Science.gov

Sample records for 5-year status reviews

  1. 78 FR 24767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Announcement of Active 5-Year Status Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... for this DPS of the northern sea otter was published on August 9, 2005 (70 FR 46366). A draft recovery... Status Review of the Southwest Alaska Distinct Population Segment of the Northern Sea Otter AGENCY: Fish...) of ] the northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni). A 5-year status review is based on the...

  2. 75 FR 18233 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10 Southeastern Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... review of three species that are currently listed as threatened: Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus... Office (phone 601/321-1127, e-mail daniel_drennen@fws.gov ). For the gopher tortoise, contact...

  3. 76 FR 22139 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Three Species in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... requesting public comment for a 60-day comment period (75 FR 71726). Due to a typographical error in the... reviews for the Oregon silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene hippolyta), northern spotted owl (Strix... of these species (Oregon silverspot butterfly, northern spotted owl, and Stephanomeria...

  4. Microbiological monitoring of endoscopes: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth E; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2008-07-01

    Periodic microbiological monitoring of endoscopes is a recommendation of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GENSA). The aim of monitoring has been to provide quality assurance of the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes; however, there is controversy regarding its frequency. This lack of consensus stimulated a review of the experience within our health service. At Southern Health, routine microbiological sampling has involved 4-weekly monitoring of bronchoscopes, duodenoscopes and automated flexible endoscope reprocessors (AFER), and 3-monthly monitoring of all other gastrointestinal endoscopes. Records of testing were reviewed from 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2006. A literature review was conducted, cost analysis performed and positive cultures investigated. There were 2374 screening tests performed during the 5-year period, including 287 AFER, 631 bronchoscopes for mycobacteria and 1456 endoscope bacterial screens. There were no positive results of the AFER or bronchoscopes for mycobacteria. Of the 1456 endoscopic bacterial samples, six were positive; however, retesting resulted in no growth. The overall cost of tests performed and cost in time for nursing staff to collect the samples was estimated at $AUD 100,400. Periodic monitoring of endoscopes is both time-consuming and costly. Our review demonstrates that AFER (Soluscope) perform well in cleaning endoscopes. Based on our 5-year experience, assurance of quality for endoscopic use could be achieved through process control as opposed to product control. Maintenance of endoscopes and AFER should be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and microbiological testing performed on commissioning, annually and following repair. Initial prompt manual leak testing and manual cleaning followed by mechanical leak testing, cleaning and disinfection should be the minimum standard in reprocessing of endoscopes. PMID:18086113

  5. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... update, if necessary, the Northern DPS' status in five years time (70 FR 17386; April 6, 2005). Therefore...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green...

  6. The current status of community-acquired pneumonia management and prevention in children under 5 years of age in India: a review

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Awasthi, Shally

    2016-01-01

    India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia. Fast breathing with or without chest in-drawing is categorized as pneumonia and fast breathing with any of danger signs as severe pneumonia. Because effective vaccines against two of the common organisms causing community-acquired pneumonia, namely Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, are available, there should be urgent and phased introduction into the Indian Universal Immunization Programme. Several preventable risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia such as lack of exclusive breast feeding for first 6 months of life, inappropriate complimentary feeding, iron deficiency anemia, malnutrition, and indoor air pollution should be adequately addressed. The community should be aware about the signs and symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia and its danger signs so that delay in qualified care seeking can be avoided. To achieve the sustainable development goal of ⩽25 under five deaths per 1000 live births by 2030, a multipronged approach is the need of the hour. PMID:27536353

  7. The current status of community-acquired pneumonia management and prevention in children under 5 years of age in India: a review.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Awasthi, Shally

    2016-06-01

    India has the highest number of global deaths of children under 5 years of age. In the year 2015, it was reported that there were 5.9 million deaths of children under 5 years of age globally, of which 1.2 million (20%) occurred in India alone. Currently, India has an under 5 mortality rate of 48 per 1000 live births. Community-acquired pneumonia contributes to about one sixth of this mortality. Fast breathing is the key symptom of community-acquired pneumonia. The World Health Organization recently categorized community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age into two, pneumonia, and severe pneumonia. Fast breathing with or without chest in-drawing is categorized as pneumonia and fast breathing with any of danger signs as severe pneumonia. Because effective vaccines against two of the common organisms causing community-acquired pneumonia, namely Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, are available, there should be urgent and phased introduction into the Indian Universal Immunization Programme. Several preventable risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia such as lack of exclusive breast feeding for first 6 months of life, inappropriate complimentary feeding, iron deficiency anemia, malnutrition, and indoor air pollution should be adequately addressed. The community should be aware about the signs and symptoms of community-acquired pneumonia and its danger signs so that delay in qualified care seeking can be avoided. To achieve the sustainable development goal of ⩽25 under five deaths per 1000 live births by 2030, a multipronged approach is the need of the hour. PMID:27536353

  8. Maternal anxiety: a 5-year review of an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B; Schaafsma, M F; Guzman, A M; Parker, G B

    1991-03-01

    Primiparous women were divided into groups according to their post-partum trait anxiety scores. Professional or non-professional support for the first 12 months was offered to two subgroups of high trait anxiety subjects. At the 5-year follow-up the high-anxiety mothers (n = 57) manifested more psychological and social pathology than moderate- and low-anxiety mothers (n = 43), and their children also showed signs of poorer adaptation. There was evidence of improved outcome for mothers in the professional intervention group, but not for their children. Child psychopathology was predicted best by maternal psychosocial variables, and to a lesser extent by child temperament variables. The relation of infant attachment and temperament measures to subsequent psychopathology is discussed.

  9. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-05-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

  10. 75 FR 42684 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of a 5-year Review of the Baiji/Chinese River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... of a 5-year Review of the Baiji/Chinese River Dolphin/Yangtze River Dolphin AGENCY: National Marine... submit comments, identified by , by either of the following methods: Mail: Angela Somma, National Marine... recent status review. Categories of requested information include the following: (A) species...

  11. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  12. 76 FR 50447 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 5 Evolutionarily Significant Units of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ..., Oregon, Washington, and Idaho (75 FR 13082). Both ESUs and DPSs are treated as ``species'' under the ESA... FR 37204). The 5-year review reports prepared by the Southwest Region, the Southwest Science Center's... since they were previously reviewed in 2005 (70 FR 37160) and 2006 (71 FR 834), respectively....

  13. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... limited to, population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics; (2) habitat conditions...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Comment'' icon on the right of that line. Mail or hand-delivery: Angela Somma, National Marine...

  14. 76 FR 50448 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 17 Evolutionarily Significant Units and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Regional Offices announced initiation of 5-year reviews of Pacific salmon ESUs and steelhead DPSs (75 FR...-promulgating the threatened listing for Oregon Coast coho salmon (76 FR 35755). This notice also addresses the... Salmon and Steelhead in Listing Determinations under the ESA (70 FR 37204) to complete this...

  15. Dopaminergic therapy and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of 5-year reports.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD) is described in several recent papers. This procedure has been reported to permit a stable reduction of dopaminergic therapy requirements for up to 5 years, although some expectation of deterioration in non-dopaminergic signs has been recently stated. Our aim is to perform a literature-based review of papers available describing long-term post-operative follow-up after a bilateral implant for subthalamic DBS (STN-DBS). Only peer-reviewed published papers with a post-operative follow-up of at least 5 years were considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 2 (or 3 years) and 5 years after surgery. Seven papers were included in the review. A total of 238 patients were analyzed. STN-DBS was confirmed to be an effective treatment for selected patients with PD. In all studies, off-related motor symptoms improved dramatically, compared with pre-implant, at 2 (or 3, according to the study) years and this result persisted at 5-year evaluations. Antiparkinsonian drug reductions, improvements in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and the progression of underlying PD were also reported in all series. Some axial scores, in particular postural stability and speech, improved transiently. Persisting adverse effects included eyelid opening apraxia, weight gain, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysarthria, dyskinesias, and apathy. The present review of the 5-year observations confirms that STN-DBS is a powerful method in the management of PD, but its long-term effects must be thoroughly assessed.

  16. 75 FR 38979 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... for the eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller sea lion (75 FR 37385). NMFS inadvertently... of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller Sea Lion AGENCY... of a 5-year review of the eastern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the Steller Sea...

  17. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  18. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  19. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes. PMID:27545977

  20. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  1. Iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bougma, Karim; Aboud, Frances E; Harding, Kimberly B; Marquis, Grace S

    2013-04-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980-November 2011) was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1) randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2) non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3) prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women's iodine status; (4) prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies), 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies), 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers' iodine status), and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants' iodine status). This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt. PMID:23609774

  2. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bougma, Karim; Aboud, Frances E.; Harding, Kimberly B.; Marquis, Grace S.

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011) was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1) randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2) non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3) prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4) prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies), 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies), 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status), and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status). This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt. PMID:23609774

  3. Review of the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R D; Marryatt, G; Henderson, R F

    1988-09-01

    Symptoms in patients with hiatal hernia often respond to treatment consisting of diet and medication. Operative procedures, designed to control gastroesophageal reflux and avoid surgically induced problems, are reserved for those with intractable symptoms. When these operative procedures fail, reoperation may be necessary. The reoperative procedure is often technically complex because of esophageal and gastric scar fixation. The authors reviewed the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia in 168 patients followed up to 5 years or more; 43 of them had undergone gastric surgery previously.Radiologically, 97% patients studied (142 of 146) had no evidence of anatomic recurrence or reflux post operatively. Manometric studies postoperatively in 114 patients showed that the mean tone of the high pressure zone was within the normal range and lower esophageal disordered motor activity was decreased by 34.5% from the preoperative level. Symptoms of recurrent hiatal hernia were abolished by operation in 88% of the patients; only 4.8% had serious or recurrent symptoms.

  4. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  5. WHO global rotavirus surveillance network: a strategic review of the first 5 years, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Agócs, Mary M; Serhan, Fatima; Yen, Catherine; Mwenda, Jason M; de Oliveira, Lúcia H; Teleb, Nadia; Wasley, Annemarie; Wijesinghe, Pushpa R; Fox, Kimberley; Tate, Jacqueline E; Gentsch, Jon R; Parashar, Umesh D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-07-25

    Since 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) has coordinated the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network, a network of sentinel surveillance hospitals and laboratories that report to ministries of health (MoHs) and WHO clinical features and rotavirus testing data for children aged <5 years hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. In 2013, WHO conducted a strategic review to assess surveillance network performance, provide recommendations for strengthening the network, and assess the network's utility as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. The strategic review team determined that during 2011 and 2012, a total of 79 sites in 37 countries met reporting and testing inclusion criteria for data analysis. Of the 37 countries with sites meeting inclusion criteria, 13 (35%) had introduced rotavirus vaccine nationwide. All 79 sites included in the analysis were meeting 2008 network objectives of documenting presence of disease and describing disease epidemiology, and all countries were using the rotavirus surveillance data for vaccine introduction decisions, disease burden estimates, and advocacy; countries were in the process of assessing the use of this surveillance platform for other vaccine-preventable diseases. However, the review also indicated that the network would benefit from enhanced management, standardized data formats, linkage of clinical data with laboratory data, and additional resources to support network functions. In November 2013, WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) endorsed the findings and recommendations made by the review team and noted potential opportunities for using the network as a platform for other vaccine-preventable disease surveillance. WHO will work to implement the recommendations to improve the network's functions and to provide higher quality surveillance data for use in decisions related to vaccine introduction and vaccination program sustainability.

  6. Intraoperative assessment of ovarian tumors: a 5-year review with assessment of discrepant diagnostic cases.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; Brennan, Barbara A; Hammond, Ian G; Leung, Yee C; McCartney, Anthony J

    2006-07-01

    Frozen section is often requested in the intraoperative assessment of patients, presenting with ovarian masses, to provide guidance for appropriate surgical management. To assess the accuracy of frozen section and identify causes of diagnostic error, we reviewed 914 consecutive ovarian frozen sections performed over a 5-year period in 2 laboratories; one of which provides a general surgical pathology service and, the other, a specialist gynecologic pathology service. Cases, in which there were significant diagnostic discrepancies between the intraoperative and the final histological diagnoses, were reviewed. The series included 552 benign lesions (60.4%), 96 borderline (atypical proliferating) epithelial tumors (10.5%), and 266 malignancies (29.1%). The overall accuracy of frozen section diagnosis was 95.3%. There were 43 cases with diagnostic discrepancy; 20 (3.8% cases) of which were reported in the specialist laboratory and 23 (5.9% cases) in the general laboratory. Underdiagnosis of tumor type accounted for 32 of 43 discrepant cases and was most frequent in borderline mucinous tumors. The most common cause of overdiagnosis was the misinterpretation of serous cystadenofibroma as borderline serous tumor. Slide review of the 41 assessable cases indicated that sampling error, pathologist misinterpretation, and suboptimal slide preparations contributed to misdiagnoses in 17, 23, and 9 tumors, respectively (in 9 cases, 2 factors were contributory), whereas no specific error was identified in the remaining case. Technical factors and pathologist misinterpretation were more common in the general pathology laboratory. This study confirms that ovarian frozen section is a generally reliable technique, but there are problematic areas, particularly involving the assessment of borderline tumors.

  7. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  8. 75 FR 53272 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... requesting information related to that review (75 FR 37385). A notice correcting the email address and fax number to which comments and information should be sent was published July 7, 2010 (75 FR 38979). Written... of 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller Sea Lion AGENCY:...

  9. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Nine Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ..., 1990 (55 heterodon. MA, NH, NJ, NY, FR 9447). NC, PA, VT, VA). PLANTS Swamp pink Helonias bullata... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5- Year Reviews of Nine Species: Purple Bean, Clubshell, Roanoke Logperch, Swamp Pink, Northern Riffleshell,...

  10. 75 FR 37385 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ..., population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics; (B) habitat conditions, including... the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate in Population Segments (61 FR 4722). For a population to be... of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller Sea Lion...

  11. 75 FR 17377 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... in November 2006 (71 FR 69054) and includes 2,560 square miles (6,630 sq km) of marine habitat in... of 5-Year Review for Southern Resident Killer Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Southern Resident killer whale distinct population segment (DPS) currently listed as endangered (70...

  12. Gallstone disease in a teaching hospital, Addis Ababa: a 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Ersumo, Tessema

    2006-01-01

    There are not many studies of gallbladder disease in Africa. The disease appears to be not uncommon in Ethiopia. To determine the prevalence and evaluate the management of gallstone disease in a central teaching hospital, a 5-year retrospective study was undertaken in 747 patients surgically treated for gallbladder disease in the period 1995-99 in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa. The sex ratio (M:F) was 1:5, narrower ratio in complicated cholelithiasis. The mean age was 42 years. About 80% of patients were in the age group between 30 and 60 years. The median duration of symptoms at admission was 2 years. Abdominal pain, in 96% of cases situated in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) and usually aching type, was the most frequent presenting symptom; RUQ tenderness was the most common sign. Clinically, 29.4% of patients were categorized obese. Gallstone detection rate by ultrasound was about 96% but cholecystitis appeared to be overlooked. At operation, about 77% of cases had features of chronic cholecystitis, 2% acalculous cholecystitis. Majority of the stones were grossly cholesterol stones. Cholecystectomy was performed in 99% of cases, most often through the oblique subcostal and transverse routes. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 0.4%. Nearly 87% of cases had postoperative course without incident. The etiologic factors and the type of gallstones, we believe, are not different from that of the developed world. Cholecystectomy is a safe and most effective procedure that provides ultimate cure for symptomatic gallstone disease. PMID:17447363

  13. A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Fungal Keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Mohd-Tahir, Fadzillah; Norhayati, A.; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Ibrahim, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Corneal blindness from healed infected keratitis is one of the most preventable causes of monocular blindness in developing countries, including Malaysia. Our objectives were to identify the causative fungi, predisposing risk factors, the proportion of correct clinical diagnosis, and visual outcome of patients treated in our hospital. Methods. A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was conducted for all patients who were treated for fungal keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2007 until December 2011. Results. Forty-seven patients (47/186, 25.27%) were treated for fungal keratitis during the study period. This demonstrated that the incidence of fungal keratitis has increased each year from 2007 to 2011 by 12.50%, 17.65%, 21.21%, 26.83%, and 28.57%, respectively. The most common predisposing factors were injury to the eye followed by use of topical steroid, and preexisting ocular surface disease. Fusarium species were the most common fungal isolated, followed by Candida species. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 26 of the 41 (63.41%) cases of positive isolates. Of these, in eleven cases (23.40%) patients required surgical intervention. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 34 (72.34%) cases. Conclusions. The percentage of positive fungal isolated has steadily increased and the trend of common fungal isolated has changed. The latest review regarding fungal keratitis is important for us to improve patients' outcome in the future. PMID:23304138

  14. Suicidal Drug Overdoses in New Mexico: A 5-year Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Linda J; Aurelius, Michelle B; Szymanski, Sarah A; Lathrop, Sarah L

    2016-05-01

    To better understand the changing toxicology trends in suicidal drug overdoses in the setting of an increased national trend of multidrug overdoses, a retrospective review of electronic records from New Mexico's Office of the Medical Investigator database was performed between 2008 and 2012 to assess the drug type and current risk factors in suicide deaths. Information on demographics, circumstances, suicide risk factors, toxicology findings, and death certificates was collected and analyzed. Three hundred and forty-two suicide cases of suicide overdoses were identified. Decedents were predominantly female (61.8%). Scene investigation revealed risk factors including suicide ideation (47.4%), previous suicide attempts (38%), and suicide note (38%). Psychiatric illness was present in 72% of cases, with depression being the most common illness. Chronic pain was seen in 27.2% of cases. Most deaths were attributed to multiple drugs (76%). Utilizing the toxicology information will assist in creating public awareness and provide a framework to support targeted efforts to attempt to prevent future suicides.

  15. The review of new evidence 5 years later: SAMHSA's National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP).

    PubMed

    Jobli, Edessa C; Gardner, Stephen E; Hodgson, Anna B; Essex, Alyson

    2015-02-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) decided that NREPP should offer a second review option for interventions that have already been reviewed and included in the registry for 5 years. Principals from 135 such interventions were invited to participate in a second review, and an exploratory study of the Principals' responses to this invitation was conducted. The study used a mixed-method approach, quantitatively describing characteristics of Principals and their interventions and qualitatively summarizing feedback from phone interviews with a convenience sample of Principals participating in a second review. Of the Principals invited, 21% accepted a second review, 24% were interested but unable or not ready to submit materials, and 56% did not accept or did not respond. Mental health treatment interventions were more likely to undergo a second review, and substance abuse treatment interventions were less likely. Similar percentages of interventions undergoing a second review had received funding from the National Institutes of Health (86%) and had been evaluated in a comparative effectiveness research study (79%). Overall ratings for interventions improved in each second review completed. The interviewed Principals perceived potentially lower ratings as the only risk in participating in a second review. PMID:25212689

  16. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  17. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in three hurricane-affected areas of Honduras.

    PubMed

    Barrios, R E; Stansbury, J P; Palencia, R; Medina, M T

    2000-12-01

    Hurricanes and other natural disasters can produce crop destruction, population displacement, infrastructure damage, and long-term public health consequences that include increased malnutrition among the affected populations. This paper presents the results of anthropometric measurements taken of 295 children under 5 years of age from three regions of Honduras that were affected by Hurricane Mitch, a major storm that struck Central America in the fall of 1998. The children in our study were sampled in three shelters in the capital city of Tegucigalpa; in the resettlement zone of Nueva Choluteca, Choluteca; and in the small urban area of Catacamas, Olancho. Our data indicated that, in comparison to the period before the hurricane, there was an elevated prevalence of wasting in all three of the study areas, and that there were also high levels of underweight in the Tegucigalpa and Nueva Choluteca study areas. There were statistically significant differences between the mean values of malnutrition indicators for Catacamas and those for the Tegucigalpa and Nueva Choluteca settlements. These differences suggest that resettled families were confronting a nutritional crisis in July and August of 1999, some 9 months after the hurricane struck.

  18. Prospective associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, maternal satisfaction, and parental and childhood body mass index at 6.5 years with later problematic eating attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R; Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G; Gillman, M; Oken, E; Martin, R M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observational cohort analysis nested within the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial, a cluster-randomised trial conducted in 31 maternity hospitals and affiliated polyclinics in Belarus. Our primary outcome was a Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) score ⩾22.5 (85th percentile), an indicator of problematic eating attitudes. We employed multivariable mixed logistic regression models, which allow inference at the individual level. We also performed instrumental variable (IV) analysis using parents' BMIs as instruments for the child's BMI, to assess whether associations could be explained by residual confounding or reverse causation. Subjects: Of the 17 046 infants enrolled between 1996 and 1997 across Belarus, 13 751 (80.7%) completed the ChEAT test at 11.5 years. Results: In fully adjusted models, overweight children at age 6.5 years had a 2.14-fold (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.52) increased odds of having ChEAT scores ⩾85th percentile at age 11.5 years, and those who were obese had a 3.89-fold (95% CI: 2.95, 5.14) increased odds compared with normal-weight children. Children of mothers or fathers who were themselves overweight or obese were more likely to score ⩾85th percentile (P for trend ⩽0.001). IV analysis was consistent with a child's BMI causally affecting future eating attitudes. There was little evidence that parental smoking, alcohol use, or marital status or maternal satisfaction were associated with eating attitudes. Conclusion: In our

  19. Review of 5 years of a combined dietary and physical fitness intervention for control of serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, C. M.; Levine, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A chart review covering the first 5 years of clinical experience with a combined dietary and exercise intervention program for the reduction of hypercholesterolemia at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration headquarters demonstrated the program's success in maintaining high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels while significantly lowering total serum cholesterol levels. This combined program also resulted in improved ratios of total serum cholesterol to HDL-C and lowered levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus further reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program was developed after it was determined that although dietary intervention alone improved total cholesterol levels, it often resulted in a more than proportionate decrease in HDL-C and a worsening of the ratio of cholesterol to HDL-C. An approach was needed that would positively affect all factors of the lipid profile. The findings from the program indicate that reduction of cardiovascular risk can be accomplished easily and effectively at the worksite through dietary intervention, personal monitoring, and a reasonable exercise program.

  20. 75 FR 17153 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Review of Roseate Tern

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ..., Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, and Virginia) (73 FR 76373). The purpose of... is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. C. Threatened...

  1. [Seasonal variations in the nutritional status of nomad and sedentary children less than 5 years of age living in the Sahel in Chad].

    PubMed

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Bonfoh, B; Seydi, M; Wade, S; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is widespread among rural and nomad populations in the Sahel. It is linked to socio-economic factors and exhibits significant seasonal variations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated risk factors among children less than 5 years of age. A repeated cross-sectional study design based on interviews and anthropometric measurements was used. A total of 653 nomad children and 579 sedentary children ranging in age from 0 to 59 months were randomly selected in households/camps on the south-eastern shore of Lake Chad. Data were collected from the same number of children at the end of the dry season (May/June, 2007) and at the end of rainy season (October 2007). Findings showed significant interseasonal variation in the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) between the end of the dry season and end of the rainy season. The respective variations were 17.9% to 13.7% (p = 0.03) in nomad children and 16.5% to 10.6% (p = 0.004) in sedentary children. Backward stepwise multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that GAM among children under 5 years of age was significantly correlated with the following risk factors: seasonal variation, child's age, mother's nutritional status, ethnic group, and place of residence (LRT=172 and p < 0.001 for the logistic regression model). These findings demonstrate the critical state of the nutritional situation in the Sahel and rural areas.

  2. [Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in indian villages of the Parakaña tribe in Brazil's eastern Amazonia].

    PubMed

    Martins, S J; Menezes, R C

    1994-02-01

    The evolution of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age living in two Indian settlements of the Parakanã tribe, Maroxewara and Paratininga, situated in the southeast of Pará State (Brazil), with less than 20 years of direct contact with our society, was studied. The main purpose of this study was to register the effects of the preventive and curative health activities of the "Parakanã Program" (created by an agreement between the National Indian Foundation- FUNAI and Northern Hydroelectric Project- ELETRONORTE), undertaken with the technical cooperation of the Tropical Medicine Center (Federal University of Pará). Anthropometric data were obtained in there cross-sectional studies (April 89; January 90 and October 91) for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition by means of Gomez's, Waterlow's and WHO criteria. The evolution of nutritional status was evaluated in the light of the rate of growth and accepting weight increments superior to those expected among well-nourished children as a goal. Seventy children (87.5% of all the 0-5 years-olds living there) were followed through throughout the studies. Prevalence of malnutrition was greater in Paranatinga than in Maroxewara, possibly because the former was more populous and had had longer inter-racial contact. Paranatinga's anthropometric indices (wt/age, ht/age and wt/ht) were the lower. Most of the severe forms of malnutrition were found there too. Children between six months and 2 years old were the most affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Extensive cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis in a 5 Year Old Girl, Following Mild Dehydration. (Case Report and Review of Literature)

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Akhondian, Javad; Beiraghi Toosi, Mehran; Hashemi, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) in children has rarely been reported in the literature, especially without underlying disorder. It has increasingly been diagnosed due to clinical awareness and sensitive neuroimaging techniques. The aim of this article was to report a case of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis without underlying disorder. We reported a 5 year old girl, presented with severe headache and seizure. She had a history of fever and diarrhea before the onset of headache. Neuroimaging showed evidence of CSVT on MRI and magnetic resonance venography. Investigations showed no inherited thrombophilia. The patient was treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) which continued by warfarin. This case illustrated severe complications of dehydration in pediatrics without any evidence of underlying disorders. PMID:24693409

  4. 77 FR 13251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of Nine Northeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ........... July 3, 1978; 43 virginianus. FR 28932. Virginia big-eared bat Corynorhinus Endangered........ U.S.A... darter, Virginia fringed mountain snail, Virginia big-eared bat, Hay's Spring amphipod, Lee County Cave...-year review assesses the best scientific and commercial data available at the time of the review....

  5. 76 FR 76386 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 4 Distinct Population Segments of Steelhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Pacific salmon ESUs and steelhead DPSs in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho (75 FR 13082). Both... Reviews for 4 Distinct Population Segments of Steelhead in California AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Viable Salmonid Population framework, which relies on evaluating four key population...

  6. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  7. Ultrasound evaluation of superficial lumps and bumps of the extremities in children: a 5-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Samir H; Callahan, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonography is commonly requested for evaluation of palpable soft-tissue masses of the extremities in children. Although malignancy is quite rare in these children, it remains a primary diagnostic concern. As a result, knowledge of the common and uncommon soft-tissue lesions as well as sonographic techniques for optimized evaluation are crucial for accurate assessment. This review describe the sonographic imaging appearance of the most commonly encountered superficial soft-tissue lesions at a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. Features of malignancy and findings warranting further evaluation such as lesion size, heterogeneity, vascularity and depth of involvement are also discussed.

  8. A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Avian Diseases Diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, N M; Gonzalez-Astudillo, V; Oesterle, P T; Howerth, E W

    2016-01-01

    Avian samples (n = 827) submitted to the University of Georgia from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed to determine common disease entities and taxa-specific patterns. The study included 153 species, with 64.5% Psittaciformes, 11.3% Passeriformes, 7.9% Galliformes, 3.8% Columbiformes and 3.5% Anseriformes. Infectious agents were identified in 226 birds (27.3%); bacterial infections (n = 119; 14.4%) were most commonly gram-negative bacilli and Chlamydia psittaci and less commonly Mycoplasma and Mycobacterium spp. Mycotic infections (e.g. Aspergillus spp., Candida spp.) were identified in 66 birds (7.9%), followed by viruses in 30 birds (3.6%), most commonly polyomavirus and poxviruses. Eighteen birds had macroparasite infections, which were most common in Galliformes and most often involved gastrointestinal Capillaria spp. Neoplasia was diagnosed in 76 birds (9.2%) of 25 species, with 79% of the tumours deemed to be malignant. The most common neoplasm was lymphoma (n = 17; 22.4%), which was diagnosed in Psittaciformes, Galliformes and Passeriformes. Adenocarcinoma (n = 9) was found most frequently in the reproductive and gastrointestinal tracts. Haematopoietic neoplasms included myelocytoma and erythroid leucosis. Atherosclerosis was most common in psittacines (23/32; 71.8%) and in raptors and aquatic birds. Seventeen birds, mostly psittacines and aquatic birds, had amyloidosis, most often in the liver, kidney and spleen. Twenty-two birds had gout, most commonly the visceral form. Overall, bacterial infection was the most frequently diagnosed cause of death in captive birds, most commonly in Psittaciformes, followed by Passeriformes and Galliformes. Neoplasia was most common in Psittaciformes, which generally are longer lived than other taxa studied. Some disease entities (e.g. atherosclerosis and aspergillosis) may be associated with captive conditions, and some may involve a genetic predisposition (e.g. atherosclerosis, amyloidosis and haemosiderosis). PMID

  9. Moving forward monitoring of the social determinants of health in a country: lessons from England 5 years after the Marmot Review

    PubMed Central

    Goldblatt, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Background England has a long history of government-commissioned reviews of national inequalities. The latest review, the Marmot Review, was commissioned by a government headed by the same party (the Labour Party) that had introduced the National Health Service in 1948, but the review was implemented by a coalition of different parties (Conservatives and Liberal Democrats). At the same time, a government reform of health services took place, and the monitoring of the existing inequality strategy was changed. Objectives This paper examines the lessons that can be learned about indicators for monitoring social determinants of health inequalities from the Marmot Review and recent health inequality strategies in England. Design The paper provides a narrative review of key findings on the collection, presentation, and analysis of routine data in England in the past 5 years, comparing what has been learned from the Marmot Review and other evaluations of the first health inequality strategy in England. Results The emphasis on monitoring has progressively shifted from monitoring a small number of targets and supporting information to frameworks that monitor across a wide range of determinants of both the causes of ill-health and of health service performance. As these frameworks become ever larger, some consideration is being given to the key indicators. Conclusions Although the frameworks used in England for monitoring health inequality strategies have developed considerably since the first strategy began, lessons continue to be learned about how monitoring could be improved. Many of these are applicable to countries initiating or reviewing their strategies. PMID:26928216

  10. Postoperative Complications, In-Hospital Mortality and 5-Year Survival After Surgical Resection for Patients with a Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jilesen, Anneke P J; van Eijck, Casper H J; in't Hof, K H; van Dieren, S; Gouma, Dirk J; van Dijkum, Els J M Nieveen

    2016-03-01

    Studies on postoperative complications and survival in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) are sparse and randomized controlled trials are not available. We reviewed all studies on postoperative complications and survival after resection of pNET. A systematic search was performed in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and EMBASE from 2000-2013. Inclusion criteria were studies of resected pNET, which described postoperative complications separately for each surgical procedure and/or 5-year survival after resection. Prospective and retrospective studies were pooled separately and overall pooled if heterogeneity was below 75%. The random-effect model was used. Overall, 2643 studies were identified and after full-text analysis 62 studies were included. Pancreatic fistula (PF) rate of the prospective studies after tumor enucleation was 45%; PF-rates after distal pancreatectomy, pancreatoduodenectomy, or central pancreatectomy were, respectively, 14-14-58%. Delayed gastric emptying rates were, respectively, 5-5-18-16%. Postoperative hemorrhage rates were, respectively, 6-1-7-4%. In-hospital mortality rates were, respectively, 3-4-6-4%. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) of resected pNET without synchronous resected liver metastases were, respectively, 85-93%. Heterogeneity between included studies on 5-year OS in patients with synchronous resected liver metastases was too high to pool all studies. The 5-year DSS in patients with liver metastases was 80%. Morbidity after pancreatic resection for pNET was mainly caused by PF. Liver resection in patients with liver metastases seems to have a positive effect on DSS. To reduce heterogeneity, ISGPS criteria and uniform patient groups should be used in the analysis of postoperative outcome and survival.

  11. 77 FR 70410 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of Status Review and 5-Year Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... under the Act (63 FR 26517); the July 10, 2008, final rule amending the listing determination for the Preble's (73 FR 39790); and our August 5, 2011, reinstatement of listing protections for the Preble's (76 FR 47490). On December 23, 2003, we received two nearly identical petitions, one from the State...

  12. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... Physical and motor skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

  13. Low birth weight, very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight in African children aged between 0 and 5 years old: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tchamo, M E; Prista, A; Leandro, C G

    2016-08-01

    Low birth weight (LBW<2500), very low birth weight (VLBW<1500), extremely low birth weight (ELBW<1500) infants are at high risk for growth failure that result in delayed development. Africa is a continent that presents high rates of children born with LBW, VLBW and ELBW particularly sub-Saharan Africa. To review the existing literature that explores the repercussions of LBW, VLBW and ELBW on growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality in African children aged 0-5 years old. A systematic review of peer-reviewed articles using Academic Search Complete in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Scholar Google. Quantitatives studies that investigated the association between LBW, VLBW, ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality, published between 2008 and 2015 were included. African studies with humans were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 2205 articles, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full version. Significant associations were found between LBW, VLBW and ELBW with growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Surviving VLBW and ELBW showed increased risk of death, growth retardation and delayed neurodevelopment. Post-neonatal interventions need to be carried out in order to minimize the short-term effects of VLBW and ELBW. PMID:27072315

  14. Determinants and Outcomes of Emergency Caesarean Section following Failed Instrumental Delivery: 5-Year Observational Review at a Tertiary Referral Centre in London

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, Sian; Chandraharan, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To review the determinants for a failed operative vaginal delivery and to examine associated fetal and maternal morbidity. Design. Retrospective observational study. Setting. Large London Teaching Hospital. Method. A retrospective review of case notes during a 5-year period was carried out. Results. Overall 119 women (0.44%) out of 26,856 births had a caesarean section following a failed instrumental delivery, which comprised 5.1% of all operative vaginal births. 73% had a spontaneous onset of labour and 63% required syntocinon at some time prior to delivery. 71.5% of deliveries were complicated by malposition. Only 20% of deliveries were attended by a consultant obstetrician. Almost 50% of women and 8.4% of neonates sustained trauma at the time of either their failed instrumental delivery or the caesarean section. Conclusions. Emergency caesarean section during the second stage of labour is associated with maternal and fetal complications. A ‘failed instrumental delivery score' (FIDS) may aid practitioners in predicting an increased likelihood of a failed operative vaginal birth and therefore to consider a trial of operative vaginal delivery in the theatre. Senior input should also be sought because a failed operative vaginal birth is associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidity. PMID:26078882

  15. 77 FR 13248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 46 Species in Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... listing rule Animals Akepa, Maui Loxops coccineus Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/ ochraceus. 1970. Creeper, Molokai Paroreomyza Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/ flammea. 1970. Crow, Mariana (=aga) Corvus kubaryi.... Endangered........ Western Pacific 49 FR 33885;...

  16. 75 FR 17947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 69 Species in Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ..., Drosophila aglaia...... E U.S.A. (HI) 71 FR 26835; 5/9/2006. Pomace fly, Drosophila differens... E U.S.A. (HI) 71 FR 26835; 5/9/2006. Pomace fly, Drosophila hemipeza.... E U.S.A. (HI) 71 FR 26835; 5/9/2006. Pomace fly, Drosophila heteroneura. E U.S.A. (HI) 71 FR 26835; 5/9/2006. Pomace fly,...

  17. 78 FR 8185 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of 44 Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    .... Pendant kihi fern Adenophorus Endangered U.S.A (HI)....... 59 FR 56333; 11/ periens. 10/1994. Mauna Loa..., nightingale reed...... Acrocephalus Endangered Western Pacific 35 FR 8491; 06/02/ luscinia. Ocean--U.S.A 1970. (Guam, Alamagan, Saipan). Swiftlet, Mariana gray (=Guam Aerodramus Endangered Western Pacific 49...

  18. 77 FR 38762 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... publication date and citation Animals Warbler (wood), Kirtland's...... Dendroica Endangered........ U.S.A. March 11, 1967 (32 kirtlandii. (principally MI), FR 4001). Canada, West Indies--Bahama Islands. Darter, Niangua Etheostoma Threatened........ U.S.A. (MO)....... June 12, 1985 (50 nianguae. FR 24649)....

  19. 78 FR 8576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Ocelot and Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Endangered........ U.S.A. (AZ, TX) to 47 FR 31670 July Mitch Sternberg, South Texas Central and South 21... Spotted Strix Threatened........ U.S.A. (AZ, CO, 58 FR 14248 March Field Supervisor, 602- U.S. Fish and... Ocelot and Mexican Spotted Owl in the Southwest Region AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  20. 76 FR 44564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... April 28, 1976 Southeastern (41 FR 17736). U.S.A. Bat, Indiana Myotis sodalis... Endangered Eastern and March 11, 1967 Midwestern U.S.A. (32 FR 4001). Snake, copperbelly water....... Nerodia Threatened IN north of January 29, 1997 erythrogaster 40 N. Lat., (62 FR 4183). neglecta. MI, OH. Mussel,...

  1. 75 FR 71726 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 58 Species in Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... listing rule ANIMALS Butterfly, Oregon silverspot Speyeria zerene Threatened U.S.A. (CA, OR, 45 FR 44935; 7/2/1980. hippolyta. WA). Creeper, Oahu Paroreomyza Endangered U.S.A. (HI).... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/1970. maculata. Deer, Columbian white-tailed Odocoileus Endangered U.S.A. (OR, WA) 32 FR 4001;...

  2. 76 FR 35906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 12 Species in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Endangered........ U.S.A. (UT)....... September 28, 1978 argillacea. (43 FR 44810). Colorado butterfly plant...)....... October 6, 2005 lincolniana. (70 FR 58335). Madtom, Neosho Noturus placidus.. Threatened........ U.S.A. (KS, MO, May 22, 1990 (55 OK). FR 21148). ] PLANTS Autumn buttercup Ranunculus Endangered...........

  3. 75 FR 18232 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 15 Caribbean Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    .... mirabilis (no common name), chupacallos (Pleodendron macranthum), Vahl's boxwood or diablito de tres cuernos...), palo de nigua (Cornutia obovata), palo de Ram n (Banara vanderbiltii), uvillo (Eugenia haematocarpa... mature. B. Endangered means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a...

  4. 75 FR 15454 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 14 Southwestern Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ..., 1991 (56 FR 49646). Gila trout Oncorhynchus gilae Threatened........ U.S.A. (AZ, NM)... May 11, 2005 (70 FR 24750). ] Hualapai Mexican vole Microtus mexicanus Endangered........ U.S.A. (AZ)....... October 1, 1987 hualpaiensis. (52 FR 36776). Loach minnow Tiaroga cobitis... Threatened........ U.S.A....

  5. 75 FR 55820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... MN, MO, NE, WI). (41 FR 24064). Snail, Iowa Pleistocene....... Discus Endangered...... U.S.A. (IA, IL). July 3, 1978 macclintocki. (43 FR 28932). Beetle, Hungerford's crawling Brychius Endangered...... U.S.A. (MI, March 7, 1994 water. hungerfordi. Canada). (59 FR 10580). Plants Missouri bladderpod...

  6. 76 FR 36491 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Eskimo Curlew; Initiation of 5-Year Status Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... endangered under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001). No... following summary of their life history is based on Gollop et al. (1986), unless another citation is... in the Northwest Territories, Canada, but their breeding range probably extended through...

  7. The mathematical review system: does reviewer status play a role in the citation process?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This paper revisits an aspect of citation theory (i.e., citer motivation) with respect to the Mathematical Review system and the reviewer’s role in mathematics. We focus on a set of journal articles (369) published in Singularity Theory (1974–2003), the mathematicians who wrote editorial reviews for these articles, and the number of citations each reviewed article received within a 5 year period. Our research hypothesis is that the cognitive authority of a high status reviewer plays a positive role in how well a new article is received and cited by others. Bibliometric evidence points to the contrary: Singularity Theorists of lower status (junior researchers) have reviewed slightly more well-cited articles (2–5 citations, excluding author self-citations) than their higher status counterparts (senior researchers). One explanation for this result is that lower status researchers may have been asked to review ‘trendy’ or more accessible parts of mathematics, which are easier to use and cite. We offer further explanations and discuss a number of implications for a theory of citation in mathematics. This research opens the door for comparisons to other editorial review systems, such as book reviews written in the social sciences or humanities. PMID:20543874

  8. Lung Cancer Detected 5 Years after Resection of Cancer of Unknown Primary in a Mediastinal Lymph Node: A Case Report and Review of Relevant Cases from the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Kazunari; Taira, Naohiro; Furugen, Tomonori; Ichi, Takaharu; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawabata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare and interesting case of a primary lung cancer detected 5 years after cancer of unknown primary (CUP) of a mediastinal lymph node (LN) was resected. A 40-year-old male was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of unknown primary in a mediastinal lymph node after resection of the mediastinal tumor. Five years after resection of the CUP in mediastinal LN, a small, abnormal nodular shadow in left upper lobe was detected by chest CT. This pulmonary tumor was diagnosed as a lung adenocarcinoma. The pathological and immunohistological findings of the resected pulmonary tumor resembled those of the LN resected 5 years before. We speculated that the pulmonary lesion represented primary lung cancer that enlarged later than the metastatic mediastinal LN. This case illustrates the importance of careful observation and long-term follow-up in patients treated for CUP of a thoracic LN. PMID:26328596

  9. A Review of the Literature on the Social and Environmental Factors Which Influence Children (Aged 3-5 Years) to Be Obese/Overweight and the Accuracy of Parental Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, Julie; Keeney, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to review the previously published literature on the social and environmental factors which influence children (aged 3-5 years) to be obese/overweight and the accuracy of parental perceptions. Obesity levels are on the increase in today's society and habits are being passed from parents to children, with family…

  10. Indian MHD programme - status review

    SciTech Connect

    Arunachalam, S.A.; Malghan, V.R.; Thiagarajan, K.

    1993-12-31

    MHD technology development activities are carried out in 5MWt MHD pilot plant and auxiliary component test rigs. The airpreheater, hot air duct, FRP duct, main combustor, nozzle and downstream ducts have been successfully worked for about 2200 hours. Present direction of experimentation is to develop further the hot wall channel and demonstrate high enthalpy extraction. Initial experiments on MHD channel used water cooled copper electrodes filled with ceramics and was operated in cold mode. The current drain was low in this case and a new generator has been designed to operate at a thermal input of 8 MWt and a hot wall temperature around 1800 C. The status of recent experiments in MHD flow train and development of subsystems are discussed in this paper.

  11. Plasma levels of D-dimer in a 5-year-old girl with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    XU, QIANG; LIN, CHANG-SONG

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported high levels of D-dimer associated with multiple joint pain in a 5-year-old patient with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). While treatment with methotrexate (MTX), hydroxychloroquine and methylprednisolone was found to reduce the D-dimer level and alleviated joint pain, the fever was not effectively controlled. Addition of etanercept to the treatment regimen from week 2 resulted in a clinical remission. Following 4–6 months of therapy, the D-dimer level of the patient returned to the normal range, and symptoms of noticeable joint pain and fever were absent. A literature search showed that the levels of D-dimer may be associated with JIA disease severity, and can serve as a prognostic biomarker for JIA treatment. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that, while MTX therapy effectively reduced D-dimer levels, addition of etanercept to the treatment regimen was required to achieve a long-lasting remission of clinical symptoms, including fever. PMID:26998032

  12. Tungsten fiber reinforced superalloys: A status review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    Improved performance of heat engines is largely dependent upon maximum cycle temperatures. Tungsten fiber reinforced superalloys (TFRS) are the first of a family of high temperature composites that offer the potential for significantly raising hot component operating temperatures and thus leading to improved heat engine performance. This status review of TFRS research emphasizes the promising property data developed to date, the status of TFRS composite airfoil fabrication technology, and the areas requiring more attention to assure their applicability to hot section components of aircraft gas turbine engines.

  13. The NASA Suborbital Program: A status review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teeter, R.; Reynolds, B.

    1983-01-01

    The status of the NASA suborbital program is reviewed and its importance to astrophysical and geophysical programs is assessed. A survey of past scientific and developmental accomplishments, an examination of the trends in program costs, and an analysis of current and future program roles are included. The technical disciplines examined are primarily those of astronomy/astrophysics/solar physics and magnetospheric/ionospheric/ atmospheric physics.

  14. [Decubitus ulcer and nutritional status: literature review].

    PubMed

    Castilho, Lillian Dias; Caliri, Maria Helena Larcher

    2005-01-01

    In order to better understand aspects related to the nutritional assessment of patients in risk for pressure ulcers, we reviewed the national and international literature indexed on Medline and LILACS bibliographic databases, from 1987 to 2001. The aim of this research was to investigate the knowledge production on pressure ulcers and nutritional status, as well as to learn about the authors and the publication focus. We concluded that patients in risk for pressure ulcers can be early identified based on nutritional assessment, including biochemical data, anthropometric evaluation, clinical data, diet history and energetic consumption. The alterations are frequent in elderly patients, hospitalized patients, patients with a chronic disease such as a vascular cerebral accident, cancer and spinal cord injury.

  15. Health Status of Migrant Farmworkers: A Literature Review and Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George S.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the medical literature on the health status of migrant farmworkers. Finds adequate coverage of dental health, nutrition, and childhood health, as well as several disease categories. Finds that more research is needed on population estimates, basic health status indicators, and the prevalence rates of the most common causes of death. (FMW)

  16. 2001 IFT Education Standards: A 5-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    The current IFT Education Standards used to evaluate Food Science programs for IFT approval have been in place now for 5 years. Most Food Science programs in the United States (as well as some in Mexico and Canada) have been reviewed according to these standards. The transition to instruction based on assessment of student learning outcomes, in…

  17. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.

    1994-09-01

    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  18. Socioeconomic status and smoking: a review.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Bauld, Linda; Amos, Amanda; Fidler, Jennifer A; Munafò, Marcus

    2012-02-01

    Smoking prevalence is higher among disadvantaged groups, and disadvantaged smokers may face higher exposure to tobacco's harms. Uptake may also be higher among those with low socioeconomic status (SES), and quit attempts are less likely to be successful. Studies have suggested that this may be the result of reduced social support for quitting, low motivation to quit, stronger addiction to tobacco, increased likelihood of not completing courses of pharmacotherapy or behavioral support sessions, psychological differences such as lack of self-efficacy, and tobacco industry marketing. Evidence of interventions that work among lower socioeconomic groups is sparse. Raising the price of tobacco products appears to be the tobacco control intervention with the most potential to reduce health inequalities from tobacco. Targeted cessation programs and mass media interventions can also contribute to reducing inequalities. To tackle the high prevalence of smoking among disadvantaged groups, a combination of tobacco control measures is required, and these should be delivered in conjunction with wider attempts to address inequalities in health. PMID:22092035

  19. The Syndrome of Absence Status Epilepsy: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pappatà, Sabina; De Simone, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The authors review the literature for cases fulfilling the criteria for the proposed idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome (IGE) of absence status epilepsy described by Genton et al. (2008). Difficulties arising in diagnosing such cases are remarked, and possible overlapping with other proposed IGE syndromes is discussed. PMID:24660061

  20. 5 CFR 2634.906 - Review of confidential filer status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....906 Section 2634.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE... Disclosure Reports § 2634.906 Review of confidential filer status. The head of each agency, or an officer... confidential financial disclosure report pursuant to this subpart. A decision by the agency head or...

  1. 5 CFR 2634.906 - Review of confidential filer status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....906 Section 2634.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE... Disclosure Reports § 2634.906 Review of confidential filer status. The head of each agency, or an officer... confidential financial disclosure report pursuant to this subpart. A decision by the agency head or...

  2. 5 CFR 2634.906 - Review of confidential filer status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....906 Section 2634.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE... Disclosure Reports § 2634.906 Review of confidential filer status. The head of each agency, or an officer... confidential financial disclosure report pursuant to this subpart. A decision by the agency head or...

  3. 5 CFR 2634.906 - Review of confidential filer status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....906 Section 2634.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE... Disclosure Reports § 2634.906 Review of confidential filer status. The head of each agency, or an officer... confidential financial disclosure report pursuant to this subpart. A decision by the agency head or...

  4. 5 CFR 2634.906 - Review of confidential filer status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....906 Section 2634.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE... Disclosure Reports § 2634.906 Review of confidential filer status. The head of each agency, or an officer... confidential financial disclosure report pursuant to this subpart. A decision by the agency head or...

  5. 2013 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel Status Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the Sensorimotor Risk SRP, participants from the JSC, the NSBRI, and NRESS participated in a WebEx/teleconference. The purpose of the call was to allow the SRP members to: 1. Receive an update by the Human Research Program (HRP) Chief Scientist or Deputy Chief Scientist on the status of NASA's current and future exploration plans and the impact these will have on the HRP. 2. Receive an update on any changes within the HRP since the 2012 SRP meeting. 3. Receive an update by the Element or Project Scientist(s) on progress since the 2012 SRP meeting. 4. Participate in a discussion with the HRP Chief Scientist, Deputy Chief Scientist, and the Element regarding possible topics to be addressed at the next SRP meeting.

  6. Health status of migrant farmworkers: a literature review and commentary.

    PubMed Central

    Rust, G S

    1990-01-01

    I made a computerized search of MEDLINE files from 1966 through October 1989 followed by a review of this literature. Four hundred eighty-five articles were scanned; 152 were found specifically related to migrant families, while another 51 articles addressed the health of agricultural workers or farmers in general. Solid data exist on dental health, nutrition and, to a lesser extent, childhood health. Data also were prominent in several disease categories including certain infectious diseases, pesticide exposures, occupational dermatoses, and lead levels in children. Estimates of the size of the migrant and seasonal farmworker population vary widely. Basic health status indicators such as age-related death rates are unknown. Prevalence rates of the most common cause of death in the United States have yet to be studied. More research is needed into the health problems and health status of migrant and seasonal farmworker families. PMID:2205116

  7. Probiotic Formulations: Application and Status as Pharmaceuticals-A Review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, V; Prajapati, Jashbhai B

    2013-06-01

    The use of probiotics is a new way to control and treat infections in this modern era. Application of beneficial bacteria to protect against detrimental bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reap a positive health benefit is the basis of probiotic therapy. Probiotics have a long global history of traditional use. They are normally consumed through fermented foods and are currently sold mostly as ingredients in foods or nutritional supplements. They are also supplied as pharma products. Recent research has highlighted the probiotic potential in the treatment or prevention of disease conditions, maintenance of health, improving immunity and in the reduction in the risk of future diseases. But their position in the pharmaceutical industry is still not very clear. Clinical practitioners use probiotic pharma products mostly as supplements. Their status as drugs is still unclear. This review is aimed to analyze probiotics as pharmaceuticals, their current status as dietary supplements and drugs, existing probiotic preparations and future research needs. PMID:26782733

  8. Micronutrient status in type 2 diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by significant losses of important micronutrients due to metabolic basis of the disease and its complications. Evidence of changes in trace mineral and vitamin metabolism as a consequence of type 2 diabetes is reviewed in this chapter. This review is not a meta-analysis but an overview of the micronutrient status, metabolic needs, and potential micronutrient requirements in type 2 diabetics. This chapter will not concentrate on vitamin D and type 2 diabetes as this is a topic that has been extensively reviewed before. The less well-known micronutrients notably zinc, magnesium, chromium, copper, manganese, iron, selenium, vanadium, B-group vitamins, and certain antioxidants are assessed. While some evidence is available to demonstrate the positive influence of micronutrient supplementation on glycemic control, much remains to be investigated. Additional research is necessary to characterize better biomarkers of micronutrient status and requirements in type 2 diabetics. The optimal level of micronutrient supplementation to achieve glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetics remains a challenge.

  9. Functional Status in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Bahia, Valéria Santoro; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to conduct a systematic review of studies that described the functional profile of patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), published between 2000 and 2013. The bibliographic search was conducted using the terms “frontotemporal dementia” and “frontotemporal lobar degeneration” in combination with “independence,” “functionality,” “basic activities of daily living,” “disability,” and scales that measure functional performance: “Disability Assessment for Dementia-DAD,” “Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ),” “Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS).” To be included in the review, the study had to mention the characterization of the functional status of patients with bvFTD in the objectives of the study, using a previously validated instrument of functional assessment. Fourteen studies met this criterion. The reviewed studies suggested that individuals with bvFTD have greater functional impairment when compared to those with other subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration or Alzheimer's disease. The studies documented a significant association between cognitive impairment and measures of functionality in these patients. The cognitive profile of patients may predict faster functional decline. PMID:24308008

  10. Satellite power systems structures: A 1980 technology status review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    The classes of major structural components and constructions utilized were considered. A review of the current (SPS) structure technology status was made. The major issues considered pertinent to SPS structures are: Cost effective construction, construction materials, structural design requirements, stress and dimensional integrity of as-built structures, and predictability of strength and dynamic behavior. The feasibility of passive figure control approach to MPTS flatness, of structure stiffness compatible with MPTS pointing, of passive control through damping, and the feasibility of space fabrication of ultra-large reflector surfaces are also considered. Qualification, model verification, inspection are considered of vital concern.

  11. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  12. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): a review of conservation status.

    PubMed

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan

    2010-12-01

    The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management.

  13. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): a review of conservation status.

    PubMed

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan

    2010-12-01

    The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management. PMID:21392349

  14. A review of status of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kou; Li, Jun; Yan, Shengjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yaojian; Han, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a currently intensively used brominated flame retardant (BFR), is employed primarily as a reactive flame retardant in printed circuit boards but also has additive applications in several types of polymers. TBBPA is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is observed in both abiotic and biotic matrices. This paper summarizes and critically reviews the published scientific data concerning the current pollution status of TBBPA in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels of TBBPA in China, the data are compared with available existing data from other countries of the world. According to the available data, the sources of TBBPA in China are mainly derived from the primitive e-waste dismantling, TBBPA manufacturing and processing of TBBPA-based materials. The most serious cases of TBBPA pollution in China are in Guiyu, Guangdong (primitive e-waste dismantling site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 66,010-95,040 pg m(-3) in air, Shouguang, Shandong (TBBPA manufacturing site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 1.64-7758 ng g(-1) dry weight in soil, and Chaohu Lake, Anhui (industry concentration site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 850-4870 ng L(-1) in water. In general, China is the most polluted region as affected by TBBPA compared with other countries. The present review preliminarily reveals the research status of TBBPA in China.

  15. A review of status of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kou; Li, Jun; Yan, Shengjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yaojian; Han, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a currently intensively used brominated flame retardant (BFR), is employed primarily as a reactive flame retardant in printed circuit boards but also has additive applications in several types of polymers. TBBPA is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is observed in both abiotic and biotic matrices. This paper summarizes and critically reviews the published scientific data concerning the current pollution status of TBBPA in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels of TBBPA in China, the data are compared with available existing data from other countries of the world. According to the available data, the sources of TBBPA in China are mainly derived from the primitive e-waste dismantling, TBBPA manufacturing and processing of TBBPA-based materials. The most serious cases of TBBPA pollution in China are in Guiyu, Guangdong (primitive e-waste dismantling site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 66,010-95,040 pg m(-3) in air, Shouguang, Shandong (TBBPA manufacturing site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 1.64-7758 ng g(-1) dry weight in soil, and Chaohu Lake, Anhui (industry concentration site) with concentrations of TBBPA reaching 850-4870 ng L(-1) in water. In general, China is the most polluted region as affected by TBBPA compared with other countries. The present review preliminarily reveals the research status of TBBPA in China. PMID:26800486

  16. A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Jennifer; Friedel, Angelika; Herr, Raphael; Rausch, Tamara; Roos, Franz; Wahl, Denys A; Pierroz, Dominique D; Weber, Peter; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2014-01-14

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteoporosis and is thought to increase the risk of cancer and CVD. Despite these numerous potential health effects, data on vitamin D status at the population level and within key subgroups are limited. The aims of the present study were to examine patterns of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels worldwide and to assess differences by age, sex and region. In a systematic literature review using the Medline and EMBASE databases, we identified 195 studies conducted in forty-four countries involving more than 168 000 participants. Mean population-level 25(OH)D values varied considerably across the studies (range 4·9-136·2 nmol/l), with 37·3 % of the studies reporting mean values below 50 nmol/l. The highest 25(OH)D values were observed in North America. Although age-related differences were observed in the Asia/Pacific and Middle East/Africa regions, they were not observed elsewhere and sex-related differences were not observed in any region. Substantial heterogeneity between the studies precluded drawing conclusions on overall vitamin D status at the population level. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that newborns and institutionalised elderly from several regions worldwide appeared to be at a generally higher risk of exhibiting lower 25(OH)D values. Substantial details on worldwide patterns of vitamin D status at the population level and within key subgroups are needed to inform public health policy development to reduce risk for potential health consequences of an inadequate vitamin D status. PMID:23930771

  17. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    NIYYATI, Maryam; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance. Methods: We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples. Results: According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country. Conclusion: Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years. PMID:26246812

  18. The Rotaflex total knee replacement--a 5 year review.

    PubMed

    Williams, R L; Jones, A

    1997-06-01

    We report the results of a retrospective analysis of 43 patients who received 56 Rotaflex total knee arthroplasties, with a mean follow-up of 55.7 months. The British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) knee assessment protocol was used in evaluating the clinical results. Two patients could not receive post-operative scores. In the remaining 54 knees, the mean pre-operative score was 25.6, improving to 30.8 post-operatively. Ten knees showed a decrease in knee score, two were unchanged and 42 improved. The greatest improvements were in pain relief and maximum flexion. Wound infection and dehiscences were common, the latter requiring further surgery in five cases. Later, there were eight fractures involving the prosthesis, seven dislocated or subluxed patellae, two deep infections and three cases of severe aseptic loosening. A common feature was severe patellar wear, due to the design fault of an absent femoral groove. The high rate of complications and poor functional result of the Rotaflex knee preclude its use in current practice.

  19. 5-year review of Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) is to develop hydrogen storage materials with engineering properties that allow the use of these materials in a way that satisfies the DOE/FreedomCAR Program system requirements for automotive hydrogen storage. The Center is a multidisciplinary and collaborative effort with technical interactions divided into two broad areas: (1) mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials) and (2) materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized). Driving all of this work are the hydrogen storage system specifications outlined by the FreedomCAR Program for 2010 and 2015. The organization of the MHCoE during the past year is show in Figure 1. During the past year, the technical work was divided into four project areas. The purpose of the project areas is to organize the MHCoE technical work along appropriate and flexible technical lines. The four areas summarized are: (1) Project A - Destabilized Hydrides, The objective of this project is to controllably modify the thermodynamics of hydrogen sorption reactions in light metal hydrides using hydride destabilization strategies; (2) Project B - Complex Anionic Materials, The objective is to predict and synthesize highly promising new anionic hydride materials; (3) Project C - Amides/Imides Storage Materials, The objective of Project C is to assess the viability of amides and imides (inorganic materials containing NH{sub 2} and NH moieties, respectively) for onboard hydrogen storage; and (4) Project D - Alane, AlH{sub 3}, The objective of Project D is to understand the sorption and regeneration properties of AlH{sub 3} for hydrogen storage.

  20. Snowmobile-related deaths in Ontario: a 5-year review.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, B; Milner, R; Johnson, C; Bota, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the demographic characteristics and circumstances surrounding fatal snowmobile accidents in Ontario, to examine the risk factors and to observe any fatality trends over the study period. DESIGN: Case series. PATIENTS: All 131 people who died accidentally while operating a snowmobile in Ontario from 1985-86 to 1989-90. Records were obtained from the chief coroner's office; registration data were obtained from the Ministry of Transportation. RESULTS: Although the absolute number of deaths increased each year, owing to a rapid increase in the number of registered snowmobiles, the risk of death from snowmobile accidents remained relatively constant. Deaths occurred most frequently in northeastern Ontario. Youths and men predominated among the victims. Fatal accidents occurred more often on lakes (in 66% of the cases in which this information was known) than on roads (in 26%) or trails (in 8%). Weekend fatalities predominated, and deaths occurred most often during times of suboptimal lighting (from 4 pm to 8 am). The driver was killed in 84% of the cases in which the person's role was known. Alcohol use before death was implicated in 69% of the cases, the level exceeding the Ontario legal limit in 59%. CONCLUSION: Snowmobile-related deaths result from factors that are generally avoidable. Strategies need to be instituted to reduce the rate of these events. PMID:1735039

  1. 75 FR 66724 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... U.S. DPS of smalltooth sawfish in May 2008, and solicited information from the public (73 FR 29483... sawfish should remain listed as endangered species because it is in danger of extinction throughout...

  2. The acquired cardiac disease domain: the next 5 years.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John R

    2013-01-01

    At a recent in-house meeting at the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) headquarters in Windsor, the Chairs of the four domains were asked by the President to present their perception of the next 5 years in their respective domains. This review represents a distillation of our discussions on adult cardiac surgery. Advances in technology and imaging are having a radical effect on the working lives of surgeons. In clinical practice, the growth of heart teams and the breaking down of artificial barriers between specialities are altering the way we practice for the better. We see the development of hybrid approaches to many areas such as coronary artery surgery and operations on the thoracic aorta. These changes require careful analysis to ensure that they produce better outcomes that are also cost-effective. All health-care systems are at breaking point, and it is our responsibility to harness new technology to benefit our patients. This is all part of placing the patient at the centre of our activities. Hence, we see the involvement of patients in the design and analysis of clinical trials, which also require great mutual trust and cooperation between surgeons in different countries. Because of the dramatic changes in the pattern of working, we have had to alter our patterns of training and education, and we will continue to make significant innovations in the future. These are exciting challenges that will keep us all busy for the next 5 years at least.

  3. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  4. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed. PMID:26233306

  5. Review of ORNL`s MSR technology and status

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, L.M.; Gat, U.; Del Cul, G.D.; Dai, S.; Williams, D.F.

    1996-08-01

    The current status of molten salt reactor development is discussed with reference to the experience from the Oak Ridge Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Assessment of the future for this reactor system is reviewed with consideration of both advantages and disadvantages. Application of this concept to ADTT (accelerator driven transmutation technology) needs appears to be feasible by drawing on the MSRE experience. Key chemical considerations remain as: solubility, redox behavior, and chemical activity and their importance to ADTT planning is briefly explained. Priorities in the future development of molten salts for these applications are listed, with the foremost being the acceptance of the 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} solvent system. 8 refs, 2 figs.

  6. Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status

    SciTech Connect

    Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A.

    2009-09-15

    Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

  7. A review of the status and development of Kuwait's fisheries.

    PubMed

    Al-Husaini, M; Bishop, J M; Al-Foudari, H M; Al-Baz, A F

    2015-11-30

    The status of Kuwait's fisheries landings and relative abundance for major species was reviewed using research data from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research and landing data from the Kuwait's Central Statistical Bureau. Landing data showed significant decreases for major commercial species such as zobaidy (Pampus argenteus), suboor (Tenualosa ilisha), hamoor (Epinephelus coioides), newaiby (Otolithes ruber) and hamra (Lutjanus malabaricus) while abundance data for the shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus showed significant reduction in the recent years mainly because of overfishing. The catch-rate data showed continuous decline for major species such as zobaidy, newaiby and hamoor, which indicate that stock abundances of these species are low. The reduction in stock abundance in context with changes in habitat quality, particularly the effects of reduced discharge of the Shatt Al-Arab, is discussed.

  8. 75 FR 26346 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY...: Marital Status Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension...

  9. Orbital retinoblastoma: Present status and future challenges – A review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad J.; Honavar, Santosh G.; Reddy, Vijay A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Orbital retinoblastoma is a catastrophic event traditionally carrying a dismal prognosis. Although its incidence is less in the developed countries it continues to be one of the major diagnosis at presentation in the developing world. Orbital retinoblastoma encompasses a wide range of distinct clinical entities with varying tumor load. There are no standard treatment protocols as of now but the current preferred management is multimodal with a combination of initial high-dose chemotherapy, surgery, external beam radiotherapy and prolonged chemotherapy for twelve cycles. In spite of progress on all fronts including surgical, medical, diagnostic, genetic and rehabilitative with improving survival rates, however, lack of access to medical facilities, lack of education about the need for early medical attention and cultural resistance to enucleation continue to contribute to an epidemic of extra ocular disease at diagnosis in the developing world. This review introduces the various terminologies used in the spectrum of orbital retinoblastoma, discusses in details the clinical aspects and management protocols, current status and the future directions. PMID:23960917

  10. Electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, P B; Seshia, S S

    1991-07-01

    Electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) is primarily an EEG-defined syndrome in children characterized by the occurrence of continuous spike and slow waves during non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep, the paroxysmal abnormalities being substantially less frequent during the awake state and REM sleep. Etiologically, cases can be divided into symptomatic and cryptogenic varieties. Partial motor seizures, frequently nocturnal, precede the emergence of ESES, whereas absence seizures often occur during the phase of ESES. The emergence of ESES is associated with neuropsychological regression. The characteristic electrographic pattern and epilepsy generally disappear during adolescence and are associated with an improvement in neuropsychological function. However, if the cases reported in the literature are representative, then there is a high probability of considerable residual dysfunction. A number of factors, broadly termed ascertainment biases, likely contribute to the paucity of reports from North America and the greater recognition of the syndrome in Europe and Japan. The current information on ESES is critiqued in this review. PMID:1918335

  11. Health Canada's use of priority review status for drugs for unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Nigel S B

    2015-10-01

    The processes for granting priority review status to new drug submissions in Canada and the United States are not exactly the same, but reasonable concordance should be expected since the selection criteria are similar in the two countries. This study compared new therapeutic drugs approved by both Health Canada and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between 2000 and 2014 to evaluate concordance on priority review status. New therapeutic drugs approved in both countries totalled 301; 86 (28.6%) and 136 (45.2%) were given priority review status in Canada and the United States, respectively, with 73 (24.3%) in both. Sensitivity and specificity were 53.7% and 92.1%. Overall concordance on review type was 74.8%. κ was 0.47 indicating moderate agreement. Agreement on review type was >70% for all drugs, except oncology therapies. Broad agreement exists between Health Canada and the FDA on drugs that should not have priority review status. Concordance on drugs that should have this status was generally satisfactory and, for critical drugs, was high. Agreement would improve if more oncology drugs received priority review status in Canada. Despite a higher number of drugs receiving priority review status in the United States, there is reasonable concordance between the two countries.

  12. Malpractice and radiologists, update 1986: an 11. 5-year perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, L.

    1986-12-01

    All medical malpractice lawsuits filed in Cook County, IL, from January 1, 1980, through June 30, 1986, were reviewed and compared with similar data for the period of January 1, 1975, through December 30, 1979. A total of 11,203 suits were filed during the 11.5-year period; of these, 1391 (12%) were radiology related. The latter were categorized into six groups. The largest was missed radiologic diagnoses, which accounted for 40% of the total. The remaining groups included complications, 19%; failure to order, 17%; radiation therapy, 11%; slip and fall, 5%; and miscellaneous, 8%. Over the 1975-1986 period, the rise in the number of suits alleging radiologic misses outpaced all other groups. Although the most common type of miss continues to involve fractures, the frequency of missed carcinomas has grown at a disproportionately faster rate. Misses specifically involving CT, nuclear medicine, and sonography also are becoming more prevalent. Radiographic misses continue to occur at an average rate of 30%, with little hope of improvement. Methods to combat the rising number of malpractice suits are discussed. It is concluded that although programs to educate radiologists on risk management should continue, the ultimate solution may be a more enlightened public attitude as to what actually constitutes malpractice, and institution of tort reform measures by federal and state legislatures.

  13. Effectiveness of interventions to improve the health and housing status of homeless people: a rapid systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on interventions to positively impact health and housing status of people who are homeless has received substantially increased attention over the past 5 years. This rapid review examines recent evidence regarding interventions that have been shown to improve the health of homeless people, with particular focus on the effect of these interventions on housing status. Methods A total of 1,546 articles were identified by a structured search of five electronic databases, a hand search of grey literature and relevant journals, and contact with experts. Two reviewers independently screened the first 10% of titles and abstracts for relevance. Inter-rater reliability was high and as a result only one reviewer screened the remaining titles and abstracts. Articles were included if they were published between January 2004 and December 2009 and examined the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the health or healthcare utilization of people who were homeless, marginally housed, or at risk of homelessness. Two reviewers independently scored all relevant articles for quality. Results Eighty-four relevant studies were identified; none were of strong quality while ten were rated of moderate quality. For homeless people with mental illness, provision of housing upon hospital discharge was effective in improving sustained housing. For homeless people with substance abuse issues or concurrent disorders, provision of housing was associated with decreased substance use, relapses from periods of substance abstinence, and health services utilization, and increased housing tenure. Abstinent dependent housing was more effective in supporting housing status, substance abstinence, and improved psychiatric outcomes than non-abstinence dependent housing or no housing. Provision of housing also improved health outcomes among homeless populations with HIV. Health promotion programs can decrease risk behaviours among homeless populations. Conclusions These studies

  14. PEP as a synchrotron radiation source: Status and review

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    The electron-positron collider, PEP, is a 15 GeV storage ring built and operated for high energy physics. As a synchrotron radiation source, it has some unique characteristics which give it extraordinary capabilities which are now beginning to be exploited. Two insertion device beam lines are operational, each illuminated by 2-m-long, 77-mm period undulator magnets. In parasitic operation on high energy physics runs, they provide photons above 10 KeV, with a peak brightness of 10/sup 16/ photons/(s-mm/sup 2//minus/mrad/sup 2/) within a 0.1% band width. This record brightness in this spectral range has already opened up exciting new areas of research. In tests of a low emittance mode of operation at 7.1 GeV, horizontal emittances of about 5 mm-rad were measured, which is about the same as that planned for the new third generation x-ray sources. At a current of 15 mA at 7.1 GeV, the present undulators deliver photon beams from 2.7 to 14 KeV with a peak brightness of about 10/sup 17/. Higher performance can be achieved with longer insertion devices optimized for these energies. Future operation in both parasitic mode and dedicated low emittance mode is planned; this will not only provide new physics opportunities, but the ability to advance the technology of beamline components and instrumentation will be required for the high power, high brightness beams from the third generation x-ray sources. Further performance upgrades are being studied and planned. These will be discussed in this paper along with a description of the present status and a review of PEP's capabilities and limitations. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a 5-year retrospective of the structure, methodology, progress, and contributions to the broader scientific community that have resulted from this national USGS program. We evaluate ARMI’s success to date, with regard to the challenges faced by the program and the strengths that have emerged. We chart objectives for the next 5 years that build on current accomplishments, highlight areas meriting further research, and direct efforts to overcome existing weaknesses.

  16. Los Alamos National Laboratory capability reviews - FY 2011 status

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Everett P

    2011-01-12

    Capability reviews are the Los Alamos National Laboratory approach to assess the quality of its science, technology, and engineering (STE), and its integration across the Laboratory. There are seven capability reviews in FY 2011 reviews. The Weapons Science and Engineering review will be replaced by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Predictive Science Panel for 2011 . Beginning in 2011, third-year LORD projects will be reviewed by capability review committees rather than the first-year LORD projects that have been performed for the last three years. This change addresses concerns from committees about reviewing a project before it had made any substantive progress. The current schedule, and chairs for the 2011 capability reviews is presented. The three-year cycle (2011-2013) for capability reviews are presented for planning purposes.

  17. Review and status of liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1979-01-01

    A review was conducted of liquid-cooled turbine technology. Selected liquid-cooled systems and methods are presented along with an assessment of the current technology status and requirements. A comprehensive bibliography is presented.

  18. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Financial Status Report) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0165.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Financial Status Report... Management, Department of Veterans Affairs, has submitted the collection of information abstracted below...

  19. 75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Status of Dependents Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Title: Status of Dependents Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0538. OMB Control Number: 2900-0500....

  20. The epidemiology of chickenpox in UK 5-year olds: an analysis to inform vaccine policy.

    PubMed

    Manikkavasagan, Gayatri; Dezateux, Carol; Wade, Angie; Bedford, Helen

    2010-11-10

    Varicella vaccine is not routinely administered to children in many countries including the UK. Longitudinal data are lacking to inform optimal schedules. We report the prevalence of VZV infection at 5 years of age, cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years and socio-demographic associations with risk of infection using longitudinal data on 12,509 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. VZV prevalence by 5 years was 76.9% [95% CI: 75.9%, 78.0%]. The cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years was 32.2% [95% CI: 31.1%, 33.3%]. Risk of infection by 5 years was associated with higher maternal socio-economic status, larger household size and formal day-care attendance at 9 months and 3 years. If universal varicella immunisation were introduced in the UK, where 40% children have attended some formal day-care by 3 years, a schedule commencing early in the second year of life would be indicated.

  1. Status and cockpit dynamics: a review and empirical study.

    PubMed

    Milanovich, D M; Driskell, J E; Stout, R J; Salas, E

    1998-09-01

    One of the most troublesome dynamics evident in the airplane cockpit is related to patterns of authority relations between the captain and the first officer: Too often, captains fail to listen and first officers fail to speak. The authors propose that many instances of superordinate and subordinate behavior in the cockpit--the captain's tendency to reject input from other team members and the first officer's hesitancy to question the captain--represent cases of status generalization. First, the authors describe the theory of status generalization and show support for the operation of the theory by presenring examples of flightcrew behavior that the theory predicts. Second, an initial empirical test was conducted to instantiate the claim that captain-first officer differences can be seen as status differences. Finally, the significance and implications of this perspective are discussed.

  2. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R; Aisiku, Imoigele P

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  3. Adult Status Epilepticus: A Review of the Prehospital and Emergency Department Management

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Michael; Kandalaft, Osama R.; Aisiku, Imoigele P.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation in the prehospital and emergency department setting and status epilepticus represents an emergency neurologic condition. The classification and various types of seizures are numerous. The objectives of this narrative literature review focuses on adult patients with a presentation of status epilepticus in the prehospital and emergency department setting. In summary, benzodiazepines remain the primary first line therapeutic agent in the management of status epilepticus, however, there are new agents that may be appropriate for the management of status epilepticus as second- and third-line pharmacological agents. PMID:27563928

  4. Sleep in adolescents of different socioeconomic status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Leite, Carina Raffs; Rebelatto, Cleber Fernando; Andrade, Rubian Diego; Beltrame, Thais Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the sleep characteristics in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. Data source: Original studies found in the MEDLINE/PubMed and SciELO databases without language and period restrictions that analyzed associations between sleep variables and socioeconomic indicators. The initial search resulted in 99 articles. After reading the titles and abstracts and following inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles with outcomes that included associations between sleep variables (disorders, duration, quality) and socioeconomic status (ethnicity, family income, and social status) were analyzed. Data synthesis: The studies associating sleep with socioeconomic variables are recent, published mainly after the year 2000. Half of the selected studies were performed with young Americans, and only one with Brazilian adolescents. Regarding ethnic differences, the studies do not have uniform conclusions. The main associations found were between sleep variables and family income or parental educational level, showing a trend among poor, low social status adolescents to manifest low duration, poor quality of sleeping patterns. Conclusions: The study found an association between socioeconomic indicators and quality of sleep in adolescents. Low socioeconomic status reflects a worse subjective perception of sleep quality, shorter duration, and greater daytime sleepiness. Considering the influence of sleep on physical and cognitive development and on the learning capacity of young individuals, the literature on the subject is scarce. There is a need for further research on sleep in different realities of the Brazilian population. PMID:26298657

  5. A 5-year experience with an elective scholarly concentrations program

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul; Green, Emily P.; Park, Yoon S.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Programs that encourage scholarly activities beyond the core curriculum and traditional biomedical research are now commonplace among US medical schools. Few studies have generated outcome data for these programs. The goal of the present study was to address this gap. Intervention The Scholarly Concentration (SC) Program, established in 2006 at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, is a 4-year elective program that not only encourages students to pursue scholarly work that may include traditional biomedical research but also seeks to broaden students’ focus to include less traditional areas. We compared characteristics and academic performance of SC students and non-SC students for the graduating classes of 2010–2014. Context Approximately one-third of our students opt to complete an SC during their 4-year undergraduate medical education. Because this program is additional to the regular MD curriculum, we sought to investigate whether SC students sustained the academic achievement of non-SC students while at the same time producing scholarly work as part of the program. Outcome Over 5 years, 35% of students elected to enter the program and approximately 81% of these students completed the program. The parameters that were similar for both SC and non-SC students were age at matriculation, admission route, proportion of undergraduate science majors, and number of undergraduate science courses. Most academic indicators, including United States Medical Licensing Examinations scores, were similar for the two groups; however, SC students achieved more honors in the six core clerkships and were more likely to be inducted into the medical school's two honor societies. Residency specialties selected by graduates in the two groups were similar. SC students published an average of 1.3 peer-reviewed manuscripts per student, higher than the 0.8 manuscripts per non-SC student (p=0.013). Conclusions An elective, interdisciplinary scholarly program with

  6. Liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines review and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of research related to liquid cooling of gas turbines was conducted and an assessment of the state of the art was made. Various methods of liquid cooling turbines were reviewed. Examples and results with test and demonstrator turbines utilizing these methods along with the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed.

  7. Reviewing the Incidence and Status of Sustainability in Degree Programmes at Plymouth University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyness, Lynne; Sterling, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an overview of the design and implementation of a curriculum review undertaken at Plymouth University, UK, to gauge the incidence and status of sustainability in degree programmes across the curriculum. The paper outlines the methodological approach taken, reviews findings and summarises the effects and…

  8. 78 FR 48941 - Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Marital Status Questionnaire) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0537. OMB Control Number: 2900-0495. Type of Review: Extension of a currently...

  9. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  10. WCTC 5-Year Graduation Rates. Retention for Learning Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Viktor; Sanford, Doug

    This study addresses Waukesha County Technical College's (WCTC) 5-year retention and graduate rates. Some of the key findings of the report are as follow: (1) overall, 35.4% of cohort students graduated; (2) a 4-year combined graduation rate for ethnic minorities was 26%, well below the overall average; (3) the percent of cohort that graduated…

  11. Stimulant Treatment over 5 Years: Effects on Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Figueroa, Max; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Long-term effects of psychostimulants on growth in height and in weight are investigated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Participants were 79 children, 6 to 12 years of age, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, who were followed annually for up to 5 years, between the years 1993 and 1994 and…

  12. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Rebecca J.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS: We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, and television viewing. RESULTS: Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10–1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children. PMID:23918897

  13. Laser refractive surgery: a review and current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Qiushi; Keates, Richard H.; Hill, Richard A.; Berns, Michael W.

    1995-03-01

    The aim of corneal refractive surgery is to modify the anterior surface of the cornea for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. The air-tear film interface is a powerful refractive surface. Small changes in the curvature can induce large shifts in refractive power. The exquisite nature of laser-tissue interaction with corneal tissue allows successful application of lasers for refractive surgery. Numerous systems have been developed for clinical applications. An overview is provided of the current clinical and research status of laser refractive surgery.

  14. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  15. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica in a 5 year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; Pires-de-Mello, Paulo; Morgado, Maria de Fátima; March, Maria de Fátima Pombo

    2012-12-01

    Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is considered an orphan disease with exceptional occurrence in children. We report a 5 year old female child who was referred to us with chronic cough and recurrent pneumonia. After several investigations, bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in the tracheobronchial lumen, whose distribution was consistent with TO. The patient was followed for four years, with no change in the pattern of the disease.

  16. [5-year experience with BCG immunoprophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Rüssel, C

    1992-09-01

    Our 5-year experience with BCG in the tumor stage pTis, pTa and pT1, G I-II shows a lasting remission of 88.5% (73%) in 78 (26) patients treated with BCG preparation Pasteur (Connaught) after transurethral resection. A complete remission in patients with carcinoma in situ (12 patients) could be found in 92%. The local and systemic side-effects, which are of limited duration, are tolerable, well treatable and fully reversible.

  17. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, ARMI has partnered with an extensive list of government, academic, and private entities. These partnerships have been fruitful and have assisted ARMI in developing new field protocols and analytic tools, in using and refining emerging technologies to improve accuracy and efficiency of data handling, in conducting amphibian disease, malformation, and environmental effects research, and in implementing a network of mon

  18. Predictors of long term survival after hepatic resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma: A retrospective study of 5-year survivors

    PubMed Central

    Abd ElWahab, Mohamed; El Nakeeb, Ayman; El Hanafy, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad M; Elghawalby, Ahmed; Askr, Waleed; Ali, Mahmoud; Abd El Gawad, Mohamed; Salah, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine predictors of long term survival after resection of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) by comparing patients surviving > 5 years with those who survived < 5 years. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with pathologically proven HC who underwent surgical resection at the Gastroenterology Surgical Center, Mansoura University, Egypt between January 2002 and April 2013. All data of the patients were collected from the medical records. Patients were divided into two groups according to their survival: Patients surviving less than 5 years and those who survived > 5 years. RESULTS: There were 34 (14%) long term survivors (5 year survivors) among the 243 patients. Five-year survivors were younger at diagnosis than those surviving less than 5 years (mean age, 50.47 ± 4.45 vs 54.59 ± 4.98, P = 0.001). Gender, clinical presentation, preoperative drainage, preoperative serum bilirubin, albumin and serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase were similar between the two groups. The level of CA 19-9 was significantly higher in patients surviving < 5 years (395.71 ± 31.43 vs 254.06 ± 42.19, P = 0.0001). Univariate analysis demonstrated nine variables to be significantly associated with survival > 5 year, including young age (P = 0.001), serum CA19-9 (P = 0.0001), non-cirrhotic liver (P = 0.02), major hepatic resection (P = 0.001), caudate lobe resection (P = 0.006), well differentiated tumour (P = 0.03), lymph node status (0.008), R0 resection margin (P = 0.0001) and early postoperative liver cell failure (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Liver status, resection of caudate lobe, lymph node status, R0 resection and CA19-9 were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for long term survival. PMID:27358676

  19. Status of power-reactor projects undergoing licensing review

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.G.

    1982-07-01

    Recent regulatory and other actions relating to power reactors undergoing licensing review are summarized in Table 1 as of May 1, 1982. Except as otherwise noted, all the information presented in this article is taken from NRC press releases or from the reactor docket file, both of which are available at the NRC Public Document Room, 1717 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20555.

  20. Integrating Learning Outcome Typologies for HRD: Review and Current Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Doo Hun; Yoon, Seung Won; Park, Sunyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the result of literature review in regards to learning outcome studies and presents a framework that integrates content types with learning outcomes. Analysis of learning outcome studies between 1992 and 2006 using the ERIC database indicated that most empirical studies have assessed the learning outcome at lower levels of…

  1. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions.

  2. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions. PMID:24952286

  3. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  4. Liquid-cooling technology for gas turbines - Review and status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. J., Jr.; Stepka, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    After a brief review of past efforts involving the forced-convection cooling of gas turbines, the paper surveys the state of the art of the liquid cooling of gas turbines. Emphasis is placed on thermosyphon methods of cooling, including those utilizing closed, open, and closed-loop thermosyphons; other methods, including sweat, spray and stator cooling, are also discussed. The more significant research efforts, design data, correlations, and analytical methods are mentioned and voids in technology are summarized.

  5. Status and conservation of Antarctic seals and seabirds: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Croxall, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Present threats to Antarctic seabirds and seals when ashore include disturbance and habitat destruction and serious predation by introduced rats and cats at sub-Antarctic islands. In the marine environment threats are posed by pesticides (widespread but at low levels), pollution (mainly a potential problem associated with oil exploration), incidental takes and competition with commercial fisheries, which is reviewed in detail. Even in areas where harvesting of fish may be exceeding sustainable yield, predator-prey interaction data are inadequate to assess the level, or significance, of the effect on predators. Present krill harvests are small but likely to increase, especially in favored areas; species of potential vulnerability are noted. Existing legislation offers excellent protection for wildlife, but formally protected areas by no means cover the major breeding concentrations of seabirds and especially seals in all sectors and zones. There is a need for a comprehensive review, which in some areas will require extensive survey work. Programs for the control and elimination of alien predators need proper planning and major support. Marine reserves may be of limited benefit to pelagic seals and seabirds, and further research in some key areas is needed. Realistic environmental impact assessments will require more detailed information on predator distribution and movements than is available now; appropriate surveys and research need starting. Sensitive management of marine fisheries is difficult with the present level of quantitative data on predator-prey interactions. Difficulties in monitoring aspects of predator biology as indices of the state of prey stocks are reviewed.

  6. Community based mangrove management: a review on status and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Datta, Debajit; Chattopadhyay, R N; Guha, P

    2012-09-30

    Community Based Mangrove Management (CBMM) has been advocated by both academia and governing agencies as a viable alternative for sustainably managing the ecologically important mangrove forests which are disappearing rapidly worldwide. Drawing insights from diverse sustainability issues, capabilities and performances of worldwide CBMM initiatives were examined in this paper. Higher numbers of CBMM initiatives were reported from South Asia and lesser from South America and Africa. Identification of the causes of degradation at a site and use-specific zonal replantations with respect to species associations were identified as major criteria of ecological sustainability. Regarding economic sustainability, transformation of potential uses of mangroves known by local communities into actual ones was found to be necessary. Proper disbursement of accrued benefits among community members irrespective of their socio-cultural status is also a major concern. Restructuring of CBMM institutions by ensuring participation of subsistence based users in decision-making and resource sharing have been identified as a prime determinant of institutional sustainability. However, limited number of studies on socio-political and institutional aspects as well as impacts of globalization induced socio-cultural transformations of communities on CBMM had been actually found. More focused researches on these aspects had been recommended for better community management of these highly stressed forests. PMID:22595074

  7. Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Kern, David W; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57-85 were studied in 2005-6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010-11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a "dose-dependent" effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process.

  8. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  9. Actinic review of EUV masks: Status and recent results of the AIMS EUV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Markus R.; Hellweg, Dirk; Koch, Markus; Peters, Jan Hendrik; Perlitz, Sascha; Garetto, Anthony; Magnusson, Krister; Capelli, Renzo; Jindal, Vibhu

    2015-03-01

    The EUV mask infrastructure is of key importance for the successful introduction of EUV lithography into volume production. In particular, for the production of defect free masks an actinic review of potential defect sites is required. To realize such an actinic review tool, Carl Zeiss and the SEMATECH EUVL Mask Infrastructure consortium started a development program for an EUV aerial image metrology system, the AIMS™ EUV. In this paper, we discuss the current status of the prototype integration and show recent results.

  10. DWPF CATALYTIC HYDROGEN GENERATION PROGRAM - REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.

    2009-07-10

    Significant progress has been made in the past two years in improving the understanding of acid consumption and catalytic hydrogen generation during the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processing of waste sludges in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This report reviews issues listed in prior internal reviews, describes progress with respect to the recommendations made by the December 2006 external review panel, and presents a summary of the current understanding of catalytic hydrogen generation in the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, are historically known catalysts for the conversion of formic acid into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Rh, Ru, and Pd are present in the DWPF SRAT feed as by-products of thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U in the original waste. Rhodium appears to become most active for hydrogen as the nitrite ion concentration becomes low (within a factor of ten of the Rh concentration). Prior to hydrogen generation, Rh is definitely active for nitrite destruction to N{sub 2}O and potentially active for nitrite to NO formation. These reactions are all consistent with the presence of a nitro-Rh complex catalyst, although definite proof for the existence of this complex during Savannah River Site (SRS) waste processing does not exist. Ruthenium does not appear to become active for hydrogen generation until nitrite destruction is nearly complete (perhaps less nitrite than Ru in the system). Catalytic activity of Ru during nitrite destruction is significantly lower than that of either Rh or Pd. Ru appears to start activating as Rh is deactivating from its maximum catalytic activity for hydrogen generation. The slow activation of the Ru, as inferred from the slow rate of increase in hydrogen generation that occurs after initiation, may imply that some species (perhaps Ru itself) has some bound nitrite on it. Ru, rather than Rh, is primarily responsible for the

  11. Natural history of alcoholic myopathy: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Sacanella, E; Fernández-Solá, J; Nicolás, J M; Rubin, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1998-12-01

    Chronic myopathy is a common complication of alcoholism, but its natural history has not been well described. We, therefore, studied muscle structure and function in a 5-year study of 30 chronic alcoholics who became abstinent and 20 who relapsed, and 40 control subjects. The mean strength of the abstaining alcoholics increased from 18.6 to 23.2 kg; but, after 5 years, they were still substantially weaker than controls. In a subset who showed histological myopathy, the strength of half of the patients remained two standard deviations below that of controls. Alcoholics who relapsed tended to become progressively weaker (21.7 kg vs. 18.2 kg) and develop histological evidence of myopathy. Thus, continued alcohol abuse was generally reflected in deterioration of muscle strength and the appearance of histological injury to muscle. Importantly, almost half of the sober patients did not recover to normal levels, indicating that alcoholic myopathy is only partially reversible. We also unexpectedly found that, in some alcoholics, a substantial reduction in the amount of alcohol consumed may be as effective as complete abstinence in improving muscle strength or preventing its deterioration.

  12. Predictive 5-Year Survivorship Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Theodore G.; Adler, Frederick R.; FitzSimmons, Stacey C.; Cahill, Barbara C.; Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 5-year survivorship model to identify key clinical features of cystic fibrosis. Such a model could help researchers and clinicians to evaluate therapies, improve the design of prospective studies, monitor practice patterns, counsel individual patients, and determine the best candidates for lung transplantation. The authors used information from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), which has collected longitudinal data on approximately 90% of cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed in the United States since 1986. They developed multivariate logistic regression models by using data on 5,820 patients randomly selected from 11,630 in the CFFPR in 1993. Models were tested for goodness of fit and were validated for the remaining 5,810 patients for 1993. The validated 5-year survivorship model included age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted normal, gender, weight-for-age z score, pancreatic sufficiency, diabetes mellitus, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Burkerholderia cepacia infection, and annual number of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The model provides insights into the complex nature of cystic fibrosis and supplies a rigorous tool for clinical practice and research. PMID:11207152

  13. Determinants of Nontraditional Student Status: A Methodological Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Phillips, Julia C.; Melville, Alexis; Eum, Koun

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a review of 21 years (1990 to 2011) of multidisciplinary research on nontraditional college students that focuses on determinants of nontraditional student status and research methodology. The purpose is to address the methodological hindrances that have contributed to deficit-based views of nontraditional students in…

  14. 78 FR 4172 - Submission for Review: RI 25-15, Notice of Change in Student's Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: RI 25-15, Notice of Change in Student's Status AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0042, Notice of Change in Student's... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on August 15, 2012 at Volume 77...

  15. 77 FR 49028 - Submission for Review: Notice of Change in Student's Status, RI25-15

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Notice of Change in Student's Status, RI25-15 AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to comment on a revised information collection request (ICR) 3206-0042, Notice of Change in Student's... through the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  16. 43 CFR 4.1393 - Status of decision pending administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 4.21(a) applies to determinations of the Office of Surface Mining under 30 U.S.C. 1272(e). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Status of decision pending administrative review. 4.1393 Section 4.1393 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior...

  17. 43 CFR 4.1393 - Status of decision pending administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 4.21(a) applies to determinations of the Office of Surface Mining under 30 U.S.C. 1272(e). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Status of decision pending administrative review. 4.1393 Section 4.1393 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior...

  18. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Columbia River Mainstem Facilities, 1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack; Hwang, Diana

    1984-11-01

    This report reviews the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation programs at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Each hydropower facility report is abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. 76 FR 13121 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of Status Review for Longfin Smelt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. (3) The potential effects global climate change may have on the longfin smelt or its habitat. If, after the status review, we determine that..., the Service published a 90-day finding (73 FR 24911) in which we concluded that the petition...

  20. 43 CFR 4.1365 - Status of decision pending administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Status of decision pending administrative review. 4.1365 Section 4.1365 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Program; Federal Program for Indian Lands) and for Coal Exploration Permits (federal Program) §...

  1. 43 CFR 4.1365 - Status of decision pending administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Status of decision pending administrative review. 4.1365 Section 4.1365 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Program; Federal Program for Indian Lands) and for Coal Exploration Permits (federal Program) §...

  2. 43 CFR 4.1365 - Status of decision pending administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Status of decision pending administrative review. 4.1365 Section 4.1365 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Program; Federal Program for Indian Lands) and for Coal Exploration Permits (federal Program) §...

  3. 43 CFR 4.1365 - Status of decision pending administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Status of decision pending administrative review. 4.1365 Section 4.1365 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Program; Federal Program for Indian Lands) and for Coal Exploration Permits (federal Program) §...

  4. 43 CFR 4.1365 - Status of decision pending administrative review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Status of decision pending administrative review. 4.1365 Section 4.1365 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT... Program; Federal Program for Indian Lands) and for Coal Exploration Permits (federal Program) §...

  5. Nuclear PDFs at NLO - status report and review of the EPS09 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskola, K. J.; Paukkunen, H.; Salgado, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    We review the current status of the global DGLAP analysis of nuclear parton distribution functions, nPDFs, focusing on the recent EPS09 analysis [K.J. Eskola, H. Paukkunen, C.A. Salgado, JHEP 0904 (2009) 065. [ arXiv:0902.4154 [hep-ph

  6. Status of VICTORIA: NRC peer review and recent code applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Schaperow, J.H.

    1997-12-01

    VICTORIA is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS. A summary of the results and recommendations of an independent peer review of VICTORIA by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is presented, along with recent applications of the code. The latter include analyses of a temperature-induced steam generator tube rupture sequence and post-test analyses of the Phebus FPT-1 test. The next planned Phebus test, FTP-4, will focus on fission product releases from a rubble bed, especially those of the less-volatile elements, and on the speciation of the released elements. Pretest analyses using VICTORIA to estimate the magnitude and timing of releases are presented. The predicted release of uranium is a matter of particular importance because of concern about filter plugging during the test.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of secretin: A critical review and current status

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.M.; Chey, W.Y.

    1980-07-01

    The radioimmunoassay methods of secretin are reviewed with respect to production of antibody, preparation of radioactive tracers, and effect of plasma interference. The major difference in the secretin assay methods resides in handling plasma interference. Thus the assay sensitivity decreased markedly when the assay was conducted by diluting plasma samples. When the assay was conducted by compensating for plasma interference with homologous hormone-free plasma, the effect of plasma interference was greatly reduced, leading to a more sensitive assay. However, this method probably can not obtain consistent results with plasma samples collected under various experimental conditions. The method is still subject to considerable desensitization and assay variation. On the other hand, the elimination of plasma interference before assay results in the most sensitive secretin assays capable of detecting consistently a significant postprandial rise in plasma secretin level. It is concluded that a sensitive, validated secretin radioimmunoassay should be one that is capable of detecting increments of plasma secretin in response to doses of intraduodenal acid at 0.555 mEq/min or lower and intravenous administration of exogenous secretin at 0.03 CU/kg/hr with concomitant stimulation of pancreatic bicarbonate and water secretion. With a sensitive and accurate radioimmunoassay for secretin, it is now possible to further investigate the physiology and pathophysiology of secretin.

  8. Achalasia 5 years following Roux-en-y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Torghabeh, Mehyar Hefazi; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Saif, Taha; Dakin, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Oesophageal achalasia is a rare, but serious condition in which the motility of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) is inhibited. This disorder of idiopathic aetiology complicates the peristaltic function and relaxation of the LES that may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, epigastric pain, and regurgitation of an obstructed food. The following case describes achalasia in a patient 5 years following a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The patient underwent a laparoscopic Heller myotomy without a fundoplication. Although achalasia seems to be a rare occurrence in obese patients, this is the third case documented in a patient who previously had an RYGB. The role of performing a fundoplication in these patients remains to be elucidated. PMID:26195880

  9. [The readmission of schizophrenics: a retrospective study over 5 years].

    PubMed

    Antonioli, D; Rey-Bellet, J; Müller, C

    1988-05-01

    Since the introduction of neuroleptics, the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals has decreased progressively, but, in the same time, the number of readmissions has increased. For schizophrenic outpatients, we can estimate that 68% will be readmitted during the 5 years following their departure from the hospital. In our retrospective survey, we have studied the different factors which influence the readmissions. We have shown, with a statistical significancy, that an agricultural background, a fulltime job and brief hospitalizations prevent the readmissions. However patients aged less than 30 years, with long hospitalizations and living alone have a high risk of readmission. The most frequent causes are patient's omission to take prescribed drugs, environmental conflicts and alteration in the familial situation. PMID:3059911

  10. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  11. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  12. Volatile anesthetics for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients: a comprehensive review and case series.

    PubMed

    Carrié, Sabrina; Anderson, Thomas Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Status asthmaticus is an acute, intractable asthma attack refractory to standard interventions that can lead to progressive respiratory failure. Successful management requires a fundamental understanding of the disease process, its clinical presentation, and proper evaluation. Treatment must be instituted early and is aimed at reversing the airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and hyper-reactivity that often lead to lower airway obstruction, impaired ventilation, and oxygenation. Most patients are effectively treated with standard therapy including beta2-adrenergic agonists and corticosteroids. Others necessitate adjunctive therapies and escalation to noninvasive ventilation or intubation. We will review the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment options for pediatric patients presenting with status asthmaticus with a particular focus on refractory status asthmaticus treated with volatile anesthetics. In addition, we include a proven approach to the management of these patients in the critical care setting, which requires close coordination between critical care and anesthesia providers. We present a case series of three patients, two of which have the longest reported cases of continuous isoflurane use in status asthmaticus. This series was obtained from a retrospective chart review and highlights the efficacy of the volatile anesthetic, isoflurane, in three pediatric patients with refractory life-threatening status asthmaticus. PMID:25580870

  13. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  14. Socioeconomic status and response to antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Burch, Lisa S; Smith, Colette J; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Margaret A; Lampe, Fiona C

    2016-05-15

    It has been shown that socioeconomic factors are associated with the prognosis of several chronic diseases; however, there is no recent systematic review of their effect on HIV treatment outcomes. We aimed to review the evidence regarding the existence of an association of socioeconomic status with virological and immunological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We systematically searched the current literature using the database PubMed. We identified and summarized original research studies in high-income countries that assessed the association between socioeconomic factors (education, employment, income/financial status, housing, health insurance, and neighbourhood-level socioeconomic factors) and virological response, immunological response, and ART nonadherence among people with HIV-prescribed ART. A total of 48 studies met the inclusion criteria (26 from the United States, six Canadian, 13 European, and one Australian), of which 14, six, and 35 analysed virological, immunological, and ART nonadherence outcomes, respectively. Ten (71%), four (67%), and 23 (66%) of these studies found a significant association between lower socioeconomic status and poorer response, and none found a significant association with improved response. Several studies showed that adjustment for nonadherence attenuated the association between socioeconomic status and ART response. Our review provides strong support that socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poorer response to ART. However, most studies have been conducted in settings such as the United States without universal free healthcare access. Further study in settings with free access to ART could help assess the impact of socioeconomic status on ART outcomes and the mechanisms by which it operates. PMID:26919732

  15. [How has social status been measured in health research? A review of the international literature].

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Báltica; Zitko, Pedro; Pinedo, Rafael; Espinoza, Manuel; Albor, Christo

    2011-06-01

    Social status (SS) is a multidimensional variable that is used widely in health research. There is no single optimal method for estimating social status. Rather, in each case the measurement may vary depending on the research subject, the base theory considered, the population of interest, the event of interest and, in some cases, the available information. This literature review develops the following topics related to SS measurement, based on the international scientific sources available electronically: i) identification of the role of SS in the context of social epidemiology research, ii) description of the principal indicators and methodological approaches used to measure SS in health research, and iii) analysis of the distinct difficulties of SS measurement in specific populations such as ethnic groups, women, children, the elderly, and in rural vs. urban contexts. The review finally makes it possible to describe some of the implications of SS measurement in Latin American countries. PMID:21829971

  16. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    study, the 5-year planning documents have been reviewed, from the 1(st)plan to 12(th)plan, to enable reflection and throw some light into the future directions of AYUSH system.

  17. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    5-year planning documents have been reviewed, from the 1stplan to 12thplan, to enable reflection and throw some light into the future directions of AYUSH system. PMID:26649240

  18. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    study, the 5-year planning documents have been reviewed, from the 1(st)plan to 12(th)plan, to enable reflection and throw some light into the future directions of AYUSH system. PMID:26649240

  19. Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Traumatic Endophthalmitis over a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nicoară, Simona Delia; Călinici, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcome and identify the prognostic factors of traumatic endophthalmitis over a 5-year period. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all the traumatic endophthalmities that we treated in our department over the last 5 years (2009–2013). We extracted the following parameters: age, gender, wound anatomy, associated ocular lesions, treatment, and initial and final visual acuities. We used the program SPSS version 20.0.0. for the statistical analysis of our data. Results. During the last 5 years, we treated 14 traumatic endophthalmities, representing 46.66% of all types of endophthalmities. The infection rate in open globe injuries was 8.13% and 34.78%, if an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) was associated. All the patients were males with the median age of 37 years. Initial visual acuities varied between light perception and 0.4 and the timing of treatment from a few hours to 10 days. We administered antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, systemically and intravitreally, in all cases. We performed pars plana vitrectomy in 64.28% of cases. In 57.14% of cases, the final visual acuity was 0.1 or more. Conclusions. IOFBs increased significantly the risk for endophthalmitis. The worse prognostic factors were retinal detachment at presentation and delayed treatment. This trial is registered with IRCT2014082918966N1. PMID:25302113

  20. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  1. Nutritional status in pregnant adolescents: a systematic review of biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Moran, Victoria Hall

    2007-04-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for many industrialized countries and is associated with significant medical, nutritional, social and economic risk for mothers and their infants. Despite this, relatively little is known about the nutritional status of this population. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the current evidence relating to the biochemical markers of nutritional status of pregnant adolescents living in industrialized countries. Six papers were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the majority of which were conducted in the United States. The studies were of variable quality and most failed to control for potential confounders which may have strongly influenced the findings. Due to limited research, conclusions cannot be drawn about the zinc and calcium status of pregnant adolescents, and data on folate and vitamin B(12) status appeared conflicting. There was some consensus among studies, however, to suggest that indicators of anaemia and iron status were compromised in pregnant adolescents, particularly during the third trimester of pregnancy. Chronological age did not appear to influence nutritional status, although there was some evidence to suggest that increasing gynaecologic age may positively influence plasma ferritin levels. Current research is limited by sampling and measurement bias, and research is urgently required to address these limitations. Further consideration should also be made of the influence of the role of socio-economic support on pregnant adolescents' nutritional status. The achievement of improved nutrition in pregnancy among adolescents requires multidisciplinary collaborations of adolescent healthcare providers, academics, professional organizations, policymakers, industry and service users. Only once this is achieved can adolescent nutrition, and adolescent nutrition in pregnancy, be significantly and sustainably optimized.

  2. Healthcare interventions for depression in low socioeconomic status populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rojas-García, Antonio; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gonçalves Bradley, Daniela C; Pastor-Moreno, Guadalupe; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence and impact of depressive disorders in developed countries are associated with certain population characteristics, including socioeconomic status. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to identify, characterize and analyze the short- and long-term effectiveness of healthcare interventions for depressive disorders in low socioeconomic status populations. The main biomedical databases were searched and fifteen articles assessing seventeen interventions were included in the review. Most interventions were implemented in the US (n=11) and culturally adapted (n=11). We conducted two meta-analyses for assessing both the short- (n=11) and long-term effectiveness (n=12) of interventions. There was a statistically significant reduction in overall depressive symptoms (-0.58, 95% CI [-0.74, -0.41]) at short-term (up to three months after the intervention), especially for combined and psychotherapeutic interventions. The overall effect slightly decreased at long-term (-0.42, 95% CI [-0.63, -0.21]). Those interventions including culturally specific training for providers and booster sessions seemed to be more effective in reducing depressive disorders at short and long term, respectively. In conclusion, healthcare interventions are effective in decreasing clinically significant depressive disorders in low socioeconomic status populations. Future interventions should take into account the key characteristics identified in this review.

  3. Bilateral renal leiomyoma with 5 year follow-up: Case report.

    PubMed

    Goren, Mehmet Resit; Erbay, Gurcan; Ozer, Cevahir; Goren, Vinil; Bal, Nebil

    2015-01-01

    Renal leiomyomas are exceptionally rare benign tumours of the kidney. Although the renal leiomyomas usually do not metastasize, the differential diagnosis between renal leiomyomas and malign lesions (leiomyosarcoma or renal cell carcinoma) cannot be done by radiological examinations, but is possible by histological examination. Surgery is the preferred treatment. After surgery, the prognosis is excellent without recurrence. Although uterine leiomyomas can be multicentric, renal leiomyomas have been single lesions. We report an incidentally detected case of bilateral renal leiomyoma in a 50-year-old woman with a 5-year follow-up. We also review the literature and discuss clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:26664510

  4. Constraints on Extragalactic Background Light from Cherenkov telescopes: status and perspectives for the next 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Mazin, Daniel

    2009-04-08

    Very high energy (VHE, E>30 GeV){gamma}-rays are absorbed via interaction with low-energy photons from the extragalactic background light (EBL) if the involved photon energies are above the threshold for electron-positron pair creation. The VHE {gamma}-ray absorption, which is energy dependent and increases strongly with redshift, distorts the VHE energy spectra observed from distant objects. The observed energy spectra of the AGNs carry therefore an imprint of the EBL. Recent detections of hard spectra of distant blazars (z = 0.11-0.54) by H.E.S.S. and MAGIC put strong constraints on the EBL density in the optical to near infrared waveband. It is, however, not yet possible to distinguish between an intrinsic softening of blazar spectra and a softening caused by the interaction with low energy EBL photons. In this paper, we give an overview of the EBL constraints, their limitations and perspectives for the joint efforts of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space telescope and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes.

  5. Advanced mirror technology development (AMTD) project: 2.5 year status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc; Abplanalp, Laura; Arnold, William; Blaurock, Carl; Egerman, Robert; Mosier, Gary

    2014-08-01

    The Advance Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) project is in Phase 2 of a multiyear effort, initiated in FY12, to mature by at least a half TRL step six critical technologies required to enable 4 meter or larger UVOIR space telescope primary mirror assemblies for both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. AMTD continues to achieve all of its goals and accomplished all of its milestones to date. We have done this by assembling an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes; by deriving engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence mirror systems needed to make the required science measurements; and by defining and prioritizing the most important technical problems to be solved.

  6. Associations between women's autonomy and child nutritional status: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Gwen J; Kordas, Katarzyna; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, many women continue to experience low levels of autonomy. Recent literature has reported that the health consequences of low maternal autonomy extend beyond mothers and translate into health consequences for their children, and may be an important causal factor in child malnutrition. This review summarises the current knowledge of the relationship between maternal autonomy and children's nutritional status (defined as any measure that reflects the nutritional state of the body, such as birthweight or anthropometric scores) and child-feeding practices. The review also includes both discussion of the limitations found in the literature and directions for future research. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Results of the studies included in the review strongly suggest that raising maternal autonomy is an important goal for improving children's nutritional status, yet gaps in the current knowledge exist, further confounded by issues with how autonomy is measured and limitations of cross-cultural comparability. A thorough understanding of the consequences of restricting women's autonomy will inform programmes and policy worldwide, and speed progress towards both empowering women and alleviating the global burden of child malnutrition.

  7. Nutritional and zinc status of head and neck cancer patients: an interpretive review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Beck, F W; Doerr, T D; Shamsa, F H; Penny, H S; Marks, S C; Kaplan, J; Kucuk, O; Mathog, R H

    1998-10-01

    In this review, we provide evidence based on our studies, for zinc deficiency and cell mediated immune disorders, and the effects of protein and zinc status on clinical morbidities in patients with head and neck cancer. We investigated subjects with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. Patients with metastatic disease and with severe co-morbidity were excluded. Nutritional assessment included dietary history, body composition, and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) determination. Zinc status was determined by zinc assay in plasma, lymphocytes, and granulocytes. Pretreatment zinc status and nutritional status were correlated with clinical outcomes in 47 patients. Assessment of immune functions included production of TH1 and TH2 cytokines, T cell subpopulations and cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction to common antigens. At baseline approximately 50% of our subjects were zinc-deficient based on cellular zinc criteria and had decreased production of TH1 cytokines but not TH2 cytokines, decreased NK cell lytic activity and decreased proportion of CD4+ CD45RA+ cells in the peripheral blood. The tumor size and overall stage of the disease correlated with baseline zinc status but not with PNI, alcohol intake, or smoking. Zinc deficiency was associated with increased unplanned hospitalizations. The disease-free interval was highest for the group which had both zinc sufficient and nutrition sufficient status. Zinc deficiency and cell mediated immune dysfunctions were frequently present in patients with head and neck cancer when seen initially. Zinc deficiency resulted in an imbalance of TH1 and TH2 functions. Zinc deficiency was associated with increased tumor size, overall stage of the cancer and increased unplanned hospitalizations. These observations have broad implications in the management of patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:9791836

  8. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  9. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  10. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  11. The Nutritional Status of Low-Income Preschool Children in the United States: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Jonathan; Shackelford, Jo

    This review of the nutritional status of low-income preschool children in the United States discusses the topic in historical perspective and details current knowledge of the nutritional status of preschoolers. Discussion first focuses on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II of 1976-80, and then turns to the National Food…

  12. The health status burden of people with fibromyalgia: a review of studies that assessed health status with the SF-36 or the SF-12

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, D L; Dukes, E M

    2008-01-01

    Objective The current review describes how the health status profile of people with fibromyalgia (FM) compares to that of people in the general population and patients with other health conditions. Methods A review of 37 studies of FM that measured health status with the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) or the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Results Studies performed worldwide showed that FM groups were significantly more impaired than people in the general population on all eight health status domains assessed. These domains include physical functioning, role functioning difficulties caused by physical problems, bodily pain, general health, vitality (energy vs. fatigue), social functioning, role functioning difficulties caused by emotional problems and mental health. FM groups had mental health summary scores that fell 1 standard deviation (SD) below the general population mean, and physical health summary scores that fell 2 SD below the general population mean. FM groups also had a poorer overall health status compared to those with other specific pain conditions. FM groups had similar or significantly lower (poorer) physical and mental health status scores compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, myofacial pain syndrome, primary Sjögren's syndrome and others. FM groups scored significantly lower than the pain condition groups mentioned above on domains of bodily pain and vitality. Health status impairments in pain and vitality are consistent with core features of FM. Conclusions People with FM had an overall health status burden that was greater in magnitude compared to people with other specific pain conditions that are widely accepted as impairing. Review Criteria Studies in this review were identified through a search of electronic databases (MEDLINE: 1990–2006; EMBASE: 1990–2006). Search terms included: ‘fibromyalgia’, ‘health status’,

  13. Association between Maternal Zinc Status, Dietary Zinc Intake and Pregnancy Complications: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rebecca L.; Grieger, Jessica A.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    Adequate zinc stores in the body are extremely important during periods of accelerated growth. However, zinc deficiency is common in developing countries and low maternal circulating zinc concentrations have previously been associated with pregnancy complications. We reviewed current literature assessing circulating zinc and dietary zinc intake during pregnancy and the associations with preeclampsia (PE); spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB); low birthweight (LBW); and gestational diabetes (GDM). Searches of MEDLINE; CINAHL and Scopus databases identified 639 articles and 64 studies were reviewed. In 10 out of 16 studies a difference was reported with respect to circulating zinc between women who gave birth to a LBW infant (≤2500 g) and those who gave birth to an infant of adequate weight (>2500 g), particularly in populations where inadequate zinc intake is prevalent. In 16 of our 33 studies an association was found between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and circulating zinc; particularly in women with severe PE (blood pressure ≥160/110 mmHg). No association between maternal zinc status and sPTB or GDM was seen; however; direct comparisons between the studies was difficult. Furthermore; only a small number of studies were based on women from populations where there is a high risk of zinc deficiency. Therefore; the link between maternal zinc status and pregnancy success in these populations cannot be established. Future studies should focus on those vulnerable to zinc deficiency and include dietary zinc intake as a measure of zinc status. PMID:27754451

  14. Psychosocial environment: definitions, measures and associations with weight status--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Glonti, K; Mackenbach, J D; Ng, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M; Bárdos, H; McKee, M; Rutter, H

    2016-01-01

    Socio-ecological models suggest that many elements of the social environment act as upstream determinants of obesity. This systematic review examined definitions, measures and strength of associations between the psychosocial environment and adult weight status. Studies were included if they were conducted on adults, the outcome was weight status, carried out in any developed country and investigated at least one psychosocial environmental construct. Six databases for primary studies were searched: EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. We restricted our search to studies published in English between January 1995 and February 2015. An adapted 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies' was used to evaluate risk of bias of included studies. Out of 14,784 screened records, 42 articles were assessed using full text. A total of 19 studies were included. The strongest associations with weight status were found for social capital and collective efficacy, although few studies found significant associations. There was heterogeneity in the definitions and metrics of psychosocial environmental constructs. There is limited evidence that greater social capital and collective efficacy are associated with healthier weight status. The research conducted to date has not robustly identified relations. We highlight challenges to undertaking research and establishing causality in this field and provide recommendations for further research.

  15. Technical review of the status of Northern Goshawks in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, D.E.; DeStefano, S.; Goldstein, M.I.; Titus, K.; Crocker-Bedford, C.; Keane, J.J.; Anthony, R.G.; Rosenfield, Robert N.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) was petitioned in 1997 to consider listing Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, west of the 100th meridian of the contiguous United States. In their 12-mo finding issued in June 1998, the FWS determined that listing this population as threatened or endangered was not warranted and based that decision on review existing population and habitat information. Because the status of goshawks in the western U.S. continues to be contentious and the FWS finding has been challenged, the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc. and The Wildlife Society jointly formed a committee to review information regarding the status of the goshawk population in the contiguous U.S. west of the 100th meridian. The committee was requested to: (1) determine if there is evidence of a population trend in goshawks in the western U.S., excluding Alaska; (2) determine if there is evidence that goshawks nesting in the eastern and western U.S. represent distinctive, genetically unique populations; and (3) evaluate evidence for goshawk-habitat relations, including any association with large, mostly-unbroken tracts of old growth and mature forests. Based on existing information, the committee concluded: (1) existing data are not adequate to assess population trend in goshawks west of the 100th meridian; (2) existing analyses of phylogeography have not provided evidence of genetic differences among recognized (atricapillus, laingi) or putative (apache) subspecies, and the genetic distinctness of atricapillus goshawks in western and eastern North America is not known; and (3) at present, assessing the status of goshawks solely using distribution of late-successional forests is not appropriate, based on the current understanding of goshawk-habitat relations, although goshawks clearly use and often select late-successional forests for nesting and foraging. We provide recommendations on information needs to assess

  16. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in children exposed prenatally to maternal dental amalgam: the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gene E; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Love, Tanzy M T; McSorley, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; Yeates, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J; Thurston, Sally W; Harrington, Donald; Zareba, Grazyna; Wallace, Julie M W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Limited human data are available to assess the association between prenatal mercury vapor (Hg⁰)) exposure from maternal dental amalgam restorations and neurodevelopment of children. We evaluated the association between maternal dental amalgam status during gestation and children's neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS). Maternal amalgam status was determined prospectively in a longitudinal cohort study examining the associations of prenatal exposure to nutrients and methylmercury (MeHg) with neurodevelopment. A total of 236 mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the SCDNS in 2001 were eligible to participate. Maternal amalgam status was measured as number of amalgam surfaces (the primary metric) and number of occlusal points. The neurodevelopmental assessment battery was comprised of age-appropriate tests of cognitive, language, and perceptual functions, and scholastic achievement. Linear regression analysis controlled for MeHg exposure, maternal fatty acid status, and other covariates relevant to child development. Maternal amalgam status evaluation yielded an average of 7.0 surfaces (range 0-28) and 11.0 occlusal points (range 0-40) during pregnancy. Neither the number of maternal amalgam surfaces nor occlusal points were associated with any outcome. Our findings do not provide evidence to support a relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg⁰ from maternal dental amalgam and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age.

  17. Does birth spacing affect maternal or child nutritional status? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Kathryn G; Cohen, Roberta J

    2007-07-01

    This review addresses the question of whether a short birth interval is associated with adverse nutritional outcomes for the mother or the child. Indices of anthropometric status (maternal weight or body mass index; child growth) and micronutrient status (e.g. iron or vitamin A) were included as outcomes. A computerized search of all relevant papers published since 1966 was completed, and the 'snowball' method was used to identify additional relevant published or unpublished papers. In total, 57 papers were found to contain data regarding the relationship between birth spacing and nutritional outcomes (35 for child nutrition, 11 for maternal anthropometric status, and 11 for maternal anaemia or micronutrient status). Of these, 23 papers were excluded from further consideration because they did not include any multivariate analysis, leaving 34 papers that met the criteria for the review (22 for child nutrition, eight for maternal anthropometric status, and four for maternal anaemia or micronutrient status). The studies on child nutrition outcomes indicate that a longer birth interval is associated with a lower risk of malnutrition in some populations, but not all. In those countries in which the relationship was significant, the reduction in stunting associated with a previous birth interval >or=36 months ranged from approximately 10% to 50%. Some of this reduction may be due to residual confounding, i.e. to factors not included in the analysis (such as breastfeeding and maternal height). The studies on maternal anthropometric outcomes yielded mixed results. Because the nutritional burden on the mother between pregnancies depends on the extent of breastfeeding, the interpregnancy interval is not the best measure of whether the mother has had a chance to recover from the pregnancy, in terms of repleting her nutritional status. Therefore, some studies examined the 'recuperative interval' (duration of the non-pregnant, non-lactating interval) instead. Taken as a whole

  18. A systematic review of tests for lymph node status in primary endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Selman, Tara J; Mann, Christopher H; Zamora, Javier; Khan, Khalid S

    2008-01-01

    Background The lymph node status of a patient is a key determinate in staging, prognosis and adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer. Despite this, the potential additional morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy makes its role controversial. This study systematically reviews the accuracy literature on sentinel node biopsy; ultra sound scanning, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computer tomography (CT) for determining lymph node status in endometrial cancer. Methods Relevant articles were identified form MEDLINE (1966–2006), EMBASE (1980–2006), MEDION, the Cochrane library, hand searching of reference lists from primary articles and reviews, conference abstracts and contact with experts in the field. The review included 18 relevant primary studies (693 women). Data was extracted for study characteristics and quality. Bivariate random-effect model meta-analysis was used to estimate diagnostic accuracy of the various index tests. Results MRI (pooled positive LR 26.7, 95% CI 10.6 – 67.6 and negative LR 0.29 95% CI 0.17 – 0.49) and successful sentinel node biopsy (pooled positive LR 18.9 95% CI 6.7 – 53.2 and negative LR 0.22, 95% CI 0.1 – 0.48) were the most accurate tests. CT was not as accurate a test (pooled positive LR 3.8, 95% CI 2.0 – 7.3 and negative LR of 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 – 0.86. There was only one study that reported the use of ultrasound scanning. Conclusion MRI and sentinel node biopsy have shown similar diagnostic accuracy in confirming lymph node status among women with primary endometrial cancer than CT scanning, although the comparisons made are indirect and hence subject to bias. MRI should be used in preference, in light of the ASTEC trial, because of its non invasive nature. PMID:18457596

  19. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation, Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Washington Facilities (Intrastate) Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, Jack

    1984-11-01

    This report was prepared for BPA in fulfillment of section 1004 (b)(1) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, to review the status of past, present, and proposed future wildlife planning and mitigation program at existing hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. The project evaluations will form the basis for determining any needed remedial measures or additional project analysis. Projects addressed are: Merwin Dam; Swift Project; Yale Project; Cowlitz River; Boundary Dam; Box Canyon Dam; Lake Chelan; Condit Project; Enloe Project; Spokane River; Tumwater and Dryden Dam; Yakima; and Naches Project.

  20. Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Frisullo, Giovanni; Vollono, Catello; Brunetti, Valerio; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Sandroni, Claudio; Di Lella, Giuseppe; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Super-refractory status epilepticus (SE; ie, SE continuing or recurring despite 24 hours of general anesthesia) is a severe condition with high percentage of mortality and morbidity. Usually, this condition occurs because of serious brain damage; nevertheless, some patients develop super-refractory SE without identifiable etiology. Although not uncommonly encountered in neurointensive care, scientific data on this condition are still lacking in terms of treatment and prognosis. Herein, we report a case of super-refractory SE with recovery after 50 days, despite electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs traditionally related to poor prognosis. A review of the literature on super-refractory SE is also presented.

  1. Renal amyloidosis followed more than 5 years: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, H; Boubaker, K; Béji, S; Abderrahim, E; Moussa, F Ben; Turki, S; Goucha, R; Hedri, H; El Younsi, F; Kheder, A; Maiz, H Ben

    2004-01-01

    Renal involvement with amyloidosis is common but causes patient survival to be poor, rarely reaching 5 years. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and biological characteristics as well as treatments and outcomes of patients with renal amyloidosis followed for more than 5 years. Between 1975 and 2003, 485 patients were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis including only 12 patients who were followed more than 5 years. The six men and six women of mean age 42.4 years (range 18 to 66 years) displayed renal signs of lower limb edema in all cases; hypertension in four cases, proteinuria on urinalysis in all cases with microscopic hematuria in five cases. Biological tests showed nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients, normal renal function in nine patients, and renal failure in three patients whose mean creatinine was 481.6 micromol/L (range 294 to 726). The amyloidosis was AA type in 11 cases and non-AA in one case. An etiologic survey revealed spondylarthropathy in one patient, pulmonary tuberculosis in two patients, chronic bronchitis in three patients, hepatic hydatic cyst in one patient, Mediterranean familial fever in two patients, Crohn's disease in one patient, Hodgkin's lymphoma in one patient, and multiple myeloma in one patient. Specific treatment was initiated with colchicine in seven patients. At a 110-month mean follow-up (range 53 to 153 months), remission of nephrotic syndrome was observed in four cases, progression to chronic renal failure in two patients, and to end-stage renal failure in five cases (range 53 to 196 months), with stabilization of renal function in seven patients. In conclusion, primary amyloid disease should be optimally suppressed in patients with renal involvement. The role of this treatment in remission of renal amyloidosis is not well established. This efficacy of the treatment has been demonstrated in some patients with improved survival.

  2. The impact of socioeconomic status on foodborne illness in high income countries: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Newman, K. L.; Leon, J. S.; Rebolledo, P. A.; Scallan, E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Though low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering 4 pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens. PMID:25600652

  3. Socioeconomic status and antisocial behaviour among children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Piotrowska, Patrycja J; Stride, Christopher B; Croft, Simone E; Rowe, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Previous research on the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and child and adolescent antisocial behaviour has produced mixed findings showing variation in the strength of association. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarise evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic status and broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour, investigating variation across a range of antisocial subtypes and other potential moderators, including age, sex and informant. We identified 133 studies containing data suitable for effect size calculation, and 139 independent effect sizes were analysed (total N=339868). The global meta-analysis showed that lower family socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of antisocial behaviour. Moderation analyses revealed this relationship was stronger where callous-unemotional traits were the outcome, and where antisocial behaviour was reported by parents or teachers rather than self-reported. The relationship between family SES and antisocial behaviour, however, was independent of higher-level constructs such as national income inequality. These results indicate that SES can be considered a robust correlate of broadly conceptualised antisocial behaviour but the strength of this relationship may depend on the antisocial subtype under investigation and the design of the study.

  4. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. PMID:27422502

  5. A Review of Methods for Sensing the Nitrogen Status in Plants: Advantages, Disadvantages and Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Huerta, Rafael F.; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G.; Contreras-Medina, Luis M.; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) plays a key role in the plant life cycle. It is the main plant mineral nutrient needed for chlorophyll production and other plant cell components (proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids). Crop yield is affected by plant N status. Thus, the optimization of nitrogen fertilization has become the object of intense research due to its environmental and economic impact. This article focuses on reviewing current methods and techniques used to determine plant N status. Kjeldahl digestion and Dumas combustion have been used as reference methods for N determination in plants, but they are destructive and time consuming. By using spectroradiometers, reflectometers, imagery from satellite sensors and digital cameras, optical properties have been measured to estimate N in plants, such as crop canopy reflectance, leaf transmittance, chlorophyll and polyphenol fluorescence. High correlation has been found between optical parameters and plant N status, and those techniques are not destructive. However, some drawbacks include chlorophyll saturation, atmospheric and soil interference, and the high cost of instruments. Electrical properties of plant tissue have been used to estimate quality in fruits, and water content in plants, as well as nutrient deficiency, which suggests that they have potential for use in plant N determination. PMID:23959242

  6. A review of methods for sensing the nitrogen status in plants: advantages, disadvantages and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Huerta, Rafael F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G; Contreras-Medina, Luis M; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V

    2013-08-16

    Nitrogen (N) plays a key role in the plant life cycle. It is the main plant mineral nutrient needed for chlorophyll production and other plant cell components (proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids). Crop yield is affected by plant N status. Thus, the optimization of nitrogen fertilization has become the object of intense research due to its environmental and economic impact. This article focuses on reviewing current methods and techniques used to determine plant N status. Kjeldahl digestion and Dumas combustion have been used as reference methods for N determination in plants, but they are destructive and time consuming. By using spectroradiometers, reflectometers, imagery from satellite sensors and digital cameras, optical properties have been measured to estimate N in plants, such as crop canopy reflectance, leaf transmittance, chlorophyll and polyphenol fluorescence. High correlation has been found between optical parameters and plant N status, and those techniques are not destructive. However, some drawbacks include chlorophyll saturation, atmospheric and soil interference, and the high cost of instruments. Electrical properties of plant tissue have been used to estimate quality in fruits, and water content in plants, as well as nutrient deficiency, which suggests that they have potential for use in plant N determination.

  7. A review of the experimental and theoretical status of the reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. A.

    This paper reviews the status of the reversed-field pinch (RFP) approach to the development of a compact nuclear fusion reactor. Two RFP papers in this conference are complementary; the first paper contains the historical origins and basic concepts concerning MHD instabilities, relaxation and RFP confinement properties as well as a discussion of future prospects of the RFP. This paper gives an overview of the status of plasma parameters of the present main RFP experiments and of the status of theory and experiment of the interesting RFP plasma phenomena of relaxation, self reversal and flux generation (these effects are often referred to as the dynamo effect). The low frequency oscillating-field current drive concept which exploits these effects is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the theoretical results obtained from plasma simulation codes used in these active areas of study. Selected topics of recent research on the Los Alamos ZT-40M experiments are reported. The paper concludes with descriptions of the next generation Los Alamos RFP experiment ZTH, to be located in the new Confinement Physics Research Facility presently under construction, and the characteristics of an RFP compact reactor.

  8. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring.

  9. A review of methods for sensing the nitrogen status in plants: advantages, disadvantages and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Huerta, Rafael F; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon G; Contreras-Medina, Luis M; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo; Prado-Olivarez, Juan; Ocampo-Velazquez, Rosalia V

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) plays a key role in the plant life cycle. It is the main plant mineral nutrient needed for chlorophyll production and other plant cell components (proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids). Crop yield is affected by plant N status. Thus, the optimization of nitrogen fertilization has become the object of intense research due to its environmental and economic impact. This article focuses on reviewing current methods and techniques used to determine plant N status. Kjeldahl digestion and Dumas combustion have been used as reference methods for N determination in plants, but they are destructive and time consuming. By using spectroradiometers, reflectometers, imagery from satellite sensors and digital cameras, optical properties have been measured to estimate N in plants, such as crop canopy reflectance, leaf transmittance, chlorophyll and polyphenol fluorescence. High correlation has been found between optical parameters and plant N status, and those techniques are not destructive. However, some drawbacks include chlorophyll saturation, atmospheric and soil interference, and the high cost of instruments. Electrical properties of plant tissue have been used to estimate quality in fruits, and water content in plants, as well as nutrient deficiency, which suggests that they have potential for use in plant N determination. PMID:23959242

  10. PREMATURITY, NEONATAL HEALTH STATUS, AND LATER CHILD BEHAVIORAL/EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M

    2016-05-01

    Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior. PMID:27090385

  11. PREMATURITY, NEONATAL HEALTH STATUS, AND LATER CHILD BEHAVIORAL/EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Cassiano, Rafaela G M; Gaspardo, Claudia M; Linhares, Maria Beatriz M

    2016-05-01

    Preterm birth can impact on child development. As seen previously, children born preterm present more behavioral and/or emotional problems than do full-term counterparts. In addition to gestational age, neonatal clinical status should be examined to better understand the differential impact of premature birth on later developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review empirical studies on the relationship between prematurity, neonatal health status, and behavioral and/or emotional problems in children. A systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases for articles published from 2009 to 2014 was performed. The inclusion criteria were empirical studies that evaluated behavioral and/or emotional problems that are related to clinical neonatal variables in children born preterm. Twenty-seven studies were reviewed. Results showed that the degree of prematurity and birth weight were associated with emotional and/or behavioral problems in children at different ages. Prematurity that was associated with neonatal clinical conditions (e.g., sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hemorrhage) and such treatments as corticoids and steroids increased the risk for these problems. The volume and abnormalities of specific brain structures also were associated with these outcomes. In conclusion, the neonatal health problems associated with prematurity present a negative impact on later child emotional and adapted behavior.

  12. Trends and current status of general thoracic surgery in Japan revealed by review of nationwide databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide databases of cases treated for thoracic disease have been established by several academic associations in Japan, which contain information showing trends and current status in regard to surgical treatment. The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS), Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS), Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE) have maintained databases of lung cancer cases treated in Japan. In 1986, the number of general thoracic surgery cases was 15,544, which increased to 75,306 in 2013. Furthermore, the number of lung cancer operations performed in 2013 was 37,008, occupying 49.1% of all general thoracic operations. Also, the proportions of adenocarcinoma, female patients, aged patients, stage I disease, and limited resection procedures are increasing in lung cancer surgery cases. While the 5-year overall post-operative survival rate of lung cancer patients was 47.8% in those undergoing surgery in 1989, it was 69.6% in those of 2004, which means 22% increase during 15 years. JATS, JACS, and the Japanese Association for Research of the Thymus (JART) have maintained retrospective databases of thymic epithelial tumor cases. The number of mediastinal tumors surgically treated is also increasing and was 4,780 in 2013, among which thymoma was the most prevalent. The Japanese Association for Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation has developed a prospective nationwide database of lung transplantation cases in Japan, which contains clinical data for 466 patients who received lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation from 1998 to 2015. Nationwide databases are currently being utilized for clinical studies and will also contribute to international projects related to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification system. PMID:27651932

  13. Trends and current status of general thoracic surgery in Japan revealed by review of nationwide databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide databases of cases treated for thoracic disease have been established by several academic associations in Japan, which contain information showing trends and current status in regard to surgical treatment. The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS), Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS), Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE) have maintained databases of lung cancer cases treated in Japan. In 1986, the number of general thoracic surgery cases was 15,544, which increased to 75,306 in 2013. Furthermore, the number of lung cancer operations performed in 2013 was 37,008, occupying 49.1% of all general thoracic operations. Also, the proportions of adenocarcinoma, female patients, aged patients, stage I disease, and limited resection procedures are increasing in lung cancer surgery cases. While the 5-year overall post-operative survival rate of lung cancer patients was 47.8% in those undergoing surgery in 1989, it was 69.6% in those of 2004, which means 22% increase during 15 years. JATS, JACS, and the Japanese Association for Research of the Thymus (JART) have maintained retrospective databases of thymic epithelial tumor cases. The number of mediastinal tumors surgically treated is also increasing and was 4,780 in 2013, among which thymoma was the most prevalent. The Japanese Association for Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation has developed a prospective nationwide database of lung transplantation cases in Japan, which contains clinical data for 466 patients who received lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation from 1998 to 2015. Nationwide databases are currently being utilized for clinical studies and will also contribute to international projects related to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification system.

  14. Trends and current status of general thoracic surgery in Japan revealed by review of nationwide databases.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Meinoshin

    2016-08-01

    Nationwide databases of cases treated for thoracic disease have been established by several academic associations in Japan, which contain information showing trends and current status in regard to surgical treatment. The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS), Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS), Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE) have maintained databases of lung cancer cases treated in Japan. In 1986, the number of general thoracic surgery cases was 15,544, which increased to 75,306 in 2013. Furthermore, the number of lung cancer operations performed in 2013 was 37,008, occupying 49.1% of all general thoracic operations. Also, the proportions of adenocarcinoma, female patients, aged patients, stage I disease, and limited resection procedures are increasing in lung cancer surgery cases. While the 5-year overall post-operative survival rate of lung cancer patients was 47.8% in those undergoing surgery in 1989, it was 69.6% in those of 2004, which means 22% increase during 15 years. JATS, JACS, and the Japanese Association for Research of the Thymus (JART) have maintained retrospective databases of thymic epithelial tumor cases. The number of mediastinal tumors surgically treated is also increasing and was 4,780 in 2013, among which thymoma was the most prevalent. The Japanese Association for Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation has developed a prospective nationwide database of lung transplantation cases in Japan, which contains clinical data for 466 patients who received lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation from 1998 to 2015. Nationwide databases are currently being utilized for clinical studies and will also contribute to international projects related to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification system. PMID:27651932

  15. Trends and current status of general thoracic surgery in Japan revealed by review of nationwide databases.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Meinoshin

    2016-08-01

    Nationwide databases of cases treated for thoracic disease have been established by several academic associations in Japan, which contain information showing trends and current status in regard to surgical treatment. The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS), Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS), Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS), Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS), and Japan Society for Respiratory Endoscopy (JSRE) have maintained databases of lung cancer cases treated in Japan. In 1986, the number of general thoracic surgery cases was 15,544, which increased to 75,306 in 2013. Furthermore, the number of lung cancer operations performed in 2013 was 37,008, occupying 49.1% of all general thoracic operations. Also, the proportions of adenocarcinoma, female patients, aged patients, stage I disease, and limited resection procedures are increasing in lung cancer surgery cases. While the 5-year overall post-operative survival rate of lung cancer patients was 47.8% in those undergoing surgery in 1989, it was 69.6% in those of 2004, which means 22% increase during 15 years. JATS, JACS, and the Japanese Association for Research of the Thymus (JART) have maintained retrospective databases of thymic epithelial tumor cases. The number of mediastinal tumors surgically treated is also increasing and was 4,780 in 2013, among which thymoma was the most prevalent. The Japanese Association for Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation has developed a prospective nationwide database of lung transplantation cases in Japan, which contains clinical data for 466 patients who received lung transplantation or heart-lung transplantation from 1998 to 2015. Nationwide databases are currently being utilized for clinical studies and will also contribute to international projects related to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification system.

  16. Assessment of calcium status in Maine forests: Review and future projection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntington, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    Forest harvesting and acidic deposition can cause substantial decreases in the calcium (Ca) inventory of forest soils if such losses are not replenished through mineral weathering, atmospheric deposition, or fertilization. The net balance between losses and gains defines the forest Ca status. Site-specific studies have measured Ca pools and fluxes in Maine forests, but no synthesis has been published. In this paper, I review the literature on forest Ca and assess the current status and potential future trends. Forest soils in Maine are currently at lesser risk of Ca depletion compared with many forest soils in the central and southeastern United States, because levels of acidic deposition and rates of Ca accumulation in trees are lower in Maine. The rate of Ca accumulation in trees is reduced in Maine as a result of lower growth rates and a higher proportion of conifer trees that require less Ca than hardwoods. However, field-scale biogeochemical studies in Maine and New Hampshire, and regional estimates of harvest removals and soil inventories coupled with low weathering estimates, indicate that Ca depletion is a realistic concern in Maine. The synthesis of site-specific and regional data for Maine in conjunction with the depletion measured directly in surrounding areas indicates that the Ca status of many forest soils in Maine is likely declining. Ca status could decrease further in the future if forest growth rates increase in response to climate trends and recovery from insect-induced mortality and excessive harvesting in recent years. Proposed climate change induced reductions in spruce and fir and increases in hardwoods would also increase the risk of Ca depletion. ?? 2005 NRC.

  17. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study, using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio < 150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required. PMID:25663363

  18. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2015-08-01

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required. PMID:25663363

  19. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2015-08-01

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required.

  20. Performance of the MIR Cooperative Solar Array After 2.5 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States and Russia to produce 6 kW of power for the Russian space station Mir. Four, multi-orbit test sequences were executed between June 1996 and December 1998 to measure MCSA electrical performance. A dedicated Fortran computer code was developed to analyze the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. The computational performance results compared very favorably with the measured flight data in most cases. Minor performance degradation was detected in one current generating section of the MCSA. Yet overall, the flight data indicated the MCSA was meeting and exceeding performance expectations. There was no precipitous performance loss due to contamination or other causes after 2.5 years of operation. In this paper, we review the MCSA flight electrical performance tests, data and computational modeling and discuss findings from data comparisons with the computational results.

  1. The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from over 5 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Eldakar, Omar T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years numerous reports have confirmed and replicated the specific brain cooling and thermal window predictions derived from the thermoregulatory theory of yawning, and no study has found evidence contrary to these findings. Here we review the comparative research supporting this model of yawning among homeotherms, while highlighting a recent report showing how the expression of contagious yawning in humans is altered by seasonal climate variation. The fact that yawning is constrained to a thermal window of ambient temperature provides unique and compelling support in favor of this theory. Heretofore, no existing alternative hypothesis of yawning can explain these results, which have important implications for understanding the potential functional role of this behavior, both physiologically and socially, in humans and other animals. In discussion we stress the broader applications of this work in clinical settings, and counter the various criticisms of this theory. PMID:23293583

  2. Coronary Artery Disease and Its Risk Factors Status in Iran: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, M; Kazemi-Bajestani, S M R; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Ferns, G A A

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability in the world. The high prevalence and morbidity associated with CAD in Iran is one of the most pressing health problems. Methods We have reviewed the status of CAD and prevalence of its traditional and novel risk factors based on the published papers in recent years that may have an impact on the rate of CAD in Iran. Evaluation of current impact of metabolic syndrome in Iran was the other aim of this review, as it contributes to pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We reviewed all PubMed indexed related studies. Some evidences from national articles which were published by the Ministry Of Health and Medical Education Research Council Certified Medical Journals of Islamic Republic of Iran were also included. Results The prevalence of CAD, coronary risk factors and metabolic syndrome in Iran is higher than Western countries and similar to some Middle East countries. There are limited data with regard to novel coronary risk factors in Iran. Conclusion Primary and secondary prevention of CAD including life style modifications and dietary interventions strongly recommended in Iranian population. PMID:24069531

  3. Implantable and ingestible medical devices with wireless telemetry functionalities: a review of current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kiourti, Asimina; Psathas, Konstantinos A; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless medical telemetry permits the measurement of physiological signals at a distance through wireless technologies. One of the latest applications is in the field of implantable and ingestible medical devices (IIMDs) with integrated antennas for wireless radiofrequency (RF) communication (telemetry) with exterior monitoring/control equipment. Implantable medical devices (MDs) perform an expanding variety of diagnostic and therapeutic functions, while ingestible MDs receive significant attention in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Design of such wireless IIMD telemetry systems is highly intriguing and deals with issues related to: operation frequency selection, electronics and powering, antenna design and performance, and modeling of the wireless channel. In this paper, we attempt to comparatively review the current status and challenges of IIMDs with wireless telemetry functionalities. Full solutions of commercial IIMDs are also recorded. The objective is to provide a comprehensive reference for scientists and developers in the field, while indicating directions for future research.

  4. Children's psychological health status--the impact of liver transplantation: a review.

    PubMed

    Bradford, R

    1991-09-01

    Medical audit needs to encompass physical, psychological and social aspects to patient functioning. The aim of this paper is to review the psychosocial impact of liver transplantation on children and their families. Evidence suggests that end stage liver diseases are associated with developmental delays. Emotional and behavioural problems are common and have been found to relate to the child's developmental status, physical appearance as well as family functioning. Post transplant, children and families often experience an exacerbation of preexisting emotional problems. One year post transplant, children typically show continuing developmental delays. Longer term assessments of quality of life suggest that children may experience fewer hospital contacts and that over time psychological difficulties reduce. Many families continue to experience problems in normalizing their interactions within and outside the family. The findings demonstrate the importance of including psychosocial outcomes in auditing the efficacy of medical interventions.

  5. Environmental Considerations for Improving Nutritional Status in Older Adults with Dementia: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Joy W; Lawrence, Jeannine C

    2015-11-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, the American health care system will face the unique challenge of providing care for these individuals, including many who will be diagnosed with some form of dementia. As dementia progresses, patients require increasing amounts of care and nutrient intake usually declines. This tends to result in weight loss, malnutrition, and increased morbidity and mortality. Various interventions have been developed with the goal of improving meal intake and reducing unintentional weight loss in patients with dementia. Several studies have shown that meal intake improves with the provision of adequate assistance, either from staff members or from volunteer feeding assistants. Some studies have focused on the method of meal service and its influence on meal intake and nutrition status. Both buffet-style and family-style dining have shown promising results in terms of improving meal intake and quality of life among older adults in long-term-care settings. Other environment-related interventions include improving lighting and visual contrast, altering the dining room to more closely resemble a home-style setting, using the aroma of food to stimulate appetite, using routine seating arrangements, and using relaxing or familiar music in the dining room to provide a calmer environment. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the research on environment-based interventions to improve nutritional status among older adults with dementia, to describe potential for practical applications, and to identify gaps in the existing literature whereon further research is warranted.

  6. The influence of age and weight status on cardiac autonomic control in healthy children: a review.

    PubMed

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Fisher, J P

    2014-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses can provide a non-invasive evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity. How autonomic control normally develops in childhood and how this is affected by obesity remain incompletely understood. In this review we examine the evidence that childhood age and weight status influence autonomic control of the heart as assessed using HRV. Electronic databases (Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies examining HRV in healthy children from birth to 18 years who adhered to the Task Force (1996) guidelines. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven examined childhood age and HRV. A reduction in 24-hour LF:HF was reported from birth to infancy (1 year), while overall HRV (SDNN) showed a marked and progressive increase. From infancy to early-to-late childhood (from 12 months to 15 years) LF:HF ratio was reported to decline further albeit at a slower rate, while RMSSD and SDNN increased. Twenty studies examined the effects of weight status and body composition on HRV. In a majority of studies, obese children exhibited reductions in RMSSD (n = 8/13), pNN50% (n = 7/9) and HF power (n = 14/18), no difference was reported for LF (n = 10/18), while LF:HF ratio was elevated (n = 10/15). HRV changes during childhood are consistent with a marked and progressive increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity relative to sympathetic activity. Obesity disrupts the normal maturation of cardiac autonomic control.

  7. [Health behaviour and health status of nursing staff--a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Tracogna, U; Klewer, J; Kugler, J

    2002-07-01

    Presently around 1.1 million nurses are employed in the German health care system. Due to increased workload and staff reduction, studies on the health behaviour and health condition of nursing staff are increasingly important. Hence we reviewed the literature on health behaviour and health condition of nursing staff. Articles available in Medline and Embase from 1978 to 2000 were included, focussing on smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, eating habits, body-mass index, dental health status, risk behaviour in traffic, workload, burnout syndrome, sports and recreation, job satisfaction, subjective health status, subjective complaints, vaccinations and quality of life. Health behaviour was divided in unhealthy and healthy behaviour. It became obvious that most of the studies focussed on investigation of unhealthy behaviour, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse and poor eating habits. Health promotion was mainly seen as avoiding these unhealthy habits. Only in current studies definitions of health promoting behaviour were developed as a part of a comprehensive life-style.

  8. Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Merten, Sonja; Martin Hilber, Adriane; Biaggi, Christina; Secula, Florence; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Namgyal, Pem; Hombach, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease. PMID:26317975

  9. Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Biaggi, Christina; Secula, Florence; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Namgyal, Pem; Hombach, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease. PMID:26317975

  10. Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Merten, Sonja; Martin Hilber, Adriane; Biaggi, Christina; Secula, Florence; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Namgyal, Pem; Hombach, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Using meta-ethnographic methods, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to understand gender-related reasons at individual, family, community and health facility levels why millions of children in low and middle income countries are still not reached by routine vaccination programmes. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ERIC, Anthropological Lit, CSA databases, IBSS, ISI Web of Knowledge, JSTOR, Soc Index and Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Key words were built around the themes of immunization, vaccines, health services, health behaviour, and developing countries. Only papers, which reported on in-depth qualitative data, were retained. Twenty-five qualitative studies, which investigated barriers to routine immunisation, were included in the review. These studies were conducted between 1982 and 2012; eighteen were published after 2000. The studies represent a wide range of low- to middle income countries including some that have well known coverage challenges. We found that women's low social status manifests on every level as a barrier to accessing vaccinations: access to education, income, as well as autonomous decision-making about time and resource allocation were evident barriers. Indirectly, women's lower status made them vulnerable to blame and shame in case of childhood illness, partly reinforcing access problems, but partly increasing women's motivation to use every means to keep their children healthy. Yet in settings where gender discrimination exists most strongly, increasing availability and information may not be enough to reach the under immunised. Programmes must actively be designed to include mitigation measures to facilitate women's access to immunisation services if we hope to improve immunisation coverage. Gender inequality needs to be addressed on structural, community and household levels if the number of unvaccinated children is to substantially decrease.

  11. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28–60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  12. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  13. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28-60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  14. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Carlos A.; Moura, Erly C.; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, particularly among men, three main conclusions emerge from the studies reviewed: 1. Obesity in the developing world can no longer be considered solely a disease of groups with higher SES. 2. The burden of obesity in each developing country tends to shift towards the groups with lower SES as the country's gross national product (GNP) increases. 3. The shift of obesity towards women with low SES apparently occurs at an earlier stage of economic development than it does for men. The crossover to higher rates of obesity among women of low SES is found at a GNP per capita of about US$ 2500, the mid-point value for lower-middle-income economies. The results of this review reinforce the urgent need to: include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries; improve the access of all social classes in these countries to reliable information on the determinants and consequences of obesity; and design and implement consistent public actions on the physical, economic, and sociocultural environment that make healthier choices concerning diet and physical activity feasible for all. A significant step in this direction was taken with the approval of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health by the World Health Assembly in May 2004. PMID:15654409

  15. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  16. Specialist Pediatric Palliative Care Referral Practices in Pediatric Oncology: A Large 5-year Retrospective Audit

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Damani, Anuja; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To audit referral practices of pediatric oncologists referred to specialist pediatric palliative care services. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of medical case records of pediatric palliative care patients over a period of 5 years from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Descriptive summaries of demographic, clinical variables, and patient circumstances at the time of referral and during end-of-life care were examined. Results: A total of 1135 patients were referred from pediatric oncology with a gradual increasing trend over 5 years. About 84.6% consultations took place in the outpatient setting. In 97.9% of the cases, parents were the primary caregivers. Availability of specialist pediatric health-care services at local places was available in 21.2% cases and 48% families earned <5000 INR (approximately 73 USD) in a month. Around 28.3% of the referrals were from leukemia clinic and maximum references were late with 72.4% patients having advanced disease at presentation. 30.3% of the referrals were made for counseling and communication and 54.2% had high symptom burden during referral. After referral, 21.2% patients continued with oral metronomic chemotherapy and 10.5% were referred back to oncology services for palliative radiotherapy. Only 4.9% patients had more than 2 follow-ups. 90.8% of the patients were cared for at home in the last days of illness by local general practitioners. 70.6% of the deaths were anticipated. Conclusions: Oncologists referred patients late in the course of disease trajectory. Most of the referrals were made for counseling and communication, but many patients had high symptom burden during referral. PMID:27559254

  17. Diabetic Gastroparesis: what we have learned and had to unlearn in the past 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Purna; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic gastroparesis is a disorder that occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is associated with considerable morbidity among these patients and resultant economic burden on the health system. It is primarily a disease seen in middle aged women though the increased predisposition in women still remains unexplained. Patients often present with nausea, vomiting, bloating, early satiety, and abdominal pain. The pathogenesis of this complex disorder is still not well understood but involves abnormalities in multiple interacting cell types including the extrinsic nervous system, enteric nervous system, Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC), smooth muscles and immune cells. The primary diagnostic test remains gastric scintigraphy though other modalities such as breath test, capsule, ultrasound, MRI and SPECT imaging show promise as alternative diagnostic modalities. The mainstay of treatment for diabetic gastroparesis has been antiemetics, prokinetics, nutritional support and pain control. In recent years, gastric stimulation has been used in refractory cases with nausea and vomiting. As we better understand the pathophysiology, newer treatment modalities are emerging which aim to correct the underlying defect. In this review we highlight what has been learned about diabetic gastroparesis in the past 5 years. We review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of diabetic gastroparesis focusing on the areas that are still controversial and those that require more studies. We also focus on advances in our understanding of the cellular changes that underlie development of diabetic gastroparesis highlighting new opportunities for targeted therapy. PMID:20871131

  18. Dental caries prevalence in 5-year-old children in Mallow (a non-fluoridated area), Cork, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mageean, J F; Holland, T J; Gleeson, P

    1979-04-01

    295 5-year-old children were examined in Mallow, a non-fluoridated town in North Cork to ascertain the dental status of children commencing first level education. The results were compared with those found in Baja, Hungary and in Barnsley, England. The def in Mallow was found to be 5.15 and the Met Need Index 14%. The authors suggest that the programmes of dental care should be re-examined in the light of these findings and more emphasis placed on the prevention and treatment of caries at an earlier age.

  19. Health Status and Health Determinants of Older Immigrant Women in Canada: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Guruge, Sepali; Birpreet, Birpreet; Samuels-Dennis, Joan A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing international migration in the context of aging populations makes a comprehensive understanding of older immigrant women's health status and determinants of their health particularly urgent. Using Arksey and O'Malley's framework, we conducted a scoping review to examine the available literature on the health of older immigrant women in Canada. We searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases for the period of 1990 to 2014 for Canadian-based, peer-reviewed studies on the topic. A total of 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles were divided into six areas of focus: physical health; mental health; abuse; health promotion and chronic disease prevention; barriers to healthcare access and utilization; and health beliefs, behaviours, and practices. Our results show that the health of older immigrant women is affected by the interplay of various social determinants of health including the physical and social environment; economic conditions; cultural beliefs; gendered norms; and the healthcare delivery system. Our results also revealed that older immigrant women tend to have more health problems, underutilize preventive services, such as cancer screening, and experience more difficulties in accessing healthcare services. PMID:26273480

  20. Concise Review: The Clinical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Musculoskeletal Regeneration: Current Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Steinert, Andre F.; Rackwitz, Lars; Gilbert, Fabian; Nöth, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative therapies in the musculoskeletal system are based on the suitable application of cells, biomaterials, and/or factors. For an effective approach, numerous aspects have to be taken into consideration, including age, disease, target tissue, and several environmental factors. Significant research efforts have been undertaken in the last decade to develop specific cell-based therapies, and in particular adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells hold great promise for such regenerative strategies. Clinical translation of such therapies, however, remains a work in progress. In the clinical arena, autologous cells have been harvested, processed, and readministered according to protocols distinct for the target application. As outlined in this review, such applications range from simple single-step approaches, such as direct injection of unprocessed or concentrated blood or bone marrow aspirates, to fabrication of engineered constructs by seeding of natural or synthetic scaffolds with cells, which were released from autologous tissues and propagated under good manufacturing practice conditions (for example, autologous chondrocyte implantation). However, only relatively few of these cell-based approaches have entered the clinic, and none of these treatments has become a “standard of care” treatment for an orthopaedic disease to date. The multifaceted reasons for the current status from the medical, research, and regulatory perspectives are discussed here. In summary, this review presents the scientific background, current state, and implications of clinical mesenchymal stem cell application in the musculoskeletal system and provides perspectives for future developments. PMID:23197783

  1. The Association of Area Socioeconomic Status and Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Sandi L.; Shim, Matthew J.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Vernon, Sally W.; Amick, Benjamin C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although numerous studies have examined the association of area socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening after controlling for individual SES, findings have been inconsistent. A systematic review of existing studies is timely in order to identify conceptual and methodologic limitations and to provide a basis for future research directions and policy. Objective The objectives were to: 1) describe the study designs, constructs, methods, and measures; 2) describe the independent association of area SES and cancer screening; and 3) identify neglected areas of research. Methods We searched 6 electronic databases and manually searched cited and citing articles. Eligible studies were published before 2008 in peer-reviewed journals in English, represented primary data on individuals aged ≥18 years from developed countries, and measured the association of area and individual SES with breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening. Results Of 19 eligible studies, most measured breast cancer screening. Studies varied widely in research design, definitions and measures of SES, cancer screening behaviors, and covariates. Eight employed multilevel logistic regression, the remainder analyzed data with standard single level logistic regression. The majority measured 1 or 2 indicators of area and individual SES; common indicators at both levels were poverty, income, and education. There was no consistent pattern in the association between area SES and cancer screening. Discussion The gaps and conceptual and methodologic heterogeneity in the literature to date limit definitive conclusions about an underlying association between area SES and cancer screening. We identify five areas of research deserving greater attention in the literature. PMID:19815634

  2. Current status of percutaneous vertebroplasty and percutaneous kyphoplasty – a review

    PubMed Central

    Yimin, Yang; Zhiwei, Ren; Wei, Ma; Jha, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) and kyphoplasty (PK) are the 2 vertebral augmentation procedures that have emerged as minimally invasive surgical options to treat painful vertebral compression fractures (VCF) during the last 2 decades. VCF may either be osteoporotic or tumor-associated. Two hundred million women are affected by osteoporosis globally. Vertebral fracture may result in acute pain around the fracture site, loss of vertebral height due to vertebral collapse, spinal instability, and kyphotic deformity. The main goal of the PV and PK procedures is to give immediate pain relief to patients and restore the vertebral height lost due to fracture. In percutaneous vertebroplasty, bone cement is injected through a minimal incision into the fractured site. Kyphoplasty involves insertion of a balloon into the fractured site, followed by inflation-deflation to create a cavity into which the filler material is injected, and the balloon is taken out prior to cement injection. This literature review presents a qualitative overview on the current status of vertebral augmentation procedures, especially PV and PK, and compares the efficacy and safety of these 2 procedures. The review consists of a brief history of the development of these 2 techniques, a discussion on the current research on the bone cement, clinical outcome of the 2 procedures, and it also sheds light on ongoing and future research to maximize the efficacy and safety of vertebral augmentation procedures. PMID:24097261

  3. Turner syndrome: review of clinical, neuropsychiatric, and EEG status: an experience of tertiary center.

    PubMed

    Saad, Khaled; Abdelrahman, Ahmed A; Abdel-Raheem, Yasser F; Othman, Essam R; Badry, Reda; Othman, Hisham A K; Sobhy, Karema M

    2014-03-01

    We reviewed the clinical, neuropsychiatric, and EEG status of 53 turner syndrome (TS) females, aged 3-16 years, in Assiut university hospitals, Upper Egypt. The diagnosis and care of patients with TS in Egypt is still in the developing stage. Hence this study was undertaken to review the details of patients with TS with respect to the pattern of cognitive, psychiatric, and motor dysfunction. We aimed to provide a comprehensive data about the experience of our center comparable to previous studies, which have been published in this field. This will contribute to a better definition of the neuropsychiatric features that may be specific to TS that allows early and better detection and management of these cases. We found FSIQ and verbal IQ that seem to be at a nearly normal level and a decreased performance IQ. ADHD and autistic symptoms were found in 20.70 and 3.77 % of our cohort, respectively. The motor performance in TS was disturbed, with some neurological deficits present in 17 % (reduced muscle tone and reduced muscle power). In addition, females with TS in our study exhibit social and emotional problems, including anxiety (5.66 %) and depression (11.30 %). The EEG results revealed abnormalities in seven patients (13.20 %). One patient presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures showed generalized epileptiform activity, and six patients presenting with intellectual disabilities showed abnormal EEG background activity.

  4. Review of the Theoretical and Experimental Status of Dark Matter Identification with Cosmic-Ray Antideuterons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; Dal, L.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Fuke, H.; Grefe, M.; Hailey, C.; Hamilton, B.; Ibarra, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mognet, I.; Ong, R.A.; Pereira, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or gamma-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectable cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Finally, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Therefore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.

  5. Review of the theoretical and experimental status of dark matter identification with cosmic-ray antideuterons

    DOE PAGES

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; Dal, L.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Fuke, H.; Grefe, M.; Hailey, C.; et al

    2016-01-27

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or γ-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectablemore » cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth’s geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Lastly, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Furthermore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.« less

  6. Review of the theoretical and experimental status of dark matter identification with cosmic-ray antideuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, T.; Boggs, S.; Bufalino, S.; Dal, L.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Fuke, H.; Grefe, M.; Hailey, C.; Hamilton, B.; Ibarra, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mognet, I.; Ong, R. A.; Pereira, R.; Perez, K.; Putze, A.; Raklev, A.; Salati, P.; Sasaki, M.; Tarle, G.; Urbano, A.; Vittino, A.; Wild, S.; Xue, W.; Yoshimura, K.

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen increased theoretical and experimental effort towards the first-ever detection of cosmic-ray antideuterons, in particular as an indirect signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. In contrast to indirect dark matter searches using positrons, antiprotons, or γ-rays, which suffer from relatively high and uncertain astrophysical backgrounds, searches with antideuterons benefit from very suppressed conventional backgrounds, offering a potential breakthrough in unexplored phase space for dark matter. This article is based on the first dedicated cosmic-ray antideuteron workshop, which was held at UCLA in June 2014. It reviews broad classes of dark matter candidates that result in detectable cosmic-ray antideuteron fluxes, as well as the status and prospects of current experimental searches. The coalescence model of antideuteron production and the influence of antideuteron measurements at particle colliders are discussed. This is followed by a review of the modeling of antideuteron propagation through the magnetic fields, plasma currents, and molecular material of our Galaxy, the solar system, the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the atmosphere. Finally, the three ongoing or planned experiments that are sensitive to cosmic-ray antideuterons, BESS, AMS-02, and GAPS, are detailed. As cosmic-ray antideuteron detection is a rare event search, multiple experiments with orthogonal techniques and backgrounds are essential. Therefore, the combination of AMS-02 and GAPS antideuteron searches is highly desirable. Many theoretical and experimental groups have contributed to these studies over the last decade, this review aims to provide the first coherent discussion of the relevant dark matter theories that antideuterons probe, the challenges to predictions and interpretations of antideuteron signals, and the experimental efforts toward cosmic antideuteron detection.

  7. 76 FR 28781 - Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Report: Evaluation of the Validation Status of an In...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... methods (ICCVAM, 2003b). ICCVAM and the Scientific Advisory Committee on Alternative Toxicological Methods... comments made by SACATM at their June 16-17, 2011 meeting (67 FR 23323) when finalizing test method... HUMAN SERVICES Independent Scientific Peer Review Panel Report: Evaluation of the Validation Status...

  8. 1?10 kW Stationary Combined Heat and Power Systems Status and Technical Potential: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H. C.; Singhal, S. C.; Stone, C.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-11-01

    This independent review examines the status and technical potential of 1-10 kW stationary combined heat and power fuel cell systems and analyzes the achievability of the DOE cost, efficiency, and durability targets for 2012, 2015, and 2020.

  9. 78 FR 70525 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of Status Review of Arctic Grayling in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... (Behnke 2002, pp. 327-328). Arctic grayling are native to Arctic Ocean drainages of northwestern Canada..., we published a revised 12-month finding for the Arctic grayling (75 FR 54708). In that finding, we... Status Review of Arctic Grayling in the Upper Missouri River System AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  10. A Comprehensive Review of the Status of Early Childhood Development in the Middle East and North Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Mohammad Salih

    This report reviews the status of early childhood education (ECE) programs in UNICEF's Middle East and North Africa region. The report compiles information about ECE programs in 18 countries based on a questionnaire sent to UNICEF country offices and other sources. The introduction sets out the economic and social rationales for investing in early…

  11. Is Veteran Status and Suicide Risk Assessed in Community Long-Term Care? A Review of the States' Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica M.; Welch, Benjamin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola; Nickel, Michael; Navarro, Jessica; Moon, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    Given recent policy initiatives to address suicide risk among older persons and veterans, community-based elder serving agencies may serve an important role in identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide. A review of state-level long-term assessment instruments was conducted to determine whether veteran status and suicide are…

  12. Surgical treatment of cardiac tumors: a 5-year experience from a single cardiac center

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liang; He, Dengke; Shen, Hua; Ling, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Xue, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare but manifested with various clinical presentations and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. The objective is to review the clinical presentation, histopathological spectrum, mortality and follow-up data of patients with cardiac tumors following surgery treatment over a period of 5 years. Methods We retrospectively collected the medical records of all patients diagnosed of cardiac tumors in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 at the cardiac center of our university. Clinical histories, perioperative data, surgical findings, efficacy and follow-up data were reviewed in our study. Patients were divided into two groups according to site distribution of the tumors in the heart. Results A total of 131 patients underwent surgical treatment of cardiac tumors were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 51.39±16.37. The result of analysis showed that 79.47% (n=104) of the primary intracardiac tumors were benign, while primary malignant neoplasms accounted for 16.03% (n=21) of all patients, with the remainder (n=6, 4.6%) metastatic tumors transferred from other organs. Among all patients there were 2 in-hospital deaths and the survival rate in all patients at 1-year, 3-year and 5-year follow up was 83.20%, 78.62% and 66.41% respectively. Both patients with tumors in the left and right heart had similar basic characteristics except sex gender (P=0.002), BSA (P=0.045) and weight (P=0.033). Compared with patients with tumors in the right heart, patients with tumors in the left heart had significant higher CPB time (P<0.001), cross clamp time (P<0.001) and time of mechanical ventilation (P<0.001), and they also had longer ICU stay (P<0.001) but not total hospital stay (P=0.434). Conclusions Surgical resection represents an effective protocol in treating cardiac tumors. Data in our study of cardiac tumors on frequency and allocation were consistent with previous reports which may provide useful clinical evidence on

  13. Role of nutritional status in predicting quality of life outcomes in cancer--a systematic review of the epidemiological literature.

    PubMed

    Lis, Christopher G; Gupta, Digant; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A; Markman, Maurie; Vashi, Pankaj G

    2012-04-24

    Malnutrition is a significant factor in predicting cancer patients' quality of life (QoL). We systematically reviewed the literature on the role of nutritional status in predicting QoL in cancer. We searched MEDLINE database using the terms "nutritional status" in combination with "quality of life" together with "cancer". Human studies published in English, having nutritional status as one of the predictor variables, and QoL as one of the outcome measures were included. Of the 26 included studies, 6 investigated head and neck cancer, 8 gastrointestinal, 1 lung, 1 gynecologic and 10 heterogeneous cancers. 24 studies concluded that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL, 1 study showed that better nutritional status was associated with better QoL only in high-risk patients, while 1 study concluded that there was no association between nutritional status and QoL. Nutritional status is a strong predictor of QoL in cancer patients. We recommend that more providers implement the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) guidelines for oncology patients, which includes nutritional screening, nutritional assessment and intervention as appropriate. Correcting malnutrition may improve QoL in cancer patients, an important outcome of interest to cancer patients, their caregivers, and families.

  14. 77 FR 44214 - Essential Fish Habitat Components of Fishery Management Plans; 5-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... areas to OA2 in April 2011 (76 FR 35408). Approval of a range of adverse effects minimization...-sea corals from this action and developing them as a separate omnibus amendment. DATES: Written... by any of the following methods: Email: CoralNOI@noaa.gov . Mail: Paul J. Howard, Executive...

  15. Cause of Death in "John Doe & Jane Doe": A 5 year review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Dasari, Harish; Singh, Amandeep

    2014-08-01

    Sometimes the opinion regarding the cause of death in "John Doe or Jane Doe" i.e. on unknown dead bodies is a test of ability of the forensic expert and on many occasions it yields little or no results. Here the identification of the body as such poses problems; rest aside the opinion regarding the cause/ manner of death. The present 5yr study was undertaken in the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh to find the patterns of cause of death in unknown dead bodies, as very little literature is available with regard to John Doe or Jane Doe cases as a group, in India. Unidentified bodies comprised 4 % of the total 3165 cases brought for post-mortem examination to the department. Maximum cases belonged to the age group 41 - 50 years, 30 %. Majority of the opinions regarding the cause of death were given as "no definite opinion" (31%), followed by "cranio-cerebral damage" (30 %) and coronary insufficiency/ Cardiac disease/ aortic aneurysm rupture, (8.9%). Following measures should be undertaken to increase the chances of getting these unknown bodies identified and thereby increasing the chances of arriving at a definite cause of death: drafting of additional legislation for the management of unidentified dead bodies along with streamlining of work on the part of police, use of active investigation and modern investigative techniques, fixing the accountability of the police. Internet based sites of the police like ZIPNET (Zonal Integrated Police Networking) in Northern India, should also be used. PMID:25302219

  16. 75 FR 13082 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews for 27 Evolutionarily...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... to Pacific Salmon (ESU Policy) (56 FR 58612). Under this policy, populations of salmon substantially... evolutionary legacy of the biological species are considered to be an ESU. In our listing determinations for...-NMFS DPS policy (61 FR 4722) rather than our ESU Policy to populations of steelhead. Under this...

  17. Youth Suicide: Insights from 5 Years of Arizona Child Fatality Review Team Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; Schackner, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Data on 153 youth suicides in Arizona (1994?1999) were used to explore demographic, behavioral, and experiential factors that distinguish between firearm suicide and suicide by other means. In bivariate analyses, White youths were more likely than non-White youths to use a firearm to commit suicide as were youths who had not experienced a life…

  18. Cause of Death in “John Doe & Jane Doe”: A 5 year review

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Harish; Singh, Amandeep

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes the opinion regarding the cause of death in “John Doe or Jane Doe” i.e. on unknown dead bodies is a test of ability of the forensic expert and on many occasions it yields little or no results. Here the identification of the body as such poses problems; rest aside the opinion regarding the cause/ manner of death. The present 5yr study was undertaken in the Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Government Medical College & Hospital, Chandigarh to find the patterns of cause of death in unknown dead bodies, as very little literature is available with regard to John Doe or Jane Doe cases as a group, in India. Unidentified bodies comprised 4 % of the total 3165 cases brought for post-mortem examination to the department. Maximum cases belonged to the age group 41 - 50 years, 30 %. Majority of the opinions regarding the cause of death were given as “no definite opinion” (31%), followed by “cranio-cerebral damage” (30 %) and coronary insufficiency/ Cardiac disease/ aortic aneurysm rupture, (8.9%). Following measures should be undertaken to increase the chances of getting these unknown bodies identified and thereby increasing the chances of arriving at a definite cause of death: drafting of additional legislation for the management of unidentified dead bodies along with streamlining of work on the part of police, use of active investigation and modern investigative techniques, fixing the accountability of the police. Internet based sites of the police like ZIPNET (Zonal Integrated Police Networking) in Northern India, should also be used. PMID:25302219

  19. [Falls and accidents in the nursing home--review of a 5-year period].

    PubMed

    Fisch, H P

    1983-07-01

    61 falls and accidents and one suicide needed medical attention in our nursing home during a five-year period. Most frequent sequelae were scalp lacerations, followed by fractures of the femoral neck. 73% of the patients who got hurt by falls suffered of dementia. 38% were being treated with neuroleptic, antihypertensive or diuretic drugs. It was not possible however to document a relationship between drug treatment and falls. Most falls occurred while patients were walking on the floor without obstacles and without external influences. 3 patients died as immediate consequence of their falls. We observed falls more often in the first period of the patient's stay in our institution and again shortly before the patient's death. Prophylactic measures against falls include bed-rails, little tables that can be fixed to the wheel-chairs in order to hinder unassisted standing up of patients, unable to walk alone and judicious treatment with sedative drugs. The most important measure however seems to be compassionate and attentive patient care that conveys trust and confidence between patients and the nursing personnel. Possibly the incidence of falls and accidents could be used as a measure of the quality of nursing care in geriatric institutions.

  20. Long-term complications of JJ stent and its management: A 5 years review

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Rajendra Prasad; Mahapatra, Rajkumar Singha; Mondal, Partha Pratim; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the long term complications of JJ stent, the management of complications and the role of endoscopic approach to manage these complications. Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients with indwelling JJ stent for a duration of more than 6 months were included in this study. Patients were assessed with X-ray KUB, USG KUB, blood urea, creatinine and DTPA renogram. Data were analyzed by Microsoft excel 2007. Results: Out of 19 patients 12 (63.16%) were male and 7 (36.84%) were female. The mean age was 39.78 ± 13.69 years., Mean duration for which the stent was in situ was 29.56 months. The most common complication was broken stent, in 11 cases (57.89%). Other complications were migration in 5 (26.32%), encrustation in 2 (10.52%) and 1 case of (5.26%) stone formation. Eighteen cases were managed by endoscopic approaches. A total of 22 procedures were performed to treat the complications. Eleven cases were managed by a single procedure and 8 patients required multiple procedures. All were managed successfully with no death reported. Post-operative complications were seen in eight cases (42.11%). Conclusions: JJ stent related long-term complications are not uncommon and are usually seen after 6 months of indwelling time. Endourological procedure should be the initial approach with a high success rate. Coordinated use multimodality and technology helps in management of difficult cases. Open surgery is rarely required. Prevention of the complication by judicious use and early removal is the cornerstone. PMID:25657542

  1. Electrical stimulation of the conus medullaris in the paraplegic. A 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Nashold, B S; Grimes, J; Friedman, H; Semans, J; Avery, R

    In 1970 we carried out the first electrode implantation of the conus medullaris of a 17-year-old male paraplegic to control the emptying of his paralyzed bladder. Our patient has used electromicturition for 6 years to successfully empty his bladder and prevent urinary infection. To date, a total of 11 paraplegic patients have been implanted (6 males, 5 females). The cause of the paraplegia was the result of trauma, and the implants were performed from 16 days to 15 years postinjury. All the patients had experienced numerous urinary infections and required constant catheter drainage, and it was the opinion of our urologic associate that current methods of control of the bladder problem were of no avail. The bladder was considered to be atonic in 7 patients and spastic in 4. The results indicate that after a follow-up of 1--6 years, 8 patients have complete control of voiding by electrical stimulation (4 female, 4 male). 2 of the males required partial sphincterotomy to improve emptying, but none of the females experienced sphincter interference. One male quadriparetic patient died 7 months postimplantation of pneumonia and hepatitis. There have been no infections related to the implantable device; however, 1 female broke the connecting wires to the spinal cord electrode during a paraplegic basketball game. In addition to the induced electrical contraction of the bladder, we have observed increased autonomic activity below the level of the spinal cord transection, improved defecation, reduction of spasticity in the paralyzed legs, penile erection in males, and reduction of decalcification of the long bones. This group of patients represents the longest use of an implantable electronic device to control bladder function.

  2. Environmental Considerations for Improving Nutritional Status in Older Adults with Dementia: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Joy W; Lawrence, Jeannine C

    2015-11-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States continues to grow, the American health care system will face the unique challenge of providing care for these individuals, including many who will be diagnosed with some form of dementia. As dementia progresses, patients require increasing amounts of care and nutrient intake usually declines. This tends to result in weight loss, malnutrition, and increased morbidity and mortality. Various interventions have been developed with the goal of improving meal intake and reducing unintentional weight loss in patients with dementia. Several studies have shown that meal intake improves with the provision of adequate assistance, either from staff members or from volunteer feeding assistants. Some studies have focused on the method of meal service and its influence on meal intake and nutrition status. Both buffet-style and family-style dining have shown promising results in terms of improving meal intake and quality of life among older adults in long-term-care settings. Other environment-related interventions include improving lighting and visual contrast, altering the dining room to more closely resemble a home-style setting, using the aroma of food to stimulate appetite, using routine seating arrangements, and using relaxing or familiar music in the dining room to provide a calmer environment. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the research on environment-based interventions to improve nutritional status among older adults with dementia, to describe potential for practical applications, and to identify gaps in the existing literature whereon further research is warranted. PMID:26233887

  3. Hepatitis B virus in Pakistan: a systematic review of prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Idrees, Muhammad; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Abrar; Ur Rehman, Irshad; Saleem, Sana; Afzal, Samia; Butt, Sadia

    2011-01-01

    In Pakistan, there are estimated 7-9 million carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with a carrier rate of 3-5%. This article reviews the available literature about the prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes of the HBV in Pakistan by using key words; HBV prevalence, risk factors, awareness status and genotypes in Pakistani population in PubMed, PakMediNet, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) and Google Scholar. One hundred and six different studies published from 1998 to 2010 were included in this study. Weighted mean and standard deviation were determined for each population group. The percentage of hepatitis B virus infection in general population was 4.3318% ± 1.644%, healthy blood donors (3.93% ± 1.58%), military recruits (4.276% ± 1.646%), healthcare persons (3.25% ± 1.202%), pregnant women (5.872% ± 4.984), prisoners (5.75% ± 0.212%), surgical patients (7.397% ± 2.012%), patients with cirrhosis (28.87% ± 11.90%), patients with HCC (22% ± 2.645%), patients with hepatitis (15.896% ± 14.824%), patients with liver diseases (27.54% ± 6.385%), multiple transfused patients (6.223% ± 2.121%), opthalmic patients (3.89% ± 1.004%) and users of injectable drugs (14.95% ± 10.536%). Genotype D (63.71%) is the most prevalent genotype in Pakistani population. Mass vaccination and awareness programs should be initiated on urgent basis especially in populations with HBV infection rates of more than 5%. PMID:21375760

  4. How nutritional status, diet and dietary supplements can affect autism. A review.

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    continual monitoring of the diet and nutritional status of children with ASD is required. It is also essential to start adequate dietary management in autistic patients with overweight, obesity or wasting, caused by improper nutrition. Frequently only a dietary therapy is insufficient to effectively treat autism. Many studies demonstrate the need to supplement the nutritional deficiencies of autistic patients with fatty acids omega-3, probiotics, vitamins and minerals in combination with medical and psychological interventions. A properly designed elimination diet adapted to the patient's individual may also lead to relief of the autism symptoms and the occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders. Parents and caregivers should therefore be aware of the benefits of nutritional therapy and need for proper monitoring the treatment of patients with ASD. A review of nutritional factors, dietary treatments and diet supplementation in patients with ASD is presented.

  5. Nutritional Status in Nocturnal Hemodialysis Patients – A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ipema, Karin J. R.; Struijk, Simone; van der Velden, Annet; Westerhuis, Ralf; van der Schans, Cees P.; Gaillard, Carlo A. J. M.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis patients experience an elevated risk of malnutrition associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) results in more effective removal of waste products and fluids. Therefore, diet and fluid restrictions are less restricted in NHD patients. However, it is ambiguous whether transition from conventional hemodialysis (CHD) to NHD leads to improved intake and nutritional status. We studied the effect of NHD on protein intake, laboratory indices of nutritional status, and body composition. Study design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Population NHD patients. Search strategy Systematic literature search from databases, Medline, Cinahl, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, to identify studies reporting on nutritional status post-transition from CHD to NHD. Intervention Transition from CHD to NHD. Outcomes Albumin, normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), dry body weight (DBW), body mass index (BMI), phase angle, protein intake, and energy intake. Results Systematic literature search revealed 13 studies comprising 282 patients that made the transition from CHD to NHD. Meta-analysis included nine studies in 229 patients. In control group controlled studies (n = 4), serum albumin increased significantly from baseline to 4–6 months in NHD patients compared with patients that remained on CHD (mean difference 1.3 g/l, 95% CI 0.02; 2.58, p = 0.05). In baseline controlled studies, from baseline to 4–6 months of NHD treatment, significant increases were ascertained in serum albumin (mean difference (MD) 1.63 g/l, 95% CI 0.73–2.53, p<0.001); nPCR (MD 0.16 g/kg/day; 95% CI 0.04–0.29, p = 0.01); protein intake (MD 18.9 g, 95% CI 9.7–28.2, p<0.001); and energy intake (MD 183.2 kcal, 95% CI 16.8–349.7, p = 0.03). Homogeneity was rejected only for nPCR (baseline versus 4–6 months). DBW, BMI, and phase angle did not significantly change. Similar results were obtained for comparison between baseline and 8–12 months

  6. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  7. Treatment of Chronic PTSD by Cognitive Therapy and Exposure: 5-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Sommerfield, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Patients who had taken part in a randomized clinical trial of the treatment of chronic PTSD by either cognitive therapy or imaginal exposure were reassessed after 5 years. At 5-year follow-up a clear superiority of cognitive therapy over imaginal exposure emerged, although there had been no difference between the two treatment groups up to 12…

  8. Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

  9. Child and Mother Cardiac Vagal Tone: Continuity, Stability, and Concordance across the First 5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Measured vagal tone and heart period at 2 months and 5 years in children and their mothers to evaluate the development of vagal regulation at rest and during an environmental task. Found that children reached adult levels of baseline vagal tone by 5 years and did not differ from mothers in baseline-to-task change in vagal tone or heart period.…

  10. Remission in schizophrenia: validity, frequency, predictors, and patients' perspective 5 years later

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Martin; Karow, Anne; Leucht, Stefan; Schimmelmann, Benno G.; Naber, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    In March 2005, the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG) proposed a consensus definition of symptomatic remission in schizophrenia and developed specific operational criteria for its assessment. They pointed out, however, that the validity and the relationship to other outcome dimensions required further examination. This article reviews studies on the validity, frequency, and predictors of symptomatic remission in schizophrenia and studies on patients' perspectives. These studies have demonstrated that the RSWG remission criteria appear achievable and sustainable for a significant proportion of patients, and are related to a better overall symptomatic status and functional outcome and, to a less clear extent, to a better quality of life and cognitive performance. However, achieving symptomatic remission is not automatically concurrent with an adequate status in other outcome dimensions. The results of the present review suggest that the RSWG remission criteria are valid and useful. As such, they should be consistently applied in clinical trials. However, the lack of consensus definitions of functional remission and adequate quality of life hampers research on their predictive validity on these outcome dimensions. Future research should therefore search for criteria of these dimensions and test whether the RSWG remission criteria consistently predict a “good” outcome with respect to functioning and quality of life. PMID:20954433

  11. Blunt abdominal trauma. A 5-year analysis of 870 patients requiring celiotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, E F

    1984-01-01

    This study represents the experience with blunt trauma to the abdomen of patients from a major regional trauma center. Eight hundred and seventy patients with blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed, representing 12.89% of the total admissions over a 5-year period. The motor vehicle continues to be the major cause (89.5%) of injury to these patients. Thirty per cent had positive blood alcohol. Intra-abdominal injuries in this group necessitating operative intervention were based on the use of peritoneal lavage. Negative celiotomies occurred in 10.2% of these patients. Of the injuries incurred, the spleen was involved 42%, the liver 35.6%, the serosa, diaphragm, bowel, and blood vessels were involved to a lesser extent. Only 0.4% of the patients suffered direct injury to the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas, data which should preclude routine exploration of retroperitoneal structures unless by obvious retroperitoneal injury is noted. Additional surgical intervention for associated injuries was seen in 50.54% of this patient group. PMID:6712323

  12. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    PubMed

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling. PMID:26116009

  13. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M.A.; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Waste management is a matter of great concern for small island developing states. • On average, waste generation rate in these islands amounts to 1.29 kg/capita/day. • Illegal dumping and landfilling prevail in most small island developing states. • Sustainable waste management practices, previously absent, are now emerging. • However, many challenges still hinder the implementation of these practices. - Abstract: This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1 kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29 kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35 kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of

  14. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    PubMed

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling.

  15. Pemetrexed clinical studies in performance status 2 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Zinner, Ralph; Visseren-Grul, Carla; Spigel, David R; Obasaju, Coleman

    2016-01-01

    Because poor performance status (PS) is an independent prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), PS scores are widely used by oncologists to make treatment decisions. Advanced NSCLC patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 2 have poor prognoses and are frequently excluded from clinical trials. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed in this patient group. We identified English-language literature (through March 2015) involving completed and ongoing studies through searches of PubMed, meeting abstracts, ClinicalTrials.gov and the European Clinical Trials Register; search terms included 'pemetrexed,' 'NSCLC' and 'PS2'. Only studies reporting ≥1 subset analysis of PS2 patients receiving pemetrexed were chosen. Our search identified a total of ten pemetrexed studies in PS2 patients. Eight studies included only chemonaive patients, one study included both chemonaive patients and patients with one prior chemotherapy regimen and one study included only patients with one prior regimen. In subset analyses in these studies, PS2 patients had worse outcomes than PS0-1 patients regardless of treatment. In a phase 3 study, chemonaive advanced NSCLC patients with PS2 receiving pemetrexed‑carboplatin versus pemetrexed experienced improved overall survival [hazard ratio (HR)=0.62; P=0.001], progression-free survival (HR=0.46; P<0.001) and response (P=0.032). This review confirms the poorer outcomes in PS2 vs. PS0-1 patients. Although it is not an approved combination therapy, in clinical studies, PS2 patients treated with pemetrexed plus carboplatin as first-line therapy had improved response rates and survival. Additional research on PS2 patients is needed.

  16. Health and growth status of immigrant and refugee children in Toronto, Ontario: A retrospective chart review

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Leila; Lofters, Aisha K; Hoffmann, Susan M; Polsky, Jane Y; Rouleau, Katherine D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe selected anthropometric and health status variables among immigrant and refugee children ≤6 years of age within an inner city clinic in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients born between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008, was conducted at a Toronto community health centre serving a primarily immigrant and refugee population. Outcome measures included calculated age-specific percentiles for height and weight, and the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, enteric parasites, elevated lead levels, HIV and hepatitis B. Postal codes were collected and used to determine the patient’s neighbourhood income quintile. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients, born between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008, were identified. Of these, a total of 210 charts were manually reviewed. The prevalence of height-for-age and weight-for-age under the third percentile on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Charts were 7.2% and 11.6%, respectively, and 8.4% and 5.0%, respectively, on the WHO Growth Standards Chart. Prevalence rates were also calculated for anemia (22.8%), iron deficiency (53.3%), hepatitis B (2.5%), parasitic infections (33.6%), elevated blood lead levels (4.9%) and HIV (0%). Neighbourhood income quintiles revealed that 46.7% of patients were residing in the lowest (ie, poorest) income quintile neighbourhoods. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal a high burden of illness within the population presenting to an immigrant/refugee health clinic, and illustrate the need for further research in this area, as well as increased efforts to ensure appropriate screening within clinics serving a high volume of newcomer patients. PMID:26744562

  17. Health and growth status of immigrant and refugee children in Toronto, Ontario: A retrospective chart review.

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe selected anthropometric and health status variables among immigrant and refugee children ≤6 years of age within an inner city clinic in Toronto, Ontario. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients born between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008, was conducted at a Toronto community health centre serving a primarily immigrant and refugee population. Outcome measures included calculated age-specific percentiles for height and weight, and the prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, enteric parasites, elevated lead levels, HIV and hepatitis B. Postal codes were collected and used to determine the patient’s neighbourhood income quintile. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients, born between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2008, were identified. Of these, a total of 210 charts were manually reviewed. The prevalence of height-for-age and weight-for-age under the third percentile on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Charts were 7.2% and 11.6%, respectively, and 8.4% and 5.0%, respectively, on the WHO Growth Standards Chart. Prevalence rates were also calculated for anemia (22.8%), iron deficiency (53.3%), hepatitis B (2.5%), parasitic infections (33.6%), elevated blood lead levels (4.9%) and HIV (0%). Neighbourhood income quintiles revealed that 46.7% of patients were residing in the lowest (ie, poorest) income quintile neighbourhoods. CONCLUSION: These findings reveal a high burden of illness within the population presenting to an immigrant/refugee health clinic, and illustrate the need for further research in this area, as well as increased efforts to ensure appropriate screening within clinics serving a high volume of newcomer patients.

  18. Review and Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection at the Community Level in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn; Kompor, Ponthip; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Rujirakul, Ratana; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Pholsripradit, Poowadol; Eksanti, Thawatchai; Phatisena, Tanida; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is remains a public health problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions which have the highest incidences of chonalgiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini causes the disease opithorchiasis, and its has been classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen. Humans, dogs, and cats become infected with O. viverrini by ingesting raw or undercooked fish containing infective metacercariae. The first human cases of O. viverrini infection were reported in Thailand 100 years ago, and it's still a problem at the community level. Based on data for the year 2009, more than 6 million people were infected with O. viverrini. Associated medical care and loss of wages in Thailand costs about $120 million annually. This review highlights the current status of O. viverrini infection in communities of Thailand through active surveillance for the five years period from 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 community-based surveys were conducted, most in the northeast region. Some 7 surveys demonstrated a high prevalence over 20%, and the highest was 45.7%. Most commonly infection was found in age group of 35 years and older, males, and agricultural workers. Although, the national prevalence may be decreasing but the results show that the O. viverrini infection is still high in communities of the northeast region. Therefore, the focus in populations living in northeast Thailand should be screening of infection and changing their eating behavior. PMID:26514452

  19. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    PubMed

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely.

  20. A review of hydrological and chemical stressors in the Adige catchment and its ecological status.

    PubMed

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Cano Paoli, Karina; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Mallucci, Stefano; Lencioni, Valeria; Zandonai, Fabiana; Bellin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the effects of multiple stressors on Alpine freshwater ecosystems is challenging, due to the lack of tailored field campaigns for the contemporaneous measurement of hydrological, chemical and ecological parameters. Conducting exhaustive field campaigns is costly and hence most of the activities so far have been performed addressing specific environmental issues. An accurate analysis of existing information is therefore useful and necessary, to identify stressors that may act in synergy and to design new field campaigns. We present an extended review of available studies and datasets concerning the hydrological, chemical and ecological status of the Adige, which is the second longest river and the third largest river basin in Italy. The most relevant stressors are discussed in the light of the information extracted from a large number of studies. The detailed analysis of these studies identified that hydrological alterations caused by hydropower production are the main source of stress for the freshwater ecosystems in the Adige catchment. However, concurrent effects with other stressors, such as the release of pollutants from waste water treatment plants or from agricultural and industrial activities, have not been explored at depth, so far. A wealth of available studies address a single stressor separately without exploring their concurrent effect. It is concluded that a combination of extended experimental field campaigns, focusing on the coupled effects of multiple stressors, and modeling activities is highly needed in order to quantify the impact of the multifaceted human pressures on freshwater ecosystems in the Adige river.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of preoperative tests for lymph node status in endometrial cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Trum, J.W.; Bakers, F.C.H.; Beets-Tan, R.G.H.; Smits, L.J.M.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: Approximately 72% of endometrial cancers are FIGO stage I at diagnosis and about 10% have lymph node metastases. An ideal diagnostic test for nodal disease would be able to prevent both overtreatment (i.e. unnecessary lymphadenectomy) and undertreatment (i.e. withholding lymphadenectomy or adjuvant postoperative treatment to patients with lymph node metastases). Objectives: In this review we compare the accuracy of preoperative tests (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, CA-125 serum levels, and ultrasonography) for the detection of lymph node metastases in endometrial cancers with the final histopathologic diagnosis after complete pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy as the gold standard. Method: A systematic search in MEDLINE (using PubMed), Embase and The Cochrane Library was performed up to 23 July 2012. Results: We found one article that met our inclusion criteria for computed tomography, none for magnetic resonance imaging, 2 for positron emission tomography/computed tomography), 2 for CA-125 and none for ultrasonography. Conclusions: Due to the lack of high-quality articles on a preoperative test for lymph node status in endometrial cancer, no proper comparison between these modalities can be made. PMID:23876490

  2. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔTEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (ΔTEI range −7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (ΔTEI = −1.3, range −9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216

  3. Health Situation of Migrants with Precarious Status: Review of the Literature and Implications for the Canadian Context—Part A

    PubMed Central

    Brabant, Zoé; Raynault, Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    Migrants with precarious status (MPS) are an understudied population. Yet there are indications that they could be particularly vulnerable and confronted to health inequalities. This review of Canadian and international literature highlights that MPS, like other migrants, are confronted with deleterious living conditions and multiple obstacles to access healthcare. However, their status brings additional challenges and harmful health determinants. The situation of MPS may well be similar in Canada, where they could be numerous. Therefore it is crucial to better document this issue within the Canadian context. Part B of this article, reported elsewhere, further explores this topic. PMID:22657147

  4. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee. Seventh semi-annual status report, April 1991--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This seventh semi-annual status report of the MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC) summarizes activities of the TTIRC during the period April 1991 through September 1991. It includes a summary and minutes of the General Committee meeting, progress summaries of ongoing POC contracts, discussions pertaining to technical integration issues in the POC program, and planned activities for the next six months. The meeting included test plan with Western coal, seed regeneration economics, power management for the integrated topping cycle and status of the Clean Coal Technology Proposal activities. Appendices cover CDIF operations HRSR development, CFFF operations etc.

  5. The Incidence of Adjacent Segment Breakdown in Polysegmental Thoracolumbar Fusions of Three or More Levels with Minimum 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Edward P.; Manson, Neil A.; McKeon, Melissa D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To identify the incidence of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after thoracolumbar fusion of three or more levels, the risk factors for the development of ASP, and the need for further surgical intervention in this particular patient population. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective surgical database identified 217 patients receiving polysegmental (≥ 3 levels) spinal fusion with minimum 5-year follow-up. Risk factors were evaluated, and the following data were obtained from the review of radiographs and charts: radiographic measures—levels fused, fusion status, presence of ASP; clinical measures—patient assessment, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the need for further surgery. Results The incidence of radiographic ASP (RASP) was 29%; clinical or symptomatic ASP (CASP), 18%; and those requiring surgery, 9%. Correlation was observed between ODI and ASP, symptomatic ASP, and need for revision surgery. Age, preoperative degenerative diagnosis, and absence of fusion demonstrated significant association to ASP. Conclusions ASP was observed in a significant number of patients receiving polysegmental fusion of three or more levels. ODI scores correlated to RASP, CASP, and the need for revision surgery. PMID:25072002

  6. The Incidence of Adjacent Segment Breakdown in Polysegmental Thoracolumbar Fusions of Three or More Levels with Minimum 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Edward P; Manson, Neil A; McKeon, Melissa D

    2014-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To identify the incidence of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after thoracolumbar fusion of three or more levels, the risk factors for the development of ASP, and the need for further surgical intervention in this particular patient population. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective surgical database identified 217 patients receiving polysegmental (≥ 3 levels) spinal fusion with minimum 5-year follow-up. Risk factors were evaluated, and the following data were obtained from the review of radiographs and charts: radiographic measures-levels fused, fusion status, presence of ASP; clinical measures-patient assessment, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the need for further surgery. Results The incidence of radiographic ASP (RASP) was 29%; clinical or symptomatic ASP (CASP), 18%; and those requiring surgery, 9%. Correlation was observed between ODI and ASP, symptomatic ASP, and need for revision surgery. Age, preoperative degenerative diagnosis, and absence of fusion demonstrated significant association to ASP. Conclusions ASP was observed in a significant number of patients receiving polysegmental fusion of three or more levels. ODI scores correlated to RASP, CASP, and the need for revision surgery.

  7. Effect of Early Rehabilitation during Intensive Care Unit Stay on Functional Status: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Avila, Ana Cristina; Serón, Pamela; Fan, Eddy; Gaete, Mónica; Mickan, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Critically ill survivors may have functional impairments even five years after hospital discharge. To date there are four systematic reviews suggesting a beneficial impact for mobilisation in mechanically ventilated and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, however there is limited information about the influence of timing, frequency and duration of sessions. Earlier mobilisation during ICU stay may lead to greater benefits. This study aims to determine the effect of early rehabilitation for functional status in ICU/high-dependency unit (HDU) patients. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINALH, PEDro, Cochrane Library, AMED, ISI web of science, Scielo, LILACS and several clinical trial registries were searched for randomised and non-randomised clinical trials of rehabilitation compared to usual care in adult patients admitted to an ICU/HDU. Results were screened by two independent reviewers. Primary outcome was functional status. Secondary outcomes were walking ability, muscle strength, quality of life, and healthcare utilisation. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment using the PEDro scale was performed by primary reviewer and checked by two other reviewers. The authors of relevant studies were contacted to obtain missing data. Results 5733 records were screened. Seven articles were included in the narrative synthesis and six in the meta-analysis. Early rehabilitation had no significant effect on functional status, muscle strength, quality of life, or healthcare utilisation. However, early rehabilitation led to significantly more patients walking without assistance at hospital discharge (risk ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72). There was a non-significant effect favouring intervention for walking distance and incidence of ICU-acquired weakness. Conclusions Early rehabilitation during ICU stay was not associated with improvements in functional status, muscle strength, quality of life or healthcare utilisation

  8. A Review of Realizing the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) Goals by 2030: Part 1- Status quo, Requirements, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Rada

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a review of how to realize the Universal Health Coverage (UHC) goals by 2030. The objective of this review is to investigate the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, focusing on four aspects: 1) identifying the importance of UHC and highlighting how UHC is influenced by health systems and eHealth, 2) investigating the current status of UHC worldwide and indicating the current challenges facing the realization of UHC, 3) reviewing the current research activities in the UHC domain and emphasizing the role of eHealth and technology in achieving UHC, and 4) discussing the results of the review to identify the current gaps in UHC implantation and the corresponding research lines for future investigation.This part covers the first two aspects through: providing the required background on UHC, highlighting the potential benefits of eHealth utilization in UHC, addressing the current status quo of UHC implementation worldwide, and finally concluding the lessons learned in terms of the UHC challenges and requirements.This part also described the used search methodology and selection criteria to synthesize this review. It also indicates the limitations of conducting a systematic review in this early stage of deploying UHC-oriented eHealth solutions.

  9. Hodgkin's disease. A clinico-pathological study of 250 cases with a 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Newton, K A; Mackenzie, D H; Spittle, M F; Mikolajczuk, A

    1973-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty cases of histologically proven Hodgkin's disease have been reviewed. These cases were classified according to the Rye Conference histological classification (Lukes et al., 1966a) and according to the Cross classification (Cross, 1969). Overall, both classifications were reasonably effective in predicting prognosis but that of Cross with its seven sub-groups proved more difficult to use than the simpler Rye classification. In all cases the follow-up period exceeded 5 years. A study was made of the influence of clinical symptoms on survival with particular reference to night sweats, fever, pruritus, anorexia, lassitude, weight loss, haematological abnormalities and splenic enlargement. The presence of these abnormalities adversely affected prognosis. The spread of the disease from one group of nodes to the next was also documented. Considering all cases the 5-year survival was 54%. The 5-year survivals according to histological type were: lymphocytic predominance 69%, nodular sclerosis 57%, mixed cellularity 41%, lymphocytic depletion 40%. The 10-year survival was 23% which, when corrected by the actuarial method (Berkson and Gage, 1950), rose to 36%. The importance of symptomatology as well as histological grading in the prognosis of Hodgkin's disease is confirmed.

  10. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for nonmetastatic lung cancer: An analysis of 75 patients treated over 5 years

    SciTech Connect

    Beitler, Jonathan J. . E-mail: jbeitler92@alumni.gsb.columbia.edu; Badine, Edgard A.; El-Sayah, Danny; Makara, Denise; Friscia, Phillip; Silverman, Phillip; Terjanian, Terenig

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may not be medically operable even in patients with surgically resectable disease. For patients who either refuse surgery or are medically inoperable, radiation therapy may be the best therapeutic choice. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) employs external fixation and hypofractionation to deliver a high dose per fraction of radiation to a small target volume. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 75 patients treated over 5 years at Staten Island University Hospital as definitive treatment for NSCLC or presumed NSCLC. Patients received a median of 5 fractions of 8 Gy per fraction over 27 days. Results: Overall 1-, 2-, and 5-year actuarial survivals were 63%, 45%, and 17%. Patients with a gross tumor volume (GTV) less than 65 cm{sup 3} enjoyed a longer median survival (25.7 vs. 9.9 months, p < 0.003), and at 5 years, the actuarial survival for the patients with GTVs less than 65 cm{sup 3} was 24% vs. 0% for those with GTVs larger than 65 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy as delivered was ineffective for curing the patients whose GTVs were larger than 65 cm{sup 3}. SBRT was promising for those with GTVs less than 65 cm{sup 3}.

  11. Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Eglseer, Doris; Eminovic, Sandra; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-07-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review" found on pages 33-41, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until June 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia. 2. Identify the outcome of the

  12. Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Eglseer, Doris; Eminovic, Sandra; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-07-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review" found on pages 33-41, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until June 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia. 2. Identify the outcome of the

  13. Effect of vegetarian diets on zinc status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Chu, Anna; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2013-08-15

    Plant-based diets contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more folate, fibre and phytochemicals than omnivorous diets, but some micronutrients, especially zinc, are poorly bioavailable. The findings of studies exploring the zinc intake and zinc status in populations that habitually consume vegetarian diets are inconsistent. This study aims to investigate the effects of plant-based diets on dietary zinc intake and status in humans using systematic review and meta-analysis techniques. Thirty-four studies were included in the systematic review. Of these, 26 studies (reporting 48 comparisons) compared males and/or females consuming vegetarian diets with non-vegetarian groups and were included in meta-analyses. Dietary zinc intakes and serum zinc concentrations were significantly lower (-0.88 ± 0.15 mg day(-1), P < 0.001 and -0.93 ± 0.27 µmol L(-1), P = 0.001 respectively; mean ± standard error) in populations that followed habitual vegetarian diets compared with non-vegetarians. Secondary analyses showed greater impact of vegetarian diets on the zinc intake and status of females, vegetarians from developing countries and vegans. Populations that habitually consume vegetarian diets have low zinc intakes and status. Not all vegetarian categories impact zinc status to the same extent, but a lack of consistency in defining vegetarian diets for research purposes makes dietary assessment difficult. Dietary practices that increase zinc bioavailability, the consumption of foods fortified with zinc or low-dose supplementation are strategies that should be considered for improving the zinc status of vegetarians with low zinc intakes or serum zinc concentrations at the lower end of the reference range.

  14. [Nutritional status of beneficiaries of the ¨Bolsa Família¨ Program in Brazil - a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Wolf, Miriam Regina; Barros Filho, Antonio de Azevedo

    2014-05-01

    Various programs to combat malnutrition have been implemented over the years in Brazil. Since 2001, it has been the responsibility of the Bolsa Família Program (BFP). Despite the expansion of BFP, to date there has been little coverage charting the advances and challenges to be faced as well as the impacts on health and nutrition of the population. Although the monitoring of nutritional status is one of the conditions for continuing to receive the benefit, when searching for this data, there is great difficulty in obtaining them. The scope of this systematic review is to obtain information on the nutritional status of the beneficiaries of the PBF, to grasp the national reality with regard to this situation, and assess whether the program had an impact on the nutritional status of the population served. A search was conducted online via Medline, Bireme, SciELO, Lilacs, University Libraries System (ULS) and Google. The search includes original articles and theses from March 2002 through May 2012 and approximately100 works were located. After excluding the title there were 23 articles, and after reading the abstracts, 13 articles remained. The studies reviewed suggest that the Program is not modifying the nutritional status of the beneficiaries.

  15. Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160811.html Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years But number ... 6, 2016 TUESDAY, Sept. 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Gluten-free diets seem to be the latest fad, ...

  16. Status Review of the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) in Alaska and British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piatt, J.F.; Kuletz, K.J.; Burger, A.E.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Friesen, V.L.; Birt, T.P.; Arimitsu, M.L.; Drew, G.S.; Harding, A.M.A.; Bixler, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a small, diving seabird inhabiting inshore waters of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. This species feeds on small, schooling fishes and zooplankton, and nests primarily on the moss-covered branches of large, old-growth conifers, and also, in some parts of its range, on the ground. We reviewed existing information on this species to evaluate its current status in the northern part of its range-Alaska (U.S.) and British Columbia (Canada). Within the southern part of its range (Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S.), the Marbled Murrelet was listed as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1993, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) needed information on the species throughout its range for ESA deliberations. We compiled published information on the conservation status, population biology, foraging ecology, population genetics, population status and trends, demography, marine and nesting habitat characteristics, threats, and ongoing conservation efforts for Marbled Murrelets in Alaska and British Columbia. We conducted a new genetic study using samples from a segment of the range that had not been included in previous studies (Washington, Oregon) and additional nuclear intron and microsatellite markers. We also analyzed available at-sea survey data from several locations for trend. To understand the reasonableness of the empirical trend data, we developed demographic models incorporating stochasticity to discern what population trends were possible by chance. The genetic studies substantially confirmed previous findings on population structure in the Marbled Murrelet. Our present work finds three populations: (1) one comprising birds in the central and western Aleutian Islands; (2) one comprising birds in central California; and (3) one comprising birds within the center of the range from the eastern Aleutians to northern California. Our knowledge of genetic structure within this

  17. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee. Fifth semi-annual status report, April 1990--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This fifth semi-annual status report of the MHD Technology Transfer, Integration, and Review Committee (TTIRC) summarizes activities of the TTIRC during the period April 1990 through September 1990. It includes summaries and minutes of committee meetings, progress summaries of ongoing Proof-of-Concept (POC) contracts, discussions pertaining to technical integration issues in the POC program, and planned activities for the next six months.

  18. The level of association between functional performance status measures and patient-reported outcomes in cancer patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Charissa F.; Roberts, Kailey E.; Saracino, Rebecca M.; Hernandez, Marisol; Basch, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The process of assessing patient symptoms and functionality using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and functional performance status (FPS) is an essential aspect of patient-centered oncology research and care. However, PRO and FPS measures are often employed separately or inconsistently combined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the level of association between PRO and FPS measures to determine their differential or combined utility. Methods A systematic search was conducted using five databases (1966 to February 2014) to identify studies that described an association between PRO and FPS. Studies were excluded if they were non-cancer specific, did not include adults aged 18 or older, or were review articles. Publications were selected for review by consensus among two authors, with a third author arbitrating as needed. Results A total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. FPS was primarily assessed by clinicians using the ECOG Performance Status or Karnofsky Performance Status measures. PROs were captured using a variety of measures, with numerous domains assessed (e.g., pain, fatigue, and general health status). Concordance between PROs and FPS measures was widely variable, falling in the low to moderate range (0.09–0.72). Conclusions Despite consistency in the method of capture of PROs or FPS, domain capture varied considerably across reviewed studies. Irrespective of the method of capturing PROs or FPS, the quantified level of association between these two areas was moderate at best, providing evidence that FPS and PRO assessments offer unique information to assist clinicians in their decision-making. PMID:26314706

  19. A literature review on anesthetic practice for carotid endarterectomy surgery based on cost, hemodynamic stability, and neurologic status.

    PubMed

    Meitzner, Mark C; Skurnowicz, Julie A; Mitchell, Anne

    2007-06-01

    An extensive literature review was undertaken to evaluate the best anesthetic practice for carotid endarterectomy surgery. Two anesthetic techniques were evaluated: general anesthetic with an endotracheal tube and regional anesthetic block. Three variables were reviewed with respect to significant clinical outcomes based on anesthetic technique. Relevant literature was obtained through multiple sources that included professional journals, a professional website, and textbooks. According to the literature, there is an advantage to performing regional anesthesia with respect to cost and neurologic status. Information analyzed was inconclusive with respect to hemodynamic stability and anesthetic technique. We conclude that regional anesthesia may have some slight advantages; however, more investigation is warranted. PMID:17591300

  20. Is Higher Consumption of Animal Flesh Foods Associated with Better Iron Status among Adults in Developed Countries? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jacklyn; Williams, Rebecca; McEvoy, Mark; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Patterson, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency within the developed world. This is of concern as ID has been shown to affect immunity, thermoregulation, work performance and cognition. Animal flesh foods provide the richest and most bioavailable source of dietary (haem) iron, however, it is unclear whether low animal flesh diets contribute to ID. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether a higher consumption of animal flesh foods is associated with better iron status in adults. CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched for published studies that included adults (≥18 years) from developed countries and measured flesh intakes in relation to iron status indices. Eight experimental and 41 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies varied in population and study designs and results were conflicting. Of the seven high quality studies, five showed a positive association between animal flesh intake (85–300 g/day) and iron status. However, the optimum quantity or frequency of flesh intake required to maintain or achieve a healthy iron status remains unclear. Results show a promising relationship between animal flesh intake and iron status, however, additional longitudinal and experimental studies are required to confirm this relationship and determine optimal intakes to reduce ID development. PMID:26891320

  1. The evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian hospitals: 5 years of national surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Simor, Andrew E.; Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Bryce, Elizabeth; Green, Karen; McGeer, Allison; Mulvey, Michael; Paton, Shirley

    2001-01-01

    Background To better understand the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Canadian hospitals, surveillance has been conducted in sentinel hospitals across the country since 1995. We report the results of the first 5 years of the program. Methods For each newly identified inpatient with MRSA, medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results A total of 4507 patients infected or colonized with MRSA were identified between January 1995 and December 1999. The rate of MRSA increased each year from a mean of 0.95 per 100 S. aureus isolates in 1995 to 5.97 per 100 isolates in 1999 (0.46 per 1000 admissions in 1995 to 4.12 per 1000 admissions in 1999) (p < 0.05). Most of the increase in MRSA occurred in Ontario, Quebec and the western provinces. Of the 3009 cases for which the site of MRSA acquisition could be determined, 86% were acquired in a hospital, 8% were acquired in a long-term care facility and 6% were acquired in the community. A total of 1603 patients (36%) were infected with MRSA. The most common sites of infection were skin or soft tissue (25% of MRSA infections), pulmonary tissues (24%) and surgical sites (23%); 13% of the patients were bacteremic. An epidemiologic link with a previously identified MRSA patient was suspected in 53% of the cases. Molecular typing indicated that most (81%) of the isolates could be classified as related to 1 of the 4 Canadian epidemic strains of MRSA. Interpretation There has been a significant increase in the rate of isolating MRSA in many Canadian hospitals, related to the transmission of a relatively small number of MRSA strains. PMID:11468949

  2. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131) were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5%) patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4%) achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context, acceptable cultural explanations

  3. Nutritional Status: The Interpretation of Indicators. Children in the Tropics: Review of the International Children's Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; Masse-Raimbault, Anne-Marie

    1989-01-01

    The assessment of individual or community nutritional status involves the use of indicators; when properly analyzed and interpreted, these may be used to decide what strategies to implement, or how to orient activities aimed at improving nutritional status. In primary health care programs, one approach which remains underused involves obtaining…

  4. Does Creatine Supplementation Hinder Exercise Heat Tolerance or Hydration Status? A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To critically assess original research addressing the effect of creatine supplementation on exercise heat tolerance and hydration status. Data Sources: We searched the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and Rehabilitation & Physical Medicine, without date limitations, for the following key words: creatine, exercise, thermoregulation, dehydration, hyperthermia, heat tolerance, exertional heat illnesses, and renal function. Our goal was to identify randomized clinical trials investigating the effect of creatine supplementation on hydration status and thermoregulation. Citations from related articles also were identified and retrieved. Data Synthesis: Original research was reviewed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. One author initially screened all articles. Fifteen of 95 articles examined the effects of creatine on thermoregulation or hydration status (or both). Two independent reviewers then reviewed these articles. Ten studies were selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PEDro scores for the 10 studies ranged from 7 to 10 points (maximum possible score  =  10 points). Conclusions: No evidence supports the concept that creatine supplementation either hinders the body's ability to dissipate heat or negatively affects the athlete's body fluid balance. Controlled experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation at recommended dosages. PMID:19295968

  5. Employment Status after Spinal Cord Injury (1992-2005): A Review with Implications For Interpretation, Evaluation, Further Research, and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Amanda E.; Murphy, Gregory C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the research conducted on the topic of employment status after spinal cord injury that was published between 1992 and 2005. This study follows on from an earlier review that focused on papers published between 1976 and 1991. The current study extends the earlier review by reporting an aggregate employment…

  6. 5-year follow-up after sentinel node mapping for breast cancer demonstrates better than expected treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fuhrman, George M; Gambino, Jamie; Bolton, John S; Farr, Gist; Jiang, Xiaozhang

    2005-07-01

    We conducted this study to provide one of the initial assessments of treatment outcomes for breast cancer patients evaluated with sentinel node mapping. All patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma, evaluated with sentinel node mapping, and followed for 5 years were divided into three groups depending on sentinel node(s) status. Group I (node negative) included 91 patients, 77 with invasive cancer, and 7 lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 70 patients, 3 (4.3%) suffered a distant recurrence and died, 1 developed an in-breast recurrence, and 9 (12.9%) developed a contralateral cancer during the study. Group II (IHC positive) included 28 patients. One (3.6%) developed a distant recurrence and died of breast cancer, and one developed a contralateral cancer during follow. Group III (H&E positive) included 36 patients with 1 lost to follow-up. Five patients (14.3%) died of breast cancer and two (5.7%) developed contralateral carcinomas during follow-up. The most striking observation was a lower than expected rate of distant recurrences in these patients followed for 5 years after a diagnosis of breast cancer and staging with sentinel node mapping. The ability to identify subtle nodal metastasis and design appropriate systemic therapeutic strategies may explain this finding. PMID:16089119

  7. Review Article—Dielectrophoresis: Status of the theory, technology, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Pethig, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    A review is presented of the present status of the theory, the developed technology and the current applications of dielectrophoresis (DEP). Over the past 10 years around 2000 publications have addressed these three aspects, and current trends suggest that the theory and technology have matured sufficiently for most effort to now be directed towards applying DEP to unmet needs in such areas as biosensors, cell therapeutics, drug discovery, medical diagnostics, microfluidics, nanoassembly, and particle filtration. The dipole approximation to describe the DEP force acting on a particle subjected to a nonuniform electric field has evolved to include multipole contributions, the perturbing effects arising from interactions with other cells and boundary surfaces, and the influence of electrical double-layer polarizations that must be considered for nanoparticles. Theoretical modelling of the electric field gradients generated by different electrode designs has also reached an advanced state. Advances in the technology include the development of sophisticated electrode designs, along with the introduction of new materials (e.g., silicone polymers, dry film resist) and methods for fabricating the electrodes and microfluidics of DEP devices (photo and electron beam lithography, laser ablation, thin film techniques, CMOS technology). Around three-quarters of the 300 or so scientific publications now being published each year on DEP are directed towards practical applications, and this is matched with an increasing number of patent applications. A summary of the US patents granted since January 2005 is given, along with an outline of the small number of perceived industrial applications (e.g., mineral separation, micropolishing, manipulation and dispensing of fluid droplets, manipulation and assembly of micro components). The technology has also advanced sufficiently for DEP to be used as a tool to manipulate nanoparticles (e.g., carbon nanotubes, nano wires, gold and metal

  8. Persistence and progression of masked hypertension: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Xavier; Milot, Alain; Brisson, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine masked hypertension persistence over 5 years. Methods. White-collar workers were recruited from three public organizations. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using Spacelabs 90207. Manually operated BP was defined as the mean of the first three readings taken at rest. Ambulatory BP was defined as the mean of the next readings taken every 15 minutes and recorded during working hours. BP was assessed three times over 5 years. Masked hypertension was defined as manually operated BP less than 140 and less than 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg. Sustained hypertension was defined as manually operated BP at least 140 or at least 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg or being treated for hypertension. Results. BP measurements were obtained from 1669 participants from whom 232 had masked hypertension at baseline. Persistence of masked hypertension was 38% and 18.5%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Progression to sustained hypertension was 26% and 37%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Conclusion. Among baseline masked hypertensives, one-third progressed to sustained hypertension and about one out of five remained masked after 5 years, potentially delaying diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24455208

  9. Employment as a Social Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies Exploring the Relationship between Employment Status and Physical Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Zeglin, Robert J.; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore employment as a social determinant of health through examining the relationship between employment status and physical health. Method: The authors explored the causal relationship between employment status and physical health through conducting a systematic review of 22 longitudinal studies conducted in Finland, France, the…

  10. A systematic review of the nutritional status of women of a childbearing age with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McColl, Helen; Dhillon, Manpreet; Howard, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of pregnant women with severe mental illness. We therefore carried out a systematic review to investigate whether pregnant women and childbearing aged women with severe mental illness have significantly greater nutritional deficiencies compared with pregnant women and childbearing aged women with no mental illness. We carried out a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from January 1980 to January 2011 for studies on nutritional status of childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Identification of papers and quality rating of papers (using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) was carried out by two reviewers independently. We identified and screened 4,130 potentially relevant studies from the electronic databases. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 587 women). There were no studies of pregnant women. There was some evidence of low serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels and elevated homocysteine levels in childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Further research into the nutritional status of childbearing aged women with severe mental illness is needed. Maternal nutrition has a profound impact on foetal outcome, is a modifiable risk factor and therefore needs prioritising in the care of all childbearing aged women with severe mental illness.

  11. Obesogenic environments: a systematic review of the association between the physical environment and adult weight status, the SPOTLIGHT project

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding which physical environmental factors affect adult obesity, and how best to influence them, is important for public health and urban planning. Previous attempts to summarise the literature have not systematically assessed the methodological quality of included studies, or accounted for environmental differences between continents or the ways in which environmental characteristics were measured. Methods We have conducted an updated review of the scientific literature on associations of physical environmental factors with adult weight status, stratified by continent and mode of measurement, accompanied by a detailed risk-of-bias assessment. Five databases were systematically searched for studies published between 1995 and 2013. Results Two factors, urban sprawl and land use mix, were found consistently associated with weight status, although only in North America. Conclusions With the exception of urban sprawl and land use mix in the US the results of the current review confirm that the available research does not allow robust identification of ways in which that physical environment influences adult weight status, even after taking into account methodological quality. PMID:24602291

  12. [Should knowledge of BRCA1 status impact the choice of chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer: a review].

    PubMed

    Clergue, Océane; Jones, Natalie; Sévenet, Nicolas; Quenel-Tueux, Nathalie; Debled, Marc

    2015-03-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations account for 40% of cancer predisposition gene mutations identified in the current French diagnostic setting. The proteins encoded by these genes are implicated in DNA repair pathways. As a result, loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 function may modify chemo-sensitivity. This literature review aims to determine whether BRCA1 mutation status should influence the choice of systemic treatment in breast cancer. Fourteen articles and four abstracts from 12 retrospective analyses and 6 prospective studies were identified in the literature review. CMF-type and taxane-based protocols appear to be insufficiently effective, while anthracycline activity does not seem to be affected by BRCA1 status. BRCA1-mutated tumours appear to be highly sensitive to platinum, in both the neoadjuvant and metastatic setting. Olaparib, a PARP inhibitor, has only been evaluated in one study in metastatic patients, with promising results. The presence of a BRCA1 mutation can lead to an adaptation of therapies in the metastatic stages in breast cancer. The rapid identification of BRCA1 mutations and the adaptation of treatment according to this status in the (neo)adjuvant setting is likely to become a reality in the coming years.

  13. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica. PMID:25499184

  14. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica.

  15. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at 14 of 27 Major Hydroelectric Projects in Idaho, 1983-1984 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Mehrhoff, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and wildlife and their habitats in the Columbia River Basin and to compliance with the Program, the wildlife mitigation status reports coordination with resource agencies and Indian Tribes. developed the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program development, operation, and maintenance of hydroelectric projects on existing agreements; and past, current, and proposed wildlife factual review and documentation of existing information on wildlife meet the requirements of Measure 1004(b)(l) of the Program. The mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. In mitigate for the losses to those resources resulting from the purpose of these wildlife mitigation status reports is to provide a resources at some of the Columbia River Basin hydroelectric projects the river and its tributaries. To accomplish this goal, the Council were written with the cooperation of project operators, and in within Idaho.

  16. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children up to 5 Years of Age in Spain: Epidemiology and Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Gonzalez-Escalada, Alba; Marín-García, Patricia; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Gil-de-Miguel, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This epidemiological survey in Spain estimates the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children up to 5 year of age during a 15-year period (1997–2011). Observational retrospective survey was conducted by reviewing data of the National Surveillance System for Hospital Data, including >98% of Spanish hospitals. All hospitalizations related to RSV infection for children up to 5 years, reported during 1997–2011 period, were analyzed. Codes were selected by using the International Classification of Diseases 9th Clinical Modification 466.0–466.19, 480.1, and 079.6. A total of 326,175 and 286,007 hospital discharges for children up to 5 and 2 years of age were reported during the study period. The annual incidence was 1072 and 2413 patients per 100,000, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5.7 (standard deviation 8.2) days. Four hundred forty-six deaths were reported; of those, 403 occurred in children <2 years and 355 (80%) occurred in children <12 months of age. Hospitalization and mortality rates were significantly higher in boys and decrease significantly with age. The higher rate of hospitalization and mortality rates were found in the first year of life. Annual average cost for National Health Care System was € 47 M with a mean hospitalization cost of €2162. The average length of hospitalization and costs were significantly higher in high-risk children. RSV infections in children up to 5 year of age still pose a significant health threat in Spain, especially in the infants. The development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic guidelines focused in children with comorbidities may help reduce the hospital and economic burden of the disease. PMID:26020386

  17. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  18. The 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology 1981. Source Materials Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This is the second of two volumes of source documents commissioned by the National Science Foundation in preparing the second 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology for transmission to the Congress. This volume consists of the views of individuals selected by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy of the American Association for…

  19. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  20. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  1. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  2. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  3. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  4. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  5. Delayed refractory hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Merola, J; Liang, E; Hoskins, J; Balakrishnan, V; Gan, P

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who developed a delayed onset intractable hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The proposed aetiology of this exceptionally rare phenomenon is discussed. To our knowledge, previous cases have only been reported in the adult population.

  6. A Multiple-Data Analysis of the 3.5-Year Development of EFL Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes in Japanese students English writing behaviors over a 3.5-year period using multiple data sources including written texts, videotaped writing behaviors, and stimulated-recall protocols. Data from student interviews supplemented the analyses. Because 6 (henceforth, English as a second language [ESL]…

  7. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  8. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  9. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  10. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  11. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  12. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  13. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  14. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  15. Secondary Science Teachers' Use of Technology in the Classroom during Their First 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Luft, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technology use of beginning secondary science teachers and explored factors facilitating or inhibiting their use of technology. The researchers collected and analyzed interviews and observational data from 95 teachers over a 5-year period. The results show that teachers used PowerPoint the most and other software the least…

  16. Introducing Engineering in Elementary Education: A 5-Year Study of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering, when integrated into K-12 education, may offer a number of potential student learning and future success benefits. In a 5-year study, four cohorts of elementary teachers of grades 2 to 4 in a single US school district were provided with teacher professional development with engineering education. Teachers were prepared to teach…

  17. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  18. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  19. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  20. Story Contexts Increase Susceptibility to the DRM Illusion in 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Pursglove, Rhian C.; Lewis, Charlie

    2007-01-01

    False recognition in children aged 5, 8, and 11 years was investigated using the standard version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and an alternative version in which the DRM stimuli were embedded in stories designed to emphasize their overall theme. Relative to the 8- and 11-year-olds, the 5-year-olds falsely recognized fewer…

  1. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  2. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  3. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  4. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  5. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  6. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  7. W-519 Sagebrush Mitigation Project FY-2004 Final Review and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes activities conducted as mitigation for loss of sagebrush-steppe habitats due to Project W-519, the construction of the infrastructure for the Tank Waste Remediation System Vitrification Plant. The focus of this report is to provide a review and final status of mitigation actions performed through FY2004. Data collected since FY1999 have been included where appropriate. The Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for Project W-519 prescribed three general actions to be performed as mitigation for the disturbance of approximately 40 ha (100 acres) of mature sagebrush-steppe habitat. These actions included: (1) transplanting approximately 130,000 sagebrush seedlings on the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE); (2) rectification of the new transmission line corridor via seeding with native grasses and sagebrush; and (3) research on native plant species with a goal of increasing species diversity in future mitigation or restoration actions. Nearly 130,000 Wyoming big sagebrush seedlings where planted on ALE during FY2000 and FY2001. About 39,000 of those seedlings were burned during the 24-Command Fire of June 2000. The surviving and subsequent replanting has resulted in about 91,000 seedlings that were planted across four general areas on ALE. A 50% survival rate at any monitoring period was defined as the performance standard in the MAP for this project. Data collected in 2004 indicate that of the over 5000 monitored plants, 51.1% are still alive, and of those the majority are thriving and blooming. These results support the potential for natural recruitment and the ultimate goal of wildlife habitat replacement. Thus, the basic performance standard for sagebrush survival within the habitat compensation planting has been met. Monitoring activities conducted in 2004 indicate considerable variation in seedling survival depending on the type of plant material, site conditions, and to a lesser extent, treatments performed at the time of planting

  8. Clinical Significance of Human Metapneumovirus in Refractory Status Epilepticus and Encephalitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Turel, Ozden; Uygur Sahin, Turkan; Kutlu, Nurettin Onur; Iscan, Akın

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis is a complex neurological disease that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and the etiology of the disease is often not identified. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children. Few reports are available showing possible involvement of hMPV in development of neurologic complications. Here, we describe an infant, the youngest case in literature, with refractory status epilepticus and severe encephalitis in whom hMPV was detected in respiratory samples and review diagnostic workup of patient with encephalitis. PMID:26664779

  9. Review and status of heat-transfer technology for internal passages of air-cooled turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, F. C.; Stepka, F. S.

    1984-01-01

    Selected literature on heat-transfer and pressure losses for airflow through passages for several cooling methods generally applicable to gas turbine blades is reviewed. Some useful correlating equations are highlighted. The status of turbine-blade internal air-cooling technology for both nonrotating and rotating blades is discussed and the areas where further research is needed are indicated. The cooling methods considered include convection cooling in passages, impingement cooling at the leading edge and at the midchord, and convection cooling in passages, augmented by pin fins and the use of roughened internal walls.

  10. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  11. Extended Long-Term (5 Years) Outcomes of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Methods: Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Results: Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. Conclusions: The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients. PMID:23730369

  12. Propofol Infusion Syndrome in Refractory Status Epilepticus: A Case Report and Topical Review

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a fatal complication when doses of propofol administration exceed 4 mg/kg/h for more than 48 hours. Propofol overdosage is not uncommon in patients with refractory status epilepticus (RSE). We describe a case of refractory status epilepticus complicated by propofol infusion syndrome and collect from 5 databases all reports of refractory status epilepticus cases that were treated by propofol and developed the syndrome and outline whether refractory status epilepticus treatment with propofol is standardized according to international recommendations, compare it with alternative medications, and discuss how this syndrome can be treated and prevented. A total of 21 patients who developed this syndrome reported arrhythmia in all cases (100%), rhabdomyolysis in 9 cases (42%), lactic acidosis in 13 cases (62%), renal failure in 8 cases (38%), lipemia in 7 cases (33%), and elevated hepatic enzymes in 6 cases (28%). 13 patients died (66%). Propofol is still given in a dosage higher than what is internationally recommended, and new treatment modalities such as renal replacement therapy, blood exchange, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation seem to be promising. In conclusion, propofol should be carefully titrated, the maximal infusion rate needs to be reassessed, and combination of different sedative agents may be considered. PMID:27493812

  13. Propofol Infusion Syndrome in Refractory Status Epilepticus: A Case Report and Topical Review.

    PubMed

    Walli, Akil; Poulsen, Troels Dirch; Dam, Mette; Børglum, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a fatal complication when doses of propofol administration exceed 4 mg/kg/h for more than 48 hours. Propofol overdosage is not uncommon in patients with refractory status epilepticus (RSE). We describe a case of refractory status epilepticus complicated by propofol infusion syndrome and collect from 5 databases all reports of refractory status epilepticus cases that were treated by propofol and developed the syndrome and outline whether refractory status epilepticus treatment with propofol is standardized according to international recommendations, compare it with alternative medications, and discuss how this syndrome can be treated and prevented. A total of 21 patients who developed this syndrome reported arrhythmia in all cases (100%), rhabdomyolysis in 9 cases (42%), lactic acidosis in 13 cases (62%), renal failure in 8 cases (38%), lipemia in 7 cases (33%), and elevated hepatic enzymes in 6 cases (28%). 13 patients died (66%). Propofol is still given in a dosage higher than what is internationally recommended, and new treatment modalities such as renal replacement therapy, blood exchange, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation seem to be promising. In conclusion, propofol should be carefully titrated, the maximal infusion rate needs to be reassessed, and combination of different sedative agents may be considered. PMID:27493812

  14. 75 FR 20547 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of Status Review for Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... its continued existence. (3) The potential effects global climate change may have on the Sacramento... splittail my require, including managing for the potential effects of climate change; (4) Any areas that are... Status for the Sacramento splittail in the Federal Register (68 FR 55140) that removed the...

  15. Transvenous Embolization of a Spontaneous Femoral AVF 5 Years After an Incomplete Treatment with Arterial Stent-Grafts

    SciTech Connect

    Peynircioglu, Bora Ozkan, Murat; Dogan, Omer Faruk; Cil, Barbaros E.; Dogan, Riza

    2008-03-15

    A 66-year-old man with complex left femoral arterio-venous fistula (AVF) was first diagnosed after a deep venous thrombosis incident approximately 5 years ago. Partial treatment was performed by means of endografts along the superficial femoral artery, which remained patent for 5 years. The patient had been doing well until a couple of months ago when he developed severe venous stasis and ulcers of the left cruris, due to a high-flow nonhealing complex AVF with additional iliac vein occlusion. Therefore; the definitive treatment was performed by a unique endovascular technique combined with surgical venous bypass (femoro-femoral crossover saphenous bypass, the Palma operation). A novel percutaneous transvenous technique for occlusion of a complex high-flow AVF is reported with a review of the literature. The case is unique with spontaneous AVF, transvenous embolization with detachable coils and ONYX, and the hybrid treatment technique as well as the long-term patency of superficial femoral artery stent-grafts.

  16. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) in Ibero-America: Review of Current Status and Some Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Martinez, Amanda; Novoa-Gomez, Monica; Gutierrez, Rochy Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) has been making an important rise in Ibero-America in recent years. This paper presents a review of different contributions, problems and some proposals. Three principal topics are reviewed: (a) general characteristics and theoretical bases of FAP, (b) the uses of FAP and its relationship with other…

  17. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI). 330.12 Section 330.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Register concerning previously unpublished OTC drugs reviewed by the National Academy of...

  18. 2013 Occupant Protection Risk Standing Review Panel Status Review Comments to the Human Research Program, Chief Scientist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    On December 17, 2013, the OP Risk SRP, participants from the JSC, HQ, and NRESS participated in a WebEx/teleconference. The purpose of the call was to allow the SRP members to: 1. Receive an update by the Human Research Program (HRP) Chief Scientist or Deputy Chief Scientist on the status of NASA's current and future exploration plans and the impact these will have on the HRP. 2. Receive an update on any changes within the HRP since the 2012 SRP meeting. 3. Receive an update by the Element or Project Scientist(s) on progress since the 2012 SRP meeting. 4. Participate in a discussion with the HRP Chief Scientist, Deputy Chief Scientist, and the Element regarding possible topics to be addressed at the next SRP meeting.

  19. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  20. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  1. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  2. Motor vehicle occupants, neck injuries, and seat belt utilization: a 5-year study of fatalities in New York City.

    PubMed

    Sgarlato, Anthony; Deroux, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    Despite the implementation of numerous safety devices in automobiles, vehicular occupant fatalities following collisions remain common. We reviewed all fatalities of vehicular occupants in New York City over a 5-year period on whom autopsies were performed (437) to determine the incidence of neck injuries and correlate them with seat belt utilization; 26.5% had neck injuries (mild to severe) and only 10.3% of these occupants were confirmed to be wearing seatbelts. Of those that had documentation of seat belt utilization there were twice as many neck injuries in the unbelted group. We highlight two cases of submarining with severe neck injuries that were related to automatic 2-point shoulder harness restraints without engagement of the lap belt. PMID:20070463

  3. [An overview of researches on underlying mechanisms of acupuncture therapy by functional magnetic resonance imaging in recent 5 years].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hai-Zhen; Chang, Jing-Ling; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Ying

    2012-04-01

    In the present paper, the authors review the development of researches on acupuncture therapy with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in recent 5 years in both China and foreign countries. The current researches mainly involve 1) specificity of efficacies of acupoints, 2) mechanisms of acupuncture intervention underlying improvement of various clinical conditions or illnesses, 3) individual difference of the subjects, and 4) sustained efficacies of acupuncture. In the early stage, researches on acupuncture therapy mostly focus on the immediate efficacy and the specificity of efficacies of acupoints. Along with the actuality of sustained effect of acupuncture, new test design paradigms agreeable with clinical practice are necessary in the future. In addition, more attentions about the stability of the tested results should be paid.

  4. Motor vehicle occupants, neck injuries, and seat belt utilization: a 5-year study of fatalities in New York City.

    PubMed

    Sgarlato, Anthony; Deroux, Stephen J

    2010-03-01

    Despite the implementation of numerous safety devices in automobiles, vehicular occupant fatalities following collisions remain common. We reviewed all fatalities of vehicular occupants in New York City over a 5-year period on whom autopsies were performed (437) to determine the incidence of neck injuries and correlate them with seat belt utilization; 26.5% had neck injuries (mild to severe) and only 10.3% of these occupants were confirmed to be wearing seatbelts. Of those that had documentation of seat belt utilization there were twice as many neck injuries in the unbelted group. We highlight two cases of submarining with severe neck injuries that were related to automatic 2-point shoulder harness restraints without engagement of the lap belt.

  5. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Herulah, Ursula Nirmala; Prasad, Ashlini; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2015-06-05

    Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (-1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001). Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

  6. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Herulah, Ursula Nirmala; Prasad, Ashlini; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2015-06-01

    Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (-1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001). Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet. PMID:26056918

  7. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Meika; Herulah, Ursula Nirmala; Prasad, Ashlini; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (−1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001); and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (−1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001). Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet. PMID:26056918

  8. Waste-to-energy: A review of the status and benefits in USA

    SciTech Connect

    Psomopoulos, C.S. Bourka, A.; Themelis, N.J.

    2009-05-15

    The USA has significant experience in the field of municipal solid waste management. The hierarchy of methodologies for dealing with municipal solid wastes consists of recycling and composting, combustion with energy recovery (commonly called waste-to-energy) and landfilling. This paper focuses on waste-to-energy and especially its current status and benefits, with regard to GHG, dioxin and mercury emissions, energy production and land saving, on the basis of experience of operating facilities in USA.

  9. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  10. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  11. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  12. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  13. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  14. 78 FR 33113 - Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan Program Years 2012-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan... Administration's (USDOL/ ETA) 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan for 2012-2017. Under Section 171 of... a strategic plan for pilots, demonstrations, and research over the next 5 years in areas related...

  15. Does the use of specialist palliative care services modify the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Nicolson, Donald J; Macleod, Una; Allgar, Victoria; Dalgliesh, Christopher; Johnson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer patients in lower socioeconomic groups are significantly less likely to die at home and experience more barriers to access to palliative care. It is unclear whether receiving palliative care may mediate the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death. Aim: This review examines whether and how use of specialist palliative care may modify the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death. Design: A systematic review was conducted. Eligible papers were selected and the quality appraised by two independent reviewers. Data were synthesised using a narrative approach. Data sources: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge were searched (1997–2013). Bibliographies were scanned and experts contacted. Papers were included if they reported the effect of both socioeconomic status and use of specialist palliative care on place of death for adult cancer patients. Results: Nine studies were included. All study subjects had received specialist palliative care. With regard to place of death, socioeconomic status was found to have (1) no effect in seven studies and (2) an effect in one study. Furthermore, one study found that the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death was only significant when patients received standard specialist palliative care. When patients received more intense care adapted to their needs, the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death was no longer seen. Conclusion: There is some evidence to suggest that use of specialist palliative care may modify the effect of socioeconomic status on place of death. PMID:26330454

  16. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised.

  17. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised. PMID:27489968

  18. Equatorial Annual Oscillation with QBO-driven 5-year Modulation in NCEP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the zonal wind and temperature variations supplied by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which have been assimilated in the Reanalysis and the Climate Prediction Center (CCP) data sets. The derived zonal-mean variations are employed. Stimulated by modeling studies, the data are separated into the hemispherically symmetric and anti-symmetric components, and spectral analysis is applied to study the annual 12-month oscillation and Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). For data samples that cover as much as 40 years, the results reveal a pronounced 5-year modulation of the symmetric AO in the lower stratosphere, which is confined to equatorial latitudes. This modulation is also inferred for the temperature variations but extends to high latitudes, qualitatively consistent with published model results. A comparison between different data samples indicates that the signature of the 5-year oscillation is larger when the QBO of 30 months is more pronounced. Thus there is circumstantial evidence that this periodicity of the QBO is involved in generating the oscillation. The spectral analysis shows that there is a weak anti-symmetric 5-year oscillation in the zonal winds, which could interact with the large antisymmetric A0 to produce the modulation of the symmetric AO as was shown in earlier modeling studies. According to these studies, the 30-month QBO tends to be synchronized by the equatorial Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO), and this would explain why the inferred 5-year modulation is observed to persist and is phase locked over several cycles.

  19. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in a 5-year-old boy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Sabnis, Rajesh; Bhuta, Bansari A; Yadav, Archana

    2015-03-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), formerly known as calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a rare developmental neoplasm/cyst of odontogenic epithelial origin with considerable histopathologic diversity and variable clinical behaviour. The occurrence of CCOT in the first decade of life is very uncommon. We report an interestingly rare variant of CCOT with ameloblastomatous proliferation affecting the mandibular left posterior region associated with an impacted permanent tooth in a 5-year-old boy.

  20. King 2 2519 ATM residual gyros: Reestablishing 5 year life requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayal, B.; Carbocci, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The technical expertise required to assess the condition of the residual ATM 2519 Singer gyros is discussed. Past build history records, past performance characteristics, and recommendations for particular tests (which were performed by NASA personnel) are summarized. Test results are analyzed. A study of motor performance data and recommendations concerning gyro spin bearing life was performed. A method of reestablishing potential reliability of the bearing for the 5-year life requirement of the power module is also included.

  1. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  2. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  3. A 5-year Journey with Cutis Laxa in an Indian Child: The De Barsy Syndrome Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Roy, Sutirtha

    2016-01-01

    De Barsy syndrome (DBS), synonymously known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III, is an extremely rare condition clinically characterized by cutis laxa, a progeroid appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. We present here an account of 5-year follow-up since the birth of an Indian boy with DBS, who had a few rare and unusual manifestations. In addition, our case probably represents the first reported case of DBS from India. PMID:26955101

  4. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  5. Review of current status of high flux heat transfer techniques. Volume I. Text + Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, W.H.; Gordon, H.S.; Lackner, H.; Mettling, J.R.; Miller, J.E.

    1980-09-01

    The scope of this work comprised two tasks. The first was to review high heat flux technology with consideration given to heat transfer panel configuration, diagnostics techniques and coolant supply. The second task was to prepare a report describing the findings of the review, to recommend the technology offering the least uncertainty for scale-up for the MFTF-B requirement and to recommend any new or perceived requirements for R and D effort.

  6. Immunologic memory 5 years after meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination in infancy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, J; Obaro, S; Deeks, J; Lake, D; Elie, C; Carlone, G; Moxon, E R; Greenwood, B

    2001-01-01

    Infant vaccination with meningococcal conjugates may provide long-term protection against disease. Antibody levels and immunologic memory were assessed in 5-year-old Gambian children who received meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination (MenA/C) in infancy. At 2 years, they were randomized to receive a booster of MenA/C (conjugate group), meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MPS group), or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV group). All groups were revaccinated with 10 microg MPS at 5 years of age, as were 39 previously unvaccinated age-matched control subjects. Before revaccination, titers were higher in the conjugate and MPS groups than in control subjects (P<.001); titers for the IPV group were similar to those for control subjects. Ten days after revaccination, the conjugate and IPV groups had similar serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody titers (3421 vs. 2790, respectively). These levels were significantly higher than those in the MPS (426) and control (485) groups (P<.001). Thus, immunologic memory was sustained for > or =5 years; however, MPS challenge at 2 years interfered with a subsequent memory response.

  7. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively.

  8. Soil microbial properties after 5 years of consecutive amendment with composted tannery sludge.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima; Oliveira, Mara Lucia Jacinto; Santos, Vilma Maria; Nunes, Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; Melo, Wanderley José

    2015-01-01

    Composting has been recognised an alternative method to tannery sludge recycling and afterwards to be used in agriculture. As the tannery sludge contains salts and chromium, the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) should be performed carefully to minimise negative effects on soil microbial properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on soil microbial biomass (SMB) and enzyme activities in a tropical soil. CTS was applied during 5 years at 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha(-1), and at the fifth year, the microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), basal and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), metabolic quotient (qCO₂) and dehydrogenase (DHA) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were determined in the soil samples. Soil MBC and MBN showed the highest values with the amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. Soil respiration increased with the increase in CTS rates, while SIR showed the highest values with the amendment of 0, 2.5 and 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. DHA activity showed the highest values with the amendment up to 2.5 Mg ha(-1), while FDA hydrolysis increased up to the rate of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. The results show that after 5 years of permanent amendment of CTS, soils amended with 2.5 Mg ha(-1) have SMB and enzymatic activities similar to those in unamended soil.

  9. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  10. The Treatment of Parasomnias with Hypnosis: a 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Peter J.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study involves a replication and extension of a previous one reported by Hurwitz et al (1991) on the treatment of certain parasomnias with hypnosis. Methods: Thirty-six patients (17 females), mean age 32.7 years (range 6–71). Four were children aged 6 to 16. All had chronic, “functionally autonomous” (self-sustaining) parasomnias. All underwent 1 or 2 hypnotherapy sessions and were then followed by questionnaire for 5 years. Results: Of the 36 patients, 45.4% were symptom-free or at least much improved at the 1-month follow-up, 42.2% at the 18-month follow-up, and 40.5% at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusions: One or 2 sessions of hypnotherapy might be an efficient first-line therapy for patients with certain types of parasomnias. Citation: Hauri PJ; Silber MH; Boeve BF. The treatment of parasomnias with hypnosis: a 5-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):369-373. PMID:17694725

  11. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 5 Years of Age--Uganda, 2009.

    PubMed

    Menon, Manoj P; Yoon, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dL, is a global public health problem. According to the 2006 Demographic Health Survey, the prevalence of anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda.

  12. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  13. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  14. Sports activities 5 years after total knee or hip arthroplasty: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Huch, K; Muller, K; Sturmer, T; Brenner, H; Puhl, W; Gunther, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse sports activities of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) over lifetime, preoperatively, and 5 years after arthroplasty. Methods: In a longitudinal four centre study, 809 consecutive patients with advanced OA of the hip (420) or the knee (389) joint under the age of 76 years who required total joint replacement were recruited. A completed questionnaire about sports activities at 5 year follow up was received from 636 (79%) of the 809 patients. Results: Although most patients with hip (97%) and knee (94%) OA had performed sports activities during their life, only 36% (hip patients) and 42% (knee patients) had maintained sports activities at the time of surgery. Five years postoperatively, the proportion of patients performing sports activities increased to 52% among patients with hip OA, but further declined to 34% among those with knee OA. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with hip OA performing sports activities for more than 2 hours a week increased from 8 to 14%, whereas this proportion decreased from 12 to 5% among patients with knee OA. Pain in the replaced joint was reported by 9% of patients with hip and by >16% with knee OA. Conclusion: Differences in pain 5 years after joint replacement may explain some of the difference of sports activities between patients with hip and knee OA. Reasons for reduction of sports activities may include the increasing age of the patients, their worries about an "artificial joint", and the advice of their surgeon to be cautious. PMID:15843453

  15. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans. PMID:26574106

  16. A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Yadav, Krishna Kumar; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-11-01

    Municipal solid waste management is a major environmental issue in India. Due to rapid increase in urbanization, industrialization and population, the generation rate of municipal solid waste in Indian cities and towns is also increased. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste can cause adverse environmental impacts, public health risk and other socio-economic problem. This paper presents an overview of current status of solid waste management in India which can help the competent authorities responsible for municipal solid waste management and researchers to prepare more efficient plans.

  17. A review of copper status of cattle in Canada and recommendations for supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Marion E.; Cymbaluk, Nadia F.; Christensen, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Primary and secondary copper deficiency has been identified in most Canadian provinces. Research has been done investigating the environmental and dietary factors that influence dietary copper availability and the effect of deficient copper status on the health and production of cattle. Across Canada, a high percentage of forages and grains are marginal to deficient in copper. In certain regions, high sulphates in the water and/or high molybdenum concentrations in the feed decrease dietary copper availability. The value of various oral and parenteral copper supplements in the treatment and prevention of copper deficiency is discussed. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17423962

  18. Targeted therapy for advanced gastric cancer: A review of current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Kanat, Ozkan; O’Neil, Bert; Shahda, Safi

    2015-01-01

    In the West in particular, the vast majority of gastric cancer (GC) patients present with advanced-stage disease. Although combination chemotherapy is still the most important component of treatment for these patients, it confers a modest survival advantage. Recently, increased knowledge of the key molecular signaling pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis has led to the discovery of specific molecular-targeted therapeutic agents. Some of these agents such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab have changed the treatment paradigm for this disease. In this paper, we will summarize the current clinical status of targeted drug therapy in the management of GC. PMID:26690491

  19. Review of X-43A Return to Flight Activities and Current Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reubush, David E.; Nguyen, Luat T.; Rausch, Vincent L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and status of the return to flight activities for the X-43A scramjet flight demonstrator after the first flight mishap. The first flight was attempted on June 2, 2001 and resulted in vehicle destruction by range safety when the booster went out of control early in the flight. In the time since the mishap much work has been done to examine the causes of the failure and make modifications to the booster to insure that the boost for the second flight will be successful. In addition, all other aspects of the flight have been examined to maximize the probability of a successful flight.

  20. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD: A Systematic Review of Performance-Based Measures and Patient-Reported Measures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-05-01

    Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures.Studies on measures of COPD patients' functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected.A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS).Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to provide convincing

  1. Predictors of heroin relapse: Personality traits, impulsivity, COMT gene Val158met polymorphism in a 5-year prospective study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Li, Zhibin; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Haifeng; Chen, Zhikang; Sun, Haiming; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. The heroin use status was evaluated for 5 years after discharged. Among the 564 heroin-dependent patients, 500 were followed for 5 years after discharge and 53.0% (n = 265) were considered as relapsed to heroin use according to a strict monitor system. Univariate analysis showed that age, having ever been in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the total scores and non-planning scores of BIS-11, and the COMT rs4680 gene variants were different between relapse and abstinent groups. Logistic regression analysis showed higher BIS total score, having ever been in MMT and younger first heroin use age are the predictors of relapse to heroin use during 5 years follow-up, and the COMT rs4680 gene had an interaction with BIS scores. Our findings indicated that the impulsive personality traits, methadone use history, and onset age could predict relapse in heroin-dependent patients during 5 year's follow up. The COMT gene showed a moderational effect in part the relationship of impulsivity with heroin relapse.

  2. Predictors of heroin relapse: Personality traits, impulsivity, COMT gene Val158met polymorphism in a 5-year prospective study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Li, Zhibin; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Haifeng; Chen, Zhikang; Sun, Haiming; Zhao, Min

    2015-12-01

    Relapse is a typical feature of heroin addiction and rooted in genetic and psychological determinants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of personality traits, impulsivity, and COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680) on relapse to heroin use during 5-year follow up. 564 heroin dependent patients were enrolled in compulsory drug rehabilitation center. 12 months prior to their release, personality traits were measured by BIS-11 (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism was genotyped using a DNA sequence detection system. The heroin use status was evaluated for 5 years after discharged. Among the 564 heroin-dependent patients, 500 were followed for 5 years after discharge and 53.0% (n = 265) were considered as relapsed to heroin use according to a strict monitor system. Univariate analysis showed that age, having ever been in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), the total scores and non-planning scores of BIS-11, and the COMT rs4680 gene variants were different between relapse and abstinent groups. Logistic regression analysis showed higher BIS total score, having ever been in MMT and younger first heroin use age are the predictors of relapse to heroin use during 5 years follow-up, and the COMT rs4680 gene had an interaction with BIS scores. Our findings indicated that the impulsive personality traits, methadone use history, and onset age could predict relapse in heroin-dependent patients during 5 year's follow up. The COMT gene showed a moderational effect in part the relationship of impulsivity with heroin relapse. PMID:26345603

  3. Early Care and Education in Minnesota: Asset Review and Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard; Dillon, Kristin; Valorose, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The goals of the early childhood business plan are to explain, inform, and guide public and private stakeholders and policymakers and the general public about the investments and activities required for all children to have opportunities for school success. The business plan presented in this report has two parts, an asset review and an action…

  4. The Status of Literacy of Sustainable Agriculture in Iran: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaninee, Hassan Sadough; Veisi, Hadi; Gorbani, Shiva; Falsafi, Peyman; Liaghati, Houman

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes heterogeneous research with a focus on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of farmers and the components of sustainable agriculture literacy through an interdisciplinary, systematic literature review for the time frame from 1996 to 2013. The major research databases were searched and 170 papers were identified. Paper…

  5. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  6. 78 FR 16828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review of the West Coast Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... warranted but precluded by other higher priority actions (69 FR 18770). We have annually reviewed this... FR 69994) for the most recent CNOR. The Center for Biological Diversity challenged our expeditious... FR 18770); the November 21, 2012, CNOR (77 FR 69994); or the species profile page at:...

  7. A status review of NASA's COSAM (Conservation Of Strategic Aerospace Materials) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The use and supply of strategic elements in nickel base superalloys for gas turbine engines are reviewed. Substitution of strategic elements, advanced processing concepts, and the identification of alternate materials are considered. Cobalt, tantalum, columbium, and chromium, the supplies of which are 91-100% imported, are the materials of major concern.

  8. A Review of the Present Status and Future Research Needs of Programs to Develop Parenting Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Joyce B.; Chapman, Judith E.

    The state of the arts paper on completed and ongoing research in parent education is based on a review of the literature of recent studies, including current federally funded research on mainstream and economically deprived families, but not studies dealing with the physically handicapped, retarded, psychotic, or foster children. The projects are…

  9. Current status and effectiveness of mentorship programmes in urology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hay, Daniel; Khan, Mohammed Shamim; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Van Cleynenbreugel, Ben; Peabody, James; Guru, Khurshid; Challacombe, Ben; Dasgupta, Prokar; Ahmed, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the efficacy of mentorship programmes for minimally invasive procedures in urology and give recommendations on how to improve mentorship. A systematic literature search of the PubMed/Medline databases was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In all, 21 articles were included in the review and divided into four categories: fellowships, mini-fellowships, mentored skills courses and novel mentorship programmes. Various structures of mentorship programme were identified and in general, mentorship programmes were found to be feasible, having content validity and educational impact. Perioperative data showed equally good outcomes when comparing trainees and specialists. Mentorship programmes are effective and represent one of the best current methods of training in urology. However, participation in such programmes is not widespread. The structure of mentorship programmes is highly variable, with no clearly defined 'best approach' for postgraduate training. This review offers recommendations as to how this 'best approach' can be established.

  10. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse - 5-Year Survival Data: Successful Model of Intersectoral Communication for Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Funk, A; König, K; Lubbe, D; Misselwitz, B; Wagner, U

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  11. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse - 5-Year Survival Data: Successful Model of Intersectoral Communication for Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Funk, A; König, K; Lubbe, D; Misselwitz, B; Wagner, U

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment.

  12. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  13. Traditional endodontic surgery versus modern technique: a 5-year controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tortorici, Silvia; Difalco, Paolo; Caradonna, Luigi; Tetè, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared outcomes of traditional apicoectomy versus modern apicoectomy, by means of a controlled clinical trial with a 5-year follow-up. The study investigated 938 teeth in 843 patients. On the basis of the procedure performed, the teeth were grouped in 3 groups. Differences between the groups were the method of osteotomy (type of instruments used), type of preparation of retrograde cavity (different apicoectomy angles and instruments used for root-end preparation), and root-end filling material used (gray mineral trioxide aggregate or silver amalgam). Outcome (tooth healing) was estimated after 1 and 5 years, postoperatively. Clinical success rates after 1 year were 67% (306 teeth), 90% (186 teeth), and 94% (256 teeth) according to traditional apicoectomy (group 1), modern microsurgical apicoectomy using burns for osteotomy (group 2) or using piezo-osteotomy (group 3), respectively. After 1 year, group comparison results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Linear trend test was also statistically significant (P < 0.0001), pointing out larger healing from group 1 to group 3. After 5 years, teeth were classified into 2 groups on the basis of root-end filling material used. Clinical success was 90.8% (197 teeth) in the silver amalgam group versus 96% (309 teeth) in the mineral trioxide aggregate group (P < 0.00214). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that surgical technique was independently associated to tooth healing. In conclusion, modern apicoectomy resulted in a probability of success more than 5 times higher (odds ratio, 5.20 [95% confidence interval, 3.94-6.92]; P < 0.001) compared with the traditional technique. PMID:24469371

  14. Calcineurin activity in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients early after and 5 years after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, D M; Koefoed-Nielsen, P B; Jørgensen, K A

    2006-10-01

    The pharmacodynamic (PD) action of tacrolimus (FK) within the T-cell is inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase (CaN). Determination of CaN activity provides us with an important PD marker. Eleven renal transplant patients treated with FK were investigated on day 14 following transplantation and 5 years later. Blood samples drawn before as well as 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after oral intake of FK were analyzed for CaN activity and blood FK concentrations. Twenty healthy subjects had one blood sample drawn for CaN activity, which was measured as the release of (32)P from a phosphorylated peptide. Radioactivity of (32)P was quantitated by liquid scintillation counting with the results converted to units of CaN utilizing a calibration curve. On day 14, we observed significant inhibition of CaN activity at T:1, 2, and 3 compared with the predose level (P = .002; P = .015; P = .015). Furthermore, all measured CaN activities were significantly different from those observed in healthy nonmedicated subjects. In contrast, at 5 years posttransplant only the CaN activity at T:2 was significantly inhibited compared with the predose level (P = .02). Additionally, all CaN activities at this time were not significantly different from CaN activities in the healthy subjects. We were not able to demonstrate individual CaN activity profiles in the patients. The lack of CaN inhibition at 5 years after transplantation despite relevant drug concentrations, probably reflected the lower drug dose used long after transplantation. This result raises the question of whether CaN inhibition is necessary to hold graft function and whether FK possess CaN-independent mechanisms of action. PMID:17098028

  15. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  16. Current status and future potential of energy derived from Chinese agricultural land: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ningning; Mao, Chunlan; Feng, Yongzhong; Zhang, Tong; Xing, Zhenjie; Wang, Yanhong; Zou, Shuzhen; Yin, Dongxue; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China's foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China's marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China's social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction. PMID:25874229

  17. Current Status and Future Potential of Energy Derived from Chinese Agricultural Land: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chunlan; Feng, Yongzhong; Zhang, Tong; Xing, Zhenjie; Wang, Yanhong; Zou, Shuzhen; Yin, Dongxue; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China's foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China's marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China's social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction. PMID:25874229

  18. Current status and future potential of energy derived from Chinese agricultural land: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Ningning; Mao, Chunlan; Feng, Yongzhong; Zhang, Tong; Xing, Zhenjie; Wang, Yanhong; Zou, Shuzhen; Yin, Dongxue; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe

    2015-01-01

    Energy crisis is receiving attention with regard to the global economy and environmental sustainable development. Developing new energy resources to optimize the energy supply structure has become an important measure to prevent energy shortage as well as achieving energy conservation and emission reduction in China. This study proposed the concept of energy agriculture and constructed an energy agricultural technical support system based on the analysis of energy supply and demand and China's foreign dependence on energy resources, combined with the function of agriculture in the energy field. Manufacturing technology equipment and agricultural and forestry energy, including crop or forestry plants and animal feces, were used in the system. The current status and future potential of China's marginal land resources, energy crop germplasm resources, and agricultural and forestry waste energy-oriented resources were analyzed. Developing the function of traditional agriculture in food production may promote China's social, economic, and environmental sustainable development and achieve energy saving and emission reduction.

  19. Upbeat nystagmus in a 3.5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Matalia, Jyoti; Rajput, Vimal K; Chillal, Geetanjali J; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-02-01

    Upbeat nystagmus is usually a central vestibular nystagmus attributable to structural brainstem or cerebellar lesions. Adult-onset upbeat nystagmus calls for a thorough neurological evaluation. In children, however, it can occur as a transient phenomenon in healthy neonates or as a sensory form of nystagmus that usually transforms into horizontal nystagmus by 2 years of age. We report the case of 3.5-year-old boy with upbeat nystagmus. His ocular examination was within normal limits. Neurological evaluation was normal. Optical coherence tomography testing and Electroretinogram confirmed cone dysfunction. Over the next 6 months the upbeat nystagmus converted to horizontal nystagmus.

  20. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Savant, Hemant V.; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed. PMID:26167224

  1. Infantile fibrosarcoma of ethmoid sinus, misdiagnosed as an adenoid in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519

  2. The Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating: Design, Fabrication, Ground Calibration, and 5 Years in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, Claude R.; Davis, John E.; Dewey, Daniel; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Galton, Eugene B.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Markert, Thomas H.; Marshall, Herman L.; McGuirk, Michael; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Smith, Henry I.; Wise, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication techniques, and the results of ground testing and calibration of the HETG. For nearly 6 years the HETG has operated essentially as designed, although it has presented some subtle flight calibration effects.

  3. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  4. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  5. Drifter-based estimate of the 5-year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2014-12-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time-scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Excellent agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  6. Drifter-based estimate of the 5 year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K.

    2014-11-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Good agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  7. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811

  8. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  9. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  10. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  11. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  12. Refractive outcome of prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity treated by diode laser: follow-up at 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuoc Huu; Catt, Caroline; Nguyen, Tinh Xuan; Pham, Van Trong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the refraction of eyes treated with diode laser photocoagulation for prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at a mean of 5 years after treatment. Materials and methods Fifty infants with prethreshold ROP treated with diode laser at Hanoi Childrens’ Hospital during the period 2008 to 2009 were reviewed. Refractive error was identified by cycloplegic refraction with Cyclogyl 1%. Myopia was divided into two categories based on magnitude: high myopia (more than −5.00 D) and low myopia (between 0 and −5.00 D). Hypermetropia was subdivided into low hypermetropia (between 0 and +5.00 D) and high hypermetropia (greater than +5.00 D). Astigmatism was classified as high if >2.00 D. Eyes with media opacification that interferes with retinoscopy were excluded. The refractive outcome was correlated with birth weight and gestational age. The anatomical and visual outcomes were recorded. Results One hundred eyes from 50 infants were included in the study. The mean birth weight was 1,426.4 g and the mean gestational age was 29.88 weeks. After 5 years of follow-up, the average spherical equivalent for 100 eyes was −2.87 D. On cycloplegic retinoscopy, high myopia (more than −5.00 D) was seen in 32% of eyes. Twenty (20%) eyes had nonsignificant hypermetropia, and high hypermetropia (more +5.00 D) was seen in only one eye (1%). The prevalence of astigmatism and high astigmatism (more than −2.00 D) was 79% and 49%, respectively. Three infants (6%) had esotropia and two infants (4%) had exotropia. None of the infants had nystagmus. Conclusion The majority of patients who underwent diode laser therapy for prethreshold ROP had favourable anatomical and visual outcomes. High refractive error is common and may be the cause of visual impairment. PMID:26445521

  13. Reviews and syntheses: measuring ecosystem nitrogen status - a comparison of proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaraz, Maya; Porder, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    There are many proxies used to measure nitrogen (N) availability in watersheds, but the degree to which they do (or do not) correlate within a watershed has not been systematically addressed. We surveyed the literature for intact forest or grassland watersheds globally, in which several metrics of nitrogen availability have been measured. Our metrics included the following: foliar δ15N, soil δ15N, net nitrification, net N mineralization, and the ratio of dissolved inorganic to organic nitrogen (DIN : DON) in soil solution and streams. We were particularly interested in whether terrestrial and stream based proxies for N availability were correlated where they were measured in the same place. Not surprisingly, the strongest correlation (Kendall's τ) was between net nitrification and N mineralization (τ = 0.71, p < 0.0001). Net nitrification and N mineralization were each correlated with foliar and soil δ15N (p < 0.05). Foliar and soil δ15N were more tightly correlated in tropical sites (τ = 0.68, p < 0.0001), than in temperate sites (τ = 0.23, p = 0.02). The only significant correlations between terrestrial- and water-based metrics were those of net nitrification (τ = 0.48, p = 0.01) and N mineralization (τ = 0.69, p = 0.0001) with stream DIN : DON. The relationship between stream DIN : DON with both net nitrification and N mineralization was significant only in temperate, but not tropical regions. To our surprise, we did not find a significant correlation between soil δ15N and stream DIN : DON, despite the fact that both have been used to infer spatially or temporally integrated N status. Given that both soil δ15N and stream DIN : DON are used to infer long-term N status, their lack of correlation in watersheds merits further investigation.

  14. Effect of folate supplementation on folate status and health outcomes in infants, children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Fekete, Katalin; Berti, Cristiana; Hermoso, Maria; Cetin, Irene; Koletzko, Berthold; Decsi, Tamás

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect all available randomized controlled trials on the effect of folate supplementation on folate status and health outcomes within the paediatric age group. The method included a structured search strategy on MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases, with formal inclusion/exclusion criteria and data extraction procedure. We included 26 studies. We conclude that both serum and erythrocyte folate values reflect folate intake; however, serum folate reacts more rapidly to folate intake than erythrocyte folate. As to health outcomes, we found no evidence indicating that additional intake of folate can influence haematological parameters in non-anaemic paediatric patients. We were unable to find evidence of a favourable effect of folate supplementation on the growth of infants. However, the limited data available suggest that supplementing the diet of low-birth-weight infants with folic acid may moderate the rapid fall of serum and red cell folate in the first months of life.

  15. Serotypes of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in relation to periodontal status and geographic origin of individuals-a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Virginia R S.; Rego, Rodrigo O.; Nogueira, Nádia A P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Several studies have focused on the relationship among serotype distribution, ethnical status and geographic populations, and periodontal conditions. Studies that have investigated the prevalence and the distribution of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes and the relation between the different serotypes of the bacterium and periodontal status were reviewed. Material and Methods: A systematic literature search for publications regarding the distribution of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes in subgingival samples of periodontitis patients and periodontally healthy subjects by employing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted. Results: From the 85 studies identified in the first analysis, only 12 met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical isolates from diverse geographic populations with different periodontal conditions were evaluated. Serotypes a, b and c were largely found, and serotype c was the most prevalent. They were isolated from various periodontal conditions, including aggressive periodontitis. Conclusions: The available literature suggests that serotypes a, b, and c are globally dominant, serotypes d and e are rare, and the prevalence of the most recently identified serotype fis still unknown. It is widely accepted that distribution patterns of A. actinomycetemcomitans vary among subjects of different ethnicity and geographic regions. The correlation of different serotypes with various periodontal conditions remains unclear. Key words:Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, serotypes, periodontal disease, prevalence. PMID:24316700

  16. Ethnicity- and socio-economic status-related stresses in context: an integrative review and conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Myers, Hector F

    2009-02-01

    There continues to be debate about how best to conceptualize and measure the role of exposure to ethnicity-related and socio-economic status-related stressors (e.g. racism, discrimination, class prejudice) in accounting for ethnic health disparities over the lifecourse and across generations. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the evidence of health disparities among ethnic groups, and the major evidence on the role of exposure to ethnicity- and SES-related stressors on health. We then offer a reciprocal and recursive lifespan meta-model that considers the interaction of ethnicity and SES history as impacting exposure to psychosocial adversities, including ethnicity-related stresses, and mediating biopsychosocial mechanisms that interact to result in hypothesized cumulative biopsychosocial vulnerabilities. Ultimately, group differences in the burden of cumulative vulnerabilities are hypothesized as contributing to differential health status over time. Suggestions are offered for future research on the unique role that ethnicity- and SES-related processes are likely to play as contributors to persistent ethnic health disparities.

  17. Does trophic status enhance or reduce the thermal tolerance of scleractinian corals? A review, experiment and conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Fabricius, Katharina E; Cséke, Szilvia; Humphrey, Craig; De'ath, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Global warming, and nutrient and sediment runoff from coastal development, both exert increasing pressures on coastal coral reefs. The objective of this study was to resolve the question of whether coastal eutrophication may protect corals from thermal stress by improving their nutritional status, or rather diminish their thermal tolerance through the synergy of dual stressors. A review of previous studies on the topic of combined trophic status and heat exposure on the thermal tolerance of corals reveals a broad range of outcomes, including synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects. We conducted a 90-day long experiment exposing corals to realistic levels of elevated nutrients and sediments, and heat stress. Colonies of two common scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Montipora tuberculosa) were kept in coastal seawater, or coastal seawater that was further organically and nutrient enriched (OE), and/or enriched with nitrate. Batches of OE were created daily, facilitating nutrient uptake, plankton succession and organic enrichment as observed in coastal waters. After 10 days of acclimation, 67% of the colonies had their temperature gradually increased from 27° to 31.2°C. After 3-7 weeks of heat stress, colonies of both species had significantly greater reductions in fluorescence yields and lower survival in OE than without addition of OE. Furthermore, photophysiological recovery was incomplete 31-38 days after ending the heat stress only in the OE treatments. Nitrate alone had no measurable effect on survival, bleaching and recovery in either species. Skeletal growth rates were reduced by 45% in heat-stressed A. millepora and by 24% in OE-exposed M. tuberculosa. We propose a conceptual trophic framework that resolves some of the apparently contradictory outcomes revealed by the review. Our study shows that management actions to reduce coastal eutrophication can improve the resistance and resilience of vulnerable coastal coral reefs to warming

  18. Production of medical radionuclides in Russia: status and future--a review.

    PubMed

    Zhuikov, B L

    2014-02-01

    We present a review of reactor and accelerator centers in Russia that produce medical isotopes, the majority of which are exported. In the near future, we anticipate increased isotope production for use in nuclear medicine in Russia. The existing linear accelerator at the Institute for Nuclear Research (Moscow-Troitsk) and several prospective installations are considered to be particularly capable of providing mass production of radionuclides that can substitute, to a certain extent, for the traditional medical isotopes. PMID:24315977

  19. [Toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel and its compounds. A review of the current status (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Raithel, H J; Schaller, K H

    1981-01-01

    Since half a century the toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel and its compounds is in discussion. Problems coming therefrom are of high relevance concerning occupational medicine. According to the new national and international literature the present findings are described and discussed. Starting from occurrence, refining and occupational hazards, in the first part, toxicologic mechanisms and characteristic symptoms are represented in detail. Inorganic and organic Ni-compounds are handled separately. In the second part of this study we are giving opinion to the questions of carcinogenicity. Experiences to occupationally nickel-exposed workers as well as a review about the topical findings in animal experiments are described. Of importance there are questions referring to the different carcinogenic potential of nickel and its compounds and the influence to techniques of application. Current results to the mechanism of carcinogenesis, which can be derived from animal experiments, are shown. The carcinogenicity for nickel and some especial water insoluble Ni-compounds in human beings must be seen as a fact. Malignoms in the respiratory tract are regarded by workers breathing dust/aerosols of metallic nickel, nickel subsulfide, Ni-oxide and in electrolysis. By critical review of the present literature a cancerogenicity of nickel-carbonyl has to be assumed too. According to this review measures in the field of occupational hygiene and medicine are required. Illness caused by nickel or its compounds should be included to the valid list of occupational diseases in the FRG. PMID:6455890

  20. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  1. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  2. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  3. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino de; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children's individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother's level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  4. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  5. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years.

  6. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  7. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  8. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  9. A 5-year study of adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdin, Begüm Nalça; Pas, Suzan D; Durak, İsmet; Schutten, Martin; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2015-03-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of conjunctivitis. Genotypes are diverse and differ according to population and geographical distribution of the virus. There is limited data regarding ocular adenoviral infections and genotype distribution in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the adenovirus genotypes and their epidemiological features among patients with conjunctivitis between 2006 and 2010, in Izmir, Turkey. Adenoviral DNA was detected by PCR in 213 of 488 (44%) of the ocular samples collected from patients with viral conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Of these, 101 (47%) were randomly chosen and genotyped by sequence analysis. Seven genotypes were identified, including 3, 4, 8, 11, 19, 37, and 53. Genotype 8 and 4 were the dominant types detected in 67 (66.3%) and 25 (24.7%) of the samples, respectively. Other five genotypes (3, 11, 19, 37, 53) were detected in 9 (8.9%) samples. Genotype and seasonal differences observed throughout the study. Human adenoviruse (HAdV)-8 was the most frequent type, except 2008. The prevalence of genotype 4 increased starting from 2006, became dominant in 2008 and decreased in the following years. The peak season was mostly spring months, although it was possible to detect positive samples throughout the year. In conclusion, genotype 8 followed by genotype 4 was the most frequent adenoviral types causing conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Findings suggest that there is a slow shift between genotypes throughout the years.

  10. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA AMONG CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 5 YEARS IN RURAL SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Alegria, Iñaki; Tessema, Dalu; Mohamed, Nuri; Tissiano, Gabrel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus infection among children aged less than 5 years in rural southern Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital-based, prospective study among children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration attending the outpatient department of Gambo Rural Hospital, Ethiopia during September-November 2012. Three hundred fourteen children were included in the study, of whom 137 (43.6%) had rotavirus infection. The average age of children with rotavirus infection was lower than those without it [odds ratio (OR): 0.94]. Finding severe dehydration on skin pinch test (adjusted OR: 3.76) and having diarrhea for !3 days (adjusted OR: 2.50) were associated with rotavirus infection. The mortality rate was 4.4% among rotavirus infection children and 0% among non-rotavirus diarrhea cases (p=0.006). Rotavirus infection should be suspected in children with severe dehydration on a skin pinch test and among those presenting with diarrhea for 3 days in rural southern Ethiopia. PMID:26521516

  12. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  13. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  14. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager: 5 years on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Ong, Lawrence; Barsi, Julia A.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Morfitt, Ron

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALI's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  15. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  16. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schulze, J; Riegel, H; Brade, V

    1999-01-01

    Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who developed a large effusion of the right knee joint. The titer for antinuclear antibodies was 1:80 and the test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Investigations for antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi demonstrated remarkable elevation of IgG antibody and no specific IgM response. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting reactivity with the bands p83/100, p58, p43, p41, p39, OspA, p30, OspC, p21, and p17. We subsequently learned that the child had suffered a tick bite followed by an EM 5 years earlier and had been treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at that time. The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days. In the absence of clinical improvement 3 weeks later a knee joint aspiration was performed which resulted in a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for B. burgdorferi DNA (OspA) in the synovial fluid. The patient fully recovered 2 months later without further treatment. The case indicates that the latency period between EM and onset of LA may last up to 5 years. In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA.

  17. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community. PMID:27295701

  18. Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591

  19. Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (≤2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: β = −3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: β = −3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children’s IQ adversely. PMID:19620194

  20. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs. PMID:17124330

  1. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  2. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26039393

  3. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cueto, Santiago; Glewwe, Paul; Richter, Linda; Strupp, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data—the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty—to use as indicators of poor development. We show that both indicators are closely associated with poor cognitive and educational performance in children and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility, and provide poor care for their children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. PMID:17208643

  4. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years. PMID:21827523

  5. Spanish Network on Effects of Wildfires on Soils. The view after 5 years of networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordán, Antonio; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    1. WHAT IS FUEGORED? The Spanish Thematic Network "Effects of Wildfires on Soils" (FUEGORED, http://grupo.us.es/fuegored) has been working for over 5 years at becoming a point of reference for the study of fire-affected soils and restoration strategies. FUEGORED started in 2007, originally scheduled to run three years, as a result of the interest of Spanish researchers for developing better strategies and scientific interchange of ideas, people and collaboration between research groups. The first steps towards the establishment of a working group were a series of fieldtrips through Spain (2003), USA (2004) and Portugal (2005), where discussions about problems and research strategies arised. In its early years the network was supported by the former Ministry of Science and Innovation. This is a project to review scientific knowledge developed to date and discuss and propose future developments in scientific research about the effects of wildfires on soils. The objectives of the network are to promote and disseminate scientific research findings, provide technical and management information, and facilitate transference of knowledge between scientists, forest managers, students and society. 2. WHO IS IN THE NETWORK? The research group consists of the leading names of Spanish science in the topic and young talents, which are currently developing the most innovative research lines. Currently, the network is formed by 245 members, researchers from over 30 Spanish universities and research centers to provide the experience of decades of scientific and technical work in areas affected by forest fires and outstanding foreign researchers from Europe, Australia and America, including countries such as Australia, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, UK, USA and others. Forest managers and technicians from various institutions are also present. 3. MAIN ACHIEVEMENTS Four international congresses have been promoted by the network in Valencia, 2008, Seville, 2009, Santiago de Compostela

  6. Reviewers Comments on the 5th Symposium and the Status of Fusion Research 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F

    2005-02-03

    Better to understand the status of fusion research in the year 2003 we will first put the research in its historical context. Fusion power research, now beginning its sixth decade of continuous effort, is unique in the field of scientific research. Unique in its mixture of pure and applied research, unique in its long-term goal and its promise for the future, and unique in the degree that it has been guided and constrained by national and international governmental policy. Though fusion research's goal has from the start been precisely defined, namely, to obtain a net release of energy from controlled nuclear fusion reactions between light isotopes (in particular those of hydrogen and helium) the difficulty of the problem has spawned in the past a very wide variety of approaches to the problem. Some of these approaches have had massive international support for decades, some have been pursued only at a ''shoestring'' level by dedicated groups in small research laboratories or universities. In discussing the historical and present status of fusion research the implications of there being two distinctly different approaches to achieving net fusion power should be pointed out. The first, and oldest, approach is the use of strong magnetic fields to confine the heated fuel, in the form of a plasma and at a density typically four or five orders of magnitude smaller than the density of the atmosphere. In steady state this fusion fuel density is still sufficient to release fusion energy at the rate of many megawatts per cubic meter. The plasma confinement times required for net energy release in this regime are long--typically a second or more, representing an extremely difficult scientific challenge --witness the five decades of research in magnetic fusion, still without having reaching that goal. The second, more recently initiated approach, is of course the ''inertial'' approach. As its name implies, the ''confinement'' problem is solved ''inertially,'' that is by

  7. Association between subjective social status and cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Karen L; Rashid, Ruksana; Godley, Jenny; Ghali, William A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between subjective social status (SSS), or the individual's perception of his or her position in the social hierarchy, and the odds of coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia. Study Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, Web of Science and reference lists of all included studies up to October 2014, with a verification search in July 2015. Inclusion criteria were original studies in adults that reported odds, risk or hazard ratios of at least one outcome of interest (CAD, hypertension, diabetes, obesity or dyslipidaemia), comparing ‘lower’ versus ‘higher’ SSS groups, where SSS is measured on a self-anchoring ladder. ORs were pooled using a random-effects model. Results 10 studies were included in the systematic review; 9 of these were included in the meta-analysis. In analyses unadjusted for objective socioeconomic status (SES) measures such as income, education or occupation, the pooled OR comparing the bottom versus the top of the SSS ladder was 1.82 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.99) for CAD, 1.88 (95% CI 1.27 to 2.79) for hypertension, 1.90 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.87) for diabetes, 3.68 (95% CI 2.03 to 6.64) for dyslipidaemia and 1.57 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.59) for obesity. These associations were attenuated when adjusting for objective SES measures, with the only statistically significant association remaining for dyslipidaemia (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.06), though all ORs remained greater than 1. Conclusions Lower SSS is associated with significantly increased odds of CAD, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia, with a trend towards increased odds of obesity. These trends are consistently present, though the effects attenuated when adjusting for SES, suggesting that perception of one's own status on a social hierarchy has health effects above and beyond one's actual income, occupation and education. PMID:26993622

  8. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems - Current status and potential improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstad, A.; Cour Jansen, J. la

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHG-emissions from different treatment alternatives vary largely in 25 reviewed comparative LCAs of bio-waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System-boundary settings often vary largely in reviewed studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing LCA guidelines give varying recommendations in relation to several key issues. - Abstract: Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly

  9. MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee. Second semiannual status report, July 1988--March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    As part of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle (ITC) project, TRW was given the responsibility to organize, charter and co-chair, with the Department of Energy (DOE), an MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee (TTIRC). The Charter of the TTIRC, which was approved by the DOE in June 1988 and distributed to the committee members, is included as part of this Summary. As stated in the Charter, the purpose of this committee is to: (1) review all Proof-of-Concept (POC) projects and schedules in the national MHD program; to assess their compatibility with each other and the first commercial MHD retrofit plant; (2) establish and implement technology transfer formats for users of this technology; (3) identify interfaces, issues, and funding structures directly impacting the success of the commercial retrofit; (4) investigate and identify the manner in which, and by whom, the above should be resolved; and (5) investigate and assess other participation (foreign and domestic) in the US MHD Program. The DOE fiscal year 1989 MHD Program Plan Schedule is included at the end of this Summary. The MHD Technology Transfer, Integration and Review Committee`s activities to date have focused primarily on the ``technology transfer`` aspects of its charter. It has provided a forum for the dissemination of technical and programmatic information among workers in the field of MHD and to the potential end users, the utilities, by holding semi-annual meetings. The committee publishes this semi-annual report, which presents in Sections 2 through 11 capsule summaries of technical progress for all DOE Proof-of-Concept MHD contracts and major test facilities.

  10. Solution by dilution?--A review on the pollution status of the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Floehr, Tilman; Xiao, Hongxia; Scholz-Starke, Björn; Wu, Lingling; Hou, Junli; Yin, Daqiang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ji, Rong; Yuan, Xingzhong; Ottermanns, Richard; Roß-Nickoll, Martina; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2013-10-01

    The Yangtze River has been a source of life and prosperity for the Chinese people for centuries and is a habitat for a remarkable variety of aquatic species. But the river suffers from huge amounts of urban sewage, agricultural effluents, and industrial wastewater as well as ship navigation wastes along its course. With respect to the vast amounts of water and sediments discharged by the Yangtze River, it is reasonable to ask whether the pollution problem may be solved by simple dilution. This article reviews the past two decades of published research on organic pollutants in the Yangtze River and several adjacent water bodies connected to the main stream, according to a holistic approach. Organic pollutant levels and potential effects of water and sediments on wildlife and humans, measured in vitro, in vivo, and in situ, were critically reviewed. The contamination with organic pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and others, of water and sediment along the river was described. Especially Wuhan section and the Yangtze Estuary exhibited stronger pollution than other sections. Bioassays, displaying predominantly the endpoints mutagenicity and endocrine disruption, applied at sediments, drinking water, and surface water indicated a potential health risk in several areas. Aquatic organisms exhibited detectable concentrations of toxic compounds like PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, and PFCs. Genotoxic effects could also be assessed in situ in fish. To summarize, it can be stated that dilution reduces the ecotoxicological risk in the Yangtze River, but does not eliminate it. Keeping in mind an approximately 14 times greater water discharge compared to the major European river Rhine, the absolute pollution mass transfer of the Yangtze River is of severe concern for

  11. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards: a review of current technologies and treatment status in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kui; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically. However, treatment for waste PCBs is a challenge due to the fact that PCBs are diverse and complex in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Recycle technology for waste PCBs in China is still immature. Previous studies focused on metals recovery, but resource utilization for nonmetals and further separation of the mixed metals are relatively fewer. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycle technology for waste PCBs. In this paper, current status of waste PCBs treatment in China was introduced, and several recycle technologies were analyzed. Some advices against the existing problems during recycling process were presented. Based on circular economy concept in China and complete recycling and resource utilization for all materials, a new environmental-friendly integrated recycling process with no pollution and high efficiency for waste PCBs was provided and discussed in detail.

  12. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement.

  13. Exacerbation rate, health status and mortality in COPD – a review of potential interventions

    PubMed Central

    Seemungal, Terence AR; Hurst, John R; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A

    2009-01-01

    COPD is prevalent in Western society and its incidence is rising in the developing world. Acute exacerbations of COPD, about 50% of which are unreported, lead to deterioration in quality of life and contribute significantly to disease burden. Quality of life deteriorates with time; thus, most of the health burden occurs in more severe disease. COPD severity and frequent and more severe exacerbations are all related to an increased risk of mortality. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have similar effects on quality of life but ICS/long-acting bronchodilator combinations and the long-acting antimuscarinic tiotropium all improve health status and exacerbation rates and are likely to have an effect on mortality but perhaps only with prolonged use. Erythromycin has been shown to decrease the rate of COPD exacerbations. Pulmonary rehabilitation and regular physical activity are indicated in all severities of COPD and improve quality of life. Noninvasive ventilation is associated with improved quality of life. Long-term oxygen therapy improves mortality but only in hypoxic COPD patients. The choice of an inhaler device is a key component of COPD therapy and this requires more attention from physicians than perhaps we are aware of. Disease management programs, characterized as they are by patient centeredness, improve quality of life and decrease hospitalization rates. Most outcomes in COPD can be modified by interventions and these are well tolerated and have acceptable safety profiles. PMID:19554195

  14. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement. PMID:24946967

  15. Comprehensive Review of Ultraviolet Radiation and the Current Status on Sunscreens

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Summer; Armstrong, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In the past, manufacturers’ labeling of sunscreen varied greatly, confusing the consumers regarding efficacy and the appropriate photoprotection provided by their products. Therefore, in June 2011, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued new guidelines for sunscreen labeling. Sunscreen products are over-the-counter drugs; therefore, they are regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration to determine safety, efficacy, and labeling. This article discusses ultraviolet radiation and the positive and negative effects of ultraviolet radiation, provides a review of sunscreens, and discusses the new United States Food and Drug Administration regulations for sunscreens. PMID:23050030

  16. Housing Status, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes Among People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael G.; Shubert, Virginia; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Rueda, Sergio; Bozack, Anne K.; Caban, Maria; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    high-income countries. We defined housing status to include consideration of material or social dimensions of housing adequacy, stability, and security of tenure. Data collection and analysis. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and quality appraisal. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for randomized controlled trials and a modified version of the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Appraisal Tool for nonintervention studies. In our quality appraisal, we focused on issues of quality for observational studies: appropriate methods for determining exposure and measuring outcomes and methods to control confounding. Results. Searches yielded 5528 references from which we included 152 studies, representing 139 757 HIV-positive participants. Most studies were conducted in the United States and Canada. Studies examined access and utilization of HIV medical care, adherence to antiretroviral medications, HIV clinical outcomes, other health outcomes, emergency department and inpatient utilization, and sex and drug risk behaviors. With rare exceptions, across studies in all domains, worse housing status was independently associated with worse outcomes, controlling for a range of individual patient and care system characteristics. Conclusions. Lack of stable, secure, adequate housing is a significant barrier to consistent and appropriate HIV medical care, access and adherence to antiretroviral medications, sustained viral suppression, and risk of forward transmission. Studies that examined the history of homelessness or problematic housing years before outcome assessment were least likely to find negative outcomes, homelessness being a potentially modifiable contextual factor. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies indicate an independent effect of housing assistance on improved outcomes for formerly homeless or inadequately housed people with HIV. Housing challenges result from complex interactions between individual vulnerabilities and broader economic

  17. The status and developments of leather solid waste treatment: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huiyan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Leather making is one of the most widespread industries in the world. The production of leather goods generates different types of solid wastes and wastewater. These wastes will pollute the environment and threat the health of human beings if they are not well treated. Consequently, the treatment of pollution caused by the wastes from leather tanning is really important. In comparison with the disposal of leather wastewater, the treatment of leather solid wastes is more intractable. Hence, the treatment of leather solid wastes needs more innovations. To keep up with the rapid development of the modern leather industry, various innovative techniques have been newly developed. In this mini-review article, the major achievements in the treatment of leather solid wastes are highlighted. Emphasis will be placed on the treatment of chromium-tanned solid wastes; some new approaches are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide some valuable information to promote the broad understanding and effective treatment of leather solid wastes in the leather industry.

  18. A review of intraosseous vascular access: current status and military application.

    PubMed

    Dubick, M A; Holcomb, J B

    2000-07-01

    Austere far-forward battlefield environments present numerous obstacles in providing adequate medical care to the injured solidier. In addition to logistical constraints that limit the volume of isotonic crystalloid fluids available to resuscitate the injured soldier, hypotension, environmental and tactical conditions, and/or the presence of mass casualties can combine to lead to excessive delays in obtaining vascular access. For many years, intraosseous infusion has been a rapid, reliable method of achieving vascular access under emergency conditions in children. Although intraosseous infusion in adults was used extensively in the 1930s and 1940s, and a sternal puncture kit for bone marrow infusions was a common component of emergency medical supplies during World War II, only recently have there been discussions and experimental studies to evaluate intraosseous infusions in adult medical emergencies. With some medical elements of the U.S. military having recently been reissued intraosseous devices, we thought it timely to review the literature on this technique. This review discusses the efficacy and safety of intraosseous infusions of drugs and fluids, including insertion times and flow rates achieved. Although the intent is to evaluate the feasibility of the technique in the injured soldier, literature citations from studies in children, experimental animals, and human cadavers are included to support the statements made and to offer the reader the opportunity to read the original literature. PMID:10920658

  19. Wi-Fi and health: review of current status of research.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth R; Moulder, John E

    2013-12-01

    This review summarizes the current state of research on possible health effects of Wi-Fi (a commercial name for IEEE 802.11-compliant wireless networking). In response to public concerns about health effects of Wi-Fi and wireless networks and calls by government agencies for research on possible health and safety issues with the technology, a considerable amount of technology-specific research has been completed. A series of high quality engineering studies have provided a good, but not complete, understanding of the levels of radiofrequency (RF) exposure to individuals from Wi-Fi. The limited number of technology-specific bioeffects studies done to date are very mixed in terms of quality and outcome. Unequivocally, the RF exposures from Wi-Fi and wireless networks are far below U.S. and international exposure limits for RF energy. While several studies report biological effects due to Wi-Fi-type exposures, technical limitations prevent drawing conclusions from them about possible health risks of the technology. The review concludes with suggestions for future research on the topic.

  20. Plasma and Dietary Antioxidant Status as Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Review of Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chun, Ock K.; Song, Won O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that many antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and polyphenols have protective effects in preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD), a chronic disease that is mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. This review focuses on evidence from prospective cohort studies and clinical trials in regard to the associations between plasma/dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular events. Long-term, large-scale, population-based cohort studies have found that higher levels of serum albumin, bilirubin, glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids were associated with a lower risk of CVD. Evidence from the cohort studies in regard to dietary antioxidants also supported the protective effects of dietary vitamin E, vitamin C, carotenoids, and polyphenols on CVD risk. However, results from large randomized controlled trials did not support long-term use of single antioxidant supplements for CVD prevention due to their null or even adverse effects on major cardiovascular events or cancer. Diet quality indexes that consider overall diet quality rather than single nutrients have been drawing increasing attention. Cohort studies and intervention studies that focused on diet patterns such as high total antioxidant capacity have documented protective effects on CVD risk. This review provides a perspective for future studies that investigate antioxidant intake and risk of CVD. PMID:23912327

  1. Nanofilamentary resistive switching in binary oxide system; a review on the present status and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Jeong, Doo Seok; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2011-06-01

    This review article summarized the recent understanding of resistance switching (RS) behavior in several binary oxide thin film systems. Among the various RS materials and mechanisms, TiO2 and NiO thin films in unipolar thermo-chemical switching mode are primarily dealt with. To facilitate the discussions, the RS was divided into three parts; electroforming, set and reset steps. After short discussions on the electrochemistry of 'electrolytic' oxide materials, the general and peculiar aspects of these RS systems and mechanism are elaborated. Although the RS behaviors and characteristics of these materials are primarily dependent on the repeated formation and rupture of the conducting filaments (CFs) at the nanoscale at a localized position, this mechanism appears to offer a basis for the understanding of other RS mechanisms which were originally considered to be irrelevant to the localized events. The electroforming and set switching phenomena were understood as the process of CF formation and rejuvenation, respectively, which are mainly driven by the thermally assisted electromigration and percolation (or even local phase transition) of defects, while the reset process was understood as the process of CF rupture where the thermal energy plays a more crucial role. This review also contains several remarks on the outlook of these resistance change devices as a semiconductor memory.

  2. The Status of Human and Animal Fascioliasis in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ASHRAFI, Keyhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The public health importance of human fascioliasis has increased during last few decades due to the appearance of new emerging and re-emerging foci in many countries. Iran, as the most important focus of human disease in Asia, has been included among six countries known to have a serious problem with fascioliasis by WHO. Various aspects of the disease in Iran are discussed in this review. Methods: This narrative review covers all information about human and animal fascioliasis in Iran, which has been published in local and international journals from 1960 to 2014 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct. Results: During the period of the study the infection rates of 0.1% to 91.4% was noted in various livestock. Despite the higher infection rates of livestock in southern areas in past decades, human disease has been mostly encountered in northern Provinces especially in Guilan. Recent studies indicate noticeable decrease in prevalence rates of veterinary fascioliasis in Iran, however the prevalence rates of fascioliasis in livestock in northern Provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran seem to remain at a higher level in comparison to other parts. New foci of the disease have also been reported recently. Conclusion: While the prevalence of animal fascioliasis has decreased during last decades, human fascioliasis emerged as a public health problem in the country. The validity of new foci of human fascioliasis needs complementary standard studies. PMID:26622287

  3. Evaluating the impact of immigration policies on health status among undocumented immigrants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Dodge, Brian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Pinto, Rogeiro; Rhodes, Scott D; Rhodes, Scott; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    Over the past two decades, new anti-immigration policies and laws have emerged to address the migration of undocumented immigrants. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess and understand how these immigration policies and laws may affect both access to health services and health outcomes among undocumented immigrants. Eight databases were used to conduct this review, which returned 325 papers that were assessed for validity based on specified inclusion criteria. Forty critically appraised articles were selected for analysis; thirty articles related to access to health services, and ten related to health outcomes. The articles showed a direct relationship between anti-immigration policies and their effects on access to health services. In addition, as a result of these policies, undocumented immigrants were impacted by mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Action items were presented, including the promotion of cultural diversity training and the development of innovative strategies to support safety-net health care facilities serving vulnerable populations.

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Immigration Policies on Health Status Among Undocumented Immigrants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Dodge, Brian; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Pinto, Rogeiro; Rhodes, Scott D.; Moya, Eva; Chavez-Baray, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, new anti-immigration policies and laws have emerged to address the migration of undocumented immigrants. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to assess and understand how these immigration policies and laws may affect both access to health services and health outcomes among undocumented immigrants. Eight databases were used to conduct this review, which returned 325 papers that were assessed for validity based on specified inclusion criteria. Forty critically appraised articles were selected for analysis; thirty articles related to access to health services, and ten related to health outcomes. The articles showed a direct relationship between anti-immigration policies and their effects on access to health services. In addition, as a result of these policies, undocumented immigrants were impacted by mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Action items were presented, including the promotion of cultural diversity training and the development of innovative strategies to support safety-net health care facilities serving vulnerable populations. PMID:24375382

  5. Prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among children aged 3-5 years in Jaipur City, India – A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chalissery, Vemina P.; Marwah, Nikhil; Jafer, Mohammed; Chalisserry, Elna P.; Bhatt, Tanmay; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of anterior dental trauma and its associated factors among 800 preschool children aged 3 to 5 years in Jaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among children aged 3-5 years, who were enrolled in various private and public schools in Jaipur. Parents were asked to fill a form addressing socio-demographic data and clinical examinations were performed by a single dentist. Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed and recorded based on Andreasen's classification. Associated factors such as sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and the type of injury were also analyzed. The data were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (version 20). Results: An overall 10.2% prevalence of TDI was observed among the study population. TDI were reported to be more among male children (11.87%) compared to female children (8.14%). Enamel fractures (69%) were the most prevalent type of anterior dental trauma. Upper central incisors were the most frequently affected. The SES of the parents had little influence on the prevalence of TDI. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of dental trauma among children aged 3-5 years was 10.2%. Associated factors, such as SES, were observed to be not significantly correlated to dental trauma among the studied preschoolers. PMID:27195225

  6. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Status of Infection Control among Iranian Dentists and Dental Students: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moradi Khanghahi, Behnam; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Naghavi Behzad, Mohammad; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Infection control is an important issue in dentistry, and the dentists are primarily responsible for observing the relevant procedures. Therefore, the present study evaluated knowledge, attitude, practice, and status of infection control among Iranian dentists through systematic review of published results. Materials and methods In this systematic review, the required data was collected searching for keywords including infection, infection control, behavior, performance, practice, attitude, knowledge, dent*, prevention, Iran* and their Persian equivalents in PubMed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, and Magiran databases with a time limit of 1985 to 2012. Out of 698 articles, 15 completely related articles were finally considered and the rest were excluded due to lake of relev-ance to the study goals. The required data were extracted and summarized in an Extraction Table and were analyzed ma-nually. Results Evaluating the results of studies indicated inappropriate knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control among Iranian dentists and dental students. Using personal protection devices and observing measures required for infection control were not in accordance with global standards. Conclusion The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control in Iranian dental settings were found to be inadequate. Therefore, dentists should be educated more on the subject and special programs should be in place to monitor the dental settings for observing infection control standards. PMID:23875081

  7. 5-year Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up of Coil-embolised Intradural Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the paper is the follow-up of embolised intradural saccular Arterial Aneurysms (AA), excluding giant, dissecting, inflammatory, fusiform or AA associated to BVAM. Since its introduction in 1991, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil has offered protection against aneurysmal rebleeding in the critical few days and months after SAH regardless of the grade. A number of questions remain: is complete angiographic obliteration necessary at first embolisation? What duration of clinical / angiographic follow-up (FU) is required to ensure the risk of haemorrhage has been eliminated? What is the long-term protection against rebleeding? One hundred and two patients with 160 intradural saccular AA embolised before april 1997 were selected for this study. They had at least 5-yrs clinical FU, of which 22 patients had a midterm (3 years) and 45 patients had a 5year or more angiographic FU (mean 67,7 months per patient). Twenty-eight embolised AAs with 100% occlusion at 1 year, remained unchanged on the 5year angiograms. A further 14 patients with complete occlusion at 1 year showed persisting complete occlusion on angiogram at 3-years FU, which in our series means that complete occlusion after the first year post-embolisation implies that the aneurysm will remain completely occluded. All secondary spontaneous thromboses (27.6% of cases), occurred during the first year pos-embolisation. In six patients with subtotal or partial occlusion no change was seen for three consecutive years of FU; none showed later change at 5-year angiography. Below 80% occlusion our series does not provide enough information but we consider the situation instable. No mortality related to the procedure was observed in the unruptured AA group. No bleeding or re-bleeding has occurred since the beginning of our experience (1993) in saccular AA treated by GDC-Coil. Coil-embolisation of properly selected patients is effective in protecting against bleeding or re-bleeding at short and long

  8. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Karrari, Parissa; Mehrpour, Omid; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning.

  9. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lead is an old environmental metal which is presented everywhere and lead poisoning is an important health issue in many countries in the world including Iran. It is known as a silent environmental disease which can have life-long adverse health effects. In children, the most vulnerable population, mental development of children health effects is of the greatest influence. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dysfunctions and cognitive impairment in children. The sources of lead exposure vary among countries. Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Iran and mine workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centers, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Moreover lead processing industry has always been a major of concern which affects surface water, drinking waters, and ground waters, even water of Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and rivers due to increasing the number of industries in vicinity of rivers that release their waste discharges into river or sea. In addition, lead contamination of soil and air especially in vicinity of polluted and industrialized cities is another health problem in Iran. Even foods such as rice and fishes, raw milk, and vegetables which are the most common food of Iranian population are polluted to lead in some area of Iran. Adding lead to the opium is a recently health hazard in Iran that has been observed among opium addicts. There are few studies evaluated current status of lead exposure and toxicity in the Iranian children and pregnant women which should be taken into account of authorities. We recommend to identify sources, eliminate or control sources, and monitor environmental exposures and hazards to prevent lead poisoning. PMID:23226111

  10. Health status and needs of migrant farm workers in the United States: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Slesinger, D P

    1992-01-01

    Migrant farmworkers lead a hard life filled with strenuous work, stress, and anxiety about employment; live under substandard conditions; and rarely get the health care they require. Preventive care is a luxury they cannot afford. Year-round nutritious meals are rarely possible, due to long working hours, traveling, and living in housing without adequate cooking and refrigeration facilities. Children may attend up to six or more schools during the course of a school year. Crowded housing conditions support the invasion of parasites, infectious diseases, and viral infections. Dermatological conditions from working around a wide variety of plants, dirt, and in the sun are frequent. Exposure to pesticides, herbicides, and other chemical additives creates the likelihood of acute reactions, such as headaches and rashes, and also puts workers at risk of developing chronic diseases as the level of exposure rises because of accumulation and mix of various chemicals. Yet, we know little about the health status of this population. We are unable to estimate crude death rates, age-specific death rates, or prevalence rates of most common causes of death, such as heart disease,cancer and stroke. There is no information about occupational accident rates, infectious disease rates, or even postneonatal mortality. We do know that when migrants go to a clinic, they are often likely to have the chronic conditions of hypertension or diabetes. They present symptoms of acute conditions such as dental problems, dermatitis, otitis media among children, and acute upper respiratory infections. Women frequently need obstetrical care, reflected (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Review of the status of learning in research on sport education: future research and practice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Research concerning Sport Education's educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students' personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model's impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students' learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students' learning, as well as teachers' and students' perceptions about student learning has shown students' improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students' learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches' preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students' learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students' learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that

  12. Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to

  13. Full-mouth rehabilitation of Class II deep-bite patient: A 5-year clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Gulfem; Bozkaya, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the full-mouth rehabilitation of a 45-year-old male patient with severe deep-bite by increasing vertical dimension. The technique of anterior maxillary osteotomy performed in the present situation has been found to be effective, requiring anterior and inferior repositioning of the anterior maxilla to provide an esthetic and functional implant supported fixed prosthesis. Four months after surgery, the fixation system was removed, and 6 dental implants were placed. The anterior and inferior movements of the segment allowed for natural tooth anatomy and size in the definitive implant supported partial fixed prosthesis. A satisfactory functional and esthetic result was obtained after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27403066

  14. Delayed Replantation after Endodontic and Fluoride Treatment: A 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abi Mathew; Akkara, Francis; Fernandes, Kristlee Sabrin

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate if endodontic and fluoride treatment of the root before delayed replantation would render the tooth a favorable prognosis. Methods A 10-year-old boy reported 10 hours after he had avulsed his maxillary right permanent central incisor. The pulp and PDL cells were considered to be nonviable. Endodontic treatment for the tooth was performed extraorally and obturated with gutta-percha. Prior to replantation, the root was treated with 1.23% APSF for 15 minutes. Result An intraoral radiograph taken 6 months after replantation revealed narrowing of the PDL space around the replanted tooth due to apposition from the surrounding alveolar bone. A radiograph taken 5 years after replantation revealed no evidence of external root resorption. There was no abnormal mobility either. Conclusion Extraoral endodontic treatment and root treatment with 1.23% APSF prior to delayed replantation might prevent the occurrence of external root resorption.

  15. Constraints on the Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant by the 5-Year WMAP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, M.; Nagata, R.; Yokoyama, J.

    2008-12-01

    The constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant at recombination epoch relative to its present value, Δα/α ≡ (α_{rec} - α_{now})/α_{now}, are obtained from the analysis of the 5-year WMAP cosmic microwave background data. As a result of Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that, contrary to the analysis based on the previous WMAP data, the mean value of Δα/α = -0.0009 does not change significantly whether we use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measurement of the Hubble parameter as a prior or not. The resultant 95% confidence ranges of Δα/α are -0.028 < Δα/α < 0.026 with HST prior and -0.050 < Δα/α < 0.042 without HST prior.

  16. [The geriatric psychiatric day hospital: an analysis of 5 years of activities].

    PubMed

    Trifonov, E G; Ognev, A E

    1997-01-01

    233 patients (53 men and 180 women) at the age of 60 years and older were treated in day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic for 5 years. 60-69 year old patients prevailed (146 individuals). Nearly all mental diseases characteristic for the old age were found in such patients; majority of patients suffered from schizophrenia (31.3%) and affective pathology (25.8%). Vascular form of dementia prevailed among the patients with dementia while atrophic degenerative dementia was rarely observed (2 patients). Syndromological distribution revealed that the main groups were formed by patients with depressions (41.6%) as well as individuals with neurosis- and psychopathic-like conditions (37.3%). Mental disorders with paranoid syndromes were observed in 8.6% of the patients. It is shown that day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic had some preferences in comparison with usual mental hospitals and psychoneurological out-patient clinic.

  17. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:26744159

  18. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia Affiliation When The Manuscript Was Written Department Of Paediatrics K J Somaiya Medical College And Hospital Mumbai India, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2014-11-19

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:25410687

  19. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-05-15

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications.

  20. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).