deaths. The percentages of burns with a total body surface area (TBSA) over 50% were observed in most of the cases (82.5%). In most of the cases deaths occurred within a week (82%) and most of the victims died from septicaemia and pneumonia (43.7%) followed by neurogenic shock (28.5%). The results of this study provide the necessary information to implement programmes for health education relating to prevention of burns focusing on the domestic setting.

  5. English Premiership Academy knee injuries: lessons from a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Oliver; Cloke, David J; Avery, Peter J; Beasley, Ian; Deehan, David J

    2011-11-01

    This study addresses the epidemiology of knee injuries in adolescent males. Data were collected prospectively from 41 Premiership soccer academies over a 5 year period from July 2000 to June 2005. A total of 12,306 player seasons were registered in the U9 to the U16 age categories with a total of 1750 recordable injuries specific to the knee joint. There was a mean incidence of 0.71 (95% confidence interval ± 0.05) knee injuries per player per year, and a median of 17 (inter-quartile range 9-38) training days and 2 (inter-quartile range 1-4) matches missed per knee injury. Knee injuries were found to be most common in the 14-16 year age group. Six hundred and nine (35% of total) injuries were classed as severe resulting in more than 28 days' absence. Injuries were more likely to be sustained in a competitive or match-play environment (862 or 52%) than in training (796 or 48%), and a non-contact mechanism was implicated in 823 (55%) of recorded cases. Peaks in injury numbers were seen in early season and subsequent to the winter break. Sprain was the most common diagnosis recorded, with the medial collateral ligament affected in 23% of all knee injuries. Knee injuries are common in elite youth footballers. In this uninsured age group, it could be argued that earlier medical intervention may reduce long-term damage to the immature skeleton.

  6. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  7. Introducing Engineering in Elementary Education: A 5-Year Study of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering, when integrated into K-12 education, may offer a number of potential student learning and future success benefits. In a 5-year study, four cohorts of elementary teachers of grades 2 to 4 in a single US school district were provided with teacher professional development with engineering education. Teachers were prepared to teach…

  8. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  9. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  10. Osteoporosis and the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis: a population-based 5-year follow-up study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ping-Song; Kuo, Chun-Nan; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Wei-Chiao; Liao, Yu-Chien; Chi, Ying-Chen; Chou, Wei-Po; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liu, Mu-En; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chou, Yii-Her; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2014-10-01

    This study estimates the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis within 5 years of newly diagnosed osteoporosis in a Taiwan population. This cohort study consisted of patients with a diagnosis of osteoporosis between Jan. 2003 and Dec. 2005 (N = 1634). Four age- and gender- matched patients for every patient in the study cohort were selected using random sampling as the comparison cohort (N = 6536). All patients were tracked for 5 years from the date of cohort entry to identify whether they developed symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate the 5-year nephrolithiasis-free survival rates. During the 5-year follow-up period, 60 osteoporosis patients (3.7%) and 165 non- osteoporosis patients (2.5%) developed symptomatic nephrolithiasis. The adjusted HR of symptomatic nephrolithiasis was 1.38 times greater risk for patients with osteoporosis than for the comparison cohort (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.86; P < .05). Osteoporosis is very likely to be an independent risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of symptomatic nephrolithiasis.

  11. Participation in an Intensive Longitudinal Study with Weekly Web Surveys Over 2.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Schulz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Technological advances have made it easier for researchers to collect more frequent longitudinal data from survey respondents via personal computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices. Although technology has led to an increase in data-intensive longitudinal studies, little is known about attrition from such studies or the differences between respondents who complete frequently administered surveys in a timely manner, and respondents who do not. Objective We examined respondent characteristics and behaviors associated with continued and on-time participation in a population-based intensive longitudinal study, using weekly web-based survey interviews over an extended period. Methods We analyzed data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, an intensive longitudinal study that collected weekly web-based survey interviews for 2.5 years from 1003 18- and 19-year-olds to investigate factors shaping the dynamics of their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancies. Results Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses showed background respondent characteristics measured at baseline were associated with the number of days respondents remained enrolled in the study, the number of interviews they completed, and the odds that they were late completing interviews. In addition, we found that changes in pregnancy-related behaviors reported in the weekly interviews were associated with late completion of interviews. Specifically, after controlling for sociodemographic, personality, contact information, and prior experience variables, we found that weekly reports such as starting to have sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32, P=.01), getting a new partner (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.53-2.03, P<.001), stopping the use of contraception (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49, P=.001), and having a new pregnancy (OR 5.57, 95% CI 4.26-7.29, P<.001) were significantly associated with late survey completion. However, young women who reported changes in

  12. A 5-year follow-up study on one-stage implants inserted concomitantly with localized alveolar ridge augmentation.

    PubMed

    Juodzbalys, G; Raustia, A M; Kubilius, R

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of one-stage implants placed at the time of alveolar bone augmentation using simultaneous guided bone regeneration technique with a collagen barrier membrane in patients suffering from insufficient bone width. Seventeen patients were treated with 20 one-stage OSTEOFIX (Oulu, Finland) implants using simultaneous guided bone regeneration technique. Dehiscence defects were filled by bovine bone mineral Bio-Oss and covered with collagen membrane. Clinical and radiographic parameters of the peri-implant conditions were assessed at the moment of prosthesis placement and at 1- and 5-year follow-ups. Diagnostic dehiscence defect measurements after implant placement showed that the mean vertical defect varied from 3.8 mm to 10.0 mm. At the moment of prosthesis placement and at 1- and 5-year follow-ups all implants were stable, painless and without biological complications. Clinical and radiographic parameters of the peri-implant conditions remained stable during follow-up. The cumulative implant survival rate was 100% after the 5-year observation period and the success rate for all pooled implants was 90%. The present study showed predictable treatment outcomes recorded after 5 years of function for one-stage OSTEOFIX (Oulu, Finland) oral implants placed simultaneously with guided bone regeneration using collagen membrane and deproteinized bovine bone mineral.

  13. Peri-implant bone tissues around retrieved human implants after time periods longer than 5 years: a retrospective histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo; Shibli, Jamil A; Vantaggiato, Giovanni; Frosecchi, Massimo; Di Chiara, Claudio; Perrotti, Vittoria

    2014-01-01

    Only rarely, it is possible to find in the literature histological reports of human retrieved implants, especially after several years of functional loading. These implants can help us in understanding the reactions of peri-implant bone. The aim of this study was to perform a histologic and histomorphometric analysis of the peri-implant tissues behavior and of the bone-titanium interface in titanium dental implants retrieved from patients after time periods longer than 5 years. The archives of the Implant Retrieval Center of the Dental School of the University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy were searched for human dental implants, retrieved after a loading period of more than 5 years. A total of 8 implants were found: 3 of these had been retrieved after 5 years, 1 after 6 years, one after 10 years, 1 after 14 years, 1 after 18 years, 1 after 22 years. Only the bone to implant contact in the three best threads was evaluated. Compact, mature, lamellar bone, with few and small marrow spaces, was present around the implants. Osteons with Haversian canals were present inside some threads, in close proximity to the interface, at both cortical and trabecular regions. Other osteons had a direction perpendicular to the direction of the long axis of the implants. Numerous reversal lines were present. At higher magnification, no gaps or fibrous, connective tissues were present at the interface. The BIC of the three best threads for all implants varied from 94 to 100 %.In conclusion, within the limitations of the present report histology showed that implants with different surfaces all presented the potential to maintain osseointegration over a long period, with a continuous remodeling at the interface, as indicated by the presence of reversal lines.

  14. Hypoadiponectinemia As an Independent Predictor for the Progression of Carotid Atherosclerosis: A 5-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Elaine; Xu, Aimin; Chow, Wing-Sun; Lee, Paul C.H.; Fong, Carol H.Y.; Cheung, Stephen C.W.; Tse, Hung Fat; Chau, Ming-Tak; Cheung, Bernard M.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypoadiponectinemia predicts the development of diabetes and hypertension, both being potent atherosclerotic risk factors. Whether adiponectin predicts the progression of early atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this 5-year prospective study, we examined the relationship between serum adiponectin and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: A total of 265 subjects from the population-based Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study, with no known cardiovascular disease, underwent CIMT measurement at baseline and at 5 years. Results: In all, 129 men and 136 women, aged 54.6±12.3 years, were studied. Median CIMT at baseline was 0.63 mm (interquartile range 0.52–0.73 mm) and increased to 0.67 mm (0.56–0.78 mm) after 5 years (P<0.001). CIMT increment correlated with baseline adiponectin, age, and smoking (all P<0.05) and baseline CIMT (P<0.001), but not with sex, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, hypertension, or diabetes. In multiple linear regression analysis, baseline serum adiponectin level was an independent predictor of CIMT increment β (standardized beta)=−0.17, P=0.015], after adjusting for age, smoking, baseline CIMT, hypertension, body mass index, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Conclusion: Hypoadiponectinemia predicted CIMT progression, independent of known predictive factors such as age, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. PMID:25211296

  15. Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Hospital- and Community-Acquired Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Isolates over 5-Year Period in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Wafaa Y.; Rotimi, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading and an important cause of diarrhea in a healthcare setting especially in industrialized countries. Community-associated CDI appears to add to the burden on healthcare setting problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of healthcare-associated and community-acquired C. difficile infection over 5 years (2008–2012) in Kuwait. A total of 111 hospital-acquired (HA-CD) and 35 community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CA-CD) clinical isolates from stool of patients with diarrhoea were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobial agents against these pathogens was performed using E test method. There was no evidence of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, daptomycin, linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, teicoplanin and vancomycin by both HA-CD and CA-CD isolates. Metronidazole had excellent activity against CA-CD but there was a 2.9% resistance rate against HA-CD isolates. Ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and imipenem resistance rates among the HC-CD vs. CA-CD isolates were 100 vs. 47.4%; 43 vs. 47.4%; 100 vs. 100% and 100 vs. 89%, respectively. An unexpected high rifampicin resistance rate of 15.7% emerged amongst the HA-CD isolates. In conclusion, vancomycin resistance amongst the HA-CD and CA-CD isolates was not encountered in this series but few metronidazole resistant hospital isolates were isolated. High resistance rates of ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and imipenem resistance were evident among both CA-CD and HA-CD isolates. Rifampicin resistance is emerging among the HA-CD isolates. PMID:27536994

  16. The Western Sydney Stroke Risk in the Elderly Study. A 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, M D; Lazarus, R; Wilson, A; Leeder, S R; Koutts, J

    1994-01-01

    Aging of the Australian population, as in other developed nations, will ensure that stroke remains one of the most important causes of death and disability. The Stroke Risk in the Elderly (SITE) study aims to measure prospectively the independent contribution of dietary, sociodemographic, blood lipid, blood pressure, and hemostatic factors to risk of stroke and other cardiovascular outcomes. The target population included all independently living men and women aged 65 years and over, residents in several retirement villages in western metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The study cohort consists of 225 men and 787 women, selected as a convenience sample from all eligible residents in the local government areas (LGAs) adjacent to Westmead Hospital. Participants attended a baseline session to complete dietary, life-style, medical, and sociodemographic questionnaires. Anthropomorphic variables and blood pressure were measured. Blood was taken for measurement of serum lipid, glucose, and hemostatic factors. Questionnaire results were compared with an age/sex-stratified, randomly selected sample drawn from the community (in the same LGAs), in order to quantify potential sampling and selection biases. The study cohort will be followed for a minimum of 5 years. The attendance rate of eligible residents for a baseline medical, dietary, life-style, and sociodemographic assessment was 72% for males and 69% for females. The study cohort was older, better educated, less ethnically diverse, and among women, less likely to have ever been married compared to people aged over 65 years in the comparison group. The baseline results suggest that hemostatic factors may be of importance in assessing risk of cardiovascular disease, (CVD), particularly in older men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Observational clinical study of 22 adult-onset Pompe disease patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy over 5years.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Karolina M; Hendriksz, Christian J; Roberts, Mark; Sharma, Reena

    2016-04-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from deficiency of the acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The late-onset Pompe Disease (LOPD) patients develop muscular and respiratory complications later in life. We describe a retrospective observational cohort study including 22 patients with LOPD. The cohort was assessed at baseline before Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alpha (20mg/kg biweekly) was commenced and subsequently relevant information was collected at 2, 4 and 5years later. The median age of the patients at study entry was 44years (16-64years), with median disease duration of 11.5years (4-31years). At baseline, 10 patients (45%) could walk without support, 12 (55%) could walk with unilateral or bilateral support including 3/12 were wheelchair bound. Mean predicted FVC % was 55.7 (95% CI 45-66) of predicted normal at baseline and showed no significant change after 5years (54.6 (95% CI 43-66)), (all p=0.9815). Mean FVC % supine was 41.8 (95% CI 33.8-49) of predicted normal at baseline and remained significantly unchanged at 5years (48.4 (95% CI 37-59.6)), (all p=0.8680). The overnight non-invasive ventilator dependence increased by 18.2% as compared with baseline and requirement of mobility aids increased during this period by 5.2% as compared with the baseline. Mean walking distance at 6min walk test was 411.5 (95% CI 338-485) at baseline, 266.5 (95% CI 187-346) m at 2years, 238.6 (95% CI 162-315) m at 4years and 286.8 (95% CI 203-370) m at 5years (p=0.1981; ANOVA was completed only for 14 patients). A gradual decline in FVC% predicted was noted only in four cases and a decline in FVC% supine in two other. Only one patient showed a decline in both pulmonary function tests. In all remaining cases (17/22) respiratory function remains stable. In conclusion overall pulmonary function tests and mobility remained stable for 5years in majority of patients on ERT. However, in some patients they continued to decline in spite of ERT

  18. Analysis of Ocular Firework-Related Injuries and Common Eye Traumata: a 5-year Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Frimmel, S; Theusinger, O M; Kniestedt, C

    2017-03-10

    Background A comparative study of eye injuries related to fireworks or acts of violence around New Year's Eve and the Swiss National Day on August 1st. The two groups were compared with respect to the overall numbers of eye accidents within the period of review. Patients and Methods Retrospective analysis of emergency consultations at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich with eye accidents around the Swiss National Day on August 1st and New Year's Eve over the last 5 years. Two subgroups were formed: (1) Firework-related eye traumata, (2) Eye injuries due to acts of violence. The groups were analysed by age, gender, active participant or bystander, eye involved, severity of trauma (from clinical findings), surgical interventions, time of follow-up and visits, visual acuity and outcome. Results The study included 97 patients (100 eyes) with 74 male (76 %) and 23 female (24 %) victims. After filtering out 67 common traumata cases (all unilateral), 17 patients (18 eyes) with firework-related injuries and 13 patients (15 eyes) with damage due to an act of violence remained. Firework injuries accounted for 18 % of cases (65 % men); eye injuries caused by an act of violence accounted for 15 % of cases (92 % men). In the fireworks group, women were significantly older than men (mean age men 32 ± 14 years versus women 38 ± 16 years, p = 0.002). 65 % of cases were bystanders. The two subgroups contained 30 patients (33 eyes) with 22 left eyes (67 %, p < 0.001). The anterior segment was most frequently involved (79 %), significantly more often than the posterior part of the eye (p < 0.001). The posterior segment was injured more often in the fireworks group (28 %), than in the violence group (13 %). 87 % of the victims in the group of common traumata were mild trauma, 10 % moderate and 3 % severe. In the fireworks group the distribution was 53 % mild, 12 % moderate and 35 % severe, in the violence

  19. Laryngeal Mask Airway for Cesarean Delivery: A 5-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Dong-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is the most commonly used rescue airway in obstetric anesthesia. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the application of the LMA in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery (CD) for 5 years in our hospital. As a secondary objective, we investigated the incidence of airway-related complication in obstetric general anesthesia (GA). Methods: We collected electronic data for all obstetric patients who received GA for CD between January 2010 and December 2014 in Peking University First Hospital. Based on the different types of airway device, patients were divided into endotracheal intubation (ET) group and LMA group. The incidences of regurgitation and aspiration, as well as maternal and neonatal postoperative outcomes were compared between groups. Results: During the 5-year study, GA was performed in 192 cases, which accounted for 2.0% of all CDs. The main indications for GA were contraindication to neuraxial anesthesia or a failed block. Among these, ET tube was used in 124 cases (68.9%) and LMA in 56 cases (31.1%). The percentage of critical patients above the American Society of Anesthesiologists' Grade II was 24/124 in ET group and 4/56 in LMA group (P = 0.036). The emergent delivery rate was 63.7% for ET group and 37.5% for LMA group (P = 0.001). None of the patients had regurgitation or aspiration. There were no significant differences in terms of neonatal Apgar scores, maternal and neonatal postoperative outcomes between the two groups. Conclusions: Our results suggested that GA was mainly used for contraindication to neuraxial anesthesia or a failed block, and emergent CDs accounted for most cases. The second-generation LMA could be used for obstetric anesthesia, but correct position to achieve a good seal is the key to prevent reflux and aspiration. Whether they could replace the tracheal tube in routine practice needs further large prospective studies. PMID:28218212

  20. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  1. Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed.

  2. Erythrocyte survival following intraoperative autotransfusion in spinal surgery: an in vivo comparative study and 5-year update

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Flynn, J.C.; Bierman, A.H.

    1986-11-01

    A 5-year prospective study of intraoperative blood transfusion in 239 patients, most of whom had major spinal surgery, has been completed. Autotransfusion is safe, practical, and it reduces donor blood requirements and total blood loss by 50%. It eliminates host versus graft reactions and disease transmission. In 33 patients having major spinal surgery, the in vivo survival of autologous, homologous, and processed red blood cells (RBC) using the Cell Saver System were compared. The RBC survival studies were performed using chromium-51 isotope labeling technique. The long-term survival of processed RBCs was normal over a 30-day period. There was no significant difference in the survival rate of the three groups studied.

  3. Optimum detection times for bacteria and yeast species with the BACTEC 9120 aerobic blood culture system: evaluation for a 5-year period in a Turkish university hospital.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Gül; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgün, Yurdanur

    2003-02-01

    We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used.

  4. Optimum Detection Times for Bacteria and Yeast Species with the BACTEC 9120 Aerobic Blood Culture System: Evaluation for a 5-Year Period in a Turkish University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Gül; Us, Tercan; Aydinli, Aydin; Kiremitci, Abdurrahman; Kiraz, Nuri; Akgün, Yurdanur

    2003-01-01

    We tracked and documented the time of positivity of blood cultures by using the BACTEC 9120 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems) blood culture system over a 5-year study period. A 7-day protocol of the incubation period was selected, and a total of 11,156 blood cultures were evaluated. The clinically significant microorganisms (32.95%) were isolated in 3,676 specimens. Gram-positive and -negative bacterial isolation rates were found to be 41.07 and 44.88%, respectively. Yeasts were found in 14.03% of all pathogens. Both the false-positivity and -negativity rates were very low (0.1 and 0.3%, respectively). The mean detection times for all of the pathogens were determined to be 19.45 h. Yeasts, nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria, and Brucella melitensis strains were isolated within 5 days. By taking these data into account, we decided to establish a 5-day-incubation protocol in our laboratory instead of the 7 days that are commonly used. PMID:12574291

  5. Spectral variability in hard X-rays and discovery of a 13,5 years period in bright quasar 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.

    SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. ravi@tifr.res.in/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.

  6. [Anatomical repair of transposition of the great vessels in the neonatal period. 5 years' experience. 246 patients].

    PubMed

    Planche, C; Bruniaux, J; Lacour-Gayet, F; Binet, J P

    1989-01-01

    In the period between april 1984 and march 1989, 246 newborn children with transposition of the great vessels benefited from anatomical repair of their heart disease. 221 children had simple transposition with normal interventricular septa. These were aged 2 to 23 days (mean age 7.8 +/- 3.5 standard deviation). 25 had transposition of the great vessels associated with a large interventricular septum defect. These were aged 7 to 30 days (mean age 18 +/- 8.3 S.D.). Associated lesions included a small interventricular septum defect in 20 cases which was not treated at the time of the operation; tricuspid insufficiency in 3 cases; and isthmic coarctation of the aorta in 10 cases. According to Yacoub's classification relative to the anatomical distribution of the coronary arteries, all the children fell into the following groups: type A, 172 cases; type B, 8 cases; type C, 12 cases; type D, 40 cases; type E, 14 cases. Preoperative catheterization was carried out in all the children. 96% benefited from Rashkin's atrioseptostomy, 90% had a prostaglandin infusion continuing through surgery. The surgical technique included the use of continuous extracorporal circulation at 20 degrees C, without circulatory arrest. Protection of the myocardium was ensured during aortic clamping by injecting of a crystalloid cardioplegia-inducing solution. The main steps of surgical repair were repositioning of the coronary arteries onto the ancient aortic stump and reconstruction of a pulmonary shunt. Repositioning of the coronary arteries was carried out in accordance with Yacoub's technique in all cases except for the 10 first patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Burden of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Progression: A 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Cottin, Vincent; Schmidt, Aurélie; Catella, Laura; Porte, Fanny; Fernandez-Montoya, Céline; Le Lay, Katell; Bénard, Stève

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal lung disease with an unpredictable course. An observational study was set up using the French hospital discharge database to describe the reasons, outcomes and costs of hospitalisations related to this disease. Patients newly hospitalised for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (ICD-10 code: J84.1) in 2008 were identified and followed for 5 years. As J84.1 includes other fibrotic pulmonary diseases, an algorithm excluding age<50 years and presence of a differential diagnosis in the following year was defined. Overall, 6,476 patients were identified; of whom 30% were admitted through the emergency unit and 12% died during their first hospitalisation. Most of patients were hospitalised at least once for one or several acute events (n = 5,635; 87.0% of patients), of whom 36.5% of patients with an acute respiratory worsening (in-hospital mortality of 17.0% and median cost of €3,224; interquartile range (IQR €889–6,092)), 43.7% of patients with a respiratory infection (in-hospital mortality of 29.5% and median cost of €5,432 (IQR, €3,620–9,115)) and 51.7% of patients with a cardiac event (in-hospital mortality of 35.7% and median cost of €4,584 (IQR, €2,803–6,399)); 30.2% of these events occurred during the first hospitalisation. Finally, the 3-year in-hospital mortality crude rate was 36.8%. This study is the first providing extensive data on hospitalisations in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, mostly idiopathic, in France, demonstrating high burden and hospital cost. PMID:28099456

  8. Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Patients with Molluscum Contagiosum Treated at the University Dermatology Clinic Maribor in a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Trčko, Katarina; Poljak, Mario; Križmarić, Miljenko; Miljković, Jovan

    2016-06-01

    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a common skin pathogen in both adults and children. In this prospective study, we clinically evaluated consecutive patients with molluscum contagiosum (MC) who had been examined during a 5-year period at the second-largest dermatology clinic in Slovenia and described their main demographic and clinical characteristics, concomitant diseases, and treatment success. The study included 188 patients, of which 121 (64%) were men and 67 (36%) were women. A total of 135 (72%) patients were adults, with lesions that were most commonly located in the anogenital region (98%) and were probably sexually acquired. Two adult patients were diagnosed with concurrent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Fifty-three (28%) patients were children with a mean age of 5.7 years, most commonly presenting with lesions on the torso and extremities (85%). In adults, the infection most commonly occurred in male patients, while in children it was slightly more common in female patients. At presentation, 58% of patients had more than 5 MC lesions. A total of 30% of the included children had concomitant atopic dermatitis. We did not observe an increased occurrence of MCV infection in patients with atopic dermatitis. All patients were treated with curettage of the lesions. The cure rate at the first follow-up visit after 2 months was relatively high (63%), and recurrences were not associated with the number or site of lesions at presentation or with concomitant atopic dermatitis.

  9. [Development of the sensitivity to antibiotics in strains of Neisseria gonorrhea isolated in Touraine over a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Pinon, G; Quentin, R; Laudat, P; Vargues, R

    1985-06-01

    347 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated in Touraine, France, from December 1978 to March 1984 were tested for susceptibility to seven antibiotics using an agar dilution method. Percentage of strains with a penicillin G MIC = 0.06 micrograms/ml rose from 58% in 78-80 to 69% in 82-84. Consistent amoxicillin MICs were found throughout the survey (MIC 50: 0.125 and MIC 90: 0.5 micrograms/ml). Three penicillinase-producing strains were recovered from patients contaminated outside the study area. For tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol and spectinomycin, variations of MICs 50 and 90 did not exceed one dilution either way. For spiramycin, MICs 50 and 90 fell from 2 and 8 micrograms/ml respectively in 78-80 to 1 and 2 micrograms/ml in 82-84. Our findings show that susceptibility of Gonococci to the main antibiotics used for treating gonococcal infections in our area has not changed significantly over the last five years. Moreover, implantation and diffusion of penicillinase-producing strains has failed to occur.

  10. Breast cancer survivorship--intersecting gendered discourses in a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Monika; Magnusson, Eva; Egberg Thyme, Karin; Åström, Sture; Lindh, Jack; Öster, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors present a follow-up study of women's interview narratives about life 5 to 7 years after a breast cancer operation. The women had taken part in a study during the 6-month postoperation period. Art therapy contributed to well-being, including strengthening personal boundaries. In the new study, interview analysis informed by critical discursive psychology indicated three problematic discourses that the women still struggled with several years after the operation: the female survivor, the "good woman," and individual responsibility. We concluded that many women with a history of breast cancer need support several years after their medical treatment is finished.

  11. Structural Mechanics Predictions Relating to Clinical Coronary Stent Fracture in a 5 Year Period in FDA MAUDE Database

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Kay D.; Conway, Claire; Desany, Gerard J.; Baker, Brian L.; Choi, Gilwoo; Taylor, Charles A.; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular stents are the mainstay of interventional cardiovascular medicine. Technological advances have reduced biological and clinical complications but not mechanical failure. Stent strut fracture is increasingly recognized as of paramount clinical importance. Though consensus reigns that fractures can result from material fatigue, how fracture is induced and the mechanisms underlying its clinical sequelae remain ill-defined. In this study, strut fractures were identified in the prospectively maintained Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database (MAUDE), covering years 2006–2011, and differentiated based on specific coronary artery implantation site and device configuration. These data, and knowledge of the extent of dynamic arterial deformations obtained from patient CT images and published data, were used to define boundary conditions for 3D finite element models incorporating multimodal, multi-cycle deformation. The structural response for a range of stent designs and configurations was predicted by computational models and included estimation of maximum principal, minimum principal and equivalent plastic strains. Fatigue assessment was performed with Goodman diagrams and safe/unsafe regions defined for different stent designs. Von Mises stress and maximum principal strain increased with multimodal, fully reversed deformation. Spatial maps of unsafe locations corresponded to the identified locations of fracture in different coronary arteries in the clinical database. These findings, for the first time, provide insight into a potential link between patient adverse events and computational modeling of stent deformation. Understanding of the mechanical forces imposed under different implantation conditions may assist in rational design and optimal placement of these devices. PMID:26467552

  12. Lung function and respiratory symptoms among female hairdressers in Palestine: a 5-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nemer, Maysaa; Kristensen, Petter; Nijem, Khaldoun; Bjertness, Espen; Skare, Øivind; Skogstad, Marit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Hairdressers are exposed to chemicals at the workplace which are known to cause respiratory symptoms and asthma. This study aimed to examine changes in self-reported respiratory symptoms over 5 years, as well as to examine the lung function decline and determine whether it is within the expected range, to assess the dropout rate and reasons for leaving the profession, and to examine the associations between occupational factors and lung function changes at follow-up. Design Prospective study. Setting Female hairdressing salons in Hebron city, Palestine. Participants 170 female hairdressers who participated in a baseline survey in 2008 were followed up in 2013. A total of 161 participants participated in 2013. Outcome measures Change in reported respiratory symptoms and change in lung function over follow-up. Dropout from the profession and reasons for it. Differences between current and former hairdressers in respiratory symptoms and lung function at follow-up. Ambient air ammonia levels in 13 salons. Results Current hairdressers reported more respiratory symptoms in 2013 compared with baseline. Former hairdressers reported fewer symptoms at follow-up. At follow-up, current hairdressers showed a significant decrease in forced vital capacity of 35 mL/year (95% CI 26 to 44 mL/year) and of 31 mL/year (95% CI 25 to 36 mL/year) for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). 28 (16%) of the hairdressers quit the job during the 5-year follow-up, 8 (28%) because of health problems. Hairdressers who had been working for 4 years or more at baseline showed a stronger decline in FEV1 compared with those who worked less than 4 years (difference 13, 95% CI 1 to 25). Conclusions Current hairdressers developed more respiratory symptoms and larger lung function decline than former hairdressers during follow-up. Few hairdressers left their profession because of respiratory health problems. Working for more years is associated with lung function decline among

  13. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a 5-year analysis of the wartime and postwar period in South-Western region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Vajdana; Petrović, Oleg; Petrov, Bozo; Bjelanović, Vedran; Naletilić, Mladenka

    2009-12-01

    Hypertensive disorders are among the most common complications in pregnancy and a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes of pregnancies in mothers with hypertensive disorders, as well as the adequacy of prenatal care during the wartime and postwar period in South-Western region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This study included a total of 542 pregnancies with hypertensive disorders during 5-year study period (1995-1999) and 1559 randomly selected controls. Data on risk factors, adverse perinatal outcomes (for singleton pregnancies only) and prenatal care on pregnant women were extracted from the medical records and compared with controls. Chi-square test and crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used in statistical analysis. The average five-year incidence of hypertensive pregnancy disorders was 6.5% and it was significantly higher in 1995, the last year of the war, than in the postwar period (1996-1999) (p = 0.02). Factors significantly associated with hypertensive pregnancy disorders were maternal age > 34, nulliparity, multifetal gestation and male newborn (p < 0.001; except p = 0.002 for male newborn). Severe forms of hypertensive disorders were significantly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes: preterm birth (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.08-6.3), cesarean delivery (OR 9.2, 95% CI 5.4-15.6), fetal growth restriction (OR 63.8, 95% CI 34.8-117.0), and stillbirth (OR 5.5, 95% CI 2.1-14.1). Women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders had significantly lower number of prenatal care visits than controls (p < 0.001). There was a high proportion of normally formed macerated stillbirths in the study (27 out of 30 or 90%) and in the control group (10 out of 12 or 83%). In conclusion, severity of the disorder and adequacy of prenatal care are strongly associated with adverse perinatal outcome related to hypertensive pregnancy disorders.

  14. Development of aerobic and anaerobic power in adolescent rowers: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mikulic, P

    2011-12-01

    We aimed to determine whether the physical and physiological superiority of early-maturing rowing athletes, observed at ages 12-13 years, over that of their late-maturing counterparts observed at the same ages, still persists at 17-18 years of age, when all adolescent athletes are expected to have completed pubertal development. We hypothesized that this superiority of early maturers would not be observed at reassessment, as late maturers would have likely "caught up" with their early-maturing peers. Twenty-one male rowers were assessed at age 12.8 ± 0.5 years and again at 17.5 ± 0.5 years (mean ± SD). They were divided into groups of early-maturing and late-maturing rowing athletes based on Tanner's sexual maturity ratings. A two-way repeated-measures MANOVA followed by a series of ANOVAs with one within-subject factor (time) and one between-subject factor (group) indicated significant (P≤0.003) within-subject and between-subjects main effects for lean body mass (LBM), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and mean power (MP). The group × time interaction effects were significant for LBM (P=0.003), VO2max (P=0.004), but not for MP (P=0.171). Over 5 years, early-maturers' advantage dwindled in terms of LBM (+38% to +9%), VO2max (+47% to +9%), and MP (+76% to +15%); however, these differences may still be considered practically relevant. The proposed hypothesis was not supported.

  15. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging.

  16. Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = −0.19; 95% confidence interval, −0.29 to −0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

  17. Fasting increases risk for onset of binge eating and bulimic pathology: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Davis, Kendra; Miller, Nicole P; Marti, C Nathan

    2008-11-01

    Although adolescent girls with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for future binge eating and bulimic pathology, they do not eat less than those with lower restraint scores. The fact that only a small proportion of individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores develop bulimic pathology suggests that some extreme but rare form of dietary restriction may increase risk for this disturbance. The authors tested the hypothesis that fasting (going without eating for 24 hr for weight control) would be a more potent predictor of binge eating and bulimic pathology onset than dietary restraint scores using data from 496 adolescent girls followed over 5 years. Results confirmed that only 23% of participants with elevated dietary restraint scores reported fasting. Furthermore, fasting generally showed stronger and more consistent predictive relations to future onset of recurrent binge eating and threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa over 1- to 5-year follow-up relative to dietary restraint, though the former effects were only significantly stronger than the latter for some comparisons. Results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that fasting is a stronger risk factor for bulimic pathology than is self-reported dieting.

  18. Air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A 5-year study

    SciTech Connect

    Sunyer, J.; Saez, M.; Murillo, C.; Castellsague, J.; Martinez, F.; Anto, J.M. )

    1993-04-01

    An association between sulfur dioxide levels in urban air and the daily number of emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was previously reported in Barcelona, Spain, for the period 1985-1986. The present study assesses this association over a longer period of time, 1985-1989. This made it possible to carry out separate analyses for the winter and summer seasons and thus to control more adequately for weather and influenza epidemics. An increase of 25 micrograms/m3 in sulfur dioxide (24-hour average) produced adjusted changes of 6% and 9% in emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during winter and summer, respectively. For black smoke, a similar change was found during winter, although the change was smaller in summer. The association of each pollutant with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admissions remained significant after control for the other pollutant. The present findings support the conclusion that current levels of sulfur dioxide and black smoke may have an effect on the respiratory health of susceptible persons.

  19. Tuberculosis among immigrants: interval from arrival in Canada to diagnosis. A 5-year study in southern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, R L; Sharpe, J W

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the pattern of tuberculosis (TB) occurring among immigrants and the interval from arrival in Canada to diagnosis of the disease. DESIGN: Study of all cases of TB diagnosed in foreign-born residents of southern Alberta during the 5-year period 1990-1994. SETTING: A centre for the diagnosis, management and control of all cases of TB in the southern half of the province of Alberta. METHODS: All foreign-born patients in whom TB was newly diagnosed between January 1990 and December 1994 were included in the study. The interval from their arrival in Canada to diagnosis, their country of birth and the site of their disease were documented. RESULTS: Immigrants to Canada accounted for 248 (70.6%) of the 351 cases of TB diagnosed in southern Alberta during the 5-year period. The majority of these immigrants (182/248 [73.4%]) were of Asian origin. Extrapulmonary TB accounted for 111 (61.0%) of the 182 cases of the disease in Asian immigrants. The mean period between immigration and diagnosis was 11.2 years (standard deviation [SD] 13.9 years). Half of the patients presented within 7 years of their arrival in Canada. The time to presentation was shortest for patients with superficial lymph node disease (mean 7.6 years [SD 6.9] after arrival), intermediate among those with extrapulmonary disease, excluding superficial disease of the lymph node (10.1 years [SD 12.1]), and longest for those with pulmonary disease (14.2 years [SD 17.2]). TB developed sooner after arrival in Canada among immigrants from Asian countries (mean 9.1 years) than among those from other countries (17.2 years) (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Given the low annual incidence of TB in Canada (7.1 per 100,000), it is probable that TB occurring among immigrants reflects infection acquired before arrival in Canada. Health care professionals need to be aware that immigrants from countries with a relatively high prevalence of TB remain at risk for the disease (often at an extrapulmonary site) for

  20. Preventive Health Perspective in Sports Medicine: The Trend at the Use of Medications and Nutritional Supplements during 5 Years Period between 2003 and 2008 in Football

    PubMed Central

    Kavukcu, Ethem; Burgazlı, Kamil Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of medication and nutritional supplement use in male Football Super League players and to observe the long term changes of players’ attitudes during 5 years period (4 seasons). Study Design: Retrospective study. Material and Methods: Review and analysis of 4176 doping control forms -declaration reports- about players’ medication intake including; Super League, UEFA Cup and the UEFA Champions League matches. Team physician was asked to document all medications and nutritional supplements taken by the Football Super League players in the last 72 hours before each match. Results: A total intake of 5939 substances were documented, of which almost half 49.2% (n=2921) were classified as medications and 50.8% (n=3018) were nutritional supplements. The average consumption per player was 1.42 substance/match; 0.70 were medications and 0.72 of nutritional supplements. The supplements used most frequently were NSAIDs 24.6% (n=1460) accounting for almost one in four of all reported supplements. Diclofenac Sodium was the most frequently reported active pharmaceutical ingredient. Second most frequently used supplements were vitamins (22.2%). The average drug consumption reported per player has been increasing every passing year. It was 0.7 substance/match/player (0.4 medication; 0.3 nutritional supplement) in 2003–2004 season; was increased to 1.8 substance/match (0.8 medication; 1.0 nutritional supplement) in 2006–2007 season. Conclusion: The trends seen in this survey point to an overuse of NSAIDs and vitamins in comparison with other medications, amoung Turkish Super League football players (p<0.001). The use of NSAIDs has increased but the medication groups did not differ significantly between seasons, in terms of distribution. This increasing use of medications especially of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nutritional supplements is alarming and needs to be argued. PMID:25207073

  1. Spatiotemporal changes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities under different nitrogen inputs over a 5-year period in intensive agricultural ecosystems on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yunlong; Yue, Shanchao; Christie, Peter; Murray, Philip J; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Junling

    2014-11-01

    Appropriate nitrogen (N) management is important to minimize N losses from intensively managed agricultural ecosystems. Understanding the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in response to N management can be of great ecological significance, particularly with the recent emphasis on the role of AMF in N cycling. A comprehensive study of both the vertical distribution of AMF in the soil profile and the temporal changes in community structure in maize roots was conducted over a 5-year period at a field site on the North China Plain. The N treatments consisted of zero N, conventional farming practice, and optimum N based on an in-season soil Nmin test. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone sequencing were used to analyse the AMF community. Optimum N mitigated the decline in richness of AMF in the conventional N treatment in the surface soil. Diverse and species-rich AMF communities occurred deep in the soil profile. A significant difference in AMF community structure was observed between the control and fertilizer N treatments but not between the two N application strategies. AMF communities deeper in the soil profile were subsets of those richer communities in the surface soil and the loss of AMF taxa was mostly due to the absence of rare taxa. Soil pH and Nmin contents were major soil properties affecting the soil AMF communities among the N treatments while vertical distribution was influenced mainly by soil electrical conductivity. Crop phenology had a stronger influence than N treatment on the temporal shifts in AMF communities in maize roots. Our results provide evidence for the importance of N management in maintaining AMF diversity. Changes in soil chemical properties due to N fertilization, in particular declining soil pH, should be integrated in N management strategies to reduce the negative impacts on AMF communities induced by N fertilization. Excessive N inputs induced significant changes in soil physicochemical

  2. Hip fracture causes excess mortality owing to cardiovascular and infectious disease in institutionalized older people: a prospective 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Ian D; Chen, Jian Sheng; March, Lyn M; Simpson, Judy M; Cumming, Robert G; Seibel, Markus J; Sambrook, Philip N

    2010-04-01

    An increasing risk of death after hip fracture has been well documented, but the duration and causes remain unclear, especially in very frail older people. This is a nested case-control study of 229 hip fracture cases and 229 controls matched by age, gender, institution type, and follow-up period from a cohort of 2005 institutionalized older people. The residents were assessed at baseline and followed up for hip fracture and death for at least 5 years. Time to death was measured from the same time for each case (time of the hip fracture) and the matched control. The study sample consisted of 90 males and 368 females with a mean age of 86 years (range 67 to 102 years). The hazard ratio (HR) of death for the cases compared with the controls was 3.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83-5.22, p < .001] for the first 3 months, 1.99 (95% CI 1.13-3.51, p = .02) for the period of 3 to 9 months, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.64-1.22, p = .46) for the period beyond 9 months following a fracture, after adjusting for age, gender, institution type, weight, immobility, cognitive function, comorbidities, and number of medications. The main causes of the excess mortality in the first 9 months were infections (HR = 6.66, 95% CI 1.95-22.77, p = .002) for females and cardiac disease (HR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.39-5.15, p = .003) for both males and females. Bisphosphonate use was associated with a reduction in mortality after hip fracture (p = .002). Intensive medical supervision to reduce cardiovascular and infective complications should be provided for frail older people with recent hip fracture to reduce mortality.

  3. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  4. Asperger Syndrome and Autism: A Comparative Longitudinal Follow-Up Study More than 5 Years after Original Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…

  5. Changes in weight over the school year and summer vacation: Results of a 5-year longitudinal study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that children gain more weight during the summer months compared with the school year. In order to further examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standardized BMI (zBMI) of students...

  6. Changes in weight over the school year and summer vacation: Results of a 5-year longitudinal study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some evidence suggests that children have relatively higher increases in weight during the summer months compared to the school year. In order to further examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standa...

  7. Changes in Weight over the School Year and Summer Vacation: Results of a 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Jennette P.; Johnston, Craig A.; Woehler, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that children gain more weight during the summer months compared with the school year. To examine the impact of the school and summer environment on children's weight further, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study examining changes in standardized BMI (zBMI) of students entering kindergarten. Methods: Heights and…

  8. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being.

  9. Cognitive Predictors of Achievement Growth in Mathematics: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The study's goal was to identify the beginning of 1st grade quantitative competencies that predict mathematics achievement start point and growth through 5th grade. Measures of number, counting, and arithmetic competencies were administered in early 1st grade and used to predict mathematics achievement through 5th (n = 177), while controlling for…

  10. Longitudinal pulmonary functional loss in cotton textile workers: A 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118

  11. Incidence of Hypertension in Korea: 5-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jang Hoon; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik; Cho, Yongkeun; Jun, Jae Eun; Park, Wee Hyun; Chun, Byung Yeol; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyeong Soo; Kim, Kee-Sik; Kim, Kwon-Bae; Kim, Young Jo

    2011-01-01

    Limited data are available about the incidence of hypertension over the 5-yr in non-hypertensive subjects. The study subjects were 1,806 subjects enrolled in a rural area of Daegu, Korea for a cohort study from August to November 2003. Of them, 1,287 (71.3%) individuals had another examination 5 yr later. To estimate the incidence of hypertension, 730 non-hypertensive individuals (265 males; mean age = 56.6 ± 11.1 yr-old) at baseline examination were analyzed in this study. Hypertension was defined as either a new diagnosis of hypertension or self-reports of newly initiated antihypertensive treatment; prehypertension was if the systolic blood pressure was 120-139 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure was 80-89 mmHg. During the 5-yr follow-up, 195 (26.7%) non-hypertensive individuals developed incident hypertension. The age-adjusted 5-yr incidence rates of hypertension were 22.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.9-29.0) in overall subjects, 22.2% (95% CI = 17.2-27.2) in men, and 24.3% (95% CI = 20.4-28.2) in women. The incidence rates of hypertension significantly increased with age. In the multivariate analysis, prehypertension (Odds ratio [OR] 2.25; P < 0.001) and older age (OR 2.26; P = 0.010) were independent predictors for incident hypertension. In this rapidly aging society, population-based preventive approach to decrease blood pressure, particularly in subjects with prehypertension, is needed to reduce hypertension. PMID:22022179

  12. Impact of physical activity domains on subsequent physical activity in youth: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hardie Murphy, Michelle; Rowe, David A; Woods, Catherine B

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluates how domains of physical activity (PA) in youth predict later PA and assesses factors influencing changes in sports participation. Young people from the Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity study (n = 873; baseline age 10-18 years; 30.4% male) completed self-report surveys in 2009 and 2014. In a multiple linear regression analysis, participation frequency in club sport (β = 0.18) and extracurricular sport (β = 0.13) significantly predicted PA 5 years later, adjusted for age, sex and urban/rural classification (P < 0.01). Overall, rates of regular (at least once per week) youth sports participation were high (males 79.3-85.5%; females 74.8-83.2%). Uptake and dropout of specific sports varied widely. Despite high levels of migration into and out of Gaelic games, they remained popular at follow-up. Weight training was the only sport that increased in both sexes (P < 0.05). Fitness, friends and enjoyment were top motivations for taking up a new sport. Other commitments, a lack of interest and time were important factors leading to sports dropout. PA promotion strategies should include youth sport, take into consideration what sports are attractive to young people and address reasons for uptake and dropout.

  13. Regional inequality in radiology research output in the UK: a 5-year bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Yoong, P; Johnson, C A; Rehman, J M; Toms, A P

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the patterns of peer-reviewed general radiology publication rates with reference to deaneries in the UK. This was a retrospective bibliometric analysis of publications in the six highest cited general radiology journals. Publications were identified using a manual search in PubMed between 2005 and 2009. Publications originating from UK radiology departments were identified and subcategorised into primary institution of origin, deanery and publication type. The total number of radiology trainees in each deanery was obtained from the General Medical Council. 913 publications were included in the study. Original papers constituted 48.7% (n=445), review articles 30.3% (n=277) and case reports 17.4% (n=159). The median number of publications in each deanery was 27 [interquartile range (IQR) 11-60], and the median number of publications per trainee was 0.49 (IQR 0.31-0.88). The largest proportion of publications came from the London deanery (n=354, 38.8%), followed by Eastern 86 (9.4%), Oxford and Yorkshire 70 (7.7% each). Relative to the number of trainees within each deanery, Oxford had the highest number of publications per trainee (1.78), followed by East Midlands (1.5), London (1.25) and Eastern (0.99). There was a significantly higher publication rate for those deaneries with academic radiologists (p<0.0001). There is a marked difference in the volume of published work in the general radiology literature among UK deaneries, even accounting for differences in the number of trainees. This probably means that opportunities for training in research are similarly non-uniform.

  14. 5-Year study of rainwater chemistry in a coastal mega-city in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xiang; He, Ling-Yan; Feng, Ning; Hu, Min; Niu, Yu-Wen; Zeng, Li-Wu

    2010-07-01

    South China is one of the major regions suffering from acid rain in the world, especially for its urban environments. However, long-term and comprehensive studies on rainwater chemistry in this region have been scarce in the literature. In order to characterize the current acid rain status in South China, a total of 208 rainfall events were collected and measured systematically at an urban site in Shenzhen, a mega-city on the southeast coast of China, from 2005 to 2009. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) pH was observed to be 4.56 during the five years, with an acid rain frequency of 84.6%. SO 42- was the most abundant ionic species, followed by Ca 2+, NH 4+, H +, NO 3-, Cl -, Na +, Mg 2+, K + and F - in sequence. Formic, acetic and oxalic acids together contributed 2.32% to the total organic carbon (TOC) content and 2.86% to the total free acidity. SO 42-, NO 3-, Ca 2+, NH 4+ and TOC presented a seasonal trend of being lower in summer and higher in winter, while the other species did not show clear seasonal patterns. Based on the dataset, the sources of the species in rainwater in Shenzhen were explored using different statistical techniques, which indicated strong impact of anthropogenic pollution on the rainwater chemistry in this area.

  15. Cognitive predictors of achievement growth in mathematics: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2011-11-01

    The study's goal was to identify the beginning of 1st grade quantitative competencies that predict mathematics achievement start point and growth through 5th grade. Measures of number, counting, and arithmetic competencies were administered in early 1st grade and used to predict mathematics achievement through 5th (n = 177), while controlling for intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Multilevel models revealed intelligence and processing speed, and the central executive component of working memory predicted achievement or achievement growth in mathematics and, as a contrast domain, word reading. The phonological loop was uniquely predictive of word reading and the visuospatial sketch pad of mathematics. Early fluency in processing and manipulating numerical set size and Arabic numerals, accurate use of sophisticated counting procedures for solving addition problems, and accuracy in making placements on a mathematical number line were uniquely predictive of mathematics achievement. Use of memory-based processes to solve addition problems predicted mathematics and reading achievement but in different ways. The results identify the early quantitative competencies that uniquely contribute to mathematics learning.

  16. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in the Armed Forces: A 5-year single centre study

    PubMed Central

    Jakhmola, C.K.; Kumar, Ameet

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgery for inguinal hernia continues to evolve. The most recent development in the field of surgery for inguinal hernia is the emergence of laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery (LIHS) which is challenging the gold standard Lichtenstein's tension free mesh repair. Our centre has the largest series of LIHS from any Armed Forces hospital. The aim of this study was to analyze the short and long term outcomes at our center since its inception. Methods Retrospective review of prospectively maintained data base of 501 LIHS done in 434 patients by a single surgeon between April 2008 and October 2013. Preoperative, intraoperative, postoperative and follow-up data was analyzed with emphasis on the recurrence rates and the incidence of inguinodynia. Results 402 (92.6%) patients had primary hernias and 367 (84.6%) patients had unilateral hernias. Of the 501 repairs, 453 (90.4 %) were done totally extraperitoneal approach and 48 (9.6 %) were done by the transabdominal preperitoneal approach. The mean operative time for unilateral and bilateral repairs was 40.9 ± 11.2 and 76.2 ± 15.0 minutes, respectively. The conversion rate to open surgery was 0.6%. The intraoperative, and early and late postoperative complication rates were 1.7%, 6.2% and 3%, respectively. The incidence of chronic groin pain was 0.7% and the recurrence rate was 1.6%. The median hospital stay was 1 day (1–5 days). Conclusion We, in this series of over 500 repairs have demonstrated that feasibility as well as safety of LIHS at our centre with good short and long term outcomes. PMID:26663957

  17. Alveolar Ridge Contouring with Free Connective Tissue Graft at Implant Placement: A 5-Year Consecutive Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Hanser, Thomas; Khoury, Fouad

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated volume stability after alveolar ridge contouring with free connective tissue grafts at implant placement in single-tooth gaps. A total of 52 single-tooth gaps with labial volume deficiencies in the maxilla (incisors, canines, and premolars) were consecutively treated with implants and concomitant free palatal connective tissue grafts in 46 patients between 2006 and 2009. Implants had to be covered with at least 2 mm peri-implant local bone after insertion. At implant placement, a free connective tissue graft from the palate was fixed inside a labial split-thickness flap to form an existing concave buccal alveolar ridge contour due to tissue volume deficiency into a convex shape. Standardized volumetric measurements of the labial alveolar contour using a template were evaluated before connective tissue grafting and at 2 weeks, 1 year, and 5 years after implantprosthetic incorporation. Tissue volume had increased significantly (P < .05) in all six reference points representing the outer alveolar soft tissue contour of the implant before connective tissue grafting to baseline (2 weeks after implant-prosthetic incorporation). Statistically, 50% of the reference points (P > .05) kept their volume from baseline to 1 year after prosthetic incorporation and from baseline to 5 years after prosthetic incorporation, respectively, whereas reference points located within the area of the implant sulcus showed a significant (P < .05) decrease in volume. Clinically, 5 years after prosthetic incorporation the originally concave buccal alveolar contour was still convex in all implants, leading to a continuous favorable anatomical shape and improved esthetic situation. Intraoral radiographs confirmed osseointegration and stable peri-implant parameters with a survival rate of 100% after a follow-up of approximately 5 years. Implant placement with concomitant free connective tissue grafting appears to be an appropriate long-term means to contour preexisting buccal

  18. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  19. Effects of vocationally oriented medical rehabilitation for aircraft maintenance personnel--a preliminary study of long-term effects with 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Kaj; Nevala, Nina; Kuronen, Pentti; Arokoski, Jari P A

    2004-12-01

    Changes in the physical capacity, musculoskeletal symptoms, and perceived work ability of Finnish Air Force maintenance personnel were studied after vocationally oriented medical rehabilitation (VOMR). Twenty persons with chronic musculoskeletal symptoms in their back or neck took part in VOMR courses. The measurements were carried out at the beginning of the rehabilitation course and after two follow-up periods (0.5 and 5 years). The subjects worked most of the time in a bent position and often with their backs twisted and their arms above their shoulders. The severity of low-back pain and the number of days of sick leave decreased significantly (p < 0.05-0.01) during the 5-years follow-up. Also the exercise breaks at work increased (p < 0.01). After half a year of medical rehabilitation the measured range of the cervical spine and the dynamic and endurance strength of the upper and lower extremities was greater (p < 0.05-0.001) than at the beginning of the rehabilitation. There were no statistically significant differences in the use of physical therapy, experienced work strain, physical exercise or maximal oxygen consumption during the follow-up. This is a preliminary follow-up study lasting 5 years showed some significant changes in physical capacity, musculoskeletal symptoms and work ability. However, controlled studies are needed to evaluate these preliminary findings of this kind of rehabilitation model.

  20. A Handling Study to Assess Use of the Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler in Children Under 5 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion; Kattenbeck, Sabine; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Wachtel, Herbert; Zielen, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) is a hand-held device that generates an aerosol with a high, fine-particle fraction, enabling efficient lung deposition. The study objective was to assess inhalation success among children using Respimat SMI, and the requirement for assistance by the parent/caregiver and/or a valved holding chamber (VHC). Methods: This open-label study enrolled patients aged <5 years with respiratory disease and history of coughing and/or recurrent wheezing. Patients inhaled from the Respimat SMI (air only; no aerosol) using a stepwise configuration: “1” (dose released by child); “2” (dose released by parent/caregiver), and “3” (Respimat SMI with VHC, facemask, and parent/caregiver help). Co-primary endpoints included the ability to perform successful inhalation as assessed by the investigators using a standardized handling questionnaire and evaluation of the reasons for success. Inhalation profile in the successful handling configuration was verified with a pneumotachograph. Patient satisfaction and preferences were investigated in a questionnaire. Results: Of the children aged 4 to <5 years (n=27) and 3 to <4 years (n=30), 55.6% and 30.0%, respectively, achieved success without a VHC or help; with assistance, another 29.6% and 10.0%, respectively, achieved success, and the remaining children were successful with VHC. All children aged 2 to <3 years (n=20) achieved success with the Respimat SMI and VHC. Of those aged <2 years (n=22), 95.5% had successful handling of the Respimat SMI with VHC and parent/caregiver help. Inhalation flow profiles generally confirmed the outcome of the handling assessment by the investigators. Most parent/caregiver and/or child respondents were satisfied with operation, instructions for use, handling, and ease of holding the Respimat SMI with or without a VHC. Conclusions: The Respimat SMI is suitable for children aged <5 years; however, children aged <5 years are advised to add a

  1. Prenatal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Neurodevelopment in U.S. Children through 5 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Yolton, Kimberly; Rauch, Stephen A.; Webster, Glenys M.; Hornung, Richard; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent chemicals that have been widely used as flame retardants in furniture, carpet padding, car seats, and other consumer products during the past three decades. Objective: We examined whether in utero exposure to PBDEs is associated with child cognitive function and behavior in a U.S. study sample. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort, we measured maternal serum concentrations of BDE-47 and other PBDE congeners in 309 women at 16 weeks of gestation during 2003–2006 and followed their children in Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured cognitive and motor abilities using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II at ages 1, 2, and 3 years; intelligence using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III at age 5 years; and children’s behaviors using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 annually at ages 2–5 years. We used linear mixed models or generalized estimating equations with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate associations between these outcomes and log10-transformed PBDE concentrations. Results: The geometric mean of BDE-47 in maternal serum (20.1 ng/g lipid) was comparable with U.S. adult national reference values. Prenatal BDE-47 was not significantly associated with Bayley Mental or Psychomotor Development Indices at 1–3 years, but a 10-fold increase in prenatal BDE-47 was associated with a 4.5-point decrease (95% CI: –8.8, –0.1) in Full-Scale IQ and a 3.3-point increase (95% CI: 0.3, 6.3) in the hyperactivity score at age 5 years. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to PBDEs was associated with lower IQ and higher hyperactivity scores in children. Citation: Chen A, Yolton K, Rauch SA, Webster GM, Hornung R, Sjödin A, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP. 2014. Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and neurodevelopment in U.S. children through 5 years of age: the HOME study. Environ Health Perspect 122:856–862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307562 PMID

  2. Surgical and Non-Surgical Procedures Associated with Recurrence of Periodontitis in Periodontal Maintenance Therapy: 5-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Cyrino, Renata Magalhães; Lages, Eugênio José Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Prospective studies that investigated the influence of surgical and nonsurgical procedures in the recurrence of periodontitis and tooth loss in periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) programs have not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate longitudinally the recurrence of periodontitis in regular compliers (RC) and irregular compliers (IC) individuals undergoing surgical and non-surgical procedures over 5 years in a program of PMT. Materials and Methods A total of 212 individuals participated in this study. Full-mouth periodontal examination including bleeding on probing, probing depth, and clinical attachment level were determined at all PMT visits over 5 years. The recurrence of periodontitis was evaluated in RC and IC individuals undergoing surgical and non-surgical procedures in PMT. The influences of risk variables of interest were tested through univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results Recurrence of periodontitis was significantly lower among RC when compared to IC. Individuals with recurrence of periodontitis and undergoing surgical procedures showed higher probing depth and clinical attachment loss than those who received non-surgical procedures. Recurrence of periodontitis was higher in individual undergoing surgical procedures and irregular compliance during PMT. Conclusions Irregular compliance and surgical procedures in individuals undergoing PMT presented higher rates of recurrence of periodontitis when compared to regular compliant patients undergoing non-surgical procedures. PMID:26496187

  3. Effect of physical activity level on biomarkers of inflammation and insulin resistance over 5 years in outpatients with coronary heart disease (from the Heart and Soul Study).

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Jennifer L; Whooley, Mary A; Regan, Mathilda C; Sin, Nancy L; Cohen, Beth E

    2014-10-15

    Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower rates of coronary heart disease (CHD). Previous studies have suggested that this is due partly to lower levels of inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether physical activity level was associated with inflammation or insulin resistance during a 5-year period in outpatients with known CHD. A total of 656 participants from the Heart and Soul Study, a prospective cohort study of outpatients with documented CHD, were evaluated. Self-reported physical activity frequency was assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Participants were classified as low versus high activity at each visit, yielding 4 physical activity groups: stable low activity, decreasing activity (high at baseline to low at year 5), increasing activity (low at baseline to high at year 5), and stable high activity. Year 5 markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6, and fibrinogen) and insulin resistance (insulin, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin) were compared across the 4 activity groups. After 5 years of follow-up, higher activity was associated with lower mean levels of all biomarkers. In the fully adjusted regression models, CRP, interleukin-6, and glucose remained independently associated with physical activity frequency (log CRP, p for trend across activity groups = 0.03; log interleukin-6, p for trend = 0.01; log glucose, p for trend = 0.003). Subjects with stable high activity typically had the lowest levels of biomarkers. In conclusion, in this novel population of outpatients with known CHD followed for 5 years, higher physical activity frequency was independently associated with lower levels of CRP, interleukin-6, and glucose.

  4. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  5. Marijuana Use in the Immediate 5-Year Premorbid Period is Associated with Increased Risk of Onset of Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Mary E.; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Broussard, Beth; Crisafio, Anthony; Cristofaro, Sarah; Johnson, Stephanie; Reed, Thomas A.; Amar, Patrick; Kaslow, Nadine J.; Walker, Elaine F.; Compton, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Several studies suggest that adolescent marijuana use predicts earlier age at onset of schizophrenia, which is a crucial prognostic indicator. Yet, many investigations have not adequately established a clear temporal relationship between the use and onset. Methods We enrolled 247 first-episode psychosis patients from six psychiatric units and collected data on lifetime marijuana/alcohol/tobacco use, and ages at onset of prodrome and psychosis in 210 of these patients. Cox regression (survival analysis) was employed to quantify hazard ratios (HRs) for effects of diverse premorbid use variables on psychosis onset. Results Escalation of premorbid use in the 5 years prior to onset was highly predictive of an increased risk for onset (e.g., increasing from no use to daily use, HR=3.6, p<0.0005). Through the analysis of time-specific measures, we determined that daily use approximately doubled the rate of onset (HR=2.2, p<0.0005), even after controlling for simultaneous alcohol/tobacco use. Building on previous studies, we were able to determine that cumulative marijuana exposure was associated with an increased rate of onset of psychosis (p=0.007), independent of gender and family history, and this is possibly the reason for age at initiation of marijuana use also being associated with rate of onset in this cohort. Conclusions These data provide evidence of a clear temporal relationship between escalations in use in the five years pre-onset and an increased rate of onset, demonstrate that the strength of the association is similar pre- and post-onset of prodromal symptoms, and determine that early adult use may be just as important as adolescent use in these associations. PMID:26785806

  6. Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Kobrosly, Roni W; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Ueland, Per M; Myers, Gary J

    2013-07-28

    Choline is an essential nutrient that is found in many food sources and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that choline status pre- and postnatally can have long-lasting effects on attention and memory; however, effects in human subjects have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), methionine and homocysteine and specific measures of neurodevelopment were measured in 210 children aged 5 years. The children's plasma free choline concentration (9·17 (sd 2·09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine (r 0·24; P= 0·0006), DMG (r 0·15; P= 0·03), methionine (r 0·24; P= 0·0005) and homocysteine (r 0·19; P= 0·006) concentrations. Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale – total language scores (β = 0·066; P= 0·04), but no other associations were evident. We found no indication that free choline concentration or its metabolites, within the normal physiological range, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. As there is considerable animal evidence suggesting that choline status during development is associated with cognitive outcome, the issue deserves further study in other cohorts.

  7. Surgical wound infections. A 5-year prospective study of 20,193 wounds at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, M; O'Connor, M; Schwartz, M L

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a 5-year prospective study of postoperative wound sepsis utilizing a careful program of wound surveillance. Surgical wounds following 20,193 operations on all surgical services were surveyed by a trained nurse epidemiologist. Daily examination of wounds, culture of all suspicious wounds, and 30-day outpatient clinic follow-up were performed. Results were disseminated at monthly intervals to all involved surgeons and operating room personnel. Prospective and ongoing analysis of results facilitated identification and rectification of specific problem areas. Wound infection rates demonstrated a steady decline over the course of the study, overall rates dropping from 4.2% to 1.9% (p less than 0.05). This reduction in incidence of postoperative wound sepsis of 55% is estimated to have saved 2740 inhospital days and nearly $750,000. PMID:6703787

  8. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  9. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  10. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p < .001), CBCL-Total 41.1 ± 8.6 (p < .001), BRIEF-P-Global Executive Composite 44.8 ± 9.5 (p = .009). Twelve (44%) of the PGD children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  11. Heavy metal pollution in the surface water of the Yangtze Estuary: A 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Su; Feng, Chenghong; Li, Yangyang; Yin, Lifeng; Shen, Zhenyao

    2015-11-01

    The temporal-spatial changes in the concentration and health risk of eight dissolved heavy metals in the Yangtze Estuary over a 5-year period were discussed based on large-scale sampling data. Special attention was paid to the differentiation of metal sources. Concentrations of the metals were present in the following order: Zn≫As>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd>Hg, but the hazard quotient indices could be obviously divided into three gradients. More attention should be paid to As, Ni, Pb, and Cr because they increased yearly. Cu, Ni, Pb and As had higher health risks in the nearshore zones, while higher health risks of Zn, Cr, Cd, and Hg were observed in the estuarine channel. Correlations and hierarchical cluster analysis results of metal sources were consistent well with those obtained by temporal-spatial distributions. Shipping activities were the largest contributor to the elevated Zn concentrations in the estuary, while Megacity Shanghai significantly affected the Ni, Cu and As pollution. Yangtze River runoff was the primary source of Cu and As in the estuary. Cd and Cr pollution were closely related to the sediment release under the drive of the "salt-out effect".

  12. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in victims of Tokyo subway attack: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Iwanami, Akira; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kato, Nobumasa

    2004-12-01

    Sarin gas was dispersed in a Tokyo subway in 1995. This study investigates the mental and somatic symptoms of the 34 victims 5 years after the attack. Structured interviews (Clinician-Administered Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder [CAPS] and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and self-rating questionnaires were used to assess the symptoms. Not only post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but also non-specific mental symptoms persisted in the victims at a high rate. A total of 11 victims were diagnosed with current or lifetime PTSD according to CAPS. Victims with PTSD showed higher anxiety levels and more visual memory impairment. A significant correlation between the total score of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and CAPS was found, indicating that IES-R is a useful tool for evaluating PTSD.

  13. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2013-09-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of <-2 is considered to be malnourished. The overall prevalence rate of underweight children was 18.2%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between males and females (p=0.797). However, the percentage of underweight children was slightly higher among females (18.9%) compared to males (17.6%). There was no association between parents' educational level or employment status and childhood malnutrition. There was no association between a family's movement from their house and childhood malnutrition (p=0.322). Living in an unsafe neighbourhood and having a family member killed during the past five years were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (p=0.016 and 0.018 respectively). Childhood malnutrition is still a public-health concern in Baghdad city, especially after the war of 2003. Malnutrition is significantly associated with living in unsafe neighbourhoods and at least one family member having been killed during the past five years.

  14. Subcutaneous Interferon β-1a May Protect against Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: 5-Year Follow-up of the COGIMUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Francesco; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria; Bastianello, Stefano; Tola, Maria Rosalia; Cottone, Salvatore; Plant, Andrea; Picconi, Orietta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) -1a on cognition over 5 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients aged 18–50 years with RRMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤4.0) who had completed the 3-year COGIMUS study underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examination, and neuropsychological testing at years 4 and 5. Predictors of cognitive impairment at year 5 were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Of 331 patients who completed the 3-year COGIMUS study, 265 participated in the 2-year extension study, 201 of whom (75.8%; sc IFN β-1a three times weekly: 44 µg, n = 108; 22 µg, n = 93) completed 5 years' follow-up. The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment in the study population overall remained stable between baseline (18.0%) and year 5 (22.6%). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment also remained stable in both treatment groups between baseline and year 5, and between year 3 and year 5. However, a significantly higher proportion of men than women had cognitive impairment at year 5 (26.5% vs 14.4%, p = 0.046). Treatment with the 22 versus 44 µg dose was predictive of cognitive impairment at year 5 (hazard ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.97). Conclusions This study suggests that sc IFN β-1a dose-dependently stabilizes or delays cognitive impairment over a 5-year period in most patients with mild RRMS. Women seem to be more protected against developing cognitive impairment, which may indicate greater response to therapy or the inherently better prognosis associated with female sex in MS. PMID:24137499

  15. 5-Year Budget Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, John G.; Lingel, George; Piekarski, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Financial planning is the key to providing a high-quality instructional plan. A 5-year financial plan is typically updated by looking at district financial history, future instructional plans, staffing requirements, and revenue projections. Planning assumptions must be clearly understood by the financial team and the community. (MLH)

  16. Occurrence of Scopulariopsis and Scedosporium in nails and keratinous skin. A 5-year retrospective multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Issakainen, Jouni; Heikkilä, Hannele; Vainio, Eeva; Koukila-Kähkölä, Pirkko; Castren, Mirja; Liimatainen, Oili; Ojanen, Tarja; Koskela, Markku; Meurman, Olli

    2007-05-01

    A 5-year retrospective multicenter study was performed for microascaceous moulds (Microascaceae, Ascomycetes) in Finnish clinical specimens. The files from 1993-1997 of six clinical mycology laboratories in Finland were searched for reports of these fungi, mainly Scopulariopsis and Scedosporium anamorphs in keratinous specimens. From the 521 primary findings, 165 cases were selected for further study based on direct microscopy, colony numbers and accompanying fungi. The clinical records of 148 cases (141 Scopulariopsis, 7 Scedosporium) were studied. Of the nail infections from which Scopulariopsis was recovered, 39 cases were further separated which showed clinical or laboratory-based evidence of dermatophytosis. In the remaining 90 'non-dermatophyte' nail cases, Scopulariopsis spp. were the only documented fungal agents (c. 6 cases/million/year). The patients were mainly elderly, 66% of whom had problems involving their big toe nails. For 74% of them, the nail problem was mentioned as their reason for visiting the physician. However, only 18% had documented benefit from treatment. The Scopulariopsis nail infections seem to be treatment-resistant and the pathogenesis and etiological role of Scopulariopsis remain poorly understood.

  17. Valvular Abnormalities Detected by Echocardiography in 5-Year Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Helena J. van der; Caron, Huib N.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Dalen, Elvira C. van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of valvular abnormalities after radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or treatment with anthracyclines and to identify associated risk factors in a large cohort of 5-year childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of all 626 eligible 5-year CCS diagnosed with childhood cancer in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 and treated with radiation therapy involving the heart region and/or anthracyclines. We determined the presence of valvular abnormalities according to echocardiograms. Physical radiation dose was converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined the associations between cancer treatment and valvular abnormalities. Results: We identified 225 mainly mild echocardiographic valvular abnormalities in 169 of 545 CCS (31%) with a cardiac assessment (median follow-up time, 14.9 years [range, 5.1-36.8 years]; median attained age 22.0 years [range, 7.0-49.7 years]). Twenty-four CCS (4.4%) had 31 moderate or higher-graded abnormalities. Most common abnormalities were tricuspid valve disorders (n=119; 21.8%) and mitral valve disorders (n=73; 13.4%). The risk of valvular abnormalities was associated with increasing radiation dose (using EQD{sub 2}) involving the heart region (odds ratio 1.33 per 10 Gy) and the presence of congenital heart disease (odds ratio 3.43). We found no statistically significant evidence that anthracyclines increase the risk. Conclusions: Almost one-third of CCS treated with potentially cardiotoxic therapy had 1 or more asymptomatic, mostly mild valvular abnormalities after a median follow-up of nearly 15 years. The most important risk factors are higher EQD{sub 2} to the heart region and congenital heart disease. Studies with longer follow-up are necessary to investigate the clinical course of asymptomatic valvular abnormalities in

  18. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  19. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3-5 years olds in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.

  20. Health and mental health care utilization by clients of resources for homeless persons in quebec city and montreal, Canada: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Louise; Blais, Régis; Perreault, Michel; White, Noé Djawn

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this cohort study is to describe the service utilization by clients of homeless resources in Quebec and Montreal (Canada) over a 5-year period. Participants (N = 426) were recruited from a survey conducted in 1999 about clients' utilization of resources intended for homeless people in Montreal and Quebec. Data analyzed in this study were also drawn from three administrative databanks managed by the Quebec health care system. Results revealed that: (1) in general, mental health services are less used than physical health services; (2) generally, women, older persons, nonhomeless persons, and persons with mental health problems utilized proportionately more health services; and (3) participants involved in this study tend to continue using services over years in a system where health services are free. These findings are discussed in terms of long-term service utilization by clients of homeless resources.

  1. Case Series of HIV Infection-Associated Arteriopathy: Diagnosis, Management, and Outcome Over a 5-Year period at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai University.

    PubMed

    Orrapin, Saritphat; Reanpang, Termpong; Orrapin, Saranat; Arwon, Supapong; Kattipathanapong, Thanate; Lekwanavijit, Suree; Rerkasem, Kittipan

    2015-09-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can present with 4 pathology types: drug-induced vasospasm (ergotism), arterial limb ischemia, critical limb ischemia, and aneurysm. Although these problems are common vascular problems, they result in increased morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients, especially aneurysm. Patients with these problems tend to be diagnosed with difficulty because of atypical symptoms and signs. Because of lack of data in treatment outcome literature, our report explores and provides information on HIV infection-related arteriopathy. There were 17 patients in our 5-year review. There was no death in patients except the aneurysm type. The survival of aneurysm patients was significantly lower than from other pathologies (P = .003). Our case series showed good short-term outcome, and patients were not at risk for less beneficial surgical procedures.

  2. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years; Well child - 5 years ... skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 to 5 pounds (1. ...

  3. An analysis of infection control of varicella-zoster virus infections in Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge over a 5-year period, 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Whipp, J.; Redpath, C.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study analyses infections with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge during 1987-92 and examines the spread of infection. In total, 93 patients and staff experienced VZV infection. Twenty-one patients had varicella and 49 experienced zoster. None of 101 patients and 1 of 625 staff members in contact with varicella cases acquired infection. By contrast, 2 of 227 patients, and 5 of 1039 staff in contact with zoster cases acquired varicella. One out of 28 (3.6%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with varicella acquired infection, compared with 5 out of 29 (17.2%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with zoster. Thus, zoster was found to be a more frequent cause of nosocomial infection than varicella. Fourteen members of staff had VZV infection during the study period. One of 99 patients and none of 389 staff members in contact with these cases developed varicella. The cost of dealing with infection control for VZV infections in our hospital is estimated to be Pounds 714 per patient case and a total of Pounds 13,204 per year. PMID:8760965

  4. Characterization of H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated flocks in an integrated broiler chicken operation in eastern China during a 5 year period (1998-2002).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pinghu; Tang, Yinghua; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Hongqi; Lu, Shan; Liu, Xiufan

    2008-12-01

    In the current study, we characterized H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated flocks in an integrated broiler chicken operation during a 5 year period (1998-2002). Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 genes of 11 representative viruses showed that they all shared high similarity to that of the first isolate, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98), and clustered to the same lineages. Furthermore, all 11 viruses had a 9 nt deletion between positions 206 and 214 of the neuraminidase gene. These genetic characteristics strongly suggest that these viruses are descendants of the first isolate. In addition, our study also showed that the H9N2 viruses circulating in the operation during this 5 year period were evolving, as shown by antigenic variations between viruses manifested by reactivity with polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies, by haemagglutination with erythrocytes from different animals, by amino acid differences in haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, and by variation in their ability to replicate in the respiratory and intestinal tract and to be transmitted by aerosol. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the internal genes from some H5N1 viruses of duck origin clustered together with those from H9N2 virus and that the RNP genes of these H5N1 viruses isolated after 2001 are more closely related to the genes of the Ck/SH/F/98-like H9N2 viruses, indicating more recent reassortment events between these two subtypes of viruses. Continuous surveillance of influenza virus in poultry and waterfowl is critical for monitoring the genesis and emergence of potentially pandemic strains in this region.

  5. Impact of a pharmaceutical care program on clinical evolution and antiretroviral treatment adherence: a 5-year study

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, María Jesús Hernández; Figueroa, Salvador Enrique Cabrera; Correa, Rosa Sepúlveda; de la Paz Valverde Merino, María; Gómez, Alicia Iglesias; Hurlé, Alfonso Domínguez-Gil

    2013-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatments (ART) form the basis of adequate clinical control in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, and adherence plays a primary role in the grade and duration of the antiviral response. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine the impact of the implementation of a pharmaceutical care program on improvement of ART adherence and on the immunovirological response of the patients; and (2) to detect possible correlations between different adherence evaluation measurements. Methods A 60-month long retrospective study was conducted. Adherence measures used were: therapeutic drug monitoring, a simplified medication adherence questionnaire, and antiretroviral dispensation records (DR). The number of interviews and interventions related to adherence made for each patient in yearly periods was related to the changes in the adherence variable (measured with DR) in these same yearly periods. The dates when the laboratory tests were drawn were grouped according to proximity with the study assessment periods (February–May, 2005–2010). Results A total of 528 patients were included in the study. A significant relationship was observed between the simplified medication adherence questionnaire and DR over the 60-month study period (P < 0.01). Improvement was observed in the mean adherence level (P < 0.001), and there was a considerable decrease in the percentage of patients with CD4+ lymphocytes less than 200 cells/mm3 (P < 0.001). A relationship was found between the number of patients with optimum adherence levels and the time that plasma viral load remained undetected. The number of interviews and interventions performed in each patient in the first 12 months from the onset of the pharmaceutical care program (month 6), was related to a significant increase in adherence during this same time period. Conclusion The results suggest that the establishment and permanence of a pharmaceutical care program may increase ART adherence

  6. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  7. Increased Serum Sodium and Serum Osmolarity Are Independent Risk Factors for Developing Chronic Kidney Disease; 5 Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Hisatome, Ichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Niwa, Koichiro; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Jensen, Thomas; Bjornstad, Petter; Milagres, Tamara; Cicerchi, Christina; Song, Zhilin; Garcia, Gabriela; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G.; Ohno, Minoru; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD. Methods This study was a large-scale, single-center, retrospective 5-year cohort study at Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between 2004 and 2009. We analyzed 13,201 subjects who underwent annual medical examination of which 12,041 subjects (age 35 to 85) without DM and/or CKD were enrolled. This analysis evaluated age, sex, body mass index, abdominal circumference, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, fasting glucose, BUN, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and calculated serum osmolarity. Results Elevated serum sodium was an independent risk factor for development of CKD (OR: 1.03, 95% CI, 1.00–1.07) after adjusted regression analysis with an 18 percent increased risk for every 5 mmol/L change in serum sodium. Calculated serum osmolarity was also an independent risk factor for CKD (OR: 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.05) as was BUN (OR: 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06–1.10) (independent of serum creatinine). Conclusions Elevated serum sodium and calculated serum osmolarity are independent risk factors for developing CKD. This finding supports the role of limiting salt intake and preventing dehydration to reduce risk of CKD. PMID:28081152

  8. Survival and other clinical outcomes of maintenance hemodialysis patients in Taiwan: a 5-year multicenter follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Sheng; Cheng, Chun-Ting; Hou, Chun-Cheng; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lim, Paik-Seong

    2014-10-01

    The increasing aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in dialysis population make the quality maintenance of dialysis an imperative issue. Recently, an increasing number of dialysis centers were run by private dialysis providers, many of which apply quality assurance programs and performance management systems to dialysis care. We studied patients in dialysis facilities in Taiwan run by a private chain to see clinical outcomes of centers operating under these systemic strategies. Hemodialysis patients from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012 in 25 dialysis facilities in Taiwan, which received the management and consultation from a dialysis service provider, NephroCare (NC), were included. Data pivotal to quality of dialysis were analyzed. During a 5-year interval, 5161 hemodialysis patients were included. For volume control, the proportion of patients with weight gain ≥4.5% decreases from 41.7% to 30.2%. Mean Kt/V is 1.74 ± 0.28. Mean albumin level is 3.92 ± 0.38 g/dL. Patients with phosphate <5.5 mg/dL is up to 71.8%. The mean hemoglobin level is 10.70 ± 1.40 g/dL. More than 80% of patients have adequate iron status. Further, 73% of patients use native arteriovenous fistula. Hospitalization-free survival rate was 56% at the fifth year. Patient survival rate at the fifth year was 66.4%. Overall clinical performances were maintained very stable in NC facilities from this temporal data analysis. The hospitalization and survival rate also compare favorably with those reported internationally. These results warrant further studies to justify the application of this kind of quality assurance programs and performance management systems in dialysis care.

  9. Nosocomial coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation recipients with central vein catheter. A 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, D; Elishoov, H; Strauss, N; Naparstek, E; Nagler, A; Simhon, A; Raveh, D; Slavin, S; Or, R

    1996-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients with central vein catheters by investigating incidence, clinical relevance, risk factors, methicillin resistance, clinical impact of initial empiric antimicrobial therapy without vancomycin, and management of documented catheter-related infections. A 5-year prospective study was conducted with daily evaluation of 242 BMT patients during hospitalization, including clinical assessment and blood culture via the Hickman/Broviac catheter. If fever or infected appearance occurred, peripheral blood cultures or exit site cultures, respectively, were done. Results showed a septicemia incidence of 7.0%, including in 6 patients following colonization, in 1 patient with tunnel infection, in 1 patient with thrombophlebitis, in 1 patient with exit site infection, and in 8 patients with septicemia of unknown origin. Total colonization incidence was 7%, with colonization only in 11 patients who had 16 episodes; incidence of exit site infection was 3.7%. Age > or = 18 years was the only identified risk factor for developing staphylococcal infection (P = 0.03). Despite a methicillin resistance rate of 45% and omission of vancomycin from the routine initial empiric antimicrobial regimen, the clinical course of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections was relatively benign. A single patient, who experienced marrow rejection, died on day +31 with septicemia and only one patient experienced microbiological failure with recurrent colonization. Bacteria grown in both aerobic and anaerobic bottles were more likely true bacteremia than contaminant (P = 0.03). We conclude that the hazard of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection does not mandate inclusion of a glycopeptide in the initial empiric antimicrobial regimen in BMT patients, even during febrile neutropenia. Hickman/Broviac-related staphylococcal infections, except for tunnel infection or

  10. Water-saving impacts of Smart Meter technology: An empirical 5 year, whole-of-community study in Sydney, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kirsten; Doolan, Corinna; van den Honert, Robin; Shi, Rose

    2014-09-01

    In 2009-2010 Sydney Water, the primary water utility in Sydney, conducted a comprehensive Smart Metering trial in residential homes in the suburb of Westleigh, in Sydney's north. The trial involved 1923 participants residing in 630 households. A whole-of-community method of engagement was applied to capture the views of residents from 12 to 70+ years of age. The trial examined the effects of the technology on the water consumption of an intervention group compared with that of a matched control group. After removing properties that had been sold since the beginning of the trial, properties in the study group were matched with a control group property on the basis of the household size, property size and the presence (or otherwise) of a swimming pool. The effects of the technology on consumption were measured and analyzed for the period July 2009 to June 2010, coupled with qualitative information that was collected throughout the duration of the study. A key finding was that households with the in-home display (IHD) installed, reduced their consumption by an average of over 6.8% over the study period when compared to the control group. Since completion of the study the community has not had any further interventions. The trial created an opportunity to examine the longer-term effects of the technology (June 2008 to September 2013). Consumption data collected over the 3 year posttrial period revealed that the participant group consumed 6.4% per month less water when compared to the pretrial period, whilst the matched control group consumed 1.3% per month more water when compared to the pretrial period. The reduced consumption of the participant group was maintained over time, demonstrating the long-term value of this technology.

  11. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability.

  12. Risk factors of Non-fatal Unintentional Home Injuries among Children under 5 Years Old; a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; R. Niakan Kalhori, Sharareh; Saki, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In addition to the annual mortality rate, unintentional home injury may result in temporary or permanent disability and requires medical attention and continuous care in millions of children. This study aimed to explore features and risk factors of these injuries. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, demographic variables and epidemiologic pattern of home injuries among children under 5 years of age were collected via a population-based survey in seven main cities of Khuzestan province, southwest Iran, during September 2011 to December 2012. Developing a risk stratification model, independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were determined and put to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Result: 2693 children with the mean age of 27.36 ± 15.55 months (1 to 60) were evaluated (50.9% boy). 827 (30.7%) cases had a history of at least one home injury occurrence since birth to study time. The most common injury mechanisms were burning with 291 (38.4%) cases, falling with 214 (28.3%) and poisoning with 66 (8.7%) cases, respectively. The independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were age ≥ 24 month (p<0.001), residency in Ahvaz city (p<0.001), mother’s illiteracy (p<0.014), ethnicity (p<0.001), private housing (p=0.01), birth weight (p<0.001), and being the first child (p=0. 01). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve of the model designed by multivariate analysis were 53.5%, 84.8%, and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73- 0.77; P < 0.001, figure 1), respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, 30.7% of the studied children were injured at least once since birth. Burning, falling, poisoning, swallowing objects, choking, and biting were the main home injury mechanisms. Age ≥ 24 months, being the first child, living in a private house, being a resident of Ahvaz city, and having an illiterate mother were found to be risk factors of home injury. PMID:28286813

  13. Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients up to 5 years after initiation of HAART: collaborative analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prognosis over 5 years of HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive patients starting HAART, taking into account the immunological and virological response to therapy. Design A collaborative analysis of data from 12 cohorts in Europe and north America on 20 379 adults who started HAART between 1995 and 2003. Methods Parametric survival models were used to predict the cumulative incidence at 5 years of a new AIDS-defining event or death, and death alone, first from the start of HAART and second from 6 months after the start of HAART. Data were analysed by intention-to-continue-treatment, ignoring treatment changes and interruptions. Results During 61 798 person-years of follow-up, 1005 patients died and an additional 1303 developed AIDS. A total of 10 046 (49%) patients started HAART either with a CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/μl or with a diagnosis of AIDS. The 5-year risk of AIDS or death (death alone) from the start of HAART ranged from 5.6 to 77% (1.8–65%), depending on age, CD4 cell count, HIV-1-RNA level, clinical stage, and history of injection drug use. From 6 months the corresponding figures were 4.1–99% for AIDS or death and 1.3–96% for death alone. Conclusion On the basis of data collected routinely in HIV care, prognostic models with high discriminatory power over 5 years were developed for patients starting HAART in industrialized countries. A risk calculator that produces estimates for progression rates at years 1 to 5 after starting HAART is available from www.art-cohort-collaboration.org. PMID:17502729

  14. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Genetic diversity and correlation with feline infectious peritonitis of feline coronavirus type I and II: a 5-year study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Nan; Su, Bi-Ling; Wang, Ching-Ho; Hsieh, Ming-Wei; Chueh, Ti-Jen; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2009-05-12

    The outcomes of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection vary greatly from asymptomatic or mild enteric infection to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). On the basis of in vitro neutralization tests, FCoVs can be divided into two serotypes. To explore the correlation between different types of FCoV and FIP, clinical specimens collected from 363 naturally infected cats during 2003-2007 were analyzed. Amplification of a portion of the S gene from the FCoV was performed and a total of 222 cases were differentiated. Among them, 197 (88.7%) cats were type I-positive, 13 (5.9%) were type II-positive, and 12 (5.4%) were positive for both types. Irrespective of the predominance of type I FCoV infection in Taiwan, type II FCoV demonstrated a significantly higher correlation with FIP (p<0.01). Analysis of partial S gene sequences of the local type I and II FCoVs strains revealed that type I viruses were more genetically divergent (6.2-11.7%) than type II viruses (0.6-3.2%) within the 5-year study period. The higher genetic diversity of type I FCoVs might be due to the larger infected cat population and to the long period of viral persistence in asymptomatic cats in comparison to type II viruses.

  16. Spectrum of ocular firework injuries in children: A 5-year retrospective study during a festive season in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    John, Deepa; Philip, Swetha Sara; Mittal, Rashmi; John, Sheeja Susan; Paul, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ocular trauma is a major cause of acquired monocular blindness in children. Firework injuries account for 20% of ocular trauma. The purpose of our study was to document the profile of ocular firework injuries in children during the festive season of Diwali and to determine the prevalence of unilateral blindness in them. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of ocular firework injury in children during the festival of Diwali from 2009 to 2013, conducted in a tertiary care eye center in Tamil Nadu, Southern India. Children below 18 years of age with ocular firework injuries who presented to the emergency department for 3 consecutive days - the day of Diwali, 1 day before, and 1 day after Diwali - were included in this study. Results: Eighty-four children presented with firework-related ocular injuries during the study period. Male to female ratio was 4:1 with mean age 9.48 ± 4 years. Forty-four percentage required hospitalization. The prevalence of unilateral blindness in children due to fireworks was found to be 8% (95% confidence interval - 2–13%). Conclusion: Vision 2020 gives high priority to avoidable blindness, especially in children. In our study, for every 12 children who presented with firecracker injury, one resulted in unilateral blindness. This is an avoidable cause of blindness. Awareness needs to be created, and changes in policy regarding sales and handling of firecrackers including mandatory use of protective eyewear should be considered. PMID:26669336

  17. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  18. Wear in conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylene cups: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Olyslaegers, Christophe; Defoort, Koen; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Vandenberghe, Luc

    2008-06-01

    Highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) has been introduced in total hip arthroplasty in an effort to reduce polyethylene wear and the associated periprosthetic osteolysis. Our aim was to demonstrate these reduced wear rates in a 2-dimensional head penetration model and to perform a clinical comparison of both groups using the Harris Hip Score (and SF-36 questionnaire). Sixty hips with a Trilogy XLPE liner (Zimmer) were matched and compared to a control group of 20 conventional Trilogy PE liners (Zimmer). No differences in clinical outcome were seen, but a statistically significant reduction in linear wear was observed in the XLPEgroup, after 5 years. It is clear that, because of the reduction and stabilization of free radicals in polyethylene, a reduction in annual wear can be achieved.

  19. A 5-year prospective case-control study of the influence of early otitis media with effusion on reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Lous, J; Fiellau-Nikolajsen, M

    1984-10-01

    In a still ongoing prospective longitudinal study, more than 500 children--a total birth-cohort in a Danish municipality--were followed from their 3rd to their 9th year of life by multiple impedance tests in order to investigate a number of factors concerning epidemiology and long-term impacts of otitis media with effusion. This is a report on the influence of otitis media with effusion early in life on reading achievement. The study revealed no difference in school-class level between the 9% of the children (n = 46) who constantly had abnormal tympanometry during a 6-month period at the age of 3, and the other pupils in the municipality. At the Silent Reading Test (OS-400), done on 40 of the 46 case-pupils the results did not differ from (1) the other pupils in the municipality, (2) from other pupils of the same sex in the same classroom, or (3) from individual control-pupils matched by sex, social group and classroom.

  20. The role of Ki-67 in women with a resistant prolactinoma: a retrospective analysis in 199 hospitalized patients over a period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chao; Ren, Zongming; Huan, Cheng; Cui, Guihua

    2014-07-01

    Proliferation-associated antigen Ki-67 is used for the histological evaluation of different tumors. Few studies have been conducted on women with a resistant prolactinoma. To better define the characteristics and to evaluate the differences between patients with different Ki-67 labeling index (LI), a retrospective study was designed to recruit 199 females with a resistant prolactinoma. The patients were divided into two groups, patients with Ki-67 LI≥3% and patients with Ki-67 LI<3%. Tumors in the LI>3% group were also larger (p=0.043), had a higher rate of invasion (p=0.014), and were associated with more frequent polyuria and polydipsia (p=0.008) compared to the LI<3% group. The pre- and post-operative PRL levels in the LI>3% group remained significantly higher compared to patients with LI<3% (p<0.05). The incidences of transient diabetes insipidus and hyponatremia in the LI>3% group were also significantly higher (p=0.037, p=0.041). Additionally, the postoperative PRL normalization rate was lower in patients with LI>3% compared with patients with LI<3% (p=0.028). The recurrence rate in the LI>3% and LI<3% groups were 27.27% and 8.47%, respectively. In conclusion, high Ki-67 LI is predictive sign of a poor prognosis in women with resistant prolactinoma.

  1. Descriptive Epidemiology of Traumatic Injuries in 18890 Adults: a 5-Year-Study in a Tertiary Trauma Center in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpour, Saeed Reza; Nabian, Mohammad Hossein; Oryadi Zanjani, Leila; Foroughmand-Araabi, Mohammad-Hadi; Shahryar Kamrani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basic epidemiological data can provide estimates when discussing disease burden and in the planning and provision of healthcare strategies. There is little quantitative information in the literature regarding prevalence of traumatic injuries from developing countries. Objectives: The aim of the current preliminary study was to reveal the prevalence and age and gender distribution of various traumatic injuries in a tertiary referral orthopedic hospital in Iran. Patients and Methods: In a prospective descriptive study, all traumatic injured patients attending the Orthopedic Trauma Unit of our center in a five year period were included. Demographic details, the cause of injury, injury classification and treatment were recorded. For each of the five-year age groups and each gender we calculated the numbers with fractures, dislocations, soft tissue injuries, ligamentous injuries and lacerations and derived average age and gender-specific prevalence as well as seasonal variations. Results: A total of 18890 adults were admitted, 13870 (73.4%) males and 5020 (26.6%) females. There were 8204 (43.4%) fractures. The male fracture age distribution curve was unimodal and there was a detectable bimodal pattern in females. Under 65 years males are 3 times more likely to sustain a fracture than females which decreases to equal risk over the age of 65. The most common fracture site was distal radius/ulna (13.8%), followed by tibial diaphysis (8.8%), proximal femur (7.8%), finger phalanges (6.4%), metacarpals (6%) and metatarsals (5.9%). There were seasonal variations in fracture incidence with peaks in February, March and October. The least number of fractures occurred in June. Conclusions: The risk of traumatic injuries is higher among specific age groups with different patterns emerging for men and women. Thus, the descriptive epidemiology will provide useful information for treatment or injury prevention strategies, resource allocation, and training priorities. PMID

  2. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of liver - A 5-year retrospective clinico-pathological study applying World Health Organization 2010 classification

    PubMed Central

    Burad, Deepak Kalyansingh; Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; Rajeeb, Sayd Mohamed; Goel, Ashish; Eapen, Chundamannil Eapen; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the clinicopathological characteristics of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) on liver samples and apply World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 grading of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NEN. METHODS Clinicopathological features of 79 cases of NEN of the liver diagnosed between January 2011 to December 2015 were analyzed. WHO 2010 classification of GEP NEN was applied and the tumors were graded as G1, G2 or G3. Two more categories, D1/2 (discordant 1/2) and D2/3 (discordant 2/3) were also applied. The D1/2 grade tumors had a mitotic count of G1 and Ki-67 index of G2. The D2/3 tumors had a mitotic count of G2 and Ki-67 index of G3. The follow up details which were available till the end of the study period (December 2015) were collected. RESULTS Of the 79 tumors, 16 each were G1 and G2, and 18 were G3 tumors. Of the remaining 29 tumors, 13 were assigned to D1/2 and 16 were D2/3 grade. Male preponderance was noted in all tumors except for G2 neoplasms, which showed a slight female predilection. The median age at presentation was 47 years (range 10-82 years). The most common presentation was abdominal pain (81%). Pancreas (49%) was the most common site of primary followed by gastrointestinal tract (24.4%) and lungs (18%). Radiologically, 87% of the patients had multiple liver lesions. Histopathologically, necrosis was seen in only D2/3 and G3 tumors. Microvascular invasion was seen in all grades. Metastasis occurred in all grades of primary NEN and the grades of the metastatic tumors and their corresponding primary tumors were similar in 67% of the cases. Of the 79 patients, 36 had at least one follow up visit with a median duration of follow up of 8.5 mo (range: 1-50 mo). This study did not show any impact of the grade of tumor on the short term clinical outcome of these patients. CONCLUSION Liver biopsy is an important tool for clinicopathological characterization and grading of NEN, especially when the primary is not identified. Eighty-seven percent of the

  3. Dento-alveolar and maxillofacial injuries: a 5-year multi-center study. Part 1: general vs facial and dental trauma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaul; Levin, Liran; Goldman, Sharon; Peleg, Kobi

    2008-02-01

    Maxillofacial injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and demand meticulously planned treatment. The aim of this present multi-center study was to evaluate the occurrence of dento-alveolar and maxillofacial injuries over a 5-year period. A retrospective cohort study of data from the Israel Trauma Registry was conducted for the years 2000-2004. The registry includes all trauma patients admitted and hospitalized due to an injury. Of the 111,010 hospitalized trauma patients, 5886 (5.3%) were diagnosed with maxillofacial or dental injuries. The main causes of injuries for hospitalized trauma patients were falls (48.1%) and motor vehicle accidents (25.2%), while the major causes of facial and dental injuries were vehicle accidents (39.6%, 56.8%, respectively) and falls (32.1%, 26.7%, respectively). High-risk age groups for dental and facial trauma were 10-18 years and 19-28 years, respectively, while for other trauma, ages for the greatest risk ranged from 0 to 9 years and over 59 years. Males were injured two to three times more frequently than females. A better understanding of the etiology of maxillofacial and dental injuries and identifying the high-risk groups should lead to appropriate prevention programs and treatment methods.

  4. Mood Reactivity Rather than Cognitive Reactivity Is Predictive of Depressive Relapse: A Randomized Study with 5.5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, Gerard D.; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert; Spinhoven, Philip; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Hollon, Steven D.; Schene, Aart H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined whether cognitive reactivity, cognitive extremity reactivity, and mood reactivity following mood provocation predicted relapse in depression over 5.5 years. Additionally, this study was the 1st to examine whether changes in cognitive reactivity and mood reactivity following preventive cognitive therapy (PCT)…

  5. Skeletal Metastases Presenting as Superscan on Technetium 99m Methylene Diphosphonate Whole Body Bone Scintigraphy in Different Type of Cancers: A 5-Year Retro-prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, P. Ram; Rather, Tanveer A.; Khan, Shoukat H.; Malik, Dharmender

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out the overall incidence of superscan among different type of cancers, causes of superscan and its relationship with other parameters such as age, sex, duration of disease, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels. This was a retro-prospective study. Records of all previous bone scans and reported patients of superscan were re-evaluated retrospectively. Patients who were diagnosed as having superscan in the preceding 3 years with confirmed histopathological diagnosis were included in the retrospective group. In the prospective group, all the patients who were reported to have superscan appearance over the past 2 years of prospective period were included. Total of 6027 bone scans were examined in a 5-year period and out of which 80 cases were diagnosed as superscan. The overall incidence of superscan in different type of cancers was 1.3% (80/6027). Prostate cancer (46/80) was the most common cause of superscan appearance followed by breast cancer (10/80). Out of 6027 patients referred for bone scan, 307 patients had prostate cancer on histopathological examination. Out of 307 patients with prostate cancer, 46 had superscan appearance. Incidence of superscan in prostate cancer was 14.98% (46/307), and 71.73% (33/46) prostate cancer patients with superscan had Gleason score of 8 and above 8 with mean serum prostate-specific antigen level was 178.42 ng/ml in symptomatic patients and 122 ng/ml in asymptomatic patients. Out of all patients with superscan, 71 patients (88.7%) had elevated serum ALP levels. Overall incidence of superscan in our study was 1.3% in different type of cancer patients, and the most common cause of superscan appearance was prostate cancer. Incidence of superscan appearance in prostatic cancer patients was 14.98%. PMID:28217018

  6. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Nøhr, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. Methods We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence – Revised (WPPSI-R). Results The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of −0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of −0.27 (−0.50 to −0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of −0.26 (−0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (−0.20 (−0.44 to 0.04)). Conclusion Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect. PMID:24727836

  7. A 5-year retrospective study of demographic, anamnestic, and clinical factors related to psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescent patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Cimino, Nina; Di Pietro, Elena; Pollutri, Gabriella; Neviani, Vittoria; Ferri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychiatric emergencies of children and adolescents have greatly increased during the last years, but this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between acute psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescents and selected variables to highlight risk factors for psychiatric emergencies. Methods This retrospective research was conducted in the acute psychiatric public ward, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment (SPDT), and in the residential facility for adolescents, “The Medlar”, located in Modena. The sample was constituted by all adolescent patients (n=101, age range 14–18) who had acute hospitalizations (n=140) in SPDT and had been successively transferred to “The Medlar” (n=83), from February 2, 2010 to January 31, 2015. From clinical charts, we extracted demographic and anamnestic characteristics of patients and clinical variables related to hospitalizations. Data were statistically analyzed. Results Sixty-one percent of our patients lived with one divorced parent, with adoptive or immigrant family, or in institutions; 51% had experienced stressful events during childhood; 81% had a normal intellective level, but only 6% presented regular school performance. Parental psychiatric illness was negatively related, in a statistically significantly way, with onset age of adolescent mental disorders (coefficient −2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −3.53 to 1.01, P<0.001, single linear regression; odds ratio: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.43–13.47, P<0.010, single logistic regression). The most frequent reasons for admission were aggressive behavior in males and suicide risk in females (P=0.002). The most frequent psychiatric diagnosis at SPDT discharge was “conduct disorder”, more frequent in males, followed by “adjustment disorder”, more frequent in females (P=0.001). In SPDT, the adolescent hospitalizations progressively increased fivefold at the end of the observation period

  8. Exaggerated morning blood pressure surge and cardiovascular events. A 5-year longitudinal study in normotensive and well-controlled hypertensive elderly.

    PubMed

    Amici, A; Cicconetti, P; Sagrafoli, C; Baratta, A; Passador, P; Pecci, T; Tassan, G; Verrusio, W; Marigliano, V; Cacciafesta, M

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular events (CE) occur most frequently in the morning hours in hypertensive subjects. We studied the association between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and CE in prognosis of 10 normotensive and 32 well-controlled hypertensive elderly, in whom ambulatory BP monitoring was performed and who were followed prospectively for 5 years. The morning surge (MS) of BP was calculated as mean systolic BP during 2h after awakening--mean systolic BP during 1h that included the lowest sleep BP. During an average of 60 months, five CE occurred. When the patients were divided into two groups according to MS, those in the top terzile (MS group; MS> or =34 mmHg, n=14) had a higher prevalence of CE (5 versus 0, p=0.001) during the follow-up period, than the others (non-MS group; MS<34 mmHg, n=28). The logistic regression analysis showed the MS sleep-trough surge as predictive variable of CE (odds ratio, OR=0.794, p=0.022). In conclusion, in older normotensives and well-controlled hypertensives, a higher BP MS is associated with vascular risk independently of clinical and ambulatory BP. Reduction of the MS could thus be a therapeutic target for preventing vascular events also in non-hypertensive patients.

  9. CORRELATION OF MRI GRADING OF BONE STRESS INJURIES WITH CLINICAL RISK FACTORS AND RETURN TO PLAY: A 5-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN COLLEGIATE TRACK AND FIELD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Kennedy, Gannon; Barrack, Michelle T.; Abdelkerim, Ashraf; Goolsby, Marci A.; Arends, Julie C.; Seeger, Leanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone stress injuries are common in track and field athletes. Knowledge of risk factors and correlation of these to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading could be helpful in determining recovery time. Purpose To examine the relationships between MRI grading of bone stress injury with clinical risk factors and time to return to sport in collegiate track and field athletes. Study Design Prospective cohort over 5 years. Methods Two hundred and eleven male and female collegiate track and field and cross-country athletes were followed prospectively through their competitive seasons. All athletes had a pre-participation history, physical exam, and anthropometric measurements obtained annually. An additional questionnaire was completed regarding nutritional behaviors, menstrual patterns and prior injuries, as well as a 3-day diet record. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was obtained at baseline and each year of participation in the study. Athletes with clinical evidence of bone stress injuries had plain radiographs. If radiographs were negative, MRI was obtained. Bone stress injuries were evaluated by two independent radiologists utilizing an MRI grading system. MRI grading and risk factors were evaluated to identify predictors of time to return to sport. Results Thirty-four (12 males, 22 females) of the 211 collegiate athletes sustained 61 bone stress injuries during the 5-year study period. The average prospective assessment for participants was 2.1 years. MRI grade and total body bone mineral density (BMD) emerged as significant and independent predictors of time to return to sport in the multiple regression model. Specifically, the higher the MRI grade, the longer the recovery time (p<0.002). Location of bone injury at predominantly trabecular sites of the femoral neck, pubic bone and sacrum (p<0.001), and lower total body BMD (p<0.029) independently predicted prolonged time to return to sport. Conclusions Higher MRI grade, lower BMD, and skeletal sites

  10. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  11. Second Language Acquisition at the Early Childhood Level: A 5-Year Longitudinal Case Study of Pre-Kindergarten through First-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billak, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the English language acquisition and development of students in pre-Kindergarten through Grade 1 at a U.S.-accredited international school. Of the 1,509 students tested, the overwhelming majority were nonnative English speakers. The data provide valuable insight into the rate of second language…

  12. Elevated fasting insulin predicts the future incidence of metabolic syndrome: a 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is controversy about the specific pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome (MS) but several authors have argued that hyperinsulinemia is a key feature of the cluster. We aimed to assess whether the baseline insulin levels could predict the development of MS in a well characterised cohort of otherwise healthy adults who were followed over a five year period. Methods We identified 2, 350 Koreans subjects who did not have MS in 2003 and who were followed up in 2008. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the baseline quartiles of fasting insulin, and the predictors of the incidence of MS were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Results Over the follow up period, 8.5% of the cohort developed MS. However, 16.4% of the subjects in the highest quartile of the insulin levels developed MS. In a model that included gender, age, the smoking status, the exercise level, alcohol consumption and the systolic blood pressure, the subjects in the highest quartile of the insulin levels had more than a 5 times greater risk of developing MS compared that of the subjects in the lowest quartile. This predictive importance remained significant even after correcting for all the individual features of MS. Conclusions These data suggest that high baseline fasting insulin levels are independent determinants for the future development of MS. PMID:22129309

  13. Polygenic phenotypic plasticity moderates the effects of severe childhood abuse on depressive symptom severity in adulthood: A 5-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Gunn, Jane M; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P

    2017-02-01

    Objective To test the phenotypic plasticity framework using a polygenic approach in a prospective depression cohort of primary care attendees with and without histories of severe childhood abuse. Methods Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually for 5 years post-baseline using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) among 288 adult primary care attendees. Twelve polymorphisms in nine genes were genotyped and polygenic phenotypic plasticity allelic load (PAL) calculated. Linear mixed models assessed differences in depressive symptom severity over the 5-year follow-up period by PAL and history of severe childhood abuse. Results A higher PAL conferred greater depressive symptom severity among those with a history of severe childhood abuse but conferred significantly lower symptom severity among those without this history. Importantly, this interaction withstood adjustments for important covariates (e.g., antidepressant use, comorbid anxiety) and was stable over the 5 years of observation. Conclusions Aligned with the phenotypic plasticity framework, depressive symptom severity was dependent on the interaction between PAL and history of severe childhood abuse in a "for better and for worse" manner. Measures of polygenic phenotypic plasticity, such as ours, may serve as a trait marker of sensitivity to negative and potentially positive environmental influences.

  14. Predictors of heroin relapse: Personality traits, impulsivity, COMT gene Val158met polymorphism in a 5-year prospective study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Li, Zhibin; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Haifeng; Chen, Zhikang; Sun, Haiming; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. The heroin use status was evaluated for 5 years after discharged. Among the 564 heroin-dependent patients, 500 were followed for 5 years after discharge and 53.0% (n = 265) were considered as relapsed to heroin use according to a strict monitor system. Univariate analysis showed that age, having ever been in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the total scores and non-planning scores of BIS-11, and the COMT rs4680 gene variants were different between relapse and abstinent groups. Logistic regression analysis showed higher BIS total score, having ever been in MMT and younger first heroin use age are the predictors of relapse to heroin use during 5 years follow-up, and the COMT rs4680 gene had an interaction with BIS scores. Our findings indicated that the impulsive personality traits, methadone use history, and onset age could predict relapse in heroin-dependent patients during 5 year's follow up. The COMT gene showed a moderational effect in part the relationship of impulsivity with heroin relapse.

  15. Randomized intervention study of solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in Kenyan children aged under 5 years.

    PubMed

    du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronan M; Ligondo, Sophie; Hennessy, James; Elmore-Meegan, Michael; Soita, Allan; McGuigan, Kevin G

    2011-11-01

    We report the results of a randomized controlled intervention study (September 2007 to March 2009) investigating the effect of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery, nondysentery diarrhea, and anthropometric measurements of height and weight among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in peri-urban and rural communities in Nakuru, Kenya. We compared 555 children in 404 households using SODIS with 534 children in 361 households with no intervention. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for both number of days and episodes of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by use of solar disinfection: dysentery days IRR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.79); dysentery episodes IRR = 0.55 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.73); nondysentery days IRR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.84); nondysentery episodes IRR = 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.84). Anthropometry measurements of weight and height showed median height-for-age was significantly increased in those on SODIS, corresponding to an average of 0.8 cm over a 1-year period over the group as a whole (95% CI 0.7 to 1.6 cm, P = 0.031). Median weight-for-age was higher in those on SODIS, corresponding to a 0.23 kg difference in weight over the same period; however, the confidence interval spanned zero and the effect fell short of statistical significance (95% CI -0.02 to 0.47 kg, P = 0.068). SODIS and control households did not differ in the microbial quality of their untreated household water over the follow-up period (P = 0.119), but E. coli concentrations in SODIS bottles were significantly lower than those in storage containers over all follow-up visits (P < 0.001). This is the first trial to show evidence of the effect of SODIS on childhood anthropometry, compared with children in the control group and should alleviate concerns expressed by some commentators that the lower rates of dysentery associated with SODIS are the product of biased

  16. Course and Prognosis of Childhood Epilepsy: 5-Year Follow-Up of the Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arts, Willem F. M.; Brouwer, Oebele F.; Peters, A. C. Boudewijn; Stroink, Hans; Peeters, Els A. J.; Schmitz, Paul I. M.; van Donselaar, Cees A.; Geerts, Ada T.

    2004-01-01

    Knowing the prognosis of epilepsy will undoubtedly influence the treatment strategy. This study aimed to define the prospects of newly diagnosed childhood epilepsy, assess the dynamics of its course, identify relevant variables and develop models to assess the individual prognosis. Four hundred and fifty-three children with newly diagnosed…

  17. The Effect of Political Science Education on Political Trust and Interest: Results from a 5-Year Panel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Citizenship education has evolved substantially in recent decades, with a rapid proliferation of education forms and approaches. The currently available evaluation studies, however, do not allow us to determine what kind of approach can be considered as a best practice for schools and education systems. In this article, we rely on the results of a…

  18. Ability Emotional Intelligence, Trait Emotional Intelligence, and Academic Success in British Secondary Schools: A 5 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualter, Pamela; Gardner, Kathryn J.; Pope, Debbie J.; Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of ability- and trait EI on academic performance for British adolescents. The sample comprised 413 students from three secondary schools in the North-West of England. Students completed tests of ability EI, trait EI, personality, and cognitive ability in Year 7 (mean age = 11 years 2 months). Performance…

  19. Self-experience in the early phases of schizophrenia: 5-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Prodromal Study

    PubMed Central

    PARNAS, JOSEF; RABALLO, ANDREA; HANDEST, PETER; JANSSON, LENNART; VOLLMER-LARSEN, ANNE; SAEBYE, DITTE

    2011-01-01

    Despite the avalanche of empirical data on prodromal/”at risk” conditions, the essential aspects of the vulnerability to the schizophrenia spectrum remain largely unaddressed. We report here the results of the Copenhagen Schizophrenia Prodromal Study, a prospective, observational study of first admission patients in putative state of beginning psychosis (N=151) with a follow-up length of 60 months. At follow-up, the rate of conversion to schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis was 37%, whereas the conversion rate from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia was 25%. High levels of perplexity and self-disorders baseline scores yielded the best prediction of the subsequent development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Escalating transitions within the spectrum (i.e., from schizotypal disorder to schizophrenia) were not associated to any candidate psychopathological predictor. PMID:21991279

  20. Latino Children's Body Mass Index at 2–3.5 Years Predicts Sympathetic Nervous System Activity at 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Kim G.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Tambellini, Katelyn; Lustig, Robert H.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: To understand whether the relationship between young children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses predicted their BMI, or vice versa, the association between standardized BMI (zBMI) at 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age and ANS reactivity at 3.5–5 years of age, and whether zBMI predicts later ANS reactivity or whether early ANS reactivity predicts later zBMI, was studied. Methods: Low-income, primarily Latino children (n=112) were part of a larger cohort study of mothers recruited during early pregnancy. Study measures included maternal prenatal weight, children's health behaviors (i.e., time watching television, fast food consumption, and time playing outdoors), children's height and weight at 2, 3.5, and 5 years, and children's ANS reactivity at 3.5 and 5 years. ANS measures of sympathetic nervous system (i.e., pre-ejection period) and parasympathetic nervous system (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) activity were monitored during rest and four challenges. Reactivity was calculated as the difference between mean challenge response and rest. Structural equation models analyzed the relationship between children's zBMI at 2, 3.5, and 5 years and ANS reactivity at 3.5 and 5 years, adjusting for mother's BMI, children's behaviors, and changes in height. Results: There was no association between zBMI and ANS cross-sectionally. Children with high zBMI at 2 or 3.5 years or large zBMI increases from 2 to 3.5 years of age had decreased sympathetic activity at 5 years. Neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic reactivity at 3.5 years predicted later zBMI. Conclusions: Increased zBMI early in childhood may dampen young children's SNS responses later in life. PMID:24745554

  1. Factors influencing survival in hemodialysis patients aged older than 75 years: 2.5-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, P; Combe, C; Laville, M; Fouque, D; Azar, R; Cano, N; Canaud, B; Roth, H; Leverve, X; Aparicio, M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of malnutrition is widely held to be greater in the elderly, but this specific factor has not been extensively studied in elderly dialysis patients. In a 30-month follow-up prospective study, we evaluated the role of nutrition on the outcome of 290 stable hemodialysis (HD) outpatients aged older than 75 years followed up in 20 French HD centers (167 men, 123 women; age, 79.8 +/- 4.2 years; previous time on dialysis, 41 +/- 38 months). On the same day in January 1996, predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were collected according to recommended procedures for dialysis quantification. Normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM; expressed as observed/expected LBM values [obs/exp LBM]) were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine levels. Overall survival rates were 80% and 65% after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively, and were significantly less in patients with the lower quartile of obs/exp LBM. In univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, survival was significantly influenced by age, albumin level, prealbumin level, body mass index, and diabetes, but not by sex, Kt/V, duration of dialysis, cholesterol level, hemoglobin level, or obs/exp LBM. In multivariate analysis, no variable remained significant. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 52.1% of the patient deaths. We conclude that in elderly HD patients, malnutrition influences overall survival despite adequate dialysis treatment.

  2. A 5 year retrospective study of biopsied jaw lesions with the assessment of concordance between clinical and histopathological diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Elif; Öğütlü, Faruk; Karaca, İnci Rana; Gültekin, Elif Sibel; Çakır, Merve

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The jaw can be affected by several lesions that manifest in the oral cavity, but little is known about their distribution patterns in various populations. Aims and Objectives: This study presents the frequency and distribution of biopsied jaw lesions recorded in Faculty of Dentistry and gathers the information including provisional and final diagnosis of the lesions. Material and Methods: Biopsy of 1938 lesions (2008–2013) was reviewed and 1473 lesions were included in this study. The provisional diagnosis and histopathological validations of lesions were compared. Data on the location of the lesion, as well as patient demographics, were also evaluated. The lesions were divided into three major groups as 1 - developmental/reactive and inflammatory lesions of the jaw, 2 - cystic lesion and 3 - tumor and tumor-like lesions. Statistical Analysis: The variables were recorded and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results and Observations: Three hundred and ninety-six lesions were in Group 1 and periapical granuloma was the most frequent diagnosis. Seven hundred and eighty-nine lesions were in Group 2 and the radicular cyst was the most frequent diagnosis. Two hundred and eighty-eight lesions were in Group 3 and the keratocystic odontogenic tumor was the most frequent. Two hundred and ninety-one biopsied lesions were in disagreement with respect to the diagnoses on clinical and histopathological examination. Conclusion: Consequently, a provisional diagnosis of some of the malignant lesions was reactive, inflammatory, cystic or benign lesions, therefore the importance of evaluation of the specimen is emphasized. PMID:27194866

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Cognitive Development of 3-5 Year Old Rural Children in the State of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, Violet

    This study is part of a longitudinal research project which investigated the cognitive and social development of rural children (ages 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11 years) in eight states of the U.S.A. This paper, however, reports only the cognitive development of 3- to 5-year-old subjects in rural Nebraska from 1976-1978. The longitudinal sample plus control…

  4. Sick Leave within 5 Years of Whiplash Trauma Predicts Recovery: A Prospective Cohort and Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech; Fink, Per; Oernboel, Eva; Kasch, Helge; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Frostholm, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Background 10–22% of individuals sustaining whiplash trauma develop persistent symptoms resulting in reduced working ability and decreased quality of life, but it is poorly understood why some people do not recover. Various collision and post-collision risk factors have been studied, but little is known about pre-collision risk factors. In particular, the impact of sickness and socioeconomic factors before the collision on recovery is sparsely explored. The aim of this study was to examine if welfare payments received within five years pre-collision predict neck pain and negative change in provisional situation one year post-collision. Methods and Findings 719 individuals with acute whiplash trauma consecutively recruited from emergency departments or primary care after car accidents in Denmark completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health factors immediately after the collision. After 12 months, a visual analogue scale on neck pain intensity was completed. 3595 matched controls in the general population were sampled, and national public register data on social benefits and any other welfare payments were obtained for participants with acute whiplash trauma and controls from five years pre-collision to 15 months after. Participants with acute whiplash trauma who had received sickness benefit for more than 12 weeks pre-collision had increased odds for negative change in future provisional situation (Odds Ratio (OR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 3.8 (2.1;7.1)) and future neck pain (OR (95%CI) = 3.3 (1.8;6.3)), controlling for other known risk factors. Participants with acute whiplash trauma had weaker attachment to labour market (more weeks of sick leave (χ2(2) = 36.7, p < 0.001) and unemployment (χ2(2) = 12.5, p = 0.002)) pre-collision compared with controls. Experiencing a whiplash trauma raised the odds for future negative change in provisional situation (OR (95%CI) = 3.1 (2.3;4.4)) compared with controls. Conclusions Sick leave before the

  5. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  6. Assessment of DNA damage in Ardea cinerea and Ciconia ciconia: A 5-year study in Portuguese birds retrieved for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cátia S A; Brandão, Ricardo; Monteiro, Marta S; Bastos, Ana C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decades, the presence of micronucleated blood cells has been used to detect genotoxic effects of xenobiotics in fish, amphibians and birds. This study assessed the frequency of micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of individuals of Ardea cinerea and Ciconia ciconia retrieved for rehabilitation in order to evaluate the influence of age, temporal and spatial factors on the occurrence of DNA damage in Portuguese wild birds. Blood smears from 65 birds with different life-history backgrounds (e.g. geographic origin, age) were collected between 2007 and 2011 and the frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) was analysed. Differences in DNA damage between ages were observed to occur in C. ciconia, with chicks displaying significantly higher frequencies of ENAs (both when looking at total ENAs or only MN frequency) than juveniles and adults. Additionally, significant differences in ENAs frequencies were observed between different years and geographic origins, whereas MN frequency alone did not show significant alterations concerning spatial and temporal variations. These results suggest that the assessment of ENAs rather than MN frequency alone may be a useful and valuable tool to complement the evaluation of DNA damage in populations of birds, as prompted by individual life-history traits and environmental factors.

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Decoction in Type 2 Diabetes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Fengmei; Yu, Xiaotong; Cui, Yashan; Zhao, Tianyu; Cao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background. The study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal decoction in treating outpatients with T2DM. Methods. All patients enrolled received decoction for at least 6 months. The primary outcome was the control rate of HbA1c and the change in HbA1c. FPG, 2hPG, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were also collected and evaluated. Results. The control rates after treatment at months 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 were 45.07%, 52.78%, 47.22%, 45.83%, 50.00%, 57.14%, and 40.00%. Multiple linear regression showed the change of HbA1c has a significant relationship with the baseline HbA1c and duration of DM and BMI (p < 0.05). Both FPG and 2hPG levels significantly decreased compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). Chinese herbal decoction also improved islet cell function with decreased HOMA-IR and increased HOMA-β (p < 0.05). 19 and 4 subjects deactivated the antidiabetes drugs or insulin, respectively, after taking decoction. One subject developed DKD and one developed DPN, and another subject showed abnormal liver function which was irrelevant to decoction treatment. Conclusions. Chinese herbal decoction significantly enhanced the hypoglycemic action and had certain effect on protecting islet cell function. As a candidate diabetes therapy, it may reduce the use of antidiabetes drugs and slow the progression to diabetes complications. PMID:27656237

  8. Predictive risk factors for chronic regional and multisite musculoskeletal pain: a 5-year prospective study in a working population.

    PubMed

    Herin, Fabrice; Vézina, Michel; Thaon, Isabelle; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Paris, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The role of psychosocial and physical factors in the development of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) has now been clearly demonstrated. However, it is unclear whether these factors contribute to specific regional MSP or to multisite pain. The main goal of this study was to assess the impact of work-related factors according to gender on the development of regional and multisite MSP. A total of 12,591 subjects (65% men and 35% women) who were born in 1938, 1943, 1948, and 1953 and were participating in a French longitudinal prospective epidemiological survey (ESTEV) in 1990 to 1995 were eligible. Personal factors and work exposure were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Statistical associations between chronic MSP (regional body site or multisite), personal factors, and occupational factors were analyzed using logistic regression modeling. The incidence of regional MSP and multisite pain in 1995 were, respectively, 17% and 25.6%. For women, highly repetitive movements predicted neck/shoulder pain; posture and vibrations predicted arm and low back pain; and effort with tools predicted arm pain. For men, forceful effort and vibrations predicted neck/shoulder pain; posture and forceful effort predicted lower limb and low back pain; and forceful effort and effort with tools predicted arm pain. Physical constraints (ie, forceful effort or vibrations) were associated with multisite pain in both genders. Only for women, psychological factors were risk factors predictive of upper limb pain and in 3 or 4 painful anatomical sites. These results support the hypothesis that some physical and psychological work-related factors are predictive of regional or multisite MSP but differ according to gender. Gender differences and risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal pain should be also taken into account to more effectively target preventive measures.

  9. Etiology and Factors Associated with Pneumonia in Children under 5 Years of Age in Mali: A Prospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudi, Mélina; Sánchez Picot, Valentina; Telles, Jean-Noël; Diakite, Abdoul-Aziz; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Endtz, Hubert; Diallo, Souleymane; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background There are very limited data on children with pneumonia in Mali. The objective was to assess the etiology and factors associated with community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children <5 years of age in Mali. Methods A prospective hospital-based case-control study was implemented in the Pediatric department of Gabriel Touré University Hospital at Bamako, Mali, between July 2011-December 2012. Cases were children with radiologically-confirmed pneumonia; Controls were hospitalized children without respiratory features, matched for age and period. Respiratory specimens, were collected to identify 19 viruses and 5 bacteria. Whole blood was collected from cases only. Factors associated with pneumonia were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, 118 cases and 98 controls were analyzed; 44.1% were female, median age was 11 months. Among pneumonia cases, 30.5% were hypoxemic at admission, mortality was 4.2%. Pneumonia cases differed from the controls regarding clinical signs and symptoms but not in terms of past medical history. Multivariate analysis of nasal swab findings disclosed that S. pneumoniae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.6–7.0), human metapneumovirus (aOR = 17.2, 95% CI: 2.0–151.4), respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] (aOR = 7.4, 95% CI: 2.3–23.3), and influenza A virus (aOR = 10.7, 95% CI: 1.0–112.2) were associated with pneumonia, independently of patient age, gender, period, and other pathogens. Distribution of S. pneumoniae and RSV differed by season with higher rates of S. pneumoniae in January-June and of RSV in July-September. Pneumococcal serotypes 1 and 5 were more frequent in pneumonia cases than in the controls (P = 0.009, and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions In this non-PCV population from Mali, pneumonia in children was mainly attributed to S. pneumoniae, RSV, human metapneumovirus, and influenza A virus. Increased pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage in

  10. Spatial distribution of the persistent organic pollutants across the Tibetan Plateau and its linkage with the climate systems: a 5-year air monitoring study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping; Wang, Chuanfei; Xue, Yonggang; Yao, Tandong; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through atmospheric transport. The exact source regions, transport pathways and time trends of POPs to the TP are not well understood. Here polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer resin (XAD)-based passive air samplers (PASs) were deployed at 16 Tibetan background sites from 2007 to 2012 to gain further insight into spatial patterns and temporal trends of OCPs and PCBs. The southeastern TP was characterized by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related chemicals delivered by Indian monsoon air masses. The northern and northwestern TP displayed the greatest absolute concentration and relative abundance of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the atmosphere, caused by the westerly-driven European air masses. The interactions between the DDT polluted Indian monsoon air and the clean westerly winds formed a transition zone in central Tibet, where both DDT and HCB were the dominant chemicals. Based on 5 years of continuous sampling, our data indicated declining concentrations of HCB and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) across the Tibetan region. Inter-annual trends of DDT class chemicals, however, showed less variation during this 5-year sampling period, which may be due to the ongoing usage of DDT in India. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using POP fingerprints to investigate the climate interactions and the validity of using PAS to derive inter-annual atmospheric POP time trends.

  11. Self-reported care needs of Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability: a 1.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a prevalent problem among the homeless and seems related to more psychosocial problems. However, little is known about the care needs of the subgroup of homeless people with an intellectual disability compared to those without an intellectual disability and how their care needs develop over time. This study explores self-reported care needs within a broad range of life domains among Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability to gain insight into the transition of self-reported care needs from baseline to follow-up in both subgroups. This longitudinal study is part of a cohort study among homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan in four major Dutch cities. The initial cohort consisted of 513 participants who were interviewed in 2011. At 1.5-year follow-up, 336 participants (65.5%) were also interviewed and screened for intellectual disability. Of these participants, 31% (95% CI 26.2-36.1) had a suspected intellectual disability. For both groups, between baseline and follow-up, the number of 'unmet care needs' decreased significantly and the number of 'no care needs' increased significantly, while at follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability reported 'no care needs' on significantly fewer life domains than those without a suspected intellectual disability (mean numbers 16.4 vs. 17.5). Between baseline and follow-up, 'met care needs' decreased significantly on housing for both groups, and increased on finances and dental care for participants with a suspected intellectual disability. At follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability more often preferred housing support available by appointment than those without a suspected intellectual disability. These findings suggest that homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan with a suspected intellectual disability have care needs for a longer period of time than those

  12. Change in serum TSH levels within the reference range was associated with variation of future blood pressure: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, F; Liu, A; Lai, Y; Yu, X; Li, C; Han, C; Zhang, Y; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Bao, S; Lv, N; Jin, M; Yang, F; Fan, Y; Jin, T; Zhao, W; Shan, Z; Teng, W

    2017-04-01

    Controversy exists on the relationship between serum thyrotropin (TSH) and blood pressure, and only a few prospective studies are available up to now. The study aimed to investigate the association between serum TSH within the reference range and blood pressure through a 5-year follow-up study. A total of 623 subjects with normal TSH were followed up for 5 years, including the measurement of demographic data, blood pressure, height, weight and serum TSH. Finally, 531 subjects were included in this prospective study. Body mass index (BMI), prevalence of hypertension, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were all higher at follow-up than at baseline. Adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, BMI and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at baseline, multiple linear regression analyses found no relationship between serum TSH at baseline and levels of blood pressure at follow-up, but the changes in serum TSH levels during follow-up was positively associated with the changes in systolic blood pressure (B=2.134, P<0.05), which became more significant in women but not significant in men. The change of systolic blood pressure in group of TSH increase >0.5 mIU l(-1) was significantly higher than in group of TSH decrease >0.5 mIU l(-1) within reference, after adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, BMI and HOMA-IR at baseline. This result became more significant in women, but no statistical significance was observed in men. Co-variation with serum TSH levels and blood pressure was observed during 5-year follow-up among people with normal TSH.

  13. [The effectiveness of specific immunotherapy of allergic diseases of respiratory organs from the standpoint of evidence-based medicine. The results of a 5-year retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Zabolotnyĭ, D I; Gogunskaia, I V; Zabolotnaia, D D; Zaritskaia, I S

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this first Ukrainian 5-year retrospective study was to subjectively evaluate the effectiveness of specific immunotherapy (sublingual and injection) of the upper respiratory tract in the patients presenting with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), SAR and PAR with polyvalent sensitization. The analysis of the results of sublingual, injection, and combined specific immunotherapy given to 750 patients allowed to describe them as "excellent" and "good" in the groups with PAR (83% of the total number), SAR (93%), SAR and PAR with polyvalent sensitization (84%).

  14. Intensified conventional insulin treatment retards the microvascular complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): the Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS) after 5 years.

    PubMed

    Reichard, P; Berglund, B; Britz, A; Cars, I; Nilsson, B Y; Rosenqvist, U

    1991-08-01

    Ninety-six patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-proliferative retinopathy were randomized to intensified conventional treatment (ICT) (n = 44) or regular treatment (RT) (n = 52), and followed up for 5 years. HbA1c decreased from 9.5 +/- 0.2% (mean value +/- SEM) to 7.2 +/- 0.1% in the ICT group, and from 9.4 +/- 0.2% to 8.7 +/- 0.1% in the RT group (difference between the groups, P less than 0.001). Retinopathy increased in both groups (P less than 0.001), but after 5 years it was worse in the RT group (P less than 0.05). The urinary albumin excretion rate was higher in the RT group than in the ICT group after 5 years (239.9 +/- 129.7 micrograms min-1 vs. 46.0 +/- 26.1 micrograms min-1, P less than 0.05). Eight RT patients developed manifest nephropathy, compared with none in the ICT group (P less than 0.01). After 5 years the conduction velocities of the sural (P less than 0.05), peroneal (P less than 0.01) and tibial (P less than 0.001) nerves were lower in the RT group. The respiratory sinus arrhythmia was 12.1 +/- 1.2 beats min-1 in the RT group and 16.7 +/- 1.4 beats min-1 in the ICT group at the end of the study (P less than 0.01). The increases in retinopathy (P less than 0.01), nephropathy (P less than 0.01) and neuropathy (P less than 0.001) were all related to the mean HbA1c value during the study. Smoking habits only influenced the progression of retinopathy (P less than 0.05). Serious hypoglycaemia occurred in 34 ICT patients and 29 RT patients (242 and 98 episodes, respectively) (P less than 0.05). Whereas weight was stable in the RT group, the body mass index increased by 5.8% in the ICT group (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, microvascular complications of diabetes were retarded by intensified conventional insulin treatment. However, such treatment increased the frequency of serious hypoglycaemia, and led to an increase in body weight.

  15. School-Aged Outcomes following Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure: 7.5 Year Follow-Up From The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Nwando; Smith, Lynne M; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Della Grotta, Sheri A; Dansereau, Lynne M; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and behavior problems at age 7.5 years, and the extent to which early adversity mediated this relationship. Study design The multicenter, longitudinal IDEAL study enrolled 412 mother-infant pairs at 4 sites. Methamphetamine-exposed participants (n= 204) were identified by self-report and/or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry confirmation of amphetamine and metabolites in infant meconium. Matched participants (n = 208) denied methamphetamine use and had a negative meconium screen. At the 7.5 year follow-up, 290 children with complete Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) data and an early adversity index score were available for analysis (n=146 exposed). Results PME was significantly associated with an increased early adversity index score (P<0.001) and with increased externalizing, rule-breaking behavior, and aggressive behavior (P<0.05). Early adversity was also associated with higher externalizing behavior scores. Early adversity significantly mediated the relationship between PME and behavioral problems. After adjusting the mediation model for sex, prenatal tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana exposures, and study site, the association of PME with early adversity remained significant. Conclusion Though PME is associated with behavioral problems, early adversity may be a strong determinant of behavioral outcome for children exposed to methamphetamine in utero. Early adversity significantly mediated the relationship between PME and behavioral problems. PMID:26781836

  16. A new cemented femoral stem: a prospective study of the Stryker accolade C with 2- to 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Muhammad; Ranawat, Amar S; Ranawat, Chitranjan S

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study evaluates the short-term results of a recently released cemented femoral stem design in primary cemented and hybrid total hip arthroplasty (THA). There were 100 all-cemented and 100 hybrid THAs in the 2-year study group. Good to excellent results were obtained in 96%. There was one reoperation for recurrent dislocation in each cohort (1%) and one single-staged reoperation for sepsis in the cemented cohort. There were 47 THA available for 5-year follow-up. Good to excellent results were maintained in 98%. One additional patient had a revision because of late recurrent dislocation. This study has demonstrated excellent early results and safety with this cemented femoral stem. The features include a dual-wedge geometry with a 0.88-microm Ra surface roughness, proximal macro-normalizations, distal anti-rotation grooves, and an optimized head-and-neck ratio approaching 4:1 using a standard 28-mm head.

  17. Breast-feeding, day-care attendance and the frequency of antibiotic treatments from 1.5 to 5 years: a population-based longitudinal study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2005-05-01

    This paper aims to study, at the population level, the protective role of breast-feeding on child health and its relation to day-care attendance during the first 5 years of life. The analysis, done on a national sample of children, uses antibiotic treatments as a general measure of health. It takes into account mother's education level, family poverty level, mother's smoking status during pregnancy and after birth, mother's age, sex, gestation duration, and birth rank. The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (LSCDQ), conducted by Santé Québec, a division of the Institut de la Statistique du Québec (ISQ). The study was based on face-to-face interviews and included a set of questionnaires addressed to the children's mothers and fathers. A total of 1841 were included in the sample analyzed. Detailed information on breast-feeding and complementary feeding was collected at 5 and 17 months through face-to-face interviews with the most knowledgeable person, generally the mother. From this information, it has been possible to estimate breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Our results indicate that the positive effects of breast-feeding on health persist up to the second year of life, even in the presence of day-care attendance. The analyses indicate that breast-feeding reduced the number of antibiotic treatments given to children entering day care before 2.5 years of age. The study also indicates that the more-at-risk children could be protected by breast-feeding and by being taken care of in a familial setting, especially before 2.5 years of age. Mother's education, family poverty level, and other social inequality indicators did not play a role in the frequency of antibiotic treatments. Over the long term, it will be important to continue to monitor the health of children and to implement public health interventions aimed at reducing health problems among children of preschool age.

  18. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  19. Effects of Metabolic Syndrome with or without Obesity on Outcomes after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft. A Cohort and 5-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Hushan; Xu, Fei; Wang, Xianqiang; Tang, Xinran; Zheng, Zhe; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, however, it remains unclear about effects of MetS with or without obesity on perioperative and long-term morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods An observational cohort study was performed on 4,916 consecutive patients receiving isolated primary CABG in Fuwai hospital. Of all patients, 1238 patients met the inclusion criteria and were divided into three groups: control, MetS with obesity and MetS without obesity (n = 868, 76 and 294 respectively). The patient’s 5-year survival and major adverse cerebral and cardiovascular events (MACCE) were studied. Results Among all three groups, there were no significant differences in in-hospital postoperative complications, epinephrine use, stroke, ICU stay, ventilation time, atrial fibrillation, renal failure, coma, myocardial infarction, repeated revascularization, and long-term stroke. The patients in MetS without obesity group were not associated with increased perioperative or long-term morbidities and mortality. In contrast, the patients in MetS with obesity group were associated with significant increased perioperative complications including MACCE (30.26% vs. 20.75%, 16.7%, p = 0.0074) and mortality (11.84% vs. 3.74%, 3.11%, p = 0.0007) respectively. Patients in MetS with obesity group was associated with significantly increased long-term of MACCE (adjusted OR:2.040; 95%CI:1.196–3.481; P<0.05) and 5-years of mortality (adjusted HR:4.659; 95%CI:1.966–11.042; P<0.05). Conclusions Patients with metabolic syndrome and obesity are associated with significant increased perioperative and long-term complications and mortality, while metabolic syndrome without obesity do not worsen outcomes after CABG. PMID:25679397

  20. Secondary prevention and cognitive function after stroke: a study protocol for a 5-year follow-up of the ASPIRE-S cohort

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David; Gaynor, Eva; Bennett, Kathleen; Dolan, Eamon; Callaly, Elizabeth; Large, Margaret; Hickey, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment is common following stroke and can increase disability and levels of dependency of patients, potentially leading to greater burden on carers and the healthcare system. Effective cardiovascular risk factor control through secondary preventive medications may reduce the risk of cognitive decline. However, adherence to medications is often poor and can be adversely affected by cognitive deficits. Suboptimal medication adherence negatively impacts secondary prevention targets, increasing the risk of recurrent stroke and further cognitive decline. The aim of this study is to profile cognitive function and secondary prevention, including adherence to secondary preventive medications and healthcare usage, 5 years post-stroke. The prospective associations between cognition, cardiovascular risk factors, adherence to secondary preventive medications, and rates of recurrent stroke or other cardiovascular events will also be explored. Methods and analysis This is a 5-year follow-up of a prospective study of the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke (ASPIRE-S) cohort of patients with stroke. This cohort will have a detailed assessment of cognitive function, adherence to secondary preventive medications and cardiovascular risk factor control. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval for this study was granted by the Research Ethics Committees at Beaumont Hospital, Dublin and Connolly Hospital, Dublin, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Findings will be disseminated through presentations and peer-reviewed publications. PMID:28348196

  1. Burden of relatives and predictors of burden. Baseline results from the Munich 5-year-follow-up study on relatives of first hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or depression.

    PubMed

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2005-08-01

    In the present study, part of the Munich 5-year follow-up study on key relatives of first-hospitalized schizophrenic and depressive patients, baseline results with respect to relatives' burden and predictors of burden are presented. Basing on a transactional stress model the following hypothesis was tested: the impact of the patients' illness on their relatives' stress outcome is moderated by the psychosocial resources of the relatives. Stress outcome was measured in terms of objective and subjective burden, well-being, self-rated symptoms and global satisfaction with life. Potential moderating variables included age and gender, generalized stress response and illness-related coping strategies, beliefs of control,perceived social support,personality factors, expressed emotion and life stressors. A total of 83 relatives, whose ill family members had been hospitalized in the Department of Psychiatry of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich for the first time, participated in the study. Findings did not entirely support the hypothesis. On the one hand, relatives' stress outcome was independent of the objective stressors (severity of the illness, kind of symptoms, level of psychosocial functioning at admission). On the other hand, burden was significantly associated with several psychosocial resources and dispositions of the relatives. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that expressed emotion, emotion-focused coping strategies and generalized negative stress response are the most relevant predictors of burden. It is argued that a multidimensional approach in burden assessment is necessary and has relevant implications for improving family intervention strategies.

  2. Palatal positioned implants in severely atrophic maxillae versus conventional implants to support fixed full-arch prostheses: Controlled retrospective study with 5 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Candel-Marti, Eugenia; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Bagán, Leticia; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate soft tissue conditions and bone loss around palatal positioned implants supporting fixed full-arch prostheses to rehabilitate edentulous maxillae with horizontal atrophy and compare them with conventional well-centered implants placed in non-atrophic maxillae after a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Material and Methods A clinical retrospective study was performed of patients that were rehabilitated with full-arch fixed implant-supported maxillary prostheses and had a minimum follow-up of 5 years after implant loading. Patients were divided into 2 groups: patients with class IV maxilla according to Cawood and Howell and treated with palatal positioned implants (test) and with class III maxilla and treated with implants well-centered in the alveolar ridge and completely surrounded by bone (control). The following variables were assessed: age, sex, frequency of tooth brushing, smoking, type of prosthesis, type of implant, implant success, amount of buccal keratinized mucosa, buccal retraction, probing depth, plaque index, modified bleeding index, presence of mucositis or peri-implantitis and peri-implant bone loss. Statistical analysis was performed applying Chi2 Test and Student’s t-test using alpha set at 0.05. Results A total of 57 patients were included: 32 patients with 161 palatal positioned implants (test) and 25 patients with 132 well centered implants (control). No statistically significant differences were found regarding age, sex and smoking, but test group patients reported a significantly higher frequency of daily tooth brushing. Implant success rates were 96.9% for test group implants and 96.0% for control group implants. Peri-implant mucosa retraction was significantly higher in the control group than in the test group (p=0,017). No significant differences were observed either for all the other assessed clinical parameters or for peri-implant bone loss. Conclusions Despite its limitations the outcomes of the present study suggest

  3. Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive, and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Just, Allan C.; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M.; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult. Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors. Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs. Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (≤ 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (β = 2.5; 95% CI: –0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (β = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.8–7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (β = –3.0; 95% CI: –6.3, 0.2), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β = –3.3; 95% CI: –6.1, –0.5), or PBDE-85 (β = –3.2; 95% CI: –5.9, –0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (β = –2.0; 95% CI: –4.4, 0.4). Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be

  4. Placement outcomes of 206 severely maltreated children in the Boston Juvenile Court system: a 7.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jellinek, M S; Little, M; Benedict, K; Murphy, J M; Pagano, M; Poitrast, F; Quinn, D

    1995-09-01

    This study examines placement outcomes of 206 severely maltreated children 7.5 years after arraignment in Boston Juvenile Court (BJC) on Care and Protection Petitions. Sixty-seven percent (n = 138) of the sample had been permanently removed from their parents and 33% (n = 68) had their cases dismissed in the BJC. At time of this follow-up, 21% of the full sample (n = 44) were still in temporary custody awaiting permanent placement. In addition, 4% (n = 8) of children had "drifted" back to their abusive/neglectful parents despite prior permanent removal. The average time children in this sample spent in probate proceedings (awaiting permanent placement) had increased substantially to 2.1 years since the last overview study of this sample 4 years ago. The rate of court referral for incidences of reabuse (a C&P filing), or delinquency was significantly lower among children who had been permanently placed (p < .003). Rates of court-referral for reabuse charges were the same (16%) for children who were in temporary custody at the time of follow-up and children who had been dismissed back to the parent for whom the original C&P had been filed. Results are discussed in light of the urgent need to restructure time limits in juvenile court proceedings, integrate adequate tracking of child abuse and neglect cases through and across court and agency boundaries, and the use standardized assessments of abused and neglected children as a tool in the adjudication process.

  5. Risk Factors for Death among Children Less than 5 Years Old Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2005–2007: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, Benjamin; Nyaguara, Amek; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Williams, Kara A.; Vinjé, Jan; Blanton, Elizabeth; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Vulule, John; Laserson, Kayla F.; Breiman, Robert F.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Mintz, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. Methods and Findings We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours) at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9%) children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118), Campylobacter in 5% (57), and Shigella in 4% (42) of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196) of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1–14·9), and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2–14·0) identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2–0·8). Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1–8·7); having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4–3·8); having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2–3·8); and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5–4·1). A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen

  6. Risk Factors for Long-Term Mortality after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A 5-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Holter, Jan C.; Ueland, Thor; Jenum, Pål A.; Müller, Fredrik; Brunborg, Cathrine; Frøland, Stig S.; Aukrust, Pål; Husebye, Einar; Heggelund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributors to long-term mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain unclear, with little attention paid to pneumonia etiology. We examined long-term survival, causes of death, and risk factors for long-term mortality in adult patients who had been hospitalized for CAP, with emphasis on demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological characteristics. Methods Two hundred and sixty-seven consecutive patients admitted in 2008–2011 to a general hospital with CAP were prospectively recruited and followed up. Patients who died during hospital stay were excluded. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected within 48 hours of admission. Extensive microbiological work-up was performed to establish the etiology of CAP in 63% of patients. Mortality data were obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Cox regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for all-cause mortality. Results Of 259 hospital survivors of CAP (median age 66 years), 79 (30.5%) died over a median of 1,804 days (range 1–2,520 days). Cumulative 5-year survival rate was 72.9% (95% CI 67.4–78.4%). Standardized mortality ratio was 2.90 for men and 2.05 for women. The main causes of death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), vascular diseases, and malignancy. Independent risk factors for death were the following (hazard ratio, 95% CI): age (1.83 per decade, 1.47–2.28), cardiovascular disease (2.63, 1.61–4.32), COPD (2.09, 1.27–3.45), immunocompromization (1.98, 1.17–3.37), and low serum albumin level at admission (0.75 per 5g/L higher, 0.58–0.96), whereas active smoking was protective (0.32, 0.14–0.74); active smokers were younger than non-smokers (P < 0.001). Microbial etiology did not predict mortality. Conclusions Results largely confirm substantial comorbidity-related 5-year mortality after hospitalization for CAP and the impact of several well-known risk factors for death, and extend

  7. Assessment and Predicting Factors of Repeated Brain Computed Tomography in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients for Risk-Stratified Care Management: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sumritpradit, Preeda; Setthalikhit, Thitipong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. To determine the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases for risk-stratified care management (RSCM) and to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Methods. A 5-year retrospective study from January 2009 to August 2013 was conducted. The primary outcome was the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases. The secondary outcome is to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Results. There were 145 consecutive patients with TBI and repeated brain CT after initial abnormal brain CT. Forty-two percent of all cases (N = 61) revealed the progression of intracranial hemorrhage after repeated brain CT. In all 145 consecutive patients, 67.6% of cases (N = 98) were categorized as mild TBI. For mild head injury, 8.2% of cases (N = 8) had undergone neurosurgical management after repeated brain CT. Only 1 from 74 mild TBI patients with repeated brain CT had neurosurgical intervention. Clopidogrel and midline shift more than 2 mm on initial brain CT were significant predicting factors to indicate the neurosurgical management in mild TBI cases. Conclusion. Routine repeated brain CT for RSCM had no clinical benefit in mild TBI cases. PMID:27703812

  8. A study of donepezil in female breast cancer survivors with self-reported cognitive dysfunction 1 to 5 years following adjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, L.; Balcueva, E. P.; Groteluschen, D. L.; Samuel, T. A.; Lesser, G. J.; Naughton, M. J.; Case, L. D.; Shaw, E. G.; Rapp, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Some breast cancer survivors report cognitive difficulties greater than 1 year after chemotherapy. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) may improve cognitive impairment. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study to assess the feasibility of using the AChEI, donepezil, to improve subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in breast cancer survivors. Methods Women who received adjuvant chemotherapy 1–5 years prior with current cognitive dysfunction symptoms were randomized to 5 mg of donepezil/day vs placebo for 6 weeks and if tolerated 10 mg/day for 18 weeks for a total of 24 weeks. A battery of validated measures of attention, memory, language, visuomotor skills, processing speed, executive function, and motor dexterity and speed was administered at baseline and at 24 and 36 weeks. Subjective cognitive function, fatigue, sleep, mood, and health-related quality of life were evaluated at baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Results Sixty-two patients were enrolled, 76 % completed the study, self-reported compliance was 98 %, and toxicities were minimal. At the end of treatment, the donepezil group performed significantly better than the control group on two parameters of memory—the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test -Revised (HVLT-R) Total Recall (p=0.033) and HVLT-R Discrimination (p=0.036). There were no significant differences on other cognitive variables or in subjective cognitive function or quality of life. Conclusion Accrual to this feasibility trial was robust, retention was good, compliance was excellent, and toxicities were minimal. Implications for Cancer Survivors Randomized clinical trials in breast cancer survivors to improve cognitive dysfunction are feasible. A phase III trial testing the efficacy of donepezil is warranted given these pilot results. PMID:26130292

  9. Placement Outcomes of 206 Severely Maltreated Children in the Boston Juvenile Court System: A 7.5-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellinek, Michael S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Placement outcomes for 206 severely maltreated Boston (Massachusetts) children 7.5 years after arraignment on care and protection petitions were examined, with attention to the percent permanently removed from parents, cases dismissed, temporary custody, drifting back to parents despite removal, time spent in probate proceedings, and rate of court…

  10. Long-Term Outcome of Combined (Percutaneous Intramyocardial and Intracoronary) Application of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Post Myocardial Infarction: The 5-Year MYSTAR Study

    PubMed Central

    Syeda, Bonni; Charwat, Silvia; Marzluf, Beatrice; Mascherbauer, Julia; Jakab, Andras; Zimba, Abelina; Sárközy, Márta; Pavo, Noemi; Sochor, Heinz; Graf, Senta; Lang, Irene; Maurer, Gerald; Bergler-Klein, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Objective The long-term (5-year) outcome of early (3–6 weeks after acute myocardial infarction [AMI], BM-MNC Early group) and late (3–4 months after AMI, BM-MNC Late group) combined (percutaneous intramyocardial and intracoronary) delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) was evaluated in patients with ejection fractions (EF) between 30–45% post-AMI. Methods Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and hospitalization were recorded. Left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular function were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and myocardial single photon emission computed tomography was performed in a subgroup of patients. Pre-cell therapy myocardial voltage values of treated areas (assessed by NOGA mapping) were correlated with clinical outcome. Results Five-year MACCE incidences (7.4%. vs 24.1%) and the composite of all adverse events (11.1% vs 27.6%) were not different between the Early and Late treatment groups. The significant LV-EF increase at 1-year follow-up was preserved at the 5-year control (from baseline to 5-year: 5.3%, 95% CI:0.5–10.1, and 5.7%, 95% CI:1.7–9.6, p<0.05 in the Early and Late groups, respectively), with no significant changes between 1- and 5-year follow-ups. Similarly, RVEF increased significantly from baseline to the 5-year follow-up (Early group: 5.4%, 95% CI:1.0–9.6; and Late group: 8.4%, 95% CI:4.5–12.3). Lower baseline levels of myocardial viability of the treated cardiac area (6.3±2.4 vs 8.2±3.0 mV, p<0.05) were associated with incidence of MACCE. Conclusions Percutaneous combined delivery of autologous BM-MNCs is feasible and safe after 5 years, and may result in sustained improvement of cardiac function at 5 years in patients with low EF post-AMI (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01395212). PMID:27764157

  11. Recent U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada-Results of a 5-Year Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents summary papers of work conducted between 2002 and 2007 under a 5-year project effort funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program, formerly entitled 'Tintina Metallogenic Province: Integrated Studies on Geologic Framework, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Signatures.' As the project progressed, the informal title changed from 'Tintina Metallogenic Province' project to 'Tintina Gold Province' project, the latter being more closely aligned with the terminology used by the mineral industry. As Goldfarb and others explain in the first chapter of this report, the Tintina Gold Province is a convenient term used by the mineral exploration community for a 'region of very varied geology, gold deposit types, and resource potential'. The Tintina Gold Province encompasses roughly 150,000 square kilometers, bounded by the Kaltag-Tintina fault system on the north and the Farewell-Denali fault system on the south. It extends westward in a broad arc, some 200 km wide, from northernmost British Columbia, through the Yukon, through southeastern and central Alaska, to southwestern Alaska. The climate is subarctic and, in Alaska, includes major physiographic delineations and ecoregions such as the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands, Yukon River Lowlands, and the Kuskokwim Mountains. Although the Tintina Gold Province is historically important for some of the very first placer and lode gold discoveries in northern North America, it has recently seen resurgence in mineral exploration, development, and mining activity. This resurgence is due to both new discoveries (for example, Pogo and Donlin Creek) and to the application of modern extraction methods to previously known, but economically restrictive, low-grade, bulk-tonnage gold resources (for example, Fort Knox, Clear Creek, and Scheelite Dome). In addition, the Tintina Gold Province hosts numerous other mineral deposit types, possessing both high and low sulfide content, which

  12. Metabolic syndrome factors and risk of postoperative depression in high-grade glioma patients in a 1.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-tong; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Jin; Dai, Min-chao; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Chao; Shao, Jun-fei

    2014-10-01

    To date, the relationship between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of glioma-related depression is still unclear, and no study investigates this relationship. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of postoperative depression in high-grade patients. A total of 386 high-grade glioma patients participated in blood sample collection for metabolic syndrome factors analysis and the hospital anxiety and depression scale testing. The association between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of postoperative depression was assessed using Cox regression proportional hazards models, and Student's t tests were used to evaluate the differences in demographic variables and clinical characteristics in subgroups. The incidence of postoperative depression in our 1.5-year follow-up was 30.5%. We found the risk of postoperative depression was elevated with increased blood glucose level [hazard ratios (HR) 2.277, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.201-4.320, top vs. bottom quartile]. The hazard ratio was increased for z-scores of blood glucose (HR 1.672 per unit standard deviation, 95% CI 1.311-2.133] and of the combined metabolic syndrome score (HR 1.080, 95% CI 1.000-1.167). In addition, risk of postoperative depression risk was increased in high-grade glioma patients with high blood glucose levels (≥6.0 mmol/l) (HR 2.084, 95% CI 1.235-3.515). However, we did not find significant associations between postoperative depression and other metabolic syndrome factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Depression is prevalent among patients with high-grade glioma after operation. Blood glucose level is positively associated with the risk of postoperative depression, and might be involved in the etiology of postoperative depression, and may predict its development in high-grade glioma patients.

  13. Sequence Variation in the T-Cell Epitopes of the Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein among Field Isolates Is Temporally Stable: a 5-Year Longitudinal Study in Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Jalloh, Amadu; van Thien, Huynh; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Ohashi, Jun; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Kanbe, Toshio; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Kawamoto, Fumihiko

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to decipher the nature and extent of antigen polymorphisms of malaria parasites in a setting where malaria is hypomesoendemic, we conducted a 5-year longitudinal study (1998 to 2003) by sequencing the Th2R and Th3R epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of 142 Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Bao Loc, Vietnam. Samples were collected during the high-transmission season, September through December 1998 (n = 43), as well as from July 2000 to August 2001 (n = 34), September 2001 to July 2002 (n = 33), and August 2002 to July 2003 (n = 32). Marked sequence diversity was noted during the high-transmission season in 1998, but no significant variation in allele frequencies was observed over the years (χ2 = 70.003, degrees of freedom = 57, P = 0.116). The apparent temporal stability in allele frequency observed in this Bao Loc malaria setting may suggest that polymorphism in the Th2R and Th3R epitopes is not maintained by frequency-dependent immune selection. By including 36 isolates from Flores Island, Indonesia, and 19 isolates from Thaton, Myanmar, we investigated geographical patterns of sequence polymorphism for these epitopes in Southeast Asia; among the characterized isolates, a globally distributed variant appears to be predominant in Vietnam (75 of 142 isolates, or 52.8%) as well as in Myanmar (15 of 19 isolates, or 78.9%) and Indonesia (31 of 36 isolates, or 86.1%). Further analyses involving worldwide CSP sequences revealed distinct regional patterns, a finding which, together with the unique mutations observed here, may suggest a possible role for host or local factors in the generation of sequence diversity in the T-cell epitopes of CSP. PMID:16597843

  14. Is there an occupational status gradient in the development of periodontal disease in Japanese workers? A 5-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Koichiro; Yamazaki, Toru; Yoshii, Saori; Takeyama, Hideo; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Development of periodontal disease (PD) may be affected by socioeconomic status. This study examined the relationship between occupational status and PD in a 5-year prospective cohort of Japanese workers. Methods In total, 19,633 participants had initial examinations at the Aichi Health Promotion Foundation, of whom 8210 participants aged 20 years or older did not have PD. Follow-up examinations were conducted for 3757 participants, accounting for 45.8% of baseline participants. Ultimately, 3390 participants were analyzed according to the criterion of job classification at baseline, which was based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1987. Oral examinations were performed using the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The CPI scores were coded as follows: healthy (score of 0); bleeding after probing (1); dental calculus (2); shallow pockets (3); and deep pockets (4). Participants with one or more sextants with a score >2 were diagnosed with PD. Poisson regression analysis was performed to adjust for age and other potential confounders. Results Overall, 31.6% of men and 23.8% of women had developed PD (CPI scores of 3 or 4). The adjusted relative risk (RR) for PD (CPI scores of 3 or 4) in men was not significant. On the other hand, the adjusted RRs for PD (CPI score of 4) in men were 2.52-, 2.39-, and 2.74-fold higher for skilled workers, sales persons, and drivers, respectively, than for professionals. In contrast, we found no gradient in women. Conclusions We found a gradient related to the risk of developing PD according to occupational status among men in a Japanese worker population. PMID:28142014

  15. Survival status and predictors of mortality among severely acute malnourished children <5 years of age admitted to stabilization centers in Gedeo Zone: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Girum, Tadele; Kote, Mesfin; Tariku, Befikadu; Bekele, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existence of standard protocol, many stabilization centers (SCs) continue to experience high mortality of children receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. Assessing treatment outcomes and identifying predictors may help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a 30-month retrospective cohort study was conducted among 545 randomly selected medical records of children <5 years of age admitted to SCs in Gedeo Zone. Data was entered by Epi Info version 7 and analyzed by STATA version 11. Cox proportional hazards model was built by forward stepwise procedure and compared by the likelihood ratio test and Harrell's concordance, and fitness was checked by Cox-Snell residual plot. During follow-up, 51 (9.3%) children had died, and 414 (76%) and 26 (4.8%) children had recovered and defaulted (missed follow-up for 2 consecutive days), respectively. The survival rates at the end of the first, second and third weeks were 95.3%, 90% and 85%, respectively, and the overall mean survival time was 79.6 days. Age <24 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] =2.841, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.101-7.329), altered pulse rate (AHR =3.926, 95% CI =1.579-9.763), altered temperature (AHR =7.173, 95% CI =3.05-16.867), shock (AHR =3.805, 95% CI =1.829-7.919), anemia (AHR =2.618, 95% CI =1.148-5.97), nasogastric tube feeding (AHR =3.181, 95% CI =1.18-8.575), hypoglycemia (AHR =2.74, 95% CI =1.279-5.87) and treatment at hospital stabilization center (AHR =4.772, 95% CI =1.638-13.9) were independent predictors of mortality. The treatment outcomes and incidence of death were in the acceptable ranges of national and international standards. Intervention to further reduce deaths has to focus on young children with comorbidities and altered general conditions.

  16. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency: a 5 year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zhou, Z.; Liu, Y.; Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, H.; Xiong, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Our understanding of how net global warming potential (NGWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a 5 year field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on NGWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from all sources (methane, CH4, and nitrous oxide, N2O, emissions, agrochemical inputs, Ei, and farm operations, Eo) and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon, SOC, sequestration). For the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), four ISSM scenarios consisting of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, N1 (25 % reduction), N2 (10 % reduction), N3 (FP rate) and N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios, i.e., N1, N2, N3 and N4, significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 86 and 82 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the N1 and N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar NGWPs. The N3 and N4 scenarios remarkably increased the NGWP and GHGI by an average of 67 and 36 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  17. Survival status and predictors of mortality among severely acute malnourished children <5 years of age admitted to stabilization centers in Gedeo Zone: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Girum, Tadele; Kote, Mesfin; Tariku, Befikadu; Bekele, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existence of standard protocol, many stabilization centers (SCs) continue to experience high mortality of children receiving treatment for severe acute malnutrition. Assessing treatment outcomes and identifying predictors may help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a 30-month retrospective cohort study was conducted among 545 randomly selected medical records of children <5 years of age admitted to SCs in Gedeo Zone. Data was entered by Epi Info version 7 and analyzed by STATA version 11. Cox proportional hazards model was built by forward stepwise procedure and compared by the likelihood ratio test and Harrell’s concordance, and fitness was checked by Cox–Snell residual plot. During follow-up, 51 (9.3%) children had died, and 414 (76%) and 26 (4.8%) children had recovered and defaulted (missed follow-up for 2 consecutive days), respectively. The survival rates at the end of the first, second and third weeks were 95.3%, 90% and 85%, respectively, and the overall mean survival time was 79.6 days. Age <24 months (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] =2.841, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.101–7.329), altered pulse rate (AHR =3.926, 95% CI =1.579–9.763), altered temperature (AHR =7.173, 95% CI =3.05–16.867), shock (AHR =3.805, 95% CI =1.829–7.919), anemia (AHR =2.618, 95% CI =1.148–5.97), nasogastric tube feeding (AHR =3.181, 95% CI =1.18–8.575), hypoglycemia (AHR =2.74, 95% CI =1.279–5.87) and treatment at hospital stabilization center (AHR =4.772, 95% CI =1.638–13.9) were independent predictors of mortality. The treatment outcomes and incidence of death were in the acceptable ranges of national and international standards. Intervention to further reduce deaths has to focus on young children with comorbidities and altered general conditions. PMID:28176953

  18. The prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of diastolic heart failure: a clinical study in elderly Saudi patients with up to 5 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Elshaer, Fayez; Hassan, Walid; Fawzy, Mohamed E; Lockyer, Marilyn; Kharabsheh, Suliman; Akhras, Nathem; Shahid, Maie; Elwidaa, Hassan; Elkum, Naser; Canver, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Data from 519 patients older than 65 years with congestive heart failure (CHF) were analyzed after 5 years of clinical follow-up. Two groups were included in the analysis: 321 patients with ejection fractions > or =50% (group with diastolic heart failure) and 198 patients with reduced ejection fraction <50% (group with systolic heart failure). Hypertension (81%) was the strongest predictor of congestive heart failure, followed by diabetes (46%) and coronary disease (33%). Diastolic heart failure was more predominant in elderly female (P=.007), hypertensive (P=.0001), and hypertrophic (P=.001) patients. Length of hospital stay, readmission rate, all-cause morbidity, and cumulative mortality were not statistically significant between both groups (P=.09).

  19. Lead exposure and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive development of urban children: the Cincinnati Lead Study cohort at age 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K.N.; Succop, P.A.; Berger, O.G.; Keith, R.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This analysis examined the relationship between lead exposure as registered in whole blood (PbB) and the central auditory processing abilities and cognitive developmental status of the Cincinnati cohort (N = 259) at age 5 years. Although the effects were small, higher prenatal, neonatal, and postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer central auditory processing abilities on the Filtered Word Subtest of the SCAN (a screening test for auditory processing disorders). Higher postnatal PbB levels were associated with poorer performance on all cognitive developmental subscales of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). However, following adjustment for measures of the home environment and maternal intelligence, few statistically or near statistically significant associations remained. Our findings are discussed in the context of the related issues of confounding and the detection of weak associations in high risk populations.

  20. Pulmonary rehabilitation coupled with negative pressure ventilation decreases decline in lung function, hospitalizations, and medical cost in COPD: A 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Yang, Lan-Yan; Pan, Yu-Bin; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) brings benefits to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Negative pressure ventilation (NPV) increases ventilation and decreases hyperinflation as well as breathing work in COPD. We evaluated the long-term effects of a hospital-based PR program coupled with NPV support in patients with COPD on clinical outcomes.One hundred twenty-nine patients with COPD were followed up for more than 5 years, with the NPV group (n = 63) receiving the support of NPV (20-30 cm H2O delivery pressure for 60 min) and unsupervised home exercise program of 20 to 30 min daily walk, while the control group (n = 6) only received unsupervised home exercise program. Pulmonary function tests and 6 min walk tests (6MWT) were performed every 3 to 6 months. Emergency room (ER) visits and hospitalization with medical costs were recorded.A significant time-by-group interaction in the yearly decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 s in the control group analyzed by mixed-model repeated-measure analysis was found (P = 0.048). The 6MWT distance of the NPV group was significantly increased during the first 4 years, with the interaction of time and group (P = 0.003), the time alone (P = 0.014), and the quadratic time (P < 0.001) being significant between the 2 groups. ER exacerbations and hospitalizations decreased by 66% (P < 0.0001) and 54% (P < 0.0001) in the NPV group, respectively. Patients on PR program coupled with NPV had a significant reduction of annual medical costs (P = 0.022).Our hospital-based multidisciplinary PR coupled with NPV reduced yearly decline of lung function, exacerbations, and hospitalization rates, and improved walking distance and medical costs in patients with COPD during a 5-year observation.

  1. Incidence of Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes among People Aged over 20 Years in Ahvaz: A 5-Year Perspective Study (2009–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazian, Hajieh; Hardani Pasand, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study is the fourth cohort study conducted in the Middle East on the evaluation of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes, implemented in Ahvaz, Iran. Methodology. The individuals aged over twenty years who had participated in a study on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 2009 (Phase 1) in Ahvaz were invited again in 2014. The questionnaires were completed via interview, and anthropometric parameters were measured by standard method. The logistic regression and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results. In the median of five-year follow-up, a number of 593 people participated in reexamination from which 396 individuals were nondiabetic in Phase 1. The incidence of diabetes and prediabetes was 21.9 and 40.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Among Phase 1 prediabetics, 16.8% were diagnosed with diabetes in a five-year period. The factors affecting the incidence of prediabetes among the people younger than 65 years include age, family history of diabetes, and gender. The age factor plays an important role in the transformation of prediabetes to diabetes. Conclusion. The city of Ahvaz with type 2 diabetes incidence of 13.64 per 1000 person-years is one of the areas with high incidence of diabetes in Iran. PMID:28004008

  2. SU-E-J-265: Feasibility Study of Texture Analysis for Prognosis of Local Tumor Recurrence Within 5-Years for Pharyngeal-Laryngeal Carcinoma Patients Received Radiotherapy Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, W; Tu, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas (PLC) are among the top leading cancers in Asian populations. Typically the tumor may recur and progress in a short period of time if radiotherapy fails to deliver a successful treatment. Here we used image texture features extracted from images of computed tomography (CT) planning and conducted a retrospective study to evaluate whether texture analysis is a feasible approach to predict local tumor recurrence for PLC patients received radiotherapy treatment. Methods: CT planning images of 100 patients with PLC treated by radiotherapy at our facility between 2001 and 2010 are collected. These patients were received two separate CT scans, before and mid-course of the treatment delivery. Before the radiotherapy, a CT scanning was used for the first treatment planning. A total of 30 fractions were used in the treatment and patients were scanned with a second CT around the end of the fifteenth delivery for an adaptive treatment planning. Only patients who were treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy and RapidArc were selected. Treatment planning software of Eclipse was used. The changes of texture parameters between two CT acquisitions were computed to determine whether they were correlated to the local tumor recurrence. The following texture parameters were used in the preliminary assessment: mean, variance, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, energy, entropy, inverse difference moment, cluster shade, inertia, cluster prominence, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, and gray-level run-length matrix. The study was reviewed and approved by the committee of our institutional review board. Results: Our calculations suggested the following texture parameters were correlated with the local tumor recurrence: skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and inertia (p<0.0.05). Conclusion: The preliminary results were positive. However some works remain crucial to be completed, including addition of texture parameters for different image

  3. Long-term hospitalisation rates among 5-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescence or young adulthood: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Maraldo, Maja; Aznar, Marianne C; Cutter, David J; Darby, Sarah C; Specht, Lena; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2017-05-15

    In the present study, we report on the full range of physical diseases acquired by survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed in adolescence or young adulthood. In a Danish nationwide population-based cohort study, 1,768 five-year survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed at ages 15-39 years during 1943-2004 and 228,447 comparison subjects matched to survivors on age and year of birth were included. Hospital discharge diagnoses and bed-days during 1977-2010 were obtained from the Danish Patient Register for 145 specific disease categories gathered in 14 main diagnostic groups. The analysis was conducted separately on three subcohorts of survivors, that is, survivors diagnosed 1943-1976 for whom we had no information on rehospitalisation for Hodgkin lymphoma and survivors diagnosed 1977-2004, split into a subcohort with no expected relapses and a subcohort for whom a rehospitalisation for Hodgkin lymphoma indicated a relapse. The overall standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (RRs) were 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9-2.1], 1.5 (1.4-1.6) and 2.9 (2.6-3.1) respectively, and the corresponding RRs for bed-days were 3.5 (3.4-3.5), 1.8 (1.8-1.9) and 10.4 (10.3-10.6). Highest RRs were seen for nonmalignant haematological conditions (RR: 2.6; 3.1 and 9.7), malignant neoplasms (RR: 3.2; 2.5 and 4.7) and all infections combined (RR: 2.5; 2.2 and 5.3). Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescence or young adulthood are at increased risk for a wide range of diseases that require hospitalisation. The risk depends on calendar period of treatment and on whether the survivors were rehospitalised for Hodgkin lymphoma, and thus likely had a relapse.

  4. Continuous increase of Trichophyton tonsurans as a cause of tinea capitis in the urban area of Paris, France: a 5-year-long study.

    PubMed

    Gits-Muselli, Maud; Benderdouche, Mazouz; Hamane, Samia; Mingui, Anselme; Feuilhade de Chauvin, Martine; Guigue, Nicolas; Picat, Marie-Quitterie; Bourrat, Emmanuelle; Petit, Antoine; Bagot, Martine; Alanio, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-10-14

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a highly contagious fungal infection of the scalp due to dermatophytes in children. To obtain information on the epidemiology of TC in the urban area of Paris, we analysed the microbiological results of 3090 patients seen with suspected TC from October 2010 to September 2015 at Saint Louis hospital, Paris, France. A peak of TC was observed in 3-6 year-old children, followed by a progressive decrease until 16 years of age. Of the 1311 positive cultures, 95% (1246) yielded one of the three anthropophilic species [Trichophyton tonsurans (33.5%), Trichophyton soudanense (38.3%), or Microsporum audouinii (28.2%)]. When considering one TC case per family, we observed a significant increase of T. tonsurans (P = .018) during these 5 years. The increase was more pronounced (P = .0047) in patients of West-African descent (n = 666), and was at the expense of M. audouinii and T. soudanense On the other hand, the Caribbean patients (n = 85) remained predominantly (72.9%) infected by T. tonsurans Our results show a better virulence of T. tonsurans over other species as already reported. Since T. tonsurans has not been reported in Africa, the infection of patients of West-African descent probably took place in the Paris area by exchanges with Caribbean patients. This increase of TC due to T. tonsurans was observed in the context of griseofulvin being the only licensed paediatric treatment for TC in France, which should deserve reappraisal because terbinafine may be more efficacious.

  5. Predicting Reoffending Using the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY): A 5-Year Follow-Up Study of Male Juvenile Offenders in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiansong; Witt, Katrina; Cao, Xia; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Background Juvenile violent offending is a serious worldwide public health issue. Objective The study examined whether the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) can be used to predict violent reoffending in Chinese male juvenile offenders, and to determine which risk/protective domains (items) are associated with violent recidivism. Methods A total of 246 male juvenile offenders were recruited. SAVRY domains were scored by trained raters based on file review and interviews with participants and their legal guardians. Information on further arrests, charges, or convictions for violent offences were collected from police records over a five year follow-up. Results Over the course of the five year follow-up periods, 63 (25.6%) juvenile offenders were re-arrested for a further violent reoffence. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses showed Areas Under the Curve (AUCs) ranging from 0.60 to 0.68 for the SAVRY total, risk and protective score domains. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that 7 of the 30 SAVRY items were significantly associated with reoffending; explaining 36.2% of the variance. Backward stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis showed the independently predictive items were items 2 (‘history of non-violent offending’), 17 (‘negative attitudes’), 18 (‘risk-taking/impulsivity’), and 20 (‘anger management problems’). Together these four items explained 25.0% of the variance in reoffending. Conclusions The results suggested that the SAVRY can be meaningfully used to inform the development and evaluation of effective violence risk assessment and management approaches for male juvenile offenders detained in a Youth Detention Center in Hunan province, China. PMID:28076443

  6. Cancer-specific incidence rates of tuberculosis: A 5-year nationwide population-based study in a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden.

    PubMed

    Seo, Gi Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Seo, Soyoung; Hwang, Boram; Lee, Eugene; Yun, Yujin; Choi, Minsun; Kim, Moonsuk; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Kyoung-Ho

    2016-09-01

    Population-based studies of the incidence of tuberculosis in cancer patients according to the type of cancer are limited. We investigated the cancer-specific incidence of tuberculosis in a nationwide population-based cohort in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis.We used mandatory National Health Insurance claims data to construct a cancer cohort of adults (aged 20-99 years) with newly diagnosed malignancies other than lung cancer, from January 2008 to December 2012. Patients who developed tuberculosis in this period were identified in the cancer cohort and the general population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of tuberculosis in the cancer cohort according to type of cancer and time after cancer diagnosis were calculated by comparing the observed incidence rates with those inferred from the age- and gender-specific incidence rates in the general population.A total of 855,382 cancer patients and 1589,876 person-years (py) were observed. A total of 5745 patients developed tuberculosis; the mean incidence rate was 361.3 per 100,000 py, and the SIR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.27). The incidence rate was highest for hematologic malignancy and lowest for thyroid cancer. It was also highest as 650.1 per 100,000 py, with SIR of 3.70 (CI, 3.57-3.83) for the first 6 months after diagnosis of malignancy and then declined. However, it still remained higher than that of the general population after 24 months (SIR = 1.43, CI, 1.36-1.51).The incidence of tuberculosis increases after diagnosis in patients with malignancies. The risk of tuberculosis differs according to the type of cancer and remains elevated even 24 months after cancer diagnosis. Tuberculosis should be considered an important comorbidity in patients with malignancies.

  7. [Fissure sealants--5 years of use].

    PubMed

    Azul, A M

    1990-01-01

    This study assesses the caries prevalence, retention and cost-effectiveness of a pit and fissure sealant in a children population with 622 cases, 5 years after a single application of an auto-polymerized sealant to permanent molars. The status of the sealant and the presence of caries or restaurations on the sealed teeth was assessed. In a self-controlled group of children, the prevalence of disease (caries and restaurations) was also assessed in non-sealed teeth, for comparison. The sealant application was compared with Class I-restauration with amalgam for cost-effectiveness analysis.

  8. Mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees: a 5-year follow-up study of the working population in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Toivanen, Susanna; Griep, Rosane Härter; Mellner, Christin; Vinberg, Stig; Eloranta, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Analyse mortality differences between self-employed and paid employees with a focus on industrial sector, educational level and gender using Swedish register data. Methods A cohort of the total working population (4 776 135 individuals; 7.2% self-employed; 18–100 years of age at baseline 2003) in Sweden with a 5-year follow-up (2004–2008) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (57 743 deaths). Self-employed individuals were categorised as sole proprietors or limited liability company (LLC) owners according to their enterprise's legal form. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to compare mortality rates between sole proprietors, LLC owners and paid employees, adjusted for sociodemographic confounders. Results Mortality from cardiovascular diseases was 16% lower and from suicide 26% lower among LLC owners than among paid employees, adjusted for confounders. Within the industrial category, all-cause mortality was 13–15% lower among sole proprietors and LLC owners compared with employees in manufacturing and mining (MM) as well as personal and cultural services (PCS), and 11–20% higher in sole proprietors in trade, transport and communication and the welfare industry (W). A significant three-way interaction indicated 17–23% lower all-cause mortality among male LLC owners in MM and female sole proprietors in PCS, and 50% higher mortality in female sole proprietors in W than in employees in the same industries. Conclusions Mortality differences between self-employed individuals and paid employees vary by the legal form of self-employment, across industries, and by gender. Differences in work environment exposures and working conditions, varying market competition across industries and gender segregation in the labour market are potential mechanisms underlying these findings. PMID:27443155

  9. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    PubMed Central

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001) and instrumental (P<0.001) activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index), better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) (P<0.001), lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson) (P<0.001), lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment) (P<0.001), lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  10. 77 FR 73452 - Grace Period Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Grace Period Study ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The...Collection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Grace Period Study comment'' in the subject line of the message... are not fully understood. Few studies in the past ten years have dealt with the grace period, and...

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde.

  12. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. PMID:24762210

  13. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: A qualitative study using nominal group technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hispanic pre-schoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on pre-schooler physical activity (PA) (Ninos Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hisp...

  14. Information Systems in Teacher Preparation Programs: What Can We Learn from a 5-Year Longitudinal Case Study of an Electronic Portfolio Database?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, a portfolio system was implemented to manage the data associated with the field experiences in a teacher education program at a research institution in the southeast region of the United States. In this longitudinal study, the implementation trends from usage data extracted from the system are used to discuss the implications for the use…

  15. Zest for work? Assessment of enthusiasm and satisfaction with the present work situation and health--a 1.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether assessing zest for work is a valuable approach in occupational health work. The term "zest for work" comes from the expression "zest for life" and can roughly be interpreted as the degree of enthusiasm and satisfaction with the present work situation. The measurements comprise three components: listing important factors for the feeling of zest for work, attitude rating and stating whether it is possible to have any influence over the listed factors. Included in this study were 5539 employees, mainly women. Low zest for work was associated with job strain and insufficient social support and imposed an increased risk for poor health for working and long spells of sick leave. The results support that assessing zest for work can be useful in occupational health work.

  16. Medication administered to children from 0 to 7.5 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    PubMed Central

    Northstone, K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To present data on the parentally-reported use of all types of medicinal products in children from 0 to 7.5 years, in a large cohort in south-west England. Methods Participants in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) have been sent self-completion postal questionnaires since they were enrolled during pregnancy. The use of medicinal products has been obtained from questionnaires sent out when the study children were 4 weeks, 54, 78 and 91 months old. Results The data included prescription, over-the-counter and complementary and alternative medicines. Around three-quarters of study children were exposed to some form of medicinal product before 8 weeks of age. Dermatological preparations were the most commonly used products in young babies. Activated dimeticone, for treatment of colic and flatulence, was given to 16% of babies and gripe water was used by 13%. Other commonly reported products included oral and topical antifungals and ophthalmic antibiotics. Several OTC products, not licensed for use in this age group, were reported. At each of the older ages surveyed, over 95% of children had used some form of medicinal product within the previous 12–18 months. Use of several product categories was higher at 54 months than at 78 or 91 months, such as topical steroids, analgesics (mostly paracetamol) and systemic antibiotics (mainly amoxicillin). Conversely, use of other categories, such as asthma medication, throat preparations (sprays and lozenges) and anti-inflammatory products, increased with increasing age. Conclusion Parentally-reported use of medicinal products in the ALSPAC study children appears to be consistent with data from other sources. The use of medicinal products by young children is high and does not always conform to the product labelling. PMID:17200835

  17. Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome and Relative Importance of Five Components as a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome: 5-Year Follow-up Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kam, Sin; Shin, Ji-yeon; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Kwon, Gi-Hong; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Chae, Shung Chull; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of metabolic syndrome and to identify five components as metabolic syndrome predictors. The final study included 1,095 subjects enrolled in a rural part of Daegu Metropolitan City, Korea for a cohort study in 2003. Of these, 762 (69.6%) subjects had participated in the repeat survey. During the five-year follow-up, incidence density was significantly higher for women than for men (men, 30.0/1,000 person-years; women, 46.4/1,000 person-years). In both men and women, incidence of metabolic syndrome showed a significant increase with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components at baseline. Compared with individuals presenting none of components at baseline, relative risks were increased 1.22 (men; 95% CI, 0.43-3.51), 2.21 (women; 95% CI, 0.98-4.97) times more for individuals with one component of metabolic syndrome and 5.30 (men; 95% CI, 2.31-12.13), 5.53 (women; 95% CI, 2.78-11.01) times more for those who had two components. In multivariate analysis, the most powerful risk factor for metabolic syndrome was abdominal obesity in men and low HDL-cholesterol in women (adjusted relative risk, 3.28, 2.53, respectively). Consequently, finding a high risk group for metabolic syndrome according to gender and prevention of metabolic syndrome through lifestyle modification are essential. PMID:24339707

  18. Vagus nerve stimulation in drug-resistant epilepsy: the efficacy and adverse effects in a 5-year follow-up study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, Hossein; Amini Harandi, Ali; Abbasi, Mehdi; Karimi, Mohammad; Arami, Mohammad Ali; Mosavi, Seyed Ali; Haddadian, Karim; Rezaei, Omidvar; Sadeghi, Sohrab; Sharifi, Guive; Gharagozli, Koroush; Bahrami, Parviz; Ashrafi, Farzad; Kasmae, Hosein Delavar; Ghassemi, Amirhossein; Arabahmadi, Mehran; Behnam, Behdad

    2016-11-01

    Drug-resistant epilepsy seems like a different disease compared with easy to control epilepsy, and new strategies are needed to help these patients. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is the most frequently used neurostimulation modality for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who are not eligible for seizure surgery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of VNS in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy in an open-label, prospective, long-term study in Iran. We selected 48 patients with partial-onset drug-resistant epilepsy. Implantations were performed in the neurosurgery department of Loghman Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Follow-up visits were done on monthly bases for 5 years. Forty-four patients completed the study. Mean age of patients was 24.4 years. Mean years of epilepsy history was 14 years. The mean number of anti-epileptic drugs did not significantly change over five years (p = 0.15). There was no exacerbation of epilepsy; however, one patient discontinued his therapy due to unsatisfactory results. Five patient had more than 50 %, and 26 patients (59 %) had 25-49 % reduction in the frequency of monthly seizures persistently. Overall mean frequency of monthly seizures decreased by 57.8, 59.6, 65, 65.9, and 67 %, in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th years of follow-up, respectively. Most common side effects were as follows: hoarseness (25 %) and throat discomfort (10 %). We found VNS as a safe and effective therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy, with an approximate long-term decrease in mean seizure frequency of 57.8-67 %. Thus, VNS is recommended for suitable patients in developing countries.

  19. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot: A cohort study of 59 children, focusing on foot involvement and the contralateral foot.

    PubMed

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods - Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results - No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation - Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait.

  20. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing. PMID:24839402

  1. Corporal punishment and child behavioral and cognitive outcomes through 5 years-of-age: Evidence from a contemporary urban birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Michael J; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3 years-of-age, and the associations between spanking and externalizing behavior and receptive verbal ability at age 5. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3. Mothers facing greater stress and those who spanked earlier are more likely to spank at age 3, whereas those who report a supportive partner during pregnancy and those who were not U.S. born were less likely to spank. Mothers and fathers in communities where spanking was more normative were more likely to spank. Fathers were less likely to spank daughters at age 3. Frequent maternal spanking at age 3 was associated with externalizing behavior and receptive vocabulary at age 5, controlling for an array of ecological risks, earlier behavior, and verbal capacity. Taking advantage of the large and diverse sample we explored potential interactions and found no evidence that race, parental warmth, normativeness, or child gender moderated the association between spanking and externalizing or receptive vocabulary. These findings add to the literature on negative consequences associated with a widely endorsed parenting practice, and highlight the need for research that explores alternative effective discipline practices and addresses parent questions of what else they could, or even should, be doing.

  2. Smith-Magenis syndrome with West syndrome in a 5-year-old girl: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Nakayama, Tojo; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Kure, Shigeo; Kamada, Fumiaki; Abe, Yu; Arai, Natsuko; Togashi, Noriko; Onuma, Akira; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation caused by the heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 17p11.2. We present a long-term follow-up study of a girl with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome. West syndrome became apparent at 7 months of age. Since then, mental retardation, particularly in terms of language development, became increasingly more obvious. The patient's spasms and hypsarrhythmia disappeared after a course of adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy, but focal seizures reappeared at the age of 3 years and 3 months. Her craniofacial dysmorphia and mental retardation became increasingly evident compared to her condition at the onset of West syndrome. Chromosome analysis detected the characteristic 17p deletion, which was then confirmed via fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. This is the second report of a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome; taken together, these results suggest that Smith-Magenis syndrome may be a further cause of West syndrome.

  3. A 5-year study of the incidence and economic impact of variant infectious bursal disease viruses on broiler production in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Goodhope, Bob; Knezacek, Tennille; Ojkic, Davor; Willson, Philip; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Gomis, Susantha

    2016-10-01

    While the prevalence of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) on chicken farms in some provinces of Canada has been documented, the economic impact of variant IBDV infection on the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan has not. The objectives of this study were to identify the variant strains of IBDV circulating on Saskatchewan chicken farms and evaluate their economic impact on broiler production. Infection due to IBDV was detected in 43% of Saskatchewan chicken farms, with variant strains detected in infected birds closely related predominantly to NC171, 586, and Delaware-E. Infected flocks showed an IBDV antibody titer of 4236 geometric mean (GM), whereas an antibody titer of 157 GM was measured in uninfected flocks. Infected flocks had very low (0.06) bursa-to-body-weight (BBW) ratio (an indicator of immunity) compared to high BBW ratio (0.17) in uninfected flocks, which suggests a significant immunosuppression in the former. Flocks positive for IBDV had mean mortality of 8.6% and mean condemnation of 1.5%. In contrast, mean mortality in uninfected flocks was 6.1% and mean condemnation was 1.1%. The live market weight per grow area at 37 d of age was 29.3 kg/m(2) in infected flocks and 34.0 kg/m(2) in flocks without IBDV infection. Flock mortality and condemnation rate were positively correlated with IBDV infection, whereas low BBW ratio was inversely correlated, as expected. Overall, IBDV-infected flocks had higher mortality, bursal atrophy, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), and decreased meat production. Our data suggest that the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan loses 3.9 million kilograms of meat production per year due to variant IBDV strains.

  4. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Distal Rectal Cancer: 5-Year Updated Results of a Randomized Phase 2 Study of Neoadjuvant Combined Modality Chemoradiation for Distal Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Paulus, Rebecca; Mitchell, Edith; Hanna, Nader; Yuen, Albert; Nichols, Romaine; Yalavarthi, Salochna; Hayostek, Cherie; Willett, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of 2 different approaches to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for distal rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: One hundred six patients with T3/T4 distal rectal cancers were randomized in a phase 2 study. Patients received either continuous venous infusion (CVI) of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 225 mg/m{sup 2} per day, 7 days per week plus pelvic hyperfractionated radiation (HRT), 45.6 Gy at 1.2 Gy twice daily plus a boost of 9.6 to 14.4 Gy for T3 or T4 cancers (Arm 1), or CVI of 5-FU, 225 mg/m{sup 2} per day, Monday to Friday, plus irinotecan, 50 mg/m{sup 2} once weekly × 4, plus pelvic radiation therapy (RT), 45 Gy at 1.8 Gy per day and a boost of 5.4 Gy for T3 and 9 Gy for T4 cancers (Arm 2). Surgery was performed 4 to 10 weeks later. Results: All eligible patients (n=103) are included in this analysis; 2 ineligible patients were excluded, and 1 patient withdrew consent. Ninety-eight of 103 patients (95%) underwent resection. Four patients did not undergo surgery for either disease progression or patient refusal, and 1 patient died during induction chemotherapy. The median time of follow-up was 6.4 years in Arm 1 and 7.0 years in Arm 2. The pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 30% in Arm 1 and 26% in Arm 2. Locoregional recurrence rates were 16% in Arm 1 and 17% in Arm 2. Five-year survival rates were 61% and 75% and Disease-specific survival rates were 78% and 85% for Arm1 and Arm 2, respectively. Five second primaries occurred in patients on Arm 1, and 1 second primary occurred in Arm 2. Conclusions: High rates of disease-specific survival were seen in each arm. Overall survival appears affected by the development of unrelated second cancers. The high pCR rates with 5-FU and higher dose radiation in T4 cancers provide opportunity for increased R0 resections and improved survival.

  5. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida Species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A; Diekema, D J; Gibbs, D L; Newell, V A; Ellis, D; Tullio, V; Rodloff, A; Fu, W; Ling, T A

    2010-04-01

    Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results for 256,882 isolates of Candida spp. were collected from 142 sites in 41 countries from June 1997 to December 2007. Data were collected for 197,619 isolates tested with voriconazole from 2001 to 2007. A total of 31 different species of Candida were isolated. Increased rates of isolation of the common non-albicans species C. glabrata (10.2% to 11.7%), C. tropicalis (5.4% to 8.0%), and C. parapsilosis (4.8% to 5.6%) were noted when the time periods 1997 to 2000 and 2005 to 2007 were compared. Investigators tested clinical isolates of Candida spp. by the CLSI M44-A disk diffusion method. Overall, 90.2% of Candida isolates tested were susceptible (S) to fluconazole; however, 13 of 31 species identified exhibited decreased susceptibility (<75% S), similar to that seen with the resistant (R) species C. glabrata and C. krusei. Among 197,619 isolates of Candida spp. tested against voriconazole, 95.0% were S and 3% were R. About 30% of fluconazole-R isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. rugosa, C. lipolytica, C. pelliculosa, C. apicola, C. haemulonii, C. humicola, C. lambica, and C. ciferrii remained S to voriconazole. An increase in fluconazole resistance over time was seen with C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, C. sake, and C. pelliculosa. Among the emerging fluconazole-R species were C. guilliermondii (11.4% R), C. inconspicua (53.2% R), C. rugosa (41.8% R), and C. norvegensis (40.7% R). The rates of isolation of C. rugosa, C. inconspicua, and C. norvegensis increased by 5- to 10-fold over the 10.5-year study period. C. guilliermondii and C. rugosa were most prominent in Latin America, whereas C. inconspicua and C. norvegensis were most common in Eastern European countries. This survey identifies several less-common species of Candida with decreased susceptibility to azoles. These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and underscore the importance of prompt and

  6. Use of computerized tomography and chest x-rays in evaluating efficacy of aerosolized recombinant human DNase in cystic fibrosis patients younger than age 5 years: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nasr, S Z; Kuhns, L R; Brown, R W; Hurwitz, M E; Sanders, G M; Strouse, P J

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of the chest and chest x-rays (CXR) to determine efficacy of inhaled recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients younger than 5 years of age. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of 12 patients with CF younger than 5 years of age, attending the University of Michigan Cystic Fibrosis Center (Ann Arbor, MI) was conducted. The changes in the HRCT and CXR score from baseline to day 100 of therapy were assessed using a previously validated scoring system. The mean changes of HRCT scores between the rhDNase and placebo groups were found to be significant at the 95% level, with mean change +/- SE mean of - 1.00 +/- 0.53 and 0.58 +/- 0.24 for rhDNase and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.02). The difference in CXR score was not significant between the two groups. An analysis was performed to relate HRCT subscores to CXR score; only thickening of the intra-interlobular septae was significantly correlated with the total CXR score (r = - 0.7, P < 0.01). There was improvement in the parents' assessments of the patients' well-being, with improvement in physical activity, decreased cough, sleep quality, and appetite in those subjects receiving rhDNase. We conclude that the administration of rhDNase was associated with improvement in the HRCT scan in CF patients younger than 5 years of age. Findings indicate that HRCT of the chest is useful and sensitive in studying responses to therapy in patients with CF lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of HRCT to assess the effectiveness of a therapeutic modality in so young a CF patient population.

  7. Non-Periodic Helix TWT Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    IA-A087 413 LITTON SYSTEMS INC SAN CARLOS CA ELECTRON TUBE DIV F/6 9/1 NON-PERIODIC HELIX TWT STUDY.(U) MAY 80 N00173-76C-014 UNCLASSIFIED ML...IEEEEEEmhEEI U-80 - ’l////////,, 11111 128 25 L1. = *""L 1- 1.8 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART ’IT-, ( (NO-PERIODIC HELIX WTSTUDY0 I EXTENSION OF CONTRACT... Helix Circuit 4 - 2 Non-Periodic Helix Structure 7 3 Unwound Tape for Non-Periodic Helix 8 4 Typical Helix Assembly 10 5 Typical Ladder Assembly 11 6

  8. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health. PMID:23743794

  9. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-06

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.

  10. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  11. Soviet business chaos seen lasting 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-16

    This paper reports that companies seeking work in the collapsing Soviet Union can expect political uncertainty for another 5 years. PW discussed changes in the Soviet Union and offered advice on dealing with officials of the central government and Soviet republics at a recent meeting in Houston with executives of oil field service companies. That meeting preceded reports of the Russian federation, Ukraine, and Byelorussia agreeing to form a Slavic commonwealth.

  12. Visual function and car driving: longitudinal results 5 years after cataract surgery in a population

    PubMed Central

    Mönestam, E; Lundquist, B; Wachtmeister, L

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To determine visual function in drivers who had cataract surgery 5 years previously, and to analyse longitudinal data, by comparing preoperative and postoperative changes in subjective driving ability and objective visual function. Methods: All patients (810) who underwent cataract surgery, during a 1 year period, were prospectively studied. Data regarding present driving status were collected from self administered questionnaires and visual acuity (VA) data were measured before and after surgery. All patients who were alive 5 years later were invited to participate with a new eye examination and questionnaire. Results: Before surgery 36 active drivers (16%) did not fulfil the visual requirements for driving; with improved glasses this number could be reduced to 24 (11%). 5 years after surgery, the corresponding figures were 5% and 3% (5/174), respectively. Before surgery 50% stated visual difficulties while driving in daylight and 79% in darkness. A few months and 5 years after surgery the corresponding figures were 6% and 5%, respectively, for daytime driving and 34% and 44%, respectively, for night-time driving. Conclusions: Long term results regarding cataract surgery in car drivers are beneficial. 5 years after surgery only a few patients drove not fulfilling the requirements, but there were a larger proportion of patients with problems driving in darkness compared with a few months after surgery. PMID:15774924

  13. Physical activity does not influence the effect of antioxidant supplementation at nutritional doses on the incidence of impaired fasting glucose: a 7.5 year post-hoc analysis from the SU.VI.MAX study.

    PubMed

    Fezeu, L; Henegar, A; Kesse-Guyot, E; Julia, C; Galan, P; Hercberg, S; Ristow, M; Czernichow, S

    2010-10-01

    Supplementation with high doses of antioxidant vitamins prevents the insulin-sensitizing effects of physical exercise. However, little is known whether antioxidant supplementation affects the incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Data from 8938 subjects included in a randomized controlled trial on supplementation with antioxidants vitamins and trace elements at nutritional doses (SU.VI.MAX) were used to examine the effects of antioxidants on incident IFG after 7.5 years of follow-up, with and without stratification for daily physical exercise. The odds-ratio (95% CI) for developing an IFG among study participants receiving antioxidant supplementation was 1.34 (0.90-1.97) (p=0.33), in comparison to placebo. This risk did not vary significantly according to physical activity level (p for homogeneity=0.10). Supplementation with trace elements and antioxidants at nutritional doses apparently does not affect the incidence of IFG irrespective of self-reported physical exercise habits.

  14. Evaluation of Coflex interspinous stabilization following decompression compared with decompression and posterior lumbar interbody fusion for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disease: A minimum 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Su, Qing-Jun; Liu, Tie; Yang, Jin-Cai; Kang, Nan; Guan, Li; Hai, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have compared the clinical and radiological outcomes between Coflex interspinous stabilization and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) for degenerative lumbar disease. We compared the at least 5-year clinical and radiological outcomes of Coflex stabilization and PLIF for lumbar degenerative disease. Eighty-seven consecutive patients with lumbar degenerative disease were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-two patients underwent decompression and Coflex interspinous stabilization (Coflex group), 45 patients underwent decompression and PLIF (PLIF group). Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated. Coflex subjects experienced less blood loss, shorter hospital stays and shorter operative time than PLIF (all p<0.001). Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in Oswestry Disability Index and visual analogue scale back and leg pain at each follow-up time point. The Coflex group had significantly better clinical outcomes during early follow-up. At final follow-up, the superior and inferior adjacent segments motion had no significant change in the Coflex group, while the superior adjacent segment motion increased significantly in the PLIF group. At final follow-up, the operative level motion was significantly decreased in both groups, but was greater in the Coflex group. The reoperation rate for adjacent segment disease was higher in the PLIF group, but this did not achieve statistical significance (11.1% vs. 4.8%, p=0.277). Both groups provided sustainable improved clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease through at least 5-year follow-up. The Coflex group had significantly better early efficacy than the PLIF group. Coflex interspinous implantation after decompression is safe and effective for lumbar degenerative disease.

  15. Good maintenance of exercise-induced bone gain with decreased training of female tennis and squash players: a prospective 5-year follow-up study of young and old starters and controls.

    PubMed

    Kontulainen, S; Kannus, P; Haapasalo, H; Sievänen, H; Pasanen, M; Heinonen, A; Oja, P; Vuori, I

    2001-02-01

    This prospective 5-year follow-up study of 64 adult female racquet sports players and 27 controls assessed the changes in the playing-to-nonplaying arm bone mineral content (BMC) differences to answer three questions: (1) Are training-induced bone gains lost with decreased training? (2) Is the bone response to decreased training different if the playing career has been started before or at puberty rather than after it? (3) Are the possible bone changes related to the changes in training? The players were divided into two groups according to the starting age of their tennis or squash playing. The mean starting age was 10.5 years (SD, 2.2) among the players who had started training before or at menarche (young starters; n = 36) while 26.4 years (SD, 8.0) among those players who had begun training a minimum of 1 year after menarche (old starters; n = 28). At baseline of the 5-year follow-up, the mean age of the young starters was 21.6 years (SD, 7.6) and that of old starters was 39.4 years (SD, 10.5). During the follow-up, the young starters had reduced the average training frequency from 4.7 times a week (2.7) to 1.4 times a week (1.3) and the old starters from 4.0 times a week (1.4) to 2.0 times a week (1.4), respectively. The 5-year follow-up revealed that despite reduced training the exercise-induced bone gain was well maintained in both groups of players regardless of their clearly different starting age of activity and different amount of exercise-induced bone gain. The gain was still 1.3-2.2 times greater in favor of the young starters (at the follow-up, the dominant-to-nondominant arm BMC difference was 22% [8.4] in the humeral shaft of the young starters versus 10% [3.8] in the old starters, and 3.5% [2.4] in controls). In the players, changes in training were only weakly related to changes in the side-to-side BMC difference (r(s) = 0.05-0.34, all NS), and this was true even among the players who had stopped training completely a minimum 1 year before the

  16. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  17. Minimal access surgery in children – 5 years institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Oak, S N; Parelkar, S V; Akhtar, T; Joshi, M; Pathak, R; Viswanath, N; V, K Satish Kumar; Ravikiran, K; Manjunath, L; Ahmed, A

    2005-01-01

    Context: Minimal access surgery (MAS) in children are common place and performed worldwide with gratifying results as the learning curve of the surgeon attains plateau. We share our experience of this technically evolving modality of surgery, performed at our setup over a period of 5 years. We also review and individually compare the data for commonly performed procedures with other available series. Author also briefly discuss potential advantages of MAS in certain debatable conditions performed quickly and with cosmesis as open procedure. Materials and methods: We performed 677 MAS in children aged between 7 days and 12 years. Five hundred and sixty-eight of these were Laparoscopic procedures and 109 were Video assisted thoracoscopic surgeries (VATS). In all laparoscopic procedures, the primary port placement was by the Hasson's open technique. We have used 5, 3 and 2 mm instruments. Our study include 259 inguinal hernia, 161 Appendectomies, 95 VATS for empyema, 51 orchiopexies, 49 diagnostic laparoscopy, 29 cholecystectomies, 22 adhesionlysis and other uncommonly performed procedures. Results: The ultimate outcome of all the performed procedures showed gratifying trend, the data of which are discussed in detail in the article. Conclusion: As we gained experience the operating time showed a decreasing trend, the complication rates and conversion rate also reduced. The advantages we came across were better postoperative appearances, less pain and early return to unrestricted activities. PMID:21188009

  18. Effect of preventive zinc supplementation on linear growth in children under 5 years of age in developing countries: a meta-analysis of studies for input to the lives saved tool

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Zinc plays an important role in cellular growth, cellular differentiation and metabolism. The results of previous meta-analyses evaluating effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth are inconsistent. We have updated and evaluated the available evidence according to Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria and tried to explain the difference in results of the previous reviews. Methods A literature search was done on PubMed, Cochrane Library, IZiNCG database and WHO regional data bases using different terms for zinc and linear growth (height). Data were abstracted in a standardized form. Data were analyzed in two ways i.e. weighted mean difference (effect size) and pooled mean difference for absolute increment in length in centimeters. Random effect models were used for these pooled estimates. We have given our recommendations for effectiveness of zinc supplementation in the form of absolute increment in length (cm) in zinc supplemented group compared to control for input to Live Saves Tool (LiST). Results There were thirty six studies assessing the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth in children < 5 years from developing countries. In eleven of these studies, zinc was given in combination with other micronutrients (iron, vitamin A, etc). The final effect size after pooling all the data sets (zinc ± iron etc) showed a significant positive effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth [Effect size: 0.13 (95% CI 0.04, 0.21), random model] in the developing countries. A subgroup analysis by excluding those data sets where zinc was supplemented in combination with iron showed a more pronounced effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth [Weighed mean difference 0.19 (95 % CI 0.08, 0.30), random model]. A subgroup analysis from studies that reported actual increase in length (cm) showed that a dose of 10 mg zinc/day for duration of 24 weeks led to a net a gain of 0.37 (±0.25) cm in zinc

  19. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e

  20. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  1. A cross-sectional survey of 5-year-old children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: the Cleft Care UK study. Part 1: background and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Persson, M; Sandy, J R; Waylen, A; Wills, A K; Al-Ghatam, R; Ireland, A J; Hall, A J; Hollingworth, W; Jones, T; Peters, T J; Preston, R; Sell, D; Smallridge, J; Worthington, H; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives We describe the methodology for a major study investigating the impact of reconfigured cleft care in the United Kingdom (UK) 15 years after an initial survey, detailed in the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report in 1998, had informed government recommendations on centralization. Setting and Sample Population This is a UK multicentre cross-sectional study of 5-year-olds born with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. Children born between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 were seen in cleft centre audit clinics. Materials and Methods Consent was obtained for the collection of routine clinical measures (speech recordings, hearing, photographs, models, oral health, psychosocial factors) and anthropometric measures (height, weight, head circumference). The methodology for each clinical measure followed those of the earlier survey as closely as possible. Results We identified 359 eligible children and recruited 268 (74.7%) to the study. Eleven separate records for each child were collected at the audit clinics. In total, 2666 (90.4%) were collected from a potential 2948 records. The response rates for the self-reported questionnaires, completed at home, were 52.6% for the Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire and 52.2% for the Satisfaction with Service Questionnaire. Conclusions Response rates and measures were similar to those achieved in the previous survey. There are practical, administrative and methodological challenges in repeating cross-sectional surveys 15 years apart and producing comparable data. PMID:26567851

  2. Validity of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC Study Cohort I to assess dietary fiber intake: comparison with dietary records.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Ishihara, Junko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2003-01-01

    We examined the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the 5-year follow-up survey of the JPHC study for estimation of dietary fiber intake by comparing the intake estimated with dietary records (DR). We developed a food composition table for dietary fiber for the food items included in the FFQ using a substitution method. The Spearman correlation coefficients were slightly higher in crude values (0.48-0.51 in men, 0.40-0.45 in women) than in energy-adjusted values (0.43-0.44 in men, 0.36-0.40 in women). The correlation coefficients of food group-specific dietary fiber (crude) were 0.26 and 0.27 for vegetables, and 0.62 and 0.49 for fruits in men and women, respectively. The mean intakes assessed with the FFQ and DR were not statistically different either for water-soluble or -insoluble fiber in both men and women. However, the fruit fiber assessed with FFQ was significantly over- and the vegetable fiber was underestimated compared with those assessed with DRs. The FFQ can be used for ranking individuals for dietary fiber intakes in epidemiologic studies, despite the difficulty in estimating mean intake.

  3. Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and DNA-Methylation in Children at Age 5.5 Years: Epigenome-Wide-Analysis in the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP)-Study

    PubMed Central

    Rzehak, Peter; Saffery, Richard; Reischl, Eva; Covic, Marcela; Wahl, Simone; Grote, Veit; Xhonneux, Annick; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Ferre, Natalia; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Verduci, Elvira; Riva, Enrica; Socha, Piotr; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence links prenatal exposure to maternal tobacco smoking with disruption of DNA methylation (DNAm) profile in the blood of infants. However, data on the postnatal stability of such DNAm signatures in childhood, as assessed by Epigenome Wide Association Studies (EWAS), are scarce. Objectives of this study were to investigate DNAm signatures associated with in utero tobacco smoke exposure beyond the 12th week of gestation in whole blood of children at age 5.5 years, to replicate previous findings in young European and American children and to assess their biological role by exploring databases and enrichment analysis. DNA methylation was measured in blood of 366 children of the multicentre European Childhood Obesity Project Study using the Illumina Infinium HM450 Beadchip (HM450K). An EWAS was conducted using linear regression of methylation values at each CpG site against in utero smoke exposure, adjusted for study characteristics, biological and technical effects. Methylation levels at five HM450K probes in MYO1G (cg12803068, cg22132788, cg19089201), CNTNAP2 (cg25949550), and FRMD4A (cg11813497) showed differential methylation that reached epigenome-wide significance according to the false-discovery-rate (FDR) criteria (q-value<0.05). Whereas cg25949550 showed decreased methylation (-2% DNAm ß-value), increased methylation was observed for the other probes (9%: cg12803068; 5%: cg22132788; 4%: cg19089201 and 4%: cg11813497) in exposed relative to non-exposed subjects. This study thus replicates previous findings in children ages 3 to 5, 7 and 17 and confirms the postnatal stability of MYO1G, CNTNAP2 and FRMD4A differential methylation. The role of this differential methylation in mediating childhood phenotypes, previously associated with maternal smoking, requires further investigation. PMID:27171005

  4. MR LLRF VXI upgrade beam study period

    SciTech Connect

    Mesiner, K.; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    AD/RFI/LLRF group personnel performed several studies with the MR LLRF VXI upgrade system during the evening of 7/29/95. The study period lasted about 4 hours. The MR operating conditions were a mixture of $29 and $2B cycles, with beam injected only on the $29. The author believes the $2B cycles were present for reasons unrelated to the study. The basic study period goal was to test the initial VXI version of MR LLRF finite state machine (FSM) execution. This goal represents what has been called MR LLRF VXI Upgrade Implementation Stage No.2 throughout presentations and documentation on the upgrade project. The test includes control of MR LLRF NIM hardware, the MR RF cavities, and beam via XVI TTL FSM outputs. Numerous MR LLRF VXI system objects, or components, must work together correctly for a successful test. Very briefly, the required objects include VXI Front End hardware, the ACNET/Front End interface code, and the VXI/NIM Interface chassis (the chassis solves VXI-CAMAC-NIM RF and FSM output connectivity and development problems). Though this initial FSM does not yet fully support Upgrade Implementation Stage 2 functionality, all code and hardware for the following basic functionality is tested.

  5. Topological study of the periodic system.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Mesa, Héber; Llanos, Eugenio J; Villaveces, José L

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a topological study of the Space of Chemical Elements, SCE, based on a clustering analysis of 72 elements, each one defined by a vector of 31 properties. We looked for neighborhoods, boundaries, and other topological properties of the SCE. Among the results one sees the well-known patterns of the Periodic Table and relationships such as the Singularity Principle and the Diagonal Relationship, but there appears also a robustness property of some of the better-known families of elements. Alkaline metals and Noble Gases are sets whose neighborhoods have no other elements besides themselves, whereas the topological boundary of the set of metals is formed by semimetallic elements.

  6. Healthy lifestyle and normal waist circumference are associated with a lower 5-year risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly individuals: Results from the healthy aging longitudinal study in Taiwan (HALST).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Liu, Kiang; Hsu, Chih-Chen; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chung, Hsiao-Chun; Liu, Jih-Shin; Liu, Yo-Hann; Tsai, Tsung-Lung; Liaw, Wen-Jin; Lin, I-Ching; Wu, Hsi-Wen; Juan, Chung-Chou; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lee, Marion M; Hsiung, Chao A

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be closely associated with lifestyle and obesity and has a prevalence that increases with age. This study aimed to assess the short-term composite effect of diet, physical activity, psychosocial health, and waist circumference (WC) on the incidence of DM in the elderly and to provide a lifestyle-based predictive index.We used baseline measurements (2009-2013) of 5349 community-dwelling participants (aged 55 years and older, 52% female) of the Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study in Taiwan (HALST) for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressures, WC, and outcomes of home-visit questionnaire. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify participants with a healthy lifestyle (HLF: higher diet, physical activity, and psychosocial scores) and a lower WC, with cutoffs determined by the receiver-operating characteristics. A Cox regression model was applied to 3424 participants without DM at baseline by linking to their National Health Insurance records (median follow-up of 3.1 years).In total, 247 new DM cases (7.2%) were identified. The HLF and lower WC group had a relative risk (RR) of DM of 0.54 (95% CI 0.35-0.82) compared to the non-HLF and higher WC group. When stratified by the presence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome (MS), only participants with IGT/MS showed significant risks (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.92). However, except for WC, the individual lifestyle factors were nonsignificant in the overall model without PCA.A composite protective effect of HLF and normal WC on DM within 5 years was observed, especially in those with IGT or MS. Psychosocial health constituted an important lifestyle factor in the elderly. The cutoffs identified could be used as a lifestyle-based risk index for DM. Maintaining an HLF to prevent DM is especially important for the elderly.

  7. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  8. Equatorial Annual Oscillation with QBO-driven 5-year Modulation in NCEP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the zonal wind and temperature variations supplied by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which have been assimilated in the Reanalysis and the Climate Prediction Center (CCP) data sets. The derived zonal-mean variations are employed. Stimulated by modeling studies, the data are separated into the hemispherically symmetric and anti-symmetric components, and spectral analysis is applied to study the annual 12-month oscillation and Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). For data samples that cover as much as 40 years, the results reveal a pronounced 5-year modulation of the symmetric AO in the lower stratosphere, which is confined to equatorial latitudes. This modulation is also inferred for the temperature variations but extends to high latitudes, qualitatively consistent with published model results. A comparison between different data samples indicates that the signature of the 5-year oscillation is larger when the QBO of 30 months is more pronounced. Thus there is circumstantial evidence that this periodicity of the QBO is involved in generating the oscillation. The spectral analysis shows that there is a weak anti-symmetric 5-year oscillation in the zonal winds, which could interact with the large antisymmetric A0 to produce the modulation of the symmetric AO as was shown in earlier modeling studies. According to these studies, the 30-month QBO tends to be synchronized by the equatorial Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO), and this would explain why the inferred 5-year modulation is observed to persist and is phase locked over several cycles.

  9. Your Child's Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Your Child’s Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 2.5 Years (30 Months) A A A Are you amazed by the ... TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 2.5 Years (30 Months) Home and Away: How to Keep Toddlers Active ...

  10. JGI Computing 5-Year Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D A; Brettin, T S; Cottingham, R W; Folta, P A; Golder, Y; Gregurick, S K; Himmel, M E; Mann, R C; Remington, K A; Slezak, T R

    2008-10-01

    depending on the specific user base, and the JGI has several distinct classes of users it must enable to be successful. For some, rapid and convenient dissemination of the sequence data will be sufficient to enable their external research. For others, JGI hosted analysis tools and collaborative environments will be required to catalyze individual or team research. Finally, and significantly, there are genomic scientists within the JGI, often working closely with external collaborators, who rely on the ability to devise project-dependent and often very large scale customized analyses that result in publicly available tools. A successful strategy will require effort to satisfy each of these user classes, and careful attention to economies of software reuse and extensibility. There are only a handful of sequencing facilities worldwide that operate at the scale of the JGI's Production Genomics Facility, and these are devoted almost entirely to sequencing driven by biomedical applications. The PGF therefore fulfills a unique and vital role as a resource for genomic studies of DOE relevance. Like the other large-scale facilities, JGI has been carefully following the development of 'next-generation' sequencing technologies, and clearly must continue to refresh its instrumentation as advances are made. Critical to advances in sequencing technology are the computational infrastructure advances that are required to turn raw sequence into quality data. This is one area where JGI can leverage the broader sequencing community's investment in technology development, adopting the best practices and software for sequence processing and assembly. JGI can add unique value by further developing annotation pipelines and tools that serve to build an integrated framework where the Institute's complementary science components can be viewed in a larger 'systems' perspective than is currently possible. As technology, tools, and infrastructure advance, JGI is uniquely positioned in its ability

  11. Olfactory Dysfunction Predicts 5-Year Mortality in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Jayant M.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Kern, David W.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57–85 were studied in 2005–6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010–11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a “dose-dependent” effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process. PMID:25271633

  12. Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Kern, David W; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57-85 were studied in 2005-6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010-11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a "dose-dependent" effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process.

  13. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  14. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  15. What is the utility of using syndromic surveillance systems during large subnational infectious gastrointestinal disease outbreaks? An observational study using case studies from the past 5 years in England.

    PubMed

    Todkill, D; Elliot, A J; Morbey, R; Harris, J; Hawker, J; Edeghere, O; Smith, G E

    2016-08-01

    Syndromic surveillance systems in England have demonstrated utility in the early identification of seasonal gastrointestinal illness (GI) tracking its spatio-temporal distribution and enabling early public health action. There would be additional public health utility if syndromic surveillance systems could detect or track subnational infectious disease outbreaks. To investigate using syndromic surveillance for this purpose we retrospectively identified eight large GI outbreaks between 2009 and 2014 (four randomly and four purposively sampled). We then examined syndromic surveillance information prospectively collected by the Real-time Syndromic Surveillance team within Public Health England for evidence of possible outbreak-related changes. None of the outbreaks were identified contemporaneously and no alerts were made to relevant public health teams. Retrospectively, two of the outbreaks - which happened at similar times and in proximal geographical locations - demonstrated changes in the local trends of relevant syndromic indicators and exhibited a clustering of statistical alarms, but did not warrant alerting local health protection teams. Our suite of syndromic surveillance systems may be more suited to their original purposes than as means of detecting or monitoring localized, subnational GI outbreaks. This should, however, be considered in the context of this study's limitations; further prospective work is needed to fully explore the use of syndromic surveillance for this purpose. Provided geographical coverage is sufficient, syndromic surveillance systems could be able to provide reassurance of no or minor excess healthcare systems usage during localized GI incidents.

  16. The impact factors on 5-year survival rate in patients operated with oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Geum, Dong-Ho; Roh, Young-Chea; Yoon, Sang-Yong; Kim, Hyo-Geon; Lee, Jung-Han; Song, Jae-Min; Lee, Jae-Yeol; Hwang, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Deok; Shin, Sang-Hun; Chung, In-Kyo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to analyze clinical impact factors on the survival rate, and to acquire basic clinical data for the diagnosis of oral cancer, for a determination of the treatment plan with long-term survival in oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods Through a retrospective review of the medical records, the factors for long-term survival rate were analyzed. Thirty-seven patients, among patient database with oral cancer treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Pusan National University Hospital within a period from March 1998 to March 2008, were selected within the study criteria and were followed-up for more than 5 years. The analyzed factors were gender, age, drinking, smoking, primary tumor site, type of cancer, TNM stage, recurrence of affected region, and metastasis of cervical lymph node. The 5-year survival rate on the impact factors was calculated statistically using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results By classification of clinical TNM at the 1st visit, there were 11 (29.7%) cases for stage I, 11 (29.7%) cases for stage II, 3 (8.1%) cases for stage III, and 12 (32.5%) cases for stage IV. The 5-year survival rate of total oral cancer patients after the operation were 75.7%, pathological TNM stage related 5-year survival rate were as follows: stage I 90.0%, stage II 81.8%, stage III 100% and stage IV 45.5%; in which the survival rate difference by each stage was significantly observed. The recurrence of cervical lymph node was the significant impact factor for the survival rate, because only 30.0% the survival rate in recurrent cases existed. During the follow-up, there were 15 (40.5%) patients with confirmed recurrence, and the 5-year survival rate of these patients was decreased as 46.7%. Conclusion The classification of clinical and pathological TNM stage, local recurrence after surgery, and metastasis of cervical lymph node after surgery were analyzed as the 3 most significant factors. PMID:24471047

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure shift in a 5-year molecular epidemiology surveillance follow-up study in a low endemic agro-industrial setting in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Gaspareto, Rosângela Maria; Viana, Brunilde Helena Jung; Mendes, Natália Helena; Pandolfi, José Rodrigo Cláudio; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Sato, Daisy Nakamura; David, Susana Correia de Matos; Saad, Maria Helena Feres; Rastogi, Nalin; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2013-09-01

    Starting with 257 outpatients attending the specialized health service for tuberculosis (TB) between 2002 and 2006 in Araraquara, an agro-industrial area with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence in São Paulo state, Brazil, positive mycobacterial cultures were obtained in 130 cases, of which 121 were confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. This report assesses the genetic diversity observed on 69.42% (n=84) of the clinical isolates, for which both spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU typing data were fully interpretable. In order to monitor changes in the population dynamics of circulating M. tuberculosis strains over time, spoligotypes were compared from this study (n=84) with an earlier study from 1998 to 2001 (n=70 strains); and these two datasets from low-incidence Araraquara area were also compared with a 2-year cohort in the nearby higher-incidence São Paulo city area from 2006 to 2008 (n=93). The results obtained showed that with 58.3% (49/84) of the strains, the Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) was the predominant lineage in the present follow-up study; major patterns being SIT42/LAM9 11.9% (10/84), and SIT20/LAM1 10.7% (9/84). As compared with the 1998-2001 period when 40% (28/70) of the isolates belonged to the ill-defined T family, it was replaced by LAM strains between 2002 and 2006 with a visible shift to a population structure characteristic of the metropolitan São Paulo city. Further typing of the follow-up isolates from 2002 to 2006 using 12 loci MIRUs in conjunction with conventional epidemiology did not link this population structure shift to an increase in ongoing transmission or drug-resistance. Instead, it is most probably linked to movements of the important migrant community of Araraquara to higher TB incidence metropolitan areas such as São Paulo city. This is of particular concern owing to the increment in the global burden of LAM strains and the recent association of certain LAM sublineages with multidrug- and extensively drug

  18. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  19. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Gallagher, D

    2015-01-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  20. Family meal frequency and weight status among adolescents: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2008-11-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between the frequency of family meals and overweight status (>85th percentile for age and gender) in a large, diverse population of adolescents (n = 2,516). The population included two cohorts (midadolescence to young adulthood, n = 1,710, and early adolescence to midadolescence, n = 806). Logistic regression models tested cross-sectional and longitudinal (1999-2004) associations between family meal frequency and overweight status. Two sets of models are presented: (i) models adjusted only for baseline demographic characteristics and (ii) models also adjusted for physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and energy intake. Longitudinal models adjusted for baseline overweight status. Although significant inverse associations between family meal frequency and overweight status were observed for early adolescent females in all cross-sectional models (P < 0.001), longitudinal associations were not significant. Neither cross-sectional nor longitudinal associations were significant for males of either cohort and older females in any models. Young adolescent females who do not eat meals with their families may be at risk for overweight; however, the increased risk may not persist over a 5-year period. Eating family meals during high school may not protect against overweight during young adulthood. Although previous longitudinal research has suggested significant dietary and psychosocial benefits related to family meal frequency, the weight-related benefits of family meals may be more complex and deserving of further study, including an examination of the quality and quantity of food consumed at family meals.

  1. ULS Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Arnold; And Others

    Developed in response to issues raised about the circulation of bound periodicals, the cost of photocopies, and the condition of the photocopiers, this report of the Joint Committee to Study Library Periodical Services at the Virginia Commonwealth University libraries recommends goals for periodicals services for both campuses of the university.…

  2. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood.

  3. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  4. Calcium supplementation and the risks of atherosclerotic vascular disease in older women: results of a 5-year RCT and a 4.5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Joshua R; Calver, Janine; Zhu, Kun; Flicker, Leon; Prince, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that calcium supplementation, a key intervention for preventing osteoporotic fracture in older women, may increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. To evaluate the risk further, an examination of complete verified atherosclerotic vascular hospitalization and mortality data from a 5-year randomized, controlled trial (RCT) of calcium carbonate and 4.5 years of posttrial follow-up was undertaken. This study used data from a published 5-year randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial [Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS)]. The participants were 1460 women aged 75.1 ± 2.7 years at baseline (1998) recruited from the general population and randomized to receive 1200 mg of calcium carbonate daily or an identical placebo. All hospital admission and deaths during the 5-year study and the 4.5-year follow-up were derived from the Western Australian Data Linkage Service (WADLS). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the combined endpoint of atherosclerotic vascular mortality or first hospitalization were calculated using prespecified intention-to-treat and per-protocol models. The intervention group that received calcium supplementation did not have a higher risk of death or first-time hospitalization from atherosclerotic vascular disease in either the 5-year RCT [multivariate-adjusted HR = 0.938, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.690-1.275] or during the 9.5 years of observational study (multivariate-adjusted HR = 0.919, 95% CI 0.737-1.146). Further analysis suggested that calcium supplementation may reduce the risk of hospitalization and mortality in patients with preexisting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This trial provides compelling evidence that calcium supplementation of 1200 mg daily does not significantly increase the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease in elderly women.

  5. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ... parts ("Where is your nose?") Movement and Physical Development runs walks up stairs with hand held throws ...

  6. Fitness and Your 4-to 5-Year Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fitness and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old KidsHealth > ... the risk of serious illnesses later in life. Fitness for Preschoolers Physical activity guidelines for preschoolers recommend ...

  7. General Principles for 5-year Regional Haze Progress Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document was developed by the U.S. EPA for EPA Regional Offices and states in preparing and reviewing the 5-year progress reports for the initial regional haze state implementation plans.

  8. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... cooperatively with other kids understand the concept of gender identify colors Developmental milestones for 5-year-olds ...

  9. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a 5-year retrospective of the structure, methodology, progress, and contributions to the broader scientific community that have resulted from this national USGS program. We evaluate ARMI’s success to date, with regard to the challenges faced by the program and the strengths that have emerged. We chart objectives for the next 5 years that build on current accomplishments, highlight areas meriting further research, and direct efforts to overcome existing weaknesses.

  10. 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Final 5-Year Update Environmental Assessment for CV-22 Beddown Hurlburt Field , Florida...SIGNIFICANT IMPACT 5-YEAR UPDATE CV-22 BEDDOWN HURLBURT FIELD , FL Agencies: The United States Air Force (USAF) and the United States Navy (Navy...the CV-22 Osprey at Hurlburt Field , Florida. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to: • Conduct IOT&E by testing the operation of the CV-22 in as

  11. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  12. Medicaid program; state plan home and community-based services, 5-year period for waivers, provider payment reassignment, and home and community-based setting requirements for Community First Choice and home and community-based services (HCBS) waivers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-01-16

    This final rule amends the Medicaid regulations to define and describe state plan section 1915(i) home and community-based services (HCBS) under the Social Security Act (the Act) amended by the Affordable Care Act. This rule offers states new flexibilities in providing necessary and appropriate services to elderly and disabled populations. This rule describes Medicaid coverage of the optional state plan benefit to furnish home and community based-services and draw federal matching funds. This rule also provides for a 5-year duration for certain demonstration projects or waivers at the discretion of the Secretary, when they provide medical assistance for individuals dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare benefits, includes payment reassignment provisions because state Medicaid programs often operate as the primary or only payer for the class of practitioners that includes HCBS providers, and amends Medicaid regulations to provide home and community-based setting requirements related to the Affordable Care Act for Community First Choice State plan option. This final rule also makes several important changes to the regulations implementing Medicaid 1915(c) HCBS waivers.

  13. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  14. Trabecular metal tibia still stable at 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Henricson, Anders; Rösmark, Dan; Nilsson, Kjell G

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Clinical results of total knee replacement (TKR) are inferior in younger patients, mainly due to aseptic loosening. Coating of components with trabecular metal (TM) is a new way of enhancing fixation to bone. We have previously reported stabilization of TM tibial components at 2 years. We now report the 5-year follow-up of these patients, including RSA of their TM tibial components. Patients and methods 22 patients (26 knees) received an uncemented TM cruciate-retaining tibial component and 19 patients (21 knees) a cemented NexGen Option cruciate-retaining tibial component. Follow-up with RSA, and clinical and radiographic examinations were done at 5 years. In bilaterally operated patients, the statistical analyses included only the first-operated knee. Results Both groups had most migration within the first 3 months, the TM implants to a greater extent than the cemented implants. After 3 months, both groups stabilized and remained stable up to the 5-year follow-up. Interpretation After a high initial degree of migration, the TM tibia stabilized. This stabilization lasted for at least 5 years, which suggests a good long-term performance regarding fixation. The cemented NexGen CR tibial components showed some migration in the first 3 months and then stabilized up to the 5-year follow-up. This has not been reported previously. PMID:23992142

  15. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, p<0.0001); provider satisfaction (65.4–79.2, p<0.01); capacity for service provision (47.4–76.4, p<0.0001); quality of services (40.5–67.4, p<0.0001); and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0–52.6). The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4–95.7, p<0.01), after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. Conclusions The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  16. A reappraisal of ICU and long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients and reassessment of prognosis factors: results of a 5-year cohort study (2009-2013).

    PubMed

    Platon, L; Amigues, L; Ceballos, P; Fegueux, N; Daubin, D; Besnard, N; Larcher, R; Landreau, L; Agostini, C; Machado, S; Jonquet, O; Klouche, K

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiology and prognosis of complications related to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients requiring admission to intensive care unit (ICU) have not been reassessed precisely in the past few years. We performed a retrospective single-center study on 318 consecutive HSCT patients (2009-2013), analyzing outcome and factors prognostic of ICU admission. Among these patients, 73 were admitted to the ICU. In all, 32 patients (40.3%) died in ICU, 46 at hospital discharge (63%) and 61 (83.6%) 1 year later. Survivors had a significantly lower sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, serum lactate and bilirubin upon ICU admission. Catecholamine support, mechanical ventilation (MV) and/or renal replacement therapy during ICU stay, a delayed organ support and an active graft versus host disease (GvHD) significantly worsen the outcome. By multivariate analysis, the worsening of SOFA score from days 1 to 3, the need for MV and the occurrence of an active GvHD were predictive of mortality. In conclusion, the incidence of HSCT-related complications requiring an admission to an ICU was at 22%, with an ICU mortality rate of 44%, and 84% 1 year later. A degradation of SOFA score at day 3 of ICU, need of MV and occurrence of an active GvHD are main predictive factors of mortality.

  17. Landscape geochemistry near mineralized areas of eastern Alaska: Chapter H in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.; Lee, Gregory K.; Day, Warren C.; Vohden, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The Pogo lode gold deposit was discovered in eastern Alaska in the early 1990s and provided the opportunity to study elemental distribution and mobility in the natural environment prior to mine development. Studying mineralized systems prior to mining allows us to compare the natural biogeochemical signature in mineralized versus nonmineralized areas. The resultant data and interpretation also provide a baseline for evaluating what, if any, changes in elemental distribution result from development. This report investigates the chemistry of stream water, streambed sediment, and soil in the context of regional bedrock geology. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system, and the waters are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+ - HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+ - SO4-2 waters. Creeks draining the gneissic lithologies tend to be more sulfate dominated than those draining the intrusive units. Sulfate also dominated creeks draining mineralized areas; however, the underlying paragneiss unit could be contributing substantially to the sulfate concentration, and the sulfate concentration in these creeks may reflect a complex baltholith-paragneiss boundary rather than mineralization. Arsenic concentrations in bed sediments were elevated in mineralized areas relative to nonmineralized areas. Elevated concentrations of nickel, chromium, iron, manganese, and cobalt appear to reflect the presence of ultramafic rocks in the drainage. In general, aqueous metal concentrations were below the State of Alaska’s Aquatic Life Criteria and Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of arsenic in stream water, which ranged in concentration from less than 1 to 14 micrograms per liter (μg/L) and exceeded the drinking water standard at one site. The arsenic and antimony concentration in the A, B, and C soil horizons ranged from 3 to 410 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), 6.1 to 440 mg/kg, and 2 to 300 mg/kg, respectively, for arsenic and 0.4 to 24 mg/kg, 0.6 to 25 mg

  18. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, M A; Diekema, D J; Gibbs, D L; Newell, V A; Bijie, H; Dzierzanowska, D; Klimko, N N; Letscher-Bru, V; Lisalova, M; Muehlethaler, K; Rennison, C; Zaidi, M

    2009-01-01

    Fluconazole in vitro susceptibility test results determined by the CLSI M44-A disk diffusion method for 11,240 isolates of noncandidal yeasts were collected from 134 study sites in 40 countries from June 1997 through December 2007. Data were collected for 8,717 yeast isolates tested with voriconazole from 2001 through 2007. A total of 22 different species/organism groups were isolated, of which Cryptococcus neoformans was the most common (31.2% of all isolates). Overall, Cryptococcus (32.9%), Saccharomyces (11.7%), Trichosporon (10.6%), and Rhodotorula (4.1%) were the most commonly identified genera. The overall percentages of isolates in each category (susceptible, susceptible dose dependent, and resistant) were 78.0%, 9.5%, and 12.5% and 92.7%, 2.3%, and 5.0% for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Less than 30% of fluconazole-resistant isolates of Cryptococcus spp., Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon beigelii/Trichosporon cutaneum, Rhodotorula spp., Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Rhodotorula glutinis remained susceptible to voriconazole. Emerging resistance to fluconazole was documented among isolates of C. neoformans from the Asia-Pacific, Africa/Middle East, and Latin American regions but not among isolates from Europe or North America. This survey documents the continuing broad spectrum of activity of voriconazole against opportunistic yeast pathogens but identifies several of the less common species with decreased azole susceptibility. These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and emphasize the importance of prompt and accurate species identification.

  19. Conflict resolution in 5-year-old boys: does postconflict affiliative behaviour have a reconciliatory role?

    PubMed

    Ljungberg; Westlund; Lindqvist Forsberg AJ

    1999-11-01

    In nonhuman primates, affiliative behaviours, such as social grooming and various forms of body contact, become more frequent after an aggressive interaction. Since such behaviours lead to a decrease in postconflict aggressive behaviour and displacement activities and to increased social tolerance, they have been labelled reconciliatory. We videofilmed sessions of free play in daycare centres in Stockholm and investigated whether affiliative behaviours used by 5-year-old boys in the postconflict period had a similar reconciliatory function. For 219 conflicts in 21 h 40 min of observation we recorded postconflict affiliative/prosocial, aggressive and displacement behaviours. When affiliative behaviours were shown and accepted by the opponent, aggressive and displacement behaviours decreased and play was promoted. These behaviours thus serve a function similar to reconciliatory behaviour in nonhuman primates and we think it is applicable to call accepted affiliative behaviours in postconflict periods of preschool children reconciliatory. However, conflicts were often polyadic and nonconflict periods consisted of intense play with a rich exchange of affiliative behaviours. These factors were limitations to the postconflict/matched-control method traditionally used in primatological research to document reconciliatory behaviour. We suggest that for preschool children, video recordings and an analysis and description of postconflict affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours can be used instead. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. Rhinoscleroma in a 5-year-old Portuguese Child.

    PubMed

    Simão, Inês; Gaspar, Iuri; Faustino, Rosário; Brito, Maria João Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is rare in Western Europe. We report the case of a 5-year-old Portuguese boy diagnosed with rhinoscleroma in the context of recurrent epistaxis. He had a 6-month course of antibiotic (amoxicillin plus clavulanate) therapy with full recovery.

  1. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica.

  2. SU-E-J-52: Decreasing Frequency of Performing TG-142 Imaging QA – 5 Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T; Ma, C

    2015-06-15

    Purpose This study is an update to check if the frequency of imaging QA suggested by AAPM Task Group Report 142 (TG142) is necessary with our 5 year experience. TG142 presents recommendations for QA criteria of IGRT treatment. ACR has adopted it to be the requirements for any radiatiotherapy practices; however, we propose to reduce the frequency on image quality QA according to this 5 year study.Method and Materials: This study uses VarianIX2100 and Siemens Artiste Linacs to perform QAs on KV, MV, CBCT modalities. The QA was designed following under the recommendations of TG142. This study reports the daily imaging positioning/repositioning and imaging and treatment coordinate coincidence. QA results on kV, MV and CBCT from 4/7/2010∼3/11/15 are analyzed. KV, MV, CBCT images are taken with the Varian isocube localized at the isocenter. Digital graticule is used in the software to verify the isocenter position. CBCT images are taken with the cube placed at 1cm superior, lateral and anterior of the isocenter. In-line fusion software is used to verify the contrived shift. Digital ruler provided at the on-board-imaging software or adaptive-targeting software was used to measure the position differences. The position differences were recorded at AP,LR,SI directions. Results 5 year records on kV, MV, CBCT show the shifts in all three directions are within the tolerance of 1mm suggested in TG142 for stereotactic radiation treatment(SRS/SRT). There is no occasion where shifts are outside 1mm tolerance. Conclusions The daily imaging QA suggested in TG142 is useful in ensuring the accuracy needed for SRS/SRT in IGRT. 5 year measurements presented suggest that decreasing the frequency of imaging QA may be acceptable, in particular for institutions reporting no violation of tolerance over periods of few years.

  3. MECAR operation during the 6/95 study period

    SciTech Connect

    Capista, Dave; /Fermilab

    1995-01-01

    The MECAR system was scheduled to be used 36 hours during the study period. In practice the system was used a bit more since there is increasing pressure to switch completely over to MECAR. During this period of MECAR operation there were power supply studies, tune calibration, general tune-up with this system, and identification and some repair of bugs found in both the applications program and the MECAR operating system.

  4. Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Harboring blaOXA-23 and bap for 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been reported worldwide, and A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23 are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance can be particularly strong for biofilm-forming A. baumannii isolates. We investigated the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance and biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. Ninety-two MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected from one university hospital located in the Chungcheong area of Korea over a 5-year period. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize carbapenemase and bap genes. Clonal characteristics were analyzed using REP-PCR. In addition, imaging and quantification of biofilms were performed using a crystal violet assay. All 92 MDR A. baumannii isolates involved in our study contained the blaOXA-23 and bap genes. The average absorbance of biomass in Bap-producing strains was much greater than that in non-Bap-producing strains. In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance. These results suggest that the isolates have persisted and colonized for 5 years, and biofilm formation ability has been responsible for their persistence and colonization.

  5. Histological assessment of porous custom-made hydroxyapatite implants 6 months and 2.5 years after cranioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hajime; Sase, Taigen; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Takasuna, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: In cranial reconstruction, the features of artificial bone differ. Custom-made porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) implants for cranioplasty have been used all over the world because of their good cosmetic, biocompatibility, and osteoconductive properties. Surgical techniques were analyzed, and histological assessment of new bone formation in the hydroxyapatite was performed. Methods: Over a 6-year time period, 41 patients underwent cranioplasty using a custom-made three-dimensional hybrid pore structured hydroxyapatite (3DHPoHAp) implant. The surgical techniques and histological evaluations of 3DHPoHAp in 2 cases, removed 6 months and 2.5 years after cranioplasty, are described. Results: Using 3DHPoHAp, cranioplasty was successfully performed for all patients. The implant fit the bone defect exactly, and surgical manoeuvres were simple and easy. All implants were firmly fixed using a titanium plate, and postoperative infection occurred in 1 patient (2.4%). New bone formation was seen in 2 cases 6 months and 2.5 years after cranioplasty. Osteoblasts were progressing to the stoma at various depths, and bone tissue had ripened. Furthermore, lamellar structure was observed in the case at 2.5 years. Conclusions: In this study, there was a low infection rate, and new bone formation was seen in vivo after cranioplasty. This study also demonstrated that the 3DHPoHAp implant is a good candidate for cranial bone implants because its good osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. PMID:28217387

  6. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  7. A 5-year experience with an elective scholarly concentrations program

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul; Green, Emily P.; Park, Yoon S.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Programs that encourage scholarly activities beyond the core curriculum and traditional biomedical research are now commonplace among US medical schools. Few studies have generated outcome data for these programs. The goal of the present study was to address this gap. Intervention The Scholarly Concentration (SC) Program, established in 2006 at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, is a 4-year elective program that not only encourages students to pursue scholarly work that may include traditional biomedical research but also seeks to broaden students’ focus to include less traditional areas. We compared characteristics and academic performance of SC students and non-SC students for the graduating classes of 2010–2014. Context Approximately one-third of our students opt to complete an SC during their 4-year undergraduate medical education. Because this program is additional to the regular MD curriculum, we sought to investigate whether SC students sustained the academic achievement of non-SC students while at the same time producing scholarly work as part of the program. Outcome Over 5 years, 35% of students elected to enter the program and approximately 81% of these students completed the program. The parameters that were similar for both SC and non-SC students were age at matriculation, admission route, proportion of undergraduate science majors, and number of undergraduate science courses. Most academic indicators, including United States Medical Licensing Examinations scores, were similar for the two groups; however, SC students achieved more honors in the six core clerkships and were more likely to be inducted into the medical school's two honor societies. Residency specialties selected by graduates in the two groups were similar. SC students published an average of 1.3 peer-reviewed manuscripts per student, higher than the 0.8 manuscripts per non-SC student (p=0.013). Conclusions An elective, interdisciplinary scholarly program with

  8. Onychomatricoma: A Case Report with 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Cleide Eiko; Gouveia, Bruna Melhoranse; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a case of onychomatricoma, a rare benign tumour of the nail matrix, first described by Baran and Kint in 1992. The lesion appeared on the proximal nail fold, covering half the nail of the second left finger. The nail was thickened and yellowish with longitudinal melanonychia. It was surgically removed with very satisfactory aesthetic results even after 5 years. A review on the subject is also presented. PMID:28163462

  9. Mesenteric panniculitis: prevalence, clinicoradiological presentation and 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    van Bommel, E F H; Elgersma, O E; Hendriksz, T R

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine prevalence, clinicoradiological characteristics and outcome of patients with mesenteric panniculitis (MP) in a large hospital-based population. Methods: Consecutive abdominal CT examinations of 3820 patients were evaluated for MP. Clinical characteristics, therapy and outcome of patients with MP were evaluated during a 5-year follow-up period. A matched pair analysis was performed to further investigate the relation between MP and malignancy. Results: 94 (2.5%) patients with MP were identified (mean age, 66.6 ± 11.2 years, 70.2% male). MP coexisted with malignancy (especially prostatic carcinoma) in 48.9% of patients, and this was slightly but significantly higher than in age- and sex-matched control patients (n = 188, 46.3%). In 48 patients, MP was presumed to be idiopathic. The most frequent presenting symptom was pain (54.3%). Laboratory findings revealed increased acute-phase reactants in half of the patients with MP. CT findings included increased density of mesenterial fat (mean, −56.8 ± 10.8 HU), fat ring sign, tumoural pseudocapsule and small soft-tissue nodules. Patients with MP (14.6%) developed significantly more malignancies during a 5-year follow-up than did the control group (6.9%). One patient was treated with prednisone without satisfactory response. Conclusion: The prevalence of MP in this study was 2.5%. In most patients, radiologic features included increased mesenteric fat density, fat ring sign and small soft-tissue nodules. MP was associated with a significant higher prevalence of coexisting malignancies and a higher prevalence of future cancer development. Advances in knowledge: A more accurate prevalence of MP on CT is demonstrated. An underlying malignancy may play a role. PMID:25271412

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children up to 5 Years of Age in Spain: Epidemiology and Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Marín-García, Patricia; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This epidemiological survey in Spain estimates the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children up to 5 year of age during a 15-year period (1997–2011). Observational retrospective survey was conducted by reviewing data of the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data, including >98% of Spanish hospitals. All hospitalizations related to RSV infection for children up to 5 years, reported during 1997–2011 period, were analyzed. Codes were selected by using the International Classification of Diseases 9th Clinical Modification 466.0–466.19, 480.1, and 079.6. A total of 326,175 and 286,007 hospital discharges for children up to 5 and 2 years of age were reported during the study period. The annual incidence was 1072 and 2413 patients per 100,000, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 (standard deviation 8.2) days. Four hundred forty-six deaths were reported; of those, 403 occurred in children <2 years and 355 (80%) occurred in children <12 months of age. Hospitalization and mortality rates were significantly higher in boys and decrease significantly with age. The higher rate of hospitalization and mortality rates were found in the first year of life. Annual average cost for National Health Care System was € 47 M with a mean hospitalization cost of €2162. The average length of hospitalization and costs were significantly higher in high-risk children. RSV infections in children up to 5 year of age still pose a significant health threat in Spain, especially in the infants. The development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic guidelines focused in children with comorbidities may help reduce the hospital and economic burden of the disease. PMID:26020386

  11. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  12. Surgical treatment of cardiac tumors: a 5-year experience from a single cardiac center

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liang; He, Dengke; Shen, Hua; Ling, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Xue, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare but manifested with various clinical presentations and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. The objective is to review the clinical presentation, histopathological spectrum, mortality and follow-up data of patients with cardiac tumors following surgery treatment over a period of 5 years. Methods We retrospectively collected the medical records of all patients diagnosed of cardiac tumors in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 at the cardiac center of our university. Clinical histories, perioperative data, surgical findings, efficacy and follow-up data were reviewed in our study. Patients were divided into two groups according to site distribution of the tumors in the heart. Results A total of 131 patients underwent surgical treatment of cardiac tumors were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 51.39±16.37. The result of analysis showed that 79.47% (n=104) of the primary intracardiac tumors were benign, while primary malignant neoplasms accounted for 16.03% (n=21) of all patients, with the remainder (n=6, 4.6%) metastatic tumors transferred from other organs. Among all patients there were 2 in-hospital deaths and the survival rate in all patients at 1-year, 3-year and 5-year follow up was 83.20%, 78.62% and 66.41% respectively. Both patients with tumors in the left and right heart had similar basic characteristics except sex gender (P=0.002), BSA (P=0.045) and weight (P=0.033). Compared with patients with tumors in the right heart, patients with tumors in the left heart had significant higher CPB time (P<0.001), cross clamp time (P<0.001) and time of mechanical ventilation (P<0.001), and they also had longer ICU stay (P<0.001) but not total hospital stay (P=0.434). Conclusions Surgical resection represents an effective protocol in treating cardiac tumors. Data in our study of cardiac tumors on frequency and allocation were consistent with previous reports which may provide useful clinical evidence on

  13. WMAP 5-year constraints on α and me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scóccola, Claudia G.; Landau, Susana J.; Vucetich, Héctor

    2010-11-01

    We have studied the role of fundamental constants in an updated recombination scenario. We focus on the time variation of the fine structure constant α, and the electron mass me in the early Universe. In the last years, helium recombination has been studied in great detail revealing the importance of taking new physical processes into account in the calculation of the recombination history. The equations to solve the detailed recombination scenario can be found for example in Wong et al. 2008. In the equation for helium recombination, a term which accounts for the semi-forbidden transition 23p-11s is added. Furthermore, the continuum opacity of HI is taken into account by a modification in the escape probability of the photons that excite helium atoms, with the fitting formulae proposed Kholupenko et al 2007. We have analized the dependences of the quantities involved in the detailed recombination scenario on α and me. We have performed a statistical analysis with COSMOMC to constrain the variation of α and me at the time of neutral hydrogen formation. The observational set used for the analysis was data from the WMAP 5-year temperature and temperature-polarization power spectrum and other CMB experiments such as CBI, ACBAR and BOOMERANG and the power spectrum of the 2dFGRS. Considering the joint variation of α and me we obtain the following bounds: -0.011 < {Δα}/{α_0} < 0.019 and -0.068 < {Δ m_e}/{(m_e)_0 < 0.030 (68% c.l.). When considering only the variation of one fundamental constant we obtain: -0.010 < {Δ α}/{α_0} < 0.008 and -0.04 < {Δ m_e}/{(m_e)_0} < 0.02 (68% c.l.). We compare these results with the ones presented in Landau et al 2008, which were obtained in the standard recombination scenario and using WMAP 3 year release data. The constraints are tighter in the current analysis, which is an expectable fact since we are working with more accurate data from WMAP. The bounds obtained are consistent with null variation, for both α and me, but

  14. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  15. Effect of dam weight and pregnancy nutrition on average lactation performance of ewe offspring over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Paten, A M; Pain, S J; Peterson, S W; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Kenyon, P R; Blair, H T

    2016-11-21

    The foetal mammary gland is sensitive to maternal weight and nutrition during gestation, which could affect offspring milk production. It has previously been shown that ewes born to dams offered maintenance nutrition during pregnancy (day 21 to 140 of gestation) produced greater milk, lactose and CP yields in their first lactation when compared with ewes born to dams offered ad libitum nutrition. In addition, ewes born to heavier dams produced greater milk and lactose yields when compared with ewes born to lighter dams. The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the 5-year lactation performance of the previously mentioned ewes, born to heavy or light dams that were offered maintenance or ad libitum pregnancy nutrition. Ewes were milked once per week, for the first 6 weeks of their lactation, for 5 years. Using milk yield and composition data, accumulated yields were calculated over a 42-day period for each year for milk, milk fat, CP, true protein, casein and lactose using a Legendre orthogonal polynomial model. Over the 5-year period, ewes born to heavy dams produced greater average milk (P=0.04), lactose (P=0.01) and CP (P=0.04) yields than offspring born to light dams. In contrast, over the 5-year period dam nutrition during pregnancy did not affect average (P>0.05) offspring milk yields or composition, but did increase milk and lactose accumulated yield (P=0.03 and 0.01, respectively) in the first lactation. These results indicate that maternal gestational nutrition appears to only affect the first lactational performance of ewe offspring. Neither dam nutrition nor size affected grand-offspring live weight gain to, or live weight at weaning (P>0.05). Combined these data indicate that under the conditions of the present study, manipulating dam weight or nutrition in pregnancy can have some effects of offspring lactational performance, however, these effects are not large enough to alter grand-offspring growth to weaning. Therefore, such manipulations

  16. 24-Month Baseline Period Outside of the Contemperaneous 5-Years Before Construction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. ACLCP Periodical Storage Center: Feasibility Study, September 1974-April 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslicki, Dorothy

    A study of alternative models for establishing a cooperative storage center for little used library materials by the members of the Area College Libraries of Central Pennsylvania (ACLCP) focused on periodicals. Considerations discussed include advantages--lower cost; space for growth and better access to holdings retained in active collections;…

  18. The acquired cardiac disease domain: the next 5 years.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John R

    2013-01-01

    At a recent in-house meeting at the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) headquarters in Windsor, the Chairs of the four domains were asked by the President to present their perception of the next 5 years in their respective domains. This review represents a distillation of our discussions on adult cardiac surgery. Advances in technology and imaging are having a radical effect on the working lives of surgeons. In clinical practice, the growth of heart teams and the breaking down of artificial barriers between specialities are altering the way we practice for the better. We see the development of hybrid approaches to many areas such as coronary artery surgery and operations on the thoracic aorta. These changes require careful analysis to ensure that they produce better outcomes that are also cost-effective. All health-care systems are at breaking point, and it is our responsibility to harness new technology to benefit our patients. This is all part of placing the patient at the centre of our activities. Hence, we see the involvement of patients in the design and analysis of clinical trials, which also require great mutual trust and cooperation between surgeons in different countries. Because of the dramatic changes in the pattern of working, we have had to alter our patterns of training and education, and we will continue to make significant innovations in the future. These are exciting challenges that will keep us all busy for the next 5 years at least.

  19. Unilateral vocal fold immobility: a tertiary hospital's experience over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vyas M N; Fakhoury, Raja; Helou, Diane; Lawson, Georges; Remacle, Marc

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to determine the etiology and subsequent management of patients with unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) and compare our results with other such studies. This was a retrospective case series of all patients that were treated for UVFI at one single tertiary referral centre between 2010 and 2014. The medical records of 161 patients over a 5-year period diagnosed with UVFI were analyzed. We looked at the patient demographics, side of immobility, etiology, management and voice assessment. A total of 21 patients were excluded due to varying reasons including second presentation and incomplete data. Our results demonstrated 37.1% of cases to be due to non-thyroid surgery (mainly vascular or anterior cervical spine surgery) compared to thyroid or parathyroid (18.6%). Carotid endarterectomy was the commonest cause followed by cervical spine discectomy or fusion. Other iatrogenic causes included thoracic surgery either involving the lung or not. Our results are very much in keeping with those seen by our colleagues in North America. A better appreciation of the causes of UVFI especially in cases not performed by otolaryngologists and head and neck surgeons should be highlighted and the necessary steps should be taken to prevent this iatrogenic complication.

  20. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  1. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Deibert, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have used systematic, sustained visual observations from the AAVSO International Database and the AAVSO time-series analysis package VSTAR to study the unexplained "long secondary periods" (LSPs) in 27 pulsating red giants. In our sample, the LSPs range from 479 to 2967 days, and are on average 8.1 +/- 1.3 times the excited pulsation period. There is no evidence for more than one LSP in each star. In stars with both the fundamental and first overtone radial period present, the LSP is more often about 10 times the latter. The visual amplitudes of the LSPs are typically 0.1 magnitude and do not correlate with the LSP. The phase curves tend to be sinusoidal, but at least two are sawtooth. The LSPs are stable, within their errors, over the timespan of our data, which is typically 25,000 days. The amplitudes, however, vary by up to a factor of two or more on a time scale of roughly 20-30 LSPs. There is no obvious difference between the carbon (C) stars and the normal oxygen (M) stars. Previous multicolor observations showed that the LSP color variations are similar to those of the pulsation period, and of the LSPs in the Magellanic Clouds, and not like those of eclipsing stars. We note that the LSPs are similar to the estimated rotation periods of the stars, though the latter have large uncertainties. This suggests that the LSP phenomenon may be a form of modulated rotational variability.

  2. Prediction of Treatment Response at 5-year Follow-up in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Behaviorally Based Couple Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Brian R.; Atkins, David C.; Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; Doss, Brian D.; Christensen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Building on earlier work examining predictors of short- and moderate-term treatment response, demographic, intrapersonal, communication, and interpersonal variables were examined as predictors of clinically significant outcomes five years after couples completed one of two behaviorally based couple therapies. Method One hundred and thirty-four couples were randomly assigned to Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT; Jacobson & Christensen, 1998) or Traditional Behavioral Couple Therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) and followed for 5 years after treatment. Outcomes include clinically significant change categories of relationship satisfaction and marital status at 5-year follow-up. Optimal subsets of predictors were selected using an automated, bootstrapped selection procedure based on Bayesian Information Criterion. Results Higher levels of commitment and being married for a longer period of time were associated with decreased likelihood of divorce/separation (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.39, p = .004; OR = 0.91, p = .015). Being married for a longer period of time was also associated with increased likelihood of positive, clinically significant change (OR = 1.12, p = .029). Finally, higher levels of wife desired closeness were associated with increased odds of positive, clinically significant change and decreased odds of divorce for moderately distressed, IBCT couples (OR = 1.16, p = 0.002; OR = 0.85, p = 0.007, respectively) whereas the opposite was true for moderately distressed, TBCT couples (OR = 0.77, p < 0.001; OR = 1.17, p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions Commitment-related variables are associated with clinically significant outcomes at 5-year follow-up as well as at termination and moderate-term follow-up. Public health significance This study indicates that couples who begin marital therapy with higher levels of commitment are least likely to get divorced and most likely to report improvements in relationship satisfaction five years after

  3. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  4. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  5. Sudden and unexpected death between 1 and 5 years.

    PubMed Central

    Southall, D P; Stebbens, V; Shinebourne, E A

    1987-01-01

    Of a population of 9856 children followed up from birth, 9251 of whom underwent 24 hour tape recordings of electrocardiograms and abdominal wall breathing movements during early infancy, five died suddenly and unexpectedly at home at ages ranging from 16 months to 4 years. Postmortem examination, including full histological and microbiological investigations. failed to identify abnormalities ordinarily associated with death in all five cases. Two of the children were known to have had frequent cyanotic episodes and died during these events. In the three remaining cases there was no previous history of cyanotic or apnoeic episodes. The death of one of these three children was seen by his parents and the clinical features suggested that apnoea rather than a cardiac arrhythmia was the primary mechanism for his death. As in infancy, sudden and unexpected death for which no adequate cause is found at necropsy seems to constitute a major component of mortality between 1 and 5 years. PMID:3632016

  6. Pyomyositis in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Romeo, S; Sunshine, S

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain.

  7. Statistical analyses for NANOGrav 5-year timing residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Cordes, James M.; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Chatterjee, Shami; Demorest, Paul B.; Dolch, Timothy; Ellis, Justin A.; Lam, Michael T.; Madison, Dustin R.; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Perrodin, Delphine; Rankin, Joanna; Siemens, Xavier; Vallisneri, Michele

    2017-02-01

    In pulsar timing, timing residuals are the differences between the observed times of arrival and predictions from the timing model. A comprehensive timing model will produce featureless residuals, which are presumably composed of dominating noise and weak physical effects excluded from the timing model (e.g. gravitational waves). In order to apply optimal statistical methods for detecting weak gravitational wave signals, we need to know the statistical properties of noise components in the residuals. In this paper we utilize a variety of non-parametric statistical tests to analyze the whiteness and Gaussianity of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) 5-year timing data, which are obtained from Arecibo Observatory and Green Bank Telescope from 2005 to 2010. We find that most of the data are consistent with white noise; many data deviate from Gaussianity at different levels, nevertheless, removing outliers in some pulsars will mitigate the deviations.

  8. Renal transplantation in children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N

    1980-01-01

    19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008.

  10. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  11. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  12. Parental Strategies and Trajectories of Peer Victimization in 4 to 5 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Marielle; Goossens, Frits A.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine how parental strategies contribute to explaining trajectories of peer victimization in young children. A total of 73 4 and 5 year old children identified as victims of peer aggression in the fall semester and their parents were recruited from 46 classrooms in 18 schools in the Netherlands. All children were…

  13. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  14. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  15. Children Born to Women with Intellectual Disabilities--5-Year Incidence in a Swedish County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiber, I.; Berglund, J.; Tengland, P.-A.; Eklund, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Families with parental intellectual disabilities (ID) are likely to need support in achieving a decent family life. In order to accurately plan for such support services, society needs data regarding the occurrence of those parents and their children. The aim of this study was to investigate the 5-year incidence of children born to…

  16. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  17. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  18. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2013-10-01

    Calcium supplements have been widely used by older men and women. However, in little more than a decade, authoritative recommendations have changed from encouraging the widespread use of calcium supplements to stating that they should not be used for primary prevention of fractures. This substantial shift in recommendations has occurred as a result of accumulated evidence of marginal antifracture efficacy, and important adverse effects from large randomized controlled trials of calcium or coadministered calcium and vitamin D supplements. In this review, we discuss this evidence, with a particular focus on increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements, which we first described 5 years ago. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D marginally reduce total fractures but do not prevent hip fractures in community-dwelling individuals. They also cause kidney stones, acute gastrointestinal events, and increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Any benefit of calcium supplements on preventing fracture is outweighed by increased cardiovascular events. While there is little evidence to suggest that dietary calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is also little evidence that it is associated with fracture risk. Therefore, for the majority of people, dietary calcium intake does not require close scrutiny. Because of the unfavorable risk/benefit profile, widespread prescribing of calcium supplements to prevent fractures should be abandoned. Patients at high risk of fracture should be encouraged to take agents with proven efficacy in preventing vertebral and nonvertebral fractures.

  19. Low antibiotic resistance among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria in periodontitis 5 years following metronidazole therapy.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, G; Preus, H R

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic susceptibility among predominant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontitis patients who 5 years prior had been subject to mechanical therapy with or without adjunctive metronidazole. One pooled sample was taken from the 5 deepest sites of each of 161 patients that completed the 5 year follow-up after therapy. The samples were analyzed by culture. A total number of 85 anaerobic strains were isolated from the predominant subgingival flora of 65/161 patient samples, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by MIC determination. E-tests against metronidazole, penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and clindamycin were employed. The 73/85 strains were Gram-negative rods (21 Porphyromonas spp., 22 Prevotella/Bacteroides spp., 23 Fusobacterium/Filifactor spp., 3 Campylobacter spp. and 4 Tannerella forsythia). These were all isolated from the treated patients irrespective of therapy procedures (+/-metronidazole) 5 years prior. Three strains (Bifidobacterium spp., Propionibacterium propionicum, Parvimonas micra) showed MIC values for metronidazole over the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing break point of >4 μg/mL. All Porphyromonas and Tannerella strains were highly susceptible. Metronidazole resistant Gram-negative strains were not found, while a few showed resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. In this population of 161 patients who had been subject to mechanical periodontal therapy with or without adjunct metronidazole 5 years prior, no cultivable antibiotic resistant anaerobes were found in the predominant subgingival microbiota.

  20. Gambling and Problem Gambling in Victoria, Australia: Changes over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Max; Stone, Christine A; Billi, Rosa; Yeung, Kristal

    2016-03-01

    Rates of gambling and gambling-related harm fluctuate over time, influenced by availability, adaptation and demographic change, among other things. Assessing change is compromised by methodological variation. The main aim of this paper is to assess change in gambling participation and problems in adult Victorians over a 5-year period. Data are from the Victorian Gambling Study (VGS) 2008-2012 (n = 15,000) and the 2003 Victorian Longitudinal Attitudes Survey (n = 8479). An additional aim was to determine the impact of methodological differences on prevalence estimates. Despite gambling availability increasing and more activities being included participation rates declined substantially. Decreases occurred across almost all demographic groups and gambling activities. When adjustments were made for methodological differences there were no significant changes in problem, moderate risk and low risk gambling. Males and people with lower education had higher rates in both surveys. In the latter survey, two groups that experienced large participation reductions, namely young adults and metropolitan residents, emerged as additional groups with higher rates of problem and moderate-risk gambling. Further research is required to discover why overall rates of harm may have plateaued when participation continues to fall and why some groups with reduced participation experience increased harm. The findings suggest that availability and total consumption models are over-simplistic. They further suggest that to be effective prevention programmes will need to extend beyond gambling availability to include interventions directed towards individuals at risk and wider environmental determinants of vulnerability and harm. Additionally this study found that restricting administration of the problem gambling measure to subsets of gamblers generate significantly lower prevalence estimates, implying that many previous surveys under-portray gambling-related harm and that without appropriate

  1. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  2. Dopaminergic therapy and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of 5-year reports.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD) is described in several recent papers. This procedure has been reported to permit a stable reduction of dopaminergic therapy requirements for up to 5 years, although some expectation of deterioration in non-dopaminergic signs has been recently stated. Our aim is to perform a literature-based review of papers available describing long-term post-operative follow-up after a bilateral implant for subthalamic DBS (STN-DBS). Only peer-reviewed published papers with a post-operative follow-up of at least 5 years were considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 2 (or 3 years) and 5 years after surgery. Seven papers were included in the review. A total of 238 patients were analyzed. STN-DBS was confirmed to be an effective treatment for selected patients with PD. In all studies, off-related motor symptoms improved dramatically, compared with pre-implant, at 2 (or 3, according to the study) years and this result persisted at 5-year evaluations. Antiparkinsonian drug reductions, improvements in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and the progression of underlying PD were also reported in all series. Some axial scores, in particular postural stability and speech, improved transiently. Persisting adverse effects included eyelid opening apraxia, weight gain, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysarthria, dyskinesias, and apathy. The present review of the 5-year observations confirms that STN-DBS is a powerful method in the management of PD, but its long-term effects must be thoroughly assessed.

  3. Full term delivery following cryopreservation of human embryos for 7. 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ozer, S; Vermesh, M

    1999-06-01

    Successful pregnancy in a 44 year old woman is described following the transfer of embryos which were cryopreserved for 7.5 years. The embryos were obtained during a gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) procedure in 1989. To our knowledge this is one of the longest published periods of cryopreservation of embryos which has resulted in a healthy baby. This report illustrates the previously presumed viability and normality of human embryos undergoing long-term cryopreservation. Additionally, it emphasizes the importance for advanced reproductive technique programmes and patients to review and update their embryo status.

  4. Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium: a 5-year experience utilizing preoperative cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Belinson, J.L.; Spirou, B.; McClure, M.; Badger, G.; Pretorius, R.G.; Roland, T.A.

    1985-03-01

    A treatment protocol for the management of stage I endometrial carcinoma utilizing preoperative cesium is evaluated. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients were treated according to this protocol over a 5-year period. Based on this experience and a literature review a new protocol is recommended. The significant changes include primary surgery without preoperative cesium, primary treatment based on grade without regard to uterine size, modified radical hysterectomy for G3 tumors, pelvic radiotherapy for clear cell carcinoma confined to the pelvis regardless of depth of invasion, cytoxan, adriamycin, and cis-platinum for papillary serous tumors, and postoperative vaginal cuff cesium for G2 and G3 tumors not requiring pelvic radiotherapy.

  5. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly.

  6. Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis– A Prospective Study of the Underlying Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Jandhyala, Surya Narayana; Belle, Jayaprakash; Rau, N.R; Shetty, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare muscular disorder characterised by episodic weakness associated with hypokalaemia. The disease can either be inherited or acquired and misdiagnosis of the disease is quite common. Most of the data available on the disease is from the western world. Studies reporting aetiological, clinical and metabolic profiles of Indian population are sparse. Hence we tried to provide insights of the disease among the Indian population. Aim To study the aetiological, clinical and metabolic profile of patients diagnosed with Hypokalaemic Periodic Paralysis (HPP). Materials and Methods This is an observational and analytical study on HPP diagnosed patients, during September 2011 to September 2014 in Kasturba Hospital, Manipal. A total of 23 patients were studied. Detailed history, clinical evaluation and metabolic workup for secondary causes of HPP were analysed. Results Of the 23 patients, 57% had primary HPP while 43% had secondary HPP. The group of patients with primary HPP comprised of 92% males and 8% females with mean age of 28 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 18 hours. The group with secondary HPP comprised of 70% males and 30% females with mean age of 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms of 60 hours. The secondary causes of HPP were thyrotoxicosis (50%), infective diarrhea (20%), Crohn’s disease (10%), renal tubular acidosis (RTA) Type I (10%) and Conn’s syndrome (10%). Conclusion In our study primary HPP was found to be more common than secondary HPP. Males were predominantly affected in both groups. HPP should be ruled out before starting therapy for Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). PMID:26500936

  7. Extended Long-Term (5 Years) Outcomes of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Methods: Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Results: Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. Conclusions: The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients. PMID:23730369

  8. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire Designed to Assess Diet in Children Aged 4-5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, Jesus; Gimenez-Monzo, Daniel; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manuela; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Murcia, Mario; Iñiguez, Carmen; Granado, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the most efficient and cost-effective method to investigate the relationship between usual diet and disease in epidemiologic studies. Although FFQs have been validated in many adult populations worldwide, the number of valid FFQ in preschool children is very scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ designed for children aged 4 to 5 years. Materials and methods In this study, we have included 169 children aged 4–5 years from the INMA project in Valencia, a population-based prospective cohort study of mothers and children in Spain. The 105-items FFQ was administered twice to the parents or care-givers of children over a 9-month period. Reproducibility was explored by comparing intake of nutrients by the FFQs, while validity was examined by comparing the nutrient values from the FFQs with the average nutrient values of three 24 hour dietary recall (24hDR) taken in the period, and also, with the concentration in blood specimens for several vitamins (carotenoids, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C and α-tocopherol). Pearson correlation coefficients and de-attenuated correlation coefficients were calculated and we also evaluated misclassification by quintile distribution. Results All correlation coefficients for reproducibility for nutrients and major food groups were statistically significant; the average correlation coefficients for daily intake were 0.43 for food groups and 0.41 for nutrients. The average correlation coefficients for validity for daily intakes against 24hDR was r = 0.30, and the average for de-attenuated correlation coefficients was r = 0.44. When evaluating validity against the blood concentration of vitamins, statistically significant correlations were observed for vitamin C (0.35), lycopene (0.31), β-Cryptoxantin (0.40), and vitamin E (0.29); the average of correlation coefficients was r = 0.21. Conclusion Despite some low to

  9. Health transitions in sub-Saharan Africa: overview of mortality trends in children under 5 years old (1950-2000).

    PubMed Central

    Garenne, Michel; Gakusi, Enéas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reconstruct and analyse mortality trends in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa between 1950 and 2000. METHODS: We selected 66 Demographic and Health Surveys and World Fertility Surveys from 32 African countries for analysis. Death rates were calculated by yearly periods for each survey. When several surveys were available for the same country, overlapping years were combined. Country-specific time series were analysed to identify periods of monotonic trends, whether declining, steady or increasing. We tested changes in trends using a linear logistic model. FINDINGS: A quarter of the countries studied had monotonic declining mortality trends: i.e. a smooth health transition. Another quarter had long-term declines with some minor rises over short periods of time. Eight countries had periods of major increases in mortality due to political or economic crises, and in seven countries mortality stopped declining for several years. In eight other countries mortality has risen in recent years as a result of paediatric AIDS. Reconstructed levels and trends were compared with other estimates made by international organizations, usually based on indirect methods. CONCLUSION: Overall, major progress in child survival was achieved in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the twentieth century. However, transition has occurred more slowly than expected, with an average decline of 1.8% per year. Additionally, transition was chaotic in many countries. The main causes of mortality increase were political instability, serious economic downturns, and emerging diseases. PMID:16799731

  10. 5 years of continuous seismic monitoring of snowmelt cycles in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar; Gallart, Josep

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the analysis of background seismic noise variations in the proximity of river channels has revealed as a useful tool to monitor river flow, even for modest discharges. We will focus here in the application of this methodology to study the snowmelt cycle in an Pyrenean valley during the last 5 years, using data from the seismic geophysical station located inside the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Central Pyrenees). Diaz et al. (2014) first identified in the seismic data the signature of river flow increases associated to snowmelt episodes in the catchment area of the Aragon River, based on the marked correlation between the seismic energy variations in the 2-8 Hz frequency band and the estimated variations in water resources from snowfall. The analysis of seismic data during the snowmelt periods allows to identify a clear 24h cycle, with energy increasing from about 14:00 GMT, remaining at a relatively high level for 12 hours and then smoothly vanishing. The spectrogram reveals richer information, as clear variations in the frequency content can be detected during the time intervals in which the amplitude of the seismic signal remains constant. The data available so far allow to compare the evolution of snowmelt in five seasons with very different hydrological behavior. The 2011 and 2012 seasons have been dry, with snow volumes 30-50 % beneath the average values, while the 2013, 2014 and in particular the 2015 seasons have been largely above the mean. Those variations are reflected in the seismic data, which allow to monitor the time occurrence of the main snowmelt stages for each season and to estimate the intensity of the different snowmelt episodes. Therefore, seismic data can be useful for long term monitoring of snowmelt in Alpine-style mountains.

  11. Manner of Death Determination in Fire Fatalities: 5-Year Autopsy Data of Istanbul City.

    PubMed

    Esen Melez, İpek; Arslan, Murat Nihat; Melez, Deniz Oguzhan; Gürler, Ahmet Selçuk; Büyük, Yalçin

    2017-03-01

    Death resulting from burns is an important social problem and a frequent accident. However, because approximately 10% of cases are estimated to result from a fire that was deliberately started, all fire-related deaths should be treated as suspicious, and the cause of a fire should be investigated. For the bodies recovered from the scene of a fire, the manner of death could also be suicide or homicide. The objective of this study was to contribute to the clarification of controversial data present in the literature on the manner of death determination of fire-related deaths, through evaluation of autopsy findings of bodies recovered from fires. We reviewed 20,135 autopsies performed in a 5-year period, in Istanbul, as the whole autopsy data of the city and found 133 fire-related deaths. The death scene investigation reports and other judicial documents, autopsy findings, and toxicological analysis results were evaluated to determine the parameters of age, sex, level of the burn, vital signs [red flare; soot in the lower respiratory tract, esophagus, and/or stomach; and screening of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in the blood], toxicological substances, presence of accelerants, cause of death, and manner of death. The manner of death was determined to be an accident in 98 (73.7%) and homicide in 12 (9%) cases, whereas there was no suicide. In addition, it could not be determined in 23 (17.2%) cases. In accidental deaths, the most frequent cause of death was COHb poisoning with statistically significant blood COHb levels greater than 10%. Further, the presence of soot in the lower respiratory tract, esophagus, and/or stomach and the existence of at least 1 or 2 vital signs together were found to be valid deterministic criteria with statistical significance in terms of identifying the manner of death.

  12. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  13. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  14. A practice-based clinical evaluation of the survival and success of metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Rinke, S; Kramer, K; Bürgers, R; Roediger, M

    2016-02-01

    This practice-based study evaluates the survival and success of conventionally luted metal-ceramic and zirconia molar crowns fabricated by using a prolonged cooling period for the veneering porcelain. Fifty-three patients were treated from 07/2008 to 07/2009 with either metal-ceramic crowns (MCC) or zirconia crowns (ZC). Forty-five patients (26 female) with 91 restorations (obser-vational period: 64.0 ± 4.8 months) participated in a clinical follow-up examination and were included in the study. Estimated cumulative survival (ECSv), success (ECSc) and veneering ceramic success (ECVCSc) were calculated (Kaplan-Meier) and analysed by the crown fabrication technique and the position of the restoration (Cox regression model) (P < 0.05). Five complete failures (MCC: 2, ZC: 3) were recorded (5-year ECSv: MCC: 97.6%, (95% confidence interval (95%-CI): [93%; 100%]/ZC: 94.0%, (95%-CI): [87%; 100%]). Of the MCCs (n = 41), 85.0%, [95%-CI: (77%; 96%)] remained event-free, whereas the ECSc for the ZCs (n = 50) was 74.3% (95%-CI): [61%; 87%]. No significant differences in ECSv (P = 0.51), ECSc (P = 0.43) and ECVCSc (P = 0.36) were detected between the two fabrication techniques. Restorations placed on terminal abutments (n = 44) demonstrated a significantly lower ECVCSc (P = 0.035), (5-year VCF-rate: 14.8%) than crowns placed on tooth-neighboured abutments (n = 47), (5-year VCF-rate: 4.3%). In the present study, zirconia molar crowns demonstrated a 5-year ECSv, ECSc and ECVCSc comparable to MCCs. Irrespective of the fabrication technique, crowns on terminal abutments bear a significantly increased risk for VCFs. Clinical investigations with an increased number of restorations are needed.

  15. The Low Profile Bioprosthesis: Results with 491 Valves Implanted in 453 Patients for up to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Navia, J. A.; Gimenez, C.; Tamashiro, A.; Esper, R.; Haller, J.; Liotta, D.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes results of the first 453 consecutive patients who had 491 low profile bioprostheses implanted at the Italian Hospital in Buenos Aires over a 5-year period. During this time, with the goal of long-term durability, the valve mounting technique was slightly modified, whereas the materials and design of the annulus underwent more extensive changes. Images PMID:15226950

  16. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Laurier, D; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

    2008-09-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants.

  17. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.

  18. A Period Study of the Close Binary V508 Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albayrak, Berahitdin

    The short-period (0d.34) close binary V508 Oph was observed in 2005 and four new times of minima were derived. All of the available times of minima, including the new ones, covering 69 years were analyzed. It was shown that the period change of the system is very complex. Two possible period oscillations with periods of 24.73 and 9.91 years and amplitudes of about 0.011 and 0.002 day, respectively, were found to superimpose on upward parabolic change, indicating a secular period increase at a rate of dp/dt = 4.24 × 10-9 days yr-1. The mechanisms that could explain the period changes of the system are discussed.

  19. Dimensional measures of personality as a predictor of outcome at 5-year follow-up in women with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Sarah; Jordan, Jennifer; McIntosh, Virginia; Carter, Frances; Frampton, Chris; Bulik, Cynthia; Joyce, Peter

    2011-02-28

    Dimensional models are commonly used as a supplement to the categorical model within the field of personality disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine personality dimensions as predictors of 5-year outcomes among women with bulimia nervosa. One hundred and thirty-four women with bulimia nervosa participated in a randomised psychotherapy treatment trial. Data was available for 109 out of the 134 participants at follow-up. Outcomes were the presence of any eating disorder (past year), the presence of a mood disorder episode (past year), and the global assessment of functioning at 5-year follow-up. Self-directedness was the only predictor of any eating disorder diagnosis (past year) at 5-year follow-up. Asceticism significantly predicted the presence of a mood disorder episode (past year) at 5 years. Borderline personality disorder symptoms predicted global functioning at 5 years. These results suggest that high self-directedness at pre-treatment may offer potential prognostic information regarding eating disorder status 5 years post-treatment. Furthermore, no single measure predicted outcome for all variables (any eating disorder diagnosis, a mood disorder episode (past year), or global functioning) at 5-year follow-up. This suggests that a comprehensive personality assessment using multiple measures is desirable for predicting outcomes.

  20. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    study, the 5-year planning documents have been reviewed, from the 1(st)plan to 12(th)plan, to enable reflection and throw some light into the future directions of AYUSH system.

  1. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the

  2. Effect of water content and temperature on seed longevity of seven Brassicaceae species after 5 years of storage.

    PubMed

    Mira, S; Estrelles, E; González-Benito, M E

    2015-01-01

    Maximising seed longevity is crucial for genetic resource preservation and longevity of orthodox seeds is determined by environmental conditions (water content and temperature). The effect of water content (down to 0.01 g·H₂O·g(-1) ) on seed viability was studied at different temperatures for a 5-year storage period in taxonomically related species. Seeds of seven Brassicaceae species (Brassica repanda, Eruca vesicaria, Malcolmia littorea, Moricandia arvensis, Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium runcinatum) were stored at 48 environments comprising a combination of eight water contents, from 0.21 to 0.01 g·H₂O·g(-1) DW and six temperatures (45, 35, 20, 5, -25, -170 °C). Survival curves were modelled and P50 calculated for those conditions where germination was reduced over the 5-year assay period. Critical water content for storage of seeds of six species at 45 °C ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 g·H₂O·g(-1) . The effect of extreme desiccation at 45 °C showed variability among species: three species showed damaging effects of drying below the critical water content, while for three species it was neither detrimental nor beneficial to seed longevity. Lipid content could be related to longevity, depending on the storage conditions. A variable seed longevity response to water content among taxonomically related species was found. The relative position of some of the species as long- or short-lived at 45 °C varied depending on the humidity at which storage behaviour was evaluated. Therefore, predictions of survival under desiccated conditions based on results obtained at high humidity might be problematic for some species.

  3. Resting Energy Expenditure and Systolic Blood Pressure Relationships in Women Across 4.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Neeraj; Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Brock, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a strong association between blood pressure (BP) and resting energy expenditure (REE). However, it is not known if this relationship persists over time. Therefore, we examined the temporal relationship between REE and systolic BP. Additionally, we examined the impact of sympathetic tone and anthropometric variables on this relationship. All testing was performed on healthy, overweight African American and European American women aged 25 – 45 years over 4.5 years in the UAB General Clinical Research Center. Repeated measures mixed-models revealed REE as a significant determinant of systolic BP (β=0.0155, P<0.0001), independent of catecholamines, leg fat, visceral fat, fat free mass, fat mass, height, RSMI, and resting heart rate. Observations that REE is predictive of systolic BP across 4.5 years support previous findings that REE may potentially mediate resting BP, independent of anthropometric variables and a marker for sympathetic tone. PMID:24548382

  4. Screw fixation for atlantoaxial dislocation related to Down syndrome in children younger than 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenyu; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present cases of upper cervical fixation in Down syndrome patients younger than 5 years. In two cases, C1 lateral mass screws were installed. However, owing to the irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation, the screw backed out and fractured. Therefore, O-C2 fusion was performed. Furthermore, C2 bilateral lamina screws were added to the C2 pedicle screw for reinforcement. C1-C2 fusion is an option for Down syndrome patients younger than 5 years with atlantoaxial dislocation, when the dislocation is reducible. If the dislocation is irreducible, or the implant cannot be firmly secured, the fixation range should be expanded to O-C2 or below.

  5. [Tibial valgization osteotomy in gonarthrosis with or without chondrocalcinosis. Results after 5 years].

    PubMed

    Job-Deslandre, C; Languepin, A; Benvenuto, M; Menkès, C J

    1991-01-01

    The authors compare the results of valgisation tibial osteotomies in osteoarthrosis of the knee (146 cases) and osteoarthrosis of the knee with chondrocalcinosis (94 cases). The two groups were identical in terms of age, but differed by sex ratio (female predominance in CCA) and the initial radiological stage (more advanced forms in the CCA group). Results differed after the second year and reached significantly different values at 5 years (73% in knee osteoarthrosis as against 34% good clinical results in chondrocalcinosis). Study of two groups of patients paired for age, sex, weight and radiological stage showed that results at 5 years were significantly less good in the CCA group. These results are discussed and compared with those in the 1990 literature.

  6. Residual gentamicin-release from antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads after 5 years of implantation.

    PubMed

    Neut, Daniëlle; van de Belt, Hilbrand; van Horn, Jim R; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2003-05-01

    In infected joint arthroplasty, high local levels of antibiotics are achieved through temporary implantation of non-biodegradable gentamicin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate beads. Despite their antibiotic release, these beads act as a biomaterial surface to which bacteria preferentially adhere, grow and potentially develop antibiotic resistance. In routine clinical practice, these beads are removed after 14 days, but for a variety of reasons, we were confronted with a patient in which these beads were left in situ for 5 years. Retrieval of gentamicin-loaded beads from this patient constituted an exceptional case to study the effects of long-term implantation on potentially colonizing microflora and gentamicin release. Gentamicin-release test revealed residual antibiotic release after being 5 years in situ and extensive microbiological sampling resulted in recovery of a gentamicin-resistant staphylococcal strain from the bead surface. This case emphasizes the importance of developing biodegradable antibiotic-loaded beads as an antibiotic delivery system.

  7. Prenatal Lead Exposure and Weight of 0- to 5-Year-Old Children in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Karen E.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Cantonwine, David; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cumulative prenatal lead exposure, as measured by maternal bone lead burden, has been associated with smaller weight of offspring at birth and 1 month of age, but no study has examined whether this effect persists into early childhood. Objective: We investigated the association of perinatal maternal bone lead, a biomarker of cumulative prenatal lead exposure, with children’s attained weight over time from birth to 5 years of age. Methods: Children were weighed at birth and at several intervals up until 60 months. Maternal tibia and patella lead were measured at 1 month postpartum using in vivo K-shell X-ray fluorescence. We used varying coefficient models with random effects to assess the association of maternal bone lead with weight trajectories of 522 boys and 477 girls born between 1994 and 2005 in Mexico City. Results: After controlling for breast-feeding duration, maternal anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, a 1-SD increase in maternal patella lead (micrograms per gram) was associated with a 130.9-g decrease in weight [95% confidence interval (CI), –227.4 to –34.4 g] among females and a 13.0-g nonsignificant increase in weight among males (95% CI, –73.7 to 99.9 g) at 5 years of age. These associations were similar after controlling for concurrent blood lead levels between birth and 5 years. Conclusions: Maternal bone lead was associated with lower weight over time among female but not male children up to 5 years of age. Given that the association was evident for patellar but not tibial lead levels, and was limited to females, results need to be confirmed in other studies. PMID:21715242

  8. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  9. A study of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic antidot lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Vinayak S.

    This thesis reports our study of the effect of domain wall pinning by ferromagnetic (FM) metamaterials [1] in the form of periodic antidot lattices (ADL) on spin wave spectra in the reversible regime. This study was then extended to artificial quasicrystals in the form of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T). Our DC magnetization study of these metamaterials showed reproducible and temperature dependent knee anomalies in the hysteretic regime that are due to the isolated switching of the FM segments. Our dumbbell model analysis [2] of simulated magnetization maps indicates that FM switching in P2T is nonstochastic . We have also acquired the first direct, two-dimensional images of the magnetization of Permalloy films patterned into P2T using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Our SEMPA images demonstrate P2T behave as geometrically frustrated networks of narrow ferromagnetic film segments having near-uniform, bipolar (Ising-like) magnetization, similar to artificial spin ices (ASI). We find the unique aperiodic translational symmetry and diverse vertex coordination of multiply-connected P2T induce a more complex spin-ice behavior driven by exchange interactions in vertex domain walls, which differs markedly from the behavior of disconnected ASI governed only by dipolar interactions. Keywords: Ferromagnetic Antidot Lattices, Metamaterials, Ferromagnetic Resonance, Artificial Quasicrystal, Artificial Spin Ice. [1] VV Kruglyak et al. "Magnonic metamaterials". In: Metamaterial, edited by X.-Y. Jiang (InTech, 2012) (2012). [2] Claudio Castelnovo, Roderich Moessner, and Shivaji L Sondhi. "Magnetic monopoles in spin ice". In: Nature 451.7174 (2008), pp. 42--45.

  10. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-07

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials.

  11. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S.; Friederici, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network. PMID:27812160

  12. Development of the Intrinsic Language Network in Preschool Children from Ages 3 to 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S; Friederici, Angela D

    2016-01-01

    Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network.

  13. Profiling the ethnic characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Stevenson, Adrienne A; Oyetunji, Aderonke O; Onguti, Sharon K; Ames, Sarah A; Haider, Adil H; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2012-04-01

    The home remains a very common location for deadly injuries among children younger than 5 years. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic and injury characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than 5 years. The National Trauma Data Bank's National Sample Program data set was queried for children younger than 5 years with the injury site classified as home. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine unadjusted differences by ethnicity. Appropriate weight was applied to the sample to determine accurate national estimates. A total of 7,364 children, representing 32,033 children, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 1.6 per cent. Among whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans, intentional injuries accounted for 6.5, 12.8, 10.2, 5.2, and 19.0 per cent of all injuries by intent, respectively (P < 0.003). Burn injury was disproportionately higher in blacks (24.1%) followed by Native Americans and Asians (15.3 and 11.5%, P = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, black ethnicity was associated with increased length of stay. Intentional injuries were significantly higher in blacks and Native Americans with black patients sustaining a disproportionately higher proportion of burn injury. Therefore, greater attention is needed to provide more effective home safety interventions to children among high-risk ethnic groups.

  14. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination.

  15. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  16. Evaluation of acute pyelonephritis with DMSA scans in children presenting after the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Ataei, Neamatollah; Madani, Abbas; Habibi, Reza; Khorasani, Mosa

    2005-10-01

    It is generally believed that infants are more susceptible to development of renal scarring after pyelonephritis than children over 5 years old. This view has led to differences in investigations and treatment according to age. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the occurrence of renal parenchymal lesion in children over 5 years admitted with a first-time symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI). Between October 2000 and April 2002, 52 children aged over 5 years who were admitted to our department with probable acute pyelonephritis (APN) and a positive urine culture were included in this study. All children received antibiotics for 14 days. During the acute phase of infection, scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and ultrasonography (US) were done. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) was performed in all children early in the course of the illness, generally within 5-7 days of hospitalization. When scintigraphy showed renal parenchymal changes, repeat scintigraphy was done after at least 3 months to assess the progression of renal abnormalities. Of the 52 children with a first-time documented pyelonephritis, cortical scintigraphy showed renal lesion in 41 children (78.8%). US was normal in all children with normal renal scintigraphy, while it detected renal abnormalities in 16 of the 41 (39 %) with abnormal scintigraphy (p <0.0001). Topographic analysis of the 165 focal lesions showed that 42.4% were localized to the upper poles, 17.5% to the middle third, and 40% to the lower poles of the kidneys. Repeat scintigraphy showed persistent lesions corresponding to those on the initial scan in nine (28.2%) of the 32 children. Renal lesions had partly regressed in 23 (71.8%) of the patients who underwent repeat scintigraphy. Vesicoureteral reflux was observed in 13.4% of kidneys and renal parenchymal abnormalities were identified in 71.4% and 72.2% of renal units, respectively, with and without reflux ( p >0.05). In

  17. Stability and continuity of parentally reported child eating behaviours and feeding practices from 2 to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Farrow, C; Blissett, J

    2012-02-01

    Previous research suggests that many eating behaviours are stable in children but that obesigenic eating behaviours tend to increase with age. This research explores the stability (consistency in individual levels over time) and continuity (consistency in group levels over time) of child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices in children between 2 and 5 years of age. Thirty one participants completed measures of child eating behaviours, parental feeding practices and child weight at 2 and 5 years of age. Child eating behaviours and parental feeding practices remained stable between 2 and 5 years of age. There was also good continuity in measures of parental restriction and monitoring of food intake, as well as in mean levels of children's eating behaviours and BMI over time. Mean levels of maternal pressure to eat significantly increased, whilst mean levels of desire to drink significantly decreased, between 2 and 5 years of age. These findings suggest that children's eating behaviours are stable and continuous in the period prior to 5 years of age. Further research is necessary to replicate these findings and to explore why later developmental increases are seen in children's obesigenic eating behaviours.

  18. High levels of virological failure with major genotypic resistance mutations in HIV-1-infected children after 5 years of care according to WHO-recommended 1st-line and 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens in the Central African Republic: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamant; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Mbitikon, Olivia; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Zeitouni, Kamal; Longo, Jean De Dieu; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Grésenguet, Gérard; Touré Kane, Ndèye Coumba; Bélec, Laurent

    2017-03-01

    A large cohort of 220 HIV-1-infected children (median [range] age: 12 [4-17] years) was cared and followed up in the Central African Republic, including 198 in 1st-line and 22 in 2nd-line antiretroviral regimens. Patients were monitored clinically and biologically for HIV-1 RNA load and drug resistance mutations (DRMs) genotyping. A total of 87 (40%) study children were virological responders and 133 (60%) nonresponders. In children with detectable viral load, the majority (129; 97%) represented a virological failure. In children receiving 1st-line regimens in virological failure for whom genotypic resistance test was available, 45% displayed viruses harboring at least 1 DRM to NNRTI or NRTI, and 26% showed at least 1 major DRM to NNRTI or NRTI; more than half of children in 1st-line regimens were resistant to 1st-generation NNRTI and 24% of the children in 1st-line regimens had a major DRMs to PI. Virological failure and selection of DRMs were both associated with poor adherence. These observations demonstrate high rate of virological failure after 3 to 5 years of 1st-line or 2nd-line antiretroviral treatment, which is generally associated with DRMs and therapeutic failure. Overall, more than half (55%) of children receiving 1st-line antiretroviral treatment for a median of 3.4 years showed virological failure and antiretroviral-resistance and thus eligible to 2nd-line treatment. Furthermore, two-third (64%) of children under 2nd-line therapy were eligible to 3rd-line regimen. Taken together, these observations point the necessity to monitor antiretroviral-treated children by plasma HIV-1 RNA load to diagnose as early as possible the therapeutic failure and operate switch to a new therapeutic line.

  19. [Acute myocardial infarction in a 5-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Romero Ibarra, C; Bueno Campaña, M; Barriuso Lapresa, L M; de Miguel Medina, C; Maraví Poma, E

    1996-11-01

    We present the case of a child five and half years-old that died suddenly due to an acute myocardial infarction. The anatomopathological study showed a total obstruction of the left coronary ostium by mixoide dysplasia of the aortic valve. We revise the literature and briefly expose the more frequent causes of infarction in infancy.

  20. [Study on optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides)].

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Peng; Wu, Ye-Kuan

    2014-08-01

    To ascertain the optimal harvest period of Lonicera Flos (Lonicera macranthoides) the configuration yield and quality of L. macranthiodes bloom verity and bud verity flower at different develop periods were Observed. The quality of L. macranthiodes which harvested at different times of the day was Compared. The configuration was significant difference between different develop period of L. macranthiodes flower. As bud growth, yield increased. Bloom verity of L. macranthoides chlorogenic acid content was significantly lower after opening (silver flower stage, golden flower stage), before opening (young bud stage, green-white stage) have no significant difference of the quality. Bud verity of L. macranthoides macranthoidin B is significant lower at yellow-white stage, young bud stage and green-white stage have no significant difference of the quality. The chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A content is significant difference between L. macranthoides harvested at different time of the day. The optimal harvest period of bloom verity is the white stage, picking time for 10:00 before and after 18:00. The optimal harvest period is the green-white stage, picking time is 8:00 before and after 18:00.

  1. Association between depression in carers and malnutrition in children aged 6 months to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Ganiyu, Adewale B.; Firth, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Childhood malnutrition is an important risk factor for child mortality and underlies close to 50% of child deaths worldwide. Previous studies have found an association between maternal depression and child malnutrition, but it is not known whether this association exists in Botswana. In addition, previous studies excluded non-maternal primary caregivers (PCGs). It is unclear whether the association between primary caregiver depression and child malnutrition remains when non-maternal PCGs are included. Aim The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between PCG depression and malnutrition in children aged between 6 months and 5 years in Mahalapye, Botswana. Setting The study was conducted in the child welfare clinics of Xhosa and Airstrip clinics, two primary health care facilities in Mahalapye, Botswana. Methods This was a case control study. Cases were malnourished children aged between 6 months and 5 years, and controls were non-malnourished children matched for age and gender. The outcome of interest was depression in the PCGs of the cases and controls, which was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9), a depression screening tool. Results From a sample of 171 children, 84 of whom were malnourished, we found that the malnourished children were significantly more likely to have depressed PCGs (odds ratio = 4.33; 95% CI: 1.89, 9.89) than non-malnourished children in the 6-month to 5-year age group; the PCGs of malnourished children also had lower educational status. Conclusion This study found a significant association between PCG depression and child malnutrition. PMID:28155288

  2. A 10-year epidemiologic review of homicide cases in children younger than 5 years in Fulton County, GA: 1996-2005.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Geroncio Cagigas; Hanzlick, Randy L

    2010-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to present the epidemiologic review of homicide deaths certified by the Fulton County Medical Examiner's Office from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2005 in children younger than 5 years. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine if the observed cases of homicide deaths among children younger than 5 years in Fulton County are significantly greater than expected when compared with those in the State of Georgia. For purposes of this study, only homicide deaths of Fulton County residents were included. The authors reviewed all homicide cases in children younger than 5 years: infancy (<1 year) and early childhood (1-4 years). χ values were calculated using Epi Info (version 3.4.1; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga) to determine differences in homicide among age group, race, and sex variables. In addition, a χ test at the α level of 0.05 was done to determine if the observed cases of homicide deaths among children younger than 5 years in Fulton County were significantly greater than expected when compared with those in the State of Georgia. There were 49 homicide cases in children younger than 5 years identified over this 10-year period. The yearly distribution of these 49 homicide deaths ranged from 1 death in 2003 to 9 deaths in 2004. Most of the patients were male (n=29, 59.2%) and black (n=44, 89.8%). Between infancy and early childhood cases, homicide victims were nearly equally divided between the 2 groups. However, χ values showed that decedents younger than 5 years are more likely to have died of homicide compared with decedents 5 years or older (odds ratio [OR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-2.35). Black decedents younger than 5 years are more likely to have died of homicide compared with other races (OR, 3.21; 95% CI, 1.21-9.28). Male and female decedents are equally at risk to have died of homicide (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.61-2.11). The authors also determined that the

  3. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis.

  4. [Long term results (5 years) of the first 50 consecutive operations following Mustard's technique for simple transposition of the great vessels].

    PubMed

    Bex, J P; Baillot, F; Pilichovski, P; Lemoine, G

    1977-04-01

    The long-term results of Mustard's operation for simple transposition of the great vessels have been studied in a homogenous series of the first 50 consecutive cases operated on by G. Lemoine. The overall mortality was 20% over the 5 year follow-up period. Serious arrhythmias or conduction defects can usually be picked up immediately postoperatively; on the other hand, stenosis of the venae cavae or of the pulmonary venous channels may come on very late and unexpectedly as growth takes place. Reoperation must be carried out to remove these stenoses when they are troublesome.

  5. Assessing the Performance of a Medical Intensive Care Unit: A 5-year single-center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Anushiravani, Amir; Masoompour, Seyed Masoom

    2017-01-01

    Patient care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is complex and expensive, serving to provide optimal outcome as well as the adequate use of resources. Our objective was to determine variables associated with admission practices, processes of care, and clinical outcomes for critically ill patients. Admission records of a 10-bed ICU were gathered during a 5-year period. Variables such as average length of stay, bed turnover, bed occupancy rate, and turnover interval were evaluated. Of the 1719 patients evaluated, 54% were men. Mortality was highest between 10 pm and 2 am. There was no significant difference in ICU mortality during different days of the week. We showed that nonoffice hour admissions were not associated with poorer clinical outcomes, and significant differences in ICU mortality and ICU length of stay were not seen. Moreover, hospital mortality rates were not significantly higher for patients admitted to our ICU on weekends, at nights, or any day of the week.

  6. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243

  7. Category-specific face prototypes are emerging, but not yet mature, in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Lee, Kang; Fu, Genyue; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2014-10-01

    Adults' expertise in face recognition has been attributed to norm-based coding. Moreover, adults possess separable norms for a variety of face categories (e.g., race, sex, age) that appear to enhance recognition by reducing redundancy in the information shared by faces and ensuring that only relevant dimensions are used to encode faces from a given category. Although 5-year-old children process own-race faces using norm-based coding, little is known about the organization and refinement of their face space. The current study investigated whether 5-year-olds rely on category-specific norms and whether experience facilitates the development of dissociable face prototypes. In Experiment 1, we examined whether Chinese 5-year-olds show race-contingent opposing aftereffects and the extent to which aftereffects transfer across face race among Caucasian and Chinese 5-year-olds. Both participant races showed partial transfer of aftereffects across face race; however, there was no evidence for race-contingent opposing aftereffects. To examine whether experience facilitates the development of category-specific prototypes, we investigated whether race-contingent aftereffects are present among Caucasian 5-year-olds with abundant exposure to Chinese faces (Experiment 2) and then tested separate groups of 5-year-olds with two other categories with which they have considerable experience: sex (male/female faces) and age (adult/child faces) (Experiment 3). Across all three categories, 5-year-olds showed no category-contingent opposing aftereffects. These results demonstrate that 5 years of age is a stage characterized by minimal separation in the norms and associated coding dimensions used for faces from different categories and suggest that refinement of the mechanisms that underlie expert face processing occurs throughout childhood.

  8. A Fundamental Study of Heat Transfer Phenomenon in Periodic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-09

    household radiators or electric heaters, furnaces, combustion chambers, fires, rocket nozzles , power plants, engines etc. The importance of radiation...can be applied to any other problem related to the wave propagation through periodic structures such as acoustic wave and ultrasonic wave propagation

  9. AB020. Thoracoscopy under local anesthesia, the 5-year experience of a single center

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, Christopher; Spiratos, Dionisios; Iakovidis, Dimitrios; Spyropoulos, George; Voudrislis, Grigoris; Kontakiotis, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Background This is a retrospective analysis of the histological reports and the diagnostic ability of thoracoscopy under local anesthesia (medical thoracoscopy) in a single center with 5-year experience (2011–2016). Methods We assessed the histological results of all thoracoscopies that were performed at the endoscopy suite of the respiratory system at General Hospital “G. Papanikolaou”, Thessaloniki, Greece. All patients suffered from undiagnosed exudative pleural effusion with at least two cytology tests negative for malignancy. The thoracoscopies were performed using the single-port method with a rigid thoracoscope 10 mm (HOPKINS Straight Forward Telescope 00, with angled eyepiece, diameter 10 mm, length 27 cm, with 6 mm working channel, KARL STORZ). Results A total of 133 thoracoscopies were performed during the study period (1/11/2011–5/10/2016). In seven cases no biopsy was taken (failure to enter the pleural cavity due to adhesions, refusal of the patient, respiratory arrest). The diagnoses that were set for the rest of cases (126 patients) were: lung adenocarcinoma (27 patients, 21%), mesothelioma (20 patients, 16%), other malignant pleurisy (18 patients, 14%) nonspecific chronic inflammatory pleurisy (54 patients, 43%), tuberculous pleurisy (4 patients, 3%) and para-malignant effusion (3 patients, 2%). The diagnosis of malignant pleurisy was made in a total of 63 patients (50%). In patients with other malignancies the distribution was: breast adenocarcinoma (3), adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal system (3), reproductive system adenocarcinoma (1), carcinoma of unknown primary site (4), other lung carcinomas (5, large cell: 2; neuroendocrine: 1; squamous: 1; small cell: 1), melanoma (1) and giant cell carcinoma (1). Three patients with nonspecific chronic inflammation were eventually diagnosed with a malignancy (in 2: lung adenocarcinoma on the basis of cytology test of fluid and in 1: mesothelioma on the basis of open biopsy). Conclusions

  10. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years

    PubMed Central

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-01-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

 PMID:9659099

  11. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  12. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  13. Pranlukast reduces asthma exacerbations during autumn especially in 1- to 5-year-old boys

    PubMed Central

    Campos Alberto, Eduardo; Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Yoshinori; Hoshioka, Akira; Abe, Hiroki; Saito, Kimiyuki; Tsubaki, Toshikazu; Haraki, Mana; Sawa, Akiko; Nakayama, Yoshio; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shigeta, Midori; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Background Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been used to prevent virus-induced asthma exacerbations in autumn. Its efficacy, however, might differ with age and sex. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether pranlukast added to usual asthma therapy in Japanese children during autumn, season associated with the peak of asthma, reduces asthma exacerbations. It was also evaluated the effect of age and sex on pranlukast's efficacy. Methods A total of 121 asthmatic children aged 1 to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive regular pranlukast or not according to sex, and were divided in 2 age groups, 1–5 years and 6–14 years. The primary outcome was total asthma score calculated during 8 weeks by using a sticker calendar related to the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms. This open study lasted 60 days from September 15 to November 14, 2007. Results Significant differences in pranlukast efficacy were observed between sex and age groups. Boys aged 1 to 5 years had the lower total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.002), and experienced fewer cold episodes (p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between pranlukast and control group in total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.35), and in the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms (p = 0.67). Conclusion There was a substantial benefit of adding pranlukast to usual therapy in asthmatic children, especially in boys aged 1 to 5 years, during autumn season. PMID:28154801

  14. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; George, Anu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  15. 5-Year Downstream Outcomes Following Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Louise C.; Fung, Kathy Z.; Kirby, Katharine A.; Shi, Ying; Espaldon, Roxanne; O'Brien, Sarah; Freedland, Stephen J.; Powell, Adam A.; Hoffman, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing controversies surrounding PSA screening, large numbers of men age 65+ undergo screening. However, there are few data quantifying the chain of events following screening in clinical practice to better inform decisions. The objective of this study is to quantify 5-year downstream outcomes following a PSA screening result > 4 ng/ml in older men. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of 295,645 men age 65+ who underwent PSA screening in the VA healthcare system in 2003 and were followed for 5 years using national VA and Medicare data. Among men whose index screening PSA was > 4 ng/ml we determined the number who underwent biopsy, were diagnosed with prostate cancer, were treated and survived 5-years, according to baseline characteristics. Biopsy and treatment complications were also assessed. Results 25,208 (8.5%) men had an index PSA > 4 ng/ml. During 5-year follow-up, 8,313 (33%) men underwent at least one biopsy, 5,220 (63%) of men biopsied were diagnosed with prostate cancer of whom 4,284 (82%) were treated. Receipt of biopsy decreased with advancing age and worsening comorbidity (P<0.001), whereas the percentage treated for biopsy-detected cancer exceeded 75% even among men age 85+, those with Charlson score 3+, and those with low-risk cancer. Among men with biopsy-detected cancer, the risk of dying of non-prostate cancer causes increased with advancing age and comorbidity (P<0.001). 468 (6%) of men had 7-day biopsy complications. Treatment complications included 584 (14%) men with new incontinence and 588 (14%) men with new erectile dysfunction. Conclusions Receipt of biopsy is low in older men with abnormal screening PSA and decreases with advancing age and comorbidity. However, once biopsy detects cancer most men undergo immediate treatment regardless of advancing age, comorbidity, or low-risk cancer. Understanding downstream outcomes in clinical practice should better inform individualized decisions among older men considering PSA

  16. Microscopy image analysis of p63 immunohistochemically stained laryngeal cancer lesions for predicting patient 5-year survival.

    PubMed

    Ninos, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Sakellaropoulos, George; Panayiotakis, George; Economou, George; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design a microscopy image analysis (MIA) system for predicting the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, employing histopathology images of lesions, which had been immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for p63 expression. Biopsy materials from 42 patients, with verified laryngeal cancer and follow-up, were selected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Twenty six patients had survived more than 5 years and 16 less than 5 years after the first diagnosis. Histopathology images were IHC stained for p63 expression. Images were first processed by a segmentation method for isolating the p63-expressed nuclei. Seventy-seven features were evaluated regarding texture, shape, and physical topology of nuclei, p63 staining, and patient-specific data. Those features, the probabilistic neural network classifier, the leave-one-out (LOO), and the bootstrap cross-validation methods, were used to design the MIA-system for assessing the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal cancer. MIA-system accuracy was about 90 % and 85 %, employing the LOO and the Bootstrap methods, respectively. The image texture of p63-expressed nuclei appeared coarser and contained more edges in the 5-year non-survivor group. These differences were at a statistically significant level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study has proposed an MIA-system that may be of assistance to physicians, as a second opinion tool in assessing the 5-year survival of patients with laryngeal cancer, and it has revealed useful information regarding differences in nuclei texture between 5-year survivors and non-survivors.

  17. 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-up after Retropubic and Transobturator Midurethral Slings

    PubMed Central

    Kenton, Kimberly; Stoddard, Anne M.; Zyczynski, Halina; Albo, Michael; Rickey, Leslie; Norton, Peggy; Wai, Clifford; Kraus, Stephen R.; Sirls, Larry T.; Kusek, John W.; Litman, Heather J.; Chang, Robert P.; Richter, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have characterized longer-term outcomes after retropubic and transobturator midurethral slings. Methods Women completing 2-year participation in a randomized equivalence trial who had not received surgical retreatment for stress urinary incontinence were invited to participate in a 5-year observational cohort. The primary outcome, treatment success, was defined as no retreatment or self-reported stress incontinence symptoms. Secondary outcomes included urinary symptoms and quality of life, satisfaction, sexual function and adverse events. Results 404 of 597 (68%) women from the original trial enrolled. Five-years after surgical treatment, success was 7.9% greater in women assigned to retropubic-sling compared to transobturator-sling (51.3% vs 43.4%, 95% CI −1.4%, 17.2%) not meeting pre-specified criteria for equivalence. Satisfaction decreased over 5-years, but remained high and similar between arms (79%, retropubic-sling vs 85%, transobturator-sling groups, p=0.15). Urinary symptoms and quality of life worsened over time (p<0.001), and women with retropubic-sling reported greater urinary urgency (P=0.001), more negative quality of life impact (p=0.02), and worse sexual function (P=0.001). There was no difference in proportion of women experiencing at least 1 adverse event (p=0.17). Seven new mesh erosions were noted (retropubic-sling-3, transobturator-sling-4). Conclusion Treatment success declined over 5-years for retropubic and transobturator-slings and did not meet pre-specified criteria for equivalence with retropubic demonstrating a slight benefit. However, satisfaction remained high in both arms. Women undergoing transobturator-sling reported more sustained improvement in urinary symptoms and sexual function. New mesh erosions occurred in both arms over time, although at a similarly low rate. PMID:25158274

  18. Renal amyloidosis followed more than 5 years: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, H; Boubaker, K; Béji, S; Abderrahim, E; Moussa, F Ben; Turki, S; Goucha, R; Hedri, H; El Younsi, F; Kheder, A; Maiz, H Ben

    2004-01-01

    Renal involvement with amyloidosis is common but causes patient survival to be poor, rarely reaching 5 years. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and biological characteristics as well as treatments and outcomes of patients with renal amyloidosis followed for more than 5 years. Between 1975 and 2003, 485 patients were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis including only 12 patients who were followed more than 5 years. The six men and six women of mean age 42.4 years (range 18 to 66 years) displayed renal signs of lower limb edema in all cases; hypertension in four cases, proteinuria on urinalysis in all cases with microscopic hematuria in five cases. Biological tests showed nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients, normal renal function in nine patients, and renal failure in three patients whose mean creatinine was 481.6 micromol/L (range 294 to 726). The amyloidosis was AA type in 11 cases and non-AA in one case. An etiologic survey revealed spondylarthropathy in one patient, pulmonary tuberculosis in two patients, chronic bronchitis in three patients, hepatic hydatic cyst in one patient, Mediterranean familial fever in two patients, Crohn's disease in one patient, Hodgkin's lymphoma in one patient, and multiple myeloma in one patient. Specific treatment was initiated with colchicine in seven patients. At a 110-month mean follow-up (range 53 to 153 months), remission of nephrotic syndrome was observed in four cases, progression to chronic renal failure in two patients, and to end-stage renal failure in five cases (range 53 to 196 months), with stabilization of renal function in seven patients. In conclusion, primary amyloid disease should be optimally suppressed in patients with renal involvement. The role of this treatment in remission of renal amyloidosis is not well established. This efficacy of the treatment has been demonstrated in some patients with improved survival.

  19. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    PubMed

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-02-14

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p < 0.05). However, the mean locomotor standardized scores for both boys and girls fell into the range categorized as "average." There were no other differences by age, race/Hispanic origin, weight status, or income in either of the subtest standardized scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

  20. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  1. Lateralization of tongue movements during eating in children 2 to 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Gisel, E G; Schwaab, L; Lange-Stemmler, L; Niman, C W; Schwartz, J L

    1986-04-01

    Normative data on skills of the tongue used in eating are presented. Normal children 2 to 5 years old were studied regarding their preference of placing food either on the right or left side when eating, and they were compared with age-matched Down's syndrome children. In addition, the ability to move food from the right to the left side of the mouth was studied. Normal children underwent a transition from predominantly placing food on the right side at 2 years of age to predominantly placing it on the left side at 4 years of age. Among Down's syndrome children females preferred the right side, and males preferred the left side. The ability to move food from right to left (lateralizing) undergoes a developmental progression from tilting the head to rolling, followed by slow and eventually by smooth movement from one side to the other. Only 15% of the 5-year-olds were able to move food smoothly from side to side. These data provide a baseline against which children with eating problems can be compared.

  2. Periodic trends in bond dissociation energies. A theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Eckert-Maksić, Mirjana; Maksić, Zvonimir B; Alkorta, Ibón; Elguero, José

    2005-05-19

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of all possible A-X single bonds involving the first- and second-row atoms, from Li to Cl, where the free valences are saturated by hydrogens, have been estimated through the use of the G3-theory and at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-31G(2df,p) DFT level of theory. BDEs exhibit a periodical behavior. The A-X (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, and Si) BDEs show a steady increase along the first and the second row of the periodic table as a function of the atomic number Z(X). For A-X bonds involving electronegative atoms (A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl) the bond energies achieve a maximum around Z(X) = 5. The same behavior is observed when BDEs are plotted against the electronegativity chi(X) of the atom X. Thus, for A-X bonds (A = Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si), the BDEs for a fixed A increases, grosso modo, as the electronegativity differences between X and A increase, with some exceptions, which reflect the differences in the relaxation energies of the radicals produced upon the bond cleavage. A similar trend, albeit less pronounced, is found for single A-X bonds, where A = C, N, O, F, P, S, and Cl. However, there is an additional feature embodied in the enhancement of the strength of the A-boron bonds due to the ability of boron to act as a strong electron acceptor. The trends in bond lengths and charge densities at the bond critical points are in line with the aforementioned behavior.

  3. [Quality of life of over 60-year-old patients with breast and uterine carcinoma, 5 years after primary operation].

    PubMed

    Neises, M; Soedradjat, F; Strittmatter, H J; Wischnik, A; Melchert, F

    1996-01-01

    In the 5-year follow-up period, we studied the quality of life of 145 patients who were at least 60 years old at the time of primary operation. Of the patients, 70 women had breast cancer and 75 endometrium cancer. We used the questionnaire "short form health survey: medical outcomes study". The areas which were analyzed were stress due to therapy, body image/femininity and social contacts. The Karnofsky-Index was determined by the physician. In both groups, most stress was felt due to the operation and at the first knowledge of the diagnosis. In the area of emotional stress 1/3 of the patients of both groups declared continuous stress due to feelings of fear, helplessness and passivity. In the area of body image/femininity half the patients with breast cancer and 2/3 with endometrial cancer felt stress. In the area of social contact 2/3 of the patients felt uncertainty in contact with others and this led to social retreat in 1/3 of the women. The Karnofsky-Index of all patients was between 50-100%. Our study supports the view that older patients with cancer should also be offered psychosocial counseling.

  4. Tamoxifen beyond 5 years--patients' decisions regarding entry to the aTTom trial.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, M J; Dewar, J A

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess among a population of women who had taken adjuvant tamoxifen for 5 years, how many were prepared to enter a randomised trial looking at the duration of tamoxifen treatment and what was the preference of those who declined trial entry. There is uncertainty as to the optimum duration of adjuvant tamoxifen and this is the subject of the aTTom (adjuvant Tamoxifen Treatment offer more?) trial in which patients are randomised to continue or stop tamoxifen after 5 years. Patients have been recruited to the aTTom trial in Dundee since 1996 and a record has been kept of all the patients with whom the trial was discussed. Patients who declined trial entry were allowed to choose whether to electively stop or continue tamoxifen. 306 patients were eligible for trial entry of whom 171 (56%) consented to randomisation (82 to continue and 89 to stop). Amongst the 135 (44%) who declined randomisation, 28 (21%) elected to stop tamoxifen treatment, 90 (67%) elected to continue and in 17 (13%) their decision was unclear. These results illustrate that patients eligible for the aTTom trial share our clinical equipoise. A majority (56%) of patients were agreeable to randomisation, but among those who declined, some (67%) preferred to continue, some (21%) to stop tamoxifen. This trial is unusual in that the patients have already experienced the treatment options, so the patients' preferences reflect a truly informed choice.

  5. Gender Differences in Appraisal of Stress and Coping 5 Years after Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Kathleen L; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Li, Zhi; Rybarczyk, Bruce; White-Williams, Connie; Gordon, Robert; McGee, Edwin C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined whether gender differences exist regarding stress, symptom distress, coping, adherence, and social support 5 years after heart transplantation. BACKGROUND Differences exist in health-related quality of life outcomes by gender after heart transplantation; women report poorer outcomes. METHODS Patients (n=210, female=42), were from a prospective, multi-site, study of health-related quality of life long-term after heart transplantation. Patients completed self-report instruments 5 years after heart transplantation (mean=4.98±0.17 years after transplant). Statistical analyses included two-sample t-tests, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multivariable modeling. RESULTS Women did not report more overall stress or symptom distress, but reported more difficulty adhering to the transplant regimen, yet more actual adherence than men. Women reported using more negative coping styles, but reported more satisfaction with social support. CONCLUSIONS Gender differences exist regarding appraisal of stress, coping styles, and coping resources long-term after heart transplantation. These differences may guide tailoring therapy regarding stress, poor coping, and lack of resources. PMID:26514074

  6. Molecular characterization of cryptosporidium in children aged 0- 5 years with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Anejo-Okopi, Joseph Aje; Okojokwu, Julius Ocheme; Ebonyi, Augustine Odo; Ejeliogu, Emeka Uba; Isa, Samson Ejiji; Audu, Onyemocho; Akpakpan, Edoama Edet; Nwachukwu, Esther Ebere; Ifokwe, Christabel Kelechi; Ali, Murna; Lar, Patricia; Oguche, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in children and immune-compromised individuals. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have led to the discovery of subtype families that are thought to be more commonly associated with diarrhea. We aimed to isolate and characterize Cryptosporidium spp among children with diarrhea in Jos, Nigeria. Methods Stool samples were collected from165 children aged 0-5 years with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined by wet mount preparation, using formalin ether and a modified acid fast staining method. DNA was extracted from positive samples using QIAamp DNA stool mini kit and PCR-RFLP assay was carried out after quantification. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were done to determine the subtype families and their relatedness. Results From the 165 children studied, 8 (4.8%) were infected with Cryptosporidium. PCR-RFLP assay and genotype characterization found the following Cryptosporidium species: C. hominis 6 (75%) and C. parvum 2 (25.0%), with family subtypes Id-5, Ie-1 and IIa-1, IId-1 respectively.The most common species was C. hominis and the frequent subtype was C. hominis-Id 5 (62.5%). Conclusion Cryptosporidium is not an uncommon cause of diarrhea in children, with C. hominis being the dominant species. Also C. hominis Id is the commonest sub-family subtype. Put together, zoonotic species may be an important cause of diarrhea in children aged 0-5 years in Jos, Nigeria. PMID:28293369

  7. Prevalence of Malocclusion in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinhua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuehua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusions in preschool children in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2335 children aged 3–5 years from kindergartens. Several occlusal parameters were clinically assessed, including second deciduous molar terminal plane, canine relationship, degree of overjet and overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, and the presence or absence of physiologic spaces and crowding. All parents of subjects were asked to fill in the oral health knowledge questionnaires. The prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in Shanghai was 83.9%, and no significant differences were found in genders. Data showed that the prevalence of deep overbite (63.7%) was the highest in children with malocclusion, followed by deep overjet (33.9%), midline deviation (26.6%), anterior crossbite (8.0%) and anterior crowding (6.5%). The results revealed a high prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in children aged 3–5 years old of Shanghai, especially in vertical anomalies. The need for preventive orthodontic therapy is extremely desired and oral health education about malocclusion should be strengthened. PMID:28327525

  8. Atmospheric Poaceae pollen frequencies and associations with meteorological parameters in Brisbane, Australia: a 5-year record, 1994-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Brett James; Dettmann, Mary; Yli-Panula, Eija; Rutherford, Shannon; Simpson, Rod

    Grass pollen is an important risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma in Australia and is the most prevalent pollen component of the aerospora of Brisbane, accounting for 71.6% of the annual airborne pollen load. A 5-year (June 1994-May 1999) monitoring program shows the grass pollen season to occur during the summer and autumn months (December-April), however the timing of onset and intensity of the season vary from year to year. During the pollen season, Poaceae counts exceeding 30 grains m-3 were recorded on 244 days and coincided with maximum temperatures of 28.1 +/- 2.0 °C. In this study, statistical associations between atmospheric grass pollen loads and several weather parameters, including maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation, were investigated. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated that daily grass pollen counts were positively associated (P < 0.0001) with maximum and minimum temperature during each sampling year. Precipitation, although considered a less important daily factor (P < 0.05), was observed to remove pollen grains from the atmosphere during significant periods of rainfall. This study provides the first insight into the influence of meteorological variables, in particular temperature, on atmospheric Poaceae pollen counts in Brisbane. An awareness of these associations is critical for the prevention and management of allergy and asthma for atopic individuals within this region.

  9. Occupational injury and disease incidence and risk factors in Finnish agriculture based on 5-year insurance records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for compensated occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture. The study population consisted of 78,679 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members covered by mandatory workers' compensation insurance. This population had a total of 24,424 occupational injuries and 1684 diseases from 2000 to 2004. In the 5-year period, 20.2% of the population had (one or more) injuries and 2.0% had occupational diseases. Multiple claims were common particularly among livestock producers. Using Poisson regression analyses, we identified several personal and farm-related risk factors, with relative risk estimates ranging from 1.07 to 3.08 for injuries and from 1.45 to 3.01 for diseases. Cattle-intensive geographic regions, occupational health service membership, large farm size, and farming alone were identified as risk factors for both outcomes. Further, male gender, higher number of insurance years, and residing on the farm were among risk factors for injury. These risk factors identified from a large longitudinal data set can be considered for developing and targeting interventions for farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.

  10. ECG-based PICC tip verification system: an evaluation 5 years on.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gemma; Jones, Matt

    2016-10-27

    In 2011, the vascular access team at East Kent Hospitals University NHS Foundation Trust safely and successfully incorporated the use of electrocardiogram (ECG) guidance technology for verification of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) tip placement into their practice. This study, 5 years on, compared the strengths and limitations of using this ECG method with the previous gold-standard of post-procedural chest X-ray. The study was undertaken using an embedded case study approach, and the cost, accuracy and efficiency of both systems were evaluated and compared. Using ECG to confirm PICC tip position was found to be cheaper, quicker and more accurate than post-procedural chest X-ray.

  11. The Role of Feature Type and Causal Status in 4-5-Year-Old Children's Biological Categorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Benjamin; Cordier, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of the causal status of features and feature type in biological categorizations by young children. Study 1 showed that 5-year-olds are more strongly influenced by causal features than effect features; 4-year-olds exhibit no such tendency. There therefore appears to be a conceptual change between the ages of…

  12. Early Developmental Assessment of Children with Major Non-Cardiac Congenital Anomalies Predicts Development at the Age of 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazer, Petra; Gischler, Saskia J.; van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; Tibboel, Dick; Bax, Nicolaas M. A.; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; van Dijk, Monique; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years. Method: A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development--Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and…

  13. Determination of Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Factors Causing Home Accidents and Prevention in Mothers with a Child Aged 0-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ümmühan; Erci, Behice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, it was aimed to determine knowledge, "attitudes" and "behaviors" in mothers with a child aged 0-5 years regarding factors causing "home accidents" and prevention. Method: The target population of the study consisted of mothers with a child aged 0-5 years who were admitted to pediatrics ward…

  14. [Edwards syndrome--most frequent indications for genetic amniocentesis. Analysis of the last 5 years].

    PubMed

    Chuchracki, Marek; Janiak, Justyna; Ziółkowska, Katarzyna; Sedziak, Anna; Opala, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) occurs in 1: 8000 live births and is closely related to the mother's age. Most of the embryos and fetuses with trisomy of 18 chromosome pair undergo natural abortion. Change in number and structure of chromosomes usually takes place spontaneously. However, the incidence of chromosome mutations increases with the presence of mutagenic factors. One of the chemical mutagenic factors is benzopyrene - present in cigarette smoke. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnostic is used for detecting diseases and clinical syndromes conditioned by chromosome aberrations. To this date the "golden standard" of this diagnostic is the assessment of the fetus karyotype by means of analysis of chromosome banding pattern from amniotic fluid-derived cells. The aim of the study was the analysis of indications for genetic amniocenteses carried out in the last 5 years and in case of which trisomy of chromosome 18 (Edwards syndrome) was diagnosed. The analysis covered 1593 results of fetus karyotypes obtained from Cytogenetic Laboratory of the Central Gynecological-Obstetric Clinical Hospital in Poznań over the last 5 years. The study procedure consisted in producing cell culture from amniotic fluid, appliance of appropriate color techniques and thorough microscopic analysis of chromosome banding pattern. As a result of the analysis it was discovered that in 1538 cases the karyotype was normal, and in 55 cases trisomy 18 was diagnosed, which constituted 3% of all cytogenetic tests. The highest number of trisomy 18 cases was noted in 2009 - 19 cases, which constitutes 5% of all tests. In 2010 and 2011 the results included respectively 2% and 3% of diagnosed trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome). In the last 5 years normal results for karyotypes constituted 87%, in 10% cases other aberrations were diagnosed through cystogenetic tests, whereas 3% of the results have shown trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome The most frequent indications for performing genetic amniocentesis, as a result of

  15. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwanto; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment.

  16. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green sturgeon... of requested information include: (1) Species biology including, but not limited to,...

  17. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; request for information. SUMMARY: NMFS announces a 5-year review of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis... of any such information on sei whales that has become available since that has become available...

  18. Prevalence of Overweight and Risk of Overweight among 3-to 5-Year-Old Chicago Children, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Maryann; Meleedy-Rey, Patricia; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Longjohn, Matt; Garcia, Myrna P.; Ashlaw, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the first estimates of overweight prevalence in Chicago children entering school (aged 3-5 years). Chicago data are compared with those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Data were from 2 separate convenience samples of children aged 3-5 years…

  19. Human Figure Drawing as a Representative Medium of Perceptual Motor Development among 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Pirkko; And Others

    This study examined characteristics of human figures representing the self as drawn by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds and the presence of age or gender differences. A total of 150 children who were selected randomly from day care centers drew themselves on paper with crayons. There were equal numbers of boys and girls in each age group. Human figure…

  20. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  1. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the" Emotional Regulation Checklist" in 4- and 5-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danisman, Sahin; Iman, Esra Dereli; Demircan, Zeynep Akin; Yaya, Dilara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional Regulation Checklist is frequently used to determine emotional developments of children by teacher and parents of children. The purpose of this study was to examining the Psychometric Properties of "Emotional Regulation Check List" for 4-5 years age in preschool children. Method: The sample of the research was…

  2. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  3. The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from over 5 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Eldakar, Omar T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years numerous reports have confirmed and replicated the specific brain cooling and thermal window predictions derived from the thermoregulatory theory of yawning, and no study has found evidence contrary to these findings. Here we review the comparative research supporting this model of yawning among homeotherms, while highlighting a recent report showing how the expression of contagious yawning in humans is altered by seasonal climate variation. The fact that yawning is constrained to a thermal window of ambient temperature provides unique and compelling support in favor of this theory. Heretofore, no existing alternative hypothesis of yawning can explain these results, which have important implications for understanding the potential functional role of this behavior, both physiologically and socially, in humans and other animals. In discussion we stress the broader applications of this work in clinical settings, and counter the various criticisms of this theory. PMID:23293583

  4. Prevalence and etiology of nosocomial diarrhoea in children < 5 years in Tikrit teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Alrifai, S B; Alsaadi, A; Mahmood, Y A; Ali, A A; Al-Kaisi, L A

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out at Tikrit teaching hospital, Iraq, from October 2004 to September 2005, to identify the prevalence and etiology of nosocomial infectious diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age. Of 259 children admitted to the paediatric ward for reasons other than diarrhoea and hospitalized for more than 3 days, clinical and laboratory analysis of stool samples showed nosocomial diarrhoea in 84 children (32.4%). The most common causative agents were enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (25.9%), Clostridium difficile (21.0%) and rotavirus (18.5%). Single infectious agents caused 63.1% of the cases, while mixed infections were detected in 16.7%; in 20.2% of children the cause remained unknown.

  5. Climatic factors associated with hospitalizations for rotavirus diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    D'SOUZA, R. M.; HALL, G.; BECKER, N. G.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This study compares the seasonality of rotavirus diarrhoeal hospital admissions and its relationship to climatic factors across three Australian cities. Weekly admission of rotavirus diarrhoea (1993–2003) in children aged <5 years and weekly average temperature and relative humidity for each city were modelled using a log-linear model with a cubic trend and season. Interactions were included to test for differences in the effect of temperature and humidity between seasons and between cities. Admissions of rotavirus diarrhoea peaked in winter and spring and were lowest in summer. Higher temperature and humidity in the previous week were associated with a decrease in rotavirus diarrhoeal admissions in three cities. The effects of both temperature and humidity on rotavirus admissions in Brisbane differed across seasons. Strategies to combat outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhoea should take climatic factors and seasonal effects into consideration to plan for the excess seasonal hospital admissions. PMID:17352836

  6. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a 5-year-old Iranian boy

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzipour, K.; Zavvar, N.; Behnam, B.; Ahmadi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare syndrome characterized by clinical symptoms and signs of Vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria. Our patient was a 5-year-old boy with pallor, lack of appetite, and low weight gain. Laboratory studies showed severe macrocytic anemia, normal reticulocyte count, negative direct coombs test, normal osmotic fragility, and autohemolysis test. He has had intermittent proteinuria since 3 years ago despite normal creatinine level and absence of hematuria or hypertension. Finally, based on low level of serum B12 vitamin and normal folate level accompanied by asymptomatic proteinuria, the diagnosis of IGS was made. Furthermore, his sister has had laboratory abnormalities without any symptoms. IGS responded to B12 replacement therapy dramatically but intermittent proteinuria persisted even after appropriate therapy. PMID:27942180

  7. 5-year Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up of Coil-embolised Intradural Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the paper is the follow-up of embolised intradural saccular Arterial Aneurysms (AA), excluding giant, dissecting, inflammatory, fusiform or AA associated to BVAM. Since its introduction in 1991, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil has offered protection against aneurysmal rebleeding in the critical few days and months after SAH regardless of the grade. A number of questions remain: is complete angiographic obliteration necessary at first embolisation? What duration of clinical / angiographic follow-up (FU) is required to ensure the risk of haemorrhage has been eliminated? What is the long-term protection against rebleeding? One hundred and two patients with 160 intradural saccular AA embolised before april 1997 were selected for this study. They had at least 5-yrs clinical FU, of which 22 patients had a midterm (3 years) and 45 patients had a 5year or more angiographic FU (mean 67,7 months per patient). Twenty-eight embolised AAs with 100% occlusion at 1 year, remained unchanged on the 5year angiograms. A further 14 patients with complete occlusion at 1 year showed persisting complete occlusion on angiogram at 3-years FU, which in our series means that complete occlusion after the first year post-embolisation implies that the aneurysm will remain completely occluded. All secondary spontaneous thromboses (27.6% of cases), occurred during the first year pos-embolisation. In six patients with subtotal or partial occlusion no change was seen for three consecutive years of FU; none showed later change at 5-year angiography. Below 80% occlusion our series does not provide enough information but we consider the situation instable. No mortality related to the procedure was observed in the unruptured AA group. No bleeding or re-bleeding has occurred since the beginning of our experience (1993) in saccular AA treated by GDC-Coil. Coil-embolisation of properly selected patients is effective in protecting against bleeding or re-bleeding at short and long

  8. Diabetic foot reconstruction using free flaps increases 5-year-survival rate.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tae Suk; Lee, Ho Seung; Hong, Joon Pio

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of the diabetic foot reconstructed with free flaps and analyse the preoperative risk factors. This study reviews 121 cases of reconstructed diabetic foot in 113 patients over 9 years (average follow-up of 53.2 months). Patients' age ranged from 26 to 78 years (average, 54.6 years). Free flaps used were anterolateral thigh (ALT, 90), superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP, 20), anteromedial thigh (AMT, 5), upper medial thigh (UMT, 3), and other perforator free flaps (3). Correlation between the surgical outcome and preoperative risk factors were analysed using logistic regression model. Total loss was seen in 10 cases and 111 free-tissue transfers were successful (flap survival rate of 91.7%). During follow-up, limb was eventually lost in 17 patients and overall limb salvage rate was 84.9% and the 5-year survival was 86.8%. Correlation between flap loss and 14 preoperative risk factors (computed tomography (CT) angiogram showing intact numbers of major vessels, history of previous angioplasty, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), heart problem, chronic renal failure (CRF), American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system, smoking, body mass index (BMI), HBA1c, lymphocyte count, ankle-brachial index (ABI), osteomyelitis, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and whether taking immunosuppressive agents) were analysed. Significant odds ratio were seen in patients who underwent lower extremity angioplasties (odds ratio: 17.590, p<0.001), with PAD (odds ratio: 10.212, p=0.032) and taking immunosuppressive agents after kidney transplantation (odds ratio: 4.857, p<0.041). Diabetic foot reconstruction using free flaps has a high chance for success and significantly increases the 5-year survival rate. Risk factors such as PAD, history of angioplasties in the extremity and using immunosuppressive agents after transplant may increase the chance for flap loss.

  9. A study of lightning flashes attending periods of banded snowfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Market, Patrick S.; Becker, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    Lightning flashes (N = 1088) associated with 24 thundersnow events in the central United States were analyzed to document flash polarity, signal strength, and multiplicity. Negative lightning flashes (N = 872; 80%) dominated positive flashes (N = 216; 20%) with wintry precipitation in this study, which stands in contrast to the majority of the research done on winter thunderstorms (primarily in Japan). Otherwise, limited work has been done, although thundersnow has been documented in the mid-latitudes of North America, Europe and Asia. Statistics on peak amplitude were determined for negative (positive) flashes, yielding mean and standard deviation values of -24 kA +/- 22 kA (+38 kA +/- 34 kA). A subset of winter lightning events (N = 16) were then sought that occurred with banded (single or multiple) snowfall, as banding often denotes greater organization in the atmosphere (e.g., a jet streak aloft to aid in ascent, or a low level jet streak to aid with moisture and thermal transport) and thus the potential for deeper snow totals. Radar reflectivity values were recorded at the location of each lightning flash, as well as the maximum radar reflectivity within the associated snow band. The location of the lightning activity within the snow band was also noted as being either leading edge (LE), trailing edge (TE), core (C), or not correlated (NC), with respect to the motion of the parent band. The majority of lightning flashes were found downstream of areas of highest radar reflectivity with respect to the motion of the snow bands, and not with the highest reflectivity values. If one uses the highest reflectivity values in a snowband as a proxy for the greatest surface snowfall intensity, then the ground terminus of a cloud-to-ground lightning (CG) flash is often not co-located with the heaviest snowfall rates. However, the work completed here does place the location of the typical CG flash ~15 km downstream of the snowband location, so one could use the occurrence

  10. Rationalization of Periodical Holdings: A Case Study at Chalmers University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Describes study of periodical use in medium-sized university of technology which examined use of individual periodicals in relation to language of publication; patterns of use for interlibrary lending and for multiple copy journals; methods and costs for acquiring infrequently used periodicals. Thirty-three references and most frequently used…

  11. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  12. Surgical Treatment for Adult Spinal Deformity: Projected Cost Effectiveness at 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Terran, Jamie; McHugh, Brian J.; Fischer, Charla R.; Lonner, Baron; Warren, Daniel; Glassman, Steven; Bridwell, Keith; Schwab, Frank; Lafage, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, expenditures related to spine care are estimated to account for $86 billion annually. Policy makers have set a cost-effectiveness benchmark of less than $100,000/quality adjusted life year (QALY), forcing surgeons to defend their choices economically. This study projects the cost/QALY for surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity at 5-year follow-up based on 2-year cost- and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data. Methods In a review of 541 patients with adult spinal deformity, the patients who underwent revision or were likely to undergo revision were identified and cost of surgery was doubled to account for the second procedure; all other patients maintained the cost of the initial surgery. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was modeled by revision status based on literature findings. Total surgical cost was based on Medicare reimbursement. Chi square and student t tests were utilized to compare cost-effective and non–cost-effective patients. Results The average cost/QALY at 5-year follow-up was $120,311.73. A total of 40.7% of patients fell under the threshold of a cost/QALY <$100,000. Cost-effective patients had higher baseline ODI scores (45% vs 34% [P=0.001]), lower baseline total Scoliosis Research Society scores (2.89 vs 3.00 [P=0.04]), and shorter fusions (8.23 vs 9.87 [P=0.0001]). Conclusion We found 40.7% of patients to be below the threshold of cost effectiveness. Factors associated with reaching the threshold <$100,000/QALY were greater preoperative disability, diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis, poor preoperative HRQOL scores, and fewer fusion levels. PMID:24688328

  13. Space or physics? Children use physical reasoning to solve the trap problem from 2.5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Seed, Amanda M; Call, Josep

    2014-07-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the properties of the wall) remains unclear because spatial information would suffice (the location of the wall in relation to the ball). We confronted 2- to 6-year-old children with a ball resting on a shelf inside a clear plastic-fronted box. To retrieve the ball, children had to roll it away from a trap or barrier using their fingers. Crucially, a single object acted as a barrier or supporting surface in different conditions, thus requiring a flexible response. Preschoolers solved the task and the critical transfers from 2.5 years of age (Study 1). Interestingly, 2.5-year-olds required to use a tool to displace the ball performed significantly worse than those who could use their fingers (Study 2). In contrast, 2.5- to 4.5-year-olds failed a covered trap box that provided only 2-dimensional predictive cues without any visible physical information, and even 6.5-year-olds performed significantly worse on the covered task compared to the uncovered one (Studies 3 and 4). Our results suggest that children from around 2.5 years of age integrate spatial and physical information when solving problems like the trap box task, rather than simply exploit spatial relationships between features.

  14. Haemophilus type B meningitis in Saudi children under 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y; Al-Jeffri, Mohamed H; Al-Haggar, Sami H; Musa, Elgeili K; Mohamed, Omer M; Abdalla, Mohamed N

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of bacterial meningitis in general and Hib meningitis in particular among children below the age of 5 years. A population-based, prospective descriptive and analytical study was conducted in five regions, one each in northern, southern, eastern, western, and central parts of Saudi Arabia. Active surveillance for cases of bacterial meningitis among the study population, which comprised 171,818 children under 5 years of age, was implemented. A total of 208 cases of meningitis were identified, of which 141 (67.8 per cent) were identified with a definite causative organism. The remaining 67 cases (32 per cent) were labeled as aseptic meningitis. The overall incidence of meningitis was 60.53/10(5) in under-fives with a disease spectrum similar to that reported in studies conducted in other countries. The three leading causes of meningitis were Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), MCM (Neisseria menigitides) and SPN (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Hib meningitis constituted 28 per cent of cases with an incidence rate of 16.88/10(5) children. There was a marked regional variation in Hib incidence. MCM was the second leading cause (18 per cent) of meningitis with an incidence of 10.77/10(5) while SPN comprised 11 per cent of cases and its incidence was 9.69/10(5). Almost all MCM cases were related to meningitis outbreaks that occurred in Saudi Arabia during two successive Hajj seasons (2000-2001). Hib cases showed a bimodal seasonality, one peak during March-May, the other during September-November. The fact that this study is the first national base-line data on meningitis in general and Hib incidence in particular, has augmented further justification for introducing Hib vaccine within the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Based on the experience gained during this study regarding surveillance of meningitis disease, optimal methods to strengthen meningitis surveillance were identified. A model of Meningitis

  15. Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Using the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device and 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Ezgi; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the treatment of a 14-year-and-8-month-old boy with Class II division 2 mandibular retrusion, severe deep bite, and concave profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device (FRD) was effective in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. At 5-year posttreatment follow-up, the teeth were well aligned and the occlusion was stable. FRD application with appropriate treatment time can result with prominent changes in the facial profile and dentition, and the outcomes can be maintained at the long-term follow-up periods. PMID:27034855

  16. 77 FR 26361 - Medicaid Program; State Plan Home and Community-Based Services, 5-Year Period for Waivers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ...-Centered Service Plan 8. Self-Direction 9. Quality Assurance 10. Conflict of Interest 11. Eligibility... Administration: State Responsibilities and Quality Improvement (Sec. 441.677) P. Section 2601 of the Affordable... and Quality ANPRM Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking CFC Community First Choice (1915(k) State...

  17. Full-endoscopic technique for anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion: 5-year follow-up results of 67 cases.

    PubMed

    Yao, Nuzhao; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Wenjun; Wang, Lushan

    2011-06-01

    With minimally invasive technique becoming more popular, endoscopic operations such as arthroscopy or laparoscopy have become the standard of care in several other areas. In this study, we evaluated the 5-year follow-up outcomes of anterior cervical (Ahn et al. in Photomed Laser Surg 23:362-368, 2005) discectomy and interbody fusion (ACDF) performed via endoscopic approach. Sixty-seven patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and cage fusion performed using endoscopic technique were followed for at least 5 years. We reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of these patients. The postoperative radiographic measures accessed were the anterior intervertebral height (AIH) and the lordosis angle (LDA). Clinical outcomes were determined using the previously validated Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and the pain visual analog scale (VAS). Patients included had a minimal follow-up period of 5 years and based on the outcomes criteria (JOA, VAS), 86.6% of patients reported excellent or good results. The AIH increased on average 18.7% of the original height (p < 0.01), and the LDA were more physiologic at final follow-up. Of the 67 cases, there was no segmental instability, and the bone fusion rate was 100%. One patient required revision open ACDF due to adjacent segment disc herniation 6 years postoperatively. There were no intraoperative complications, dysphasia or esophageal injury in this study group. It indicated endoscopic technique for ACDF can obtain satisfactory results in patients with cervical disc herniation, cervical myelopathy, or radiculopathy. Compared with a traditional approach, this technique may be associated with less morbidity while improving cosmesis and postoperative recovery. Prospective randomized control trials are needed to directly compare these two procedures.

  18. Modifiable health risks in Atlantic Canadian employees: a 5-year report.

    PubMed

    Makrides, L; Sawatzky, C; Petrie, J; Veinot, P

    2010-12-01

    A number of modifiable health risks, such as smoking, inactivity and obesity have been linked to increased employer costs, including decreased productivity and increased absenteeism and health claims. The purpose of this paper is to report on the health profile and prevalence of modifiable health risks in an Atlantic Canadian Employee Database. Data were collected over a 5-year period (2001-2006) by the Atlantic Health and Wellness Institute, the research arm of Creative Wellness Solutions, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Each employee of 51 workplaces (n = 6067; 2665 males, 3402 females; average age 41.3 years) completed a Health Risk Assessment questionnaire on smoking, nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Clinical data measurements were blood pressure, blood cholesterol, weight and height. Data were compared for private, public and health sectors. Sixteen percent had elevated blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mmHg), 20% smoked cigarettes, 70% were overweight [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2)], 31% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), 38% had elevated non-fasting cholesterol levels (≥ 5.20 mmol/l) and 49% were inactive (<20-30 min, three to five times per week). Moreover, 50% had two to four major modifiable health risks (i.e. daily tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and high blood pressure). Health care sector employees were healthier overall, but there was substantial room for improvement. The present analysis identified an alarming prevalence of modifiable health risks in Atlantic Canadian employees. Workplaces need to invest in workplace wellness to reduce the risks and promote better health among employees, thus increasing productivity and decreasing the financial burden on employers.

  19. Spectral structure of 5 year time series of horizontal wind speed at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Song-Lak; Won, Hoonill

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the spectral structures of 5 year, 1 min time series of horizontal wind speeds at 100 and 10 m heights at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory tower located in the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, USA. In the full-scale spectra, the diurnal spectral peak, which is usually insignificant at a coastal or offshore site, is the most significant at both heights. The spectrum is enhanced on the low-frequency side of the diurnal peak during winter, but on the high-frequency side during summer, which indicates frequent synoptic weather events during winter supplanted by mesoscale events during summer. In terms of the spectral density in the spectral gap of Van der Hoven (1957), separating boundary layer turbulence from the synoptic-scale fluctuations, at a frequency between 10-4 and 10-3 Hz, we rank the daily time series at 100 m height and sample the summer top and winter bottom 10 percentile cases. The winter cases of the reduced spectral density in the gap region present the f-3 spectrum (f is frequency) and negatively skewed velocity increment distributions, which are the signatures of enstrophy (the integral of squared vorticity) cascade of turbulent two-dimensional (2-D) flows. In contrast, the summer cases of the enhanced spectral density present the f-5/3 spectrum and positively skewed velocity increment distributions, which are the signatures of upscale energy cascade of 2-D flows. In these mesoscale events that fill up the gap, the turbulence intensity-wind speed relationship is very sensitive to the choice of the averaging period.

  20. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  1. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  2. Literature on the aetiology of hypospadias in the last 5 years: molecular mechanism and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Qu, W Y; Yang, L; Wang, K; Tu, H Y; Wang, J

    2014-08-01

    Year-by-year, there has been an increasing number of literature on hypospadias, and most of them are mainly focused on two aspects, namely surgical techniques and aetiology, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. Surgical techniques and nursing levels are being continuously improved. However, in stark contrast, the study of aetiology still lags behind. Up to now, there is still no consensus on the aetiology of hypospadias, including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors. To obtain an overall and latest result on the aetiology, we reviewed published literature regarding the aetiology of hypospadias including the molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors in PubMed in the last 5 years. Thirty-seven studies on the aetiology of hypospadias including molecular mechanism and associated environmental factors were found, of which 25 were about associated environmental factors, and they were described according to the aspects of chemicals, parental characteristics, nutrition and hormones. The remaining studies were about the hormone-dependent phase of molecular mechanism, namely androgen-related genes and oestrogen-related genes. Furthermore, the various points of view were classified and discussed in detail.

  3. Epidemiology and medical cost of hospitalization due to rotavirus gastroenteritis among children under 5 years of age in the central-east of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltani, M S; Salah, A Ben; Bouanene, I; Trabelsi, A; Sfar, M T; Harbi, A; Gueddiche, M N; Farhat, E Ben

    2015-09-28

    Data on the economic burden of rotavirus infection in Tunisia are needed to inform the decision to include rotavirus in routine childhood immunizations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of rotavirus disease in central-east Tunisia and to estimate its hospital cost. In the first stage - the prospective collection of epidemiological data - we enrolled all patients < 5 years old who were hospitalized for acute diarrhoea at 5 university paediatric departments in central-east Tunisia during the period 2009-2011. Rotavirus was responsible for 65 (23.3%) of the 279 cases enrolled. In the second stage, cost data were collected retrospectively using an activity-based costing method from the medical records of the children who were positively diagnosed with rotavirus. The average cost of care per child was TD 433 (SD 134). This is a significant economic burden in Tunisia, where a safe and effective vaccine is available but not yet introduced to the immunization schedule.

  4. A use study of speech pathology and audiology periodicals at Illinois State University.

    PubMed

    Duran, N; Buckley, C E; Ng, M L

    1997-10-01

    No core list of periodicals exists for speech pathology and audiology. Faced with the prospect of having to cancer periodicals for all subjects, the science librarians at Illinois State University decided to determine which science periodicals were used most heavily. A one-year study of science periodical reshelving and interlibrary loan requests yielded ranked lists of periodicals important to speech pathology and audiology faculty and students at Illinois State University. The three most heavily used journals were the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ASHA, and Topics in Language Disorders. Most of the periodicals on the lists were indexed by either MEDLINE or UnCover, or by both. While the lists of journals developed in the study are not sufficient to serve as true core lists, they should be useful to libraries supporting comparable programs in speech pathology and audiology.

  5. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one’s own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children’s abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology. PMID:26517260

  6. The pragmatics of clinical hypermedia: experiences from 5 years of participatory design in the MEDEA project.

    PubMed

    Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Svensson, B

    1995-02-01

    To explore a medical hypermedia design process where requirements engineering and participatory design are used in a naturalistic setting, 5 years of participatory action research (PAR) have been performed in the development of a hypermedia system to be used in primary care practice. In PAR, the participating organizations cooperate with the researchers in deciding and later evaluating organizational actions, and the results are concluded cooperatively. A new type of system emerged from the study, in that the resulting design has its focus on the management of large volumes of hypermedia material, the traceability of authority in the documents, and teamwork support. Regarding the participatory design process, it was found to be essential to deal with social and organizational issues in the design group and its surroundings--and not to cover these over. For instance, an agreement was reached with the managers responsible for health care in the county where the design process took place, whereby the design activity was also given priority at the highest local administrative level. Since health care is a practice organization, there is a potential market for similar systems if only ways of organizing design and marketing the products of participatory design are further developed. Modified versions of structured product specification methods could be a valuable complement. The conclusion of the study is that the development and spread of hypermedia systems in health care may require considerable changes in current design routines and organizations.

  7. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  8. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD.

  9. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  10. Urban-rural differences in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Davies, Carolyn A; Douglas, Gail V A; Pitts, Nigel B

    2010-12-01

    Previous research suggests there are significant differences between urban and rural areas in Scotland for health outcomes including heart disease, cancer and self reported health. The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary urban/rural variation in obvious decay experience amongst 5-year-olds in Scotland. Scotland was split into 6 geographies, ranging from 'The 4 Cities' (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) to 'Remote Rural' areas. Data derived from the 2007/08 National Dental Inspection Programme, representative of the whole of Scotland, were modelled using Bayesian multilevel zero-inflated Negative Binomial and multilevel Poisson modelling, adjusting for age, sex and deprivation. The outcome variables modelled were d(3)mft (carious, extracted or filled deciduous teeth), d(3)t (carious teeth), mt (missing teeth, extracted due to caries) and ft (filled teeth). The proportion of 5-year old children in Scotland with d(3)mft = 0 was 58% in 2008. Adjusting for age and sex, the odds of a child in a Remote Rural area having d(3)mft>0 was 0.52 that of a city dweller. However, when deprivation was included in the model, the odds of having d(3)mft >0 rose to 0.74. The odds of d(3)mft>0 in 'Accessible Rural' areas also remained significantly lower than in the 4 Cities after adjustment for deprivation. For those with d(3)mft>0, the relative risk of additional d(3)mft was also significantly lower in Remote Rural areas, however this was explained by deprivation, while in Accessible Rural areas this remained significant even after adjustment for deprivation. The odds of having any extractions was lower in Rural areas, even after adjustment for deprivation, while the Care Index (ft/d(3)mft) was higher in Remote Towns. Deprivation, therefore, accounted for much but not all of the geographical difference in d(3)mft which exist in Scotland. Children in Remote and Rural areas appear to have better dental health and a higher proportion of filled teeth when compared

  11. Integration of a Psychiatric Service in a Long-Term Charitable Facility for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A 5-Year Medication Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggerini, Ciro; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo; Russo, Angela; Neviani, Vittoria; Castagnini, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    Since the implementation of a psychiatric service in a long-term facility for people with intellectual disability, the usage of psychotropic and anti-convulsant drugs has been surveyed over the 5-year period 1994-1999. At that time, although the overall prevalence rate of residents on medication was not declining significantly, a decrease in…

  12. Juvenile Breast Hypertrophy: A Successful Breast Reduction of 14.9% Body Weight without Recurrence in a 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Abd Latib, Marzida; Basiron, Normala

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile hypertrophy of the breast (JHB) is a rare and relentless disease affecting women in the peripubertal period. We present a 13-year-old girl with massive bilateral JHB, successfully treated with a breast reduction and free nipple graft technique. A total of 7300 grams of breast tissue had been removed, accounting for 14.9% of the patient's total body weight. Prophylactic hormonal therapy was not commenced. During the 5-year follow-up period, there was no recurrence and the patient remains satisfied with the aesthetic outcome. A recent meta-analysis study indicates that subcutaneous mastectomy is associated with reduced risk of recurrence, but it is more deforming and the aesthetic result is inferior to a reduction mammaplasty. In patients treated with the latter technique, some evidence exists suggesting that the use of a free nipple graft is associated with a less frequent risk of recurrence than a pedicle technique. This present case is unique as it demonstrates the clinical course of this patient at a considerably longer follow-up period than most reported studies. We adhered to the limited available evidence and highlight the long-term reliability of breast reduction with free nipple grafting as the first line surgical option in JHB, eliminating the need for repeated surgeries. PMID:28255494

  13. Cognitive and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 5 Years of Age in Preterm Children Born in the 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Annika; Korkman, Marit; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Matomaki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive level and neuropsychological performance at 5 years of age in children with a very low birthweight (VLBW; birthweight less than 1501g) born in 2001 to 2003. Method: A regional cohort of 97 children with a VLBW (mean gestational age 28wks [SD 3wks]; mean birthweight 1054g [SD 259g]; 50 male; 47…

  14. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  15. [Auto-injection with epinephrine in the finger of a 5-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Janssen, R L H; Roeleveld-Versteegh, A B C; Wessels-Basten, S J W; Hendriks, T

    2008-04-26

    A 5-year-old boy with food allergies complicated by anaphylactic reactions with dyspnoea and angioedema had been prescribed an autoinjector with epinephrine (0.15 mg) so that his parents could treat him at home if necessary. The patient accidentally injected himself in a finger, which likely makes him the youngest patient to receive an epinephrine auto-injection reported to date. Treatment consisted of phentolamine (0.15 mg in 0.5 ml normal saline) injected subcutaneously at the site of accidental injection; the dose and volume were not adapted according to the age and body weight of the patient as only a local effect was intended. Finger circulation was restored within 20 minutes. Headache, nausea and vomiting were observed after 30 minutes and were most likely a systemic side effect of phentolamine. No other complications occurred. The patient recovered fully and was discharged the following morning. Intramuscular epinephrine autoinjection is standard therapy for severe anaphylactic reactions. The epinephrine autoinjector was introduced in 1980. As allergy and anaphylaxis become more common, increasing numbers of autoinjectors are prescribed, and it is likely that the number of accidental digital autoinjections will also increase. These digits are then at risk of ischaemic necrosis. There is no consensus on therapeutic strategies in such cases. Phentolamine administration appears to be an effective intervention. However, several recent studies have shown that epinephrine may be used safely in hand surgery, which suggests that accidental digital epinephrine autoinjection may not always require immediate treatment.

  16. Reappearance of Bitot's spots after complete resolution in children between 1 and 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Sareen, Neha

    2015-04-01

    There is limited data on proportion of Bitot's spots (BS), which could reappear after receiving mega dose of Vitamin A (MDVA), and their complete resolution. A prospective, community-based, cohort study with 12 months follow-up was conducted among children (1-5 years) with BS at a district from North India. On diagnosis, 200,000 IU of vitamin A was administered on the same day, then after 4 weeks and subsequently after 6 months. Out of 262 children with BS, 157 (59.9%, 95% CI: 54.1-65.9) children had shown resolution of BS after the MDVA supplementation. Out of 157 children, 97 (61.8%, 95% CI: 54.2-69.4) had reappearance of BS after complete resolution. Kaplan-Meir analysis found that median duration of reappearance of BS was 5 months (95% CI: 3.8-6.2) after their complete resolution. The reappearance of BS after administration of two MDVA within 12 months suggests that children with possibly adequate serum retinol level status may have reappearance of BS.

  17. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  18. Health benefits of the Mediterranean Diet: an update of research over the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Gotsis, Efthymios; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Mariolis, Anargyros; Vlachou, Athanasia; Katsiki, Niki; Karagiannis, Asterios

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has been reported to be protective against the occurrence of several diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that the MedDiet could counter diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, obesity, pulmonary diseases, and cognition disorders. Adoption of a MedDiet was associated with beneficial effects on the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant cellular and circulating biomarkers as well as with regulation of gene polymorphisms involved in the atherosclerotic process. The MedDiet has been considered for the prevention of cardiovascular and other chronic degenerative diseases focusing on the impact of a holistic dietary approach rather than on single nutrients. Epidemiological dietary scores measuring adherence to a MedDiet have been developed. This narrative review considers the results of up-to-date clinical studies (with a focus on the last 5 years) that evaluated the effectiveness of the MedDiet in reducing the prevalence of chronic and degenerative diseases.

  19. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Colombara, Danny V.; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011–2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ2 tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0–5 months, those 6–23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  20. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  1. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  2. Friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil after 5 years of biochar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Wani; Ganika, Shaory; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Islami, Titiek

    2016-04-01

    The effect of biochar application on soil friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil was studied at Brawijaya University field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The soil has been planted with cassava for 4 years continuously and 1 year planted with maiz. The biochar applied was made from cassava stem and farm yard manure. It was found that biochar application, either made from cassava stem or farm yard manure improved soil qualities. Soil applied with biochar was more friable compared to that of the no biochar soil, although biochar application did not influence Atterberg limits. It seems that the higher friability of biochar applied soil was associated with the higher soil organic matter. It was found that until 5 years application, the biochar treated soil had a higher soil organic matter content. Soil applied with biochar possessed a better soil aggregate stability, both dry and wet stability. This was shown by the higher aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) of biochar applied soil. The cassava biochar applied soil had MWD of 2.22 mm (dry stability) and 1.56 mm (wet stability), whereas the control soil had MWD of 1.45 mm (dry stability) and 1.25 (wet stability). There was a significant positive correlation between soil friability and dry aggregate stability. The biochar applied soils also had higher soil permeability. Key words: soil qualities, soil physical properties, Atterberg limits, hydraulic conductivity

  3. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media.

  4. [Dental decay in 5-year-old children: sociodemographic factors, monitoring points and parental attitudes].

    PubMed

    Nunes, Vinícius Humberto; Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen

    2017-01-01

    Dental decay affects many children, especially those from the lower socioeconomic classes. In this cross-sectional study designed to investigate the role played by sociodemographic factors, parental attitudes, and monitoring points, which are an indicator of personal perception of what controls individual health, on the prevalence of tooth decay among 5-year-old pre-school children living in a midsized city in São Paulo, Brazil. The ceo-d index of 426 children was assessed; the parents reported sociodemographic characteristics and completed two questionnaires concerning monitoring points and parental attitudes. The results show that 52.35% of the children had decay; higher levels of severe decay were observed among lower E-F socioeconomic classes. Higher socioeconomic status and low externality appear to be protective factors. Low parental internality emerged as a risk factor for decay in primary teeth, possibly because the mother expects or delegates the action to others, delaying care. Parental perceptions of control over a child's health seem to impact preventive care and, consequently, the level of tooth decay among children.

  5. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research.

  6. Histology of a Marfan aorta 4.5 years after personalized external aortic root support

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, John; Goddard, Martin; Mohiaddin, Raad; Treasure, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a 26-year old man had personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) with a macroporous mesh. He was the 16th of 46 patients to have this operation. He had a typical Marfan habitus. His mother died of this disease as did his brother, with an aortic dissection. The patient himself died suddenly 4.5 years after his PEARS operation. At autopsy, there was no blood in the pericardium. The coronary orifices and proximal arteries were normal. His bicuspid aortic valve was minimally regurgitant as it was prior to operation and remained throughout follow-up. Macroscopically the implanted mesh was embedded in the adventitia and not separable from the aortic wall. Microscopically it was fully incorporated with collagen fibres as has been seen in our animal studies. The unsupported aortic arch showed some focal fragmentation of elastic fibres and a mild increase in mucopolysaccharides consistent with Marfan syndrome. These appearances were not present in the supported aortic root, which had the histological appearance of a normal aorta. He was the first patient to die with an implant. The histological appearances suggest the possibility that the incorporated support of the aortic root allowed recovery of the microstructure of the media. PMID:25406424

  7. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  8. Effect of three types of light-curing units on 5-year colour changes of light-cured composite.

    PubMed

    Tak, Onjen; Altintas, Subutay Han; Ozturk, Nilgun; Usumez, Aslihan

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine colour changes in a composite cured with tungsten-halogen, light-emitting diode (LED) or a plasma arc after 5 years. Five specimens 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height were prepared using Hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) composite for each test group. The corresponding specimens were cured with a tungsten-halogen curing light, a LED unit or with a plasma arc. Specimens were stored in light-proof boxes for 5 years after the curing procedure to avoid further exposure to light and stored in 37 degrees C in 100% humidity. Colorimetric values of the specimens immediately after curing and after 5 years were measured using colorimeter. The DeltaE*( ab ) values varied significantly depending on the curing unit used (p < 0.001). Curing time did not affect the colour changes of the specimens (p = 0.4). The results of this study suggest that composite materials undergo measurable changes due to the curing unit exposure.

  9. Etiology of Acute Otitis Media in Children Less Than 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Melissa K.; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Cohen, Robert; Madhi, Shabir A.; Rosenblüt, Andrés; Macias Parra, Mercedes; Al-Mazrou, Khalid; Grevers, Gerhard; Lopez, Pio; Naranjo, Laura; Pumarola, Felix; Sonsuwan, Nuntigar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear because of a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from 10 AOM etiology studies of similar design, the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for within-study correlations. Results: The majority, 55.5% (95% confidence interval: 47.0%–65.7%) of 1124 AOM episodes, were bacterial pathogen positive: 29.1% (24.8%–34.1%) yielded Hflu and 23.6% (19.0%–29.2%) Spn. Proportions of Hflu and Spn were higher and lower, respectively, in heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine–vaccinated children. Hflu and Spn were each isolated from 20% to 35% of children in every 1-year age range. Hflu was less likely to be isolated from first (vs. subsequent) episodes [relative risk (RR): 0.71 (0.60–0.84)]. Spn was more often isolated from sporadic (vs. recurrent) cases [RR: 0.76 (0.61–0.97)]; the opposite was true for Hflu [RR: 1.4 (1.00–1.96)]. Spn cases were more likely to present with severe (vs. mild) symptoms [RR: 1.42 (1.01–2.01)] and Hflu cases with severe tympanic membrane inflammation [RR: 1.35 (1.06–1.71)]. Conclusions: Spn and Hflu remain the leading otopathogens in all populations examined. While associated with overlapping symptoms and severity, they exhibit some differences in their likelihood to cause disease in specific subpopulations. PMID:27918383

  10. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Do, Sharon; Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  11. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Lunze, Fatima I; Lunze, Karsten; Tsorieva, Zemfira M; Esenov, Constantin T; Reutov, Alexandr; Eichhorn, Thomas; Offergeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53%) and for indications not related to violence (47%). None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism) who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include specialized

  12. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Fatima I.; Lunze, Karsten; Tsorieva, Zemfira M.; Esenov, Constantin T.; Reutov, Alexandr; Eichhorn, Thomas; Offergeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53%) and for indications not related to violence (47%). None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism) who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include specialized

  13. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  14. Continuous cytogenetic follow-up, over 5 years, of three individuals accidentally irradiated by a cobalt-60 source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Dong; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Du, Jie; Lu, Xue; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Rong; Liu, Qing-Jie; Chen, Ying

    2015-02-01

    A cobalt-60 irradiation accident occurred in Shanxi, China, on April 11, 2008. Five people were exposed to total-body irradiation ranging from 1.7 to 14.5 Gy. Two victims died post-irradiation, due to acute intestinal radiation sickness (at 62 days) and tuberculosis (at 1.5 year). The other three victims received medical follow-ups and were monitored for 5 years with multiple cytogenetic analyses. Unstable chromosome aberrations, including dicentric and centric rings (dic+r) and the micronucleus frequency in binucleated lymphocytes, were monitored. In addition, G-banding karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used to analyze translocations, for exploring chromosome stability and for retrospective dosimetry. The results show that unstable chromosome aberrations (dic+r) declined each year, dropping to about 20-40% of initial levels by the 5th year. A similar trend was observed for the micronucleus frequency. Our results show that the translocation frequencies of the three victims, detected by G-banding karyotype, remained stable for the 5 years. Five years after irradiation, the translocation rates of the three victims (G-banding and FISH analyses) were similar. The retrospective estimated doses, reconstructed based on the translocation frequencies, were consistent with the biological doses estimated at the first day post-irradiation using dic+r. The results of this study indicate that chromosome translocation frequencies can be used as a biological dosimeter and are an excellent index for dose reconstruction.

  15. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  16. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  17. Trauma Revisited: A 5-Year-Old's Journey from Experiences, to Thoughts, to Words, towards Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I describe the first 2 years of intensive psychotherapy of a multiply traumatized 5-year-old girl. I explore some of the ways in which violent and traumatic experiences were re-lived in the therapy and how they impacted on both patient and therapist. Within the discussion and illustrated by clinical vignettes, I consider the…

  18. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  19. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  20. 75 FR 57254 - American Community Survey 5-Year Data Product Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...' specific feedback on the following four dimensions: 1. Block Group Level Geography--The Census Bureau... block group geography level, (2) the types of data products to be included in the 5-year data products... response is below. 1. Block Group Level Geography The Census Bureau received six comments in response...

  1. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  2. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  3. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  4. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  5. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  6. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  7. Plastic bronchitis developing 5 years after Fontan procedure in a girl with Kartagener's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nawa, Tomohiro; Yokozawa, Masato; Takamuro, Motoki; Kasuga, Ai

    2012-06-01

    Although rare, plastic bronchitis (PB) is an important early complication after Fontan procedure. Kartagener's syndrome is characterized by mucociliary dysfunction of the respiratory tract and has a triad of features, including situs inversus totalis, chronic sinusitis, and bronchiectasia. We experienced PB in a patient with Kartagener's syndrome 5 years after Fontan procedure.

  8. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  9. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  10. Guidelines for Health Assessment and Intervention Techniques for 3, 4, and 5 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Judy K.

    These guidelines were developed to help registered nurses identify preschoolers with potential handicaps in the course of health assessments. Contents include guidelines on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Contents are organized within age levels in terms of functioning levels and anticipatory guidance. Functional areas covered include physical,…

  11. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  12. Emotional anticipation after delivery - a longitudinal neuroimaging study of the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Gingnell, Malin; Toffoletto, Simone; Wikström, Johan; Engman, Jonas; Bannbers, Elin; Comasco, Erika; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2017-12-01

    Neuroimaging research has begun to unveil the mechanisms behind emotion processing during the postpartum period, which, in turn, may be of relevance for the development of postpartum depression. The present study sought to longitudinally investigate the neural correlates of emotion anticipation during the postpartum period in healthy women. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in the brain in response to anticipation of negative emotional stimuli and during processing of images with positive or negative valence. The participating women were scanned twice: the first scan occurred during the first 48 hours after delivery, and the second was performed 4-6 weeks after delivery. The early postpartum period was characterized by higher anterior cingulate cortex reactivity during anticipation of negative emotional stimuli than the late postpartum period. This was accompanied by a negative relationship with insular reactivity during the early postpartum period and a trend towards an increase in insular reactivity in the late postpartum period. Thus, during the first four weeks of the postpartum period, a diminished top-down regulatory feedback on emotion-related areas of the brain was noted. This finding suggests a physiologically important adaptation during the healthy postpartum period.

  13. Ertapenem: the new carbapenem 5 years after first FDA licensing for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Olaf; Derendorf, Hartmut; Welte, Tobias

    2007-02-01

    Ertapenem, a parenteral broad-spectrum 1-beta-methyl-carbapenem, was licensed 5 years ago for clinical practice in the US and Europe. The substance has a good in vitro activity against many common aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Its in vitro activity against Enterobacteriaceae carrying plasmid- or chromosomal-mediated beta-lactamases, including AmpC- and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, is especially clinically significant. Advantages concerning in vitro activity and low potential for so-called 'collateral damage', and development of own resistance during therapy, as shown in several randomized, controlled clinical trials, make ertapenem an excellent treatment choice for complicated aerobic and anaerobic mix infections caused by ertapenem-sensitive bacteria. On the other hand, due to its limited activity against Acinetobacter spp., enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it is less suitable for late-onset nosocomial infections. International guidelines recommend the initial empirical use of ertapenem for intra-abdominal infections, skin and skin-structure infections, acute pelvic infections, complicated urinary tract infections and pneumonia (both community-acquired and 'early-onset' nosocomial) in a dose of 1.0 g administered once daily. However, recent results from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling studies in critically ill patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia and adipose volunteers with a body mass index of > or = 20 kg/m(2) showed that the standard dose of 1.0 g/day may not provide adequate free, protein-unbound drug concentrations in plasma and organ tissues. Therefore, a shortening of the dosage interval or continuous infusion of ertapenem should be considered to ensure optimal free concentrations in these particular populations.

  14. Genital prolapse: A 5-year review at Federal Medical Centre Umuahia, Southeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oraekwe, Obinna Izuchukwu; Udensi, Maduabuchi Amagh; Nwachukwu, Kelechi Chiemela; Okali, Uka Kalu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Genital prolapse is an important cause of morbidity among postmenopausal and multiparous women especially in our environment where a high premium is placed on large family size. This study was done to determine the prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and management options of genital prolapse. Patients and Methods: Data of those diagnosed with genital prolapse were retrieved from records in the clinic, wards, theater, and from patients' folders in the medical records department. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 with P < 0.05. Results: Genital prolapse accounted for 0.8% of gynecological clinic attendances and 5.2% of major gynecological operations. The mean age of patients was 56.7 ± 15.5 years. Farmers constituted 60.7% of the patients while 72.1% and 70.5% were postmenopausal and grandmultiparous women, respectively. The sensation of something coming down the vagina was the most common symptom noted in 98.4% of the patients. Most (23.0%) of the patients had unsupervised delivery at home. Uterovaginal prolapse was the most common (70.5%) type of genital prolapse, and third-degree uterovaginal prolapse was its most frequent presentation. Majority of the patients (44.4%) were managed expectantly while the most common surgery performed was vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic floor repair (33.3%). Conclusion: Widespread availability of antenatal services especially in the rural communities and limitation on family size can significantly reduce the burden of this disease. PMID:27833248

  15. Deferiprone versus deferoxamine in thalassemia intermedia: Results from a 5-year long-term Italian multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Calvaruso, Giuseppina; Vitrano, Angela; Di Maggio, Rosario; Lai, Eliana; Colletta, Grazia; Quota, Alessandra; Gerardi, Calogera; Rigoli, Luciana Concetta; Sacco, Massimiliano; Pitrolo, Lorella; Maggio, Aurelio

    2015-07-01

    In patients with thalassemia intermedia (TI), such as beta-TI, alpha-thalassemia (mainly HbH disease and mild/moderate forms of HbE/beta-thalassemia), iron overload is an important challenge in terms of diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment. Moreover, to date, the only possible chelators available are deferoxamine, deferasirox, and deferiprone. Here, we report the first 5-year long-term randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of deferiprone versus deferoxamine in patients with TI. Body iron burden, which was determined by measuring serum ferritin levels in the same patient over 5 years and analyzed according to the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), showed a linear decrease over time in the mean serum ferritin levels in both treatment groups (P-value = 0.035). The overall period of observation was 235.2 person-years for the deferiprone patients compared with 214.3 person-years for the deferoxamine patients. The results of the log-rank test suggested that the deferiprone treatment did not affect survival compared with the deferoxamine treatment (P-value = 0.360). The major adverse events observed included gastrointestinal symptoms and joint pain or arthralgia. Neutropenia and agranulocytosis were also detected, suggesting needing of strict hematological control. In conclusion, long-term iron chelation therapy with deferiprone is associated with an efficacy and safety similar to that of deferoxamine, suggesting that this drug is an alternative option in cases in which deferoxamine and deferasirox are contraindicated.

  16. Tectonic setting and metallogenesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bonnifield Mining District, Northern Alaska Range: Chapter B in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Premo, Wayne R.; Paradis, Suzanne; Lohr-Schmidt, Ilana; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of field and laboratory investigations, including whole-rock geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes, of outcrop and drill core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and associated metaigneous rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). U-Pb zircon igneous crystallization ages from felsic rocks indicate a prolonged period of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian (373±3 to 357±4 million years before present, or Ma) magmatism. This magmatism occurred in a basinal setting along the ancient Pacific margin of North America. The siliceous and carbonaceous compositions of metasedimentary rocks, Precambrian model ages based on U-Pb dating of zircon and neodymium ages, and for some units, radiogenic neodymium isotopic compositions and whole-rock trace-element ratios similar to those of continental crust are evidence for this setting. Red Mountain (also known as Dry Creek) and WTF, two of the largest VMS deposits, are hosted in peralkaline metarhyolite of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. The Mystic Creek Member is distinctive in having high concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare-earth elements (REE), indicative of formation in a within-plate (extensional) setting. Mystic Creek metarhyolite is associated with alkalic, within-plate basalt of the Chute Creek Member; neodymium isotopic data indicate an enriched mantle component for both members of this bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) suite. Anderson Mountain, the other significant VMS deposit, is hosted by the Wood River assemblage. Metaigneous rocks in the Wood River assemblage span a wide compositional range, including andesitic rocks, which are characteristic of arc volcanism. Our data suggest that the Mystic Creek Member likely formed in an extensional, back-arc basin that was associated with an outboard continental-margin volcanic arc that included

  17. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Galiani, Sebastian; Ram, Pavani K; Hubbard, Alan E; Briceño, Bertha; Gertler, Paul J; Colford, John M

    2013-02-15

    Many community-based studies of acute child illness rely on cases reported by caregivers. In prior investigations, researchers noted a reporting bias when longer illness recall periods were used. The use of recall periods longer than 2-3 days has been discouraged to minimize this reporting bias. In the present study, we sought to determine the optimal recall period for illness measurement when accounting for both bias and variance. Using data from 12,191 children less than 24 months of age collected in 2008-2009 from Himachal Pradesh in India, Madhya Pradesh in India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal, we calculated bias, variance, and mean squared error for estimates of the prevalence ratio between groups defined by anemia, stunting, and underweight status to identify optimal recall periods for caregiver-reported diarrhea, cough, and fever. There was little bias in the prevalence ratio when a 7-day recall period was used (<10% in 35 of 45 scenarios), and the mean squared error was usually minimized with recall periods of 6 or more days. Shortening the recall period from 7 days to 2 days required sample-size increases of 52%-92% for diarrhea, 47%-61% for cough, and 102%-206% for fever. In contrast to the current practice of using 2-day recall periods, this work suggests that studies should measure caregiver-reported illness with a 7-day recall period.

  18. Hymenolepis diminuta: experimental studies on the antioxidant system with short and long term infection periods in the rats.

    PubMed

    Skrzycki, Michał; Majewska, Monika; Podsiad, Małgorzata; Czeczot, Hanna; Salamatin, Rusłan; Twarowska, Joanna; Grytner-Zięcina, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Many helminths cause long-lasting infections, living for several years in mammalian hosts reflecting a well balanced coexistence between host and parasite. There are many possible explanations as to how they can survive for lengthy periods. One possibility is their antioxidant systems, which can serve as defence mechanisms against host-generated oxygen radicals. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to examine the antioxidant system in Hymenolepisdiminuta during short (1.5 months young tapeworms) and long (1.5 years old tapeworms) term infection in the rat small intestine. The strobilae of H. diminuta tapeworms (14 young and three old) were divided into three pieces: the anterior part, containing the genital primordiae in the immature segments; the medial part, containing the early uterus in the mature, hermaphroditic proglottids and the terminal part with the mature gravid uterus in the gravid segments. Supernatants of these fragments were used for determination of markers of oxidative stress: concentration of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) and of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GSHPxs), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GSHR). The results indicated changes in levels of oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzyme activity in both the young and old forms of H. diminuta. Relatively high activity of SOD (particularly in the anterior part of young tapeworms) was observed, as was increased activity of total GSHPx and a relatively high concentration of GSH in all parts of the tapeworms. These are caused by exposure to increased amount of ROS, which are produced during the inflammatory state. Due to the high activity of antioxidant enzymes, the anterior section of young and old tapeworms is equipped with a very effective antioxidant system. Old organisms also effectively resist oxidative stress due to

  19. Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, P. Scott; Martin, Stacey W.; Dusek, Cristina; Cathey, Erika; D’Alessio, Rebecca; Kirsch, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    In September 2013, local county health officials in Tallahassee, Florida, USA, were notified of a laboratory-confirmed pertussis case in a 1-year-old preschool attendee. During a 5-month period, 26 (22%) students 1–5 years of age, 2 staff from the same preschool, and 11 family members met the national case definition for pertussis. Four persons during this outbreak were hospitalized for clinical management of pertussis symptoms. Only 5 students, including 2 students with pertussis, had not received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis. Attack rates in 1 classroom for all students who received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis approached 50%. This outbreak raises concerns about vaccine effectiveness in this preschool age group and reinforces the idea that recent pertussis vaccination should not dissuade physicians from diagnosing, testing, or treating persons with compatible illness for pertussis. PMID:26814429

  20. 3.0-T functional brain imaging: a 5-year experience.

    PubMed

    Scarabino, T; Giannatempo, G M; Popolizio, T; Tosetti, M; d'Alesio, V; Esposito, F; Di Salle, F; Di Costanzo, A; Bertolino, A; Maggialetti, A; Salvolini, U

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the technical, methodological and diagnostic features of functional imaging (comprising spectroscopy, diffusion, perfusion and cortical activation techniques) and its principal neuroradiological applications on the basis of the experience gained by the authors in the 5 years since the installation of a high-field magnetic resonance (MR) magnet. These MR techniques are particularly effective at 3.0 Tesla (T) owing to their high signal, resolution and sensitivity, reduced scanning times and overall improved diagnostic ability. In particular, the high-field strength enhances spectroscopic analysis due to a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and improved spectral, space and time resolution, resulting in the ability to obtain high-resolution spectroscopic studies not only of the more common metabolites, but also--and especially--of those which, due to their smaller concentrations, are difficult to detect using 1.5-T sy