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Sample records for 5-year supernova legacy

  1. The Rise Time of Type Ia Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.; Howes, A.; Sullivan, M.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aubourg, E.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Filiol, M.; Le Borgne, D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.

    2006-10-01

    We compare the rise times of nearby and distant Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as a test for evolution using 73 high-redshift spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia from the first 2 years of the 5 year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) and published observations of nearby SNe. Because of the ``rolling'' search nature of the SNLS, our measurement is approximately 6 times more precise than previous studies, allowing for a more sensitive test of evolution between nearby and distant SNe. Adopting a simple t2 early-time model (as in previous studies), we find that the rest-frame B rise times for a fiducial SN Ia at high and low redshift are consistent, with values 19.10+0.18-0.17(stat)+/-0.2(syst) and 19.58+0.22-0.19 days, respectively; the statistical significance of this difference is only 1.4 σ. The errors represent the uncertainty in the mean rather than any variation between individual SNe. We also compare subsets of our high-redshift data set based on decline rate, host galaxy star formation rate, and redshift, finding no substantive evidence for any subsample dependence. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the CFHT Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS.

  2. Gemini Spectroscopy of Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey: Improving High-Redshift Supernova Selection and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I. M.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Knop, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Perlmutter, S.; Walton, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    We present new techniques for improving the efficiency of supernova (SN) classification at high redshift using 64 candidates observed at Gemini North and South during the first year of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The SNLS is an ongoing 5 year project with the goal of measuring the equation of state of dark energy by discovering and following over 700 high-redshift SNe Ia using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. We achieve an improvement in the SN Ia spectroscopic confirmation rate: at Gemini 71% of candidates are now confirmed as SNe Ia, compared to 54% using the methods of previous surveys. This is despite the comparatively high redshift of this sample, in which the median SN Ia redshift is z=0.81 (0.155<=z<=1.01). These improvements were realized because we use the unprecedented color coverage and light curve sampling of the SNLS to predict whether a candidate is a SN Ia and to estimate its redshift, before obtaining a spectrum, using a new technique called the ``SN photo-z.'' In addition, we have improved techniques for galaxy subtraction and SN template χ2 fitting, allowing us to identify candidates even when they are only 15% as bright as the host galaxy. The largest impediment to SN identification is found to be host galaxy contamination of the spectrum-when the SN was at least as bright as the underlying host galaxy the target was identified more than 90% of the time. However, even SNe in bright host galaxies can be easily identified in good seeing conditions. When the image quality was better than 0.55", the candidate was identified 88% of the time. Over the 5 year course of the survey, using the selection techniques presented here, we will be able to add ~170 more confirmed SNe Ia than would be possible using previous methods. APC, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

  3. Photometric selection of Type Ia supernovae in the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, G.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Aubourg, E.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Sullivan, M.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Walker, E. S.

    2011-10-01

    We present a sample of 485 photometrically identified Type Ia supernova candidates mined from the first three years of data of the CFHT SuperNova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The images were submitted to a deferred processing independent of the SNLS real-time detection pipeline. Light curves of all transient events were reconstructed in the gM, rM, iM and zM filters and submitted to automated sequential cuts in order to identify possible supernovae. Pure noise and long-term variable events were rejected by light curve shape criteria. Type Ia supernova identification relied on event characteristics fitted to their light curves assuming the events to be normal SNe Ia. The light curve fitter SALT2 was used for this purpose, assigning host galaxy photometric redshifts to the tested events. The selected sample of 485 candidates is one magnitude deeper than that allowed by the SNLS spectroscopic identification. The contamination by supernovae of other types is estimated to be 4%. Testing Hubble diagram residuals with this enlarged sample allows us to measure the Malmquist bias due to spectroscopic selections directly. The result is fully consistent with the precise Monte Carlo based estimate used to correct SN Ia distance moduli in the SNLS 3-year cosmological analyses. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a photometric selection of high redshift supernovae with known host galaxy redshifts, opening interesting prospects for cosmological analyses from future large photometric SN Ia surveys.

  4. SUPERNOVA CONSTRAINTS AND SYSTEMATIC UNCERTAINTIES FROM THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, A.; Carlberg, R. G.; Perrett, K. M.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Sullivan, M.; Hook, I. M.; Basa, S.; Fouchez, D.; Howell, D. A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Baumont, S.

    2011-01-15

    We combine high-redshift Type Ia supernovae from the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) with other supernova (SN) samples, primarily at lower redshifts, to form a high-quality joint sample of 472 SNe (123 low-z, 93 SDSS, 242 SNLS, and 14 Hubble Space Telescope). SN data alone require cosmic acceleration at >99.999% confidence, including systematic effects. For the dark energy equation of state parameter (assumed constant out to at least z = 1.4) in a flat universe, we find w = -0.91{sup +0.16} {sub -0.20}(stat){sup +0.07} {sub -0.14}(sys) from SNe only, consistent with a cosmological constant. Our fits include a correction for the recently discovered relationship between host-galaxy mass and SN absolute brightness. We pay particular attention to systematic uncertainties, characterizing them using a systematic covariance matrix that incorporates the redshift dependence of these effects, as well as the shape-luminosity and color-luminosity relationships. Unlike previous work, we include the effects of systematic terms on the empirical light-curve models. The total systematic uncertainty is dominated by calibration terms. We describe how the systematic uncertainties can be reduced with soon to be available improved nearby and intermediate-redshift samples, particularly those calibrated onto USNO/SDSS-like systems.

  5. Constraining Type Ia Supernovae Progenitors from Three Years of Supernova Legacy Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Kasen, D.; González-Gaitán, S.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Fourmanoit, N.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2011-11-01

    While it is generally accepted that Type Ia supernovae are the result of the explosion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf accreting mass in a binary system, the details of their genesis still elude us, and the nature of the binary companion is uncertain. Kasen points out that the presence of a non-degenerate companion in the progenitor system could leave an observable trace: a flux excess in the early rise portion of the light curve caused by the ejecta impact with the companion itself. This excess would be observable only under favorable viewing angles, and its intensity depends on the nature of the companion. We searched for the signature of a non-degenerate companion in three years of Supernova Legacy Survey data by generating synthetic light curves accounting for the effects of shocking and comparing true and synthetic time series with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Our most constraining result comes from noting that the shocking effect is more prominent in the rest-frame B than V band: we rule out a contribution from white dwarf-red giant binary systems to Type Ia supernova explosions greater than 10% at the 2σ, and greater than 20% at the 3σ level.

  6. The Supernova Legacy Survey: measurement of ΩM, ΩΛ and w from the first year data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2006-02-01

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands, as part of the CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z=1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multi-band photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: Ω_M= 0.263 ± 0.042 (stat) ± 0.032 (sys) for a flat ΛCDM model; and w = -1.023 ± 0.090 (stat) ± 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  7. Supernova Legacy Survey: using spectral signatures to improve Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, E. S.; Hook, I. M.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Bronder, T. J.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Aldering, G.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Kronborg, T.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Zhang, T.

    2011-01-01

    Optical long-slit spectroscopy at the Gemini-North telescope using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) was used to classify targets from the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) from 2005 July and 2006 May-2008 May. During this time, 95 objects were observed. Where possible, the objects' redshifts (z) were measured from narrow emission or absorption features in the host galaxy spectrum, otherwise they were measured from the broader supernova features. We present spectra of 68 confirmed or probable SNe Ia from SNLS with redshifts in the range 0.17 ≤z≤ 1.02. In combination with earlier SNLS Gemini and VLT spectra, we used these new observations to measure pseudo-equivalent widths (EWs) of three spectral features - Ca II H&K, Si II and Mg II- in 144 objects and compared them to the EWs of low-redshift SNe Ia from a sample drawn from the literature. No signs of changes with z are seen for the Ca II H&K and Mg II features. Systematically lower EW Si II is seen at high redshift, but this can be explained by a change in demographics of the SNe Ia population within a two-component model combined with an observed correlation between EW Si II and photometric light-curve stretch.

  8. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 < z < 1.1) discovered during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-colour light curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Methods: Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. Results: A flat ΛCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift type Ia supernovae alone gives Ω_M = 0.211 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometric calibration. Systematic uncertainties from light curve fitters come next with a total contribution of ±0.026 on Ω_M. No clear evidence is found for a possible evolution of the slope (β) of the colour-luminosity relation with redshift. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486 & 176.A-0589). Based on

  9. Two Superluminous Supernovae from the Early Universe Discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D. A.; Kasen, D.; Lidman, C.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2013-12-01

    We present spectra and light curves of SNLS 06D4eu and SNLS 07D2bv, two hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae (SNe) discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey. At z = 1.588, SNLS 06D4eu is the highest redshift superluminous SN with a spectrum, at MU = -22.7 it is one of the most luminous SNe ever observed, and it gives a rare glimpse into the rest-frame ultraviolet where these SNe put out their peak energy. SNLS 07D2bv does not have a host galaxy redshift, but on the basis of the SN spectrum, we estimate it to be at z ~ 1.5. Both SNe have similar observer-frame griz light curves, which map to rest-frame light curves in the U band and UV, rising in ~20 rest-frame days or longer and declining over a similar timescale. The light curves peak in the shortest wavelengths first, consistent with an expanding blackbody starting near 15,000 K and steadily declining in temperature. We compare the spectra with theoretical models, and we identify lines of C II, C III, Fe III, and Mg II in the spectra of SNLS 06D4eu and SCP 06F6 and find that they are consistent with an expanding explosion of only a few solar masses of carbon, oxygen, and other trace metals. Thus, the progenitors appear to be related to those suspected for SNe Ic. A high kinetic energy, 1052 erg, is also favored. Normal mechanisms of powering core-collapse or thermonuclear SNe do not seem to work for these SNe. We consider models powered by 56Ni decay and interaction with circumstellar material, but we find that the creation and spin-down of a magnetar with a period of 2 ms, a magnetic field of 2 × 1014 G, and a 3 M ⊙ progenitor provides the best fit to the data.

  10. Two superluminous supernovae from the early universe discovered by the supernova legacy survey

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, D. A.; Kasen, D.; Lidman, C.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Pritchet, C. J.

    2013-12-20

    We present spectra and light curves of SNLS 06D4eu and SNLS 07D2bv, two hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae (SNe) discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey. At z = 1.588, SNLS 06D4eu is the highest redshift superluminous SN with a spectrum, at M{sub U} = –22.7 it is one of the most luminous SNe ever observed, and it gives a rare glimpse into the rest-frame ultraviolet where these SNe put out their peak energy. SNLS 07D2bv does not have a host galaxy redshift, but on the basis of the SN spectrum, we estimate it to be at z ∼ 1.5. Both SNe have similar observer-frame griz light curves, which map to rest-frame light curves in the U band and UV, rising in ∼20 rest-frame days or longer and declining over a similar timescale. The light curves peak in the shortest wavelengths first, consistent with an expanding blackbody starting near 15,000 K and steadily declining in temperature. We compare the spectra with theoretical models, and we identify lines of C II, C III, Fe III, and Mg II in the spectra of SNLS 06D4eu and SCP 06F6 and find that they are consistent with an expanding explosion of only a few solar masses of carbon, oxygen, and other trace metals. Thus, the progenitors appear to be related to those suspected for SNe Ic. A high kinetic energy, 10{sup 52} erg, is also favored. Normal mechanisms of powering core-collapse or thermonuclear SNe do not seem to work for these SNe. We consider models powered by {sup 56}Ni decay and interaction with circumstellar material, but we find that the creation and spin-down of a magnetar with a period of 2 ms, a magnetic field of 2 × 10{sup 14} G, and a 3 M {sub ☉} progenitor provides the best fit to the data.

  11. Evolution in the Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrett, K.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; González-Gaitán, S.; Carlberg, R.; Fouchez, D.; Ripoche, P.; Neill, J. D.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Baumont, S.; Lidman, C.; Perlmutter, S.; Walker, E. S.

    2012-08-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate (SNRIa) as a function of redshift for the first four years of data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This analysis includes 286 spectroscopically confirmed and more than 400 additional photometrically identified SNe Ia within the redshift range 0.1 <= z <= 1.1. The volumetric SNRIa evolution is consistent with a rise to z ~ 1.0 that follows a power law of the form (1+z)α, with α = 2.11 ± 0.28. This evolutionary trend in the SNLS rates is slightly shallower than that of the cosmic star formation history (SFH) over the same redshift range. We combine the SNLS rate measurements with those from other surveys that complement the SNLS redshift range, and fit various simple SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD) models to the combined data. A simple power-law model for the DTD (i.e., vpropt -β) yields values from β = 0.98 ± 0.05 to β = 1.15 ± 0.08 depending on the parameterization of the cosmic SFH. A two-component model, where SNRIa is dependent on stellar mass (M stellar) and star formation rate (SFR) as SNRIa(z) = A × M stellar(z) + B × SFR(z), yields the coefficients A = (1.9 ± 0.1) × 10-14 SNe yr-1 M -1 ⊙ and B = (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-4 SNe yr-1 (M ⊙ yr-1)-1. More general two-component models also fit the data well, but single Gaussian or exponential DTDs provide significantly poorer matches. Finally, we split the SNLS sample into two populations by the light-curve width (stretch), and show that the general behavior in the rates of faster-declining SNe Ia (0.8 <= s < 1.0) is similar, within our measurement errors, to that of the slower objects (1.0 <= s < 1.3) out to z ~ 0.8.

  12. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda, and w from the First Year Data Set

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Goncalves, A. C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2005-10-14

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z = 1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multiband photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: {Omega}{sub M} = 0.263 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.032 (sys) for a flat {Lambda}CDM model; and w = -1.023 {+-} 0.090 (stat) {+-} 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  13. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda,and w from the First Year Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam,D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R.G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J.D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R.S.; Filiol, M.; Goncalves, A.C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2005-10-14

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z = 1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multiband photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: {Omega}{sub M} = 0.263 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.032 (sys) for a flat {Lambda}CDM model; and w = -1.023 {+-} 0.090 (stat) {+-} 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  14. The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z~0.5 from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, J. D.; Sullivan, M.; Balam, D.; Pritchet, C. J.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Hardin, D.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lusset, V.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D.; Tao, C.

    2006-09-01

    We present a measurement of the distant Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate derived from the first 2 yr of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey. We observed four 1deg×1deg fields with a typical temporal frequency of <Δt>~4 observer-frame days over time spans of 158-211 days per season for each field, with breaks during the full Moon. We used 8-10 m class telescopes for spectroscopic follow-up to confirm our candidates and determine their redshifts. Our starting sample consists of 73 spectroscopically verified SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.2=0.47)=[0.42+0.13-0.09(syst.)+/-0.06(stat.)×10-4 yr-1 Mpc3, assuming h=0.7, Ωm=0.3, and a flat cosmology. Using recently published galaxy luminosity functions derived in our redshift range, we derive a SN Ia rate per unit luminosity of rL(=0.47)=0.154+0.048-0.033(syst.)+0.039-0.031(stat.) SN units. Using our rate alone, we place an upper limit on the component of SN Ia production that tracks the cosmic star formation history of 1 SN Ia per 103 Msolar of stars formed. Our rate and other rates from surveys using spectroscopic sample confirmation display only a modest evolution out to z=0.55. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. This work is also based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Program 171.A-0486), and on observations (programs GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004A-Q-11

  15. Photometry of supernovae in an image series: methods and application to the SuperNova Legacy Survey (SNLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, P.; El Hage, P.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Betoule, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fourmanoit, N.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We present a technique to measure lightcurves of time-variable point sources on a spatially structured background from imaging data. The technique was developed to measure lightcurves of SNLS supernovae in order to infer their distances. This photometry technique performs simultaneous point spread function (PSF) photometry at the same sky position on an image series. Methods: We describe two implementations of the method: one that resamples images before measuring fluxes, and one which does not. In both instances, we sketch the key algorithms involved and present the validation using semi-artificial sources introduced in real images in order to assess the accuracy of the supernova flux measurements relative to that of surrounding stars. We describe the methods required to anchor these PSF fluxes to calibrated aperture catalogs, in order to derive SN magnitudes. Results: We find a marginally significant bias of 2 mmag of the after-resampling method, and no bias at the mmag accuracy for the non-resampling method. Given surrounding star magnitudes, we determine the systematic uncertainty of SN magnitudes to be less than 1.5 mmag, which represents about one third of the current photometric calibration uncertainty affecting SN measurements. The SN photometry delivers several by-products: bright star PSF flux measurements which have a repeatability of about 0.6%, as for aperture measurements; we measure relative astrometric positions with a noise floor of 2.4 mas for a single-image bright star measurement; we show that in all bands of the MegaCam instrument, stars exhibit a profile linearly broadening with flux by about 0.5% over the whole brightness range. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS

  16. A Comparative Analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey Sample With ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift-luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the Rh = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since Rh = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of Rh = ct is ˜90%, compared with only ˜10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to Rh = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely. This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Tan Lu, who sadly passed away 2014 December 3. Among his many achievements, he is considered to be one of the founders of high-energy astrophysics, and a pioneer in modern cosmology, in China.

  17. SNLS3: Constraints on Dark Energy Combining the Supernova Legacy Survey Three-year Data with Other Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, M.; Guy, J.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hudson, M. J.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Neill, J. D.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2011-08-01

    We present observational constraints on the nature of dark energy using the Supernova Legacy Survey three-year sample (SNLS3) of Guy et al. and Conley et al. We use the 472 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in this sample, accounting for recently discovered correlations between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy properties, and include the effects of all identified systematic uncertainties directly in the cosmological fits. Combining the SNLS3 data with the full WMAP7 power spectrum, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy power spectrum, and a prior on the Hubble constant H 0 from SHOES, in a flat universe we find Ω m = 0.269 ± 0.015 and w = -1.061+0.069 - 0.068 (where the uncertainties include all statistical and SN Ia systematic errors)—a 6.5% measure of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w. The statistical and systematic uncertainties are approximately equal, with the systematic uncertainties dominated by the photometric calibration of the SN Ia fluxes—without these calibration effects, systematics contribute only a ~2% error in w. When relaxing the assumption of flatness, we find Ω m = 0.271 ± 0.015, Ω k = -0.002 ± 0.006, and w = -1.069+0.091 - 0.092. Parameterizing the time evolution of w as w(a) = w 0 + wa (1 - a) gives w 0 = -0.905 ± 0.196, wa = -0.984+1.094 - 1.097 in a flat universe. All of our results are consistent with a flat, w = -1 universe. The size of the SNLS3 sample allows various tests to be performed with the SNe segregated according to their light curve and host galaxy properties. We find that the cosmological constraints derived from these different subsamples are consistent. There is evidence that the coefficient, β, relating SN Ia luminosity and color, varies with host parameters at >4σ significance (in addition to the known SN luminosity-host relation); however, this has only a small effect on the cosmological results and is currently a subdominant systematic.

  18. Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    We live in a Universe that is getting bigger faster. This astonishing discovery of Universal acceleration was made in the late 1990s by two teams who made observations of a special type of exploded star known as a `Supernova Type Ia'. (SNeIa) Since the discovery of the accelerating Universe, one of the biggest questions in modern cosmology has been to determine the cause of that acceleration - the answer to this question will have far reaching implications for our theories of cosmology and fundamental physics more broadly. The two main competing explanations for this apparent late time acceleration of the Universe are modified gravity and dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) has been designed and commissioned to find to find answers to these questions about the nature of dark energy and modified gravity. The new 570 megapixel Dark Energy Camera is currently operating with the Cerro-Tololo Inter American Observatory's 4m Blanco teleccope, carrying out a systematic search for SNeIa, and mapping out the large scale structure of the Universe by making observations of galaxies. The DES science program program which saw first light in September 2013 will run for five years in total. DES SNeIa data in combination with the other DES observations of large scale structure will enable us to put increasingly accurate constraints on the expansion history of the Universe and will help us distinguish between competing theories of dark energy and modified gravity. As we draw to the close of the first observing season of DES in March 2014, we will report on the current status of the DES supernova survey, presenting first year supernovae data, preliminary results, survey strategy, discovery pipeline, spectroscopic target selection and data quality. This talk will give the first glimpse of the DES SN first year data and initial results as we begin our five year survey in search of dark energy. On behalf of the Dark Energy Survey collaboration.

  19. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY SAMPLE WITH ΛCDM AND THE R{sub h}=ct UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S. E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn E-mail: rsm@math.arizona.edu

    2015-03-15

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift–luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the R{sub h} = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the R{sub h} = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since R{sub h} = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of R{sub h} = ct is ∼90%, compared with only ∼10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to R{sub h} = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely.

  20. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... Physical and motor skill milestones for a typical 5-year-old child include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

  1. Leadership Legacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent obituaries and testimonials to Coretta Scott King and Wendy Wasserstein are reminders of the leadership legacies of these women. About Coretta Scott King (1927-2006), Burch in "The Miami Herald" (February 1, 2006) stated "Coretta Scott King built a legacy from pain and progress, first as the wife who stood tall next to a man bent on…

  2. Probing dark energy inhomogeneities with supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Blomqvist, Michael; Moertsell, Edvard; Nobili, Serena E-mail: edvard@physto.se

    2008-06-15

    We discuss the possibility of identifying anisotropic and/or inhomogeneous cosmological models using type Ia supernova data. A search for correlations in current type Ia peak magnitudes over a large range of angular scales yields a null result. However, the same analysis limited to supernovae at low redshift shows a feeble anticorrelation at the 2{sigma} level at angular scales {theta} Almost-Equal-To 40 Degree-Sign . Upcoming data from, e.g., the SNLS (Supernova Legacy Survey) and the SDSS-II (SDSS: Sloan Digital Sky Survey) supernova searches will improve our limits on the size of-or possibly detect-possible correlations also at high redshift at the per cent level in the near future. With data from the proposed SNAP (SuperNova Acceleration Probe) satellite, we will be able to detect the induced correlations from gravitational lensing on type Ia peak magnitudes on scales less than a degree.

  3. Aspherical supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel Nathan

    2004-05-21

    Although we know that many supernovae are aspherical, the exact nature of their geometry is undetermined. Because all the supernovae we observe are too distant to be resolved, the ejecta structure can't be directly imaged, and asymmetry must be inferred from signatures in the spectral features and polarization of the supernova light. The empirical interpretation of this data, however, is rather limited--to learn more about the detailed supernova geometry, theoretical modeling must been undertaken. One expects the geometry to be closely tied to the explosion mechanism and the progenitor star system, both of which are still under debate. Studying the 3-dimensional structure of supernovae should therefore provide new break throughs in our understanding. The goal of this thesis is to advance new techniques for calculating radiative transfer in 3-dimensional expanding atmospheres, and use them to study the flux and polarization signatures of aspherical supernovae. We develop a 3-D Monte Carlo transfer code and use it to directly fit recent spectropolarimetric observations, as well as calculate the observable properties of detailed multi-dimensional hydrodynamical explosion simulations. While previous theoretical efforts have been restricted to ellipsoidal models, we study several more complicated configurations that are tied to specific physical scenarios. We explore clumpy and toroidal geometries in fitting the spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova SN 2001el. We then calculate the observable consequences of a supernova that has been rendered asymmetric by crashing into a nearby companion star. Finally, we fit the spectrum of a peculiar and extraordinarily luminous Type Ic supernova. The results are brought to bear on three broader astrophysical questions: (1) What are the progenitors and the explosion processes of Type Ia supernovae? (2) What effect does asymmetry have on the observational diversity of Type Ia supernovae, and hence their use in cosmology? (3) And

  4. Aspherical supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasen, Daniel Nathan

    Although we know that many supernovae are aspherical, the exact nature of their geometry is undetermined. Because all the supernovae we observe are too distant to be resolved, the ejecta structure can't be directly imaged, and asymmetry must be inferred from signatures in the spectral features and polarization of the supernova light. The empirical interpretation of this data, however, is rather limited--to learn more about the detailed supernova geometry, theoretical modeling must be undertaken. One expects the geometry to be closely tied to the explosion mechanism and the progenitor star system, both of which are still under debate. Studying the 3-dimensional structure of supernovae should therefore provide new breakthroughs in our understanding. The goal of this thesis is to advance new techniques for calculating radiative transfer in 3-dimensional expanding atmospheres, and use them to study the flux and polarization signatures of aspherical supernovae. We develop a 3-D Monte Carlo transfer code and use it to directly fit recent spectropolarimetric observations, as well as calculate the observable properties of detailed multi- dimensional hydrodynamical explosion simulations. While previous theoretical efforts have been restricted to ellipsoidal models, we study several more complicated configurations that are tied to specific physical scenarios. We explore clumpy and toroidal geometries in fitting the spectropolarimetry of the Type Ia supernova SN 2001el. We then calculate the observable consequences of a supernova that has been rendered asymmetric by crashing into a nearby companion star. Finally we fit the spectrum of a peculiar and extraordinarily luminous Type Ic supernova. The results are brought to bear on three broader astrophysical questions: (1) What are the progenitors and the explosion processes of Type Ia supernovae? (2) What effect does asymmetry have on the observational diversity of Type Ia supernovae, and hence their use in cosmology? (3) And

  5. Darwin's legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  6. Observing Supernovae and Supernova Remnants with JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonneborn, George; Temim, Tea; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable near- and mid-infrared studies of supernovae (SN) and supernova remnants (SNR) in the Milky Way and galaxies throughout the local universe and to high redshift. JWST's instrumentation provides imaging, coronography, and spectroscopy (R<3000) over the wavelength range 1-29 microns. The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution will enable spectroscopic study of new and recent supernovae, including molecule and dust formation, in galaxies at least out to 30 Mpc, and imaging to much greater distances. The Target of Opportunity response time can be as short as 48 hours, enabling quick follow-up observations of important SN events. JWST will be ideal for the study of Galactic and Magellanic Clouds supernova remnants, particularly young remnants with hot dust. Its high angular resolution (0.07" at 2 microns, 0.7" at 20 microns) will allow direct comparison between the IR, optical, and X-ray morphologies, identifying sites of dust emission in both the ejecta and the shocked ISM unresolved by previous IR telescopes. There is a rich spectrum of atomic lines (H, He I, [Si I], [Fe II], [Ni I-III], [Co II-III], [S III-IV], [Ar II-III], [Ne II, III, V], [O IV]) and molecules (CO, SiO, H2) of importance for SN and SNR studies. JWST is a large aperture (6.5m), cryogenic, infrared-optimized space observatory under construction by NASA, ESA, and CSA for launch in 2018. The JWST observatory will be placed in an Earth-Sun L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations. The first call for proposals for JWST observations will be released in 2017.

  7. Supernova Flashback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    The Cassiopeia A supernova's first flash of radiation makes six clumps of dust (circled in annotated version) unusually hot. The supernova remnant is the large white ball in the center. This infrared picture was taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  8. Supernova models

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the /sup 56/Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed.

  9. Supernova Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knödlseder, J.

    This lecture gives an introduction to the topic of supernova nucleosynthesis which is at the origin of almost all nuclear species that we encounter in the Universe. It starts with an overview over the relevant nuclear physics, with some emphasise on nuclear stability and nuclear reactions. The central part of the lecture is devoted to the synthesis of new elements in the interiors of stars, either during their quiescent live or during their violent explosion as supernova. The different types of supernova explosions are exposed and their key nucleosynthesis products are summarised. The lecture closes with an overview over gamma-ray line diagnostics which provides a modern tool to study supernova nucleosynthesis by the measurement of freshly produced radioactive isotopes.

  10. Microbiological monitoring of endoscopes: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth E; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2008-07-01

    Periodic microbiological monitoring of endoscopes is a recommendation of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GENSA). The aim of monitoring has been to provide quality assurance of the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes; however, there is controversy regarding its frequency. This lack of consensus stimulated a review of the experience within our health service. At Southern Health, routine microbiological sampling has involved 4-weekly monitoring of bronchoscopes, duodenoscopes and automated flexible endoscope reprocessors (AFER), and 3-monthly monitoring of all other gastrointestinal endoscopes. Records of testing were reviewed from 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2006. A literature review was conducted, cost analysis performed and positive cultures investigated. There were 2374 screening tests performed during the 5-year period, including 287 AFER, 631 bronchoscopes for mycobacteria and 1456 endoscope bacterial screens. There were no positive results of the AFER or bronchoscopes for mycobacteria. Of the 1456 endoscopic bacterial samples, six were positive; however, retesting resulted in no growth. The overall cost of tests performed and cost in time for nursing staff to collect the samples was estimated at $AUD 100,400. Periodic monitoring of endoscopes is both time-consuming and costly. Our review demonstrates that AFER (Soluscope) perform well in cleaning endoscopes. Based on our 5-year experience, assurance of quality for endoscopic use could be achieved through process control as opposed to product control. Maintenance of endoscopes and AFER should be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and microbiological testing performed on commissioning, annually and following repair. Initial prompt manual leak testing and manual cleaning followed by mechanical leak testing, cleaning and disinfection should be the minimum standard in reprocessing of endoscopes. PMID:18086113

  11. SNLS: Empirical modeling of distant supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Lusset, V.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; SNLS Collaboration

    2005-12-01

    The SuperNova Legacy Survey provides us with a rich data set of supernovae multi-color light curves in the redshift range 0.1--1. Thanks to the "rolling search" operation mode, most of them contain photometric points well before the peak luminosity. In addition, the far-UV rest-frame light curves can be modeled from g and r-band observations of high-z SNe. In this poster, we present an update of the Spectral Adaptive Lightcurve Template model (SALT) adjusted on the SNLS data set.

  12. Supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decourchelle, A.

    2016-06-01

    Supernova remnants result from the explosion of a star and keep trace, in their young ejecta-dominated phase, both of the explosion mechanism and to a lesser extent of the nature of the progenitor. They inject a large amount of energy into their surroundings, which impacts significantly the interstellar medium and to a larger extent the working of the galaxy by distributing heavy elements, heating to tens of million degrees large fractions of gas, accelerating high-energy particles, generating turbulence and amplification of the magnetic field. I will review the observational results on supernova remnants and their related scientific issues before suggesting directions for future ambitious XMM-Newton observations.

  13. Astronomical Resources: Supernovae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Contains a partially annotated, nontechnical bibliography of recent materials about supernovae, including some about the discovery of a supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Includes citations of general books and articles about supernovae, articles about Supernova 1987A, and a few science fiction stories using supernovae. (TW)

  14. FUZZY SUPERNOVA TEMPLATES. I. CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney, Steven A.; Tonry, John L. E-mail: jt@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2009-12-20

    Modern supernova (SN) surveys are now uncovering stellar explosions at rates that far surpass what the world's spectroscopic resources can handle. In order to make full use of these SN data sets, it is necessary to use analysis methods that depend only on the survey photometry. This paper presents two methods for utilizing a set of SN light-curve templates to classify SN objects. In the first case, we present an updated version of the Bayesian Adaptive Template Matching program (BATM). To address some shortcomings of that strictly Bayesian approach, we introduce a method for Supernova Ontology with Fuzzy Templates (SOFT), which utilizes fuzzy set theory for the definition and combination of SN light-curve models. For well-sampled light curves with a modest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >10), the SOFT method can correctly separate thermonuclear (Type Ia) SNe from core collapse SNe with >=98% accuracy. In addition, the SOFT method has the potential to classify SNe into sub-types, providing photometric identification of very rare or peculiar explosions. The accuracy and precision of the SOFT method are verified using Monte Carlo simulations as well as real SN light curves from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperNova Legacy Survey. In a subsequent paper, the SOFT method is extended to address the problem of parameter estimation, providing estimates of redshift, distance, and host galaxy extinction without any spectroscopy.

  15. Supernova hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, S. A.

    1981-11-01

    The physics as well as astrophysics of the supernova (SN) phenomenon are illustrated with the appropriate numbers. The explosion of a star, a supernova, occurs at the end of its evolution when the nuclear fuel in its core is almost, or completely, consumed. The star may explode due to a small residual thermonuclear detonation, type I SN, or it may collapse, type I and type II SN, leaving a neutron star remnant. The type I progenitor is thought to be an old accreting white dwarf, 1.4 interior mass, with a close companion star. A type II SN is thought to be a massive young star, 6 to 10 interior mass. The mechanism of explosion is still a challenge to model, being the most extreme conditions of matter and hydrodynamics that occur presently and excessively in the universe.

  16. SNLS: The Supernova Type Ia Rate at z = 0.47

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, J. D.; Sullivan, M.; Balam, D.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Graham, M.; Hsiao, E.; Lusset, V.; Ripoche, P.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Tao, C.

    2005-12-01

    We present a preliminary measurement of the distant Type Ia supernova rate derived from the Canada -- France -- Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). By observing four one-square degree fields with a high temporal frequency (< Δ t > ˜ 4 observer-frame days) over large fractions of a year ( ˜ 6 months each field, with breaks during full moon) and using 8 meter-class telescopes for spectroscopic followup, the survey not only provides the dense time sampling needed to achieve a high completeness, but also enjoys the benefit of high quality spectroscopy to verify the Type Ia candidates and hence reduce contamination from non-Type Ia events. The goal of the survey is to measure ˜ 700 Type Ia SNe out to z ˜ 1 over a period of 5 years. We use the first two years of survey data to begin characterizing the Type Ia sample and explore a methodology for calculating rates from the survey. We use individual SNLS survey epoch properties to observe Monte Carlo simulations of 106 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.6, and thus derive our survey efficiency. We combine this efficiency with a carefully selected control sample of spectroscopically confirmed SNLS Type Ia SNe to derive a volumetric rate. When comparing our volumetric rate with other ground-based surveys that also use spectroscopic candidate verification, we find no evidence for significant systematic underestimation of the SN Ia rates near z = 0.5. When comparing published SN Ia rates spanning the redshift range 0.0 < z < 1.6 to models of SN Ia production, we find that neither pure delay-time models nor two component models can accommodate all the observed data.

  17. A complex legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  18. Quantitative Spectroscopy of Distant Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Conley, A.; Astier, P.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Guy, J.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C. J.; Neill, James D.

    2007-08-01

    Quantitative analysis of 24 high-z (zmed = 0.81) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) spectra observed at the Gemini Telescopes for the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) is presented. This analysis includes equivalent width measurements of SNe Ia-specific absorption features with methods tailored to the reduced signal-to-noise and host galaxy contamination present in these distant spectra. The results from this analysis are compared to corresponding measurements of a large set of low-z SNe Ia from the literature. This comparison showed no significant difference (less than 2σ) between the spectroscopic features of the distant and nearby SNe; a result that supports the assumption that SNe Ia are not evolving with redshift. Additionally, a new correlation between SiII absorption (observed near peak luminosity) and SNe Ia peak magnitudes is presented.

  19. Supernova neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Scholberg, K.

    2015-07-15

    In this presentation I summarize the main detection channels for neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae, and describe current status of and future prospects for supernova-neutrino-sensitive detectors worldwide.

  20. Supernova frequency estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, D.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the frequency of type I and II supernovae occurring in galaxies of different types are derived from observational material acquired by the supernova patrol of the Shternberg Astronomical Institute.

  1. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a 5-year retrospective of the structure, methodology, progress, and contributions to the broader scientific community that have resulted from this national USGS program. We evaluate ARMI’s success to date, with regard to the challenges faced by the program and the strengths that have emerged. We chart objectives for the next 5 years that build on current accomplishments, highlight areas meriting further research, and direct efforts to overcome existing weaknesses.

  2. The Legacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2012-01-01

    This article is the first in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project." It focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged technology engineering education profession into what it is today. Members of the profession owe a debt of gratitude to these leaders. One simple way to demonstrate that gratitude is to recognize them and…

  3. Science: The Islamic Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunde, Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In the wake of the first space voyage and in-flight experiments by a Muslim astronaut, this document focuses upon the story of Islamic science through the ages. It is intended to demonstrate the resurgence of scientific research and technological development in the Muslim world. The booklet contains chapters on: (1) science: the Islamic legacy;…

  4. Securing Your Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeau, Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a former college president, reflects on his career and the challenges of retirement. He shares his experience from career preparation to on-the-job training to succession planning. The author stresses that the decisions college presidents make define the legacies they leave.

  5. The Supernova Type Ia Rate Evolution with SNLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, James D.; Sullivan, M.; Balam, D.; Pritchet, C. J.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Hardin, D.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lusset, V.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D.; Tao, C.

    2007-08-01

    We present a progress report on a project to derive the evolution of the volumetric supernova Type Ia rate from the Supernova Legacy Survey. Our preliminary estimate of the rate evolution divides the sample from Neill et al. into two redshift bins: 0.2 < z < 0.4, and 0.4 < z < 0.6. We extend this by adding a bin from the sample analyzed in Sullivan et al. in the range 0.6 < z < 0.75 from the same time period. We compare the derived trend with previously published rates and a supernova Type Ia production model having two components: one component associated closely with star formation and an additional component associated with host galaxy mass. Our observed trend is consistent with this model, which predicts a rising SN Ia rate out to at least z = 2.

  6. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  7. 2001 IFT Education Standards: A 5-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    The current IFT Education Standards used to evaluate Food Science programs for IFT approval have been in place now for 5 years. Most Food Science programs in the United States (as well as some in Mexico and Canada) have been reviewed according to these standards. The transition to instruction based on assessment of student learning outcomes, in…

  8. WCTC 5-Year Graduation Rates. Retention for Learning Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Viktor; Sanford, Doug

    This study addresses Waukesha County Technical College's (WCTC) 5-year retention and graduate rates. Some of the key findings of the report are as follow: (1) overall, 35.4% of cohort students graduated; (2) a 4-year combined graduation rate for ethnic minorities was 26%, well below the overall average; (3) the percent of cohort that graduated…

  9. Stimulant Treatment over 5 Years: Effects on Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Figueroa, Max; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Long-term effects of psychostimulants on growth in height and in weight are investigated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Participants were 79 children, 6 to 12 years of age, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, who were followed annually for up to 5 years, between the years 1993 and 1994 and…

  10. Supernovae and mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenbergh, S.

    1994-01-01

    Shklovsky and others have suggested that some of the major extinctions in the geological record might have been triggered by explosions of nearby supernovae. The frequency of such extinction events will depend on the galactic supernova frequency and on the distance up to which a supernova explosion will produce lethal effects upon terrestrial life. In the present note it will be assumed that a killer supernova has to occur so close to Earth that it will be embedded in a young, active, supernova remnant. Such young remnants typically have radii approximately less than 3 pc (1 x 10(exp 19) cm). Larger (more pessimistic?) killer radii have been adopted by Ruderman, Romig, and by Ellis and Schramm. From observations of historical supernovae, van den Bergh finds that core-collapse (types Ib and II) supernovae occur within 4 kpc of the Sun at a rate of 0.2 plus or minus 0.1 per century. Adopting a layer thickness of 0.3 kpc for the galacitc disk, this corresponds to a rate of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -4) supernovae pc(exp -3) g.y.(exp -1). Including supernovae of type Ia will increase the total supernovae rate to approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4) supernovae pc(exp -3) g.y.(exp -1). For a lethal radius of R pc the rate of killer events will therefore be 1.7 (R/3)(exp 3) x 10(exp -2) supernovae per g.y. However, a frequency of a few extinctions per g.y. is required to account for the extinctions observed during the phanerozoic. With R (extinction) approximately 3 pc, the galactic supernova frequency is therefore too low by 2 orders of magnitude to account for the major extinctions in the geological record.

  11. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  12. Atomic and molecular supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong

    1997-01-01

    Atomic and molecular physics of supernovae is discussed with an emphasis on the importance of detailed treatments of the critical atomic and molecular processes with the best available atomic and molecular data. The observations of molecules in SN 1987A are interpreted through a combination of spectral and chemical modelings, leading to strong constraints on the mixing and nucleosynthesis of the supernova. The non-equilibrium chemistry is used to argue that carbon dust can form in the oxygen-rich clumps where the efficient molecular cooling makes the nucleation of dust grains possible. For Type Ia supernovae, the analyses of their nebular spectra lead to strong constraints on the supernova explosion models.

  13. Prospective Type Ia supernova surveys from Dome A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.; Bonissent, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ealet, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gladney, L.; Kushner, G.; Linder, E.; Stoughton, C.; Wang, L.

    2010-03-10

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over 5 years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of ~;; 1000 z< 0:08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture (>=4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z ~;; 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  14. Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica in a 5 year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; Pires-de-Mello, Paulo; Morgado, Maria de Fátima; March, Maria de Fátima Pombo

    2012-12-01

    Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica (TO) is considered an orphan disease with exceptional occurrence in children. We report a 5 year old female child who was referred to us with chronic cough and recurrent pneumonia. After several investigations, bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in the tracheobronchial lumen, whose distribution was consistent with TO. The patient was followed for four years, with no change in the pattern of the disease.

  15. [5-year experience with BCG immunoprophylaxis in superficial bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Bach, D; Rüssel, C

    1992-09-01

    Our 5-year experience with BCG in the tumor stage pTis, pTa and pT1, G I-II shows a lasting remission of 88.5% (73%) in 78 (26) patients treated with BCG preparation Pasteur (Connaught) after transurethral resection. A complete remission in patients with carcinoma in situ (12 patients) could be found in 92%. The local and systemic side-effects, which are of limited duration, are tolerable, well treatable and fully reversible.

  16. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, ARMI has partnered with an extensive list of government, academic, and private entities. These partnerships have been fruitful and have assisted ARMI in developing new field protocols and analytic tools, in using and refining emerging technologies to improve accuracy and efficiency of data handling, in conducting amphibian disease, malformation, and environmental effects research, and in implementing a network of mon

  17. Legacy Code Modernization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

  18. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  19. FIXING THE U-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Bastola, Deepak; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Espinoza, Juan; Gonzalez, David; Gonzalez, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hamuy, Mario E-mail: suntzeff@physics.tamu.edu E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl E-mail: mmp@lco.cl

    2013-01-01

    We present previously unpublished photometry of supernovae 2003gs and 2003hv. Using spectroscopically derived corrections to the U-band photometry, we reconcile U-band light curves made from imagery with the Cerro Tololo 0.9 m, 1.3 m, and Las Campanas 1 m telescopes. Previously, such light curves showed a 0.4 mag spread at one month after maximum light. This gives us hope that a set of corrected ultraviolet light curves of nearby objects can contribute to the full utilization of rest-frame U-band data of supernovae at redshift {approx}0.3-0.8. As pointed out recently by Kessler et al. in the context of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey supernova search, if we take the published U-band photometry of nearby Type Ia supernovae at face value, there is a 0.12 mag U-band anomaly in the distance moduli of higher redshift objects. This anomaly led the Sloan survey to eliminate from their analyses all photometry obtained in the rest-frame U-band. The Supernova Legacy Survey eliminated observer frame U-band photometry, which is to say nearby objects observed in the U-band, but they used photometry of high-redshift objects no matter in which band the photons were emitted.

  20. Olfactory dysfunction predicts 5-year mortality in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Jayant M; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Kern, David W; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57-85 were studied in 2005-6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010-11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a "dose-dependent" effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process.

  1. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  2. Natural history of alcoholic myopathy: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Estruch, R; Sacanella, E; Fernández-Solá, J; Nicolás, J M; Rubin, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1998-12-01

    Chronic myopathy is a common complication of alcoholism, but its natural history has not been well described. We, therefore, studied muscle structure and function in a 5-year study of 30 chronic alcoholics who became abstinent and 20 who relapsed, and 40 control subjects. The mean strength of the abstaining alcoholics increased from 18.6 to 23.2 kg; but, after 5 years, they were still substantially weaker than controls. In a subset who showed histological myopathy, the strength of half of the patients remained two standard deviations below that of controls. Alcoholics who relapsed tended to become progressively weaker (21.7 kg vs. 18.2 kg) and develop histological evidence of myopathy. Thus, continued alcohol abuse was generally reflected in deterioration of muscle strength and the appearance of histological injury to muscle. Importantly, almost half of the sober patients did not recover to normal levels, indicating that alcoholic myopathy is only partially reversible. We also unexpectedly found that, in some alcoholics, a substantial reduction in the amount of alcohol consumed may be as effective as complete abstinence in improving muscle strength or preventing its deterioration.

  3. The acquired cardiac disease domain: the next 5 years.

    PubMed

    Pepper, John R

    2013-01-01

    At a recent in-house meeting at the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (EACTS) headquarters in Windsor, the Chairs of the four domains were asked by the President to present their perception of the next 5 years in their respective domains. This review represents a distillation of our discussions on adult cardiac surgery. Advances in technology and imaging are having a radical effect on the working lives of surgeons. In clinical practice, the growth of heart teams and the breaking down of artificial barriers between specialities are altering the way we practice for the better. We see the development of hybrid approaches to many areas such as coronary artery surgery and operations on the thoracic aorta. These changes require careful analysis to ensure that they produce better outcomes that are also cost-effective. All health-care systems are at breaking point, and it is our responsibility to harness new technology to benefit our patients. This is all part of placing the patient at the centre of our activities. Hence, we see the involvement of patients in the design and analysis of clinical trials, which also require great mutual trust and cooperation between surgeons in different countries. Because of the dramatic changes in the pattern of working, we have had to alter our patterns of training and education, and we will continue to make significant innovations in the future. These are exciting challenges that will keep us all busy for the next 5 years at least.

  4. Predictive 5-Year Survivorship Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Theodore G.; Adler, Frederick R.; FitzSimmons, Stacey C.; Cahill, Barbara C.; Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 5-year survivorship model to identify key clinical features of cystic fibrosis. Such a model could help researchers and clinicians to evaluate therapies, improve the design of prospective studies, monitor practice patterns, counsel individual patients, and determine the best candidates for lung transplantation. The authors used information from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), which has collected longitudinal data on approximately 90% of cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed in the United States since 1986. They developed multivariate logistic regression models by using data on 5,820 patients randomly selected from 11,630 in the CFFPR in 1993. Models were tested for goodness of fit and were validated for the remaining 5,810 patients for 1993. The validated 5-year survivorship model included age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted normal, gender, weight-for-age z score, pancreatic sufficiency, diabetes mellitus, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Burkerholderia cepacia infection, and annual number of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The model provides insights into the complex nature of cystic fibrosis and supplies a rigorous tool for clinical practice and research. PMID:11207152

  5. The DECam Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Robert D.; Burleigh, Kaylan; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Levi, Michael; Myers, Adam D.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Patej, Anna; Valdes, Francisco; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Huanyuan, Shan; Nord, Brian; Olsen, Knut A.; Delubac, Timothée; Saha, Abi; James, David; Walker, Alistair R.; DECaLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The DECam Legacy Survey (DECaLS) is conducting a 3-band imaging survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) extragalactic footprint as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. For DECaLS, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will image the footprint overlapping SDSS in the region -20 < Dec < +30 deg, to depths of g=24.7, r=23.9, z=23.0 and will eventually cover a total of 7500 square degrees. The survey began in 2014 and will run through Spring 2017. Images and catalogs were introduced in Public Data Release 2 (DR2), which occurred in January 2016. The algorithm "Tractor" applies multi-wavelength forced photometry to DECam and WISE data to produce galaxy (and star) magnitudes (as well as shape and other information) for the catalogs. In total, the optical data in DR2 cover a disjoint footprint in 2078, 2141 and 5322 square degrees in g, r, and z bands, respectively; 1807 square degrees has been observed in all three optical filters. There are approximately 260 million unique sources in DR2 spread over 97,554 0.25 x 0.25 square degree bricks.The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these DECam data, the MOSAIC camera on the Mayall 4-meter, and the 90Prime camera on the Bok telescope.

  6. HUBBLE PINPOINTS DISTANT SUPERNOVAE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These Hubble Space Telescope images pinpoint three distant supernovae, which exploded and died billions of years ago. Scientists are using these faraway light sources to estimate if the universe was expanding at a faster rate long ago and is now slowing down. Images of SN 1997cj are in the left hand column; SN 1997ce, in the middle; and SN 1997ck, on the right. All images were taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The top row of images are wider views of the supernovae. The supernovae were discovered in April 1997 in a ground-based survey at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Once the supernovae were discovered, the Hubble telescope was used to distinguish the supernovae from the light of their host galaxies. A series of Hubble telescope images were taken in May and June 1997 as the supernovae faded. Six Hubble telescope observations spanning five weeks were taken for each supernova. This time series enabled scientists to measure the brightness and create a light curve. Scientists then used the light curve to make an accurate estimate of the distances to the supernovae. Scientists combined the estimated distance with the measured velocity of the supernova's host galaxy to determine the expansion rate of the universe in the past (5 to 7 billion years ago) and compare it with the current rate. These supernovae belong to a class called Type Ia, which are considered reliable distance indicators. Looking at great distances also means looking back in time because of the finite velocity of light. SN 1997ck exploded when the universe was half its present age. It is the most distant supernova ever discovered (at a redshift of 0.97), erupting 7.7 billion years ago. The two other supernovae exploded about 5 billion years ago. SN 1997ce has a redshift of 0.44; SN 1997cj, 0.50. SN 1997ck is in the constellation Hercules, SN 1997ce is in Lynx, just north of Gemini; and SN 1997cj is in Ursa Major, near the Hubble Deep Field

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Supernova Legacy Survey. Type Ia supernovae (Walker+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, E. S.; Hook, I. M.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Bronder, T. J.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Aldering, G.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Kronborg, T.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Zhang, T.

    2011-08-01

    The targets were selected from real-time SNLS imaging which took place at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). Fainter objects were usually observed spectroscopically at Gemini, with brighter candidates at either VLT or Keck. (7 data files).

  8. Maternal anxiety: a 5-year review of an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B; Schaafsma, M F; Guzman, A M; Parker, G B

    1991-03-01

    Primiparous women were divided into groups according to their post-partum trait anxiety scores. Professional or non-professional support for the first 12 months was offered to two subgroups of high trait anxiety subjects. At the 5-year follow-up the high-anxiety mothers (n = 57) manifested more psychological and social pathology than moderate- and low-anxiety mothers (n = 43), and their children also showed signs of poorer adaptation. There was evidence of improved outcome for mothers in the professional intervention group, but not for their children. Child psychopathology was predicted best by maternal psychosocial variables, and to a lesser extent by child temperament variables. The relation of infant attachment and temperament measures to subsequent psychopathology is discussed.

  9. Achalasia 5 years following Roux-en-y gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Torghabeh, Mehyar Hefazi; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Saif, Taha; Dakin, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Oesophageal achalasia is a rare, but serious condition in which the motility of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) is inhibited. This disorder of idiopathic aetiology complicates the peristaltic function and relaxation of the LES that may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, epigastric pain, and regurgitation of an obstructed food. The following case describes achalasia in a patient 5 years following a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The patient underwent a laparoscopic Heller myotomy without a fundoplication. Although achalasia seems to be a rare occurrence in obese patients, this is the third case documented in a patient who previously had an RYGB. The role of performing a fundoplication in these patients remains to be elucidated. PMID:26195880

  10. [The readmission of schizophrenics: a retrospective study over 5 years].

    PubMed

    Antonioli, D; Rey-Bellet, J; Müller, C

    1988-05-01

    Since the introduction of neuroleptics, the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals has decreased progressively, but, in the same time, the number of readmissions has increased. For schizophrenic outpatients, we can estimate that 68% will be readmitted during the 5 years following their departure from the hospital. In our retrospective survey, we have studied the different factors which influence the readmissions. We have shown, with a statistical significancy, that an agricultural background, a fulltime job and brief hospitalizations prevent the readmissions. However patients aged less than 30 years, with long hospitalizations and living alone have a high risk of readmission. The most frequent causes are patient's omission to take prescribed drugs, environmental conflicts and alteration in the familial situation. PMID:3059911

  11. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  12. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  13. Locating legacy in illness.

    PubMed

    Froude, Cameron Kiely

    2016-06-01

    The author, a licensed marriage and family therapist, describes her work with Sofia, an eight-year-old Puerto Rican female with chronic and persistent abdominal pain and leg paralysis with no known organic cause. Sofia's mother, Ana, was also seen by the author. Over the course of several weeks, the family shared stories of painful medical procedures and extreme dietary plans prescribed to them by doctors to identify the etiology of Sofia's illness. Ana described her simultaneous relief and frustration when each test result indicated that there was no organic cause for Sofia's debilitating pain. They talked about the push and pull Ana's family experienced as they prayed simultaneously for abnormal and normal test results. The author told Sofia's pediatrician that she would begin to create a community genogram with the family in their next meeting. She explained that the purpose of the community genogram was to illustrate the social and historical contexts of families' lives. They learned that a seminal narrative in Sofia's family legacy connected deep understanding of others with embodiment of their immediate experience. Sofia's illness became one part of her and her family's legacy and cultural tapestry. Ana described the renewed connections that she and Sofia shared with their family members. As Sofia and Ana spoke with their family members more often, Sofia's leg paralysis and stomach pains decreased. Sofia began attending school regularly and visiting less with her pediatrician. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270250

  14. Neutrino Nucleosynthesis in Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshio; Chiba, Satoshi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kimura, Keiichi; Takamura, Akira; Hartmann, Dieter H.

    2009-05-04

    Neutrino nucleosynthesis is an important synthesis process for light elements in supernovae. One important physics input of neutrino nucleosynthesis is cross sections of neutrino-nucleus reactions. The cross sections of neutrino-{sup 12}C and {sup 4}He reactions are derived using new shell model Hamiltonians. With the new cross sections, light element synthesis of a supernova is investigated. The appropriate range of the neutrino temperature for supernovae is constrained to be between 4.3 MeV and 6.5 MeV from the {sup 11}B abundance in Galactic chemical evolution. Effects by neutrino oscillations are also discussed.

  15. Berkeley automated supernova search

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  16. Automated search for supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.

    1984-11-15

    This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion.

  17. Nucleosynthesis in Thermonuclear Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Claudia, Travaglio; Hix, William Raphael

    2013-01-01

    We review our understanding of the nucleosynthesis that occurs in thermonuclear supernovae and their contribution to Galactic Chemical evolution. We discuss the prospects to improve the modeling of the nucleosynthesis within simulations of these events.

  18. The Historical Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1982-11-01

    A survey was made of pretelescopic astronomical records from Europe, China, Korea, Japan, Babylon, and the Arab countries to search for historical evidence of supernovae. A Roman, Claudian, reported a new star in 393 AD, the same year that Chinese astronomers noted a new star, together with its location and duration. Most European records were made in monasteries after 1000 AD, and one supernova was sighted in 1006 AD. A similar sighting was made in the Arab world at the same time. A total of twenty candidate events were found in the nearly 2000 yr of Chinese records. An analysis of the recorded events characteristics indicates that in 185, 393, 1006, 1054, 1181, 1572, and 1604 AD supernovae were seen. The 1054 AD explosion was corroborated by Arab records, while all others (except for the 393 AD and 1006 AD supernovae) were confined to Oriental observations.

  19. Handbook of Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Since the discovery of pulsars in 1967, few celestial phenomena have fascinated amateur and professional astronomers, and the public, more than supernovae - dying stars that explode spectacularly and, in so doing, may outshine a whole galaxy. Thousands of research papers, reviews, monographs and books have been published on this subject. These publications are often written either for a highly specific level of expertise or education, or with respect to a particular aspect of supernovae research. However, the study of supernovae is a very broad topic involving many integral yet connected aspects, including physics, mathematics, computation, history, theoretical studies and observation. More specifically, areas of study include historical supernovae, the different types and light curves, nucleosynthesis, explosion mechanisms, formation of black holes, neutron stars, cosmic rays, neutrinos and gravitational waves. Related questions include how supernovae remnants interact with interstellar matter nearby and how do these events affect the formation of new stars or planetary systems? Could they affect existing planetary systems? Closer to home, did any supernovae affect life on earth in the past or could they do so in the future? And on the larger scale, how did supernovae observations help measure the size and expansion of the universe? All these topics, and more, are to be covered in a new reference work, consisting of more than 100 articles and more than 1700 pages. It is intended to cover all the main facets of current supernovae research. It will be pitched at or above the level of a new postgraduate student, who will have successfully studied physics (or a similar scientific subject) to Bachelor degree level. It will be available in both print and electronic (updatable) formats, with the exception of the first section, which will consist of a review of all the topics of the handbook at a level that allows anyone with basic scientific knowledge to grasp the

  20. Physics of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-12-13

    Presupernova models of massive stars are presented and their explosion by ''delayed neutrino transport'' examined. A new form of long duration Type II supernova model is also explored based upon repeated encounter with the electron-positron pair instability in stars heavier than about 60 Msub solar. Carbon deflagration in white dwarfs is discussed as the probable explanation of Type I supernovae and special attention is paid to the physical processes whereby a nuclear flame propagates through degenerate carbon. 89 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Malpractice and radiologists, update 1986: an 11. 5-year perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, L.

    1986-12-01

    All medical malpractice lawsuits filed in Cook County, IL, from January 1, 1980, through June 30, 1986, were reviewed and compared with similar data for the period of January 1, 1975, through December 30, 1979. A total of 11,203 suits were filed during the 11.5-year period; of these, 1391 (12%) were radiology related. The latter were categorized into six groups. The largest was missed radiologic diagnoses, which accounted for 40% of the total. The remaining groups included complications, 19%; failure to order, 17%; radiation therapy, 11%; slip and fall, 5%; and miscellaneous, 8%. Over the 1975-1986 period, the rise in the number of suits alleging radiologic misses outpaced all other groups. Although the most common type of miss continues to involve fractures, the frequency of missed carcinomas has grown at a disproportionately faster rate. Misses specifically involving CT, nuclear medicine, and sonography also are becoming more prevalent. Radiographic misses continue to occur at an average rate of 30%, with little hope of improvement. Methods to combat the rising number of malpractice suits are discussed. It is concluded that although programs to educate radiologists on risk management should continue, the ultimate solution may be a more enlightened public attitude as to what actually constitutes malpractice, and institution of tort reform measures by federal and state legislatures.

  2. The International Ultraviolet Explorer: Origins and Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    he International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite was launched on 26 January 1978, and operated as a Guest Observer space observatory for nearly 19 years. IUE was, without doubt, one of the most successful astronomical facilities ever developed. Used by thousands of astronomers worldwide, it yielded over 100,000 UV spectra (in the wavelength range 1150-3250A), covering stars of all types, the interstellar medium in our own galaxy and other local galaxies, the galactic halo, normal and active galaxies and QSO's, X-ray binaries, novae and supernovae, and in our solar system comets, planets and their moons. Over 3500 refereed papers have been published based on IUE results, and a similar number of papers in conference proceedings. Over 600 PhD theses have been produced based on IUE data. All IUE data are available in archives maintained by the three agencies involved in the mission: NASA, ESA and the UK Science Research Council. In this paper I will discuss the origins of the IUE mission, the special design and operation which led to its spectacular success and the legacy it left for UV astronomy.

  3. Schiaparelli and his legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, A.; Trinchieri, G.

    Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli has been one of the most important Italian astronomers of the eighteen hundreds. He was an active scientist and the director of the Brera Observatory for close to 40 years; his scientific achievements and his personal influence can be traced to a very large community of people and subjects, which go well beyond the observations of Mars, for which he is most famous. His vast range of interests, which include studies on history of Astronomy and ancient languages, Solar System bodies, meteorology, and Earth sciences, are well documented and will be the reviewed in this conference. More relevant to modern science, he has left us a very solid legacy, both with his pioneering scientific works, now progressing with new discoveries and the aid of new technology, and with the consequences of his observations of Mars, which have greatly influenced the literary world and have opened new research activities in medicine.

  4. Legacy Systems Interaction Reengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ramly, Mohammad; Stroulia, Eleni; Samir, Hani

    We present a lightweight approach for reengineering the human computer interaction (HCI) and/or interaction with other software systems. While interaction reengineering can be achieved by changing the source code and design (e.g., library replacement, refactoring, etc.) resulting in a different user interface (UI), we limit the discussion to interaction reengineering methods that do not involve changing the source code or internal design of the system. Instead, we focus on methods and techniques for wrapping and packaging the existing interaction layer to reproduce it in a different format, e.g., on a different platform or to integrate the legacy system services in another application possibly under a different architecture paradigm, e.g., service-oriented architectures (SOA).

  5. SNLS: Supernova Rise Times from the SNLS Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.; Howes, A.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Lusset, V.; Ripoche, P.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Tao, C.

    2005-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide the most direct evidence for the acceleration of the Universe. This evidence relies on a comparison between the luminosities of distant and nearby SNe Ia, and hence is potentially sensitive to any evolution in the mean lightcurve properties between these two samples. One method for testing for the presence of such effects is to measure and compare the rise time, which is the time between explosion and maximum luminosity, of the two samples. The Supernova Legacy Survey provides an excellent data sample for the analysis of this issue, since it's 'rolling search' nature yields lightcurves which are well sampled prior to maximum light. Here we discuss measurements of the rise time from SNLS data and what they can tell us about evolutionary effects.

  6. Cosmology with Photometrically Classified Type Ia Supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Heather; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Nichol, Robert C.; Sako, Masao; Smith, Mathew; Lampeitl, Hubert; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Bassett, Bruce; Biswas, Rahul; Brown, Peter; Cinabro, David; Dawson, Kyle S.; Dilday, Ben; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kunz, Martin; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Richmond, Michael; Riess, Adam; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Taylor, Matt; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2013-02-01

    We present the cosmological analysis of 752 photometrically classified Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey, supplemented with host-galaxy spectroscopy from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. Our photometric-classification method is based on the SN classification technique of Sako et al., aided by host-galaxy redshifts (0.05 < z < 0.55). SuperNova ANAlysis simulations of our methodology estimate that we have an SN Ia classification efficiency of 70.8%, with only 3.9% contamination from core-collapse (non-Ia) SNe. We demonstrate that this level of contamination has no effect on our cosmological constraints. We quantify and correct for our selection effects (e.g., Malmquist bias) using simulations. When fitting to a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find that our photometric sample alone gives Ω m = 0.24+0.07 -0.05 (statistical errors only). If we relax the constraint on flatness, then our sample provides competitive joint statistical constraints on Ω m and ΩΛ, comparable to those derived from the spectroscopically confirmed Three-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3). Using only our data, the statistics-only result favors an accelerating universe at 99.96% confidence. Assuming a constant wCDM cosmological model, and combining with H 0, cosmic microwave background, and luminous red galaxy data, we obtain w = -0.96+0.10 -0.10, Ω m = 0.29+0.02 -0.02, and Ω k = 0.00+0.03 -0.02 (statistical errors only), which is competitive with similar spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia analyses. Overall this comparison is reassuring, considering the lower redshift leverage of the SDSS-II SN sample (z < 0.55) and the lack of spectroscopic confirmation used herein. These results demonstrate the potential of photometrically classified SN Ia samples in improving cosmological constraints.

  7. FUZZY SUPERNOVA TEMPLATES. II. PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney, Steven A.; Tonry, John L. E-mail: jt@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-05-20

    Wide-field surveys will soon be discovering Type Ia supernovae (SNe) at rates of several thousand per year. Spectroscopic follow-up can only scratch the surface for such enormous samples, so these extensive data sets will only be useful to the extent that they can be characterized by the survey photometry alone. In a companion paper we introduced the Supernova Ontology with Fuzzy Templates (SOFT) method for analyzing SNe using direct comparison to template light curves, and demonstrated its application for photometric SN classification. In this work we extend the SOFT method to derive estimates of redshift and luminosity distance for Type Ia SNe, using light curves from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) as a validation set. Redshifts determined by SOFT using light curves alone are consistent with spectroscopic redshifts, showing an rms scatter in the residuals of rms{sub z} = 0.051. SOFT can also derive simultaneous redshift and distance estimates, yielding results that are consistent with the currently favored {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. When SOFT is given spectroscopic information for SN classification and redshift priors, the rms scatter in Hubble diagram residuals is 0.18 mag for the SDSS data and 0.28 mag for the SNLS objects. Without access to any spectroscopic information, and even without any redshift priors from host galaxy photometry, SOFT can still measure reliable redshifts and distances, with an increase in the Hubble residuals to 0.37 mag for the combined SDSS and SNLS data set. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we predict that SOFT will be able to improve constraints on time-variable dark energy models by a factor of 2-3 with each new generation of large-scale SN surveys.

  8. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  9. The scientific legacy of Apollo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ian

    2012-12-01

    On the 40th anniversary of the last human expedition to the Moon, Ian Crawford reviews the scientific legacy of the Apollo programme and argues that science would benefit from a human return to the Moon.

  10. PROGENITORS OF RECOMBINING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  11. Progenitors of Recombining Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2012-05-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, has been recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion. If the circumstellar medium is dense enough, collisional ionization equilibrium can be established in the early stage of the evolution of the supernova remnant and subsequent adiabatic cooling, which occurs after the shock wave gets out of the dense circumstellar medium, makes the electron temperature lower than the ionization temperature. We study the circumstellar medium around several supernova progenitors and show which supernova progenitors can have a circumstellar medium dense enough to establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion. We find that the circumstellar medium around red supergiants (especially massive ones) and the circumstellar medium dense enough to make Type IIn supernovae can establish collisional ionization equilibrium soon after the explosion and can evolve to become recombining supernova remnants. Wolf-Rayet stars and white dwarfs have the possibility to be recombining supernova remnants but the fraction is expected to be very small. As the occurrence rate of the explosions of red supergiants is much higher than that of Type IIn supernovae, the major progenitors of recombining supernova remnants are likely to be red supergiants.

  12. A 5-year experience with an elective scholarly concentrations program

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul; Green, Emily P.; Park, Yoon S.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Programs that encourage scholarly activities beyond the core curriculum and traditional biomedical research are now commonplace among US medical schools. Few studies have generated outcome data for these programs. The goal of the present study was to address this gap. Intervention The Scholarly Concentration (SC) Program, established in 2006 at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, is a 4-year elective program that not only encourages students to pursue scholarly work that may include traditional biomedical research but also seeks to broaden students’ focus to include less traditional areas. We compared characteristics and academic performance of SC students and non-SC students for the graduating classes of 2010–2014. Context Approximately one-third of our students opt to complete an SC during their 4-year undergraduate medical education. Because this program is additional to the regular MD curriculum, we sought to investigate whether SC students sustained the academic achievement of non-SC students while at the same time producing scholarly work as part of the program. Outcome Over 5 years, 35% of students elected to enter the program and approximately 81% of these students completed the program. The parameters that were similar for both SC and non-SC students were age at matriculation, admission route, proportion of undergraduate science majors, and number of undergraduate science courses. Most academic indicators, including United States Medical Licensing Examinations scores, were similar for the two groups; however, SC students achieved more honors in the six core clerkships and were more likely to be inducted into the medical school's two honor societies. Residency specialties selected by graduates in the two groups were similar. SC students published an average of 1.3 peer-reviewed manuscripts per student, higher than the 0.8 manuscripts per non-SC student (p=0.013). Conclusions An elective, interdisciplinary scholarly program with

  13. The Texas Supernova Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quimby, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Supernovae (SNe) are popular tools to explore the cosmological expansion of the Universe owing to their bright peak magnitudes and reasonably high rates; however, even the relatively homogeneous Type Ia supernovae are not perfect standard candles intrinsically. Their absolute peak brightness must be established by corrections that have been largely empirical. Hundreds of SNe are now found every year, shrinking the statistical errors in the cosmological terms, but most of these distant discoveries do little to further the physical understanding of SNe, which may illuminate unknown systematics. This talk will describe recent results from the The Texas Supernova Search, a campaign designed to discover not the most SNe nor the most distant SNe, but instead to amass a small collection of well-observed nearby SNe with detailed, multi-epoch spectral observations beginning at the earliest possible phases. For the past two years, we have pointed ROTSE-IIIb's 1.85 x 1.85 degree field of view at nearby galaxy clusters and searched thousands of galaxies, covering hundreds of square degrees on the sky, for supernovae. With ToO time on the neighboring 9.2m Hobby-Eberly Telescope, we have captured SNe spectra at some of the earliest phases ever. I will discuss the implications of these data on the physics of SNe explosions, including the propagation of the burning front and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  14. The Most Luminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Woosley, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Recent observations have revealed a stunning diversity of extremely luminous supernovae, seemingly increasing in radiant energy without bound. We consider simple approximate limits for what existing models can provide for the peak luminosity and total radiated energy for non-relativistic, isotropic stellar explosions. The brightest possible supernova is a Type I explosion powered by a sub-millisecond magnetar with field strength B ∼ few × {10}13 G. In extreme cases, such models might reach a peak luminosity of 2× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and radiate a total energy of up to 4× {10}52 {erg}. Other less luminous models are also explored, including prompt hyper-energetic explosions in red supergiants, pulsational-pair instability supernovae, pair-instability supernovae, and colliding shells. Approximate analytic expressions and limits are given for each case. Excluding magnetars, the peak luminosity is near 3× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 for the brightest models and the corresponding limit on total radiated energy is 3× {10}51 {erg}. Barring new physics, supernovae with a light output over 3× {10}51 erg must be rotationally powered, either during the explosion itself or after, the most obvious candidate being a rapidly rotating magnetar. A magnetar-based model for the recent transient event, ASASSN-15lh is presented that strains, but does not exceed the limits of what the model can provide.

  15. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  16. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  17. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  18. The Planck Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupac, X.; Arviset, C.; Fernandez Barreiro, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Tauber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Planck Collaboration has released in 2015 their second major dataset through the Planck Legacy Archive (PLA). It includes cosmological, Extragalactic and Galactic science data in temperature (intensity) and polarization. Full-sky maps are provided with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity, together with a large number of ancillary maps, catalogues (generic, SZ clusters and Galactic cold clumps), time-ordered data and other information. The extensive cosmological likelihood package allows cosmologists to fully explore the plausible parameters of the Universe. A new web-based PLA user interface is made public since Dec. 2014, allowing easier and faster access to all Planck data, and replacing the previous Java-based software. Numerous additional improvements to the PLA are also being developed through the so-called PLA Added-Value Interface, making use of an external contract with the Planetek Hellas and Expert Analytics software companies. This will allow users to process time-ordered data into sky maps, separate astrophysical components in existing maps, simulate the microwave and infrared sky through the Planck Sky Model, and use a number of other functionalities.

  19. Neutrinos in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-10-01

    The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs.

  20. What Shapes Supernova Remnants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence has mounted that Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) supernovae (SNe) can have substantial deviations from spherical symmetry; one such piece of evidence is the complex morphologies of supernova remnants (SNRs). However, the relative role of the explosion geometry and the environment in shaping SNRs remains an outstanding question. Recently, we have developed techniques to quantify the morphologies of SNRs, and we have applied these methods to the extensive X-ray and infrared archival images available of Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud SNRs. In this proceeding, we highlight some results from these studies, with particular emphasis on SNR asymmetries and whether they arise from ``nature'' or ``nurture''.

  1. The CEO's real legacy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kenneth W

    2004-11-01

    The literature on CEO succession planning is nearly unanimous in its advice: Begin early, look first inside your company for exceptional talent, see that candidates gain experience in all aspects of the business, and help them develop the skills they will need in the top job. It all makes sense and sounds pretty straightforward. Nevertheless, the list of CEOs who last no more than a few years on the job continues to grow. Implicit in many, if not all, of these unceremonious departures is the absence of an effective CEO succession plan. The problem is, most boards simply don't want to talk about CEO succession: Why rock the boat when things are going well? Why risk offending the current CEO? Meanwhile, most CEOs can't imagine that anyone could adequately replace them. In this article, Kenneth W. Freeman, the retired CEO of Quest Diagnostics, discusses his own recent handoff experience (Surya N. Mohapatra became chief executive in May 2004) and offers his approach to succession planning. He says it falls squarely on the incumbent CEO to put ego aside and initiate and actively manage the process of selecting and grooming a successor. Aggressive succession planning is one of the best ways for CEOs to ensure the long-term health of the company, he says. Plus, thinking early and often about a successor will likely improve the chief executive's performance during his tenure. Freeman advocates the textbook rules for succession planning but adds to that list a few more that apply specifically to the incumbent CEO: Insist that the board become engaged in succession planning, look for a successor who is different from you, and make the successor's success your own. After all, Freeman argues, the CEO's true legacy is determined by what happens after he leaves the corner office.

  2. An Efficient Approach to Obtaining Large Numbers of Distant Supernova Host Galaxy Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidman, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Sullivan, M.; Myzska, J.; Dobbie, P.; Glazebrook, K.; Mould, J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Betoule, M.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.

    2013-01-01

    We use the wide-field capabilities of the 2 degree field fibre positioner and the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) to obtain redshifts of galaxies that hosted supernovae during the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). With exposure times ranging from 10 to 60 ks per galaxy, we were able to obtain redshifts for 400 host galaxies in two SNLS fields, thereby substantially increasing the total number of SNLS supernovae with host galaxy redshifts. The median redshift of the galaxies in our sample that hosted photometrically classified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is z ~ 0.77, which is 25% higher than the median redshift of spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia in the 3-year sample of the SNLS. Our results demonstrate that one can use wide-field fibre-fed multi-object spectrographs on 4-m telescopes to efficiently obtain redshifts for large numbers of supernova host galaxies over the large areas of the sky that will be covered by future high-redshift supernova surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey.

  3. Supernovae and Dark Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, I.; Bravo, E.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Tornambé, A.

    2009-08-01

    A decade ago the observations of thermonuclear supernovae at high-redhifts showed that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating and since then, the evidence for cosmic acceleration has gotten stronger. This acceleration requires that the Universe is dominated by dark energy, an exotic component characterized by its negative pressure. Nowadays all the available astronomical data (i.e. thermonuclear supernovae, cosmic microwave background, barionic acoustic oscillations, large scale structure, etc.) agree that our Universe is made of about 70% of dark energy, 25% of cold dark matter and only 5% of known, familiar matter. This Universe is geometrically flat, older than previously thought, its destiny is no longer linked to its geometry but to dark energy, and we ignore about 95% of its components. To understand the nature of dark energy is probably the most fundamental problem in physics today. Current astronomical observations are compatible with dark energy being the vacuum energy. Supernovae have played a fundamental role in modern Cosmology and it is expected that they will contribute to unveil the dark energy. In order to do that it is mandatory to understand the limits of supernovae as cosmological distance indicators, improving their precision by a factor 10.

  4. Core-collapse Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Hix, William Raphael; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, Mark L; Chertkow, Merek A; Lee, Ching-Tsai; Blondin, J. M.; Bruenn, S. W.; Messer, Bronson; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Marking the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae bring together physics at a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (growing to gigameter scale) down to femtometer scale nuclear reactions. Carrying 10$^{51}$ ergs of kinetic energy and a rich-mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up ourselves and our solar system. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  5. Supernova Photometric Lightcurve Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Tayeb; Narayan, Gautham

    2016-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on photometric supernova classification. We first explore the properties of supernova light curves, and attempt to restructure the unevenly sampled and sparse data from assorted datasets to allow for processing and classification. The data was primarily drawn from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) simulated data, created for the Supernova Photometric Classification Challenge. This poster shows a method for producing a non-parametric representation of the light curve data, and applying a Random Forest classifier algorithm to distinguish between supernovae types. We examine the impact of Principal Component Analysis to reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, for future classification work. The classification code will be used in a stage of the ANTARES pipeline, created for use on the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope alert data and other wide-field surveys. The final figure-of-merit for the DES data in the r band was 60% for binary classification (Type I vs II).Zaidi was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  6. Theoretical models for supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1981-09-21

    The results of recent numerical simulations of supernova explosions are presented and a variety of topics discussed. Particular emphasis is given to (i) the nucleosynthesis expected from intermediate mass (10sub solar less than or equal to M less than or equal to 100 Msub solar) Type II supernovae and detonating white dwarf models for Type I supernovae, (ii) a realistic estimate of the ..gamma..-line fluxes expected from this nucleosynthesis, (iii) the continued evolution, in one and two dimensions, of intermediate mass stars wherein iron core collapse does not lead to a strong, mass-ejecting shock wave, and (iv) the evolution and explosion of vary massive stars (M greater than or equal to 100 Msub solar of both Population I and III. In one dimension, nuclear burning following a failed core bounce does not appear likely to lead to a supernova explosion although, in two dimensions, a combination of rotation and nuclear burning may do so. Near solar proportions of elements from neon to calcium and very brilliant optical displays may be created by hypernovae, the explosions of stars in the mass range 100 M/sub solar/ to 300 M/sub solar/. Above approx. 300 M/sub solar/ a black hole is created by stellar collapse following carbon ignition. Still more massive stars may be copious producers of /sup 4/He and /sup 14/N prior to their collapse on the pair instability.

  7. Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Grant J.

    2014-09-01

    Nucleosynthesis by rapid neutron capture (the r-process) could be an important diagnostic of the explosive deep interiors of supernovae. The early appearance of r-process elements in the Galaxy, along with energetic requirements, strongly argues in favor of a supernova origin for r-process isotopes. However there is a current conundrum as to the relative contributions from various supernovae environments, e.g. MHD jets or neutrino energized winds. There are also possible contributions from failed supernovae (collapsars) leading to a black hole (BH), or the ejection of material during the mergers of neutron stars in binary systems, i.e. NS+NS or NS+BH systems. In this talk we will review the theoretical underpinnings of each possibility in the quest to deduce the relative contribution of each process. In particular, each model for r-process nucleosynthesis invariably leads to systematic discrepancies with the observed solar-system r-process abundances. For example, although the location of the abundance peaks near nuclear mass numbers A = 130 and 195 identify an environment of rapid neutron capture near closed nuclear shells, the abundances of elements just above and below those peaks are often underproduced by more than an order of magnitude in model calculations. Similarly, most recent neutrino-driven wind simulations produce only the lighter r-process elements, while neutron-star mergers may miss the r-process peaks due to fission recycling. In this talk we demonstrate that the underproduction of elements above and below the r-process peaks can be supplemented via fission fragment distributions from the recycling of material synthesized during neutron star mergers, while the abundance peaks themselves are well reproduced in MHD jets in supernovae and collapsars. Moreover, we show that the relative contributions to the solar-system r-process yields from core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers required by this proposal are consistent with estimates of the

  8. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II), Data Release 7, including the Legacy Survey

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The seventh data release (DR7) from the SDSS represents a completion of the overall, original project, though SDSS-III began in 2008 and will build upon the knowledge gained already. The SDSS Legacy Survey provided a uniform, well-calibrated map of more than 7,500 square degrees of the North Galactic Cap, and three stripes in the South Galactic Cap totaling 740 square degrees. The central stripe in the South Galactic Gap, Stripe 82, was scanned multiple times to enable a deep co-addition of the data and to enable discovery of variable objects. Legacy data supported studies ranging from asteroids and nearby stars to the large-scale structure of the universe. All of the imaging data have been processed to yield calibrated astrometric and photometric parameters and classifications. These parameters are available in one or more tables in a database accessible via the Catalog Archive Server (CAS) at http://cas.sdss.org/astro. [taken and edited from the Legacy page at http://www.sdss.org/legacy/index.html] All three surveys summarized are: 1) Legacy: an imaging survey in five bands over a contiguous 7646 deg2 high-latitude elliptical region in the Northern Galactic Cap, plus an additional 750 deg2 in the Southern Galactic Cap, together with spectroscopy of complete samples of galaxies and quasars covering about 8200 square degrees. The total imaging area in the Legacy survey is 8423 square degrees; 2) SEGUE: (Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration): additional imaging of 3240 deg2 of sky at lower Galactic latitudes, together with spectroscopy of 240,000 stars towards 200 sight lines covering 1400 square degrees (spread throughout the Legacy and SEGUE imaging footprints), to study the structure of the Milky Way; 3

  9. Modernizing Fortran 77 legacy codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norton, C. D.; Decyk, V. K.

    2000-01-01

    Legacy software has great value since it is generally well debugged, produces results that are trusted and is actively meeting end-user goals. The amount of hidden expert knowledge embedded in such software can be significant, making its preservation important.

  10. Supernova Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Woosley

    2008-05-05

    The Supernova Science Center (SNSC) was founded in 2001 to carry out theoretical and computational research leading to a better understanding of supernovae and related transients. The SNSC, a four-institutional collaboration, included scientists from LANL, LLNL, the University of Arizona (UA), and the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC). Intitially, the SNSC was funded for three years of operation, but in 2004 an opportunity was provided to submit a renewal proposal for two years. That proposal was funded and subsequently, at UCSC, a one year no-cost extension was granted. The total operational time of the SNSC was thus July 15, 2001 - July 15, 2007. This document summarizes the research and findings of the SNSC and provides a cummulative publication list.

  11. Presupernova models and supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimoto, D.; Nomoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    The present status of theories of presupernova stellar evolution and the triggering mechanisms of supernova explosions are reviewed. The validity of the single-star approximation for stellar core evolution is considered, and the central density and temperature of the stellar core are discussed. Attention is then given to the results of numerical models of supernova explosions by carbon deflagration of an intermediate mass star, resulting in the total disruption of the star; the photodissociation of iron nuclei in a massive star, resulting in neutron star or black hole formation; and stellar core collapse triggered by electron capture in stars of mass ranging between those of the intermediate mass and massive stars, resulting in neutron star formation despite oxygen deflagration. Helium and carbon combustion and detonation in accreting white dwarfs and the gravitational collapse triggered by electron-pair creation in supermassive stars are also discussed, and problems requiring future investigation are indicated.

  12. Radio emission from supernovae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, K. W.; Panagia, N.; Sramek, R. A.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Stockdale, C. J.; Williams, C. L.

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 30 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. Along with reviewing these general properties of the radio emission from supernovae, we present our extensive observations of the radio emission from supernova (SN) 1993J in M 81 (NGC 3031) made with the Very Large Array and other radio telescopes. The SN 1993J radio emission evolves regularly in both time and frequency, and the usual interpretation in terms of shock interaction with a circumstellar medium (CSM) formed by a pre-supernova stellar wind describes the observations rather well considering the complexity of the phenomenon. However: 1) The highest frequency measurements at 85 - 110 GHz at early times (<40 days) are not well fitted by the parameterization which describes the cm wavelength measurements. 2) At a time ˜3100 days after shock breakout, the decline rate of the radio emission steepens from (t+beta ) beta ˜ -0.7 to beta ˜ -2.7 without change in the spectral index (nu +alpha ; alpha ˜ -0.81). This decline is best described not as a power-law, but as an exponential decay with an e-folding time of ˜ 1100 days. 3) The best overall fit to all of the data is a model including both non-thermal synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) and a thermal free-free absorbing (FFA) components at early times, evolving to a constant spectral index, optically thin decline rate, until a break in that decline rate at day ˜3100, as mentioned above.

  13. Are There Hidden Supernovae?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Jesse; Harker, David; Dunham, E.; Rank, David; Temi, Pasquale

    1997-01-01

    Ames Research Center and UCSC have been working on the development of a Mid IR Camera for the KAO in order to search for extra galactic supernovae. The development of the camera and its associated data reduction software have been successfully completed. Spectral Imaging of the Orion Bar at 6.2 and 7.8 microns demonstrates the derotation and data reduction software which was developed.

  14. The changing morphology and increasing deceleration of supernova 1993J in M81

    PubMed

    Bartel; Bietenholz; Rupen; Beasley; Graham; Altunin; Venturi; Umana; Cannon; Conway

    2000-01-01

    Twenty consecutive Very Long Baseline Interferometry images of supernova 1993J from the time of explosion to the present show the dynamic evolution of the expanding radio shell of an exploded star. High-precision astrometry reveals that the supernova expands isotropically from its explosion center. Systematic changes in the images may reflect a pattern of anisotropies and inhomogeneities in the material left over from the progenitor star. As the shock front sweeps up the material in the surrounding medium, it is increasingly decelerated and influenced by the material. After 5 years, the supernova has slowed to half of its original expansion velocity and may have entered the early stages of the adiabatic phase common in much older supernova remnants in the Milky Way Galaxy.

  15. Type IA Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    1992-01-01

    Spectral calculations show that a model based on the thermonuclear explosion of a degenerate carbon/oxygen white dwarf provides excellent agreement with observations of Type Ia supernovae. Identification of suitable evolutionary progenitors remains a severe problem. General problems with estimation of supernova rates are outlined and the origin of Type Ia supernovae from double degenerate systems are discussed in the context of new rates of explosion per H band luminosity, the lack of observed candidates, and the likely presence of H in the vicinity of some SN Ia events. Re-examination of the problems of triggering Type Ia by accretion of hydrogen from a companion shows that there may be an avenue involving cataclysmic variables, especially if extreme hibernation occurs. Novae may channel accreting white dwarfs to a unique locus in accretion rate/mass space. Systems that undergo secular evolution to higher mass transfer rates could lead to just the conditions necessary for a Type Ia explosion. Tests involving fluorescence or absorption in a surrounding circumstellar medium and the detection of hydrogen stripped from a companion, which should appear at low velocity inside the white dwarf ejecta, are suggested. Possible observational confirmation of the former is described.

  16. Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors: Evidence of incoming supernova explosions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, L.

    2015-02-01

    Violent eruptions, and consequently major mass loss, are a common feature of the so-called Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars. During major eruptive episodes LBVs mimic the behavior of real type IIn supernovae (SNe), showing comparable radiated energy and similar spectroscopic properties. For this reason these events are frequently labelled as SN impostors. Type IIn SN spectra are characterized by the presence of prominent narrow Balmer lines in emission. In most cases, SNe IIn arise from massive stars (M>8⊙) exploding in a dense H-rich circumstellar medium (CSM), produced by progenitor's mass loss prior to the SN explosion. Although the mechanisms triggering these eruptions are still unknown, recently we had direct proofs of the connection between very massive stars, their eruptions and ejecta-CSM interacting SNe. SNe 2006jc, 2010mc, 2011ht and the controversial SN 2009ip are famous cases in which we observed the explosion of the star months to years after major outbursts. In this context, the case of a recent transient event, LSQ13zm, is extremely interesting since we observed an outburst just ˜3 weeks before the terminal SN explosion. All of this may suggest that SN impostors occasionally herald true SN explosions. Nonetheless, there are several cases where major eruptions are followed by a quiescent phase in the LBV life. The impostor SN 2007sv is one of these cases, since it showed a single outburst event. Its photometric (a relatively faint absolute magnitude at the maximum) and spectroscopic properties (low velocity and temperature of the ejecta, and the absence of the typical elements produced in the explosive nucleosynthesis) strongly suggest that SN 2007sv was the giant eruption of an LBV, which has then returned in a quiescent stage.

  17. Interacting supernovae and supernova impostors: Evidence of incoming supernova explosions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tartaglia, L.

    2015-02-24

    Violent eruptions, and consequently major mass loss, are a common feature of the so–called Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars. During major eruptive episodes LBVs mimic the behavior of real type IIn supernovae (SNe), showing comparable radiated energy and similar spectroscopic properties. For this reason these events are frequently labelled as SN impostors. Type IIn SN spectra are characterized by the presence of prominent narrow Balmer lines in emission. In most cases, SNe IIn arise from massive stars (M>8{sub ⊙}) exploding in a dense H–rich circumstellar medium (CSM), produced by progenitor’s mass loss prior to the SN explosion. Although the mechanisms triggering these eruptions are still unknown, recently we had direct proofs of the connection between very massive stars, their eruptions and ejecta-CSM interacting SNe. SNe 2006jc, 2010mc, 2011ht and the controversial SN 2009ip are famous cases in which we observed the explosion of the star months to years after major outbursts. In this context, the case of a recent transient event, LSQ13zm, is extremely interesting since we observed an outburst just ∼3 weeks before the terminal SN explosion. All of this may suggest that SN impostors occasionally herald true SN explosions. Nonetheless, there are several cases where major eruptions are followed by a quiescent phase in the LBV life. The impostor SN 2007sv is one of these cases, since it showed a single outburst event. Its photometric (a relatively faint absolute magnitude at the maximum) and spectroscopic properties (low velocity and temperature of the ejecta, and the absence of the typical elements produced in the explosive nucleosynthesis) strongly suggest that SN 2007sv was the giant eruption of an LBV, which has then returned in a quiescent stage.

  18. Supernova Discoveries from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory)

    DOE Data Explorer

    SNfactory International Collaboration,

    The Nearby Supernova Factory is an experiment designed to collect data on more Type Ia supernovae than have ever been studied in a single project before, and in so doing, to answer some fundamental questions about the nature of the universe. Type Ia supernovae are extraordinarily bright, remarkably uniform objects which make excellent "standard candles" for measuring the expansion rate of the universe. However, such stellar explosions are very rare, occurring only a couple of times per millenium in a typical galaxy, and remaining bright enough to detect only for a few weeks. Previous studies of Type Ia supernovae led to the discovery of the mysterious "dark energy" that is causing the universe to expand at an accelerating rate. To reduce the statistical uncertainties in previous experimental data, extensive spectral and photometric monitoring of more Type Ia supernovae is required. The SNfactory collaboration has built an automated system consisting of specialized software and custom-built hardware that systematically searches the sky for new supernovae, screens potential candidates, then performs multiple spectral and photometric observations on each supernova. These observations are stored in a database to be made available to supernova researchers world-wide for further study and analysis [copied from http://snfactory.lbl.gov/snf/snf-about.html]. Users must register and agree to the open access honor system. Finding charts are in FITS format and may not be accessible through normal browser settings.

  19. SALT2: using distant supernovae to improve the use of type Ia supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Baumont, S.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Antilogus, P.; Aubourg, E.; Bazin, G.; Bronder, J.; Filiol, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Ripoche, P.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2007-04-01

    Aims:We present an empirical model of type Ia supernovae spectro-photometric evolution with time. Methods: The model is built using a large data set including light-curves and spectra of both nearby and distant supernovae, the latter being observed by the SNLS collaboration. We derive the average spectral sequence of type Ia supernovae and their main variability components including a color variation law. The model allows us to measure distance moduli in the spectral range 2500-8000 Å with calculable uncertainties, including those arising from variability of spectral features. Results: Thanks to the use of high-redshift SNe to model the rest-frame UV spectral energy distribution, we are able to derive improved distance estimates for SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.8supernovae. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486). Based on observations (programs GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004A-Q-11, GN-2003B-Q-9, and GS-2003B-Q-8) obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and

  20. Observational Constraints on the Nature of the Dark Energy: First Cosmological Results From the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Wood-Vasey, W.Michael; Miknaitis, G.; Stubbs, C.W.; Jha, S.; Riess, A.G.; Garnavich, P.M.; Kirshner, R.P.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blackman, J.W.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Conley, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Filippenko, A.V.; Foley, R.J.; Garg, A.; Hicken, M.; Krisciunas, K.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Fermilab /Harvard U. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Notre Dame U. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Chile U., Catolica /Toronto U., Astron. Dept. /Bohr Inst. /Stockholm U. /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Inst. Astron., Honolulu

    2007-01-05

    We present constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w = P/({rho}c{sup 2}), using 60 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the ESSENCE supernova survey. We derive a set of constraints on the nature of the dark energy assuming a flat Universe. By including constraints on ({Omega}{sub M}, w) from baryon acoustic oscillations, we obtain a value for a static equation-of-state parameter w = -1.05{sub -0.12}{sup +0.13} (stat 1{sigma}) {+-} 0.13 (sys) and {Omega}{sub M} = 0.274{sub -0.020}{sup +0.033} (stat 1{sigma}) with a best-fit {chi}{sup 2}/DoF of 0.96. These results are consistent with those reported by the Super-Nova Legacy Survey in a similar program measuring supernova distances and redshifts. We evaluate sources of systematic error that afflict supernova observations and present Monte Carlo simulations that explore these effects. Currently, the largest systematic currently with the potential to affect our measurements is the treatment of extinction due to dust in the supernova host galaxies. Combining our set of ESSENCE SNe Ia with the SuperNova Legacy Survey SNe Ia, we obtain a joint constraint of w = -1.07{sub -0.09}{sup +0.09} (stat 1{sigma}) {+-} 0.13 (sys), {Omega}{sub M} = 0.267{sub -0.018}{sup +0.028} (stat 1{sigma}) with a best-fit {chi}{sup 2}/DoF of 0.91. The current SNe Ia data are fully consistent with a cosmological constant.

  1. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, Molly S.; Tumlinson, Jason; Fox, Andrew; Aloisi, Alessandra; Ayres, Thomas R.; Danforth, Charles; Fleming, Scott W.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Keeney, Brian A.; Oliveira, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    With no future space ultraviolet instruments currently planned, the data from the UV spectrographs aboard the Hubble Space Telescope have a legacy value beyond their initial science goals. The Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive will provide to the community new science-grade combined spectra for all publicly available data obtained by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These data will be packaged into "smart archives" according to target type and scientific themes to facilitate the construction of archival samples for common science uses. A new "quick look" capability will make the data easy for users to quickly access, assess the quality of, and download for archival science starting in Cycle 24, with the first generation of these products for the FUV modes of COS available online via MAST in early 2016.

  2. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  3. Gravitational Lensing of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Mocioiu, Irina; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The black hole at the center of the galaxy is a powerful lens for supernova neutrinos. In the very special circumstance of a supernova near the extended line of sight from Earth to the galactic center, lensing could dramatically enhance the neutrino flux at Earth and stretch the neutrino pulse.

  4. Modernizing Fortran 77 Legacy Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decyk, Viktor; Norton, Charles

    2003-01-01

    An incremental approach to modernization of scientific software written in the Fortran 77 computing language has been developed. This approach makes it possible to preserve the investment in legacy Fortran software while augmenting the software with modern capabilities to satisfy expanded requirements. This approach could be advantageous (1) in situations in which major rewriting of application programs is undesirable or impossible, or (2) as a means of transition to major rewriting.

  5. Neurosurgery: A legacy of excellence.

    PubMed

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2015-01-01

    Neurosurgeons are often identified with traits such as arrogance and hubris. However, the true legacy of neurosurgeons is excellence. Harvey Cushing, the pioneering neurosurgeon of the United States, is largely responsible for this legacy of excellence. Eminent personalities have agreed that sincere and hard work is necessary to achieve excellence. Excellence in neurosurgery in the domains of surgical work and research will be discussed in the article. Excellence in surgical work should be measured comprehensively and over long follow-up periods using tools such as functional outcomes and quality of life instruments besides morbidity and mortality. For excellence in neurosurgical research, one can use the help of indices such as the h-index and i10 index. No single measure, whether for surgical excellence or excellence in research, however, incorporates a measure of qualities such as empathy, integrity and mentorship. These intangible qualities should be an integral part of the assessment of a neurosurgeon and his/her work. Cushing's attributes of meticulous record keeping, attention to detail, and maximal utilization of opportunities should guide us in our pursuit of excellence. In recent years, it has been suggested that excellence is not the result of an innate talent but can be aspired to by anyone willing to adopt a work ethic that involves several hours of "deliberate practice," feedback and passion. Neurosurgeons should continue to pursue the legacy of Cushing especially in present times when medical professionals are frequently depicted as being driven more by avarice than by Hippocratic principles. PMID:26238874

  6. Neurosurgery: A legacy of excellence.

    PubMed

    Rajshekhar, Vedantam

    2015-01-01

    Neurosurgeons are often identified with traits such as arrogance and hubris. However, the true legacy of neurosurgeons is excellence. Harvey Cushing, the pioneering neurosurgeon of the United States, is largely responsible for this legacy of excellence. Eminent personalities have agreed that sincere and hard work is necessary to achieve excellence. Excellence in neurosurgery in the domains of surgical work and research will be discussed in the article. Excellence in surgical work should be measured comprehensively and over long follow-up periods using tools such as functional outcomes and quality of life instruments besides morbidity and mortality. For excellence in neurosurgical research, one can use the help of indices such as the h-index and i10 index. No single measure, whether for surgical excellence or excellence in research, however, incorporates a measure of qualities such as empathy, integrity and mentorship. These intangible qualities should be an integral part of the assessment of a neurosurgeon and his/her work. Cushing's attributes of meticulous record keeping, attention to detail, and maximal utilization of opportunities should guide us in our pursuit of excellence. In recent years, it has been suggested that excellence is not the result of an innate talent but can be aspired to by anyone willing to adopt a work ethic that involves several hours of "deliberate practice," feedback and passion. Neurosurgeons should continue to pursue the legacy of Cushing especially in present times when medical professionals are frequently depicted as being driven more by avarice than by Hippocratic principles.

  7. Cosmology with superluminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scovacricchi, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Bacon, D.; Sullivan, M.; Prajs, S.

    2016-02-01

    We predict cosmological constraints for forthcoming surveys using superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) as standardizable candles. Due to their high peak luminosity, these events can be observed to high redshift (z ˜ 3), opening up new possibilities to probe the Universe in the deceleration epoch. We describe our methodology for creating mock Hubble diagrams for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the `Search Using DECam for Superluminous Supernovae' (SUDSS) and a sample of SLSNe possible from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), exploring a range of standardization values for SLSNe. We include uncertainties due to gravitational lensing and marginalize over possible uncertainties in the magnitude scale of the observations (e.g. uncertain absolute peak magnitude, calibration errors). We find that the addition of only ≃100 SLSNe from SUDSS to 3800 Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from DES can improve the constraints on w and Ωm by at least 20 per cent (assuming a flat wCDM universe). Moreover, the combination of DES SNe Ia and 10 000 LSST-like SLSNe can measure Ωm and w to 2 and 4 per cent, respectively. The real power of SLSNe becomes evident when we consider possible temporal variations in w(a), giving possible uncertainties of only 2, 5 and 14 per cent on Ωm, w0 and wa, respectively, from the combination of DES SNe Ia, LSST-like SLSNe and Planck. These errors are competitive with predicted Euclid constraints, indicating a future role for SLSNe for probing the high-redshift Universe.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics of supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, I'll give a general introduction to Supernova Theory, beginning with the presupernova evolution and ending with the later stages of the explosion. This will be distilled from a colloquium type of talk. It is necessary to have the whole supernova picture in one's mind's eye when diving into some of its nooks and crannies, as it is quite a mess of contradictory ingredients. We will have some discussion of supernova 1987a, but will keep our discussion more general. Second, we'll look at the infall and bounce of the star, seeing why it goes unstable, what dynamics it follows as it collapses, and how and why it bounces back. From there, we will go on to look at the equation of state (EOS) in more detail. We'll consider the cases T = 0 and T > 0. We'll focus on /rho/ < /rho//sub 0/, and then /rho/ > /rho//sub 0/ and the EOS of neutron stars, and whether or not they contain cores of strange matter. There are many things we could discuss here and not enough time. If I had more lectures, the remaining time would focus on two more questions of special interest to nuclear physicists: the electron capture reactions and neutrino transport. If time permitted, we'd have some discussion of the nucleosynthetic reactions in the explosion's debris as well. However, we cannot cover such material adequately, and I have chosen these topics because they are analytically tractable, pedagogically useful, and rather important. 23 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  10. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  11. 75 FR 13082 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews for 27 Evolutionarily...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... to Pacific Salmon (ESU Policy) (56 FR 58612). Under this policy, populations of salmon substantially... evolutionary legacy of the biological species are considered to be an ESU. In our listing determinations for...-NMFS DPS policy (61 FR 4722) rather than our ESU Policy to populations of steelhead. Under this...

  12. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Williams, Christopher L.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.

    2007-10-01

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect clumpiness of the circumstellar material. Along with reviewing these general properties of the radio emission from supernovae, we present our extensive observations of the radio emission from supernova (SN) 1993J in M 81 (NGC 3031) made with the Very Large Array and other radio telescopes. The SN 1993J radio emission evolves regularly in both time and frequency, and the usual interpretation in terms of shock interaction with a circumstellar medium (CSM) formed by a pre-supernova stellar wind describes the observations rather well considering the complexity of the phenomenon. However: 1) The highest frequency measurements at 85-110 GHz at early times (<40 days) are not well fitted by the parameterization which describes the cm wavelength measurements rather well. 2) At mid-cm wavelengths there is often deviation from the fitted radio light curves, particularly near the peak flux density, and considerable shorter term deviations in the declining portion when the emission has become optically thin. 3) At a time ~3100 days after shock breakout, the decline rate of the radio emission steepens from (t+β)β~-0.7 to β~-2.7 without change in the spectral index (ν+αα~-0.81). However, this decline is best described not as a power-law, but as an exponential decay starting at day ~3100 with an e-folding time of ~1100 days. 4) The best overall fit to all of the data is

  13. Radio Emission from Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Weiler, Kurt W.; Panagia, Nino; Sramek, Richard A.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Stockdale, Christopher J.; Kelley, Matthew T.

    2009-05-03

    Study of radio supernovae over the past 27 years includes more than three dozen detected objects and more than 150 upper limits. From this work it is possible to identify classes of radio properties, demonstrate conformance to and deviations from existing models, estimate the density and structure of the circumstellar material and, by inference, the evolution of the presupernova stellar wind, and reveal the last stages of stellar evolution before explosion. It is also possible to detect ionized hydrogen along the line of sight, to demonstrate binary properties of the presupernova stellar system, and to detect dumpiness of the circumstellar material.

  14. Supernova Acceleration Probe: Studying Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-08

    The Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will use Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion history of the Universe. (SNAP's weak-lensing program is described in a separate White Paper.) The experiment exploits supernova distance measurements up to their fundamental systematic limit; strict requirements on the monitoring of each supernova's properties leads to the need for a space-based mission. Results from pre-SNAP experiments, which characterize fundamental SN Ia properties, will be used to optimize the SNAP observing strategy to yield data, which minimize both systematic and statistical uncertainties. With early R&D funding, we have achieved technological readiness and the collaboration is poised to begin construction. Pre-JDEM AO R&D support will further reduce technical and cost risk. Specific details on the SNAP mission can be found in Aldering et al. (2004, 2005). The primary goal of the SNAP supernova program is to provide a dataset which gives tight constraints on parameters which characterize the dark-energy, e.g. w{sub 0} and w{sub a} where w(a) = w{sub 0} + w{sub a}(1-a). SNAP data can also be used to directly test and discriminate among specific dark energy models. We will do so by building the Hubble diagram of high-redshift supernovae, the same methodology used in the original discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe that established the existence of dark energy (Perlmutter et al. 1998; Garnavich et al. 1998; Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999). The SNAP SN Ia program focuses on minimizing the systematic floor of the supernova method through the use of characterized supernovae that can be sorted into subsets based on subtle signatures of heterogeneity. Subsets may be defined based on host-galaxy morphology, spectral-feature strength and velocity, early-time behavior, inter alia. Independent cosmological analysis of each subset of ''like'' supernovae can be

  15. The nearby supernova factory

    SciTech Connect

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-23

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to {approx}12 SNe/month in 2003.

  16. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  17. Du Pont Classifications of 6 Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, N.; Shappee, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of six supernovae from the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) and the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on June 17 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  18. The LCOGT Supernova Key Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Dale Andrew; Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano; Lcogt Supernova Key Project

    2015-01-01

    I present first results from the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) Supernova Key Project. LCOGT is a network of 11 robotic one and two meter telescopes spaced around the globe with imaging and spectroscopic capabilities. The supernova key project is a 3 year program to obtain lightcurves and spectra of at least 450 supernovae. About half are expected to be core-collapse supernovae, and half thermonuclear. We will start light curves and spectroscopy within hours of discovery, and focus on those SNe caught soon after explosion. The goals are fivefold: (1) observe supernovae soon after explosion to search for signs of their progenitors, (2) obtain a large homogeneous sample of supernovae for next generation cosmological studies, (3) obtain a large sample of supernovae for statistical studies comparing groups that are split into different populations, (4) obtain some of the first large samples of the recently discovered classes of rare and exotic explosions, (5) obtain the optical light curves and spectroscopy in support of studies at other wavelengths and using other facilities including UV observations, IR imaging and spectroscopy, host galaxy studies, high resolution spectroscopy, and late-time spectroscopy with large telescopes.

  19. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  20. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... update, if necessary, the Northern DPS' status in five years time (70 FR 17386; April 6, 2005). Therefore...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green...

  1. Treatment of Chronic PTSD by Cognitive Therapy and Exposure: 5-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Sommerfield, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Patients who had taken part in a randomized clinical trial of the treatment of chronic PTSD by either cognitive therapy or imaginal exposure were reassessed after 5 years. At 5-year follow-up a clear superiority of cognitive therapy over imaginal exposure emerged, although there had been no difference between the two treatment groups up to 12…

  2. Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

  3. Child and Mother Cardiac Vagal Tone: Continuity, Stability, and Concordance across the First 5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Measured vagal tone and heart period at 2 months and 5 years in children and their mothers to evaluate the development of vagal regulation at rest and during an environmental task. Found that children reached adult levels of baseline vagal tone by 5 years and did not differ from mothers in baseline-to-task change in vagal tone or heart period.…

  4. Explosive Nucleosynthesis:. Supernovae, Classical Novae, & X-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    The first nucleosynthetic processes occurred about 200 seconds after the Big Bang, when the Universe was cool enough to allow the formation of light elements. Hydrogen, Helium-4, and traces of only a handful of isotopes (c.f., Deuterium, Helium-3, and Lithium-7), constitute the legacy of this primordial nucleosynthesis, that lasted only about 10 minutes. Synthesis of heavier species requires stellar furnaces and more or less violent events that provide a suitable way to contaminate this pristine primordial material, and therefore had to wait for the formation and evolution of the first stars. This took place about 180 Myr after the Big Bang, according to the recent analysis of the cosmic microwave background performed with the WMAP satellite. In this paper, we outline the nuclear processes associated with explosive stellar sites, namely supernovae, classical novae and x-ray bursts, and their interplay with the Galactic abundances.

  5. The Legacy Project: Donald P. Lauda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2016-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the teaching profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. The Legacy Project focuses on the lives and actions of leaders who have forged…

  6. The Legacy Project--Ralph Bohn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2013-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on their profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the third in a series of articles entitled The Legacy Project, which focuses on…

  7. The Legacy Project: M. James Bensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have the responsibility to continue to build upon. This is the sixth in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project" that…

  8. The Legacy Project: Lee H. Smalley, DTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moye, Johnny J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vocational education, technology education, and now technology and engineering education leaders have made their mark on the profession. Their legacy is something that members of the profession enjoy and have a responsibility to continue and build upon. This is the seventh in a series of articles entitled "The Legacy Project," which…

  9. Designing a Leadership Legacy (L2) Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierke, Kerry K.

    2015-01-01

    What does it mean to leave a "leadership legacy" in the organizations and communities in which we are involved? This mixed-methods research project will explore the stories of successful individuals who have left a leadership legacy. Specifically in this article, the preliminary research will share various components of a model to create…

  10. Intense Magnetism in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C.

    2002-05-01

    Observations of the Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars have provided strong evidence for a class of neutron stars with magnetic fields exceeding 1015 G. This talk will overview the excellent prospects for generating such intense fields in a core-collapse supernova, with a focus on the violent convective motions believed to occur both inside and outside the neutrinosphere of the forming neutron star. I will also examine the effects of late fallback, and the role of (electron-type) neutrinos in aiding buoyant motions of the magnetic field. The case will be made that the SGRs and AXPs are distinguished from classical radio pulsars by a very rapid initial rotation of the neutron star.

  11. Supernova olivine from cometary dust.

    PubMed

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay P; Lauretta, Dante S

    2005-07-29

    An interplanetary dust particle contains a submicrometer crystalline silicate aggregate of probable supernova origin. The grain has a pronounced enrichment in 18O/16O (13 times the solar value) and depletions in 17O/16O (one-third solar) and 29Si/28Si (<0.8 times solar), indicative of formation from a type II supernova. The aggregate contains olivine (forsterite 83) grains <100 nanometers in size, with microstructures that are consistent with minimal thermal alteration. This unusually iron-rich olivine grain could have formed by equilibrium condensation from cooling supernova ejecta if several different nucleosynthetic zones mixed in the proper proportions. The supernova grain is also partially encased in nitrogen-15-rich organic matter that likely formed in a presolar cold molecular cloud.

  12. Supernova olivine from cometary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay P.; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2005-01-01

    An interplanetary dust particle contains a submicrometer crystalline silicate aggregate of probable supernova origin. The grain has a pronounced enrichment in 18O/16O (13 times the solar value) and depletions in 17O/16O (one-third solar) and 29Si/28Si (<0.8 times solar), indicative of formation from a type II supernova. The aggregate contains olivine (forsterite 83) grains <100 nanometers in size, with microstructures that are consistent with minimal thermal alteration. This unusually iron-rich olivine grain could have formed by equilibrium condensation from cooling supernova ejecta if several different nucleosynthetic zones mixed in the proper proportions. The supernova grain is also partially encased in nitrogen-15-rich organic matter that likely formed in a presolar cold molecular cloud.

  13. Spectroscopic classification of supernova candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, S. T.; Hall, A.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, H.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Pietro, N.

    2014-09-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of four supernovae at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, using the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph and the R300V grating (3500-8000 Ang; ~6 Ang resolution).

  14. Simulation of Kepler Supernova Explosion

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a simulation of the Kepler supernova as it interacts with material expelled by the giant star companion to the white dwarf before the latter exploded. It was assumed that the bulk ...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of Type Ia supernovae (Bronder+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I. M.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Howell, D. A.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Sullivan, M.; Baumont, S.; Fabbro, S.; Filliol, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.

    2008-02-01

    Full details of the methods used for CFHT Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) SN candidate selection and observation can be found in Sullivan et al. (2006AJ....131..960S) and Howell et al. (2005ApJ...634.1190H), respectively. In summary, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS), using the Megacam wide field imager, acquires real time light-curves of possible SNe by repeatedly imaging four, one square-degree fields approximately every four days (observers' frame) in several filters (a combination of g', r', i', and z') as part of the Deep component of the CFHTLS. Spectroscopic observations are then made at 8m-class telescopes in order to identify the SN-type and redshift of these candidates. (3 data files).

  16. Ozone Depletion from Nearby Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Laird, Claude M.; Jackman, Charles H.; Cannizzo, John K.; Mattson, Barbara J.; Chen, Wan; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Estimates made in the 1970's indicated that a supernova occurring within tens of parsecs of Earth could have significant effects on the ozone layer. Since that time improved tools for detailed modeling of atmospheric chemistry have been developed to calculate ozone depletion, and advances have been made also in theoretical modeling of supernovae and of the resultant gamma ray spectra. In addition, one now has better knowledge of the occurrence rate of supernovae in the galaxy, and of the spatial distribution of progenitors to core-collapse supernovae. We report here the results of two-dimensional atmospheric model calculations that take as input the spectral energy distribution of a supernova, adopting various distances from Earth and various latitude impact angles. In separate simulations we calculate the ozone depletion due to both gamma rays and cosmic rays. We find that for the combined ozone depletion from these effects roughly to double the 'biologically active' UV flux received at the surface of the Earth, the supernova must occur at approximately or less than 8 parsecs.

  17. Rapidly Rising Transients in the Supernova—Superluminous Supernova Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcavi, Iair; Wolf, William M.; Howell, D. Andrew; Bildsten, Lars; Leloudas, Giorgos; Hardin, Delphine; Prajs, Szymon; Perley, Daniel A.; Svirski, Gilad; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz; McCully, Curtis; Cenko, S. Bradley; Lidman, Chris; Sullivan, Mark; Valenti, Stefano; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe; Carlberg, Ray G.; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominique; Guy, Julien; Pain, Reynald; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris J.; Regnault, Nicolas; Rich, James; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina

    2016-03-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (trise ≈ 10 days) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (Mpeak ≈ -20)—one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey. The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as an SN II due to broad Hα emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Hα (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si ii (as seen in SNe Ia), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM), and magnetar spin down cannot readily explain the observations. We consider the possibility that a “Type 1.5 SN” scenario could be the origin of our events. More detailed models for these kinds of transients and more constraining observations of future such events should help to better determine their nature.

  18. First supernova companion star found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 222 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Supernova 1993J exploding (artist’s impression) New observations with the Hubble Space Telescope allow a look into a supernova explosion under development. In this artist’s view the red supergiant supernova progenitor star (left) is exploding after having transferred about 10 solar masses of hydrogen gas to the blue companion star (right). This interaction process happened over about 250 years and affected the supernova explosion to such an extent that SN 1993J was later known as one of the most peculiar supernovae ever seen. Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 4200 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) The site of the Supernova 1993J explosion A virtual journey into one of the spiral arms of the grand spiral Messier 81 (imaged with the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, left) reveals the superb razor-sharp imaging power of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Hubble’s WFPC2 instrument, below). The close-up (with Hubble’s ACS, to the right) is centred on the newly discovered companion star to Supernova 1993J that itself is no longer visible. The quarter-circle around the supernova companion is a so-called light echo originating from sheets of dust in the galaxy reflecting light from the original supernova explosion. Supernova 1993J explosing site hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Close-up of the Supernova 1993J explosion site (ACS/HRC image) This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the area in Messier 81 where Supernova 1993J exploded. The companion to the supernova ‘mother star’ that remains after the explosion is seen in the centre of the image. The image is taken with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and is a combination of four exposures taken with ACS’ High Resolution Camera. The exposures were taken through two near-UV filters (250W

  19. Spectropolarimetric diagnostics of thermonuclear supernova explosions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifan; Baade, Dietrich; Patat, Ferdinando

    2007-01-12

    Even at extragalactic distances, the shape of supernova ejecta can be effectively diagnosed by spectropolarimetry. We present results for 17 type Ia supernovae that allow a statistical study of the correlation among the geometric structures and other observable parameters of type Ia supernovae. These observations suggest that type Ia supernova ejecta typically consist of a smooth, central, iron-rich core and an outer layer with chemical asymmetries. The degree of this peripheral asphericity is correlated with the light-curve decline rate of type Ia supernovae. These results lend strong support to delayed-detonation models of type Ia supernovae.

  20. Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160811.html Number of Americans on Gluten-Free Diet Tripled in 5 Years But number ... 6, 2016 TUESDAY, Sept. 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Gluten-free diets seem to be the latest fad, ...

  1. Spatial distribution of the persistent organic pollutants across the Tibetan Plateau and its linkage with the climate systems: a 5-year air monitoring study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping; Wang, Chuanfei; Xue, Yonggang; Yao, Tandong; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through atmospheric transport. The exact source regions, transport pathways and time trends of POPs to the TP are not well understood. Here polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer resin (XAD)-based passive air samplers (PASs) were deployed at 16 Tibetan background sites from 2007 to 2012 to gain further insight into spatial patterns and temporal trends of OCPs and PCBs. The southeastern TP was characterized by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related chemicals delivered by Indian monsoon air masses. The northern and northwestern TP displayed the greatest absolute concentration and relative abundance of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the atmosphere, caused by the westerly-driven European air masses. The interactions between the DDT polluted Indian monsoon air and the clean westerly winds formed a transition zone in central Tibet, where both DDT and HCB were the dominant chemicals. Based on 5 years of continuous sampling, our data indicated declining concentrations of HCB and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) across the Tibetan region. Inter-annual trends of DDT class chemicals, however, showed less variation during this 5-year sampling period, which may be due to the ongoing usage of DDT in India. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using POP fingerprints to investigate the climate interactions and the validity of using PAS to derive inter-annual atmospheric POP time trends.

  2. Mary Glover Lecture 2004: leaving a legacy.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Marlene

    2005-09-01

    Mary Glover was a Head Nurse at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver. She was killed in a plane crash more than 25 years ago. Yet, through this neuroscience nurse's passion for her specialty, we share in her legacy through the annual Mary Glover Lecture, which was established by her parents after her death. The first Mary Glover Lecturer was Pamela Mitchell, a well-known neuroscience nurse from the School of Nursing at the University of Washington. She is leaving a multifaceted legacy through her research on intracranial pressure and quality of care as well as her books and her mentorship. Jessie Young has left a legacy as the founder and first president of the Canadian Association of Neuroscience Nurses (CANN). CANN is leaving a legacy with many firsts among Canadian nursing specialty organizations. Leaving a legacy is not just about donating money or writing a famous book. For most of us, our legacy comes in the little everyday things of life. Ask yourself, what is the legacy that you are leaving as a neuroscience nurse and as an individual?

  3. The Volumetric Rate of Superluminous Supernovae at z ˜ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajs, S.; Sullivan, M.; Smith, M.; Levan, A.; Karpenka, N. V.; Edwards, T. D. P.; Walker, C. R.; Wolf, W. M.; Balland, C.; Carlberg, R.; Howell, A.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Pritchet, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2016-08-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric rate of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) at z˜1.0, measured using archival data from the first four years of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We develop a method for the photometric classification of SLSNe to construct our sample. Our sample includes two previously spectroscopically-identified objects, and a further new candidate selected using our classification technique. We use the point-source recovery efficiencies from Perrett et al. (2010) and a Monte Carlo approach to calculate the rate based on our SLSN sample. We find that the three identified SLSNe from SNLS give a rate of 91^{+76}_{-36} SNe Yr-1 Gpc-3 at a volume-weighted redshift of z = 1.13. This is equivalent to 2.2^{+1.8}_{-0.9}× 10^{-4} of the volumetric core collapse supernova rate at the same redshift. When combined with other rate measurements from the literature, we show that the rate of SLSNe increases with redshift in a manner consistent with that of the cosmic star formation history. We also estimate the rate of ultra-long gamma ray bursts (ULGRBs) based on the events discovered by the Swift satellite, and show that it is comparable to the rate of SLSNe, providing further evidence of a possible connection between these two classes of events. We also examine the host galaxies of the SLSNe discovered in SNLS, and find them to be consistent with the stellar-mass distribution of other published samples of SLSNe.

  4. How Bright Can Supernovae Get?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Supernovae enormous explosions associated with the end of a stars life come in a variety of types with different origins. A new study has examined how the brightest supernovae in the Universe are produced, and what limits might be set on their brightness.Ultra-Luminous ObservationsRecent observations have revealed many ultra-luminous supernovae, which haveenergies that challenge our abilities to explain them usingcurrent supernova models. An especially extreme example is the 2015 discovery of the supernova ASASSN-15lh, which shone with a peak luminosity of ~2*1045 erg/s, nearly a trillion times brighter than the Sun. ASASSN-15lh radiated a whopping ~2*1052 erg in the first four months after its detection.How could a supernova that bright be produced? To explore the answer to that question, Tuguldur Sukhbold and Stan Woosley at University of California, Santa Cruz, have examined the different sources that could produce supernovae and calculated upper limits on the potential luminosities ofeach of these supernova varieties.Explosive ModelsSukhbold and Woosley explore multiple different models for core-collapse supernova explosions, including:Prompt explosionA stars core collapses and immediately explodes.Pair instabilityElectron/positron pair production at a massive stars center leads to core collapse. For high masses, radioactivity can contribute to delayed energy output.Colliding shellsPreviously expelled shells of material around a star collide after the initial explosion, providing additional energy release.MagnetarThe collapsing star forms a magnetar a rapidly rotating neutron star with an incredibly strong magnetic field at its core, which then dumps energy into the supernova ejecta, further brightening the explosion.They then apply these models to different types of stars.Setting the LimitThe authors show that the light curve of ASASSN-15lh (plotted in orange) can be described by a model (black curve) in which a magnetar with an initial spin period of 0.7 ms

  5. Aging, Climate Change, and Legacy Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Linda; Moody, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is a complex, long-term public health challenge. Older people are especially susceptible to certain climate change impacts, such as heat waves. We suggest that older people may be a resource for addressing climate change because of their concern for legacy—for leaving behind values, attitudes, and an intact world to their children and grandchildren. We review the theoretical basis for “legacy thinking” among older people. We offer suggestions for research on this phenomenon, and for action to strengthen the sense of legacy. At a time when older populations are growing, understanding and promoting legacy thinking may offer an important strategy for addressing climate change. PMID:22698047

  6. The ESSENCE Supernova Survey: Survey Optimization, Observations, and Supernova Photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miknaitis, Gajus; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Smith, R.C.; Stubbs, C.W.; Suntzeff, N.B.; Foley, R.J.; Matheson, T.; Tonry, J.L.; Aguilera, C.; Blackman, J.W.; Becker, A.C.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Filippenko, A.V.; Garg, A.; Garnavich, P.M.; /Fermilab /Chile U., Catolica /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Harvard U. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /NOAO, Tucson /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Stockholm U.

    2007-01-08

    We describe the implementation and optimization of the ESSENCE supernova survey, which we have undertaken to measure the equation of state parameter of the dark energy. We present a method for optimizing the survey exposure times and cadence to maximize our sensitivity to the dark energy equation of state parameter w = P/{rho}c{sup 2} for a given fixed amount of telescope time. For our survey on the CTIO 4m telescope, measuring the luminosity distances and redshifts for supernovae at modest redshifts (z {approx} 0.5 {+-} 0.2) is optimal for determining w. We describe the data analysis pipeline based on using reliable and robust image subtraction to find supernovae automatically and in near real-time. Since making cosmological inferences with supernovae relies crucially on accurate measurement of their brightnesses, we describe our efforts to establish a thorough calibration of the CTIO 4m natural photometric system. In its first four years, ESSENCE has discovered and spectroscopically confirmed 102 type Ia SNe, at redshifts from 0.10 to 0.78, identified through an impartial, effective methodology for spectroscopic classification and redshift determination. We present the resulting light curves for the all type Ia supernovae found by ESSENCE and used in our measurement of w, presented in Wood-Vasey et al. (2007).

  7. The legacy of fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    Currently, over 80% of the energy used by mankind comes from fossil fuels. Harnessing coal, oil and gas, the energy resources contained in the store of our spaceship, Earth, has prompted a dramatic expansion in energy use and a substantial improvement in the quality of life of billions of individuals in some regions of the world. Powering our civilization with fossil fuels has been very convenient, but now we know that it entails severe consequences. We treat fossil fuels as a resource that anyone anywhere can extract and use in any fashion, and Earth's atmosphere, soil and oceans as a dump for their waste products, including more than 30 Gt/y of carbon dioxide. At present, environmental legacy rather than consistence of exploitable reserves, is the most dramatic problem posed by the relentless increase of fossil fuel global demand. Harmful effects on the environment and human health, usually not incorporated into the pricing of fossil fuels, include immediate and short-term impacts related to their discovery, extraction, transportation, distribution, and burning as well as climate change that are spread over time to future generations or over space to the entire planet. In this essay, several aspects of the fossil fuel legacy are discussed, such as alteration of the carbon cycle, carbon dioxide rise and its measurement, greenhouse effect, anthropogenic climate change, air pollution and human health, geoengineering proposals, land and water degradation, economic problems, indirect effects on the society, and the urgent need of regulatory efforts and related actions to promote a gradual transition out of the fossil fuel era. While manufacturing sustainable solar fuels appears to be a longer-time perspective, alternatives energy sources already exist that have the potential to replace fossil fuels as feedstocks for electricity production.

  8. Light-echo spectroscopy of historic Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Oliver

    Young Galactic supernova remnants are unique laboratories for supernova physics. Due to their proximity they provide us with the most detailed view of the outcome of a supernova. However, the exact spectroscopic types of their original explosions have been undetermined so far -hindering to link the wealth of multi-wavelength knowledge about their remnants with the diverse population of supernovae. Light echoes, reflektions of the brilliant supernova burst of light by interstellar dust, provide a unique opportunity to reobserve today -with powerful scientific instruments of the 21st century -historic supernova exlosions even after hundreds of years and to conclude on their nature. We report on optical light-echo spectroscopy of two famous Galactic supernovae: Tycho Brahe's SN 1572 and the supernova that created the Cassiopeia A remnant around the year 1680. These observations finally recovered the missing spectroscopic classifications and provide new constraints on explosion models for future studies.

  9. Core Collapse Supernova Models and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-01-01

    After the Big Bang, production of heavy elements in the early Universe takes place in the first stars and their supernova explosions. The nature of the first supernovae, however, has not been well understood. The signature of nucleosynthesis yields of the first supernovae can be seen in the elemental abundance patterns observed in extremely metal-poor stars. Interestingly, those abundance patterns show some peculiarities relative to the solar abundance pattern, which should provide important clues to understanding the nature of early generations of supernovae. We review the recent results of the nucleosynthesis yields of massive stars. We examine how those yields are affected by some hydrodynamical effects during the supernova explosions, namely, explosion energies from those of hypernovae to faint supernovae, mixing and fallback of processed materials, asphericity, etc. Those parameters in the supernova nucleosynthesis models are constrained from observational data of supernovae and metal-poor stars.

  10. Supernovae. Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center.

    PubMed

    Lau, R M; Herter, T L; Morris, M R; Li, Z; Adams, J D

    2015-04-24

    Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 solar masses of warm (~100 kelvin) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000-year-old Sagittarius A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings indicate the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium (electron density ~10(3) centimeters(-3)) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may be the dominant dust-production mechanism in the dense environment of galaxies of the early universe.

  11. Supernovae. Old supernova dust factory revealed at the Galactic center.

    PubMed

    Lau, R M; Herter, T L; Morris, M R; Li, Z; Adams, J D

    2015-04-24

    Dust formation in supernova ejecta is currently the leading candidate to explain the large quantities of dust observed in the distant, early universe. However, it is unclear whether the ejecta-formed dust can survive the hot interior of the supernova remnant (SNR). We present infrared observations of ~0.02 solar masses of warm (~100 kelvin) dust seen near the center of the ~10,000-year-old Sagittarius A East SNR at the Galactic center. Our findings indicate the detection of dust within an older SNR that is expanding into a relatively dense surrounding medium (electron density ~10(3) centimeters(-3)) and has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may be the dominant dust-production mechanism in the dense environment of galaxies of the early universe. PMID:25791082

  12. The Shape of Superluminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    What causes the tremendous explosions of superluminous supernovae? New observations reveal the geometry of one such explosion, SN 2015bn, providing clues as to its source.A New Class of ExplosionsImage of a type Ia supernova in the galaxy NGC 4526. [NASA/ESA]Supernovae are powerful explosions that can briefly outshine the galaxies that host them. There are several different classifications of supernovae, each with a different physical source such as thermonuclear instability in a white dwarf, caused by accretion of too much mass, or the exhaustion of fuel in the core of a massive star, leading to the cores collapse and expulsion of its outer layers.In recent years, however, weve detected another type of supernovae, referred to as superluminous supernovae. These particularly energetic explosions last longer months instead of weeks and are brighter at their peaks than normal supernovae by factors of tens to hundreds.The physical cause of these unusual explosions is still a topic of debate. Recently, however, a team of scientists led by Cosimo Inserra (Queens University Belfast) has obtained new observations of a superluminous supernova that might help address this question.The flux and the polarization level (black lines) along the dominant axis of SN 2015bn, 24 days before peak flux (left) and 28 days after peak flux (right). Blue lines show the authors best-fitting model. [Inserra et al. 2016]Probing GeometryInserra and collaborators obtained two sets of observations of SN 2015bn one roughly a month before and one a month after the superluminous supernovas peak brightness using a spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope in Chile. These observations mark the first spectropolarimetric data for a superluminous supernova.Spectropolarimetry is the practice of obtaining information about the polarization of radiation from an objects spectrum. Polarization carries information about broken spatial symmetries in the object: only if the object is perfectly symmetric can it

  13. The Supernova Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethe, Hans A.

    1995-08-01

    Vigorous convection is the key to the supernova mechanism. An analytic theory is presented which parallels the computations of Herant et al. Energy is delivered by neutrinos to the convecting medium. The most important quantity is p1r3, where P1 is the density outside the shock. This can be obtained from the computations of Wilson et al., since it is not affected by the convection behind the shock. It is closely related to Mdot, the rate at which matter falls in toward the center. The outgoing shock is dominated by the Hugoniot equation; the shock cannot move out until its energy is of the order of 1 foe (= 1051 ergs). Once it moves, its velocity and energy are calculated as functions of its radius. Nucleosynthesis gives an appreciable contribution to the energy. A substantial fraction of the energy is initially stored as nuclear dissociation energy, and then released as the shock moves out. This energy cannot at present be calculated from first principles, but it can be deduced from the observed energy of SN 1987A of 1.4±0.4 foe. From the result it is shown that about one-half of the infalling material goes into the shock and one-half accretes to the neutron star.

  14. Supernova Remnants And GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Slane, Patrick; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-11-29

    It has long been speculated that supernova remnants represent a major source of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Observations over the past decade have ceremoniously unveiled direct evidence of particle acceleration in SNRs to energies approaching the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum. Nonthermal X-ray emission from shell-type SNRs reveals multi-TeV electrons, and the dynamical properties of several SNRs point to efficient acceleration of ions. Observations of TeV gamma-ray emission have confirmed the presence of energetic particles in several remnants as well, but there remains considerable debate as to whether this emission originates with high energy electrons or ions. Equally uncertain are the exact conditions that lead to efficient particle acceleration. Based on the catalog of EGRET sources, we know that there is a large population of Galactic gamma-ray sources whose distribution is similar to that of SNRs.With the increased resolution and sensitivity of GLAST, the gamma-ray SNRs from this population will be identified. Their detailed emission structure, along with their spectra, will provide the link between their environments and their spectra in other wavebands to constrain emission models and to potentially identify direct evidence of ion acceleration in SNRs. Here I summarize recent observational and theoretical work in the area of cosmic ray acceleration by SNRs, and discuss the contributions GLAST will bring to our understanding of this problem.

  15. A Supernova's Shockwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Supernovae are the explosive deaths of the universe's most massive stars. In death, these volatile creatures blast tons of energetic waves into the cosmos, destroying much of the dust surrounding them.

    This false-color composite from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory shows the remnant of one such explosion. The remnant, called N132D, is the wispy pink shell of gas at the center of this image. The pinkish color reveals a clash between the explosion's high-energy shockwaves and surrounding dust grains.

    In the background, small organic molecules called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are shown as tints of green. The blue spots represent stars in our galaxy along this line of sight.

    N132D is located 163,000 light-years away in a neighboring galaxy called, the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    In this image, infrared light at 4.5 microns is mapped to blue, 8.0 microns to green and 24 microns to red. Broadband X-ray light is mapped purple. The infrared data were taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera and multiband imaging photometer, while the X-ray data were captured by Chandra.

  16. Supernova explosions in the Universe.

    PubMed

    Burrows, A

    2000-02-17

    During the lifetime of our Milky Way galaxy, there have been something like 100 million supernova explosions, which have enriched the Galaxy with the oxygen we breathe, the iron in our cars, the calcium in our bones and the silicon in the rocks beneath our feet. These exploding stars also influence the birth of new stars and are the source of the energetic cosmic rays that irradiate us on the Earth. The prodigious amount of energy (approximately 10(51), or approximately 2.5 x 10(28) megatonnes of TNT equivalent) and momentum associated with each supernova may even have helped to shape galaxies as they formed in the early Universe. Supernovae are now being used to measure the geometry of the Universe, and have recently been implicated in the decades-old mystery of the origin of the gamma-ray bursts. Together with major conceptual advances in our theoretical understanding of supernovae, these developments have made supernovae the centre of attention in astrophysics.

  17. The epidemiology of chickenpox in UK 5-year olds: an analysis to inform vaccine policy.

    PubMed

    Manikkavasagan, Gayatri; Dezateux, Carol; Wade, Angie; Bedford, Helen

    2010-11-10

    Varicella vaccine is not routinely administered to children in many countries including the UK. Longitudinal data are lacking to inform optimal schedules. We report the prevalence of VZV infection at 5 years of age, cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years and socio-demographic associations with risk of infection using longitudinal data on 12,509 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. VZV prevalence by 5 years was 76.9% [95% CI: 75.9%, 78.0%]. The cumulative incidence between 3 and 5 years was 32.2% [95% CI: 31.1%, 33.3%]. Risk of infection by 5 years was associated with higher maternal socio-economic status, larger household size and formal day-care attendance at 9 months and 3 years. If universal varicella immunisation were introduced in the UK, where 40% children have attended some formal day-care by 3 years, a schedule commencing early in the second year of life would be indicated.

  18. Persistence and progression of masked hypertension: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Trudel, Xavier; Milot, Alain; Brisson, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To examine masked hypertension persistence over 5 years. Methods. White-collar workers were recruited from three public organizations. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using Spacelabs 90207. Manually operated BP was defined as the mean of the first three readings taken at rest. Ambulatory BP was defined as the mean of the next readings taken every 15 minutes and recorded during working hours. BP was assessed three times over 5 years. Masked hypertension was defined as manually operated BP less than 140 and less than 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg. Sustained hypertension was defined as manually operated BP at least 140 or at least 90 mmHg and ambulatory BP at least 135 or at least 85 mmHg or being treated for hypertension. Results. BP measurements were obtained from 1669 participants from whom 232 had masked hypertension at baseline. Persistence of masked hypertension was 38% and 18.5%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Progression to sustained hypertension was 26% and 37%, after 3 and 5 years, respectively. Conclusion. Among baseline masked hypertensives, one-third progressed to sustained hypertension and about one out of five remained masked after 5 years, potentially delaying diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24455208

  19. Theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2015-07-15

    The theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, with focus on the most recent advancements on the neutrino flux predicted by supernova numerical models, on neutrino oscillations inside the star and in the Earth, and on the physics of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Future directions of research are briefly summarized.

  20. Interfacing with Legacy using Remote Method Invocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Scott M.

    1998-01-01

    The assignment described was enough to make a neophyte Java developer bolt for the door: provide a remote method for use by an applet which invokes a native method that wraps a function in an existing legacy library. The purpose of the remote method is to return an instance of a class object whose contents reflect the data structure returned by the legacy function. While embroiled in implementation, I would have spent the time wading through their JNI use group archive as well, but I couldn't seem to locate one. Subsequently, I made the decision to try to document my findings in order to assist others. Before we start on the class design, let's look at what the existing legacy code does. The C function to be called, Get-Legacy-Data, consists of two steps: an ASII file is read from the local disk and its contents are parsed into a Legacy_Type structure whose address is passed as an argument by the caller. The legacy code was compiled into a shared object library, legacy. so, using the IRIX 6.2 compiler and then loaded onto the Web server, a Silicon Graphics Indy station loaded with the IRIX 6.4 operating system. As far as the class design is concerned, the first thing required is a class to act as a template for the data structure returned by the legacy function. This class, JLegacy, declares a series of public instance variables which correspond to the members of Legacy_Type and provides a parameterless constructor. This constructor is never called, not even by the native method which allocates the object for return to the remote method. Next, the remote interface declaration for the remote object must be defined. In order for JLegacyRO to implement getJLegacy, JLegacyRO must interface with the existing legacy code through a native method, getn. getn is declared in the JLegacyRO class but implemented in C, just like the legacy code. getn returns a JLegacy instance and is declared static since its implementation is the same for all instances of the JLegacyRO class.

  1. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica. PMID:25499184

  2. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica.

  3. Featured Image: Modeling Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    This image shows a computer simulation of the hydrodynamics within a supernova remnant. The mixing between the outer layers (where color represents the log of density) is caused by turbulence from the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an effect that arises when the expanding core gas of the supernova is accelerated into denser shell gas. The past standard for supernova-evolution simulations was to perform them in one dimension and then, in post-processing, manually smooth out regions that undergo Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence (an intrinsically multidimensional effect). But in a recent study, Paul Duffell (University of California, Berkeley) has explored how a 1D model could be used to reproduce the multidimensional dynamics that occur in turbulence from this instability. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationPaul C. Duffell 2016 ApJ 821 76. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/821/2/76

  4. Standardization of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Rodrigo C. V.; Calvão, Maurício O.; Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Siffert, Beatriz B.

    2015-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been intensively investigated due to their great homogeneity and high luminosity, which make it possible to use them as standardizable candles for the determination of cosmological parameters. In 2011, the physics Nobel prize was awarded ‘for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.’ This is a pedagogical article, aimed at those starting their study of that subject, in which we dwell on some topics related to the analysis of SNe Ia and their use in luminosity distance estimators. Here, we investigate their spectral properties and light curve standardization, paying careful attention to the fundamental quantities directly related to the SNe Ia observables. Finally, we describe our own step-by-step implementation of a classical light curve fitter, the stretch, applying it to real data from the Carnegie Supernova Project.

  5. Supernovae, young remnants, and nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirshner, R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical abundance data from extragalactic supernovae and from supernova remnants (SNR) less than 1000 yrs old are employed to show that nuclear burning beyond helium synthesis actually occurs. Supernova (SN) are classified into types I or II, having no hydrogen lines or featuring hydrogen lines, respectively. The SN I's have been observed as having a preponderance of Fe lines, and emitting from a source at around 12,000 K with a center continuum of approximately 10 AU. Decay chains which could account for detected luminosities and spectra are presented, noting a good fit of Fe II spectrum with observed SN spectra. SNR pass through younger and older stages, going from the outpouring of material to diffusion in the interstellar medium. Expanding flocculi from young SNR show oxygen abundances as well as lines from sulfur, calcium, and argon, with a corresponding necessity of an explosive source of 15 solar masses.

  6. Dynamics of Kepler's supernova remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M.; Sarazin, Craig L.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of Kepler's SNR have revealed a strong interaction with the ambient medium, far in excess of that expected at a distance of about 600 pc away from the Galactic plane where Kepler's SNR is located. This has been interpreted as a result of the interaction of supernova ejecta with the dense circumstellar medium (CSM). Based on the bow-shock model of Bandiera (1985), we study the dynamics of this interaction. The CSM distribution consists of an undisturbed stellar wind of a moving supernova progenitor and a dense shell formed in its interaction with a tenuous interstellar medium. Supernova ejecta drive a blast wave through the stellar wind which splits into the transmitted and reflected shocks upon hitting this bow-shock shell. We identify the transmitted shock with the nonradiative, Balmer-dominated shocks found recently in Kepler's SNR. The transmitted shock most probably penetrated the shell in the vicinity of the stagnation point.

  7. Frontier Field Supernova Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The Frontier Fields program presents an extraordinary opportunity for the detection of high redshift supernovae (SNe). The combination of very deep imaging in each epoch with the added boost from gravitational lensing magnification will provide the means to detect both Type Ia SNe (SNIa) and core collapse SNe (CC SNe) out to z~3. We propose to capitalize on this unique new asset by processing and searching all of the Frontier Field data, and then triggering ToO follow-up observations for SNe of interest.We expect to discover ~20 new SNe over the entire 3-year program, including ~5 SNIa at z>1.5 and ~6 with strong lensing magnification. These samples are small but special: the high-z SNIa set has unique leverage for testing SNIa progenitor models through the delay time distribution; the lensed SNIa offer a chance to validate cluster mass models by directly measuring the lensing magnification. We will also be able to extend CCSN rate measurements for the first time beyond z~1, and our search will open up the small but exciting possibility of catching a truly rare event such as a multiply imaged SN or a superluminous SN at z>4.This follow-up program provides the color and light curve information necessary to unlock the science potential of these SNe. It is also designed for high efficiency: broad-band photometry and ground-based spectroscopy will be used to classify and characterize most of the SNe. For a small "New Frontier" sub-set comprising the SNIa candidates at never-before-seen redshifts, we will employ a novel medium band IR imaging strategy. All told, this program will classify and characterize all SNe of interest with just 60 orbits across 3 cycles.

  8. Frontier Field Supernova Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, Steven

    2013-10-01

    The Frontier Fields program presents an extraordinary opportunity for the detection of high redshift supernovae (SNe). The combination of very deep imaging in each epoch with the added boost from gravitational lensing magnification will provide the means to detect both Type Ia SNe (SNIa) and core collapse SNe (CC SNe) out to z~3. We propose to capitalize on this unique new asset by processing and searching all of the Frontier Field data, and then triggering ToO follow-up observations for SNe of interest.We expect to discover ~20 new SNe over the entire 3-year program, including ~5 SNIa at z>1.5 and ~6 with strong lensing magnification. These samples are small but special: the high-z SNIa set has unique leverage for testing SNIa progenitor models through the delay time distribution; the lensed SNIa offer a chance to validate cluster mass models by directly measuring the lensing magnification. We will also be able to extend CCSN rate measurements for the first time beyond z~1, and our search will open up the small but exciting possibility of catching a truly rare event such as a multiply imaged SN or a superluminous SN at z>4.This follow-up program provides the color and light curve information necessary to unlock the science potential of these SNe. It is also designed for high efficiency: broad-band photometry and ground-based spectroscopy will be used to classify and characterize most of the SNe. For a small "New Frontier" sub-set comprising the SNIa candidates at never-before-seen redshifts, we will employ a novel medium band IR imaging strategy. All told, this program will classify and characterize all SNe of interest with just 60 orbits across 3 cycles.

  9. Nature of type 1 Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shklovskiy, I. S.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of type 1 supernovae (SN 1) is discussed through a comparison of observational evidence and theoretical perspectives relating to both type 1 and 2 supernovae. In particular two hypotheses relating to SN 1 phenomenon are examined: the first proposing that SN 1 are components of binary systems in which, at a comparatively late stage of evolution, overflow of the mass occurs; the second considers pre-SN 1 to be recently evolved stars with a mass greater than 1.4 solar mass (white dwarfs). In addition, an explanation of the reduced frequency of flares of SN 1 in spiral galaxies as related to that in elliptical galaxies is presented.

  10. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-10-20

    An explanation is given of the low value of R lambda triple bond A lambda/E(B - V), the ratio of absolute to selective extinction deduced from Type Ia supernova observations. The idea involves scattering by dust clouds located in the circumstellar environment, or at the highest velocity shells of the supernova ejecta. The scattered light tends to reduce the effective R lambda in the optical, but has an opposite effect in the ultraviolet. The presence of circumstellar dust can be tested by ultraviolet to near infrared observations and by multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of SNe Ia.

  11. Educational Resources on Supernovae for Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struck, James T.

    The National Science Education Standards (1996, National Academy Press) suggest mention of objects like the ``sun, moon, stars" in grades K-4 and element formation in grades 9-12. Children's librarians and some astronomy librarians should know about some of the resources for children on supernovae not only because supernovae are critical to higher element formation, but also to educate others about the universe's expansion and stars. In addition, basic bibliometrics on these resources yields lessons on the importance of using many indexes, the pattern of literature for children on supernovae, the types of resources on supernovae, and the scattering of resources/information for children on supernovae.

  12. A New Empirical Model for Type Ia Supernovae Using Spectrophotometry from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Clare; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2016-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae are currently limited in their use for cosmology by dispersion in standardized magnitudes. A large part of this dispersion is due to the fact that the current lightcurve fitters do not describe the full range of Type Ia supernova diversity. I will present an empirical model of Type Ia supernovae that captures a wider range of supernova behavior and can improve magnitude standardization. This model is constructed using over 2000 spectrophotometric observations of Type Ia supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory. The true spectral time series for each supernova is modeled using Gaussian Processes. The supernova model predictions are used to calculate the principal components of the full set of supernova spectral time series. K-fold cross-validation is used to determine how many components correlate to absolute magnitude. Future work will test this method on independent photometric data sets.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Redshifts of 65 CANDELS supernovae (Rodney+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, S. A.; Riess, A. G.; Strolger, L.-G.; Dahlen, T.; Graur, O.; Casertano, S.; Dickinson, M. E.; Ferguson, H. C.; Garnavich, P.; Hayden, B.; Jha, S. W.; Jones, D. O.; Kirshner, R. P.; Koekemoer, A. M.; McCully, C.; Mobasher, B.; Patel, B.; Weiner, B. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Clubb, K. I.; Cooper, M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Frederiksen, T. F.; Hjorth, J.; Leibundgut, B.; Matheson, T.; Nayyeri, H.; Penner, K.; Trump, J.; Silverman, J. M.; U, V.; Azalee Bostroem, K.; Challis, P.; Rajan, A.; Wolff, S.; Faber, S. M.; Grogin, N. A.; Kocevski, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a measurement of the Type Ia supernova explosion rate as a function of redshift (SNR(z)) from a sample of 65 supernovae discovered in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) supernova program. This supernova survey is a joint operation of two Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Multi-Cycle Treasury (MCT) programs: CANDELS (PIs: Faber and Ferguson; Grogin et al., 2011ApJS..197...35G; Koekemoer et al., 2011ApJS..197...36K), and the Cluster Lensing and Supernovae search with Hubble (CLASH; PI: Postman; Postman et al. 2012, cat. J/ApJS/199/25). The supernova discovery and follow-up for both programs were allocated to the HST MCT supernova program (PI: Riess). The results presented here are based on the full five fields and ~0.25deg2 of the CANDELS program, observed from 2010 to 2013. A companion paper presents the SN Ia rates from the CLASH sample (Graur et al., 2014ApJ...783...28G). A composite analysis that combines the CANDELS+CLASH supernova sample and revisits past HST surveys will be presented in a future paper. The three-year CANDELS program was designed to probe galaxy evolution out to z~8 with deep infrared and optical imaging of five well-studied extragalactic fields: GOODS-S, GOODS-N (the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South and North; Giavalisco et al. 2004, cat. II/261), COSMOS (the Cosmic Evolution Survey, Scoville et al., 2007ApJS..172....1S; Koekemoer et al., 2007ApJS..172..196K), UDS (the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey; Lawrence et al. 2007, cat. II/314; Cirasuolo et al., 2007MNRAS.380..585C), EGS (the Extended Groth Strip; Davis et al. 2007, cat. III/248). As described fully in Grogin et al. (2011ApJS..197...35G), the CANDELS program includes both "wide" and "deep" fields. The wide component of CANDELS comprises the COSMOS, UDS, and EGS fields, plus one-third of the GOODS-S field and one half of the GOODS-N field--a total survey area of 730 arcmin2. The "deep" component of CANDELS came from the

  14. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  15. The 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology 1981. Source Materials Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This is the second of two volumes of source documents commissioned by the National Science Foundation in preparing the second 5-Year Outlook on Science and Technology for transmission to the Congress. This volume consists of the views of individuals selected by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy of the American Association for…

  16. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  17. Behavior Problems at 5 Years of Age and Maternal Mental Health in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Emerson, Eric; Berridge, Damon M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined child behavior problems and maternal mental health in a British population-representative sample of 5 year-old children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), controlling for the presence of an intellectual disability (ID). Behavior problems were significantly higher in children with ASD with/out ID compared to typically developing…

  18. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  19. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  20. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  1. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  2. Delayed refractory hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Merola, J; Liang, E; Hoskins, J; Balakrishnan, V; Gan, P

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who developed a delayed onset intractable hyperventilation following endoscopic third ventriculostomy. The proposed aetiology of this exceptionally rare phenomenon is discussed. To our knowledge, previous cases have only been reported in the adult population.

  3. A Multiple-Data Analysis of the 3.5-Year Development of EFL Student Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Miyuki

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes in Japanese students English writing behaviors over a 3.5-year period using multiple data sources including written texts, videotaped writing behaviors, and stimulated-recall protocols. Data from student interviews supplemented the analyses. Because 6 (henceforth, English as a second language [ESL]…

  4. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  5. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  6. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN...

  7. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  8. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  9. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... limited to, population trends, distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetics; (2) habitat conditions...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Comment'' icon on the right of that line. Mail or hand-delivery: Angela Somma, National Marine...

  10. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants…

  11. Predictors of ADHD Persistence in Girls at 5-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Byrne, Deirdre; Fried, Ronna; Monuteaux, Michael; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent remission from ADHD in girls transitioning through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood. Method: We conducted a 5-year prospective follow-up study of 123 girls with ADHD and 106 non-ADHD control girls aged between 6 and 17 years at ascertainment. ADHD was considered…

  12. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  13. Secondary Science Teachers' Use of Technology in the Classroom during Their First 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Luft, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technology use of beginning secondary science teachers and explored factors facilitating or inhibiting their use of technology. The researchers collected and analyzed interviews and observational data from 95 teachers over a 5-year period. The results show that teachers used PowerPoint the most and other software the least…

  14. Introducing Engineering in Elementary Education: A 5-Year Study of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2015-01-01

    Engineering, when integrated into K-12 education, may offer a number of potential student learning and future success benefits. In a 5-year study, four cohorts of elementary teachers of grades 2 to 4 in a single US school district were provided with teacher professional development with engineering education. Teachers were prepared to teach…

  15. 76 FR 50447 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 5 Evolutionarily Significant Units of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ..., Oregon, Washington, and Idaho (75 FR 13082). Both ESUs and DPSs are treated as ``species'' under the ESA... FR 37204). The 5-year review reports prepared by the Southwest Region, the Southwest Science Center's... since they were previously reviewed in 2005 (70 FR 37160) and 2006 (71 FR 834), respectively....

  16. 76 FR 50448 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 5-Year Reviews for 17 Evolutionarily Significant Units and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Regional Offices announced initiation of 5-year reviews of Pacific salmon ESUs and steelhead DPSs (75 FR...-promulgating the threatened listing for Oregon Coast coho salmon (76 FR 35755). This notice also addresses the... Salmon and Steelhead in Listing Determinations under the ESA (70 FR 37204) to complete this...

  17. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  18. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...

  19. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  20. Story Contexts Increase Susceptibility to the DRM Illusion in 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Pursglove, Rhian C.; Lewis, Charlie

    2007-01-01

    False recognition in children aged 5, 8, and 11 years was investigated using the standard version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and an alternative version in which the DRM stimuli were embedded in stories designed to emphasize their overall theme. Relative to the 8- and 11-year-olds, the 5-year-olds falsely recognized fewer…

  1. Early Book Stages, 0-5 Years [and] Creciendo con Libros (Growing [up] with Books). [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holguin, Roxanna

    Using a lighthearted and simple approach, this 23-minute videotape in English and Spanish versions presents interactions between parents and children while reading books. The children in the videotape range in age from 0 to 5 years. The video is introduced by scenes of children enjoying books while narration discussing the impact of reading to…

  2. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  3. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  4. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  5. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  6. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  7. Are supernovae recorded in indigenous astronomical traditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Novae and supernovae are rare astronomical events that would have had an influence on the skywatching peoples who witnessed them. Although several bright novae/supernovae have been visible during recorded human history, there are many proposed but no confirmed accounts of supernovae in indigenous oral traditions or material culture. Criteria are established for confirming novae/supernovae in oral traditions and material culture, and claims from around the world are discussed to determine if they meet these criteria. Aboriginal Australian traditions are explored for possible descriptions of novae/supernovae. Although representations of supernovae may exist in Aboriginal traditions, there are currently no confirmed accounts of supernovae in Indigenous Australian oral or material traditions.

  8. The HETG Orion Legacy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Testa, P.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Canizares, C. R.

    2008-03-01

    The HETG Orion Legacy Project aims to study high energy plasma properties of a large number of highly resolved X-ray spectra from young stars over a large range of masses and evolutionary stages. The spectra are collected throughout the lifetime of Chandra and thus not only provide highly significant X-ray line strengths for detailed plasma diagnostics but also long-term X-ray monitoring. The heart of the Orion Nebula Cluster with a dynamic age of 300000 yr is one of the youngest and closest star forming regions to our Sun and contains an ensemble of the youngest stars the Galaxy. The survey produces emission measure distributions and allows us to perform plasma diagnostics using H-, He-, Li-like lines in over a dozen stars. We investigate the hypothesis further that X-ray production in very young massive stars is consistent with the standard model but very weak and low in energy unless there is enhancement by additional processes. The survey produces HETG spectra for about a dozen of mostly K-type T Tauri stars various quality levels. By spreading the observing time over many Chandra observation cycles the recording of HETG spectra of a few serendipitous flares is anticipated. This work was supported by NASA through the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) contract SV3-73016 for the Chandra X-Ray Center and Science Instruments.

  9. The Legacy of Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Judith; Bridges, John; Sims, Mark; Clemmet, Jim; Wright, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Beagle 2 lander spun off from the ESA Mars Express spacecraft on 19 December 2003 and headed off towards Isidis Planitia on Mars. The scheduled landing of the 60 kg lander was 6 days later on Christmas morning, 25 December. It is universally known that no signal was received from the lander and its fate remained unknown. What is not questioned is the impact that the mission, and not least its charismatic leaders headed by the late Professor Colin Pillinger, had on the general public of the UK, Europe and worldwide. More than a decade after Beagle 2 was last seen, we review the legacy of the mission on the public perception of the value of space exploration, economically, commercially and cultural, and look forward to an expanding programme. The spin off from Beagle 2 science and technology into terrestrial applications will be addressed as will the ongoing career destinations of many of the original team; both supporting the significance that the mission had on determining the future pathway of space science and exploration in Europe and beyond. The ongoing search for evidence that Beagle 2 did in fact land as planned on Mars will be addressed and images from Mars orbiting spacecraft assessed.

  10. The legacy of early attachments.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R A

    2000-01-01

    The impact of early close relationships on psychological development is one of the enduring questions of developmental psychology that is addressed by attachment theory and research. This essay evaluates what has been learned, and offers ideas for future research, by examining the origins of continuity and change in the security of attachment early in life, and its prediction of later behavior. The discussion evaluates research on the impact of changing family circumstances and quality of care on changes in attachment security, and offers new hypotheses for future study. Considering the representations (or internal working models) associated with attachment security as developing representations, the discussion proposes that (1) attachment security may be developmentally most influential when the working models with which it is associated have sufficiently matured to influence other emerging features of psychosocial functioning; (2) changes in attachment security are more likely during periods of representational advance; and (3) parent-child discourse and other relational influences shape these developing representations after infancy. Finally, other features of early parent-child relationships that develop concurrently with attachment security, including negotiating conflict and establishing cooperation, also must be considered in understanding the legacy of early attachments.

  11. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  12. Extended Long-Term (5 Years) Outcomes of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Methods: Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Results: Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. Conclusions: The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients. PMID:23730369

  13. Dopaminergic therapy and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a review of 5-year reports.

    PubMed

    Romito, Luigi M; Albanese, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    The long-term efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) implant for Parkinson's disease (PD) is described in several recent papers. This procedure has been reported to permit a stable reduction of dopaminergic therapy requirements for up to 5 years, although some expectation of deterioration in non-dopaminergic signs has been recently stated. Our aim is to perform a literature-based review of papers available describing long-term post-operative follow-up after a bilateral implant for subthalamic DBS (STN-DBS). Only peer-reviewed published papers with a post-operative follow-up of at least 5 years were considered. Clinical outcome, disease progression and side effects were assessed at baseline and 2 (or 3 years) and 5 years after surgery. Seven papers were included in the review. A total of 238 patients were analyzed. STN-DBS was confirmed to be an effective treatment for selected patients with PD. In all studies, off-related motor symptoms improved dramatically, compared with pre-implant, at 2 (or 3, according to the study) years and this result persisted at 5-year evaluations. Antiparkinsonian drug reductions, improvements in motor fluctuations and dyskinesias, functional measures and the progression of underlying PD were also reported in all series. Some axial scores, in particular postural stability and speech, improved transiently. Persisting adverse effects included eyelid opening apraxia, weight gain, psychiatric disorders, depression, dysarthria, dyskinesias, and apathy. The present review of the 5-year observations confirms that STN-DBS is a powerful method in the management of PD, but its long-term effects must be thoroughly assessed.

  14. The Supernova - A Stellar Spectacle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straka, W. C.

    This booklet is part of an American Astronomical Society curriculum project designed to provide teaching materials to teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth science. The following topics concerning supernovae are included: the outburst as observed and according to theory, the stellar remnant, the nebular remnant, and a summary…

  15. Radio studies of extragalactic supernovae.

    PubMed

    Weiler, K W; Sramek, R A; Panagia, N

    1986-03-14

    Some exploding stars (supernovae) are powerful emitters of centimeter radio radiation. Detailed observations have shown that these supernovae quickly become detectable in the radio range, first at shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies) and later at progressively longer and longer wavelengths (lower frequencies). This part of the phenomenon appears to be well explained by a monotonic decrease in the amount of ionized material surrounding the radio-emitting regions as the shock from the explosion travels outward. The radio emission itself is of a nonthermal, synchrotron origin, as is the case in most bright cosmic radio sources. Once the absorption effects become negligible, the radio intensity declines with time until reaching the detection limit of the telescope. Models suggest that the absorbing material originates in a dense wind of matter lost by the supernova progenitor star, or by its companion if it is in a binary system, in the last stages of evolution before the explosion. The synchrotron radio emission can be generated either externally by the shock wave from the explosion propagating through this same high density stellar wind or internally by a rapidly rotating neutron star, which is the collapsed core of the exploded star. Present results appear to favor the former model for at least the first several years after the supernova explosion, although the latter model remains viable.

  16. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  17. The supernova: A stellar spectacle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straka, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The life of a star, the supernova, related objects and their importance in astronomy and science in general are discussed. Written primarily for science teachers of secondary school chemistry, physics, and earth sciences, the booklet contains a glossary, reference sources, suggested topics for discussion, and projects for individual or group assignment.

  18. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  19. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the

  20. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  1. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  2. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  3. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  4. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  5. 24 CFR 903.19 - When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? 903.19 Section 903.19 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS... is the 5-Year Plan or Annual Plan ready for submission to HUD? A PHA may adopt its 5-Year Plan or...

  6. 78 FR 33113 - Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan Program Years 2012-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Publication of the 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan... Administration's (USDOL/ ETA) 5-Year Research and Evaluation Strategic Plan for 2012-2017. Under Section 171 of... a strategic plan for pilots, demonstrations, and research over the next 5 years in areas related...

  7. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised.

  8. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions.

  9. Synovial Sarcoma in the Foot of a 5-Year-Old ChildA Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lepow, Gary M; Grimmer, Daniel L; Lemar, Onya V; Bridges, Evan A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to present a rare finding of synovial sarcoma in a 5-year-old child. Most soft-tissue masses of the foot are too often presumed to be small and benign; therefore, compared with soft-tissue sarcomas, they are difficult to clinically differentiate and treat. A 5-year-old girl presented with a painful lesion that was diagnosed as synovial sarcoma after an excisional biopsy was performed. This was an unexpected finding of synovial sarcoma involving the tibialis posterior tendon of her right foot. The patient presented with an 8-month history of tenderness and an antalgic gait. We would like to encourage that all soft-tissue tumors of the foot be preoperatively evaluated with the aid of diagnostic imaging so that a well-planned biopsy assessment can be performed, with adequate margins excised. PMID:27489968

  10. Surveillance of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after stopping mass drug administration in Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, M A; Thabet, H S; Saad, G A; El-Setouhy, M; Mehrez, M; Hamdy, D M

    2014-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that before lymphatic filariasis elimination in an area can be confirmed, an additional survey should be performed at least 5 years after stopping mass drug administration. The current study aimed to determine the status of lymphatic filariasis 5 years after cessation ofthe mass drug administration in 3 sentinel Egyptian villages in Menoufiya Governorate. The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) and a new commercial antibody detection kit (CELISA®) were used. All 1321 primary-school children aged 6-7 years old were ICT negative but 27 children were antibody positive. All households surveyed in one village with the highest antibody prevalence were ICT negative, indicating an absence of lymphatic filariasis. The CELISA antibody kit needs more standardization and development to be useful under field conditions. We conclude that lymphatic filariasis is no longer a public health problem in these villages and other villages with similar epidemiological conditions. PMID:24952286

  11. Equatorial Annual Oscillation with QBO-driven 5-year Modulation in NCEP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the zonal wind and temperature variations supplied by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which have been assimilated in the Reanalysis and the Climate Prediction Center (CCP) data sets. The derived zonal-mean variations are employed. Stimulated by modeling studies, the data are separated into the hemispherically symmetric and anti-symmetric components, and spectral analysis is applied to study the annual 12-month oscillation and Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). For data samples that cover as much as 40 years, the results reveal a pronounced 5-year modulation of the symmetric AO in the lower stratosphere, which is confined to equatorial latitudes. This modulation is also inferred for the temperature variations but extends to high latitudes, qualitatively consistent with published model results. A comparison between different data samples indicates that the signature of the 5-year oscillation is larger when the QBO of 30 months is more pronounced. Thus there is circumstantial evidence that this periodicity of the QBO is involved in generating the oscillation. The spectral analysis shows that there is a weak anti-symmetric 5-year oscillation in the zonal winds, which could interact with the large antisymmetric A0 to produce the modulation of the symmetric AO as was shown in earlier modeling studies. According to these studies, the 30-month QBO tends to be synchronized by the equatorial Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO), and this would explain why the inferred 5-year modulation is observed to persist and is phase locked over several cycles.

  12. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor in a 5-year-old boy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Sabnis, Rajesh; Bhuta, Bansari A; Yadav, Archana

    2015-03-01

    The calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT), formerly known as calcifying odontogenic cyst, is a rare developmental neoplasm/cyst of odontogenic epithelial origin with considerable histopathologic diversity and variable clinical behaviour. The occurrence of CCOT in the first decade of life is very uncommon. We report an interestingly rare variant of CCOT with ameloblastomatous proliferation affecting the mandibular left posterior region associated with an impacted permanent tooth in a 5-year-old boy.

  13. King 2 2519 ATM residual gyros: Reestablishing 5 year life requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayal, B.; Carbocci, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The technical expertise required to assess the condition of the residual ATM 2519 Singer gyros is discussed. Past build history records, past performance characteristics, and recommendations for particular tests (which were performed by NASA personnel) are summarized. Test results are analyzed. A study of motor performance data and recommendations concerning gyro spin bearing life was performed. A method of reestablishing potential reliability of the bearing for the 5-year life requirement of the power module is also included.

  14. Increased risk of cancer after Bell's palsy: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Keller, Joseph J; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-11-01

    Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) has been recognized as the most common pathomechanism underlying Bell's palsy. There is also increased reactivation of HSV or VZV in patients with immunosuppressed states and in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk for cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis of Bell's palsy by using a population-based dataset in Taiwan. We used data from the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database". We identified 2,618 patients with Bell's palsy as the study cohort and randomly selected 13,090 patients to be used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to compare the 5-year risk of subsequent cancer between the study and comparison cohorts. We found that the incidence of cancer was 1.55 (95 % CI 1.35-1.78) per 100 person-years for patients with Bell's palsy and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.02-1.18) per 100 person-years for comparison patients. After censoring cases that died from non-cancer causes during the follow-up period and adjusting for urbanization, monthly income, geographic region, and diabetes, the hazard ratio (HR) for cancer during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with Bell's palsy was 1.43 times that for comparison patients (95 % CI 1.22-1.73). There was a particularly increased risk of oral cancer (HR = 2.49; 95 % CI 1.54-4.03) for patients with Bell's palsy compared with the other patients. We conclude that patients with Bell's palsy were at significant risk of cancer during a 5-year follow-up period after diagnosis.

  15. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  16. A 5-year Journey with Cutis Laxa in an Indian Child: The De Barsy Syndrome Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Ghosh, Arghyaprasun; Roy, Sutirtha

    2016-01-01

    De Barsy syndrome (DBS), synonymously known as autosomal recessive cutis laxa type III, is an extremely rare condition clinically characterized by cutis laxa, a progeroid appearance, and ophthalmologic abnormalities. We present here an account of 5-year follow-up since the birth of an Indian boy with DBS, who had a few rare and unusual manifestations. In addition, our case probably represents the first reported case of DBS from India. PMID:26955101

  17. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Rebecca J.; Demmer, Ryan T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. METHODS: We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother’s BMI, and television viewing. RESULTS: Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10–1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children. PMID:23918897

  19. Comparison of New and Legacy TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Mark D.; Willey, Trevor; Mitchell, Alexander; Depiero, Sabrina

    2009-09-02

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small-scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives and the densities of pressed pellets were lower. Recrystallization of both new TATBs from sulfolane produced nearly hexagonal platelets with improved density and thermal stability.

  20. Comparison of New and Legacy TATBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Willey, T M; Mitchell, A R; DePiero, S C

    2007-11-08

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. Recrystallization from sulfolane improved the density and thermal stability of both new TATBs, though the morphology of the recrystallized TATB was nearly hexagonal platelets.

  1. Immunologic memory 5 years after meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination in infancy.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, J; Obaro, S; Deeks, J; Lake, D; Elie, C; Carlone, G; Moxon, E R; Greenwood, B

    2001-01-01

    Infant vaccination with meningococcal conjugates may provide long-term protection against disease. Antibody levels and immunologic memory were assessed in 5-year-old Gambian children who received meningococcal A/C conjugate vaccination (MenA/C) in infancy. At 2 years, they were randomized to receive a booster of MenA/C (conjugate group), meningococcal A/C polysaccharide (MPS group), or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV group). All groups were revaccinated with 10 microg MPS at 5 years of age, as were 39 previously unvaccinated age-matched control subjects. Before revaccination, titers were higher in the conjugate and MPS groups than in control subjects (P<.001); titers for the IPV group were similar to those for control subjects. Ten days after revaccination, the conjugate and IPV groups had similar serogroup C serum bactericidal antibody titers (3421 vs. 2790, respectively). These levels were significantly higher than those in the MPS (426) and control (485) groups (P<.001). Thus, immunologic memory was sustained for > or =5 years; however, MPS challenge at 2 years interfered with a subsequent memory response.

  2. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively.

  3. Soil microbial properties after 5 years of consecutive amendment with composted tannery sludge.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira; Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima; Oliveira, Mara Lucia Jacinto; Santos, Vilma Maria; Nunes, Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal; Melo, Wanderley José

    2015-01-01

    Composting has been recognised an alternative method to tannery sludge recycling and afterwards to be used in agriculture. As the tannery sludge contains salts and chromium, the application of composted tannery sludge (CTS) should be performed carefully to minimise negative effects on soil microbial properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of 5-year repeated CTS amendment on soil microbial biomass (SMB) and enzyme activities in a tropical soil. CTS was applied during 5 years at 0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 Mg ha(-1), and at the fifth year, the microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), basal and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), metabolic quotient (qCO₂) and dehydrogenase (DHA) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis were determined in the soil samples. Soil MBC and MBN showed the highest values with the amendment of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. Soil respiration increased with the increase in CTS rates, while SIR showed the highest values with the amendment of 0, 2.5 and 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. DHA activity showed the highest values with the amendment up to 2.5 Mg ha(-1), while FDA hydrolysis increased up to the rate of 5 Mg ha(-1) CTS. The results show that after 5 years of permanent amendment of CTS, soils amended with 2.5 Mg ha(-1) have SMB and enzymatic activities similar to those in unamended soil.

  4. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  5. The Treatment of Parasomnias with Hypnosis: a 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Peter J.; Silber, Michael H.; Boeve, Bradley F.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study involves a replication and extension of a previous one reported by Hurwitz et al (1991) on the treatment of certain parasomnias with hypnosis. Methods: Thirty-six patients (17 females), mean age 32.7 years (range 6–71). Four were children aged 6 to 16. All had chronic, “functionally autonomous” (self-sustaining) parasomnias. All underwent 1 or 2 hypnotherapy sessions and were then followed by questionnaire for 5 years. Results: Of the 36 patients, 45.4% were symptom-free or at least much improved at the 1-month follow-up, 42.2% at the 18-month follow-up, and 40.5% at the 5-year follow-up. Conclusions: One or 2 sessions of hypnotherapy might be an efficient first-line therapy for patients with certain types of parasomnias. Citation: Hauri PJ; Silber MH; Boeve BF. The treatment of parasomnias with hypnosis: a 5-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):369-373. PMID:17694725

  6. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia Among Children Under 5 Years of Age--Uganda, 2009.

    PubMed

    Menon, Manoj P; Yoon, Steven S

    2015-09-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age, defined by the World Health Organization as a hemoglobin concentration < 11 g/dL, is a global public health problem. According to the 2006 Demographic Health Survey, the prevalence of anemia among children under five in Uganda was 72% in 2006. The 2009 Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey was conducted in late 2009 and revealed that over 60% of children less than 5 years of age were anemic and that over half of children tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test. Children with concomitant malaria infection, and in households without any type of mosquito net were more likely to be anemic, confirming that children under 5 years, are vulnerable to both the threat of malaria and anemia and the beneficial effect of malaria prevention tools. However, prevention and treatment of other factors associated with the etiology of anemia (e.g., iron deficiency) are likely necessary to combat the toll of anemia in Uganda.

  7. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  8. Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Traumatic Endophthalmitis over a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Nicoară, Simona Delia; Călinici, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the outcome and identify the prognostic factors of traumatic endophthalmitis over a 5-year period. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of all the traumatic endophthalmities that we treated in our department over the last 5 years (2009–2013). We extracted the following parameters: age, gender, wound anatomy, associated ocular lesions, treatment, and initial and final visual acuities. We used the program SPSS version 20.0.0. for the statistical analysis of our data. Results. During the last 5 years, we treated 14 traumatic endophthalmities, representing 46.66% of all types of endophthalmities. The infection rate in open globe injuries was 8.13% and 34.78%, if an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) was associated. All the patients were males with the median age of 37 years. Initial visual acuities varied between light perception and 0.4 and the timing of treatment from a few hours to 10 days. We administered antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs, systemically and intravitreally, in all cases. We performed pars plana vitrectomy in 64.28% of cases. In 57.14% of cases, the final visual acuity was 0.1 or more. Conclusions. IOFBs increased significantly the risk for endophthalmitis. The worse prognostic factors were retinal detachment at presentation and delayed treatment. This trial is registered with IRCT2014082918966N1. PMID:25302113

  9. Study on Rotavirus Infection and Its Genotyping in Children Below 5 Years in South West Iran

    PubMed Central

    Azaran, Azarakhsh; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Neisi, Niloofar; Hoseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rasti, Mojtaba; Teymurirad, Majid; Teimoori, Ali; Varnaseri, Mehran; Makvandi, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Human rotaviruses are the most important agents for severe dehydrating diarrhea in children below 5 years old. Rotaviruses (RV) is a serious public health problem in developing and developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and their genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age with acute diarrhea in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods For this study, 200 stool samples from children below 5 years of age with acute diarrhea were collected between October 2011 and March 2012. Initially all stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA, and positive samples were confirmed by RT-PCR targeting the VP6 rotavirus gene. Determination of rotavirus genotypes was carried out by performing RT-PCR for G and P types. Altogether, 15 samples were sequenced. Results Out of 200 stool samples, 100 (50%) had rotavirus antigen detected by ELISA and 73 (36.5%) were found positive by RT-PCR. Of the rotavirus strains identified, only 63 (86.3%) were positive for both VP7 and VP4 while 10 (13.7%) strains were found nontypeable. Rotavirus infection accounts for 36.5% of gastroenteritis cases in samples from symptomatic children. The most prevalent rotavirus genotypes were G1P [8] (80%) followed by G2P [4] (20%). Conclusions Our results suggest that group A rotavirus is a major pathogene of acute diarrhea in Ahvaz city. The genotypes circulating are similar with those of other countries. PMID:27307959

  10. Sports activities 5 years after total knee or hip arthroplasty: the Ulm Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Huch, K; Muller, K; Sturmer, T; Brenner, H; Puhl, W; Gunther, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse sports activities of patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) over lifetime, preoperatively, and 5 years after arthroplasty. Methods: In a longitudinal four centre study, 809 consecutive patients with advanced OA of the hip (420) or the knee (389) joint under the age of 76 years who required total joint replacement were recruited. A completed questionnaire about sports activities at 5 year follow up was received from 636 (79%) of the 809 patients. Results: Although most patients with hip (97%) and knee (94%) OA had performed sports activities during their life, only 36% (hip patients) and 42% (knee patients) had maintained sports activities at the time of surgery. Five years postoperatively, the proportion of patients performing sports activities increased to 52% among patients with hip OA, but further declined to 34% among those with knee OA. Accordingly, the proportion of patients with hip OA performing sports activities for more than 2 hours a week increased from 8 to 14%, whereas this proportion decreased from 12 to 5% among patients with knee OA. Pain in the replaced joint was reported by 9% of patients with hip and by >16% with knee OA. Conclusion: Differences in pain 5 years after joint replacement may explain some of the difference of sports activities between patients with hip and knee OA. Reasons for reduction of sports activities may include the increasing age of the patients, their worries about an "artificial joint", and the advice of their surgeon to be cautious. PMID:15843453

  11. The Rise Time of Normal and Subluminous Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Conley, A.; Bianco, F. B.; Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Carlberg, R.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Fouchez, D.; Fourmanoit, N.; Graham, M. L.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Lidman, C.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the average stretch-corrected rise time of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Supernova Legacy Survey. We use the aggregate light curves of spectroscopic and photometrically identified SNe Ia to fit the rising part of the light curve with a simple quadratic model. We obtain a light curve shape corrected, i.e., stretch-corrected, fiducial rise time of 17.02+0.18 - 0.28 (stat) days. The measured rise time differs from an earlier finding by the SNLS (Conley et al.) due to the use of different SN Ia templates. We compare it to nearby samples using the same methods and find no evolution in the early part of the light curve of SNe Ia up to z = 1. We search for variations among different populations, particularly subluminous objects, by dividing the sample in stretch. Bright and slow decliners (s > 1.0) have consistent stretch-corrected rise times compared to fainter and faster decliners (0.8 < s <= 1.0); they are shorter by 0.57+0.47 - 0.50 (stat) days. Subluminous SNe Ia (here defined as objects with s <= 0.8), although less constrained, are also consistent, with a rise time of 18.03+0.81 - 1.37 (stat) days. We study several systematic biases and find that the use of different fiducial templates may affect the average rise time but not the intrinsic differences between populations. Based on our results, we estimate that subluminous SNe Ia are powered by 0.05-0.35 M ⊙ of 56Ni synthesized in the explosion. Our conclusions are the same for the single-stretch and two-stretch parameterizations of the light curve. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada

  12. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Cody

    Type Ia supernovae are important, but mysterious cosmological tools. Their standard brightnesses have enabled cosmologists to measure extreme distances and to discover dark energy. However, the nature of their progenitor mechanisms remains elusive, with many competing models offering only partial clues to their origins. Here, type Ia supernova delay times are explored using analytical models. Combined with a new observation technique, this model places new constraints on the characteristic time delay between the formation of stars and the first type Ia supernovae. This derived delay time (500 million years) implies low-mass companions for single degenerate progenitor scenarios. In the latter portions of this dissertation, two progenitor mechanisms are simulated in detail; white dwarf collisions and mergers. From the first of these simulations, it is evident that white dwarf collisions offer a viable and unique pathway to producing type Ia supernovae. Many of the combinations of masses simulated produce sufficient quantities of 56 Ni (up to 0.51 solar masses) to masquerade as normal type Ia supernovae. Other combinations of masses produce 56 Ni yields that span the entire range of supernova brightnesses, from the very dim and underluminous, with 0.14 solar masses, to the over-bright and superluminous, with up to 1.71 solar masses. The 56 Ni yield in the collision simulations depends non-linearly on total system mass, mass ratio, and impact parameter. Using the same numerical tools as in the collisions examination, white dwarf mergers are studied in detail. Nearly all of the simulations produce merger remnants consisting of a cold, degenerate core surrounded by a hot accretion disk. The properties of these disks have strong implications for various viscosity treatments that have attempted to pin down the accretion times. Some mass combinations produce super-Chandrasekhar cores on shorter time scales than viscosity driven accretion. A handful of simulations also

  13. Managing and Documenting Legacy Scientific Workflows.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ruben; Chomilier, Jacques; Lacroix, Zoé

    2015-01-01

    Scientific legacy workflows are often developed over many years, poorly documented and implemented with scripting languages. In the context of our cross-disciplinary projects we face the problem of maintaining such scientific workflows. This paper presents the Workflow Instrumentation for Structure Extraction (WISE) method used to process several ad-hoc legacy workflows written in Python and automatically produce their workflow structural skeleton. Unlike many existing methods, WISE does not assume input workflows to be preprocessed in a known workflow formalism. It is also able to identify and analyze calls to external tools. We present the method and report its results on several scientific workflows. PMID:26673793

  14. Managing and Documenting Legacy Scientific Workflows.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Ruben; Chomilier, Jacques; Lacroix, Zoé

    2015-10-06

    Scientific legacy workflows are often developed over many years, poorly documented and implemented with scripting languages. In the context of our cross-disciplinary projects we face the problem of maintaining such scientific workflows. This paper presents the Workflow Instrumentation for Structure Extraction (WISE) method used to process several ad-hoc legacy workflows written in Python and automatically produce their workflow structural skeleton. Unlike many existing methods, WISE does not assume input workflows to be preprocessed in a known workflow formalism. It is also able to identify and analyze calls to external tools. We present the method and report its results on several scientific workflows.

  15. A Model-independent Photometric Redshift Estimator for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun

    2007-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as cosmological standard candles is fundamental in modern observational cosmology. In this Letter, we derive a simple empirical photometric redshift estimator for SNe Ia using a training set of SNe Ia with multiband (griz) light curves and spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This estimator is analytical and model-independent it does not use spectral templates. We use all the available SNe Ia from SNLS with near-maximum photometry in griz (a total of 40 SNe Ia) to train and test our photometric redshift estimator. The difference between the estimated redshifts zphot and the spectroscopic redshifts zspec, (zphot-zspec)/(1+zspec), has rms dispersions of 0.031 for 20 SNe Ia used in the training set, and 0.050 for 20 SNe Ia not used in the training set. The dispersion is of the same order of magnitude as the flux uncertainties at peak brightness for the SNe Ia. There are no outliers. This photometric redshift estimator should significantly enhance the ability of observers to accurately target high-redshift SNe Ia for spectroscopy in ongoing surveys. It will also dramatically boost the cosmological impact of very large future supernova surveys, such as those planned for the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe for Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Asteroids (ALPACA) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

  16. Photometric Selection of High-Redshift Type Ia Supernova Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Filiol, M.; Knop, R. A.; Perlmutter, S.; Tao, C.

    2006-02-01

    We present a method for selecting high-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) located via rolling SN searches. The technique, using both color and magnitude information of events from only two to three epochs of multiband real-time photometry, is able to discriminate between SNe Ia and core-collapse SNe. Furthermore, for SNe Ia the method accurately predicts the redshift, phase, and light-curve parameterization of these events based only on pre-maximum-light data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique on a simulated survey of SNe Ia and core-collapse SNe, where the selection method effectively rejects most core-collapse SNe while retaining SNe Ia. We also apply the selection code to real-time data acquired as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). During the period 2004 May to 2005 January in the SNLS, 440 SN candidates were discovered, of which 70 were confirmed spectroscopically as SNe Ia and 15 as core-collapse events. For this test data set, the selection technique correctly identifies 100% of the identified SNe II as non-SNe Ia with only a 1%-2% false rejection rate. The predicted parameterization of the SNe Ia has a precision of Δz/(1+zspec)<0.09 in redshift and +/-2-3 rest-frame days in phase, providing invaluable information for planning spectroscopic follow-up observations. We also investigate any bias introduced by this selection method on the ability of surveys such as SNLS to measure cosmological parameters (e.g., w and ΩM) and find any effect to be negligible.

  17. Finding Distances to Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Type Ia supernovae are known as standard candles due to their consistency, allowing us to measure distances based on their brightness. But what if these explosions arent quite as consistent as we thought? Due scientific diligence requires careful checks, so a recent study investigates whether the metallicity of a supernovas environment affects the peak luminosity of the explosion.Metallicity Dependence?Type Ia supernovae are incredibly powerful tools for determining distances in our universe. Because these supernovae are formed by white dwarfs that explode when they reach a uniform accreted mass, the supernova peak luminosity is thought to be very consistent. This consistency allows these supernovae to be used as standard candles to measure distances to their host galaxies.But what if that peak luminosity is affected by a factor that we havent taken into account? Theorists have proposed that the luminosities of Type Ia supernovae might depend on the metallicity of their environments with high-metallicity environments suppressing supernova luminosities. If this is true, then we could be systematically mis-measuring cosmological distances using these supernovae.Testing AbundancesSupernova brightnesses vs. the metallicity of their environments. Low-metallicity supernovae (blue shading) and high-metallicity supernovae (red shading) have an average magnitude difference of ~0.14. [Adapted from Moreno-Raya et al. 2016]A team led by Manuel Moreno-Raya, of the Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT) in Spain, has observed 28 Type Ia supernovae in an effort to test for such a metallicity dependence. These supernovae each have independent distance measurements (e.g., from Cepheids or the Tully-Fisher relation).Moreno-Raya and collaborators used spectra from the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope to estimate oxygen abundances in the region where each of these supernovae exploded. They then used these measurements to determine if metallicity of the local region

  18. Gravitational lensing statistics of amplified supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, Eric V.; Wagoner, Robert V.; Schneider, P.

    1988-01-01

    Amplification statistics of gravitationally lensed supernovae can provide a valuable probe of the lensing matter in the universe. A general probability distribution for amplification by compact objects is derived which allows calculation of the lensed fraction of supernovae at or greater than an amplification A and at or less than an apparent magnitude. Comparison of the computed fractions with future results from ongoing supernova searches can lead to determination of the mass density of compact dark matter components with masses greater than about 0.001 solar mass, while the time-dependent amplification (and polarization) of the expanding supernovae constrain the individual masses. Type II supernovae are found to give the largest fraction for deep surveys, and the optimum flux-limited search is found to be at approximately 23d magnitude, if evolution of the supernova rate is neglected.

  19. White dwarf models for type 1 supernovae and quiet supernovae, and presupernova evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    Supernova mechanisms in accreting white dwarfs are considered with emphasis on deflagration as a plausible mechanism for producing Type I supernovae and electron captures to form quiet supernovae leaving neutron stars. These outcomes depend on accretion rate of helium, initial mass and composition of the white dwarf. The various types of hydrogen shell burning in the presupernova stage are also discussed.

  20. Comment on the preprint Neutrino Flavor Evolution Near a Supernova`s Core

    SciTech Connect

    Pantaleone, J.; Qian, Yong-Zhong; Fuller, G.M.

    1994-08-01

    The revised version of the widely circulated preprint ``Neutrino Flavor Evolution Near A Supernova`s Core`` by J. Pantaleone (astro-ph 9405008 on the bulletin Board, Indiana University preprint IUHET-276) is wrong. It contains two errors which lead to incorrect conclusions regarding neutrino flavor transformation in the supernova environment. In this short note we discuss these errors.

  1. Magnetares como fuentes para potenciar supernovas superluminosas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersten, M. C.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetars have been proposed as one of the possible sources to power the light curve of super-luminous supernovae. We have included the energy deposited by a hypothetical magnetar in our one-dimensional hydrodynamical code, and analyzed the dynamical effect on the supernova ejecta. In particular, we present a model for SN 2011kl, the first object associated with a ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst. Finally, we show its effect on the light curves of hydrogen rich supernovae.

  2. La supernova galattica è in ritardo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2005-06-01

    After 400 years we are still waiting to see a galactic supernova. A simple galactic model based upon interstellar absorption is shown in order to explain the rate of observed galactic supernovae. The history of variable stars observations in modern epoch is sketched and the hypothesis for Bethlehem Star made by Kepler in occasion of the last galactic supernova, exploded in Ophiuchus on 9 October 1604, is also presented.

  3. An Update on Radio Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Sramek, Richard A.; Weiler, Kurt W.; Montes, Marcos J.; Panagia, Nino

    The radio emission from supernovae (SNe) is nonthermal synchrotron radiation of high brightness temperature, with a ``turn-on'' delay at longer wavelengths, power-law decline after maximum with index beta, and spectral index alpha asymptotically decreasing with time to a final, optically thin value. Radio supernovae (RSNe) are best described by the Chevalier (1982) ``mini-shell'' model, with modifications by Weiler \\etal\\ (1990). RSNe observations provide a valuable probe of the SN circumstellar environment and constraints on progenitor masses. We present a progress report on a number of recent RSNe, as well as on new behavior from RSNe 1979C and 1980K, and on RSNe as potential distance indicators. In particular, we present updated radio light curves for SN 1993J in M81.

  4. SUPERNOVA FALLBACK ONTO MAGNETARS AND PROPELLER-POWERED SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D. E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu

    2011-08-01

    We explore fallback accretion onto newly born magnetars during the supernova of massive stars. Strong magnetic fields ({approx}10{sup 15} G) and short spin periods ({approx}1-10 ms) have an important influence on how the magnetar interacts with the infalling material. At long spin periods, weak magnetic fields, and high accretion rates, sufficient material is accreted to form a black hole, as is commonly found for massive progenitor stars. When B {approx}< 5 x 10{sup 14} G, accretion causes the magnetar to spin sufficiently rapidly to deform triaxially and produces gravitational waves, but only for {approx}50-200 s until it collapses to a black hole. Conversely, at short spin periods, strong magnetic fields, and low accretion rates, the magnetar is in the 'propeller regime' and avoids becoming a black hole by expelling incoming material. This process spins down the magnetar, so that gravitational waves are only expected if the initial protoneutron star is spinning rapidly. Even when the magnetar survives, it accretes at least {approx}0.3 M{sub sun}, so we expect magnetars born within these types of environments to be more massive than the 1.4 M{sub sun} typically associated with neutron stars. The propeller mechanism converts the {approx}10{sup 52} erg of spin energy in the magnetar into the kinetic energy of an outflow, which shock heats the outgoing supernova ejecta during the first {approx}10-30 s. For a small {approx}5 M{sub sun} hydrogen-poor envelope, this energy creates a brighter, faster evolving supernova with high ejecta velocities {approx}(1-3) x 10{sup 4} km s{sup -1} and may appear as a broad-lined Type Ib/c supernova. For a large {approx}> 10 M{sub sun} hydrogen-rich envelope, the result is a bright Type IIP supernova with a plateau luminosity of {approx}> 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} lasting for a timescale of {approx}60-80 days.

  5. Introduction to the CFHT Legacy Survey final release (CFHTLS T0007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, Jean-Charles J.; Withington, Kanoa; Hudelot, Patrick; Goranova, Yuliana; McCracken, Henry; Magnard, Frédéric; Mellier, Yannick; Regnault, Nicolas; Bétoule, Marc; Aussel, Hervé; Kavelaars, J. J.; Fernique, Pierre; Bonnarel, François; Ochsenbein, Francois; Ilbert, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) is a high impact scientific program which will see its final official release open to the world in 2012. That release will seal the legacy aspect of the survey which has already produced a large collection of scientific articles with topics ranging from cosmology to the Solar system. The survey core science was focused on dark energy and dark matter: the full realization of the scientific potential of the data set gathered between 2003 and 2009 with the MegaCam wide-field imager mounted at the CFHT prime focus is almost complete with the Supernovae Legacy Survey (SNLS) team preparing its third and last release (SNLS5), and the CFHTLenS team planning the release based around the cosmic shear survey later this year. While the data processing center TERAPIX offered to the CFHTLS scientific community regular releases over the course of the survey in its data acquisition phase (T0001-T0006), the final release took three years to refine in order to produce a pristine data collection photometrically calibrated at better than the percent both internally and externally over the total survey surface of 155 square degrees in all five photometric bands (u*, g’, r’, i’, z’). This final release, called T0007, benefits from the various advances in photometric calibration MegaCam has benefited through the joint effort between SNLS and CFHT to calibrate MegaCam at levels unexplored for an optical wide-field imager. T0007 stacks and catalogs produced by TERAPIX will be made available to the world at CADC while the CDS will offer a full integration of the release in its VO tools from VizieR to Aladin. The photometric redshifts have been produced to be released in phase with the survey. This proceeding is a general introduction to the survey and aims at presenting its final release in broad terms.

  6. Convection in Type 2 supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.S.

    1993-10-15

    Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of {approximately} 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for {gamma}-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of {approximately} 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches {approximately} 60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.

  7. Object classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Aragon, C.; Romano, R.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2008-03-01

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of non-supernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  8. The first ten years of Swift supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter A.

    2015-09-01

    The Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has proven to be an incredible platform for studying the multiwavelength properties of supernova explosions. In its first ten years, Swift has observed over three hundred supernovae. The ultraviolet observations reveal a complex diversity of behavior across supernova types and classes. Even amongst the standard candle type Ia supernovae, ultraviolet observations reveal distinct groups. When the UVOT data is combined with higher redshift optical data, the relative populations of these groups appear to change with redshift. Among core-collapse supernovae, Swift discovered the shock breakout of two supernovae and the Swift data show a diversity in the cooling phase of the shock breakout of supernovae discovered from the ground and promptly followed up with Swift. Swift observations have resulted in an incredible dataset of UV and X-ray data for comparison with high-redshift supernova observations and theoretical models. Swift's supernova program has the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of stellar life and death as well as the history of our universe.

  9. Dust production in supernovae and AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Mikako

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, the role of supernovae on dust has changed; it has been long proposed that supernovae are dust destroyers, but now recent observations show that core-collapse supernovae can become dust factories. Theoretical models of dust evolution in galaxies have predicted that core-collapse supernovae can be an important source of dust in galaxies, if these supernovae can form a significant mass of dust (0.1-1 solar masses). The Herschel Space Observatory and ALMA detected dust in the ejecta of Supernova 1987A. They revealed an estimated 0.5 solar masses of dust. Herschel also found nearly 0.1 solar masses of dust in historical supernovae remnants, namely Cassiopeia A and the Crab Nebula. If dust grains can survive future interaction with the supernova winds and ambient interstellar medium, core-collapse supernovae can be an important source of dust in the interstellar media of galaxies. We further discuss the total dust mass injected by AGB stars and SNe into the interstellar medium of the Magellanic Clouds.

  10. Neutrino mechanism of supernova explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechetkin, V. M.

    In the last decades, scientifics have tried to understand the explosion mechanism of stars that is responsible for the simultaneous formation of neutron star and supernova outburst.The main problem is the determination of a source of energy in the ejection of a supernova envelope. The gravitation energy as a source of energy in supernova is placed first. However, subsequent studies led to certain problems in using gravitation energy if the assumption of neutrino difussion was adopted. Situation is changed if one take into consideration large scale convective instability owing to the neutronization of matter in a protoneutron star during the collapse of star with low initial entropy. The three-dimensional hydrodinamic calculation for 75*75*75 grid with step 0.015R(R = 2*10^7 cm) shows that large-scale bubbles with 10^6 cm emerge. When the bubble reaches low density, the neutrinos contained in matter freely escape from it in the regime of volume radiation. The characteristic time of this process is equaled 0.02 s. The shock from the initial bounce when the collapse in the stellar core stops will then be supported by the neutrino emission, resulting in the ejection of an envelope.

  11. Supernova 2009ig Has Brightened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2009-09-01

    The Type-Ia Supernova 2009ig in NGC 1015 has brightened from its discovery magnitude of 17.5 on Aug. 20.48 UT (I. Kleiser, S. B. Cenko, W. Li, and A. V. Filippenko, University of California; LOSS discovery on unfiltered KAIT images) to unfiltered CCD magnitude 14.0 on Sep. 20.646 UT (Yoshiteru Matsuura, Nada-ku, Kobe, Japan). H. Navasardyan, E. Cappellaro, and S. Benetti, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, report that a spectrogram obtained on Aug. 21.08 UT with the Asiago 1.82-m telescope indicates that the object is a type-Ia supernova caught soon after explosion. They note some similarity to early spectra of SN 2002bo (Benetti et al. 2004, MNRAS 348, 261), although Si II 597.2-nm and S II 564.0-nm are not yet present. Instructions for CCD observing are given in accordance with AAVSO policy on the observation of Type-Ia supernovae brighter than magnitude 15.0. Data should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database; FITS images should be uploaded to ftp.aavso.org.

  12. Dark Energy and Termonuclear Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domíngez, I.; Bravo, E.; Piersanti, L.; Tornambé, A.; Straniero, O.; Höflich, P.

    2008-12-01

    Nowadays it is widely accepted that the current Universe is dominated by dark energy and exotic matter, the so called StandardModel of Cosmoloy or CDM model. All the available data (Thermonuclear Supernovae, Cosmic Microwave Background, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, Large Scale Structure, etc.) are compatible with a flat Universe made by ~70% of dark energy. Up to now observations agree that dark energy may be the vacuum energy (or cosmological constant) although improvements are needed to constrain further its equation of state. In this context, the cosmic destiny of the Universe is no longer linked to its geometry but to the nature of dark energy; it may be flat and expand forever or collapse. To understand the nature of dark energy is probably the most fundamental problem in physics today; it may open new roads of knowledge and led to unify gravity with the other fundamental interactions in nature. It is expected that astronomical data will continue to provide directions to theorists and experimental physicists. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have played a fundamental role, showing the acceleration of the expansion rate of the Universe a decade ago, and up to now they are the only astronomical observations that provide a direct evidence of the acceleration. However, in order to determine the source of the dark energy term it is mandatory to improve the precision of supernovae as distance indicators on cosmological scale.

  13. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  14. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  15. Traditional endodontic surgery versus modern technique: a 5-year controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tortorici, Silvia; Difalco, Paolo; Caradonna, Luigi; Tetè, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared outcomes of traditional apicoectomy versus modern apicoectomy, by means of a controlled clinical trial with a 5-year follow-up. The study investigated 938 teeth in 843 patients. On the basis of the procedure performed, the teeth were grouped in 3 groups. Differences between the groups were the method of osteotomy (type of instruments used), type of preparation of retrograde cavity (different apicoectomy angles and instruments used for root-end preparation), and root-end filling material used (gray mineral trioxide aggregate or silver amalgam). Outcome (tooth healing) was estimated after 1 and 5 years, postoperatively. Clinical success rates after 1 year were 67% (306 teeth), 90% (186 teeth), and 94% (256 teeth) according to traditional apicoectomy (group 1), modern microsurgical apicoectomy using burns for osteotomy (group 2) or using piezo-osteotomy (group 3), respectively. After 1 year, group comparison results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Linear trend test was also statistically significant (P < 0.0001), pointing out larger healing from group 1 to group 3. After 5 years, teeth were classified into 2 groups on the basis of root-end filling material used. Clinical success was 90.8% (197 teeth) in the silver amalgam group versus 96% (309 teeth) in the mineral trioxide aggregate group (P < 0.00214). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that surgical technique was independently associated to tooth healing. In conclusion, modern apicoectomy resulted in a probability of success more than 5 times higher (odds ratio, 5.20 [95% confidence interval, 3.94-6.92]; P < 0.001) compared with the traditional technique. PMID:24469371

  16. Renal amyloidosis followed more than 5 years: report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Kaaroud, H; Boubaker, K; Béji, S; Abderrahim, E; Moussa, F Ben; Turki, S; Goucha, R; Hedri, H; El Younsi, F; Kheder, A; Maiz, H Ben

    2004-01-01

    Renal involvement with amyloidosis is common but causes patient survival to be poor, rarely reaching 5 years. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and biological characteristics as well as treatments and outcomes of patients with renal amyloidosis followed for more than 5 years. Between 1975 and 2003, 485 patients were diagnosed with renal amyloidosis including only 12 patients who were followed more than 5 years. The six men and six women of mean age 42.4 years (range 18 to 66 years) displayed renal signs of lower limb edema in all cases; hypertension in four cases, proteinuria on urinalysis in all cases with microscopic hematuria in five cases. Biological tests showed nephrotic syndrome in 11 patients, normal renal function in nine patients, and renal failure in three patients whose mean creatinine was 481.6 micromol/L (range 294 to 726). The amyloidosis was AA type in 11 cases and non-AA in one case. An etiologic survey revealed spondylarthropathy in one patient, pulmonary tuberculosis in two patients, chronic bronchitis in three patients, hepatic hydatic cyst in one patient, Mediterranean familial fever in two patients, Crohn's disease in one patient, Hodgkin's lymphoma in one patient, and multiple myeloma in one patient. Specific treatment was initiated with colchicine in seven patients. At a 110-month mean follow-up (range 53 to 153 months), remission of nephrotic syndrome was observed in four cases, progression to chronic renal failure in two patients, and to end-stage renal failure in five cases (range 53 to 196 months), with stabilization of renal function in seven patients. In conclusion, primary amyloid disease should be optimally suppressed in patients with renal involvement. The role of this treatment in remission of renal amyloidosis is not well established. This efficacy of the treatment has been demonstrated in some patients with improved survival.

  17. Calcineurin activity in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients early after and 5 years after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, D M; Koefoed-Nielsen, P B; Jørgensen, K A

    2006-10-01

    The pharmacodynamic (PD) action of tacrolimus (FK) within the T-cell is inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase (CaN). Determination of CaN activity provides us with an important PD marker. Eleven renal transplant patients treated with FK were investigated on day 14 following transplantation and 5 years later. Blood samples drawn before as well as 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after oral intake of FK were analyzed for CaN activity and blood FK concentrations. Twenty healthy subjects had one blood sample drawn for CaN activity, which was measured as the release of (32)P from a phosphorylated peptide. Radioactivity of (32)P was quantitated by liquid scintillation counting with the results converted to units of CaN utilizing a calibration curve. On day 14, we observed significant inhibition of CaN activity at T:1, 2, and 3 compared with the predose level (P = .002; P = .015; P = .015). Furthermore, all measured CaN activities were significantly different from those observed in healthy nonmedicated subjects. In contrast, at 5 years posttransplant only the CaN activity at T:2 was significantly inhibited compared with the predose level (P = .02). Additionally, all CaN activities at this time were not significantly different from CaN activities in the healthy subjects. We were not able to demonstrate individual CaN activity profiles in the patients. The lack of CaN inhibition at 5 years after transplantation despite relevant drug concentrations, probably reflected the lower drug dose used long after transplantation. This result raises the question of whether CaN inhibition is necessary to hold graft function and whether FK possess CaN-independent mechanisms of action. PMID:17098028

  18. Global strategy for the diagnosis and management of asthma in children 5 years and younger.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Soren Erik; Hurd, Suzanne S; Lemanske, Robert F; Becker, Allan; Zar, Heather J; Sly, Peter D; Soto-Quiroz, Manuel; Wong, Gary; Bateman, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of childhood morbidity from chronic disease as measured by school absences, emergency department visits, and hospitalisation. During the past two decades, many scientific advances have improved our understanding of asthma and our ability to manage and control it effectively. However, in children 5 years and younger, the clinical symptoms of asthma are variable and non-specific. Furthermore, neither airflow limitation nor airway inflammation, the main pathologic hallmarks of the condition, can be assessed routinely in this age group. For this reason, to aid in the diagnosis of asthma in young children, a symptoms-only descriptive approach that includes the definition of various wheezing phenotypes has been recommended. In 1993, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) was implemented to develop a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma while at the same time assuring a mechanism to incorporate the results of scientific investigations into asthma care. Since then, GINA has developed and regularly revised a Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Publications based on the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention have been translated into many different languages to promote international collaboration and dissemination of information. In this report, Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention in Children 5 Years and Younger, an effort has been made to present the special challenges that must be taken into account in managing asthma in children during the first 5 years of life, including difficulties with diagnosis, the efficacy and safety of drugs and drug delivery systems, and the lack of data on new therapies. Approaches to these issues will vary among populations in the world based on socioeconomic conditions, genetic diversity, cultural beliefs, and differences in

  19. Upbeat nystagmus in a 3.5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Matalia, Jyoti; Rajput, Vimal K; Chillal, Geetanjali J; Shetty, Bhujang K

    2016-02-01

    Upbeat nystagmus is usually a central vestibular nystagmus attributable to structural brainstem or cerebellar lesions. Adult-onset upbeat nystagmus calls for a thorough neurological evaluation. In children, however, it can occur as a transient phenomenon in healthy neonates or as a sensory form of nystagmus that usually transforms into horizontal nystagmus by 2 years of age. We report the case of 3.5-year-old boy with upbeat nystagmus. His ocular examination was within normal limits. Neurological evaluation was normal. Optical coherence tomography testing and Electroretinogram confirmed cone dysfunction. Over the next 6 months the upbeat nystagmus converted to horizontal nystagmus.

  20. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Savant, Hemant V.; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed. PMID:26167224

  1. Infantile fibrosarcoma of ethmoid sinus, misdiagnosed as an adenoid in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519

  2. The Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating: Design, Fabrication, Ground Calibration, and 5 Years in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, Claude R.; Davis, John E.; Dewey, Daniel; Flanagan, Kathryn A.; Galton, Eugene B.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Markert, Thomas H.; Marshall, Herman L.; McGuirk, Michael; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Smith, Henry I.; Wise, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Details of the design, fabrication, and ground and flight calibration of the High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory are presented after 5 years of flight experience. Specifics include the theory of phased transmission gratings as applied to the HETG, the Rowland design of the spectrometer, details of the grating fabrication techniques, and the results of ground testing and calibration of the HETG. For nearly 6 years the HETG has operated essentially as designed, although it has presented some subtle flight calibration effects.

  3. Socioeconomic status and changes in body mass from 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    De Spiegelaere, M; Dramaix, M; Hennart, P

    1998-05-01

    The influence of social status on the development of body mass was analysed in a retrospective cohort study of 675 Belgian children monitored between the ages of 3 and 5 years by the preventive medical services in Brussels. At age 3, no association between excess weight and social status was observed. Adiposity rebound before age 5 was inversely related to body mass at age 3 and was independent of social status. The social influences on obesity observed in adolescence cannot be explained by a higher frequency of early adiposity rebound in children of low socioeconomic status.

  4. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  5. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  6. Drifter-based estimate of the 5-year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2014-12-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time-scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Excellent agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  7. Drifter-based estimate of the 5 year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K.

    2014-11-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Good agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  8. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811

  9. Bilateral renal leiomyoma with 5 year follow-up: Case report.

    PubMed

    Goren, Mehmet Resit; Erbay, Gurcan; Ozer, Cevahir; Goren, Vinil; Bal, Nebil

    2015-01-01

    Renal leiomyomas are exceptionally rare benign tumours of the kidney. Although the renal leiomyomas usually do not metastasize, the differential diagnosis between renal leiomyomas and malign lesions (leiomyosarcoma or renal cell carcinoma) cannot be done by radiological examinations, but is possible by histological examination. Surgery is the preferred treatment. After surgery, the prognosis is excellent without recurrence. Although uterine leiomyomas can be multicentric, renal leiomyomas have been single lesions. We report an incidentally detected case of bilateral renal leiomyoma in a 50-year-old woman with a 5-year follow-up. We also review the literature and discuss clinical, radiological and histological features of renal leiomyomas. PMID:26664510

  10. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient. PMID:27656581

  11. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  12. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  13. Early Eruption of Maxillary Pre Molar with Turner's Hypoplasia in a 5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Rai, Nitya; Mathur, Shivani; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2016-08-01

    Early eruption of permanent maxillary premolar appears to be a unique finding, at such an early chronological age. Untimely eruption of permanent maxillary premolar is discussed in a 5-year-old male patient. On intra oral examination grossly carious primary maxillary first molar (tooth number 54,64) were reported. The erupting teeth presented with a hypomineralized cusp tip. Extraction following space maintainer in 64 region was given. Pediatric dentist should consider these kinds of rarities in eruption pattern while examining a pediatric patient.

  14. Two Views of the Columbian Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a five-day study unit that provides positive and negative views of Columbus' voyages. Explains that lessons include reading and writing assignments culminating in a debate of the implications of the Columbian legacy. Offers questions designed to prompt students to defend their views on Columbus. Identifies instructional objectives and…

  15. Legacy: Challenging Lessons in Civics and Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Julia P., Ed.

    This is a collection of lesson plans on civic education designed for all levels of gifted students and written by teachers from across the U.S. The 25 teachers submitting lessons to the compilation are a part of the LEGACY (Linking Educators and the Gifted with Attorneys for Civics: Yes!) project. The lessons involve students in the study of the…

  16. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    PubMed

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  17. The Armenian Genocide: Context and Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adalian, Rouben

    1991-01-01

    Traces the Armenian experience between 1915 and 1918 when the Muslim Turks carried out a policy to eliminate the Christian-Armenian minority. Focuses on the distinction between massacres and genocide; the use of technology in facilitating mass murder; and the legacy of genocide. Includes maps and photographs. (NL)

  18. Hannelore Wass: Professional Influences and Legacies.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the professional influence of Dr. Hannelore Wass on the author's introduction to and work in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. At the same time, it also offers comments on her broader influence on and legacies left to others who work in this field.

  19. Hannelore Wass: Professional Influences and Legacies.

    PubMed

    Corr, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the professional influence of Dr. Hannelore Wass on the author's introduction to and work in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. At the same time, it also offers comments on her broader influence on and legacies left to others who work in this field. PMID:26207791

  20. George Peabody's (1795-1869) Educational Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    During his career, George Peabody financially supported educational endeavors and went beyond the accumulation of money to leave for one's children. His support began in the mid-1800s and his educational legacy remains. He established: (1) a $2 million Peabody Education Fund to promote public schools and teacher training in 12 civil war devastated…

  1. Christian Social Justice Advocate: Contradiction or Legacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cher N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between Christian religiosity and the principles of social justice is explored, including the sociopolitical aspects of faith and advocacy. A particular emphasis is placed on the historical legacy and theological relationships between Christianity and social justice. The author concludes with a call for…

  2. Enduring Legacy? Charles Tilly and Durable Inequality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Charles Tilly’s Durable Inequality and traces its influence. In writing Durable Inequality, Tilly sought to shift the research agenda of stratification scholars. But the book’s initial impact was disappointing. In recent years, however, its influence has grown, suggesting a more enduring legacy. PMID:21258635

  3. The Next Generation: Our Legacy, Their Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann

    2008-01-01

    In this "Seventeenth Delphine Hanna Commemorative Lecture," Boyce draws on the legacy of Delphine Hanna's work in science-based curriculum to address the need for today's educators to balance both professional mission and disciplinary knowledge. In the mid 1960s, Franklin Henry proposed the notion that the foundation of physical…

  4. Moral Reflections on the Columbian Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, James

    1992-01-01

    Restates in moral terms the legacy of Columbus's voyages. Suggests that the conflict and conflict of humans, plants, organisms, institutions, and ideas raises many moral questions. Suggests that imagination is the key to moral understanding. Argues that past societies pass moral judgment on one another through the study of contemporary moral…

  5. Burns B. Crookston: Life and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Burns B. Crookston was a man ahead of his times. He left a legacy to the student affairs profession that inspired the practice of student development education. His writings described a role for higher education in training students to become active citizens by learning about leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution in democratic…

  6. Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to

  7. Dynamics of supernova driven superbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Naveen; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Sharma, Prateek; Nath, Biman

    2015-08-01

    Energy injection by supernovae is believed to be one of the primary sources which powers the expansion of supershells. There is a qualitative difference between isolated supernovae (SNe) and overlapping SNe. For typical interstellar medium (ISM) conditions an isolated supernova loses most of the injected mechanical energy by 1 Myr. In contrast, for SNe going off in bubbles the radiative losses are much smaller. While the outer shock going off in the dense ISM (~1 cm-3) becomes radiative well before 1 Myr, there is a strong non-radiative termination shock that keeps the bubble over-pressured till the lifetime of the OB association (10s of Myr; Sharma et al. 2014). This has relevance for supernova feedback in galaxy formation simulations. In our previous 1-D treatment all the SNe were assumed to occur at the same location in space. It was found that a steady wind inside the bubble (Chevalier & Clegg 1985) can occur only if the number of SNe is large (>~104) and a supernova going off inside the bubble can thermalize within the termination shock. In the present work we study the effect of SNe separated in both space and time using 3-D hydrodynamic simulations with radiative cooling. If the separation between SNe is larger than the remnant’s radius at the time it becomes radiative, SNe are in the isolated regime. The explosion energy is deposited as thermal energy in a uniform, static interstellar medium (ISM) with temperature 104 K, corresponding to the warm neutral medium. The key parameters of our idealized setup are the ISM density (ngas), the number of SNe (N★) and the spatial separation between SNe (Rcl). The shock radius when it becomes radiative depends on the ISM density and number of SNe. We obtain the critical values of the key parameters (ngas, N★, Rcl) which lead to the formation of a superbubble. e.g., at least 103 SNe are required to maintain an over-pressured bubble at 20 Myr in an ISM with 1 cm-3 similarly 102 SNe going off within a region of 100

  8. SNLS spectroscopy: testing for evolution in type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I. M.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Howell, D. A.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Sullivan, M.; Baumont, S.; Fabbro, S.; Filliol, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:We present a quantitative study of a new data set of high redshift Type Ia supernovae spectra, observed at the Gemini telescopes during the first 34 months of the Supernova Legacy Survey. During this time 123 supernovae candidates were observed, of which 87 have been identified as SNe Ia at a median redshift of z=0.720. Spectra from the entire second year of the survey and part of the third year (59 total SNe candidates with 46 confirmed SNe Ia) are published here for the first time. The spectroscopic measurements made on this data set are used determine if these distant SNe comprise a population similar to those observed locally. Methods: Rest-frame equivalent width and ejection velocity measurements are made on four spectroscopic features. Corresponding measurements are presented for a set of 167 spectra from 24 low-z SNe Ia from the literature. Results: We show that there exists a sample at high redshift with properties similar to nearby SNe. The high-z measurements are consistent with the range of measurements at low-z and no significant difference was found between the distributions of measurements at low and high redsift for three of the features. The fourth feature displays a possible difference that should be investigated further. Correlations between Type Ia SNe properties and host galaxy morphology were also found to be similar at low and high z, and within each host galaxy class we see no evidence for redshift-evolution in SN properties. A new correlation between SNe Ia peak magnitude and the equivalent width of SiII absorption is presented. Tests on a sub-set of the SNLS SNe demonstrates that this correlation reduces the scatter in SNe Ia luminosity distances in a manner consistent with the lightcurve shape-luminosity corrections that are used for Type Ia SNe cosmology. Conclusions: We show that this new sample of SNLS SNe Ia has spectroscopic properties similar to nearby objects. Tables 6, Appendices A and B are are only available in electronic

  9. The Mayall z-band Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, David R.; Blum, Robert D.; Allen, Lori; Dey, Arjun; Schlegel, David J.; Lang, Dustin; Moustakas, John; Meisner, Aaron M.; Valdes, Francisco; Patej, Anna; Myers, Adam D.; Sprayberry, David; Saha, Abi; Olsen, Knut A.; Safonova, Sasha; Yang, Qian; Burleigh, Kaylan J.; MzLS Team

    2016-06-01

    The Mayall z-band Legacy Survey (MzLS) is conducting a deep z-band imaging survey covering 5000 square degrees in the north Galactic cap as part of the Legacy Survey, which is associated with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) redshift survey. The Legacy Survey covers 14000 square degrees in the g, r, and z bands and is being executed on the Blanco 4-m, Mayall 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. The MzLS footprint will be observed in the g and r bands using the Bok 2.3-m telescope also on Kitt Peak. The Beijing Arizona Sky Survey (BASS) is being conducted by a parallel team from Beijing and the University of Arizona. MzLS will cover the sky north of declination 30 degrees and reach a depth of z=23.0. The survey began in January 2016 and will run through June 2017 comprising approximately 230 nights on the Mayall telescope. The data are being obtained with an upgraded Mosaic camera that deploys with newred-sensitive CCDs from Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) whose throughput is in excess of 80% at 8000 to approximately 9800 Angstrom. The upgrade project was a collaboration of Yale, LBL, and NOAO. MzLS images are public as soon as they are taken and delivered to the NOAO archive. Catalogs based on Tractor photometry for all available Legacy Survey images are released soon after they are constructed and MzLS sources will be included in next release planned for summer 2016. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) will observe 30+ million galaxies and quasars in a 14,000 square degree extragalactic footprint. The targeting in that footprint will be provided by a combination of these MzLS data, DECam data from the DECam Legacy Survey, and data from the BASS survey.

  10. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  11. Sustainable legacies for the 2012 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Shipway, Richard

    2007-05-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games have the unique potential to deliver sustainable sporting, social, cultural, economic and environmental legacies, not just for London as the host city, but for the whole of Britain. This article focuses primarily on the first three of these potential Olympics legacies. The first area explored is the social legacy as it impacts on host communities; second, the potential educational and cultural legacy of the 2012 Games are examined; and finally, there follows an overview of the health benefits that could result from a sustained increase in mass participation in sport, physical activity and exercise. This appraisal is undertaken through a review of existing Olympic literature and examples are drawn from previous summer and winter Games. This preliminary exploration is followed by the identification of some key challenges to be overcome if the opportunities available to a wide and diverse range of stakeholders are to be fully optimized. The article suggests that the 2012 Games can act as a catalyst for sports development throughout Britain, while also assisting with government cross-cutting agendas such as tackling crime, antisocial behaviour, developing healthy and active communities, improving educational attainment, and combating barriers to participation. In doing so, this article argues that priority should be placed at supporting grassroots sport through greater access to sport in the community, and not solely elite level sports development. The article concludes by suggesting that the 2012 Games provide opportunities to deliver real and tangible changes and most importantly, to afford a higher priority to sport, along with the obvious associated health benefits for Britain as a whole. The underlying challenge as we move towards 2012 is to achieve a positive step change in the attitudes towards sport and physical activity in British society. Achieving this would possibly be the greatest legacy of the 2012 Olympic and

  12. Gamma-ray constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual supernova explosions via short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring current global Galactic supernova nucleosynthesis with longer-lived radioactivity. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both Co-56 and Co-57 were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions and nucleosynthesis. Live Al-26 in the Galaxy might come from Type II supernovae, and if it is eventually shown to be so, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, and the Galactic Type II supernova rate. Type Ia supernovae, thought to be thermonuclear explosions, have not yet been detected in gamma-rays. This is somewhat surprising given current models and recent Co-56 detection attempts. Ultimately, gamma-ray measurements can confirm their thermonuclear nature, probe the nuclear burning conditions, and help evaluate their contributions to Galactic nucleosynthesis. Type Ib/c supernovae are poorly understood. Whether they are core collapse or thermonuclear events might be ultimately settled by gamma-ray observations. Depending on details of the nuclear processing, any of these supernova types might contribute to a detectable diffuse glow of Fe-60 gamma-ray lines. Previous attempts at detection have come very close to expected emission levels. Remnants of any type of age less that a few centuries might be detectable as individual spots of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission. It is in fact quite surprising that previous surveys have not discovered such spots, and the constraints on the combination of nucleosynthesis yields and supernova rates are very interesting. All of these interesting limits and possibilities mean that the next mission, International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), if it has sufficient sensitivity, is very likely to lead to the realization of much of the great potential

  13. Type IIn supernovae at redshift z approximately 2 from archival data.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Jeff; Sullivan, Mark; Barton, Elizabeth J; Bullock, James S; Carlberg, Ray G; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tollerud, Erik

    2009-07-01

    Supernovae have been confirmed to redshift z approximately 1.7 (refs 1, 2) for type Ia (thermonuclear detonation of a white dwarf) and to z approximately 0.7 (refs 1, 3-5) for type II (collapse of the core of the star). The subclass type IIn (ref. 6) supernovae are luminous core-collapse explosions of massive stars and, unlike other types, are very bright in the ultraviolet, which should enable them to be found optically at redshifts z approximately 2 and higher. In addition, the interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material creates strong, long-lived emission lines that allow spectroscopic confirmation of many events of this type at z approximately 2 for 3-5 years after explosion (ref. 14). Here we report three spectroscopically confirmed type IIn supernovae, at redshifts z = 0.808, 2.013 and 2.357, detected in archival data using a method designed to exploit these properties at z approximately 2. Type IIn supernovae directly probe the formation of massive stars at high redshift. The number found to date is consistent with the expectations of a locally measured stellar initial mass function, but not with an evolving initial mass function proposed to explain independent observations at low and high redshift. PMID:19587765

  14. Type IIn supernovae at redshift z approximately 2 from archival data.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Jeff; Sullivan, Mark; Barton, Elizabeth J; Bullock, James S; Carlberg, Ray G; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tollerud, Erik

    2009-07-01

    Supernovae have been confirmed to redshift z approximately 1.7 (refs 1, 2) for type Ia (thermonuclear detonation of a white dwarf) and to z approximately 0.7 (refs 1, 3-5) for type II (collapse of the core of the star). The subclass type IIn (ref. 6) supernovae are luminous core-collapse explosions of massive stars and, unlike other types, are very bright in the ultraviolet, which should enable them to be found optically at redshifts z approximately 2 and higher. In addition, the interaction of the ejecta with circumstellar material creates strong, long-lived emission lines that allow spectroscopic confirmation of many events of this type at z approximately 2 for 3-5 years after explosion (ref. 14). Here we report three spectroscopically confirmed type IIn supernovae, at redshifts z = 0.808, 2.013 and 2.357, detected in archival data using a method designed to exploit these properties at z approximately 2. Type IIn supernovae directly probe the formation of massive stars at high redshift. The number found to date is consistent with the expectations of a locally measured stellar initial mass function, but not with an evolving initial mass function proposed to explain independent observations at low and high redshift.

  15. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  16. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  17. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  18. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino de; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children's individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother's level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups.

  19. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  20. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years.

  1. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  2. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  3. Longitudinal study of dental caries increment in Malaysian school children: a 5-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Masood, Mohd; Yusof, Norashikin; Hassan, Mohamed I A; Jaafar, Nasaruddin

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this 5-year longitudinal cohort study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and trends in caries increment and impact of the School Dental Incremental Care Programme (SDICP). Data were gathered from school dental records as part of the SDICP. A sample of 1830 children were included and checked for caries experience annually using World Health Organization criteria. In total, 95.4% of the children were caries free in 2004, and caries experience declined to 70.5% in 2009 with an average of 4.9% annually. At baseline, the mean DMFT (confidence interval [CI]) was 0.06 (0.05-0.08) and increased to 0.58 (0.53-0.63) in 2009. Children with active caries were 4.4% in 2004, and figures rose to 9.6% in 2009. The FT component increased most rapidly during these 5 years from 0.2% to 25.1%. Overall caries prevalence and increment was low in this study. Proportions of FT component were higher as compared with DT component with low rate of extractions during the latter years of the study. PMID:22218936

  4. A 5-year study of adenoviruses causing conjunctivitis in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdin, Begüm Nalça; Pas, Suzan D; Durak, İsmet; Schutten, Martin; Sayıner, A Arzu

    2015-03-01

    Adenoviruses are a common cause of conjunctivitis. Genotypes are diverse and differ according to population and geographical distribution of the virus. There is limited data regarding ocular adenoviral infections and genotype distribution in Turkey. This study aimed to determine the adenovirus genotypes and their epidemiological features among patients with conjunctivitis between 2006 and 2010, in Izmir, Turkey. Adenoviral DNA was detected by PCR in 213 of 488 (44%) of the ocular samples collected from patients with viral conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Of these, 101 (47%) were randomly chosen and genotyped by sequence analysis. Seven genotypes were identified, including 3, 4, 8, 11, 19, 37, and 53. Genotype 8 and 4 were the dominant types detected in 67 (66.3%) and 25 (24.7%) of the samples, respectively. Other five genotypes (3, 11, 19, 37, 53) were detected in 9 (8.9%) samples. Genotype and seasonal differences observed throughout the study. Human adenoviruse (HAdV)-8 was the most frequent type, except 2008. The prevalence of genotype 4 increased starting from 2006, became dominant in 2008 and decreased in the following years. The peak season was mostly spring months, although it was possible to detect positive samples throughout the year. In conclusion, genotype 8 followed by genotype 4 was the most frequent adenoviral types causing conjunctivitis during the 5-year study period. Findings suggest that there is a slow shift between genotypes throughout the years.

  5. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA AMONG CHILDREN AGED LESS THAN 5 YEARS IN RURAL SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Ramos, José M; Alegria, Iñaki; Tessema, Dalu; Mohamed, Nuri; Tissiano, Gabrel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Reyes, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of rotavirus infection among children aged less than 5 years in rural southern Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital-based, prospective study among children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration attending the outpatient department of Gambo Rural Hospital, Ethiopia during September-November 2012. Three hundred fourteen children were included in the study, of whom 137 (43.6%) had rotavirus infection. The average age of children with rotavirus infection was lower than those without it [odds ratio (OR): 0.94]. Finding severe dehydration on skin pinch test (adjusted OR: 3.76) and having diarrhea for !3 days (adjusted OR: 2.50) were associated with rotavirus infection. The mortality rate was 4.4% among rotavirus infection children and 0% among non-rotavirus diarrhea cases (p=0.006). Rotavirus infection should be suspected in children with severe dehydration on a skin pinch test and among those presenting with diarrhea for 3 days in rural southern Ethiopia. PMID:26521516

  7. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  8. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  9. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager: 5 years on-orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Ong, Lawrence; Barsi, Julia A.; Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Helder, Dennis L.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Morfitt, Ron

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALI's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  10. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community.

  11. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  12. Lyme arthritis in a 12-year-old patient after a latency period of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Albert, S; Schulze, J; Riegel, H; Brade, V

    1999-01-01

    Lyme arthritis (LA) may be confused with other rheumatic diseases, particularly in the absence of a history of erythema migrans (EM). We report the case of a 12-year-old patient who developed a large effusion of the right knee joint. The titer for antinuclear antibodies was 1:80 and the test for rheumatoid factor was negative. Investigations for antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi demonstrated remarkable elevation of IgG antibody and no specific IgM response. These results were confirmed by immunoblotting reactivity with the bands p83/100, p58, p43, p41, p39, OspA, p30, OspC, p21, and p17. We subsequently learned that the child had suffered a tick bite followed by an EM 5 years earlier and had been treated with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole at that time. The patient now was given intravenous ceftriaxone, 2 g daily for 14 days. In the absence of clinical improvement 3 weeks later a knee joint aspiration was performed which resulted in a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for B. burgdorferi DNA (OspA) in the synovial fluid. The patient fully recovered 2 months later without further treatment. The case indicates that the latency period between EM and onset of LA may last up to 5 years. In addition to serologic test methods, analysis of synovial fluid using PCR may be decisive for making the final diagnosis of LA.

  13. [Bocavirus in infants under 5 years with acute respiratory infection. Chaco Province, Argentina, 2014].

    PubMed

    Deluca, Gerardo D; Urquijo, María Cecilia; Passarella, Carolina; Picón, César; Picón, Dimas; Acosta, María; Rovira, Carina; Marín, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most frequent pathology along human life, being the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bocavirus (BoV) in infants under 5 years with symptoms of ARI from north Argentina (Chaco province). The study was performed on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 488 patients, in the period of January-December 2014. The samples were tested by real time PCR and 36 positive BoV cases (7.4%) were detected. The period with the highest detection rate was June-September with 28 cases (77.8%), of which 26 (72.2%) were infants between 6-18 moths of life. In half of BoV positive cases this virus was detected as single infection of the upper respiratory tract, and in the remaining 50%, as concomitant infection with other microorganisms. To our knowledge, this would be the first study on molecular epidemiology of BoV in northern Argentina. We emphasize the importance of investigating these new viruses capable of generating acute respiratory disease and also to disseminate awareness on their circulation within the community. PMID:27295701

  14. Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591

  15. Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Li, Zhigang; Whyatt, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Wang, Shuang; Camann, David; Rauh, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study evaluated the relationship between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and child intelligence. METHODS Children of nonsmoking black or Dominican-American women residing in New York City were monitored from in utero to 5 years of age, with determination of prenatal PAH exposure through personal air monitoring for the mothers during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, intelligence was assessed for 249 children by using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate and to test the associations between prenatal PAH exposure and IQ. RESULTS After adjustment for maternal intelligence, quality of the home caretaking environment, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and other potentially confounding factors, high PAH levels (above the median of 2.26 ng/m3) were inversely associated with full-scale IQ (P = .007) and verbal IQ (P = .003) scores. Children in the high-exposure group had full-scale and verbal IQ scores that were 4.31 and 4.67 points lower, respectively, than those of less-exposed children (≤2.26 ng/m3). The associations between logarithmically transformed, continuous, PAH levels and these IQ measures also were significant (full-scale IQ: β = −3.00; P = .009; verbal IQ: β = −3.53; P = .002). CONCLUSION These results provide evidence that environmental PAHs at levels encountered in New York City air can affect children’s IQ adversely. PMID:19620194

  16. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs. PMID:17124330

  17. Aetiology and clinical features of dysentery in children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, F; Ahmed, S; DAS, S K; Farzana, F D; Latham, J R; Chisti, M J; Faruque, A S G

    2014-01-01

    The study identified the common aetiological agents and prominent clinical features of dysentery cases in children aged <5 years and compared this to non-dysentery diarrhoeal cases from the same population. From January 2010 to December 2011, 2324 children aged <5 years received treatment at Kumudini Hospital, of which 682 (29%) presented with dysentery. Of the dysenteric children, aetiology could not be determined for over half (61%). Shigella spp. accounted for 32% of dysentery cases. Significant associations were found between presence of blood in stool and: child age (24-59 months) [odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-3.27], no treatment of drinking water at home (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67), vomiting (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.25), abdominal pain (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.24-6.77), straining (OR 16.45, 95% CI 11.92-22.69), wasting (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.15-2.41), and presence of Shigella in stool (OR 6.25, 95% CI 4.20-9.29) after controlling for confounders. This study makes it clear that appropriate public health strategies are needed to reduce the burden of dysentery in Bangladesh.

  18. Factors associated with vaccination coverage in children < 5 years in Angola

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Manuel Falcão Saturnino; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze vaccination coverage and factors associated with a complete immunization scheme in children < 5 years old. METHODS This cross-sectional household census survey evaluated 1,209 children < 5 years old living in Bom Jesus, Angola, in 2010. Data were obtained from interviews, questionnaires, child immunization histories, and maternal health histories. The statistical analysis used generalized linear models, in which the dependent variable followed a binary distribution (vaccinated, unvaccinated) and the association function was logarithmic and had the children’s individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors as independent variables. RESULTS Vaccination coverage was 37.0%, higher in children < 1 year (55.0%) and heterogeneous across neighborhoods; 52.0% of children of both sexes had no immunization records. The prevalence rate of vaccination significantly varied according to child age, mother’s level of education, family size, ownership of household appliances, and destination of domestic waste. CONCLUSIONS Vulnerable groups with vaccination coverage below recommended levels continue to be present. Some factors indicate inequalities that represent barriers to full immunization, indicating the need to implement more equitable policies. The knowledge of these factors contributes to planning immunization promotion measures that focus on the most vulnerable groups. PMID:26039393

  19. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cueto, Santiago; Glewwe, Paul; Richter, Linda; Strupp, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Summary Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data—the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty—to use as indicators of poor development. We show that both indicators are closely associated with poor cognitive and educational performance in children and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility, and provide poor care for their children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. PMID:17208643

  20. Composite vertical bite reconstructions in eroded dentitions after 5·5 years: a case series.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Filli, T; Imfeld, C; Schmidlin, P R

    2012-01-01

    In the following case series, we report on six cases of erosive worn dentitions (75 posterior teeth), which have been reconstructed using a template-based technique with direct composite resin restorations and already examined after 3 years in service. In all patients either one or both tooth arches were completely restored using direct resin composite restorations. A wax-up-based template was used to avoid freehand build-up techniques and to ensure optimal anatomy and function. All patients were re-assessed after a mean service time of 5·5 years (mean 67 ± 4 months) using United States Public Health Service criteria. The overall quality of the restorations was good with predominantly 'alpha' and 'bravo' scores, respectively. However, the restorations showed some deterioration with respect to marginal quality, marginal discoloration, surface texture and anatomy as compared to the 3-year investigation. The marginal impairments could be resolved by polishing. It is concluded that this non-invasive technique provides a possible treatment option at least for the displayed observation period of 5·5 years. PMID:21827523

  1. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco; Folatelli, Gaston; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-07-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R{sub V} , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R{sub V} , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R{sub V} . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R{sub V} or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  2. The Local Supernova Rate from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Jesse F.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A.; LOSS

    2009-05-01

    The robotic Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS), conducted with the 0.76-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT), has been the world's most successful nearby supernova search engine over the past decade. For the over 1,000 supernovae (SNe) discovered in the LOSS sample galaxies until the end of the year 2008, we used an optimal subsample of 728 SNe to derive the SN rate in the local universe. The LOSS galaxy sample consists of about 14,000 fields, imaged with temporal frequencies that typically range from 2 to 10 days. Detailed logs of the observations and search parameters have allowed us to determine the most accurate nearby SN rates since the study of Cappellaro, Evans, & Turatto (1999, A&A, 351, 459). We first selected 140 SNe, discovered in a distance-limited sample, to construct the observed luminosity functions for various types of SNe. Photometry for each of these 140 SNe was collected, their peak magnitudes were measured, and their completeness in the survey was calculated. The resulting luminosity functions are the first of their kind, and provide significant improvement to Zwicky's well-known control-time calculation for the SN rates. We derived SN rates for various types of SNe, in galaxies of different Hubble types and B-K colors. Our rates agree well with previous measurements, but provide significant improvement in precision, more morphological and color bins, and fewer observational biases. We found that the SN rates, after linear normalization by the size of the galaxies, still have a significant correlation with the galaxy size, in the sense that smaller galaxies have a higher SN rate per unit luminosity or mass. The volumetric SN rates are as follows (in units of 10^-4 SN Mpc^-3 yr^-1): 0.28 +/- 0.03 for SNe Ia, 0.20 +/- 0.03 for SNe Ibc, and 0.40 +/- 0.05 for SNe II.

  3. Two possible active supernovae in IC 2150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Stu; Bock, Greg; Marples, Peter; Drescher, Colin; Pearl, Patrick; BOSS Team; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, Mark; Morrell, Nidia; Hsiao, Eric; Carnegie Supernova Project

    2016-03-01

    Stu Parker and the BOSS team report the discovery of a rare event involving two possible active supernovae in IC 2150 (z=0.010404; NED) which were recorded in images obtained by Stu Parker during the ongoing program by the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) team.

  4. Gamma line radiation from supernovae. [nucleosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Recent calculations of core collapse or massive stars result in explosive ejection of the mantle by a reflected shock. These hydrodynamic results are important for predictions of explosive nucleosynthesis and gamma-ray line emission from supernovae. Previous estimates, based on simple parameterized models or the nucleosynthesis in an average supernova, are compared with these latest results.

  5. 5-year Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up of Coil-embolised Intradural Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the paper is the follow-up of embolised intradural saccular Arterial Aneurysms (AA), excluding giant, dissecting, inflammatory, fusiform or AA associated to BVAM. Since its introduction in 1991, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil has offered protection against aneurysmal rebleeding in the critical few days and months after SAH regardless of the grade. A number of questions remain: is complete angiographic obliteration necessary at first embolisation? What duration of clinical / angiographic follow-up (FU) is required to ensure the risk of haemorrhage has been eliminated? What is the long-term protection against rebleeding? One hundred and two patients with 160 intradural saccular AA embolised before april 1997 were selected for this study. They had at least 5-yrs clinical FU, of which 22 patients had a midterm (3 years) and 45 patients had a 5year or more angiographic FU (mean 67,7 months per patient). Twenty-eight embolised AAs with 100% occlusion at 1 year, remained unchanged on the 5year angiograms. A further 14 patients with complete occlusion at 1 year showed persisting complete occlusion on angiogram at 3-years FU, which in our series means that complete occlusion after the first year post-embolisation implies that the aneurysm will remain completely occluded. All secondary spontaneous thromboses (27.6% of cases), occurred during the first year pos-embolisation. In six patients with subtotal or partial occlusion no change was seen for three consecutive years of FU; none showed later change at 5-year angiography. Below 80% occlusion our series does not provide enough information but we consider the situation instable. No mortality related to the procedure was observed in the unruptured AA group. No bleeding or re-bleeding has occurred since the beginning of our experience (1993) in saccular AA treated by GDC-Coil. Coil-embolisation of properly selected patients is effective in protecting against bleeding or re-bleeding at short and long

  6. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for

  7. Supernova shock breakout from a red supergiant.

    PubMed

    Schawinski, Kevin; Justham, Stephen; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Steenbrugge, Katrien C; Bell, Tony; Röser, Hermann-Josef; Walker, Emma S; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominique; Guy, Julien; Hardin, Delphine; Hook, Isobel; Howell, D Andrew; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris; Regnault, Nicolas; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2008-07-11

    Massive stars undergo a violent death when the supply of nuclear fuel in their cores is exhausted, resulting in a catastrophic "core-collapse" supernova. Such events are usually only detected at least a few days after the star has exploded. Observations of the supernova SNLS-04D2dc with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer space telescope reveal a radiative precursor from the supernova shock before the shock reached the surface of the star and show the initial expansion of the star at the beginning of the explosion. Theoretical models of the ultraviolet light curve confirm that the progenitor was a red supergiant, as expected for this type of supernova. These observations provide a way to probe the physics of core-collapse supernovae and the internal structures of their progenitor stars.

  8. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST.

  9. On relative supernova rates and nucleosynthesis roles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, W. David; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the Ni-56-Fe-56 observed in SN 1987A argues that core collapse supernovae may be responsible for more than 50 percent of the iron in the galaxy. Furthermore it is argued that the time averaged rate of thermonuclear driven Type I supernovae may be at least an order of magnitude lower than the average rate of core collapse supernovae. The present low rate of Type II supernovae (below their time averaged rate of approx. 1/10 yr) is either because the past rate was much higher because many core collapse supernovae are dim like SN 1987A. However, even in this latter case they are only an order of magnitude dimmer that normal Type II's due to the contribution of Ni-56 decay to the light curve.

  10. On relative supernova rates and nucleosynthesis roles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, W. David; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the Ni-56-Fe-56 observed in SN 1987A argues that core collapse supernovae may be responsible for more that 50 percent of the iron in the galaxy. Furthermore it is argued that the time averaged rate of thermonuclear driven Type I supernovae may be at least an order of magnitude lower than the average rate of core collapse supernovae. The present low rate of Type II supernovae (below their time averaged rate of approx. 1/10 yr) is either because the past rate was much higher because many core collapse supernovae are dim like SN 1987A. However, even in this latter case they are only an order of magnitude dimmer that normal Type II's due to the contribution of Ni-56 decay to the light curve.

  11. Supernovae and cosmology with future European facilities.

    PubMed

    Hook, I M

    2013-06-13

    Prospects for future supernova surveys are discussed, focusing on the European Space Agency's Euclid mission and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), both expected to be in operation around the turn of the decade. Euclid is a 1.2 m space survey telescope that will operate at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, and has the potential to find and obtain multi-band lightcurves for thousands of distant supernovae. The E-ELT is a planned, general-purpose ground-based, 40-m-class optical-infrared telescope with adaptive optics built in, which will be capable of obtaining spectra of type Ia supernovae to redshifts of at least four. The contribution to supernova cosmology with these facilities will be discussed in the context of other future supernova programmes such as those proposed for DES, JWST, LSST and WFIRST. PMID:23630381

  12. Four Papers by the Supernova Cosmology Project

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, S.; et al.

    1995-06-01

    Our search for high-redshift Type Ia supernovae discovered, in its first years, a sample of seven supernovae. Using a 'batch' search strategy, almost all were discovered before maximum light and were observed over the peak of their light curves. The spectra and light curves indicate that almost all were Type Ia supernovae at redshifts z = 0.35 - 0.5. These high-redshift supernovae can provide a distance indicator and 'standard clock' to study the cosmological parameters q{sub 0}, {Lambda}, {Omega}{sub 0}, and H{sub 0}. This presentation and the following presentations of Kim et al. (1996), Goldhaber et al. (1996), and Pain et al. (1996) will discuss observation strategies and rates, analysis and calibration issues, the sources of measurement uncertainty, and the cosmological implications, including bounds on q{sub 0}, of these first high-redshift supernovae from our ongoing search.

  13. Supernova 1987A at 29 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In the 29 years since it was discovered, SN 1987A has evolved from supernova to supernova remnant, in the sense that its luminosity is now dominated by radiation from its shock interaction with circumstellar matter rather than radioactive decay of newly synthesized elements. The circumstellar matter has a complex structure and the impact of the supernova debris results in a complex distribution of shocks, with velocities ranging from a few hundred to several thousand km/s. The supernova blast wave is overtaking dense knots in the equatorial ring, resulting in rapidly brightening optical “hotspots”, while the interaction with less dense matter gives rise to X-rays. The X-rays illuminate the outer supernova debris, causing it to glow at optical wavelengths. The ALMA telescope provides a new window at mm/sub-mm wavelengths, enabling us to probe the structure of the cold inner debris through molecular emission lines.

  14. Full-mouth rehabilitation of Class II deep-bite patient: A 5-year clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Ergun, Gulfem; Bozkaya, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    This case report demonstrates the full-mouth rehabilitation of a 45-year-old male patient with severe deep-bite by increasing vertical dimension. The technique of anterior maxillary osteotomy performed in the present situation has been found to be effective, requiring anterior and inferior repositioning of the anterior maxilla to provide an esthetic and functional implant supported fixed prosthesis. Four months after surgery, the fixation system was removed, and 6 dental implants were placed. The anterior and inferior movements of the segment allowed for natural tooth anatomy and size in the definitive implant supported partial fixed prosthesis. A satisfactory functional and esthetic result was obtained after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27403066

  15. Delayed Replantation after Endodontic and Fluoride Treatment: A 5-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Abi Mathew; Akkara, Francis; Fernandes, Kristlee Sabrin

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate if endodontic and fluoride treatment of the root before delayed replantation would render the tooth a favorable prognosis. Methods A 10-year-old boy reported 10 hours after he had avulsed his maxillary right permanent central incisor. The pulp and PDL cells were considered to be nonviable. Endodontic treatment for the tooth was performed extraorally and obturated with gutta-percha. Prior to replantation, the root was treated with 1.23% APSF for 15 minutes. Result An intraoral radiograph taken 6 months after replantation revealed narrowing of the PDL space around the replanted tooth due to apposition from the surrounding alveolar bone. A radiograph taken 5 years after replantation revealed no evidence of external root resorption. There was no abnormal mobility either. Conclusion Extraoral endodontic treatment and root treatment with 1.23% APSF prior to delayed replantation might prevent the occurrence of external root resorption.

  16. Constraints on the Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant by the 5-Year WMAP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, M.; Nagata, R.; Yokoyama, J.

    2008-12-01

    The constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant at recombination epoch relative to its present value, Δα/α ≡ (α_{rec} - α_{now})/α_{now}, are obtained from the analysis of the 5-year WMAP cosmic microwave background data. As a result of Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that, contrary to the analysis based on the previous WMAP data, the mean value of Δα/α = -0.0009 does not change significantly whether we use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measurement of the Hubble parameter as a prior or not. The resultant 95% confidence ranges of Δα/α are -0.028 < Δα/α < 0.026 with HST prior and -0.050 < Δα/α < 0.042 without HST prior.

  17. [The geriatric psychiatric day hospital: an analysis of 5 years of activities].

    PubMed

    Trifonov, E G; Ognev, A E

    1997-01-01

    233 patients (53 men and 180 women) at the age of 60 years and older were treated in day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic for 5 years. 60-69 year old patients prevailed (146 individuals). Nearly all mental diseases characteristic for the old age were found in such patients; majority of patients suffered from schizophrenia (31.3%) and affective pathology (25.8%). Vascular form of dementia prevailed among the patients with dementia while atrophic degenerative dementia was rarely observed (2 patients). Syndromological distribution revealed that the main groups were formed by patients with depressions (41.6%) as well as individuals with neurosis- and psychopathic-like conditions (37.3%). Mental disorders with paranoid syndromes were observed in 8.6% of the patients. It is shown that day gerontopsychiatric out-patient clinic had some preferences in comparison with usual mental hospitals and psychoneurological out-patient clinic.

  18. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:26744159

  19. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a cause of unresponsive malaria in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Manish; Kanhere, Sujata; Kadakia Affiliation When The Manuscript Was Written Department Of Paediatrics K J Somaiya Medical College And Hospital Mumbai India, Purvi; Phadke, Varsha; George, Riya; Chaudhari, Kushagra

    2014-11-19

    A 5-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with fever, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. The peripheral blood smear demonstrated mixed malaria infection (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum). Fever was persistent despite antimalarials in the absence of any coexisting bacterial or viral infection. Laboratory findings included cytopaenia, hyperbilirubinaemia, hyperferritinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyponatraemia, deranged partial thromboplastin time, decreasing ESR and megaloblastic changes on bone marrow aspiration. A final diagnosis of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with megaloblastic anaemia associated with severe mixed malaria was made. There was a dramatic response to corticosteroid treatment with improvement in her clinical condition. This report endorses the use of corticosteroids in malaria-associated HLH whenever there is no clinical improvement with antimalarials alone. PMID:25410687

  20. Performance of the MIR Cooperative Solar Array After 2.5 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States and Russia to produce 6 kW of power for the Russian space station Mir. Four, multi-orbit test sequences were executed between June 1996 and December 1998 to measure MCSA electrical performance. A dedicated Fortran computer code was developed to analyze the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. The computational performance results compared very favorably with the measured flight data in most cases. Minor performance degradation was detected in one current generating section of the MCSA. Yet overall, the flight data indicated the MCSA was meeting and exceeding performance expectations. There was no precipitous performance loss due to contamination or other causes after 2.5 years of operation. In this paper, we review the MCSA flight electrical performance tests, data and computational modeling and discuss findings from data comparisons with the computational results.

  1. The thermoregulatory theory of yawning: what we know from over 5 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Eldakar, Omar T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 5 years numerous reports have confirmed and replicated the specific brain cooling and thermal window predictions derived from the thermoregulatory theory of yawning, and no study has found evidence contrary to these findings. Here we review the comparative research supporting this model of yawning among homeotherms, while highlighting a recent report showing how the expression of contagious yawning in humans is altered by seasonal climate variation. The fact that yawning is constrained to a thermal window of ambient temperature provides unique and compelling support in favor of this theory. Heretofore, no existing alternative hypothesis of yawning can explain these results, which have important implications for understanding the potential functional role of this behavior, both physiologically and socially, in humans and other animals. In discussion we stress the broader applications of this work in clinical settings, and counter the various criticisms of this theory. PMID:23293583

  2. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-05-15

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications.

  3. Prevalence of oral habits in 563 Nigerian preschool children age 3-5 years.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Sote, E O

    2001-12-01

    One of the contributory factors in the establishment of occlusion is the child's oral habits. A limited amount of information is available on oral habits of pre-school children especially on Nigerian pre-school children. With an increasing interest in the early recognition of mal-occlusion and a corresponding emphasis on preventive procedures, more information on pre-school children may prove to be useful. This study revealed the prevalence of oral habits among 563 Nigerian pre-school children aged 3-5 years at 13.14%: 6.74% for males, 6.4%for females. The acquired data were tested with chi-square(chi2). The results indicate significant gender difference for tongue thrusting/sucking only (P=0.01) using the fisher's exact test. The relationship between digital sucking habit and mal-occlusion was very significant (P<0.01).

  4. Salter-Harris type-IV displaced distal radius fracture in a 5-year-old.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.

  5. Review of the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R D; Marryatt, G; Henderson, R F

    1988-09-01

    Symptoms in patients with hiatal hernia often respond to treatment consisting of diet and medication. Operative procedures, designed to control gastroesophageal reflux and avoid surgically induced problems, are reserved for those with intractable symptoms. When these operative procedures fail, reoperation may be necessary. The reoperative procedure is often technically complex because of esophageal and gastric scar fixation. The authors reviewed the surgical management of recurrent hiatal hernia in 168 patients followed up to 5 years or more; 43 of them had undergone gastric surgery previously.Radiologically, 97% patients studied (142 of 146) had no evidence of anatomic recurrence or reflux post operatively. Manometric studies postoperatively in 114 patients showed that the mean tone of the high pressure zone was within the normal range and lower esophageal disordered motor activity was decreased by 34.5% from the preoperative level. Symptoms of recurrent hiatal hernia were abolished by operation in 88% of the patients; only 4.8% had serious or recurrent symptoms.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transmission is not associated with recent immigration (≤5 years) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Séraphin, Marie Nancy; Lauzardo, Michael

    2015-12-01

    As tuberculosis (TB) incidence decreases in the US, foreign-born persons continue to account for a larger proportion of the burden. In these cross-sectional analyses of 1149 culture-confirmed TB cases genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU, we show that over a quarter of cases among the foreign-born population in Florida resulted from recent transmission of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In addition, over a third of these cases occurred among persons who had immigrated 5 years or less prior to their diagnosis. Although recent immigration was not a significant predictor of TB transmission, younger age, birthplace in the Americas, homelessness, drug use and TB lineage are risk factors for TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida. These data provide actionable insights into TB transmission among the foreign-born population in Florida.

  7. Neurological Recovery of Upper Extremity in Stroke Woman after 5 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vejabhuti, Chayanin

    2016-02-01

    Strokes are common neurological disorders in Thailand. Rehabilitation programs significantly improve arm function outcomes if performed during the sub-acute period of stroke rehabilitation, within 6 months of the attack. This report describes the case of a stroke patient who gained upper extremity motor recovery after 5 years, which is beyond the normal recovery period. Although the patient does not have functionality, she has partial motor recovery, and she is enthusiastic about learning to gain better use of her hand. However there is still limited evidence to use in designing effective intervention and proper timing of rehabilitation administered by personnel in training chronic stroke patients. Therefore, evidence based on neuroplasticity and neurological recovery in chronic stroke patients, including rehabilitation intervention, is presented in this report. PMID:27266238

  8. Estimating rates of land falling US hurricanes on a 5-year timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, K.; Turner, J.; Jewson, S.; Bellone, E.; Rowlands, D.; Laepple, T.

    2010-03-01

    Atlantic hurricanes are the costliest of US natural disasters. Their frequency, intensity and likelihood of landfall are highly variable, being impacted by sea-surface and upper-atmosphere temperatures, wind shear, El Niño and other climatic variables. Risk Management Solutions has created a set of over 500,000 synthetic Atlantic hurricanes for use in catastrophe modelling. Until 2005, the rates associated with each of these storms were based on the averaged historical rate since 1900. However, there is evidence that hurricane frequencies are non-stationary and this means that long-term averaged rates may not be the best estimate of future rates. Furthermore, the insurance/reinsurance industry is particularly interested in 5-year projections of land falling US hurricanes. We show, using hindcasting, that simple statistical models can significantly improve estimates of the number of Atlantic hurricanes hitting land on this timescale.

  9. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Marwaha, Mohita; Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-05-01

    A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154.

  10. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohar; Singh Nanda, Kanwar Deep

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT A variety of therapeutic modalities, from removable partial dentures to conventional fixed space maintainer can be used for the replacement of traumatically missing or carious lost primary anterior teeth. Dentistry has advanced to a point where it is undesirable for children to be partially edentulous or to have unattractive anterior teeth. The introduction of new materials and adhesive systems in dentistry, offers a new reconstructive alternative for severely destroyed or lost primary anterior teeth. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical case of four primary anterior teeth replacement by means of fiber-reinforced composite bridge. This technique offers a conservative, esthetic and noninvasive treatment. It can be considered, as a long- lasting reversible provisional treatment. How to cite this article: Marwaha M, Bhat M, Nanda KDS. Building-up a Smile in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):151-154. PMID:25206158

  11. [The results of 5-year-long research of sclerotherapy of liver metastases by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Borsukov, A V

    2001-01-01

    64 patients with liver metastases have been studied (mammary gland--6 cases, stomach--15, colon--32, other locations--11) and US metastasis semiotics and the fine aspiration biopsy have been identified. 12 cases had underwent intraoperative 96% ethanol infusion, 52 had got transdermal infusions under US control. The survival rate of colon cases with dissemination was: 1 year S.--100%, 3 year S.--53.1%, 5 year S.--3.1%. In cases with noncolon dissemination the percentage of survival was: 1 year S.--68.8%, 2 year S.--9.4%, 3 year S.--3.0%. 96% ethanol sclerotherapy proved to be more effective in single metachronic metastases of the colon malignancies.

  12. Being overweight and obese: Black children ages 2-5 years.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Cindy E

    2008-01-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of obesity in Black preschoolers (ages 2-5 years) is slightly higher than in whites. However, by age 6, Black children experience higher obesity prevalence. The consequences to health throughout childhood and into adulthood have both medical and economic cost to individuals and society. Factors associated with obesity in preschool children are lifestyle behaviors such as diet, level of activity, culture, environment, and parental perceptions. Programs should target young Black children and their families to reduce the incidence of obesity and promoting healthy behaviors could aid in eliminating health disparities and improving quality of life. Nurses need to provide comprehensive culturally appropriate strategies at community and individual/family levels to prevent overweight and obesity in children.

  13. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  14. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan. PMID:18364287

  15. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, p<0.0001); provider satisfaction (65.4–79.2, p<0.01); capacity for service provision (47.4–76.4, p<0.0001); quality of services (40.5–67.4, p<0.0001); and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0–52.6). The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4–95.7, p<0.01), after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. Conclusions The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  16. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  17. HIV-Positive–to–HIV-Positive Kidney Transplantation — Results at 3 to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The outcome of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients who receive organs from HIV-negative donors has been reported to be similar to the outcome in HIV-negative recipients. We report the outcomes at 3 to 5 years in HIV-positive patients who received kidneys from HIV-positive deceased donors. METHODS We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized study of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count of 200 per cubic millimeter or higher and an undetectable plasma HIV RNA level. All the patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The patients received kidneys from deceased donors who tested positive for HIV with the use of fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the time of referral. All the donors either had received no ART previously or had received only first-line ART. RESULTS From September 2008 through February 2014, a total of 27 HIV-positive patients underwent kidney transplantation. Survivors were followed for a median of 2.4 years. The rate of survival among the patients was 84% at 1 year, 84% at 3 years, and 74% at 5 years. The corresponding rates of graft survival were 93%, 84%, and 84%. (If a patient died with a functioning graft, the calculation was performed as if the graft had survived.) Rejection rates were 8% at 1 year and 22% at 3 years. HIV infection remained well controlled, with undetectable virus in blood after the transplantation. CONCLUSIONS Kidney transplantation from an HIV-positive donor appears to be an additional treatment option for HIV-infected patients requiring renal-replacement therapy. PMID:25671253

  18. Surgical resection of colorectal recurrence of gastric cancer more than 5 years after primary resection

    PubMed Central

    Noji, Takehiro; Yamamura, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Jun; Kuroda, Aki; Koinuma, Junkichi; Yoshioka, Tatsuya; Murakawa, Katsuhiko; Otake, Setsuyuki; Hirano, Satoshi; Ono, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intestinal metastasis from gastric cancer is rare, although the most common cause of secondary neoplastic infiltration of the colon is gastric cancer. However, little data is available on recurrence or death in patients with gastric cancer surviving >5 years post-gastrectomy. Here we report two cases of lower intestinal metastasis from gastric cancer >5 years after primary resection and discuss with reference to the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE Case 1: A 61-year-old man with a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 9 years earlier was referred to our hospital with constipation and abdominal distention. We diagnosed primary colon cancer and subsequently performed extended left hemicolectomy. Histological examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma resembling the gastric tumor he had 9 years earlier. The patient refused postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and remained alive with cancerous peritonitis and skin metastases as of 17 months later. Case 2: A 46-year-old woman with a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 9 years earlier presented with constipation. She also had a history of Krukenberg tumor 3 years earlier. We diagnosed metastatic rectal cancer and subsequently performed low anterior resection and hysterectomy. Pathological examination revealed poorly differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, resembling the gastric tumor. The patient remained alive without recurrence as of 17 months later. DISCUSSION We found 19 reported cases of patients with resection of colon metastases from gastric cancer. Median disease-free interval was 74 months. CONCLUSION Resection of late-onset colorectal recurrence from gastric cancer appears worthwhile for selected patients. PMID:25460445

  19. Specialist Pediatric Palliative Care Referral Practices in Pediatric Oncology: A Large 5-year Retrospective Audit

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Damani, Anuja; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To audit referral practices of pediatric oncologists referred to specialist pediatric palliative care services. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of medical case records of pediatric palliative care patients over a period of 5 years from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Descriptive summaries of demographic, clinical variables, and patient circumstances at the time of referral and during end-of-life care were examined. Results: A total of 1135 patients were referred from pediatric oncology with a gradual increasing trend over 5 years. About 84.6% consultations took place in the outpatient setting. In 97.9% of the cases, parents were the primary caregivers. Availability of specialist pediatric health-care services at local places was available in 21.2% cases and 48% families earned <5000 INR (approximately 73 USD) in a month. Around 28.3% of the referrals were from leukemia clinic and maximum references were late with 72.4% patients having advanced disease at presentation. 30.3% of the referrals were made for counseling and communication and 54.2% had high symptom burden during referral. After referral, 21.2% patients continued with oral metronomic chemotherapy and 10.5% were referred back to oncology services for palliative radiotherapy. Only 4.9% patients had more than 2 follow-ups. 90.8% of the patients were cared for at home in the last days of illness by local general practitioners. 70.6% of the deaths were anticipated. Conclusions: Oncologists referred patients late in the course of disease trajectory. Most of the referrals were made for counseling and communication, but many patients had high symptom burden during referral. PMID:27559254

  20. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment.

  1. Severity of brain injury following neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and outcome at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Glass, P; Bulas, D I; Wagner, A E; Rajasingham, S R; Civitello, L A; Papero, P H; Coffman, C E; Short, B L

    1997-07-01

    Neurodevelopmental evaluation in childhood provides an opportunity to study complex neurological compensation following documented neonatal brain injury, and furnishes important clinical information which may have an impact on patient care. We studied 152 term children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as neonates and who received routine neonatal neuroimaging and comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluation at age 5 years. The cohort was divided into four groups based on an independent neuroimaging score: No lesion, N=88; Mild lesion, N=38; Moderate lesion, N=12; and Severe lesion, N=14. Standardized testing at age 5 included complete neuropsychological assessment, neurological evaluation, and assessment of motor function. All testing was conducted without knowledge of the neuroimaging score. The occurrence of disability by severity of neuroimaging was: No lesion=10%; Mild=13%; Moderate=33%; Severe=57%. The relative risk within the ECMO population for disability at age 5 after moderate or severe neonatal lesion was 4.3 (CI=1.0 to 17.5) and 11.7 (CI=3.3 to 41.3), respectively. The remaining non-disabled children who had moderate to severe lesions functioned within normal limits. Severity of neonatal neuroimaging was inversely associated with IQ scores, pre-academic skills, and neuromotor function. The effect size was small but the rank order was predictable. Our data identify in 5-year-old children an impact of brain lesion severity demonstrated on routine neonatal neuroimaging. The results indicate potential compensation following moderate and severe lesions, and suggest a subtle but consistent influence of even mild neonatal brain injury.

  2. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers. PMID:26237718

  3. POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AMONG INDONESIAN CHILDREN 5 YEARS AFTER THE TSUNAMI.

    PubMed

    Irwantol; Faisal; Zulfa, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to experiencing or living in a disaster area. The factors that increase the likelihood of a child developing PTSD need further clarification. We studied the factors associated with PTSD among children who experienced the tsunami in Sumatra, Indonesia. We conducted a cross sectional study in 2 subdistricts of Sumatra 5 years after experiencing a tsunami. Children aged 7-13 years were enrolled using stratified cluster sampling. A tsunami-modified version of The PsySTART Rapid Triage System was used to question children about their tsunami-specific traumatic experiences. Trauma symptoms were evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist For Children (TSCC). The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) and DSM-IV criteria. The data were analyzed with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 262 children were enrolled in this study. The prevalence of PTSD in these children was 20.6%. On multivariate analysis, having experienced a delay in evacuation (PR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.794-13.80; p < 0.001) and being unable to escape (PR = 13.07; 95% CI: 5.884-64; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with PTSD 5 years after the tsunami. Children who experienced a traumatic event in which they were unable to escape or when there is a delay in evacuation are at risk of developing PTSD and need appropriate treatment. PMID:26863863

  4. Characteristics and Costs of Disability Pensions in Finnish Agriculture Based on 5-Year Insurance Records.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Leppälä, Jarkko

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics and costs of disability pensions in Finnish farmers were investigated. The data included a total of 4,088 permanent or temporary disability pensions of the self-employed Finnish farming population over a 5-year period (2008-2012), an annual rate of 1.04 new cases per 100 person-years (males 0.94/100 and females 1.24/100). These cases resulted in the loss of almost 6,800 person-years and 60.2 million Euros in pension costs in the 5-year period. Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). Other common outcomes were mental and behavioral disorders (17.5%), injuries (9.8%), diseases of the circulatory system (7.8%), and diseases of the nervous system (6.6%). Relative proportions of these outcomes and their costs were similar with few exceptions. Although farmers have high risk of acute traumatic injuries, they also have a high risk of chronic conditions that affect their work ability. Particularly MSDs were common primary reasons for disability pension among farmers in general and among female farmers in particular. In addition to healthy lifestyle choices, improvements in the working environment and methods to reduce heavy or repetitive manual labor should be emphasized in vocational and extension education of farmers. Modern working conditions with meaningful and varied work tasks could enhance both physical and mental well-being of farmers and thus reinforce and extend their careers.

  5. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  6. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  7. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes. PMID:27545977

  8. The LCOGT Supernova Key Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Dale Andrew; Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano; LCOGT Supernova Key Project

    2016-06-01

    We highlight results from the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Supernova Key Project -- a 3 year program to obtain lightcurves and spectra of approximately 500 low-redshift SNe. LCOGT is a robotic network of elevent one and two meter telescopes spaced around the globe. We are involved in a variety of surveys, including the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, LaSilla Quest, PESSTO, and KMTNet. Recent results include analysis of large samples of core-collaspe SNe, the largest sample of SNe Ibn, evidence of the progenitors of SNe Ia from companion shocking, and new findings about superluminious SNe.

  9. SkyMapper and Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzo, R.

    The SkyMapper Southern Sky Survey will be a wide-area digital survey of the southern sky, run from the robotic 1.3-m SkyMapper telescope at Siding Spring Observatory near Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia. The survey will include a supernova search run during poor seeing time, run as a rolling search to produce high-quality light curves for Hubble diagram cosmology. The search is currently taking data in science verification mode. I will briefly describe SkyMapper and then give an overview of su- pernova search activities, including pipeline design, operations, and interaction with the community.

  10. Petascale Supernova Simulation with CHIMERA

    SciTech Connect

    Messer, Bronson; Bruenn, S. W.; Blondin, J. M.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Hix, William Raphael; Dirk, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    CHIMERA is a multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code designed to study core-collapse supernovae. The code is made up of three essentially independent parts: a hydrodynamics module, a nuclear burning module, and a neutrino transport solver combined within an operator-split approach. We describe some ma jor algorithmic facets of the code and briefly discuss some recent results. The multi-physics nature of the problem, and the specific implementation of that physics in CHIMERA, provide a rather straightforward path to effective use of multi-core platforms in the near future.

  11. Models for Type I supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Taam, R.E.

    1980-06-17

    Two rather disjoint scenarios for Type I supernovae are presented. One is based upon mass accretion by a white dwarf in a binary system. The second involves a star having some 8 to 10 times the mass of the sun which may or may not be a solitary star. Despite the apparent dissimilarities in the models it may be that each occurs to some extent in nature for they both share the possibility of producing substantial quantities of /sup 56/Ni and explosions in stars devoid of hydrogen envelopes. These are believed to be two properties that must be shared by any viable Type I model.

  12. The Progenitors of Thermonuclear Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Tornambe, A.; Dominguez, I.

    2009-05-03

    In the framework of the rotating Double Degenerate Scenario for type Ia Supernovae progenitors, we show that the dichotomy between explosive events in early and late type galaxies can be easily explained. Assuming that more massive progenitors produce slow-decline (high-luminosity) light curve, it comes out that, at the current age of the Universe, in late type galaxies the continuous star formation provides very massive exploding objects (prompt component) corresponding to slow-decline (bright) SNe; on the other hand, in early type galaxies, where star formation ended many billions years ago, only low mass ''normal luminosity'' objects (delayed component) are present.

  13. Properties of unusually luminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tony Shih Arng

    This thesis is a theoretical study of the progenitors, event rates, and observational properties of unusually luminous supernova (SN), and aims to identify promising directions for future observations. In Chapter 2, we present model light curves and spectra of pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) over a range of progenitor masses and envelope structures for Pop III stars. We calculate the rates and detectability of PISNe, core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and Type Ia SNe at the Epoch of Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which can be used to determine the contribution of Pop III versus Pop II stars toward ionizing the universe. Although CCSNe are the least intrinsically luminous supernovae, Chapter 5 shows that a JWST survey targeting known galaxy clusters with Einstein radii > 35" should discover gravitationally lensed CCSNe at redshifts exceeding z = 7--8. In Chapter 3, we explain the Pop II/I progenitors of observed PISNe in the local universe can be created via mergers in runaway collisions in young, dense star clusters, despite copious mass loss via line-driven winds. The PISN rate from this mechanism is consistent with the observed volumetric rate, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could discover ~102 such PISNe per year. In Chapter 4, we identify 10 star clusters which may host PISN progenitors with masses up to 600 solar masses formed via runaway collisions. We estimate the probabilities of these very massive stars being in eclipsing binaries to be ≳ 30%, and find that their transits can be detected even under the contamination of the background cluster light, due to mean transit depths of ~10 6 solar luminosities. In Chapter 6, we show that there could be X-ray analogues of optically super-luminous SNe that are powered by the conversion of the kinetic energy of SN ejecta into radiation upon its collision with a dense but optically-thin circumstellar shell. We find shell configurations that can convert a large fraction of the SN

  14. 76 FR 70156 - Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ...-2011), a paper expanding upon the energy alternatives likely to replace OCS oil and gas in the absence... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Proposed 5-Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas Leasing... on the Proposed 5-Year OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017 (``Proposed Program''). This...

  15. 38 CFR 8.26 - Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. 8.26 Section 8.26 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Renewal of Term Insurance § 8.26 Renewal of National Service Life Insurance on the 5-year level premium term plan. (a)...

  16. 75 FR 38979 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... for the eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller sea lion (75 FR 37385). NMFS inadvertently... of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct Population Segment of the Steller Sea Lion AGENCY... of a 5-year review of the eastern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the Steller Sea...

  17. Legacy sample disposition project. Volume 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, R.N.; Shifty, K.L.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the legacy sample disposition project at the Idaho Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), which assessed Site-wide facilities/areas to locate legacy samples and owner organizations and then characterized and dispositioned these samples. This project resulted from an Idaho Department of Environmental Quality inspection of selected areas of the INEEL in January 1996, which identified some samples at the Test Reactor Area and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant that had not been characterized and dispositioned according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. The objective of the project was to manage legacy samples in accordance with all applicable environmental and safety requirements. A systems engineering approach was used throughout the project, which included collecting the legacy sample information and developing a system for amending and retrieving the information. All legacy samples were dispositioned by the end of 1997. Closure of the legacy sample issue was achieved through these actions.

  18. Mining the Spitzer Legacy Science Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Storrie-Lombardi, L.; Squires, G.; Alexov, A.

    2005-12-01

    The original Spitzer Legacy Science Program is now approaching completion with the basic observations archived and the `enhanced' data products populating dedicated Spitzer and IRSA archives. To date the Legacy teams of C2D, FEPS, GLIMPSE, GOODS, SINGS and SWIRE have delivered more than half of the total planned `enhanced' data products to the public archives. The archives include fully reduced and calibrated imaging, spectra, and tabular data derived from the Spitzer IRAC, MIPS and IRS observations, as well as ancillary ground-based imaging and spectroscopy. Science results are now flowing from the Legacy teams, addressing the fundamental questions that the Spitzer observations where designed and optimized to answer. However, the data archives are mostly untapped in their science potential, offering a rich resource for astronomical data mining. We describe the archives in detail, spanning their structure, content and accessibility. User friendly resources for mining the data are showcased, including the Spitzer Science Center archive tool Leopard and the Infrared Science Archive services Atlas and RADAR.

  19. A legacy building model for holistic nursing.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernadette; Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Mariano, Carla

    2014-06-01

    This pilot project was an effort to record the historical roots, development, and legacy of holistic nursing through the visionary spirit of four older American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) members. The aim was twofold: (a) to capture the holistic nursing career experiences of elder AHNA members and (b) to begin to create a Legacy Building Model for Holistic Nursing. The narratives will help initiate an ongoing, systematic method for the collection of historical data and serve as a perpetual archive of knowledge and inspiration for present and future holistic nurses. An aesthetic inquiry approach was used to conduct in-depth interviews with four older AHNA members who have made significant contributions to holistic nursing. The narratives provide a rich description of their personal and professional evolution as holistic nurses. The narratives are presented in an aesthetic format of the art forms of snapshot, pastiche, and collage rather than traditional presentations of research findings. A synopsis of the narratives is a dialogue between the three authors and provides insight for how a Legacy Model can guide our future. Considerations for practice, education, and research are discussed based on the words of wisdom from the four older holistic nurses.

  20. The Supernova Remnant CTA 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1996-01-01

    The supernova remnants G327.1-1.1 and G327.4+0.4 (Kes 27) are located 1.5 deg apart in the constellation Norma. In 1980, Einstein IPC observations discovered that both were irregular filled-center X-ray sources with possible point sources superposed. This paper describes new ROSAT position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) observations which both map the diffuse structure and clearly show several unresolved sources in each field. Both remnants have bright emitting regions inside the limb which might indicate the presence of high energy electrons accelerated by a pulsar. The interior region is more prominent in G327.1-1.1 than in Kes 27. The spectra are relatively strongly absorbed, as expected from distant remnants close to the galactic plane. Comparison of the X-ray and radio maps of each remnant allows us to attribute some emission to a shell and some to the interior. With this information, a blast-wave model is used to derive approximate ages and energy release. Indications are that the Kes 27 supernova deposited approximately 10(exp 51) ergs in the surrounding medium. The G327.1-1.1 event probably deposited a factor of 3-10 less.

  1. Supernova Remnants in High Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick; Badenes, Carles; Freyer, Chris; Hughes, Jack; Lee, Herman Shiu-Hang; Lopez, Laura; Patnaude, Daniel; Reynolds, Steve; Temim, Tea; Williams, Brian; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2015-10-01

    As the observable products of explosive stellar death, supernova remnants reveal some of the most direct information on the physics of the explosions, the properties of the progenitor systems, and the demographics of compact objects formed in the supernova events. High sensitivity X-ray observations have allowed us to probe the properties of the shocked plasma, providing constraints on abundances and ionization states that connect directly progenitor masses and metallicities, the nature of the explosions (core-collapse vs. thermonuclear), and the physics of shock heating and particle acceleration in fast shocks. Studies of SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds have provided information on source demographics in a low metallicity environment, and deep searches for point sources in Galactic SNRs imply that many remnants contain rapidly cooling neutron stars or black holes. Based on Chandra observations, we know that crucial measurements required to advance our knowledge in these areas are possible only with much more sensitive observations at high angular resolution. From identifying the effects of particle acceleration on the post-shock gas in young SNRs like Tycho to obtaining spatially resolved spectra - and identifying compact objects - for young SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, the capabilities of a facility like the X-ray Surveyor are required. Here I present a summary of recent advances brought about by spectral investigations of SNRs, and discuss particular examples of new advances that will be enabled by X-ray Surveyor capabilities.

  2. Runaway Stars in Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannicke, Anna; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Dinçel, Baha

    2016-07-01

    Half of all stars and in particular 70 % of the massive stars are a part of a multiple system. A possible development for the system after the core collapse supernova (SN) of the more massive component is as follows: The binary is disrupted by the SN. The formed neutron star is ejected by the SN kick whereas the companion star either remains within the system and is gravitationally bounded to the neutron star, or is ejected with a spatial velocity comparable to its former orbital velocity (up to 500 km/s). Such stars with a large peculiar space velocity are called runaway stars. We present our observational results of the supernova remnants (SNRs) G184.6-5.8, G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2. The focus of this project lies on the detection of low mass runaway stars. We analyze the spectra of a number of candidates and discuss their possibility of being the former companions of the SN progenitor stars. The spectra were obtained with INT in Tenerife, Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory and the University Observatory Jena. Also we investigate the field stars in the neighborhood of the SNRs G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2 and calculate more precise distances for these SNRs.

  3. Gamma ray constraints on the Galactic supernova rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, D.; The, L.-S.; Clayton, Donald D.; Leising, M.; Mathews, G.; Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected gamma ray signatures of Galactic supernovae of all types to estimate the significance of the lack of a gamma ray signal due to supernovae occurring during the last millenium. Using recent estimates of the nuclear yields, we determine mean Galactic supernova rates consistent with the historic supernova record and the gamma ray limits. Another objective of these calculations of Galactic supernova histories is their application to surveys of diffuse Galactic gamma ray line emission.

  4. Supernovae: lights in the darkness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Every year, at the end of the summer, the Section of Physics and Technique of the "Institut Menorquí d'Estudis" and the "Societat Catalana de Física" organize the "Trobades Científiques de la Mediterrània" with the support of several academic institutions. The 2007 edition has been devoted to stellar explosions, the true evolutionary engines of galaxies. Whenever a star explodes, it injects into the interstellar medium a kinetic energy of 1051 erg and between one and several solar masses of newly synthesized elements as a result of the thermonuclear reactions that have taken place within the stellar interior. Two mechanisms are able to provide these enormous amounts of energy: one of them thermonuclear and the other, gravitational. Thermonuclear supernovae are the result of the incineration of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf that is the compact star of a binary stellar system. If the two stars are sufficiently close to each other, the white dwarf accretes matter from its companion, approaches the mass of Chandrasekhar, and ends up exploding. The processes previous to the explosion, the explosion itself, as well as the exact nature of the double stellar system that explodes, are still a matter of discussion. This point is particularly important because these explosions, known as Type Ia Supernovae, are very homogenous and can be used to measure cosmological distances. The most spectacular result obtained, is the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, but it still feels uncomfortable that such a fundamental result is based on a "measuring system" whose origin and behaviour in time is unknown. At the end of their lives, massive stars generate an iron nucleus that gets unstable when approaching the Chandrasekhar mass. Its collapse gives rise to the formation of a neutron star or a black hole, and the external manifestation of the energy that is released, about a 1053 erg, consists of a Type II or Ib/c supernova, of a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) or even of

  5. Surgical treatment of cardiac tumors: a 5-year experience from a single cardiac center

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liang; He, Dengke; Shen, Hua; Ling, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Xue, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare but manifested with various clinical presentations and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. The objective is to review the clinical presentation, histopathological spectrum, mortality and follow-up data of patients with cardiac tumors following surgery treatment over a period of 5 years. Methods We retrospectively collected the medical records of all patients diagnosed of cardiac tumors in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 at the cardiac center of our university. Clinical histories, perioperative data, surgical findings, efficacy and follow-up data were reviewed in our study. Patients were divided into two groups according to site distribution of the tumors in the heart. Results A total of 131 patients underwent surgical treatment of cardiac tumors were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 51.39±16.37. The result of analysis showed that 79.47% (n=104) of the primary intracardiac tumors were benign, while primary malignant neoplasms accounted for 16.03% (n=21) of all patients, with the remainder (n=6, 4.6%) metastatic tumors transferred from other organs. Among all patients there were 2 in-hospital deaths and the survival rate in all patients at 1-year, 3-year and 5-year follow up was 83.20%, 78.62% and 66.41% respectively. Both patients with tumors in the left and right heart had similar basic characteristics except sex gender (P=0.002), BSA (P=0.045) and weight (P=0.033). Compared with patients with tumors in the right heart, patients with tumors in the left heart had significant higher CPB time (P<0.001), cross clamp time (P<0.001) and time of mechanical ventilation (P<0.001), and they also had longer ICU stay (P<0.001) but not total hospital stay (P=0.434). Conclusions Surgical resection represents an effective protocol in treating cardiac tumors. Data in our study of cardiac tumors on frequency and allocation were consistent with previous reports which may provide useful clinical evidence on

  6. Sepsis After Cardiac Surgery Early in Infancy and Adverse 4.5-Year Neurocognitive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Naveen; Joffe, Ari R; Doughty, Paul; Vatanpour, Shabnam; Dinu, Irina; Alton, Gwen; Acton, Bryan; Robertson, Charlene M T

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether sepsis is associated with neurocognitive outcomes 4.5 years after congenital heart disease surgery in early infancy. Methods and Results A secondary analysis from a prospective inception cohort included all children having congenital heart disease surgery done at ≤6 weeks of age with cardiopulmonary bypass at the Western Canadian referral center from 1996 to 2009. Follow-up at the referral center determined the primary outcomes at 4.5 years with full-scale, performance, and verbal intelligence quotients on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Perioperative variables were collected prospectively, and confirmation of blood culture–positive sepsis was done retrospectively. Multiple linear regression models for neurocognitive outcomes and multiple Cox proportional hazards regression for mortality were determined. Sepsis occurred in 97 of 502 patients (19%) overall and in 76 of 396 survivors (19%) with 4.5-year follow-up. By 4.5 years, there were 91 (18%) deaths, and 396 of 411 survivors (96%) had follow-up completed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with worse scores on all neurocognitive outcomes on multivariable regression; the association between extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and full-scale intelligence quotient had a regression coefficient of −13.6 (95% CI −21.3 to −5.9; P =0.001). Sepsis perioperatively was associated with performance and verbal intelligence quotients, with a trend for full-scale intelligence quotient (P =0.058) on multivariable regression. The regression coefficient for sepsis was strongest for performance intelligence quotient (−5.31; 95% CI −9.84 to −0.78; P =0.022). Sepsis was not but extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with mortality by 4.5 years. Conclusions Perioperative sepsis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes on multivariable regression. Quality improvement to

  7. [Immunogenicity of additional varicella vaccination 3-5 years after the initial vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2013-07-01

    Additional varicella vaccination was carried out targeting 16 subjects who had immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) seroconversion following the initial varicella vaccination and did not contract breakthrough varicella after the initial vaccination. The median ages at the initial and additional vaccination were 2.1 (1.1-6.9) years old and 6.1 (4.4-10.5) years old, respectively. The mean interval between the initial and additional vaccination was 4.0 (3.2-5.2) years. IAHA and glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA) antibody titers were measured just before and 4-6 weeks after the additional vaccination. Side reaction was surveyed at four weeks after the additional vaccination, and compared with the results at the initial vaccination. IAHA and gpELISA seroconversion rates at the initial vaccination were 100% and 88% respectively. Prior to the additional vaccination, IAHA antibody titers significantly decreased in 50% of the subjects, and became negative in 38% of the subjects. On the other hand, a significant increase in IAHA antibody titers was observed in 25% of the subjects, and this is assumed to be the result of a subclinical infection after the initial vaccination. The positive rate of both antibodies after the additional vaccination was 100%, the mean IAHA antibody titer (Log2) after the initial/additional vaccination in seropositive subjects was 4.6/6.5, and the mean gpELISA antibody titer (Log10) was 2.3/4.0. The mean IAHA and gpELISA antibody titers were higher after the additional vaccination than after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01, p < 0.01). This is considered to be the booster effect due to the additional vaccination. At 0-2 days after the additional vaccination, a rash at the injection site was observed in 56% of the subjects, higher than the incidence after the initial vaccination (13%) (p < 0.05), but no severe systemic side reactions were observed at either the initial or the additional vaccination. In conclusion, an

  8. Energetic Supernovae from the Cosmic Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung

    2013-04-01

    We present the results from our 3D supernova simulations by using CASTRO, a new radiation-hydrodynamics code. The first generation of stars in the universe ended the cosmic dark age by shining the first light. But what was the fate of these stars? Based on the stellar evolution models, the fate of stars depends on their masses. Modern cosmological simulations suggest that the first stars could be very massive, with a typical mass scale over 50 solar masses. We look for the possible supernovae from the death of the first stars with masses over 50 solar masses. Besides the iron-core collapse supernovae, we find energetic thermonuclear supernovae, including two types of pair-instability supernovae and one type of general-relativity instability supernovae. Our models capture all explosive burning and follow the explosion until the shock breaks out from the stellar surface. We will discuss the energetics, nucleosynthesis, and possible observational signatures for these primordial supernovae that will be the prime targets for future large telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  9. Repackaging Rocky Flats Legacy Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    McTaggart, Jerri Lynne

    2008-01-15

    Repackaging legacy Transuranic (TRU), Transuranic Mixed (TRM), Low Level Waste (LLW), and Low Level Mixed (LLM) waste requires good characterization skills and the ability to adapt to less than ideal conditions. Repackaging legacy waste in a facility that is not undergoing Decontamination and Decommission (D and D) is optimum. However, repackaging any waste in a D and D facility, under cold and dark conditions, can be difficult. Cold and dark conditions are when the heating and air conditioning are no longer in service and the lighting consists of strands of lights hung throughout each of the rooms. Working under these conditions adds an additional level of stress and danger that must be addressed. The use of glovebags was very useful at Rocky Flats during the D and D of many buildings. Glovebags can be adapted for many different types of wastes and unusual conditions. Repackaging of legacy TRU waste, in a D and D facility, can be accomplished safely and cost effectively with the use of glovebags. In conclusion: the use of glovebags to repackage legacy TRU, TRM, LLW, or LLM waste was done safely and cost effectively at Rocky Flats. The cost of using glovebags was minimal. Glovebags are easily adaptable to whatever the waste configuration is. The use of glovebags, for repackaging of Legacy waste, allows D and D efforts to stay on schedule and on task. Without the use of glovebags, additional gloveboxes would have been required at Rocky Flats. Larger items, such as the HEPA filters, would have required the construction of a new large item repackaging glovebox. Repackaging in glovebags allows the freedom to either locate the glovebag by the waste or locate the glovebag in a place that least impacts D and D efforts. The use of glovebags allowed numerous configurations of waste to be repackaged without the use of gloveboxes. During the D and D of the Rocky Flats facility, which was in a cold and dark stage, D and D work was not impacted by the repackaging activity

  10. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research. PMID:21554472

  11. Haemoptysis in adults: a 5-year study using the French nationwide hospital administrative database.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalak, Caroline; Cottenet, Jonathan; Beltramo, Guillaume; Georges, Marjolaine; Camus, Philippe; Bonniaud, Philippe; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Haemoptysis is a serious symptom with various aetiologies. Our aim was to define the aetiologies, outcomes and associations with lung cancer in the entire population of a high-income country.This retrospective multicentre study was based on the French nationwide hospital medical information database collected over 5 years (2008-2012). We analysed haemoptysis incidence, aetiologies, geographical and seasonal distribution and mortality. We studied recurrence, association with lung cancer and mortality in a 3-year follow-up analysis.Each year, ~15 000 adult patients (mean age 62 years, male/female ratio 2/1) were admitted for haemoptysis or had haemoptysis as a complication of their hospital stay, representing 0.2% of all hospitalised patients. Haemoptysis was cryptogenic in 50% of cases. The main aetiologies were respiratory infections (22%), lung cancer (17.4%), bronchiectasis (6.8%), pulmonary oedema (4.2%), anticoagulants (3.5%), tuberculosis (2.7%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%) and aspergillosis (1.1%). Among incident cases, the 3-year recurrence rate was 16.3%. Of the initial cryptogenic haemoptysis patients, 4% were diagnosed with lung cancer within 3 years. Mortality rates during the first stay and at 1 and 3 years were 9.2%, 21.6% and 27%, respectively.This is the first epidemiological study analysing haemoptysis and its outcomes in an entire population. Haemoptysis is a life-threatening symptom unveiling potentially life-threatening underlying conditions.

  12. Friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil after 5 years of biochar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Wani; Ganika, Shaory; Wisnubroto, Erwin; Islami, Titiek

    2016-04-01

    The effect of biochar application on soil friability and aggregate stability of loamy soil was studied at Brawijaya University field experimental station, Jatikerto, Malang, Indonesia. The soil has been planted with cassava for 4 years continuously and 1 year planted with maiz. The biochar applied was made from cassava stem and farm yard manure. It was found that biochar application, either made from cassava stem or farm yard manure improved soil qualities. Soil applied with biochar was more friable compared to that of the no biochar soil, although biochar application did not influence Atterberg limits. It seems that the higher friability of biochar applied soil was associated with the higher soil organic matter. It was found that until 5 years application, the biochar treated soil had a higher soil organic matter content. Soil applied with biochar possessed a better soil aggregate stability, both dry and wet stability. This was shown by the higher aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) of biochar applied soil. The cassava biochar applied soil had MWD of 2.22 mm (dry stability) and 1.56 mm (wet stability), whereas the control soil had MWD of 1.45 mm (dry stability) and 1.25 (wet stability). There was a significant positive correlation between soil friability and dry aggregate stability. The biochar applied soils also had higher soil permeability. Key words: soil qualities, soil physical properties, Atterberg limits, hydraulic conductivity

  13. Blunt abdominal trauma. A 5-year analysis of 870 patients requiring celiotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, E F

    1984-01-01

    This study represents the experience with blunt trauma to the abdomen of patients from a major regional trauma center. Eight hundred and seventy patients with blunt abdominal trauma are reviewed, representing 12.89% of the total admissions over a 5-year period. The motor vehicle continues to be the major cause (89.5%) of injury to these patients. Thirty per cent had positive blood alcohol. Intra-abdominal injuries in this group necessitating operative intervention were based on the use of peritoneal lavage. Negative celiotomies occurred in 10.2% of these patients. Of the injuries incurred, the spleen was involved 42%, the liver 35.6%, the serosa, diaphragm, bowel, and blood vessels were involved to a lesser extent. Only 0.4% of the patients suffered direct injury to the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas, data which should preclude routine exploration of retroperitoneal structures unless by obvious retroperitoneal injury is noted. Additional surgical intervention for associated injuries was seen in 50.54% of this patient group. PMID:6712323

  14. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors.

  15. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28–60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  16. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  17. METEO in the TALNET project after 5 years - meteorology for talented high schools students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisoft, P.; Miksovsky, J.

    2010-09-01

    TALNET is a project aiming to systematically identify and work with gifted youth (13-19 years). Specifically, it applies online educational activities combined with face to face activities. It has been organised by the Faculty of Maths and Physics (MFF) of Charles University in Prague (UK) and National Institute for Youth (NIDM) since 2003, later in cooperation with other faculties, e.g. Natural Sciences (PrF UK), universities and science and research institutes in the Czech Republic and abroad, e.g. DLR, Germany. Topics of the educational activities come from natural sciences (such as physics, astronomy, biology, chemistry, meteorology etc.) and mathematics. The presented project's part METEO embraces lessons primarily focused on basics of meteorology and atmospheric physics in general and it has been part of the Talnet project for 5 years. The meteorological lectures consist of description of, e.g., climate system, meteorological quantities, weather forecasting, ozone and the stratosphere, climate change or atmospheric optics. On top of the lectures, the students are encouraged to work on enclosed homework such as meteorological time series analysis, clouds observation and classification, halo simulation and so on. The METEO course lasts one semester and the students make their seminar thesis at the end. The presented materials will consist of examples of the contemporary lectures and their organization, homeworks or seminar theses.

  18. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  19. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  20. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  1. Prevalence of Candida dubliniensis among cancer patients in Kuwait: a 5-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mokaddas, Eiman; Khan, Zia U; Ahmad, Suhail

    2011-07-01

    Despite close genetic and phenotypic relationship of Candida dubliniensis with Candida albicans, its role in human disease is mostly restricted to oral colonisation, particularly among HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of C. dubliniensis in association with other disease conditions has been infrequently reported. In this study, we present data on the prevalence of C. dubliniensis among yeast species isolated from cancer patients over a 5-year period. A total of 1445 yeast isolates recovered from respiratory specimens, blood, urine and oral swabs were analysed. Candida dubliniensis isolates were provisionally identified by phenotypic methods and their identity was further confirmed by species-specific amplification and/or sequencing of internally transcribed spacer region of rDNA. Antifungal susceptibility for fluconazole was determined by Etest. The number of isolates identified as C. dubliniensis, C. albicans and other yeast species were 71 (4.9%), 862 (59.6%) and 512 (35%) respectively. All the C. dubliniensis isolates originated from respiratory (5.9%) or oral (3.2%) specimens with an overall prevalence of 4.9%, and were found to be susceptible to fluconazole. The isolation of C. dubliniensis from respiratory or oral specimens and not from blood or urine specimens suggests that this species has preference to colonise these sites of human body.

  2. Facebook as a medium for promoting statement of intent for organ donation: 5-years of experience.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Michał; Klikowicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The number of potential registered organ donors does not cover the actual demand in most developed countries. Therefore, methods increasing awareness and interest in organ donation, including modern tools of social marketing, are being researched worldwide. The aim of this paper is to present our 5-year experiences with a Facebook networking campaign - the Dawca.pl Club. The mission of the campaign is to raise awareness and educate Polish society on tissue, cell, and organ transplants, to increase public acceptance for transplants as a treatment method, and to increase the number of voluntary donors signing consents for organ donation. The project is based on the idea of creating a community promoting transplantation, focused around the Dawca.pl Club. At present the club has over 48,000 registered members - people who declared willingness to donate their organs after death. We present a description of members of this social networking service, the possibilities of using it to promote transplants and organ donation, and the efficacy of selected schemes for creating and publishing content on Facebook. The example of Dawca.pl shows that 2-way relations, spread over time, are required for social media to effectively engage and exert influence in a chosen sphere of public health and medicine. Unfortunately, at this time it is difficult to assess how such campaigns, apart from raising social awareness and acceptance, will affect the number of transplantations of organs from living and deceased donors. PMID:25761524

  3. Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: role of parents.

    PubMed

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mars, Monica; De Graaf, Cees

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the relationships in children between rules that restrict consumption of mono- and disaccharides (MDS), consumption of MDS and preferences for sucrose-containing orangeade. The background ideas of restriction rules we also investigated. To this end, 44 children (5.1+/-0.5 years) performed a rank-order and paired-comparison test of preference for five orangeades, which differed in sucrose concentration (0.14, 0.20, 0.29, 0.42, 0.61 M sucrose). Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning restriction rules and their children's consumption of MDS-containing foods. Stronger restriction rules were related to a lower consumption of beverages that contained MDS and to a lower consumption of MDS-containing foods during breakfast and lunch. The most freedom to choose foods that contain MDS was given during the afternoon. Fifty-five percent of the children who were highly restricted showed a preference for the highest concentration of sucrose in orangeade. None of these children preferred the orangeade with the lowest concentration of sucrose. While 19% of the children who were little restricted preferred the beverage with the lowest concentration of sucrose, 33% preferred the beverage with the highest concentration. These parents generally believed that sugar has a bad effect on health and had similar background ideas concerning restriction rules.

  4. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us.

  5. The use of modern quality improvement approaches to strengthen African health systems: a 5-year agenda.

    PubMed

    Heiby, James

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing international consensus that African health systems need to improve, but no agreement on how to accomplish this. From the perspective of modern quality improvement (QI), a central issue for low performance in these health systems is the relative neglect of health-care processes. Both health system leaders and international donors have focused their efforts elsewhere, producing noteworthy health gains. But these gains are at risk if health systems do not develop the capacity to study and improve care processes. Substantial experience with QI in Africa shows impressive potential for broad-based process improvement. But this experience also highlights the need for modifying these growing programs to incorporate a more rigorous learning component to address challenges that have emerged recently. The addition of a region-wide knowledge management program could increase the efficiency of each country's QI program by learning from the experiences of other programs. With a coordinated donor initiative, it is reasonable to project that within 5 years, evidence-based improvement will become a norm in health services, and African health systems will approach the model of a learning organization.

  6. [Analysis on moxibustion papers in SCI journals during the recent 5 years].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ying-chun; Jiang, Xiu-li

    2014-11-01

    The papers regarding moxibustion published in science citation index (SCI) journals for the recent 5 years were searched to explore the international tendency of moxibustion researches, which provided references for moxibustion to have a better internationalization. With methods of internet search and database search, a total of 116 papers regarding moxibustion were included. These papers were published in 40 kinds of journals, mostly in Britain and the United States. The journal with the highest impact factor was Stroke, which had 5729 points. The number and impact factor of these journals were inferior to those of acupuncture journal. Compared among these journals, the depth and width of moxibustion research were increasing year by year. The category of diseases related with moxibustion is mainly digestive system diseases, motor system diseases and urinary-genital system diseases. The type of papers was characterized with clinical observation and mechanism research. Researches related with moxibustion included moxibustion dose and safety. It was believed that the international recognition of moxibustion effectiveness, standardization of moxibustion manipulation, standardization research, etc. were needed to be solved in the further. PMID:25675578

  7. Dimensionality and Reliability of Letter Writing in 3- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality and reliability of letter writing skills in preschool children with the aim of determining whether a sequence existed in how children learn to write the letters of the alphabet. Additionally, we examined gender differences in the development of letter writing skills. 471 children aged 3 to 5 years old completed a letter writing task. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter writing represented a unidimensional skill. Similar to research findings that the development of letter-names and letter-sound knowledge varies in acquisition, our findings indicate that the ability to write some letters is acquired earlier than the ability to write other letters. Although there appears to be an approximate sequence for the easiest and most difficult letters, there appears to be a less clear sequence for letters in the middle stages of development. Overall, girls had higher letter writing scores compared to boys. Gender differences regarding difficulty writing specific letters was less conclusive; however, results indicated that when controlling for ability level, girls had a higher probability of writing a letter correctly than boys. Implications of these findings for the assessment and instruction of letter writing are discussed. PMID:26346443

  8. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  9. Impact of 5 years of lean six sigma in a University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Gerard C; Trip, Albert; de Jong, Laura J; Wendt, Klaus W; Does, Ronald J M M

    2012-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is an originally industry-based methodology for cost reduction and quality improvement. In more recent years, LSS was introduced in health care as well. This article describes the experiences of the University Medical Center Groningen, the second largest hospital in the Netherlands, with LSS. It was introduced in 2007 to create the financial possibility to develop innovations. In this article, we describe how LSS was introduced, and how it developed in the following years. We zoom in at the traumatology department, where all main processes have been analyzed and improved. An evaluation after 5 years shows that LSS helped indeed reducing cost and improving quality. Moreover, it aided the transition of the organization from purely problem oriented to more process oriented, which in turn is helpful in eliminating waste and finding solutions for difficult problems. A major benefit of the program is that own employees are trained to become project leaders for improvement. Several people from the primary process were thus stimulated and equipped to become role models for continuous improvement.

  10. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us. PMID:27424019

  11. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  12. Hyperpigmented Torpedo Maculopathy with Pseudo-Lacuna: A 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rohl, Austin; Vance, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to describe a case of globally hyperpigmented torpedo maculopathy that also contained a novel central lesion resembling a ‘pseudo-lacuna’. We compare the morphology of the lesion after 5 years of follow-up. Case Presentation An asymptomatic 10-year-old Caucasian male was referred by his optometrist after having found a hyperpigmented lesion on routine dilated examination in 2010. Color fundus photography OS from October 2015 showed a 1.74 × 0.67 mm hyperpigmented oval-shaped lesion temporal to the macula. Since June 2010, the hyperpigmented torpedo lesion appeared to have assumed a more ovoid shape and increased in size in the vertical axis. Centrally, there was a small pearlescent-colored pseudo-lacuna lesion that seemed to also have significantly increased in size since June 2010. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of this pseudo-lacuna showed retinal pigment epithelium clumping and migration. Fundus autofluorescence revealed reduced autofluorescence of the torpedo lesion and marked hyperautofluorescence of the pseudo-lacuna. Fluorescein angiography shows no neovascular disease or leakage. Conclusion Torpedo maculopathy has been described previously as a hypopigmented, nonprogressive lesion of unknown etiology. The findings of global hyperpigmentation, pseudo-lacuna formation, and morphologic changes over time in this lesion challenge these classically held descriptions, and necessitate long-term follow-up with multimodal imaging. PMID:27462244

  13. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school.

  14. Vitamin A deficiency and attributable mortality among under-5-year-olds.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.; West, K. P.; Sommer, A.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are estimates of the prevalence in developing countries of physiologically significant vitamin A deficiency and the number of attributable deaths. The WHO classification of countries by the severity and extent of xerophthalmia was used to categorize developing countries by likely risk of subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Using vital statistics compiled by UNICEF, we derived population figures and mortality rates for under-5-year-olds. The findings of vitamin A supplementation trials were applied to populations at-risk of endemic vitamin A deficiency to estimate the potential impact of improved vitamin A nutriture in reducing mortality during preschool years. Worldwide, over 124 million children are estimated to be vitamin A deficient. Improved vitamin A nutriture would be expected to prevent approximately 1-2 million deaths annually among children aged 1-4 years. An additional 0.25-0.5 million deaths may be averted if improved vitamin A nutriture can be achieved during the latter half of infancy. Improved vitamin A nutriture alone could prevent 1.3-2.5 million of the nearly 8 million late infancy and preschool-age child deaths that occur each year in the highest-risk developing countries. PMID:1600583

  15. Cardiovascular events in acromegaly: distinct role of Agatston and Framingham score in the 5-year prediction.

    PubMed

    Ragonese, Marta; Alibrandi, Angela; Di Bella, Gianluca; Salamone, Ignazio; Puglisi, Soraya; Cotta, Oana Ruxandra; Torre, Maria Luisa; Ferrau, Francesco; Ruggeri, Rosaria Maddalena; Trimarchi, Francesco; Cannavo, Salvatore

    2014-09-01

    Prediction of ischemic cardiovascular events (ICE) in acromegalic patients stratified accordingly with Framingham (FS) and Agatston score (AS). 32 patients with active (group A (0)) and 20 with controlled (group B (0)) acromegaly have been enrolled. During the 5-year follow-up, 19 out of 32 patients in group A (0) reached disease control. At entry, FS and AS, by an eight-slice MDCT scanner, were calculated in all patients. ICE were diagnosed by autopsy, if lethal, and by electrocardiography and/or echocardiography, if non-lethal. Overall, 9.6 % of patients died for lethal ICE. AS >400, but not high FS at entry, was associated with increased risk of lethal ICE. Lethal ICE had occurred in two patients of group A (0) and three of group B (0) (p NS), while a non-lethal ICE had occurred in two cases of the former and in other two of the latter group (p NS). Either FS or AS was correlated with the risk for ICE overall (p < 0.02), but only AS correlated with that of lethal ICE (p < 0.0003). Survival analysis demonstrated reduced life expectancy in patients with high FS (p < 0.02). In acromegalics, AS >400 is associated with increased risk of lethal ICE, while high FS is associated with reduced life expectancy, regardless of disease control.

  16. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  17. Towson University's Professional Science Master's Program in Applied Physics: The first 5 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolagani, Rajeswari

    It is a well-established fact that the scientific knowledge and skills acquired in the process of obtaining a degree in physics meet the needs of a variety of positions in multiple science and technology sectors. However, in addition to scientific competence, challenging careers often call for skills in advanced communication, leadership and team functions. The professional science master's degree, which has been nick-named as the `Science MBA', aims at providing science graduates an edge both in terms of employability and earning levels by imparting such skills. Our Professional Science Master's Program in Applied Physics is designed to develop these `plus' skills through multiple avenues. In addition to advanced courses in Applied Physics, the curriculum includes graduate courses in project management, business and technical writing, together with research and internship components. I will discuss our experience and lessons learned over the 5 years since the inception of the program in 2010. The author acknowledges support from the Elkins Professorship of the University System of Maryland.

  18. ‘Workshops in healing’ for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of ‘physician know thyself’ (Workshop 1) and ‘confronting suffering’ (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008–2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  19. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse – 5-Year Survival Data

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, C.; Funk, A.; König, K.; Lubbe, D.; Misselwitz, B.; Wagner, U.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment. PMID:24882878

  20. Performance tests of 4-5 year old lithium sulphur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C. R.; Williams, R. L.

    1983-09-01

    Tests of a new acoustic system in the spring of 1982, using radio frequency transmission of the data, required the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) to reconsider the use of lithium battery technology. A request was made to the Navy Safety Office, Naval Sea Systems Command Code 06H, for permission to utilize lithium batteries in the R&D project and for permission to use existing lithium sulphur dioxide cells, which had been purchased in previous years. The safety office tentatively approved the intended useage but subject to a performance test and evaluation of a representative sample of the existing cells. In response to the NAVSEA direction, 32 cells were randomly chosen and subjected to forming and discharge tests. The cells, as a group, performed beyond expectations and provided energy in excess of the manufacturer's original specifications for these cells. All tests were performed without safety problems or any incidents. Similar cells from the same lot were subsequently used at sea in the R&D project and performed equally as well as those tested in the laboratory. This report documents the testing procedures used to evaluate 4 to 5 year old Li/SO2 cells and the test results achieved.

  1. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one’s own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children’s abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology. PMID:26517260

  2. Ensemble perception of size in 4-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-07-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the 'gist' of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use ensemble coding to perceive the average size of a group of objects. Children viewed a pair of trees, with each containing a group of differently sized oranges. We found that, in order to determine which tree had the larger oranges overall, children integrated the sizes of multiple oranges into ensemble representations. This pooling occurred rapidly, and it occurred despite conflicting information from numerosity, continuous extent, density, and contrast. An ideal observer analysis showed that although children's integration mechanisms are sensitive, they are not yet as efficient as adults'. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the way children see and understand the environment, and they illustrate the fundamental nature of ensemble coding in visual perception.

  3. Gallstone disease in a teaching hospital, Addis Ababa: a 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Ersumo, Tessema

    2006-01-01

    There are not many studies of gallbladder disease in Africa. The disease appears to be not uncommon in Ethiopia. To determine the prevalence and evaluate the management of gallstone disease in a central teaching hospital, a 5-year retrospective study was undertaken in 747 patients surgically treated for gallbladder disease in the period 1995-99 in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa. The sex ratio (M:F) was 1:5, narrower ratio in complicated cholelithiasis. The mean age was 42 years. About 80% of patients were in the age group between 30 and 60 years. The median duration of symptoms at admission was 2 years. Abdominal pain, in 96% of cases situated in the right upper quadrant (RUQ) and usually aching type, was the most frequent presenting symptom; RUQ tenderness was the most common sign. Clinically, 29.4% of patients were categorized obese. Gallstone detection rate by ultrasound was about 96% but cholecystitis appeared to be overlooked. At operation, about 77% of cases had features of chronic cholecystitis, 2% acalculous cholecystitis. Majority of the stones were grossly cholesterol stones. Cholecystectomy was performed in 99% of cases, most often through the oblique subcostal and transverse routes. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 0.4%. Nearly 87% of cases had postoperative course without incident. The etiologic factors and the type of gallstones, we believe, are not different from that of the developed world. Cholecystectomy is a safe and most effective procedure that provides ultimate cure for symptomatic gallstone disease. PMID:17447363

  4. Evaluation of a new Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in children aged 2-5 years.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Yap, L; Rivera, R G; Dispo, A P; Mallabo, J

    2001-01-01

    Typhoid fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. In view of the increasing resistance of Salmonella typhi against antibiotics and the high costs associated with improving sanitation conditions, vaccination programs would be of great benefit. We report on the evaluation of a new candidate VI (sic) polysaccharide typhoid vaccine (TypheriX (sic), SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals), tested in Filipino children aged 2-5 years where the profile was compared with that of a competitor-vaccine (Typhim (sic), Pasteur Merieux Connaught). Vaccination with the new candidate vaccine was followed by fewer general symptoms (2.9%) than with the competitor vaccine (14.1%), particularly with lower incidence of fever. The new candidate vaccine is also highly immunogenic: >99% of the vacinees were immune 28 days post vaccination with comparable GMTs of 3597 EL.U/ml for TypheriX (sic) and 3365 EL.U/ml for Typhim (sic). This trial shows that the available VI (sic) polysaccharide vaccines provide a reliable means in preventing a disease responsible for a significant morbidity and placing a heavy burden on health budgets.

  5. Results of proximal gastric vagotomy over 1-5 years in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Tovey, F I; Heald, R J

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-three underwent proximal gastric vagotomy for duodenal ulceration over a 6-year period. One hundred and fifteen of these have been followed up for 1-5 years. The operative mortality was nil and the result was satisfactory in 91 per cent. The incidence of side effects was small, notably that of dumping being 2.4 per cent and of diarrhoea, 3.6 per cent. Incidence of postoperative heartburn was reduced from 13 per cent to 4 per cent by the introduction of hepatic interposition. The incidence of recurrent ulceration was 5.1 per cent after an average interval of 2 years and that of new gastric ulceration 2.6 per cent after an average of 4 years. There were no recurrent ulcers in those who had peroperative Burge tests, although secretory studies showed no difference between those tested and those not tested. Most recurrences occurred in the earliest cases operated on before Burge testing was introduced and when only 2 cm of the lower oesophagus were exposed.

  6. Serious anaphylactic shock induced by hemocoagulase agkistrodon during anesthesia in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying-Yi; Li, Bi-Lian; Jin, Yu-Lin; Wang, Zi-Xin; Song, Xing-Rong; Ni, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of serious anaphylactic shock in a 5-year-old child undergoing scheduled surgery blank space of a right femoral intramedullary nail removal. The boy had undergone right femoral elastic intramedullary nail fixation surgery 14 months prior, but had no history of allergies. Within 5 minutes of intravenous bonus injection of hemocoagulase agkistrodon (HCA) 1 unit, a widespread transient diffuse erythema was seen on the front of his chest. After 20 minutes, sudden, profound cardiovascular collapse occurred. The child was treated effectively and sent to a ward 5 hours later. In this period, he received intravenously infused 200 ml hydroxyethyl starch solution and epinephrine at a rate of 0.05-0.01 μg kg(-1) min(-1). Total amount of dexamethasone sodium phosphate 14 mg was used. To the best of our knowledge, few case reports of HCA-induced anaphylactic shock in children exist. Our report will, therefore, increase awareness of the allergic potential of HCA among pediatric anesthesiologists. PMID:26064413

  7. Implications of foot ulceration in hemodialysis patients: a 5-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Menyar, Ayman; Koshy, Valsa; Hussein, Ahmed; Sharaf, Ahmed; Asim, Mohammad; Sadek, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Foot ulceration (FU) remains a serious concern for patients worldwide. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of FU in hemodialysis (HD) patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 252 HD patients who were followed up for 5 years. Patients were categorized according to whether they developed FU or not. The FU group (17%) was older and had significantly higher incidence of nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral (PAD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to no-FU group. FU group had higher frequency of major amputation (P = 0.001) and HD vascular access (P = 0.01). Patients with combined DM and PAD had a 10-fold increased risk of FU in comparison to those who had DM alone. Presence of PAD was the main independent predictor for development of FU in HD with an adjusted odd ratio (aOR) of 16.0 (95% CI: 4.41-62.18; P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and CAD, predictors for mortality were PAD (aOR 4.3), FU (aOR 3.6), and DM (aOR 2.6). FU is common in HD patients regardless of DM. However, the presence of PAD is significantly associated with more FU and mortality in HD. HD patients need intensive foot care and warrant progressive modification of vascular risk factors. PMID:24724108

  8. Acquisition of the mental state verb know by 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Booth, J R; Hall, W S; Robison, G C; Kim, S Y

    1997-11-01

    The production of the cognitive internal state word know by four 2- to 5-year-old children and their parents was examined. The levels of meaning of cognitive words can be categorized hierarchically along the dimensions of conceptual difficulty and abstractness (see Booth & Hall, 1995). The present study found that children and their parents expressed low levels of meaning less frequently, whereas they expressed high levels of meaning more frequently as a function of age. The children's use of know was also correlated positively with (1) their number of different words produced suggesting that cognitive words are related to more general semantic processes, and (2) with parental use of those same cognitive words suggesting that parental linguistic input may be an important mechanism in cognitive word acquisition. Finally, young children tended to use know more to refer to themselves than to refer to others, whereas their parents tended to use know equally to refer to self and others. The importance of cognitive words in a theory of language acquisition is discussed.

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. PMID:26922086

  10. Diabetic Gastroparesis: what we have learned and had to unlearn in the past 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Purna; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic gastroparesis is a disorder that occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is associated with considerable morbidity among these patients and resultant economic burden on the health system. It is primarily a disease seen in middle aged women though the increased predisposition in women still remains unexplained. Patients often present with nausea, vomiting, bloating, early satiety, and abdominal pain. The pathogenesis of this complex disorder is still not well understood but involves abnormalities in multiple interacting cell types including the extrinsic nervous system, enteric nervous system, Interstitial Cells of Cajal (ICC), smooth muscles and immune cells. The primary diagnostic test remains gastric scintigraphy though other modalities such as breath test, capsule, ultrasound, MRI and SPECT imaging show promise as alternative diagnostic modalities. The mainstay of treatment for diabetic gastroparesis has been antiemetics, prokinetics, nutritional support and pain control. In recent years, gastric stimulation has been used in refractory cases with nausea and vomiting. As we better understand the pathophysiology, newer treatment modalities are emerging which aim to correct the underlying defect. In this review we highlight what has been learned about diabetic gastroparesis in the past 5 years. We review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of diabetic gastroparesis focusing on the areas that are still controversial and those that require more studies. We also focus on advances in our understanding of the cellular changes that underlie development of diabetic gastroparesis highlighting new opportunities for targeted therapy. PMID:20871131

  11. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28-60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  12. 'Workshops in healing' for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of 'physician know thyself' (Workshop 1) and 'confronting suffering' (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  13. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008.

  14. The South American Land Data Assimilation System (SALDAS) 5-Year Retrospective Atmospheric Forcing Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGoncalves, Luis Gustavo G.; Shuttleworth, William J.; Vila, Daniel; Larroza, Elaine; Bottino, Marcus J.; Herdies, Dirceu L.; Aravequia, Jose A.; De Mattos, Joao G. Z.; Toll, David L.; Rodell, Matthew; Houser, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The definition and derivation of a 5-year, 0.125deg, 3-hourly atmospheric forcing dataset for the South America continent is described which is appropriate for use in a Land Data Assimilation System and which, because of the limited surface observational networks available in this region, uses remotely sensed data merged with surface observations as the basis for the precipitation and downward shortwave radiation fields. The quality of this data set is evaluated against available surface observations. There are regional difference in the biases for all variables in the dataset, with biases in precipitation of the order 0-1 mm/day and RMSE of 5-15 mm/day, biases in surface solar radiation of the order 10 W/sq m and RMSE of 20 W/sq m, positive biases in temperature typically between 0 and 4 K, depending on region, and positive biases in specific humidity around 2-3 g/Kg in tropical regions and negative biases around 1-2 g/Kg further south.

  15. DASCH ON KU Cyg: A {approx} 5 YEAR DUST ACCRETION EVENT IN {approx} 1900

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Sumin; Grindlay, Jonathan; Los, Edward; Servillat, Mathieu

    2011-09-01

    KU Cyg is an eclipsing binary consisting of an F-type star accreting through a large accretion disk from a K5III red giant. Here we present the discovery of a 5 year dip around 1900 found from its 100 year DASCH light curve. It showed a {approx}0.5 mag slow fading from 1899 to 1903 and brightened back around 1904 on a relatively shorter timescale. The light curve shape of the 1899-1904 fading-brightening event differs from the dust production and dispersion process observed in R Coronae Borealis stars, which usually has a faster fading and slower recovery, and for KU Cyg is probably related to the accretion disk surrounding the F star. The slow fading in KU Cyg is probably caused by increases in dust extinction in the disk, and the subsequent quick brightening may be due to the evaporation of dust transported inward through the disk. The extinction excess which caused the fading may arise from increased mass transfer rate in the system or from dust clump ejections from the K giant.

  16. Epidemiology and mortality of burns in the Lucknow Region, India--a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Ali, Wahid; Verma, Anoop K; Pandey, Abhishek; Rathore, Shiuli

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 95% of global burn deaths and disabilities are estimated to occur in low and middle income countries of the world. Burns are extremely common and are a major public health problem in a developing country like India. The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burns retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 2225 (10.7%) cases of burns among the total autopsies done over 5 years period (1st January 2008-27th November 2012) in the mortuary of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, K.G.M.U., Lucknow. The majority of deaths (88.8%) occurred between 10 and 49 years of age group with a preponderance of females (87.5%). The flame burns were seen in 60.1% of the victims. The majority of burn incidents were suicidal (38.6%) in nature followed by accidental (37.3%) and homicidal (24.1%) deaths. The percentages of burns with a total body surface area (TBSA) over 50% were observed in most of the cases (82.5%). In most of the cases deaths occurred within a week (82%) and most of the victims died from septicaemia and pneumonia (43.7%) followed by neurogenic shock (28.5%). The results of this study provide the necessary information to implement programmes for health education relating to prevention of burns focusing on the domestic setting.

  17. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research.

  18. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy training for primary care physicians: results of a 5-year experience.

    PubMed

    Schertz, R D; Baskin, W N; Frakes, J T

    1989-01-01

    The first 5 years of a flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy (FFS) training program for primary care physicians was analyzed in an attempt to assess clinical competence and develop a procedure learning curve. A total of 47 primary care physicians (26 third-year family practice residents, 15 family practitioners, and 6 internists) were successfully trained in 60-cm FFS by five gastroenterologists. Didactic teaching methods included 5 hours of videotapes, slides, endoscopic models, and the use of a photo atlas. Following a patient demonstration, each trainee completed 25 examinations supervised with a teaching attachment. Criteria used to assess trainee competence included unassisted length of scope insertion and examination duration. Mean depth of scope insertion was 35.9 cm for the first five examinations, increasing to a mean of 51.7 cm for the final five examinations. Average examination duration decreased from 19.1 min for examinations 1 through 5 to 17.0 min for examinations 21 through 25. Out of 1236 examinations, one or more polyps were found in 222 patients (18.0%). Carcinoma was found in 15 of 1236 examinations (1.4%). In summary, experienced endoscopists can teach primary care physicians to perform 60-cm FFS. Completion of 25 supervised cases appears to be adequate for achieving technical competence in flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy.

  19. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  20. Five Years in the Mid-Infrared Development of the SN 1987A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2009-01-01

    Spitzer has been used to monitor the mid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a 5 year period as it develops into a supernova remnant through interaction with its surrounding environment. This interaction is dominated by the collision of the ejecta with the pre-existing equatorial ring. The mid-IR continuum indicates an increasing mass of shock-heated silicate dust, but without any significant change in temperature of the dust grains. Comparison of the IR and X-ray evolution of the remnant can be used to infer plasma conditions and the processing of the dust in the shock-heated X-ray emitting gas.

  1. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  2. A Comprehensive Investigation Into Modeling Supernovae Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, Desmond

    Supernovae are a rich source of information. By studying their light curves and spectra we gain insights into stellar evolution, the nature of the progenitor star, surface abundances at the time of the explosion, whether previous mass-loss episodes have occurred, the physics of the explosion including the amount and type of elements synthesized, and whether the explosion has produced significant mixing between shells of different chemical composition. To maximize the information that can be gleaned from observations of supernovae it is essential that we have the necessary spectroscopic tools. To this end, we are developing a code, CMFGEN, capable of modeling supernova light curves and spectra. The code is currently being used, to study core-collapse supernovae as well as those arising from the nuclear detonation of a White Dwarf star. We wish to extend CMFGEN's capabilities by developing a procedure to handle non-monotonic velocity flows so that we can treat shock breakout and the interaction of supernova ejecta with circumstellar material. We will also investigate magnetar-powered SNe, and explore the connection between Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae and those supernovae associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursters. Through detailed studies of individual supernova, and through the construction of model grids, we are able to infer deficiencies in our modeling, in our atomic data, and in the progenitor models, and hence make refinements so that we can improve our understanding of all SNe classes. Previous (IUE), current (HST, Chandra, GALEX), and future NASA missions (James Webb Telescope) do/will provide a wealth of data on supernovae. The proposed research is related to strategic subgoal 3D: "Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe, and search for Earth-like planets." Supernovae are inherently coupled to the evolution of the universe and life: They can trigger star formation and they provide the raw materials (e.g., oxygen

  3. Recent progress on young Galactic supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.

    2016-06-01

    I will review progress in the past few years on several young (less than a few thousand years old) supernova remnants within the Milky Way galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. I will focus on objects like Tycho, Kepler, 3C 397, W49B, and Cas A. I will discuss not only what has been learned about particular remnants, but also what these remnants can tell us about their pre-supernova progenitor systems. I will also show areas in which newly launched and upcoming observatories, such as Hitomi (Astro-H) and JWST can contribute to the study of supernova remnants.

  4. Object Classification at the Nearby Supernova Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Bailey, Stephen; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Romano, Raquel; Thomas, Rollin C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wong, D.

    2007-12-21

    We present the results of applying new object classification techniques to the supernova search of the Nearby Supernova Factory. In comparison to simple threshold cuts, more sophisticated methods such as boosted decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines provide dramatically better object discrimination: we reduced the number of nonsupernova candidates by a factor of 10 while increasing our supernova identification efficiency. Methods such as these will be crucial for maintaining a reasonable false positive rate in the automated transient alert pipelines of upcoming large optical surveys.

  5. Supernovae as sources of interstellar diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Allen, John E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Small hydrocarbon grains in the vicinity of a supernova could be annealed by the absorption of several far-ultraviolet photons to produce the tiny diamonds found in meteorites. These freshly-synthesized diamond grains would be bombarded by the heavy ions and neutrals in the supernovae outflow and would thereby acquire the distinctive noble-gas isotopic signature by which they were first isolated. Only diamonds formed relatively close to supernovae would acquire such a signature, since grains formed farther out would be subjected to a much diluted and less energetic plasma environment.

  6. A New Supernova Discovery/Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Sullivan, M.; Gal-Yam, A.

    2010-10-01

    The Type Ia supernova science working group of the Palomar Transient Factory (ATEL#1964) reports the discovery of the Type Ia supernova PTF10ygu at RA=09:37:30.30, Dec=+23:09:33.6 (J2000) in the host galaxy NGC 2929 at z=0.025. The supernova was discovered on Oct. 12.5 UT when it was at magnitude 19.2 in R-band (calibrated wrt the USNO catalog). There was nothing at this location on Oct 8.5 UT to a limiting magnitude of 20.3, and a marginal detection (S/N=5) at R=19.6 on Oct.

  7. Supernova 1987 A - A cold, dusty and rusty supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyromilio, Jason; Graham, James R.

    1992-04-01

    The near-infrared emission from forbidden lines of singly ionized iron in the ejecta of supernova 1987 A has been modeled. It is found that as late as 1989 February, relatively high excitation transitions such as those arising from the a4F-a2G multiplet at 7150 A are surprisingly strong. The inferred temperature and electron density imply a mass of Fe(+) of order 10 exp -3 solar mass. No evidence is found for strong emission by neutral or doubly ionized iron. Given that 0.07 solar mass of iron is believed to be present in the ejecta of SN 1987 A, the results suggest that the bulk of the iron is unable to emit in the wavelength range investigated.

  8. SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BY THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Folatelli, Gaston; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hsiao, Eric; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Castellon, Sergio; Roth, Miguel; Hamuy, Mario; Anderson, Joseph P.; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Persson, S. E.; Prieto, Jose L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin; and others

    2013-08-10

    This is the first release of optical spectroscopic data of low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by the Carnegie Supernova Project including 604 previously unpublished spectra of 93 SNe Ia. The observations cover a range of phases from 12 days before to over 150 days after the time of B-band maximum light. With the addition of 228 near-maximum spectra from the literature, we study the diversity among SNe Ia in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, spectroscopic parameters are employed such as expansion velocities from spectral line blueshifts and pseudo-equivalent widths (pW). The values of those parameters at maximum light are obtained for 78 objects, thus providing a characterization of SNe Ia that may help to improve our understanding of the properties of the exploding systems and the thermonuclear flame propagation. Two objects, namely, SNe 2005M and 2006is, stand out from the sample by showing peculiar Si II and S II velocities but otherwise standard velocities for the rest of the ions. We further study the correlations between spectroscopic and photometric parameters such as light-curve decline rate and color. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the pW of Si II absorption features are very good indicators of light-curve decline rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that parameters such as pW2 (Si II 4130) and pW6 (Si II 5972) provide precise calibrations of the peak B-band luminosity with dispersions of Almost-Equal-To 0.15 mag. In the search for a secondary parameter in the calibration of peak luminosity for SNe Ia, we find a Almost-Equal-To 2{sigma}-3{sigma} correlation between B-band Hubble residuals and the velocity at maximum light of S II and Si II lines.

  9. Supernova relic neutrinos and the supernova rate problem: Analysis of uncertainties and detectability of ONeMg and failed supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, Grant J.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Jyutaro

    2014-08-01

    Direct measurements of the core collapse supernova rate (R{sub SN}) in the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 appear to be about a factor of two smaller than the rate inferred from the measured cosmic massive star formation rate (SFR). This discrepancy would imply that about one-half of the massive stars that have been born in the local observed comoving volume did not explode as luminous supernovae. In this work, we explore the possibility that one could clarify the source of this 'supernova rate problem' by detecting the energy spectrum of supernova relic neutrinos with a next generation 10{sup 6} ton water Čerenkov detector like Hyper-Kamiokande. First, we re-examine the supernova rate problem. We make a conservative alternative compilation of the measured SFR data over the redshift range 0 ≤z ≤ 7. We show that by only including published SFR data for which the dust obscuration has been directly determined, the ratio of the observed massive SFR to the observed supernova rate R{sub SN} has large uncertainties ∼1.8{sub −0.6}{sup +1.6} and is statistically consistent with no supernova rate problem. If we further consider that a significant fraction of massive stars will end their lives as faint ONeMg SNe or as failed SNe leading to a black hole remnant, then the ratio reduces to ∼1.1{sub −0.4}{sup +1.0} and the rate problem is essentially solved. We next examine the prospects for detecting this solution to the supernova rate problem. We first study the sources of uncertainty involved in the theoretical estimates of the neutrino detection rate and analyze whether the spectrum of relic neutrinos can be used to independently identify the existence of a supernova rate problem and its source. We consider an ensemble of published and unpublished core collapse supernova simulation models to estimate the uncertainties in the anticipated neutrino luminosities and temperatures. We illustrate how the spectrum of detector events might be used to establish the average

  10. X-ray studies of supernova remnants: a different view of supernova explosions.

    PubMed

    Badenes, Carles

    2010-04-20

    The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent datasets accumulated on young, ejecta-dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put strong constraints on fundamental aspects of both supernova explosion physics and stellar evolution scenarios for supernova progenitors. This view of the supernova phenomenon is completely independent of, and complementary to, the study of distant extragalactic supernovae at optical wavelengths. The calibration of these two techniques has recently become possible thanks to the detection and spectroscopic follow-up of supernova light echoes. In this paper, I review the most relevant results on supernova remnants obtained during the first decade of Chandra and the impact that these results have had on open issues in supernova research.

  11. X-ray studies of supernova remnants: A different view of supernova explosions

    PubMed Central

    Badenes, Carles

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent datasets accumulated on young, ejecta-dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put strong constraints on fundamental aspects of both supernova explosion physics and stellar evolution scenarios for supernova progenitors. This view of the supernova phenomenon is completely independent of, and complementary to, the study of distant extragalactic supernovae at optical wavelengths. The calibration of these two techniques has recently become possible thanks to the detection and spectroscopic follow-up of supernova light echoes. In this paper, I review the most relevant results on supernova remnants obtained during the first decade of Chandra and the impact that these results have had on open issues in supernova research. PMID:20404206

  12. Observing the next galactic supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Scott M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, John F.; Stanek, K. Z.; Vagins, Mark R.

    2013-12-01

    No supernova (SN) in the Milky Way has been observed since the invention of the optical telescope, instruments for other wavelengths, neutrino detectors, or gravitational wave observatories. It would be a tragedy to miss the opportunity to fully characterize the next one. To aid preparations for its observations, we model the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions of a successful Galactic core-collapse supernova (ccSN), its shock breakout radiation, and its massive star progenitor. We find, at very high probability (≅ 100%), that the next Galactic SN will easily be detectable in the near-IR and that near-IR photometry of the progenitor star very likely (≅ 92%) already exists in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Most ccSNe (98%) will be easily observed in the optical, but a significant fraction (43%) will lack observations of the progenitor due to a combination of survey sensitivity and confusion. If neutrino detection experiments can quickly disseminate a likely position (∼3°), we show that a modestly priced IR camera system can probably detect the shock breakout radiation pulse even in daytime (64% for the cheapest design). Neutrino experiments should seriously consider adding such systems, both for their scientific return and as an added and internal layer of protection against false triggers. We find that shock breakouts from failed ccSNe of red supergiants may be more observable than those of successful SNe due to their lower radiation temperatures. We review the process by which neutrinos from a Galactic ccSN would be detected and announced. We provide new information on the EGADS system and its potential for providing instant neutrino alerts. We also discuss the distance, extinction, and magnitude probability distributions for the next Galactic Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). Based on our modeled observability, we find a Galactic ccSN rate of 3.2{sub −2.6}{sup +7.3} per century and a Galactic SN Ia rate of 1.4{sub −0.8}{sup +1.4} per

  13. Acclimatization of the Temperature Sensitivity of Ecosystem Respiration: Synthesis of a 5-year Global Change Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, K.; Ryan, E.; Pendall, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    The loss of carbon from ecosystems (ecosystem respiration, Reco) is a dynamic process and temperature is a key factor governing short- and long-term Reco dynamics. The goal of this study is to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of Reco and to learn how it adjusts to environmental conditions such as temperature and experimental warming. To do this, we synthesized 5 years of Reco data generated by the Prairie Heating and CO2 Enrichment (PHACE) study that was conducted in a semi-arid grassland in southeastern Wyoming. The PHACE experiment consists of 6 treatments involving atmospheric CO2 (ambient, elevated), temperature (ambient, warmed), and soil water (ambient, shallow irrigation, deep irrigation). Thus, PHACE provided a unique opportunity to explore how the temperature response of Reco over daily, weekly, and longer time scales is governed by the experimental treatments and co-occurring environmental variation. We synthesized the Reco data using a semi-mechanistic temperature response model that involves a temperature sensitivity term (Eo) analogous to an energy of activation. We explored how Eo varies in response to the experimental treatments and current and antecedent soil water and temperature within a Bayesian framework that allowed us to incorporate a novel stochastic model for the antecedent variables. For example, antecedent temperature is modeled as a weighted average of past daily temperatures, and we estimated the unknown daily weights that quantify potential lag responses and time-scales over which past temperatures affect Eo. Thus, changes in Eo describe instantaneous responses of Reco to temperature, the antecedent temperature effects describe relatively short-term (days/weeks) acclimatization, and the effects of experimental warming describe longer term (months/years) acclimatization potential of Reco. Our analysis predicted that Eo can vary by a factor of 2 or more over the growing season. Although not significant, the trend was for Eo to be

  14. Supporting countries in establishing and strengthening NITAGs: lessons learned from 5 years of the SIVAC initiative.

    PubMed

    Adjagba, Alex; Senouci, Kamel; Biellik, Robin; Batmunkh, Nyambat; Faye, Pape Coumba; Durupt, Antoine; Gessner, Bradford D; da Silva, Alfred

    2015-01-29

    To empower governments to formulate rational policies without pressure from any group, and to increase the use of evidence-based decision-making to adapt global recommendations on immunization to their local context, the WHO has recommended on multiple occasions that countries should establish National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). The World Health Assembly (WHA) reinforced those recommendations in 2012 when Member States endorsed the Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). NITAGs are multidisciplinary groups of national experts responsible for providing independent, evidence-informed advice to health authorities on all policy-related issues for all vaccines across all populations. In 2012, according to the WHO-UNICEF Joint Reporting Form, among 57 countries eligible for immunization program financial support from the GAVI Alliance, only 9 reported having a functional NITAG. Since 2008, the Supporting Independent Immunization and Vaccine Advisory Committees (SIVAC) Initiative (at the Agence de Médecine Préventive or AMP) in close collaboration with the WHO and other partners has been working to accelerate and systematize the establishment of NITAGs in low- and middle-income countries. In addition to providing direct support to countries to establish advisory groups, the initiative also supports existing NITAGs to strengthen their capacity in the use of evidence-based processes for decision-making aligned with international standards. After 5 years of implementation and based on lessons learned, we recommend that future efforts should target both expanding new NITAGs and strengthening existing NITAGs in individual countries, along three strategic lines: (i) reinforce NITAG institutional integration to promote sustainability and credibility, (ii) build technical capacity within NITAG secretariats and evaluate NITAG performance, and (iii) increase networking and regional collaborations. These should be done through the development

  15. The evolution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Canadian hospitals: 5 years of national surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Simor, Andrew E.; Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Bryce, Elizabeth; Green, Karen; McGeer, Allison; Mulvey, Michael; Paton, Shirley

    2001-01-01

    Background To better understand the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Canadian hospitals, surveillance has been conducted in sentinel hospitals across the country since 1995. We report the results of the first 5 years of the program. Methods For each newly identified inpatient with MRSA, medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results A total of 4507 patients infected or colonized with MRSA were identified between January 1995 and December 1999. The rate of MRSA increased each year from a mean of 0.95 per 100 S. aureus isolates in 1995 to 5.97 per 100 isolates in 1999 (0.46 per 1000 admissions in 1995 to 4.12 per 1000 admissions in 1999) (p < 0.05). Most of the increase in MRSA occurred in Ontario, Quebec and the western provinces. Of the 3009 cases for which the site of MRSA acquisition could be determined, 86% were acquired in a hospital, 8% were acquired in a long-term care facility and 6% were acquired in the community. A total of 1603 patients (36%) were infected with MRSA. The most common sites of infection were skin or soft tissue (25% of MRSA infections), pulmonary tissues (24%) and surgical sites (23%); 13% of the patients were bacteremic. An epidemiologic link with a previously identified MRSA patient was suspected in 53% of the cases. Molecular typing indicated that most (81%) of the isolates could be classified as related to 1 of the 4 Canadian epidemic strains of MRSA. Interpretation There has been a significant increase in the rate of isolating MRSA in many Canadian hospitals, related to the transmission of a relatively small number of MRSA strains. PMID:11468949

  16. Intraoperative assessment of ovarian tumors: a 5-year review with assessment of discrepant diagnostic cases.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; Brennan, Barbara A; Hammond, Ian G; Leung, Yee C; McCartney, Anthony J

    2006-07-01

    Frozen section is often requested in the intraoperative assessment of patients, presenting with ovarian masses, to provide guidance for appropriate surgical management. To assess the accuracy of frozen section and identify causes of diagnostic error, we reviewed 914 consecutive ovarian frozen sections performed over a 5-year period in 2 laboratories; one of which provides a general surgical pathology service and, the other, a specialist gynecologic pathology service. Cases, in which there were significant diagnostic discrepancies between the intraoperative and the final histological diagnoses, were reviewed. The series included 552 benign lesions (60.4%), 96 borderline (atypical proliferating) epithelial tumors (10.5%), and 266 malignancies (29.1%). The overall accuracy of frozen section diagnosis was 95.3%. There were 43 cases with diagnostic discrepancy; 20 (3.8% cases) of which were reported in the specialist laboratory and 23 (5.9% cases) in the general laboratory. Underdiagnosis of tumor type accounted for 32 of 43 discrepant cases and was most frequent in borderline mucinous tumors. The most common cause of overdiagnosis was the misinterpretation of serous cystadenofibroma as borderline serous tumor. Slide review of the 41 assessable cases indicated that sampling error, pathologist misinterpretation, and suboptimal slide preparations contributed to misdiagnoses in 17, 23, and 9 tumors, respectively (in 9 cases, 2 factors were contributory), whereas no specific error was identified in the remaining case. Technical factors and pathologist misinterpretation were more common in the general pathology laboratory. This study confirms that ovarian frozen section is a generally reliable technique, but there are problematic areas, particularly involving the assessment of borderline tumors.

  17. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131) were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE) were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5%) patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4%) achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context, acceptable cultural explanations

  18. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  19. Sensitivity and Specificity of Procalcitonin to Determine Etiology of Diarrhea in Children Younger Than 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Mujë; Azemi, Mehmedali; Spahiu, Shqipe; Hoxha, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Lidvana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine bacterial etiology of diarrhea. The examinees and methods: For this purpose we conducted the study comprising 115 children aged 1 to 60 months admitted at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Clinic, divided in three groups based on etiology of the diarrhea that has been confirmed with respective tests during the hospitalization. Each group has equal number of patients – 35. The first group was confirmed to have bacterial diarrhea, the second viral diarrhea and the third extra intestinal diarrhea. The determination of procalcitonin has been established with the ELFA methods of producer B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, (Germany). Results: From the total number of 1130 patient with acute diarrhea procalcitonin was assessed in 105. 67 (63.8%) of these patient were male. More than one third (38.14%) of the children in our study were younger then 12 months. Approximately the same was the number of children 13-24 months (33 patients or 31.43%) and 25-60 months (32 patients or 30.43%). The mean value of PRC in children with viral diarrhea was 0.13±0.5 ng/mL in children with bacterial diarrhea was 5.3±4.9 ng/m Land in children with extra intestinal diarrhea was 1.7±2.8 ng/mL. When measured using ANOVA and Turkey HSD tests, results have shown the statistical significance when comparing viral with bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea but were statistically insignificant when comparing bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea. Conclusion: Procalcitonin is an important but not conclusive marker of bacterial etiology of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years. PMID:24944526

  20. 5 years of continuous seismic monitoring of snowmelt cycles in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar; Gallart, Josep

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the analysis of background seismic noise variations in the proximity of river channels has revealed as a useful tool to monitor river flow, even for modest discharges. We will focus here in the application of this methodology to study the snowmelt cycle in an Pyrenean valley during the last 5 years, using data from the seismic geophysical station located inside the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Central Pyrenees). Diaz et al. (2014) first identified in the seismic data the signature of river flow increases associated to snowmelt episodes in the catchment area of the Aragon River, based on the marked correlation between the seismic energy variations in the 2-8 Hz frequency band and the estimated variations in water resources from snowfall. The analysis of seismic data during the snowmelt periods allows to identify a clear 24h cycle, with energy increasing from about 14:00 GMT, remaining at a relatively high level for 12 hours and then smoothly vanishing. The spectrogram reveals richer information, as clear variations in the frequency content can be detected during the time intervals in which the amplitude of the seismic signal remains constant. The data available so far allow to compare the evolution of snowmelt in five seasons with very different hydrological behavior. The 2011 and 2012 seasons have been dry, with snow volumes 30-50 % beneath the average values, while the 2013, 2014 and in particular the 2015 seasons have been largely above the mean. Those variations are reflected in the seismic data, which allow to monitor the time occurrence of the main snowmelt stages for each season and to estimate the intensity of the different snowmelt episodes. Therefore, seismic data can be useful for long term monitoring of snowmelt in Alpine-style mountains.