Science.gov

Sample records for 5-year time period

  1. A Study of the Utilization Patterns of an Elementary School-Based Health Clinic over a 5-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veda; Hutcherson, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the utilization pattern of an elementary school-based clinic over a 5-year period. It involved a retrospective analysis of computer-based data for all patient visits during this study period. Results revealed high clinic utilization with an average of over 5 encounters for all users each year. The most…

  2. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS. PMID:23938018

  3. Constraints on the Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant by the 5-Year WMAP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, M.; Nagata, R.; Yokoyama, J.

    2008-12-01

    The constraints on the time variation of the fine structure constant at recombination epoch relative to its present value, Δα/α ≡ (α_{rec} - α_{now})/α_{now}, are obtained from the analysis of the 5-year WMAP cosmic microwave background data. As a result of Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo analysis, it is found that, contrary to the analysis based on the previous WMAP data, the mean value of Δα/α = -0.0009 does not change significantly whether we use the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) measurement of the Hubble parameter as a prior or not. The resultant 95% confidence ranges of Δα/α are -0.028 < Δα/α < 0.026 with HST prior and -0.050 < Δα/α < 0.042 without HST prior.

  4. Factors attributed to fatal occupational accidents in a period of 5 years preceding the Athens 2004 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Katsakiori, Panagiota; Manatakis, Emmanuel; Goutsos, Stavros; Athanassiou, George

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the factors attributed to occupational fatalities occurring in the region of East Attica, Greece, in all industry types over a 5-year period preceding the 2004 Olympic Games. Questionnaires, based on the attribution theory, were completed by labor inspectors and were analyzed with principal component analysis. The results showed that most accidents occurred in the construction industry due to large-scale civil works, which took place in East Attica prior to the 2004 Olympic Games. Poor work practices arising from lack of orientation and job training, performance pressure and workers' inexperience associated with knowledge- and skill-based errors were revealed by the questionnaire as the most common factors attributed to occupational fatalities. Our findings help to identify areas where prevention efforts should be directed to effectively manage safety in Greece. PMID:18954538

  5. The Frequency of Truly Unknown/Undetermined Deaths: A Review of 452 Cases Over a 5-Year Period.

    PubMed

    George, Alan A; Kimberley Molina, D

    2015-12-01

    The forensic autopsy is often regarded as the final medical diagnosis and expert scientific opinion in matters of death investigation, usually in the legal setting, and sometimes in the clinical setting as well. There are however limitations to what the autopsy can answer, and sometimes the circumstances surrounding a death, despite our best efforts, are simply unable to be determined. Approximately 5% of cases reportedly remain unknown after a complete autopsy. With this in mind, we sought to examine the frequency of deaths in which both the cause and manner are unknown after complete forensic examination and autopsy. Data from 452 undetermined deaths over a 5-year period were analyzed; sudden unexpected infant deaths and decomposed or skeletonized remains were excluded, as well as those with a known cause but undetermined manner of death. After exclusion of these deaths, our analysis revealed that only 0.015% of cases during this period were truly undetermined in both cause and manner of death. PMID:26561747

  6. Isolation of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 30 from a single almond orchard over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Aaron R; Danyluk, Michelle D; Mandrell, Robert E; Harris, Linda J

    2007-08-01

    In 2001, Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 30 was isolated from drag swabs of 17 61-ha almond orchards on three farms linked to an outbreak of salmonellosis associated with consumption of raw almonds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 in one of the almond orchards associated with the outbreak. Swabs (gauze saturated with full-strength sterile evaporated skim milk and attached to string) were pulled along the orchard floor in a standardized manner for 55 m. At each sample time, two pooled samples (four swabs each) were collected from each orchard quadrant. Swabs were enriched for Salmonella using a delayed secondary enrichment procedure developed for isolation of Salmonella from poultry houses. Suspect Salmonella isolates were selected, confirmed, serotyped, and phage typed, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns were determined after cleavage with XbaI and BlnI. Salmonella was recovered infrequently from pooled samples collected from January through July (3 of 56 samples, 5.3%). In general, Salmonella isolation frequency per sample time increased during and immediately after the harvest, when large amounts of dust were generated in or near the orchard: August, 4 (20%) of 20 samples; September, 13 (20%) of 64 samples; October, 27 (42%) of 64 samples; November, 4 (25%) of 16 samples; and December, 2 (25%) of 8 samples. All 53 Salmonella isolates during the 5 years were identified as Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30, and two PFGE patterns that differed by the presence of an approximately 40-kb fragment were identified. These data demonstrate the potential for long-term environmental persistence of Salmonella in almond orchards. PMID:17803132

  7. Characteristics of the spatio-temporal network of cattle movements in France over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Bhagat Lal; Ezanno, Pauline; Vergu, Elisabeta

    2014-11-01

    A good knowledge of the specificities of the animal trade network is highly valuable to better control pathogen spread on a large regional to transnational scale. Because of their temporal dynamical nature, studying multi-annual datasets is particularly needed to investigate whether structural patterns are stable over the years. In this study, we analysed the French cattle movement network from 2005 to 2009 for different spatial granularities and temporal windows, with the three-fold objective of exploring temporal variations of the main network characteristics, computing proxies for pathogen spread on this network, which accounts for its time-varying properties and identifying specificities related to the main types of animals and farms (dairy versus beef). Network properties did not qualitatively vary among different temporal and spatial granularities. About 40% of the holdings and 80% of the communes were directly interconnected. The width of the aggregation time window barely impacted normalised distributions of indicators. A period of 8-16 weeks would suffice for robust estimation of their main trends, whereas longer periods would provide more details on tails. The dynamic nature of the network could be seen through the small overlap between consecutive networks with 65% of common active nodes for only 3% of common links over 2005-2009. To control pathogen spread on such a network, by reducing the largest strongly connected component by more than 80%, movements should be prevented from 1 to 5% of the holdings with the highest centrality in the previous year network. The analysis of breed-wise and herd-wise subnetworks, dairy, beef and mixed, reveals similar trends in temporal variation of average indicators and their distributions. The link-based backbones of beef subnetworks seem to be more stable over time than those of other subnetworks. At a regional scale, node reachability accounting for time-respecting paths, as proxy of epidemic burden, is greater for

  8. High-dose glycine treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder in a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, W Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L; Fawwaz, Rashid A; Challop, Roger S

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  9. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, W. Louis; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; Fawwaz, Rashid A.; Challop, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD. PMID:20182547

  10. Activity of vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin against staphylococci and enterococci isolated in 5 Greek hospitals during a 5-year period (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Zerva, Loukia; Lebessi, Evangelia; Koutsia, Chryssa; Drougka, Eleanna; Sarrou, Styliani; Giormezis, Nikolaos; Vourli, Sofia; Doudoulakakis, Anastassios; Konsolakis, Christos; Marangos, Markos; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Petinaki, Efthimia; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2015-12-01

    The tendency of vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin MICs was investigated among 6920 staphylococci and enterococci during a 5-year period. Antimicrobial consumption was determined. Decrease of vancomycin MIC was detected associated with reduction in consumption. Linezolid and daptomycin remained active. An upward trend of linezolid MIC for methicillin-resistant staphylococci was observed. PMID:26341703

  11. Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance among Hospital- and Community-Acquired Toxigenic Clostridium difficile Isolates over 5-Year Period in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Wafaa Y.; Rotimi, Vincent O.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading and an important cause of diarrhea in a healthcare setting especially in industrialized countries. Community-associated CDI appears to add to the burden on healthcare setting problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of healthcare-associated and community-acquired C. difficile infection over 5 years (2008–2012) in Kuwait. A total of 111 hospital-acquired (HA-CD) and 35 community-acquired Clostridium difficile (CA-CD) clinical isolates from stool of patients with diarrhoea were studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 15 antimicrobial agents against these pathogens was performed using E test method. There was no evidence of resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, daptomycin, linezolid, piperacillin-tazobactam, teicoplanin and vancomycin by both HA-CD and CA-CD isolates. Metronidazole had excellent activity against CA-CD but there was a 2.9% resistance rate against HA-CD isolates. Ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin and imipenem resistance rates among the HC-CD vs. CA-CD isolates were 100 vs. 47.4%; 43 vs. 47.4%; 100 vs. 100% and 100 vs. 89%, respectively. An unexpected high rifampicin resistance rate of 15.7% emerged amongst the HA-CD isolates. In conclusion, vancomycin resistance amongst the HA-CD and CA-CD isolates was not encountered in this series but few metronidazole resistant hospital isolates were isolated. High resistance rates of ampicillin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and imipenem resistance were evident among both CA-CD and HA-CD isolates. Rifampicin resistance is emerging among the HA-CD isolates. PMID:27536994

  12. Role of physical activity, physical fitness, and chronic health conditions on the physical independence of community-dwelling older adults over a 5-year period.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Baptista, Fátima; Cruz-Ferreira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The variability in the individual characteristics and habits could help determine how older adults maintain independence. The impact of the variability in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic health conditions (co-morbidities) on the independence of older adults, especially over time, is seldom examined. This study aims to analyze quantitatively the impact of baseline values and changes in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and co-morbidities on the physical independence of community-dwelling, older adults over a 5-year period. Data from 106 and 85 community-dwelling adults (≥60 years) were collected at baseline and after five years, respectively. Linear regression selected the main predictors of changes in physical independence as follows: the baseline physical independence (β=0.032, R(2)=9.9%) and co-morbidities (β=-0.191, R(2)=6.3%) and the changes in co-morbidities (β=-0.244, R(2)=10.8%), agility (β=-0.288, R(2)=6.7%), aerobic endurance (β=0.007, R(2)=3.2%), and walking expenditure (β=0.001, R(2)=5.1%) (p<0.05). In conclusion, baseline physical independence, baseline co-morbidities, and changes in co-morbidities, walking, agility, and aerobic endurance predicted physical independence over five years regardless of age and gender. Gains of up to 8.3% in physical independence were associated with improvements in these variables, which corresponds to regaining independence for performing one or two activities of daily living. PMID:26966842

  13. Results of 5-year photometric monitoring of the intermediate polar V2306 Cygni: correction of the orbital period and evidence of 2-day periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, V.; Petrík, K.; Zoła, S.; Baransky, A.; Hegedus, T.

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of 6 years of photometric monitoring of the magnetic cataclysmic variable V2306 Cygni (formerly known as 1WGAJ1958.2+3232) obtained at collaborating observatories. Using (O-C) analysis we tried to study variability of the spin period of the white dwarf, however we cannot make a firm conclusion based on the scatter. Simultaneously, using (O-C) diagram of orbital minima, we found that the value of 0.181545(3) days better corresponds with the light curve, than do previously published orbital period values. We also found that the variability has a 2.01 day period; this variability may be interpreted as possible precession of the accretion disk in this system.

  14. [Corpse disposal by embedding it in concrete--a rare form of preserving a body over a period of 5 years and 10 months].

    PubMed

    Doberentz, Elke; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Final disposal of a homicide victim in concrete is rare. Often missing persons are reported to the police, but the right of adults to determine their whereabouts can make it very difficult to locate them. A 40-year-old woman had been missing for 5 years and 10 months. She was found by the police in the cellar of the family's house, packed in airtight plastic film and embedded in concrete. The husband admitted to have killed her by manual strangulation after an argument during which she fell on the head. His statements were confirmed by the findings obtained from the very well preserved body. The autopsy results were generally consistent with manual strangulation. The literature does not contain many case reports on this rare method of disposing of a body. In the reported case, the postmortem period was remarkably long and the corpse was in a good state of preservation. PMID:26548026

  15. Spectral variability in hard X-rays and discovery of a 13,5 years period in bright quasar 3C273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R.

    SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN HARD X-RAYS AND DISCOVERY OF A 13.5 YEARS PERIOD IN BRIGHT QUASAR 3C273. R. K. Manchanda Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-400005, India. ravi@tifr.res.in/Fax:+91-22-2152110 Among the large variety of active galactic nuclei, 3C 273 is the nearest quasi stellar object. The source has been studied in details in various energy bands and shows a large variety of morphological features. In the X-ray energy range 2-20 keV, the spectrum follows a power law with a spectral index of -1.5, however, the observed value of the spectral index in the 20-120 keV band shows a large variation. In the case of old archival data, the derived spectral index has a value between 1.5 and 2.2 while, the recent data from OSSE experiment showed a flat spectrum with index 0.8. Thus, to fit the GeV fluxes from the source, a break in the spectrum around 1 MeV has been proposed. In this paper we report the balloon-borne hard X-ray observations of 3C273 made with LASE instrument on Nov. 20, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20-200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep spectrum in the 20-200 keV with spectral index a = -2.26+ 0.07 and its extrapolation can fit the GeV data. The presence of steep power law index is in complete contrast to earlier observation from OSSE. From a comparison with the available archival data of the source we have discovered that 50 keV flux from the source, shows very strong modulation with a period of about 13.5 years and which is also present at 100 keV and in the spectral index to a lesser degree. We discuss the periodicity in terms of precessing source geometry.

  16. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  17. Child and elderly victims in forensic autopsy during a recent 5 year period in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B L; Oritani, S; Ishida, K; Quan, L; Sakoda, S; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H

    2000-09-11

    To outline the recent features of child and elderly victims from the medico-legal perspective with special reference to abuse and neglect, a retrospective investigation of forensic autopsy cases over a 5 year period (1994-1998) in the southern half of Osaka city and surrounding areas (a population of 1.57 million) was undertaken. Among 646 autopsy cases, there were 53 child cases (under the age of 15 years, about 80% below 6) and 121 elderly cases (65 years old and above). Nearly half of the child deaths and more than half of the elderly deaths were described as accidental. Fire and traffic victims were much more frequent in the elderly. Child victims included those of neonaticide/infanticide (n=6), physical abuse (n=10), unintentional fatal infliction (n=2), neglect (n=2), mutual suicide (n=2), suicide (n=1) and murder (n=3). Child abuse and neglect were domestic maltreatment by the parents. In this series, there was a comparable number of fatalities due to maltreatment in the elderly (n=13) and in children, and non-domestic violence was more frequent in the elderly than domestic violence. Elderly females tended to be battered by their sons or grandsons in domestic violence cases, whereas males were predominantly attacked by younger males in non-domestic violence. The other elderly victims included those of self-neglect (n=2), murder (n=7) and suicide (n=9). Non-domestic homicide of the elderly occurred mainly in the center of the city, whereas domestic maltreatment of children and the elderly was sporadic, although somewhat more frequent in the peripheral zone of the city and the surrounding areas. The above profile of child and elderly abuse suggests a substantial influence of social and familial backgrounds. PMID:10978628

  18. Healthy Aging 5 Years After a Period of Daily Supplementation With Antioxidant Nutrients: A Post Hoc Analysis of the French Randomized Trial SU.VI.MAX.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-15

    This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging. PMID:26374140

  19. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  20. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  1. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  2. 43 CFR 10010.45 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods. 10010.45 Section 10010.45... Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.45 Time periods. (a) The minimum review period for a draft EIS will be... proposed reductions in time periods or any extensions of time periods proposed by those agencies....

  3. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. Methods This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Conclusion The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room. PMID:24533092

  4. 4.5 Years of Multi-wavelength Observations of MRK 421 During the ARGO-YBJ and FERMI Common Operation Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, B.; Bernardini, P.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Catalanotti, S.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; D'Amone, A.; Danzengluobu; De Mitri, I.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Sciascio, G.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Zhenyong; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, Hongbo; Iacovacci, M.; Iuppa, R.; Jia, H. Y.; Labaciren; Li, H. J.; Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Liu, M. Y.; Lu, H.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Mancarella, G.; Mari, S. M.; Marsella, G.; Mastroianni, S.; Montini, P.; Ning, C. C.; Perrone, L.; Pistilli, P.; Salvini, P.; Santonico, R.; Shen, P. R.; Sheng, X. D.; Shi, F.; Surdo, A.; Tan, Y. H.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; Wang, H.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, X. C.; Yao, Z. G.; Yuan, A. F.; Zha, M.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Zhaxiciren; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, Q. Q.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We report on the extensive multi-wavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) covering radio to γ-rays, during the 4.5 year period of ARGO-YBJ and Fermi common operation time, from 2008 August to 2013 February. These long-term observations, extending over an energy range of 18 orders of magnitude, provide a unique chance to study the variable emission of Mrk 421. In particular, due to the ARGO-YBJ and Fermi data, the entire energy range from 100 MeV to 10 TeV is covered without any gap. In the observation period, Mrk 421 showed both low- and high-activity states at all wavebands. The correlations among flux variations in different wavebands were analyzed. The X-ray flux is clearly correlated with the TeV γ-ray flux, while the GeV γ-rays only show a partial correlation with the TeV γ-rays. Radio and UV fluxes seem to be weakly or not correlated with the X-ray and γ-ray fluxes. Seven large flares, including five X-ray flares and two GeV γ-ray flares with variable durations (3-58 days), and one X-ray outburst phase were identified and used to investigate the variation of the spectral energy distribution with respect to a relative quiescent phase. During the outburst phase and the seven flaring episodes, the peak energy in X-rays is observed to increase from sub-keV to a few keV. The TeV γ-ray flux increases up to 0.9-7.2 times the flux of the Crab Nebula. The behavior of GeV γ-rays is found to vary depending on the flare, a feature that leads us to classify flares into three groups according to the GeV flux variation. Finally, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model was adopted to describe the emission spectra. Two out of three groups can be satisfactorily described using injected electrons with a power-law spectral index around 2.2, as expected from relativistic diffuse shock acceleration, whereas the remaining group requires a harder injected spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for different groups may be related to

  5. 5-Year Budget Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, John G.; Lingel, George; Piekarski, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Financial planning is the key to providing a high-quality instructional plan. A 5-year financial plan is typically updated by looking at district financial history, future instructional plans, staffing requirements, and revenue projections. Planning assumptions must be clearly understood by the financial team and the community. (MLH)

  6. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  7. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  8. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  9. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  10. 26 CFR 1.121-5 - Suspension of 5-year period for certain members of the uniformed services and Foreign Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... official extended duty as a member of the Foreign Service of the United States in Brazil. In 2015 B sells... period of ownership and use during his 8-year period of service with the Foreign Service in Brazil. If...

  11. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000

  12. Emission measurements of alkenes, alkanes, SO2, and NO2 from stationary sources in Southeast Texas over a 5 year period using SOF and mobile DOAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, John K. E.; Mellqvist, Johan; Samuelsson, Jerker; Offerle, Brian; Lefer, Barry; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Flynn, James; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-02-01

    A mobile platform for flux measurements of VOCs (alkanes and alkenes), SO2, and NO2 emissions using the Solar Occultation Flux (SOF) method and mobile differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) was used in four different studies to measure industrial emissions. The studies were carried out in several large conglomerates of oil refineries and petrochemical industries in Southeast and East Texas in 2006, 2009, 2011, and 2012. The measured alkane emissions from the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) have been fairly stable between 2006 and 2011, averaging about 11,500 kg/h, while the alkene emissions have shown greater variations. The ethene and propene emissions measured from the HSC were 1511 kg/h and 878 kg/h, respectively, in 2006, while dropping to roughly 600 kg/h for both species in 2009 and 2011. The results were compared to annual inventory emissions, showing that measured VOC emissions were typically 5-15 times higher, while for SO2 and NO2 the ratio was typically 0.5-2. AP-42 emission factors were used to estimate meteorological effects on alkane emissions from tanks, showing that these emissions may have been up to 35-45% higher during the studies than the annual average. A more focused study of alkene emissions from a petrochemical complex in Longview in 2012 identified two upset episodes, and the elevation of the total emissions during the measurement period due to the upsets was estimated to be approximately 20%. Both meteorological and upset effects were small compared to the factor of 5-15, suggesting that VOC emissions are systematically and substantially underestimated in current emission inventories.

  13. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  14. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  15. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  16. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  17. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  18. A 5-Year Study of the Adult Flight Periodicity of 27 Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Species in Forest and Meadow Habitats of a First-Order Lower Michigan (USA) Stream.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2015-12-01

    Life cycles of 27 caddisfly species were estimated from weekly adult flight periodicity data during 2010-2014 from a forest and a meadow site of a small stream in northern Lower Michigan. Of the 11 species abundant only at the forest site, 10 appeared to be univoltine and 1 appeared bivoltine. Of the 13 species abundant only at the meadow site, 5 appeared univoltine, 5 appeared bivoltine, and 3 were enigmatic due to inconsistent flight peaks between years. Although the sites were separated by ∼400 m, only three species were abundant at both sites due to differences in stream habitat and food availability. Two of these species had notably dissimilar life cycles between sites, reflecting these differences. Despite the study dates encompassing both the warmest and coldest years of the 2000s, most species retained consistent flight periods between years. This consistency with date appeared unrelated to lunar phase. Date was a better predictor of flight periodicity than water temperature for every species except those that emerged earliest in the season. Warming water temperatures appeared to synchronize emergence of species at the meadow site to a greater degree than those of the forest site, probably due to the greater range of temperatures at the meadow site, although date was still the better predictor at both sites. These data suggest that warming water temperatures, although important under certain conditions, may not always be primary life cycle synchronizers in small streams. PMID:26339996

  19. An analysis of infection control of varicella-zoster virus infections in Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge over a 5-year period, 1987-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wreghitt, T. G.; Whipp, J.; Redpath, C.; Hollingworth, W.

    1996-01-01

    This prospective study analyses infections with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge during 1987-92 and examines the spread of infection. In total, 93 patients and staff experienced VZV infection. Twenty-one patients had varicella and 49 experienced zoster. None of 101 patients and 1 of 625 staff members in contact with varicella cases acquired infection. By contrast, 2 of 227 patients, and 5 of 1039 staff in contact with zoster cases acquired varicella. One out of 28 (3.6%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with varicella acquired infection, compared with 5 out of 29 (17.2%) VZV antibody-negative patients and staff in contact with zoster. Thus, zoster was found to be a more frequent cause of nosocomial infection than varicella. Fourteen members of staff had VZV infection during the study period. One of 99 patients and none of 389 staff members in contact with these cases developed varicella. The cost of dealing with infection control for VZV infections in our hospital is estimated to be Pounds 714 per patient case and a total of Pounds 13,204 per year. PMID:8760965

  20. Optimal time for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected, treatment-naive children aged 2 to 5 years old

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Davies, Mary-Ann; Penazzato, Martina; Muhe, Lulu M; Egger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) comprising three antiretroviral medications from at least two classes of drugs is the current standard treatment for HIV infection in adults and children. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for antiretroviral therapy recommend early treatment regardless of immunologic thresholds or the clinical condition for all infants (less than one years of age) and children under the age of two years. For children aged two to five years current WHO guidelines recommend (based on low quality evidence) that clinical and immunological thresholds be used to identify those who need to start cART (advanced clinical stage or CD4 counts ≤ 750 cells/mm3 or per cent CD4 ≤ 25%). This Cochrane review will inform the current available evidence regarding the optimal time for treatment initiation in children aged two to five years with the goal of informing the revision of WHO 2013 recommendations on when to initiate cART in children. Objectives To assess the evidence for the optimal time to initiate cART in treatment-naive, HIV-infected children aged 2 to 5 years. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the AEGIS conference database, specific relevant conferences, www.clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform and reference lists of articles. The date of the most recent search was 30 September 2012. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared immediate with deferred initiation of cART, and prospective cohort studies which followed children from enrolment to start of cART and on cART. Data collection and analysis Two review authors considered studies for inclusion in the review, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data on the primary outcome of death from all causes and several secondary outcomes, including incidence of CDC category C and B clinical events and

  1. How Sensitively Timed Are Sensitive Periods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Rita Schaefer

    2003-01-01

    Reviews Maria Montessori's view of sensitive periods and examines the kinds of help needed from adults: an open mind, specific help from a prepared learning environment, and challenges presented at the right time. Stresses the universality of sensitive periods and their connection to brain development. Focuses on the unconscious nature and…

  2. Microbiological monitoring of endoscopes: 5-year review.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Elizabeth E; Kotsanas, Despina; Stuart, Rhonda L

    2008-07-01

    Periodic microbiological monitoring of endoscopes is a recommendation of the Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GENSA). The aim of monitoring has been to provide quality assurance of the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes; however, there is controversy regarding its frequency. This lack of consensus stimulated a review of the experience within our health service. At Southern Health, routine microbiological sampling has involved 4-weekly monitoring of bronchoscopes, duodenoscopes and automated flexible endoscope reprocessors (AFER), and 3-monthly monitoring of all other gastrointestinal endoscopes. Records of testing were reviewed from 1 January 2002 until 31 December 2006. A literature review was conducted, cost analysis performed and positive cultures investigated. There were 2374 screening tests performed during the 5-year period, including 287 AFER, 631 bronchoscopes for mycobacteria and 1456 endoscope bacterial screens. There were no positive results of the AFER or bronchoscopes for mycobacteria. Of the 1456 endoscopic bacterial samples, six were positive; however, retesting resulted in no growth. The overall cost of tests performed and cost in time for nursing staff to collect the samples was estimated at $AUD 100,400. Periodic monitoring of endoscopes is both time-consuming and costly. Our review demonstrates that AFER (Soluscope) perform well in cleaning endoscopes. Based on our 5-year experience, assurance of quality for endoscopic use could be achieved through process control as opposed to product control. Maintenance of endoscopes and AFER should be in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and microbiological testing performed on commissioning, annually and following repair. Initial prompt manual leak testing and manual cleaning followed by mechanical leak testing, cleaning and disinfection should be the minimum standard in reprocessing of endoscopes. PMID:18086113

  3. Instability of time-periodic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.

    1985-01-01

    The instabilities of some spatially and/or time-periodic flows are discussed, in particular, flows with curved streamlines which can support Taylor-Gortler vortices are described in detail. The simplest flow where this type of instability can occur is that due to the torsional oscillations of an infinitely long circular cylinder. For more complicated spatially varying time-periodic flows, a similar type of instability can occur and is spatially localized near the most unstable positions. When nonlinear effects are considered it is found that the instability modifies the steady streaming boundary layer induced by the oscillatory motion. It is shown that a rapidly rotating cylinder in a uniform flow is susceptible to a related type of instability; the appropriate stability equations are shown to be identical to those which govern the instability of a boussinesq fluid of Prandtl number unity heated time periodically from below.

  4. Pennsylvanian time scales and cycle periods

    SciTech Connect

    deV. Klein, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Geochronological results from central Europe indicate that the duration of Pennsylvanian time is only 19 m.y., compared to the Harland et al. and Palmer estimates of 34 m.y. Prior calculations of Pennsylvanian cycle periods from the midcontinent of North America suggesting a fit with Milankovitch orbital parameters may well be in errors; as a consequence, other mechanisms for possible eustatic sea-level changes represented in those cycles are needed. Calculation of cycle periods of 100 ka or less lack precision in stratigraphic intervals representing ages characterized by error margins of millions of years. Thus, cycle periods may be less reliable as an indicator of global process than previously considered, particularly in rocks of Paleozoic and early and middle Mesozoic age.

  5. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... milestones for children - 5 years References Feigelman S. The preschool years. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  6. The integration of minimally invasive surgery in surgical practice in a Canadian setting: results from 2 consecutive province-wide practice surveys of general surgeons over a 5-year period

    PubMed Central

    Hallet, Julie; Mailloux, Olivier; Chhiv, Mony; Grégoire, Roger C.; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Although minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been quickly embraced, the introduction of advanced procedures appears more complex. We assessed the evolution of MIS in the province of Quebec over a 5-year period to identify areas for improvement in the modern surgical era. Methods We developed, test-piloted and conducted a self-administered questionnaire among Quebec general surgeons in 2007 and 2012 to examine stated MIS practice, MIS training and barriers and facilitators to the use of MIS. Results Response rates were 51.3% (251 of 489) in 2007 and 31.3% (153 of 491) in 2012. A significant increase was observed for performance of most advanced MIS procedures, especially for colectomy for benign (66.0% v. 84.3%, p < 0,001) and malignant diseases (43.3% v. 77.8%, p < 0,001) and for rectal surgery for malignancy (21.0% v. 54.6%, p < 0.001). More surgeons practised 3 or more advanced MIS procedures in 2012 than in 2007 (82.3% v. 64.3%, p < 0,001). At multivariate analysis, the 2007 survey administration was associated with fewer surgeons practising advanced MIS (odds ratio 0.13, 95% confidence interval 0.06–0.29). In 2012, more respondents stated they gained their skills during residency (p = 0.028). Conclusion From 2007 to 2012 there was a significant increase in advanced MIS procedures practised by general surgeons in Québec. This technique appears well established in current surgical practice. The growing place of MIS in residency training seems to be a paramount part of this development. Results from this study could be used as a baseline for studies focusing on ways to further improve the MIS practice. PMID:25598180

  7. Time Use Differences in Activity Participation among Children 4-5 Years Old with and without the Risk of Developing Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mong-Lin; Ziviani, Jenny; Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood are associated with the way in which children engage in daily activities. Research, to date, on conduct problems in relation to time use has primarily focused on school aged children and their participation in discrete activities such as watching TV and sport. The purpose of the present study is to determine if…

  8. Analysis of the time scales in time periodic Darcy flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Waluga, C.; Wohlmuth, B.; Manhart, M.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate unsteady flow in a porous medium under time - periodic (sinusoidal) pressure gradient. DNS were performed to benchmark the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation with two different expressions of the time scale : one given by a consistent volume averaging of the Navier - Stokes equation [1] with a steady state closure for the flow resistance term, another given by volume averaging of the kinetic energy equation [2] with a closure for the dissipation rate . For small and medium frequencies, the analytical solutions with the time scale obtained by the energy approach compare well with the DNS results in terms of amplitude and phase lag. For large frequencies (f > 100 [Hz]) we observe a slightly smaller damping of the amplitude. This study supports the use of the unsteady form of Darcy's equation with constant coefficients to solve time - periodic Darcy flows at low and medium frequencies. Our DNS simulations, however, indicate that the time scale predicted by the VANS approach together with a steady - state closure for the flow resistance term is too small. The one obtained by the energy approach matches the DNS results well. At large frequencies, the amplitudes deviate slightly from the analytical solution of the unsteady Darcy equation. Note that at those high frequencies, the flow amplitudes remain below 1% of those of steady state flow. This result indicates that unsteady porous media flow can approximately be described by the unsteady Darcy equation with constant coefficients for a large range of frequencies, provided, the proper time scale has been found.

  9. Time periodic solution to the compressible Euler equations with damping in a periodic domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhong; Xu, Qiuju; Wang, Huaqiao

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we consider the existence and uniqueness of a time periodic solution to the three-dimensional compressible damped Euler equations in a periodic domain. By adapting a regularized approximation scheme and applying the topological degree theory, we establish the existence of the time periodic solution under some smallness and structure assumptions imposed on a time periodic force. And based on energy estimates, the uniqueness of the periodic solution is proved.

  10. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  11. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  12. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  13. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  14. 7 CFR 1.603 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are time periods computed? 1.603 Section 1.603 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions § 1.603 How are time periods computed? (a) General. Time periods are...

  15. On almost periodic solutions of logistic delay differential equations with almost periodic time dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Rong

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we study almost periodic logistic delay differential equations. The existence and module of almost periodic solutions are investigated. In particular, we extend some results of Seifert in [G. Seifert, Almost periodic solutions of certain differential equations with piecewise constant delays and almost periodic time dependence, J. Differential Equations 164 (2000) 451-458].

  16. Contact time periods in immunological synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Daniel R.; Chattopadhyay, Amit K.

    2014-10-01

    This paper resolves the long standing debate as to the proper time scale <τ> of the onset of the immunological synapse bond, the noncovalent chemical bond defining the immune pathways involving T cells and antigen presenting cells. Results from our model calculations show <τ> to be of the order of seconds instead of minutes. Close to the linearly stable regime, we show that in between the two critical spatial thresholds defined by the integrin:ligand pair (Δ2˜ 40-45 nm) and the T-cell receptor TCR:peptide-major-histocompatibility-complex pMHC bond (Δ1˜ 14-15 nm), <τ> grows monotonically with increasing coreceptor bond length separation δ (= Δ2-Δ1˜ 26-30 nm) while <τ> decays with Δ1 for fixed Δ2. The nonuniversal δ-dependent power-law structure of the probability density function further explains why only the TCR:pMHC bond is a likely candidate to form a stable synapse.

  17. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Objection time periods and... Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. Written objections, including any... of objectors to ensure that their objection is received in a timely manner. (b) Computation of...

  18. Student Instruction Should Be Distributed over Long Time Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug

    2015-01-01

    In many academic courses, students encounter a particular fact or concept many times over a period of a few weeks and then do not see it again during the remainder of the course. Are these brief instructional periods sufficient, or should the same amount of instruction be distributed over longer periods of time? This question was the focus of…

  19. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 219.56 Section 219.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a...

  20. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Objection time periods and... AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a new plan, plan amendment, or plan revision for which...

  1. 36 CFR 219.56 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Objection time periods and... AGRICULTURE PLANNING Pre-Decisional Administrative Review Process § 219.56 Objection time periods and process. (a) Time to file an objection. For a new plan, plan amendment, or plan revision for which...

  2. Mining approximate periodic pattern in hydrological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. L.; Li, S. J.; Bao, N. N.; Wan, D. S.

    2012-04-01

    There is a lot of information about the hidden laws of nature evolution and the influences of human beings activities on the earth surface in long sequence of hydrological time series. Data mining technology can help find those hidden laws, such as flood frequency and abrupt change, which is useful for the decision support of hydrological prediction and flood control scheduling. The periodic nature of hydrological time series is important for trend forecasting of drought and flood and hydraulic engineering planning. In Hydrology, the full period analysis of hydrological time series has attracted a lot of attention, such as the discrete periodogram, simple partial wave method, Fourier analysis method, and maximum entropy spectral analysis method and wavelet analysis. In fact, the hydrological process is influenced both by deterministic factors and stochastic ones. For example, the tidal level is also affected by moon circling the Earth, in addition to the Earth revolution and its rotation. Hence, there is some kind of approximate period hidden in the hydrological time series, sometimes which is also called the cryptic period. Recently, partial period mining originated from the data mining domain can be a remedy for the traditional period analysis methods in hydrology, which has a loose request of the data integrity and continuity. They can find some partial period in the time series. This paper is focused on the partial period mining in the hydrological time series. Based on asynchronous periodic pattern and partial period mining with suffix tree, this paper proposes to mine multi-event asynchronous periodic pattern based on modified suffix tree representation and traversal, and invent a dynamic candidate period intervals adjusting method, which can avoids period omissions or waste of time and space. The experimental results on synthetic data and real water level data of the Yangtze River at Nanjing station indicate that this algorithm can discover hydrological

  3. 36 CFR 218.26 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.26 Objection time periods. (a) Time to...

  4. 36 CFR 218.32 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Proposed Projects Authorized Under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.32 Objection time periods. (a) Time to file...

  5. 36 CFR 218.32 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Proposed Projects Authorized Under the Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.32 Objection time periods. (a) Time to file...

  6. 36 CFR 218.26 - Objection time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.26 Objection time periods. (a) Time to...

  7. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  8. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  9. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  10. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  11. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a) General....

  12. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  13. 43 CFR 45.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 45.3 Section 45.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES General Provisions § 45.3 How are time periods computed? (a)...

  14. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  15. 19 CFR 158.21a - Time period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time period. 158.21a Section 158.21a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... While in Customs Custody § 158.21a Time period. An abatement or refund of duties shall be made in...

  16. Threshold dynamics of a time periodic reaction-diffusion epidemic model with latent period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Zhi-Cheng; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we first propose a time-periodic reaction-diffusion epidemic model which incorporates simple demographic structure and the latent period of infectious disease. Then we introduce the basic reproduction number R0 for this model and prove that the sign of R0 - 1 determines the local stability of the disease-free periodic solution. By using the comparison arguments and persistence theory, we further show that the disease-free periodic solution is globally attractive if R0 < 1, while there is an endemic periodic solution and the disease is uniformly persistent if R0 > 1.

  17. Local time dependences of oxygen ENA periodicities at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.

    2014-08-01

    The periodicities of energetic neutral atoms (90-170 keV oxygens) at Saturn are determined by applying Lomb-Scargle periodogram analyses to energetic neutral atom (ENA) fluxes observed in eight local time sectors of the equatorial plane between 5 and 15 RS (1 RS = 60,268 km). The analyses come from four long intervals (>180 days each) of high-latitude viewing from 2007 to 2013 and represent an essentially global view of Saturn's periodicities. The periodograms display rich and complex structures in local time. Sectors near midnight generally exhibit the strongest periodicities (in terms of highest signal-to-noise ratios) and often show the dual or single periods of the Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR). Sectors near noon display single or multiple periodicities or none. Furthermore, dayside periods may be much shorter (~10.3 h) than SKR periods. Sectors near dawn or dusk display periodicities intermediate between midnight and noon or may show no periodicities whatsoever. These patterns of local time dependence do not remain constant from interval to interval.

  18. Periampullary adenocarcinoma: analysis of 5-year survivors.

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, C J; Sohn, T A; Cameron, J L; Hruban, R H; Lillemoe, K D; Pitt, H A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This single-institution experience retrospectively reviews the outcomes in a group of patients treated 5 or more years ago by pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy exists regarding the benefit of resection for periampullary adenocarcinoma, particularly for pancreatic tumors. Many series report only Kaplan-Meier actuarial 5-year survival rates. There are believed to be discrepancies between the actuarial 5-year survival data and the actual 5-year survival rates. METHODS: From April 1970 through May 1992, 242 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenal resection for periampullary adenocarcinoma at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Follow-up was complete through May 1997. All pathology specimens were reviewed and categorized. Actual 5-year survival rates were calculated. The demographic, intraoperative, pathologic, and postoperative features of patients surviving > or =5 years were compared with those of patients who survived <5 years. RESULTS: Of the 242 patients with resected periampullary adenocarcinoma, 149 (62%) were pancreatic primaries, 46 (19%) arose in the ampulla, 30 (12%) were distal bile duct cancers, and 17 (7%) were duodenal cancers. There was a 5.3% operative mortality rate during the 22 years of the review, with a 2% operative mortality rate in the last 100 patients. There were 58 5-year survivors, 28 7-year survivors, and 7 10-year survivors. The tumor-specific 5-year actual survival rates were pancreatic 15%, ampullary 39%, distal bile duct 27%, and duodenal 59%. When compared with patients who did not survive 5 years, the 5-year survivors had a significantly higher percentage of well-differentiated tumors (14% vs. 4%; p = 0.02) and higher incidences of negative resection margins (98% vs. 73%, p < 0.0001) and negative nodal status (62% vs. 31%, p < 0.0001). The tumor-specific 10-year actuarial survival rates were pancreatic 5%, ampullary 25%, distal bile duct 21%, and duodenal 59%. CONCLUSIONS

  19. The effects of oil pollution on Antarctic benthic diatom communities over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Polmear, R; Stark, J S; Roberts, D; McMinn, A

    2015-01-15

    Although considered pristine, Antarctica has not been impervious to hydrocarbon pollution. Antarctica's history is peppered with oil spills and numerous abandoned waste disposal sites. Both spill events and constant leakages contribute to previous and current sources of pollution into marine sediments. Here we compare the response of the benthic diatom communities over 5 years to exposure to a commonly used standard synthetic lubricant oil, an alternative lubricant marketed as more biodegradable, in comparison to a control treatment. Community composition varied significantly over time and between treatments with some high variability within contaminated treatments suggesting community stress. Both lubricants showed evidence of significant effects on community composition after 5 years even though total petroleum hydrocarbon reduction reached approximately 80% over this time period. It appears that even after 5 years toxicity remains high for both the standard and biodegradable lubricants revealing the temporal scale at which pollutants persist in Antarctica. PMID:25499184

  20. Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Niklasson, Eyvind; Ram, Abhay

    2014-04-01

    We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with coefficients A=B=C=1 are chaotic, and we show that the motion of a charged particle in such a field is also chaotic at late times with positive Lyapunov exponent. We further show that in time-periodic ABC fields, the kinetic energy of a charged particle can increase indefinitely with time. At late times the mean kinetic energy grows as a power law in time with an exponent that approaches unity. For an initial distribution of particles, whose kinetic energy is uniformly distributed within some interval, the probability density function of kinetic energy is, at late times, close to a Gaussian but with steeper tails. PMID:24827325

  1. Identifying multiple periodicities in sparse photon event time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The data considered are event times (e.g. photon arrival times, or the occurrence of sharp pulses). The source is multiperiodic, or the data could be multiperiodic because several unresolved sources contribute to the time series. Most events may be unobserved, either because the source is intermittent, or because some events are below the detection limit. The data may also be contaminated by spurious pulses. The problem considered is the determination of the periods in the data. A two-step procedure is proposed: in the first, a likely period is identified; in the second, events associated with this periodicity are removed from the time series. The steps are repeated until the remaining events do not exhibit any periodicity. A number of period-finding methods from the literature are reviewed, and a new maximum likelihood statistic is also introduced. It is shown that the latter is competitive compared to other techniques. The proposed methodology is tested on simulated data. Observations of two rotating radio transients are discussed, but contrary to claims in the literature, no evidence for multiperiodicity could be found.

  2. Identifying Multiple Periodicities in Sparse Photon Event Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    The data considered are event times (e.g. photon arrival times, or the occurrence of sharp pulses). The source is multiperiodic, or the data could be multiperiodic because several unresolved sources contribute to the time series. Most events may be unobserved, either because the source is intermittent, or because some events are below the detection limit. The data may also be contaminated by spurious pulses. The problem considered is the determination of the periods in the data. A two-step procedure is proposed: in the first, a likely period is identified; in the second, events associated with this periodicity are removed from the time series. The steps are repeated until the remaining events do not exhibit any periodicity. A number of period-finding methods from the literature are reviewed, and a new maximum likelihood statistic is also introduced. It is shown that the latter is competitive compared to other techniques. The proposed methodology is tested on simulated data. Observations of two rotating radio transients are discussed, but contrary to claims in the literature, no evidence for multiperiodicity could be found.

  3. Optimal health insurance for multiple goods and time periods.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Randall P; Jiang, Shenyi; Manning, Willard G

    2015-05-01

    We examine the efficiency-based arguments for second-best optimal health insurance with multiple treatment goods and multiple time periods. Correlated shocks across health care goods and over time interact with complementarity and substitutability to affect optimal cost sharing. Health care goods that are substitutes or have positively correlated demand shocks should have lower optimal patient cost sharing. Positive serial correlations of demand shocks and uncompensated losses that are positively correlated with covered health services also reduce optimal cost sharing. Our results rationalize covering pharmaceuticals and outpatient spending more fully than is implied by static, one good, or one period models. PMID:25727031

  4. 26 CFR 301.7701(b)-4 - Residency time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement (described in paragraph (c)(3)(v)(C) of this section) to the individual's income tax return (Form... tax return for the election year, the alien individual may request an extension of time for filing the return until a reasonable period after he or she has satisfied such test, provided that the...

  5. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  6. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  7. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  8. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  9. 50 CFR 221.3 - How are time periods computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are time periods computed? 221.3 Section 221.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES...

  10. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 218.10 Section 218.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESSES Predecisional Administrative Review Process for Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized...

  11. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  12. Positive particle frequencies in some time-periodic universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droz-Vincent, Philippe

    1996-03-01

    We consider the Klein-Gordon equation in FRW-like universes which are periodic in a suitable scale of time. In a remarkable sector of solutions, the Floquet theory of differential equations allows for generalizing the notion of particle frequency. In this sense, the sesquilinear form associated with Gordon's current is positive definite when restricted to the sub-sector of positive frequencies.

  13. 36 CFR 218.10 - Objection time periods and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objection time periods and process. 218.10 Section 218.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Hazardous Fuel Reduction Projects Authorized by the Healthy Forests Restoration Act of 2003 §...

  14. The first 5 years after the dissertation.

    PubMed

    Hodges, L C; Poteet, G W

    1992-01-01

    To succeed in academia, nursing faculty members must devote the first 5 years following the dissertation to achieving a standard to tenure characteristic of the profession. Most institutions in the country adhere to the American Association of University Professors' guidelines for tenure. These guidelines mandate excellence in teaching, scholarship, and service. A fourth characteristic, leadership, is increasingly considered in tenure decisions. The expectations of an academic career in nursing serve as the foundation for a framework to evaluate the likelihood of success in a particular setting. A detailed 5-year plan for achieving tenure is proposed. PMID:1634654

  15. False periodicities in quasar time-domain surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.; Markowitz, A. G.; Huppenkothen, D.; Middleton, M. J.; Alston, W. N.; Scargle, J. D.; Farr, W. M.

    2016-09-01

    There have recently been several reports of apparently periodic variations in the light curves of quasars, e.g. PG 1302-102 by Graham et al. Any quasar showing periodic oscillations in brightness would be a strong candidate to be a close binary supermassive black hole and, in turn, a candidate for gravitational wave studies. However, normal quasars - powered by accretion on to a single, supermassive black hole - usually show stochastic variability over a wide range of time-scales. It is therefore important to carefully assess the methods for identifying periodic candidates from among a population dominated by stochastic variability. Using a Bayesian analysis of the light curve of PG 1302-102, we find that a simple stochastic process is preferred over a sinusoidal variation. We then discuss some of the problems one encounters when searching for rare, strictly periodic signals among a large number of irregularly sampled, stochastic time series, and use simulations of quasar light curves to illustrate these points. From a few thousand simulations of steep spectrum (`red noise') stochastic processes, we find many simulations that display few-cycle periodicity like that seen in PG 1302-102. We emphasize the importance of calibrating the false positive rate when the number of targets in a search is very large.

  16. Time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose , D.M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2008-04-01

    We present a spectrally accurate numerical method for finding non-trivial time-periodic solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. The method is based on minimizing a functional (of the initial condition and the period) that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. We solve an adjoint PDE to compute the gradient of this functional with respect to the initial condition. We include additional terms in the functional to specify the free parameters, which, in the case of the Benjamin-Ono equation, are the mean, a spatial phase, a temporal phase and the real part of one of the Fourier modes at t = 0. We use our method to study global paths of non-trivial time-periodic solutions connecting stationary and traveling waves of the Benjamin-Ono equation. As a starting guess for each path, we compute periodic solutions of the linearized problem by solving an infinite dimensional eigenvalue problem in closed form. We then use our numerical method to continue these solutions beyond the realm of linear theory until another traveling wave is reached (or until the solution blows up). By experimentation with data fitting, we identify the analytical form of the solutions on the path connecting the one-hump stationary solution to the two-hump traveling wave. We then derive exact formulas for these solutions by explicitly solving the system of ODE's governing the evolution of solitons using the ansatz suggested by the numerical simulations.

  17. Periodicity detection method for small-sample time series datasets.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Time series of gene expression often exhibit periodic behavior under the influence of multiple signal pathways, and are represented by a model that incorporates multiple harmonics and noise. Most of these data, which are observed using DNA microarrays, consist of few sampling points in time, but most periodicity detection methods require a relatively large number of sampling points. We have previously developed a detection algorithm based on the discrete Fourier transform and Akaike's information criterion. Here we demonstrate the performance of the algorithm for small-sample time series data through a comparison with conventional and newly proposed periodicity detection methods based on a statistical analysis of the power of harmonics.We show that this method has higher sensitivity for data consisting of multiple harmonics, and is more robust against noise than other methods. Although "combinatorial explosion" occurs for large datasets, the computational time is not a problem for small-sample datasets. The MATLAB/GNU Octave script of the algorithm is available on the author's web site: http://www.cbrc.jp/%7Etominaga/piccolo/. PMID:21151841

  18. Finding unstable periodic orbits from chaotic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhl, Michael

    Contained within a chaotic attractor is an infinite number of unstable periodic orbits (UPOs). Although these orbits have zero measure, they form a skeleton of the dynamics. However, they are difficult to find from an observed time series. In this thesis I present several methods to find UPOs from measured time series. In Chapter 2 I look at data measured from the stomatogastric system of the California spiny lobster as an example to find unstable periodic orbits. With this time series I use two methods. The first creates a local linear model of the dynamics and finds the periodic orbits of the model, and the second applies a linear transform to the model such that unstable orbits are stable. In addition, in this chapter I describe methods of filtering and embedding the chaotic time series. In Chapter 3 I look at a more complicated model system where the dynamics are described by delay differential equations. Now the future state of the system depends on both the current state and the state a time tau earlier. This makes the phase space of the system infinite dimensional. I present a method for modeling systems such as this and finding UPOs in the infinite dimensional phase space. In Chapters 4 and 5 I describe a new method to find UPOs using symbolic dynamics. This has many advantages over the methods described in Chapter 2; more orbits can be found using a smaller time series---even in the presence of noise. First in Chapter 4 I describe how the phase space can be partitioned so that we can use symbolic dynamics. Then in Chapter 5 I describe how the UPOs can be found from the symbolic time series. Here, I model the symbolic dynamics with a Markov chain, represented by a graph, and then the symbolic UPOs are found from the graph. These symbolic cycles can then be localized back in phase space.

  19. Periodic, Quasi-periodic and Chaotic Dynamics in Simple Gene Elements with Time Delays

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yoko; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory gene circuit motifs play crucial roles in performing and maintaining vital cellular functions. Frequently, theoretical studies of gene circuits focus on steady-state behaviors and do not include time delays. In this study, the inclusion of time delays is shown to entirely change the time-dependent dynamics for even the simplest possible circuits with one and two gene elements with self and cross regulations. These elements can give rise to rich behaviors including periodic, quasi-periodic, weak chaotic, strong chaotic and intermittent dynamics. We introduce a special power-spectrum-based method to characterize and discriminate these dynamical modes quantitatively. Our simulation results suggest that, while a single negative feedback loop of either one- or two-gene element can only have periodic dynamics, the elements with two positive/negative feedback loops are the minimalist elements to have chaotic dynamics. These elements typically have one negative feedback loop that generates oscillations, and another unit that allows frequent switches among multiple steady states or between oscillatory and non-oscillatory dynamics. Possible dynamical features of several simple one- and two-gene elements are presented in details. Discussion is presented for possible roles of the chaotic behavior in the robustness of cellular functions and diseases, for example, in the context of cancer. PMID:26876008

  20. Predominant periods in the time series of drought area index for the Western High Plains AD 1700 to 1962

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of the combined presence of the Hale magnetic sunspot cycle (22.28 years) and the lunar nodal tidal cycle (18.61 years) in both the Eastern North American January air temperatures and the Western U.S. High Plains drought series led to an extended analysis of the Drought Area Index time series. This analysis indicated that the mean dominant period of the drought series should be 20.0 to 20.5 years and that the principal period should be resolvable into two components of about 22.28 and 18.61 years. This note details the successful accomplishment of this task.

  1. Network news coverage of obesity in two time periods: an analysis of issues, sources, and frames.

    PubMed

    Gearhart, Sherice; Craig, Clay; Steed, Chaille

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic plaguing American society. The current study adds to a growing body of framing research as it examines the portrayal of obesity on television network news in two 5-year time periods, 1995-1999 and 2005-2009. Through content analysis of TV news transcripts from three networks (ABC, NBC, and CBS), this study analyzed episodic-thematic frames, issues, and sources. Results revealed the amount of obesity-related news coverage increased along with thematically framed stories. The use of politicians, affected others, supporters, and others as sources increased, but experts and those struggling with obesity remained primary sources. Changes in the proportion of issues discussed revealed significant decreases in the discussion of genetic causes and personal stories. Results reflect the societal impact of obesity and indicate the ways in which obesity is perceived by the public through network news. Findings provide insight for media advocacy opportunities and contribute to research on framing and obesity. PMID:22236324

  2. Time periodic perturbations and transport signatures in Floquet topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Aaron; Pereg-Barnea, T.

    A Floquet topological insulator represents an out-of-equilibrium topological state. The topology of these systems emerges only when a time periodic perturbation is carefully applied. In time-periodic systems one can define quasi-energy states, which replace equilibrium stationary states (i.e. energy eigenstates). For appropriate time periodic potential strengths, a Floquet topological insulator exhibits edge localized quasi-energy states which lie in a gap of its quasi-energy spectrum. These edge states are a non-equilibrium analogue of the topologically protected edge-states in equilibrium topological insulators. In an equilibrium system such edge states lead to robust ``signature'' transport properties, e.g. a two-terminal conductivity of 2e2 / h . This talk will explore how these transport signatures translate to Floquet topological insulators. We will do this by developing and generalizing intuition borrowed from the field of photon-assited tunneling. We show that ultimately the signature transport properties of an equilibrium topological insulator do not directly hold in the out-of-equilibrium setting. This fact notwithstanding, we will provide an indirect way of retaining these transport signatures by using a so-called Floquet sum rule.

  3. Short time transient periodicities from Cyg X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auriemma, G.; Cardini, D.; Costa, E.; Giovannelli, F.; Ranieri, M.

    1976-01-01

    The temporal behavior of three new events of modulated optical emission from Cyg X1, detected in July 1975, is presented. Short time periodicities in the optical band are investigated. Single photon pulses from the photomultiplier are recorded on magnetic tape together with a very accurate 1 kHz reference frequency. During playback of the tape, the reference signal gives a 1 ms timing to a scaler interfaced with a small processor and the number of photon per millisecond is recorded on a digital tape.

  4. Krylov-subspace acceleration of time periodic waveform relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the author uses Krylov-subspace techniques to accelerate the convergence of waveform relaxation applied to solving systems of first order time periodic ordinary differential equations. He considers the problem in the frequency domain and presents frequency dependent waveform GMRES (FDWGMRES), a member of a new class of frequency dependent Krylov-subspace techniques. FDWGMRES exhibits many desirable properties, including finite termination independent of the number of timesteps and, for certain problems, a convergence rate which is bounded from above by the convergence rate of GMRES applied to the static matrix problem corresponding to the linear time-invariant ODE.

  5. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  6. Equine-associated maxillofacial injuries: retrospective 5-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shofiq; Gupta, Benjamin; Taylor, Christopher J; Chow, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Gary R

    2014-02-01

    We explored the relation between the causes of facial injuries in equestrians and the presence or absence of associated injuries. Over a 5-year period we retrospectively reviewed all patients who presented to the John Hunter Hospital, New South Wales, with facial injuries that had resulted from activity with horses. We analysed the rates of hard and soft tissue injuries, and of associated injuries by sex and mechanism. A total of 85 patients were included (50 female and 35 male) with an age range of 2-88 years. There was a significant difference in the rate of maxillofacial and associated injuries when groups were analysed for sex and mechanism of injury. Facial injuries caused by falling from a horse were more often associated with other injuries in men than in women (p<0.05), and men were 4 times more likely to present with associated injuries than women (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.1 to 14) We also found significant differences in the rates of facial fracture. Women who had been kicked by a horse were more likely to sustain bony injuries than men (p<0.05). Our data confirm the association between kicks and facial fracture, and this may provide an impetus for the development of appropriate protective equipment. Patients who sustain facial injuries when falling from a horse often present with associated injuries and this has practical implications for clinicians involved in their management. PMID:24168759

  7. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, Oren; Subasi, Yigit; Jarzynski, Christopher

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents: to generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters - also known as a stochastic pump (SP) - reaches a periodic state with non-vanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems we establish a mapping between NESS and SP. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: they show that SP are able to mimic the behavior of NESS, and vice-versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics.

  8. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  9. (abstract) Short Time Period Variations in Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Foster, R.; Heiles, C.; Pater, I. de

    1994-01-01

    The long term time variability of Jupiter's synchrotron radiation on yearly time scales has been established for some time. For many years, theorists have speculated about the effects variations in the solar wind, solar flux, Io, the Io torus, and Jupiter's magnetic field have on the ultra-relativistic electron population responsible for the emission. Early observational results suggested the additional possibility of a short term time variability, on timescales of days to weeks. In 1989 a program designed to investigate the existence of short term time variability using the 85 foot Hat Creek radio telescope operating at 1400 MHz was initiated. The availability of a dedicated telescope provided the opportunity, for the first time, to obtain numerous observations over the full Jupiter rotation period. These and future observations will enable two important studies, characterization and confirmation of possible short term variations, and the investigation of the stability of Jupiter's synchrotron emission beaming curve. Analysis of Hat Creek observations and early results from the Maryland Point Naval research Laboratory will be presented.

  10. Infrared Time Lags for the Periodic Quasar PG 1302-102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunsung D.; Stern, Daniel; Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mainzer, Amy; Cutri, Roc M.; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.

    2015-11-01

    The optical light curve of the quasar PG 1302-102 at z=0.278 shows a strong, smooth 5.2 year periodic signal, detectable over a period of ∼20 years. Although the interpretation of this phenomenon is still uncertain, the most plausible mechanisms involve a binary system of two supermassive black holes with a subparsec separation. At this close separation, the nuclear black holes in PG 1302-102 will likely merge within ∼ {10}5 years due to gravitational wave emission alone. Here, we report the rest-frame near-infrared time lags for PG 1302-102. Compiling data from WISE and Akari, we confirm that the periodic behavior reported in the optical light curve from Graham et al. is reproduced at infrared wavelengths, with best-fit observed-frame 3.4 and 4.6 μ {{m}} time lags of (2219 ± 153, 2408 ± 148) days for a near face-on orientation of the torus, or (4103 ± 153, 4292 ± 148) days for an inclined system with relativistic Doppler boosting in effect. The periodicity in the infrared light curves and the light-travel time of the accretion disk photons to reach the dust glowing regions support that a source within the accretion disk is responsible for the optical variability of PG 1302-102, echoed at the farther out dusty regions. The implied distance of this dusty, assumed toroidal region is ∼1.5 pc for a near face-on geometry or ∼1.1 pc for the relativistic Doppler-boosted case.

  11. Polymer dynamics in time-dependent periodic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauttonen, Janne; Merikoski, Juha; Pulkkinen, Otto

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of a discrete polymer in time-dependent external potentials is studied with the master equation approach. We consider both stochastic and deterministic switching mechanisms for the potential states and give the essential equations for computing the stationary-state properties of molecules with internal structure in time-dependent periodic potentials on a lattice. As an example, we consider standard and modified Rubinstein-Duke polymers and calculate their mean drift and effective diffusion coefficient in the two-state nonsymmetric flashing potential and symmetric traveling potential. Rich nonlinear behavior of these observables is found. By varying the polymer length, we find current inversions caused by the rebound effect that is only present for molecules with internal structure. These results depend strongly on the polymer type. We also notice increased transport coherence for longer polymers.

  12. Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A 5-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Cristiana; Neves, Joao; Sa, Nuno; Goncalves, Fabienne; Oliveira, Julio; Reis, Ernestina

    2011-01-01

    Background Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) is defined by the presence of air in the pleural space without history of trauma. It is classified as secondary if coexisting with underlying pulmonary disease. Its an entity with considerable incidence and treatment particularities which give reason for a reflection on the subject. We present a 5-year casuistry, characterizing the SP epidemiology, clinical presentation, investigation and therapeutic choices. Methods Sixty-six patients were included in the study, corresponding to 93 episodes of SP. Results We have found male predominance and the mean age was 34.5 years old. In 60.6% of cases there was history of tobacco use; 36.4% of cases were classified as secondary; 30.1% of patients with secondary SP and 21.7% with primary SP recurred; 89.2% had an acute presentation. The most frequent initial symptom was chest pain (90.3%) and 81.7% had diminished breath sounds. In 17.3% it was documented a physical strain associated. We did not identify statistically significant association between the SP occurrence and the variation of the atmospheric pressure, on the first day of symptoms. In 12.9% of episodes the initial treatment option was observation. In most of the episodes the lung totally expanded. However, in 29.1% of the episodes surgical treatment was needed. Conclusions Our results are similar to the literature. Some clinical records are incomplete, demanding the implementation of rules to improve knowledge about this matter. Keywords Spontaneous pneumothorax; Primary spontaneous pneumothorax; Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax; Epidemiology PMID:21811541

  13. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  14. Langevin Dynamics with Space-Time Periodic Nonequilibrium Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubaud, R.; Pavliotis, G. A.; Stoltz, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the ballistic and diffusive behavior of the Langevin dynamics in a periodic potential that is driven away from equilibrium by a space-time periodic driving force, extending some of the results obtained by Collet and Martinez in (J Math Biol, 56(6):765-792 2008). In the hyperbolic scaling, a nontrivial average velocity can be observed even if the external forcing vanishes in average. More surprisingly, an average velocity in the direction opposite to the forcing may develop at the linear response level—a phenomenon called negative mobility. The diffusive limit of the non-equilibrium Langevin dynamics is also studied using the general methodology of central limit theorems for additive functionals of Markov processes. To apply this methodology, which is based on the study of appropriate Poisson equations, we extend recent results on pointwise estimates of the resolvent of the generator associated with the Langevin dynamics. Our theoretical results are illustrated by numerical simulations of a two-dimensional system.

  15. Desensitization to media violence over a short period of time.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Vanman, Eric; Henrich, Christopher C; Avraamides, Marios N

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the desensitization to violence over a short period of time. Participants watched nine violent movie scenes and nine comedy scenes, and reported whether they enjoyed the violent or comedy scenes and whether they felt sympathetic toward the victim of violence. Using latent growth modeling, analyses were carried out to investigate how participants responded to the different scenes across time. The findings of this study suggested that repeated exposure to media violence reduces the psychological impact of media violence in the short term, therefore desensitizing viewers to media violence. As a result, viewers tended to feel less sympathetic toward the victims of violence and actually enjoy more the violence portrayed in the media. Additionally, desensitization to media violence was better represented by a curvilinear pattern, whereas desensitization to comedy scenes was better represented by a linear pattern. Finally, trait aggression was not related to the pattern of change over time, although significant effects were found for initial reports of enjoyment and sympathy. PMID:19172659

  16. Relaxation Characteristics of 828 DGEBA Epoxy Over Long Time Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoo, Jasmine; Reprogle, Riley C.; Wisler, Brian; Arechederra, Gabriel K.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.; Long, Kevin N.

    The mechanical relaxation response in uniaxial compression of a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy was studied over long time periods. The epoxy, 828DEA, was Epon 828 cured with diethanolamine (DEA). A sample was compressed at constant strain rate and held at various strain levels for days to allow the sample to relax. The sample was then compressed further and held once more. The relaxation curves were fit with a stretched exponential function. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Swimming and transport of bacteria in time-periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Rebecca; Patteson, Alison; Gagnon, David; Arratia, Paulo

    The transport of bacteria can be highly influenced by external flows in oceans, rivers, and intestinal tracts. This has implications in biological systems for the performance of major biological processes, such as biofilm formation. In this study, we experimentally investigate the aggregation and transport of swimming Vibrio cholerae bacteria in time-periodic flows. Bacteria are placed in a well-characterized flow, and bacterial concentrations are recorded for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) that spans two orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 10. It is generally found that bacteria deplete from regions of high deformation rate and accumulate near vortices. This phenomenon seems to be dictated by a combination of bacterial activity and background flow vorticity. R.W. supported by NSF-GRFP.

  18. Ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: a 5-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkova, Nadezhda P; Hölldobler, Kristina; Prahs, Philipp; Radeck, Viola; Helbig, Horst; Märker, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to evaluate an optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual acuity (VA)-guided, variable-dosing regimen with intravitreal ranibizumab injection for treating patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) from 2007 to 2012. Design This was a retrospective clinical study of 5 years follow-up in a tertiary eye center. Patients and methods In this study, 66 patients with neovascular AMD (mean age of 74 years, SD 8.7 years) were included. We investigated the development of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), the number of intravitreal injections, and the central retinal thickness measured with OCT (OCT Spectralis) over 5 years of intravitreal treatment. Results The mean number of intravitreal ranibizumab injections over 5 years was 8.8. The mean BCVA before therapy was 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR). After 5 years of therapy, the mean BCVA was 0.6 logMAR. In all, 16% of treated patients had stable VA over 5 years and 10% of study eyes approved their VA. The mean OCT-measured central retinal thickness at the beginning of this study was 295 µm; after 5 years of treatment, the mean central retinal thickness was 315 µm. There was an increase in central retinal thickness in 47.5% of examined eyes. Conclusion Other studies showed VA improvement in OCT-guided variable-dosing regimens. Our study revealed a moderate decrease in VA after a total mean injection number as low as 8.8 injections over 5 years. In OCT, an increase in central retinal thickness over 5 years could be observed. Probably, this is due to deficient treatment when comparing the total injection number to other treatment regimens. Anti-VEGF therapy helps to keep the VA stable for a period of time, but cannot totally stop the progression of the disease completely. Patients with late stages of neovascular AMD can maintain VA even if they are relatively undertreated. PMID:27354758

  19. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  20. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  1. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  2. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  3. 14 CFR 221.190 - Time for filing and computation of time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time for filing and computation of time periods. 221.190 Section 221.190 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.190...

  4. 43 CFR 3207.5 - What terms (time periods) apply to my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LEASING Lease Terms and Extensions § 3207.5 What terms (time periods) apply to my lease? Your lease may include a number of different time periods. Not every time period applies to every lease. These periods... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What terms (time periods) apply to...

  5. Modified Mandibulotomy Technique to Reduce Postoperative Complications: 5-Year Results

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hye-Young; Choi, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hyung Jun; Cha, In-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To review the 5-year outcomes of our modified mandibulotomy technique. Retrospective review of a tertiary level oral cancer center. Materials and Methods During a 5-year period, 30 patients who had a uniform surgical technique consisting of a lower lip-splitting, modified stair-step osteotomy with thin saw blade and osteotome after plate-precontouring and combination fixation with monocortical osteosynthesis (miniplate) and bicortical osteosynthesis (maxiplate and bicortical screws), with at least 14 months postoperative follow-up, were selected and reviewed retrospectively. Results There were 8 women and 22 men with an average age of 56.5 years. All the patients involved malignancies were squamous cell carcinoma. The main primary sites of the those who underwent a mandibulotomy were the tonsil, the base of tongue, the oral tongue, the retromolar pad area, and others. Others included buccal cheek, floor of mouth, and soft palate. 23 patients received postoperative radiation therapy, and among whom 8 patients also received chemotherapy. Total four (13%) mandibulotomy-related complications occurred, only two (6.7%) requiring additional operation under general anesthesia. Conclusion Our modified mandibulotomy meets the criteria for an ideal mandibulotomy technique relatively well because it requires no intermaxillary fixation, can precise preserve the occlusion in a precise way, allows early function, requires no secondary procedures, and has few complications. PMID:23918577

  6. Circumcision: a refined technique and 5 year review.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, S. C.; Cerqueiro, J.; Sterne, G. D.; Bracka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The vast majority of circumcisions currently performed in the UK are for phimosis or balanitis and the patients are not looking for the denuded glans appearance of a ritual circumcision. We present a refinement of the sleeve technique of circumcision, which involves Horton's test to define the proximal incision margin, and bipolar electro-dissection. A review of all patients undergoing circumcision at the Wordsley Plastic Surgery Unit, in a 5-year period, has shown this technique to be safe with a haematoma rate of only 1.4%, and an overall complication rate of 3%. Images Figure 1 Figure 1 (G,H) Figure 2 PMID:11320921

  7. Fasting Plasma Insulin at 5 Years of Age Predicted Subsequent Weight Increase in Early Childhood over a 5-Year Period—The Da Qing Children Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan Yan; Wang, Jin Ping; Jiang, Ya Yun; Li, Hui; Hu, Ying Hua; Lee, Kok Onn; Li, Guang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between hyperinsulinemia and obesity is well known. However, it is uncertain especially in childhood obesity, if initial fasting hyperinsulinemia predicts obesity, or obesity leads to hyperinsulinemia through insulin resistance. Objective To investigate the predictive effect of fasting plasma insulin on subsequent weight change after a 5-year interval in childhood. Methods 424 Children from Da Qing city, China, were recruited at 5 years of age and followed up for 5 years. Blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting plasma insulin, glucose and triglycerides were measured at baseline and 5 years later. Results Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age was significantly correlated with change of weight from 5 to 10 years (ΔWeight). Children in the lowest insulin quartile had ΔWeight of 13.08±0.73 kg compare to 18.39±0.86 in the highest insulin quartile (P<0.0001) in boys, and similarly 12.03±0.71 vs 15.80±0.60 kg (P<0.0001) in girls. Multivariate analysis showed that the predictive effect of insulin at 5 years of age on subsequent weight gain over 5 years remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for age, sex, birth weight, TV-viewing time and weight (or body mass index) at baseline. By contrast, the initial weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent changes in insulin level 5 years later. Children who had both higher fasting insulin and weight at 5 years of age showed much higher levels of systolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglycerides at 10 years of age. Conclusions Fasting plasma insulin at 5 years of age predicts weight gain and cardiovascular risk factors 5 year later in Chinese children of early childhood, but the absolute weight at 5 years of age did not predict subsequent change in fasting insulin. PMID:26047327

  8. Almost periodic dynamics for impulsive delay neural networks of a general type on almost periodic time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Agarwal, Ravi P.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we improve the new concepts of almost periodic time scales addressed in 2014 to introduce the new concepts of piecewise almost periodic functions. Then we establish some first results for the existence and exponential stability of almost periodic solution for a general type of delay neural networks with impulsive effects. The approaches are based on contraction principle and Gronwall-Bellman's inequality. In addition, the numerical example and simulations are provided to illustrate our time scale methods are feasible and effective. The obtained results are more general and comprehensive than the results obtained on periodic time scales before.

  9. Respiratory rate: measurement of variability over time and accuracy at different counting periods.

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E A; Roark, R; Berman, S; Esler, L L; Murphy, J

    1991-01-01

    The respiratory rates/minute of 97 children were monitored every 10-15 minutes over one hour, by an observer and by pneumogram, at which times two 30 second and one 60 second counts were obtained. The children were under 5 years of age with lower respiratory tract infections (n = 20), upper respiratory tract infections (n = 34), or controls without acute respiratory infection (n = 43). The difference between respiratory rate count determined simultaneously by observation and pneumogram in relation to their mean count was analysed for the 60 second counting period, 30 plus 30 second period, and the 30 second period doubled. The mean difference for the 60 second period was 1.79, for the 30 plus 30 second period 1.42, and for the 30 second period doubled 1.72. The variability between respiratory rate counts determined by observation and pneumogram was significantly lower in counts obtained when the subject was sleeping and higher when agitated compared with obtaining a count when the subject was awake and calm or feeding. The variability was also significantly lower in subjects with lower respiratory tract infections compared with those with upper respiratory tract infections and control subjects without respiratory symptoms. In the same patient, over the one hour, 50% of the 60 second counts varied by up to 14 breaths/minute and 75% by up to 21 breaths/minute. The least variability was seen in children with a lower respiratory tract infection, who tended to maintain their rapid breathing in contrast to those with an upper respiratory tract infection and controls without respiratory symptoms. About 10% of initial 30 second counts, 12% of 60 second, and 16% of initial and repeat 30 second attempts to obtain accurate counts failed. Failures occurred more frequently in children <2 months of age and those agitated. The data from this study suggest that one minute's counting either at a stretch or in two blocks of 30 second intervals is better than counting the respiratory

  10. Convergence Time towards Periodic Orbits in Discrete Dynamical Systems

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  11. Convergence time towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the convergence towards periodic orbits in discrete dynamical systems. We examine the probability that a randomly chosen point converges to a particular neighborhood of a periodic orbit in a fixed number of iterations, and we use linearized equations to examine the evolution near that neighborhood. The underlying idea is that points of stable periodic orbit are associated with intervals. We state and prove a theorem that details what regions of phase space are mapped into these intervals (once they are known) and how many iterations are required to get there. We also construct algorithms that allow our theoretical results to be implemented successfully in practice. PMID:24736594

  12. Maintenance pharmacotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder: 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Holma, Irina A K; Holma, K Mikael; Melartin, Tarja K; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2008-08-01

    Practice guidelines endorse maintenance antidepressant treatment for recurrent major depressive disorder. In the Vantaa Depression Study, we followed 218 psychiatric patients with major depressive disorder for up to 5 years with a life-chart. Of these patients, 86 (39.4%) had more than three lifetime episodes and an indication for maintenance pharmacotherapy. However, of these, only 57% received treatment and only for 16% of the time indicated. Good adherence to pharmacotherapy in the acute phase independently predicted maintenance treatment. The tertiary preventive impact of maintenance treatment may remain limited, as many patients with major depressive disorder either do not receive it, or receive it for too short a period. PMID:18670005

  13. Logic Model Checking of Time-Periodic Real-Time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florian, Mihai; Gamble, Ed; Holzmann, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the work we performed to extend the logic model checker SPIN with built-in support for the verification of periodic, real-time embedded software systems, as commonly used in aircraft, automobiles, and spacecraft. We first extended the SPIN verification algorithms to model priority based scheduling policies. Next, we added a library to support the modeling of periodic tasks. This library was used in a recent application of the SPIN model checker to verify the engine control software of an automobile, to study the feasibility of software triggers for unintended acceleration events.

  14. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  15. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  16. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  17. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  18. 29 CFR 4000.43 - How do I compute a time period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I compute a time period? 4000.43 Section 4000.43..., ISSUANCE, COMPUTATION OF TIME, AND RECORD RETENTION Computation of Time § 4000.43 How do I compute a time period? (a) In general. If you are computing a time period to which this part applies, whether you...

  19. Burning invariant manifolds in time-periodic and time-aperiodic vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, Savannah; Solomon, Tom

    2014-11-01

    We present experiments that study reaction fronts in a flow composed of a single, translating vortex. The fronts are produced by the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reaction, and the vortex flow is driven magnetohydrodynamically by a radial current in a thin fluid layer above a Nd-Fe-Bo magnet. The magnet is mounted on a pair of perpendicular translation stages, allowing for controlled, two-dimensional movement of the magnet and the resulting vortex. We study reaction fronts that pin to the vortex for time-independent flows (produced by moving the vortex with a constant velocity) and for time-periodic and time-aperiodic flows produced by oscillating the vortex laterally. The steady-state front shape is analyzed in terms of burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) that act as one-way barriers against any propagating reaction fronts. For time independent and time-periodic flows, the location of the BIMs are calculated numerically and are compared with experimental images of the pinned reaction fronts. We investigate extensions of this BIM approach for analyzing fronts in time-aperiodic flows. Supported by NSF Grants DMR-1004744, DMR-1361881 and PHY-1156964.

  20. Incidence pattern of thyroid cancer in Norway: influence of birth cohort and time period.

    PubMed

    Akslen, L A; Haldorsen, T; Thoresen, S O; Glattre, E

    1993-01-21

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in Norway increased about 2-fold for both sexes during the period 1955 to 1989 (4691 cases). In the last 5-year period, however, a decline was observed, especially among females. The ratio between age-adjusted incidence rates in Northern Norway compared with Southern Norway was 1.6 for females and 1.5 for males, and the incidence pattern during the period was similar in the 2 regions. The analysis of age-cohort-period models showed a strong cohort effect in both sexes. The reason for this is not clear, although radiation treatment during childhood and dietary habits may possibly be involved. A weaker but statistically significant and transient period effect was also present, giving relatively higher incidence rates, especially in the 1970s. Although this result may be consistent with an influence of radioactive fallout in the northern area, more detailed studies are needed. PMID:8425755

  1. Unsettled Times, Unsettled Prices: Periodical Price Survey 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketcham, Lee; Born, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of the thirty-seventh annual periodical price survey conducted by "Library Journal". Highlights include canceling print subscriptions and electronic journals, cost trends by subject and by countries, prices for public and school libraries and for college and medium-sized university libraries, and budgeting for 1988. (LRW)

  2. Asymptotic stability on slow time scales from periodic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persek, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    Asymptotic stability for a periodic system of ordinary differential equations with a small parameter is shown to follow from the stability of the corresponding iterated-average system. Applications are made to biological systems experiencing varying seasonal factors, to large scale dynamical systems that are principally irrotational and to nuclear reactor dynamics. 7 refs.

  3. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change

  4. Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-04-01

    In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change.

  5. A 5-year retrospective clinical study of the Dentium implants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Yol; Park, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Choi, Yong-Geun; Kim, Young-Soo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate cumulative survival rate (CSR) of Implantium implants followed for 5 years and association between risk factors and the CSR. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of two hundred forty-nine Implantium Implants System (Dentium, Seoul, Korea) placed in ninety-five patients from 2004 to 2009 were investigated with several identified risk factors (sex, systemic disease, smoking, alchohol, reason of tooth loss, length, arch (maxilla or mandible), replace tooth type (incisor, canine, premolar or molar) Kennedy classification, prosthodontic type, prosthodontic design, opposite dentition, abutment type, occlusal material, occlusal unit, splint to tooth, cantilever, other surgery). Clinical examination (mobility, percussion, screw loosening, discomfort, etc.) and radiographic examination data were collected from patient records including all problems during follow-up period according to protocols described earlier. Life table analysis was undertaken to examine the CSR. Cox regression method was conducted to assess the association between potential risk factors and overall CSR. RESULTS Five of 249 implants were failed. Four of these were lost before loading. The 5-year implant cumulative survival rate was 97.37%. Cox regression analysis demonstrated a significant predictive association between overall CSR and systemic disease, smoking, reason of tooth loss, arch, Kennedy classification and prosthodontic design (P<.05). The screw related complication was rare. Two abutment screw fractures were found. Another complications of prosthetic components were porcelain fracture, resin facing fracture and denture fracture (n=19). CONCLUSION The 5-year CSR of Implantium implants was 97.37%. Implant survival may be dependent upon systemic disease, smoking reason of tooth loss, arch, Kennedy classification and prosthodontic design (P<.05). The presence of systemic diseases and combination of other surgical procedures may be associated

  6. Accurate frequency domain measurement of the best linear time-invariant approximation of linear time-periodic systems including the quantification of the time-periodic distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louarroudi, E.; Pintelon, R.; Lataire, J.

    2014-10-01

    Time-periodic (TP) phenomena occurring, for instance, in wind turbines, helicopters, anisotropic shaft-bearing systems, and cardiovascular/respiratory systems, are often not addressed when classical frequency response function (FRF) measurements are performed. As the traditional FRF concept is based on the linear time-invariant (LTI) system theory, it is only approximately valid for systems with varying dynamics. Accordingly, the quantification of any deviation from this ideal LTI framework is more than welcome. The “measure of deviation” allows us to define the notion of the best LTI (BLTI) approximation, which yields the best - in mean square sense - LTI description of a linear time-periodic LTP system. By taking into consideration the TP effects, it is shown in this paper that the variability of the BLTI measurement can be reduced significantly compared with that of classical FRF estimators. From a single experiment, the proposed identification methods can handle (non-)linear time-periodic [(N)LTP] systems in open-loop with a quantification of (i) the noise and/or the NL distortions, (ii) the TP distortions and (iii) the transient (leakage) errors. Besides, a geometrical interpretation of the BLTI approximation is provided, leading to a framework called vector FRF analysis. The theory presented is supported by numerical simulations as well as real measurements mimicking the well-known mechanical Mathieu oscillator.

  7. Migration of the Duraloc cup after 5 years.

    PubMed

    Stihsen, Christoph; Pabinger, Christof; Radl, Roman; Rehak, Peter; Windhager, Reinhard

    2008-12-01

    The Duraloc cup is a frequently used metal-backed, porous-coated, hemispherical, press-fit acetabular component. Published data on loosening rates are contradictory. In this study we investigated migration patterns with computer-assisted Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA) of 67 Duraloc 100 cups. Cup migration and clinical scores were analysed over a 5-year follow-up period. Median total migration of the Duraloc 100 cup was 1.21 mm at 5 years. Seventy-five percent of implants were radiologically stable at 2 years and 90% at 4 years. One cup loosened aseptically at 60 months, requiring revision. Cup diameters > or = 54 mm migrated significantly more than cups < 54 mm in diameter (p = 0.029 at 4 years). There was a significant correlation between high polyethylene wear and further migrating cups within the first post-operative year (p = 0.035 at 12 months). Our analysis revealed significantly higher wear in males (p = 0.029 at 4 years). Radiological loosening at two years could be calculated using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, and 1.2 mm as an adequate threshold value (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 89%). PMID:17609953

  8. The Alcohol Warning and Adolescents: 5-Year Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, David P.; Nohre, Liva; Pentz, Mary Ann; Stacy, Alan W.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of alcohol warning labels on adolescents during the first 5 years that the warning was required. Surveys of 10th and 12th grade students over 5 years indicated that the initial positive effects of the labels on adolescents leveled off after 3.5 years. The labels have not affected adolescents' beliefs about alcohol or…

  9. The nature of species interactions shifts profoundly between time periods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species interactions change through time, for example ontogenetically, successionally, and evolutionarily. They also change as environmental conditions change, both within years (seasonally) and between years (year effects). The former are relatively well-studied, but the latter have received less a...

  10. Neurological Recovery of Upper Extremity in Stroke Woman after 5 Years: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vejabhuti, Chayanin

    2016-02-01

    Strokes are common neurological disorders in Thailand. Rehabilitation programs significantly improve arm function outcomes if performed during the sub-acute period of stroke rehabilitation, within 6 months of the attack. This report describes the case of a stroke patient who gained upper extremity motor recovery after 5 years, which is beyond the normal recovery period. Although the patient does not have functionality, she has partial motor recovery, and she is enthusiastic about learning to gain better use of her hand. However there is still limited evidence to use in designing effective intervention and proper timing of rehabilitation administered by personnel in training chronic stroke patients. Therefore, evidence based on neuroplasticity and neurological recovery in chronic stroke patients, including rehabilitation intervention, is presented in this report. PMID:27266238

  11. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, Max

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that our techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system load ing, resulting in fewer object migration than local methods. Our method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive methods.

  12. New times of minimum and a period study for GO Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Louth, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Times of minimum derived from photometry obtained in 1963, 1967, 1978, and 1979 are presented. With these and previously published times, the period is studied. A constant period increase (quadratic ephemeris) represents most of the times but there was a period decrease in 1934 and possibly in 1984. A 50-year magnetic cycle is discussed.

  13. 19 CFR 351.204 - Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods and persons examined; voluntary... § 351.204 Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions. (a) Introduction. Because the Act does not specify the precise period of time that the Secretary should examine in...

  14. 20 CFR 261.10 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period... where time period for reopening has expired. If, after the time period for reopening under § 261.2(b) of this part has expired, new evidence is furnished showing a different date of birth or new evidence...

  15. 12 CFR 390.102 - How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does the FDIC compute time periods under... Application Processing Procedures § 390.102 How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart? In computing time periods under this subpart, the FDIC does not include the day of the act or event...

  16. 12 CFR 390.102 - How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does the FDIC compute time periods under... Application Processing Procedures § 390.102 How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart? In computing time periods under this subpart, the FDIC does not include the day of the act or event...

  17. 12 CFR 116.10 - How does the OCC compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does the OCC compute time periods under... TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 116.10 How does the OCC compute time periods under this part? In computing time periods under this part, the OCC does not include the day of the act or event...

  18. 12 CFR 116.10 - How does the OCC compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How does the OCC compute time periods under... TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 116.10 How does the OCC compute time periods under this part? In computing time periods under this part, the OCC does not include the day of the act or event...

  19. 12 CFR 390.102 - How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does the FDIC compute time periods under... Application Processing Procedures § 390.102 How does the FDIC compute time periods under this subpart? In computing time periods under this subpart, the FDIC does not include the day of the act or event...

  20. 12 CFR 116.10 - How does the OCC compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How does the OCC compute time periods under... TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 116.10 How does the OCC compute time periods under this part? In computing time periods under this part, the OCC does not include the day of the act or event...

  1. Estimation of Maximum Likelihood of the Unextendable Dead Time Period in a Flow of Physical Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gortsev, A. M.; Solov'ev, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, etc.) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the MAP-flow of events. The flow circulates under conditions of the unextendable dead time period, when the dead time period is unknown. The dead time period is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood from observations of arrival instants of events.

  2. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... update, if necessary, the Northern DPS' status in five years time (70 FR 17386; April 6, 2005). Therefore...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green...

  3. Breast Cancer-Specific Mortality Pattern and Its Changing Feature According to Estrogen Receptor Status in Two Time Periods

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yizhou; Shao, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether and how the patterns of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) changed along with time periods. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results registry to identify 228209 female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1990 and 2000 (cohort 1 [C1], 112981) and between 2001 and 2005 (cohort 2 [C2], 115228). BCSM was compared in two cohorts using Cox proportional hazard regression models. We analysed the relative hazard ratios (HRs) and absolute BCSM rates by flexible parametric survival modelling. Results The patterns of BCSM were similar between the two cohorts, with the peak of mortality presenting in the first 2–3 years after diagnosis, and mortality rate significantly decreased in C2 in all cases. In C2, the annual BCSM rate of all cases was 9.64 (per 1000 persons per year) in year 10 with a peak rate of 23.34 in year 2. In ER-negative and high-risk patients, marked survival improvements were achieved mostly in the first 5 years, while in ER-positive and low-risk patients, survival improvements were less but constant up to 10 years. Conclusion There has been a significant improvement of BCSM with substantially decreased mortality within 5 years. The current pattern of BCSM and its changing feature differs according to ER status. Our findings have some clinical implications both for treatment decisions and adjuvant treatment trial design. PMID:27299729

  4. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement

  5. Taylor dispersion in the presence of time-periodic convection phenomena. Part I. Local-space periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, M.; Brenner, H.

    1990-10-01

    Generalized Taylor dispersion theory is herein extended to circumstances for which the transport of dissolved or suspended chemically reactive (as well as inert) solutes is affected by carrier-solvent flow fields and/or external forces that are time periodic in both their global and local microscale spaces (and possess commensurate frequencies). The local-space- and time-averaged solute transport process is characterized by three time-independent, but frequency-dependent microscale phenomenological coefficients—K¯*, Ū*, and cf6D*, representing the mean chemical reaction rate, velocity vector, and dispersivity dyadic of the solute, respectively. These macroscale transport coefficients are expressed in terms of time-periodic eigenfunctions and corresponding eigenvalues using a recently developed solution scheme. This scheme permits the analysis of phenomena involving time-periodic transport coefficients on a par with that for the classical case of time-independent microscale phenomenological coefficients. The analysis generalizes to time-periodic local-space phenomena a previous treatment, in which only the global-space coefficients were allowed to vary periodically with time. This greatly enlarges the scope of potential applications of the analysis. In addition to the time-averaged phenomenological coefficients K¯*, Ū*, and CF6D*, comparable instantaneous coefficients are defined governing the local-space-averaged instantaneous solute concentration. In contrast with their time-averaged counterparts, K¯*, Ū*, and CF6D*, the latter instantaneous transport coefficients are shown to depend upon the initial solute distribution within the local space. Because of coupling between the local- and global-space transport processes in oscillatory flows and/or oscillatory external force fields, all harmonics of the resulting global-space solute velocity field contribute to the mean convective solute transport. This phenomenon may result, for example, in zero solvent

  6. Integration of a Psychiatric Service in a Long-Term Charitable Facility for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A 5-Year Medication Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggerini, Ciro; Guaraldi, Gian Paolo; Russo, Angela; Neviani, Vittoria; Castagnini, Augusto

    2004-01-01

    Since the implementation of a psychiatric service in a long-term facility for people with intellectual disability, the usage of psychotropic and anti-convulsant drugs has been surveyed over the 5-year period 1994-1999. At that time, although the overall prevalence rate of residents on medication was not declining significantly, a decrease in…

  7. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  8. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest time requirements. 135.273 Section 135.273 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.273 Duty period...

  9. Load Balancing Using Time Series Analysis for Soft Real Time Systems with Statistically Periodic Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hailperin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis provides design and analysis of techniques for global load balancing on ensemble architectures running soft-real-time object-oriented applications with statistically periodic loads. It focuses on estimating the instantaneous average load over all the processing elements. The major contribution is the use of explicit stochastic process models for both the loading and the averaging itself. These models are exploited via statistical time-series analysis and Bayesian inference to provide improved average load estimates, and thus to facilitate global load balancing. This thesis explains the distributed algorithms used and provides some optimality results. It also describes the algorithms' implementation and gives performance results from simulation. These results show that the authors' techniques allow more accurate estimation of the global system loading, resulting in fewer object migrations than local methods. The authors' method is shown to provide superior performance, relative not only to static load-balancing schemes but also to many adaptive load-balancing methods. Results from a preliminary analysis of another system and from simulation with a synthetic load provide some evidence of more general applicability.

  10. Long-term (5 years), high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--evidence of safety: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Gad M; Gilad, Varda H

    2014-11-01

    There is presently a great interest in the therapeutic potential of agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, for various diseases. Recent clinical studies have already shown that oral agmatine sulfate given for up to 3 weeks provides a safe and, as compared with current therapeutics, more effective treatment for neuropathic pain. These studies have ushered in the use of dietary agmatine as a nutraceutical. However, in view of information paucity, assessment of long-term safety of oral agmatine treatment is now clearly required. The authors of this report undertook to assess their own health status during ongoing consumption of a high daily dosage of oral agmatine over a period of 4-5 years. A daily dose of 2.67 g agmatine sulfate was encapsulated in gelatin capsules; the regimen consists of six capsules daily, each containing 445 mg, three in the morning and three in the evening after meals. Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. These initial findings are highly important as they provide significant evidence for the extended long-term safety of a high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--a cardinal advantage for its utility as a nutraceutical. PMID:25247837

  11. Prediction of 5-Year Survival with Data Mining Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Fabian; Pobiruchin, Monika; Bochum, Sylvia; Martens, Uwe M; Schramm, Wendelin

    2015-01-01

    Survival time prediction at the time of diagnosis is of great importance to make decisions about treatment and long-term follow-up care. However, predicting the outcome of cancer on the basis of clinical information is a challenging task. We now examined the ability of ten different data mining algorithms (Perceptron, Rule Induction, Support Vector Machine, Linear Regression, Naïve Bayes, Decision Tree, k-nearest Neighbor, Logistic Regression, Neural Network, Random Forest) to predict the dichotomous attribute "5-year-survival" based on seven attributes (sex, UICC-stage, etc.) which are available at the time of diagnosis. For this study we made use of the nationwide German research data set on colon cancer provided by the Robert Koch Institute. To assess the results a comparison between data mining algorithms and physicians' opinions was performed. Therefore, physicians guessed the survival time by leveraging the same seven attributes. The average accuracy of the physicians' opinion was 59%, the average accuracy of the machine learning algorithms was 67.7%. PMID:26152957

  12. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  13. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  14. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  15. 20 CFR 404.996 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. 404.996 Section 404.996 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... § 404.996 Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening expires. If, after the time...

  16. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  17. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  18. 14 CFR 135.273 - Duty period limitations and rest time requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duty period limitations and rest...

  19. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, F X; Gallagher, D

    2015-12-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  20. 19 CFR 351.204 - Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 351.204 Time periods and persons examined; voluntary respondents; exclusions. (a) Introduction... fiscal quarters (or, in an investigation involving merchandise imported from a nonmarket economy...

  1. Who Stays and Who Leaves? Father Accessibility Across Children's First 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Jacqueline D; Cabrera, Natasha J; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine; Lamb, Michael E

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal investigation examines whether fathers' prenatal involvement (e.g., attending doctor appointments and discussing pregnancy with mother) and residence status at infant's birth predict the first time a father becomes inaccessible to his child (defined as seeing child fewer than a few times per month) at six developmental time points in children's first 5 years. DESIGN: Data were gathered from 2,160 ethnically diverse mothers (i.e., European American, African American, and Latin American) who participated in the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Survival analysis was used to predict the timing of father inaccessibility based on interviews. RESULTS: By prekindergarten, fathers' residence at birth and prenatal involvement decreased their risk of being inaccessible to their children for the first time by 71% and 47%, respectively, after adjusting for all other variables in the model. Residence at birth was a stronger predictor of the timing of father inaccessibility than was prenatal involvement for European American and Latin American fathers; for African American fathers, prenatal involvement was a stronger predictor of the timing of father inaccessibility than nonresidential status at birth. Nearly 65% of fathers who were engaged in both prenatal activities remained consistently accessible to their child through child age of 63 months, whereas nearly 50% of fathers who were not prenatally involved were already inaccessible by the time infants were 3 months. CONCLUSION: These findings have implications for early intervention programs aimed at strengthening the role of fathers in their families from the prenatal period. PMID:20333276

  2. Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

  3. Dynamics of phase slips in systems with time-periodic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar; Beaume, Cédric

    2015-12-01

    The Adler equation with time-periodic frequency modulation is studied. A series of resonances between the period of the frequency modulation and the time scale for the generation of a phase slip is identified. The resulting parameter space structure is determined using a combination of numerical continuation, time simulations, and asymptotic methods. Regions with an integer number of phase slips per period are separated by regions with noninteger numbers of phase slips and include canard trajectories that drift along unstable equilibria. Both high- and low-frequency modulation is considered. An adiabatic description of the low-frequency modulation regime is found to be accurate over a large range of modulation periods.

  4. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  5. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  6. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  7. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  8. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  9. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. 54.724 Section 54.724 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for...

  10. 47 CFR 54.724 - Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time periods for Commission approval of...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Review of Decisions Issued by the Administrator § 54.724 Time periods for Commission approval of Administrator decisions. (a) The Wireline...

  11. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  12. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  13. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  14. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  15. 12 CFR 516.10 - How does OTS compute time periods under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How does OTS compute time periods under this part? 516.10 Section 516.10 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPLICATION PROCESSING PROCEDURES § 516.10 How does OTS compute time periods under this part? In...

  16. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  17. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.676(b)-1 - Powers exercisable only after a period of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powers exercisable only after a period of time...)-1 Powers exercisable only after a period of time. Section 676(b) provides an exception to the general rule of section 676(a) when the exercise of a power can only affect the beneficial enjoyment...

  19. Radiologically Isolated Syndrome: 5-Year Risk for an Initial Clinical Event

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Darin T.; Siva, Aksel; Kantarci, Orhun; Inglese, Matilde; Katz, Ilana; Tutuncu, Melih; Keegan, B. Mark; Donlon, Stacy; Hua, Le H.; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Montalban, Xavier; Rovira, Alex; Tintoré, Mar; Amato, Maria Pia; Brochet, Bruno; de Seze, Jérôme; Brassat, David; Vermersch, Patrick; De Stefano, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the 5-year risk and to identify risk factors for the development of a seminal acute or progressive clinical event in a multi-national cohort of asymptomatic subjects meeting 2009 RIS Criteria. Methods Retrospectively identified RIS subjects from 22 databases within 5 countries were evaluated. Time to the first clinical event related to demyelination (acute or 12-month progression of neurological deficits) was compared across different groups by univariate and multivariate analyses utilizing a Cox regression model. Results Data were available in 451 RIS subjects (F: 354 (78.5%)). The mean age at from the time of the first brain MRI revealing anomalies suggestive of MS was 37.2 years (y) (median: 37.1 y, range: 11–74 y) with mean clinical follow-up time of 4.4 y (median: 2.8 y, range: 0.01–21.1 y). Clinical events were identified in 34% (standard error = 3%) of individuals within a 5-year period from the first brain MRI study. Of those who developed symptoms, 9.6% fulfilled criteria for primary progressive MS. In the multivariate model, age [hazard ratio (HR): 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96–0.99); p = 0.03], sex (male) [HR: 1.93 (1.24–2.99); p = 0.004], and lesions within the cervical or thoracic spinal cord [HR: 3.08 (2.06–4.62); p = <0.001] were identified as significant predictors for the development of a first clinical event. Interpretation These data provide supportive evidence that a meaningful number of RIS subjects evolve to a first clinical symptom. An age <37 y, male sex, and spinal cord involvement appear to be the most important independent predictors of symptom onset. PMID:24598783

  20. Medicaid program; state plan home and community-based services, 5-year period for waivers, provider payment reassignment, and home and community-based setting requirements for Community First Choice and home and community-based services (HCBS) waivers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-01-16

    This final rule amends the Medicaid regulations to define and describe state plan section 1915(i) home and community-based services (HCBS) under the Social Security Act (the Act) amended by the Affordable Care Act. This rule offers states new flexibilities in providing necessary and appropriate services to elderly and disabled populations. This rule describes Medicaid coverage of the optional state plan benefit to furnish home and community based-services and draw federal matching funds. This rule also provides for a 5-year duration for certain demonstration projects or waivers at the discretion of the Secretary, when they provide medical assistance for individuals dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare benefits, includes payment reassignment provisions because state Medicaid programs often operate as the primary or only payer for the class of practitioners that includes HCBS providers, and amends Medicaid regulations to provide home and community-based setting requirements related to the Affordable Care Act for Community First Choice State plan option. This final rule also makes several important changes to the regulations implementing Medicaid 1915(c) HCBS waivers. PMID:24443765

  1. Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Using the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device and 5-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Ezgi; Kocadereli, Ilken

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the treatment of a 14-year-and-8-month-old boy with Class II division 2 mandibular retrusion, severe deep bite, and concave profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device (FRD) was effective in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. At 5-year posttreatment follow-up, the teeth were well aligned and the occlusion was stable. FRD application with appropriate treatment time can result with prominent changes in the facial profile and dentition, and the outcomes can be maintained at the long-term follow-up periods. PMID:27034855

  2. Secondary Science Teachers' Use of Technology in the Classroom during Their First 5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, EunJin; Luft, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technology use of beginning secondary science teachers and explored factors facilitating or inhibiting their use of technology. The researchers collected and analyzed interviews and observational data from 95 teachers over a 5-year period. The results show that teachers used PowerPoint the most and other software the least…

  3. Renal adenoma in a 5-year-old Labrador retriever: Big is not always bad

    PubMed Central

    Lillakas, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old Labrador retriever was presented with anorexia, hematuria, and a 3-week history of mild lethargy, periodic inappetance, and weight loss. A firm mass in the cranial abdomen was discovered on physical examination. Following clinical work-up the owners elected euthanasia. On postmortem examination, histopathology determined that the mass was a benign renal adenoma. PMID:23904644

  4. Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults. PMID:23752299

  5. Existence of time-periodic weak solutions to the stochastic Navier-Stokes equations around a moving body

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Feng E-mail: hanyc@jlu.edu.cn; Han, Yuecai E-mail: hanyc@jlu.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    The existence of time-periodic stochastic motions of an incompressible fluid is obtained. Here the fluid is subject to a time-periodic body force and an additional time-periodic stochastic force that is produced by a rigid body moves periodically stochastically with the same period in the fluid.

  6. 40 CFR 93.162 - Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... covered by the SIP. 93.162 Section 93.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 93.162 Emissions beyond the time period covered by the SIP. If a Federal action would result in total... period covered by the SIP, the Federal agency can: (a) Demonstrate conformity with the last...

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--TIME-ACTIVITY DIARY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 428 time-activity diaries. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Time Diary and Activity Questionnaire was used for collecting data on detailed (daily) time and location inform...

  8. Existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solution for Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongkun; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first give a new definition of almost periodic time scales, two new definitions of almost periodic functions on time scales and investigate some basic properties of them. Then, as an application, by using a fixed point theorem in Banach space and the time scale calculus theory, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions for a class of Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales. Finally, we present an illustrative example to show the effectiveness of obtained results. Our results show that under a simple condition the continuous-time Nicholson's blowflies model and its discrete-time analogue have the same dynamical behaviors. PMID:27468397

  9. An infinite branching hierarchy of time-periodic solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, Jon

    2008-07-01

    We present a new representation of solutions of the Benjamin-Ono equation that are periodic in space and time. Up to an additive constant and a Galilean transformation, each of these solutions is a previously known, multi-periodic solution; however, the new representation unifies the subset of such solutions with a fixed spatial period and a continuously varying temporal period into a single network of smooth manifolds connected together by an infinite hierarchy of bifurcations. Our representation explicitly describes the evolution of the Fourier modes of the solution as well as the particle trajectories in a meromorphic representation of these solutions; therefore, we have also solved the problem of finding periodic solutions of the ordinary differential equation governing these particles, including a description of a bifurcation mechanism for adding or removing particles without destroying periodicity. We illustrate the types of bifurcation that occur with several examples, including degenerate bifurcations not predicted by linearization about traveling waves.

  10. A statistical model for the timing of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions influenced by periodic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupp, Tim E.; Pyle, David M.; Mason, Ben G.; Dade, W. Brian

    2004-02-01

    Evidence of nonuniformity in the rate of seismicity and volcanicity has been sought on a variety of timescales ranging from ˜12.4 hours (tidal) to 103-104 years (climatic), but the results are mixed. Here, we propose a simple conceptual model for the influence of periodic processes on the frequency of geophysical "failure events" such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In our model a failure event occurs at a "failure time" tF = tI + tR which is controlled by an "initiation event" at the "initiation time" tI and by the "response time" of the system tR. We treat each of the initiation time, the response time, and the failure time as random variables. In physical terms, we define the initiation time to be the time at which a "load function" exceeds a "strength function," and we imagine that the response time tR corresponds to a physical process such as crack propagation or the movement of magma. Assuming that the magnitude and frequency of the periodic process are known, we calculate the statistical distribution of the initiation times on the assumption that the load and strength functions are otherwise linear in time. This allows the distribution of the failure times to be calculated if the distribution of the response times is known also. The quantitative predictions of this simple theory are compared with some examples of observed periodicity in seismic and volcanic activity at tidal and annual timescales.

  11. Specialist Pediatric Palliative Care Referral Practices in Pediatric Oncology: A Large 5-year Retrospective Audit

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Damani, Anuja; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, MaryAnn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To audit referral practices of pediatric oncologists referred to specialist pediatric palliative care services. Patients and Methods: Retrospective review of medical case records of pediatric palliative care patients over a period of 5 years from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Descriptive summaries of demographic, clinical variables, and patient circumstances at the time of referral and during end-of-life care were examined. Results: A total of 1135 patients were referred from pediatric oncology with a gradual increasing trend over 5 years. About 84.6% consultations took place in the outpatient setting. In 97.9% of the cases, parents were the primary caregivers. Availability of specialist pediatric health-care services at local places was available in 21.2% cases and 48% families earned <5000 INR (approximately 73 USD) in a month. Around 28.3% of the referrals were from leukemia clinic and maximum references were late with 72.4% patients having advanced disease at presentation. 30.3% of the referrals were made for counseling and communication and 54.2% had high symptom burden during referral. After referral, 21.2% patients continued with oral metronomic chemotherapy and 10.5% were referred back to oncology services for palliative radiotherapy. Only 4.9% patients had more than 2 follow-ups. 90.8% of the patients were cared for at home in the last days of illness by local general practitioners. 70.6% of the deaths were anticipated. Conclusions: Oncologists referred patients late in the course of disease trajectory. Most of the referrals were made for counseling and communication, but many patients had high symptom burden during referral. PMID:27559254

  12. The temporal outcomes of open versus arthroscopic knotted and knotless rotator cuff repair over 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Thomas R; Lam, Patrick H; Millar, Neal L

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to determine how repair technique influenced structural and clinical outcomes at 5 years post-surgery. Methods Three cohorts of patients had repair of a symptomatic rotator cuff tear using (i) an open double-row mattress repair technique (n = 25); (ii) arthroscopic single-row simple suture knotted technique (n = 25); or (iii) arthroscopic single-row inverted mattress knotless technique (n = 36) by one surgeon. Standardized patient- and examiner-determined outcomes were obtained pre-operatively and postoperatively with a validated protocol, ultrasound were also performed at the same time. Results Retear occurred more often after open repair (48%) at 5 years than after arthroscopic knotted (33%) and arthroscopic knotless (26%) repair. Retear was associated with increasing age, pre-operative tear size and weaker pre-operative and 5 years postoperative cuff strength. Between 2 years and 5 years, the open repair group experienced an increase in the frequency of pain during activity, as well as in the difficulty experienced and the severity of pain during overhead activities (p < 0.05) and, at 5 years, also experienced more difficulty with overhead activities, compared to the arthroscopic knotless repair group. Conclusions At 5-year follow-up, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair techniques resulted in fewer retears and better outcomes compared to an open double-row technique.

  13. Time periodic spatial disorder in a complex Ginzburg{endash}Landau equation

    SciTech Connect

    Bazhenov, M.; Rabinovich, M.; Rubchinsky, L.

    1996-06-01

    The phenomenon of time-periodic evolution of spatial chaos (1) is investigated in the frame of a one and two-dimensional complex Ginzburg{endash}Landau equation. It is found that there exists a region of the parameters at which a disordered spatial distribution of the field behaves periodically in time; the boundaries of this region are determined. A system of ordinary differential equations describing spatial disorder is derived. The effect of the size of the system on the shape and period of oscillations is investigated. It is established that in a two-dimensional case the regime of time periodic spatial disorder arises only in the narrow band and the critical width of the band is estimated. The phenomenon investigated in this paper indicates that a family of limit cycles with finite basins may exist in the functional phase space of complex Ginzburg{endash}Landau equation in finite regions of the parameters. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Dynamics of phase slips in systems with time-periodic modulation.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Punit; Knobloch, Edgar; Beaume, Cédric

    2015-12-01

    The Adler equation with time-periodic frequency modulation is studied. A series of resonances between the period of the frequency modulation and the time scale for the generation of a phase slip is identified. The resulting parameter space structure is determined using a combination of numerical continuation, time simulations, and asymptotic methods. Regions with an integer number of phase slips per period are separated by regions with noninteger numbers of phase slips and include canard trajectories that drift along unstable equilibria. Both high- and low-frequency modulation is considered. An adiabatic description of the low-frequency modulation regime is found to be accurate over a large range of modulation periods. PMID:26764781

  15. Surgical treatment of cardiac tumors: a 5-year experience from a single cardiac center

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Liang; He, Dengke; Shen, Hua; Ling, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Xue, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiac tumors are rare but manifested with various clinical presentations and often cause unexpected symptoms or sudden death. The objective is to review the clinical presentation, histopathological spectrum, mortality and follow-up data of patients with cardiac tumors following surgery treatment over a period of 5 years. Methods We retrospectively collected the medical records of all patients diagnosed of cardiac tumors in the period between January 2008 and December 2013 at the cardiac center of our university. Clinical histories, perioperative data, surgical findings, efficacy and follow-up data were reviewed in our study. Patients were divided into two groups according to site distribution of the tumors in the heart. Results A total of 131 patients underwent surgical treatment of cardiac tumors were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 51.39±16.37. The result of analysis showed that 79.47% (n=104) of the primary intracardiac tumors were benign, while primary malignant neoplasms accounted for 16.03% (n=21) of all patients, with the remainder (n=6, 4.6%) metastatic tumors transferred from other organs. Among all patients there were 2 in-hospital deaths and the survival rate in all patients at 1-year, 3-year and 5-year follow up was 83.20%, 78.62% and 66.41% respectively. Both patients with tumors in the left and right heart had similar basic characteristics except sex gender (P=0.002), BSA (P=0.045) and weight (P=0.033). Compared with patients with tumors in the right heart, patients with tumors in the left heart had significant higher CPB time (P<0.001), cross clamp time (P<0.001) and time of mechanical ventilation (P<0.001), and they also had longer ICU stay (P<0.001) but not total hospital stay (P=0.434). Conclusions Surgical resection represents an effective protocol in treating cardiac tumors. Data in our study of cardiac tumors on frequency and allocation were consistent with previous reports which may provide useful clinical evidence on

  16. Who Stays and Who Leaves? Father Accessibility Across Children’s First 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Jacqueline D.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Lamb, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This longitudinal investigation examines whether fathers’ prenatal involvement (e.g., attending doctor appointments and discussing pregnancy with mother) and residence status at infant’s birth predict the first time a father becomes inaccessible to his child (defined as seeing child fewer than a few times per month) at six developmental time points in children’s first 5 years. Design Data were gathered from 2,160 ethnically diverse mothers (i.e., European American, African American, and Latin American) who participated in the National Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Survival analysis was used to predict the timing of father inaccessibility based on interviews. Results By prekindergarten, fathers’ residence at birth and prenatal involvement decreased their risk of being inaccessible to their children for the first time by 71% and 47%, respectively, after adjusting for all other variables in the model. Residence at birth was a stronger predictor of the timing of father inaccessibility than was prenatal involvement for European American and Latin American fathers; for African American fathers, prenatal involvement was a stronger predictor of the timing of father inaccessibility than nonresidential status at birth. Nearly 65% of fathers who were engaged in both prenatal activities remained consistently accessible to their child through child age of 63 months, whereas nearly 50% of fathers who were not prenatally involved were already inaccessible by the time infants were 3 months. Conclusion These findings have implications for early intervention programs aimed at strengthening the role of fathers in their families from the prenatal period. PMID:20333276

  17. 2001 IFT Education Standards: A 5-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    The current IFT Education Standards used to evaluate Food Science programs for IFT approval have been in place now for 5 years. Most Food Science programs in the United States (as well as some in Mexico and Canada) have been reviewed according to these standards. The transition to instruction based on assessment of student learning outcomes, in…

  18. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  19. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  20. Stimulant Treatment over 5 Years: Effects on Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charach, Alice; Figueroa, Max; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Schachar, Russell

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Long-term effects of psychostimulants on growth in height and in weight are investigated in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: Participants were 79 children, 6 to 12 years of age, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, who were followed annually for up to 5 years, between the years 1993 and 1994 and…

  1. Frequency domain system identification of helicopter rotor dynamics incorporating models with time periodic coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sunghwan

    1997-08-01

    One of the most prominent features of helicopter rotor dynamics in forward flight is the periodic coefficients in the equations of motion introduced by the rotor rotation. The frequency response characteristics of such a linear time periodic system exhibits sideband behavior, which is not the case for linear time invariant systems. Therefore, a frequency domain identification methodology for linear systems with time periodic coefficients was developed, because the linear time invariant theory cannot account for sideband behavior. The modulated complex Fourier series was introduced to eliminate the smearing effect of Fourier series expansions of exponentially modulated periodic signals. A system identification theory was then developed using modulated complex Fourier series expansion. Correlation and spectral density functions were derived using the modulated complex Fourier series expansion for linear time periodic systems. Expressions of the identified harmonic transfer function were then formulated using the spectral density functions both with and without additive noise processes at input and/or output. A procedure was developed to identify parameters of a model to match the frequency response characteristics between measured and estimated harmonic transfer functions by minimizing an objective function defined in terms of the trace of the squared frequency response error matrix. Feasibility was demonstrated by the identification of the harmonic transfer function and parameters for helicopter rigid blade flapping dynamics in forward flight. This technique is envisioned to satisfy the needs of system identification in the rotating frame, especially in the context of individual blade control. The technique was applied to the coupled flap-lag-inflow dynamics of a rigid blade excited by an active pitch link. The linear time periodic technique results were compared with the linear time invariant technique results. Also, the effect of noise processes and initial

  2. A framework for periodic outlier pattern detection in time-series sequences.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Faraz; Alhajj, Reda

    2014-05-01

    Periodic pattern detection in time-ordered sequences is an important data mining task, which discovers in the time series all patterns that exhibit temporal regularities. Periodic pattern mining has a large number of applications in real life; it helps understanding the regular trend of the data along time, and enables the forecast and prediction of future events. An interesting related and vital problem that has not received enough attention is to discover outlier periodic patterns in a time series. Outlier patterns are defined as those which are different from the rest of the patterns; outliers are not noise. While noise does not belong to the data and it is mostly eliminated by preprocessing, outliers are actual instances in the data but have exceptional characteristics compared with the majority of the other instances. Outliers are unusual patterns that rarely occur, and, thus, have lesser support (frequency of appearance) in the data. Outlier patterns may hint toward discrepancy in the data such as fraudulent transactions, network intrusion, change in customer behavior, recession in the economy, epidemic and disease biomarkers, severe weather conditions like tornados, etc. We argue that detecting the periodicity of outlier patterns might be more important in many sequences than the periodicity of regular, more frequent patterns. In this paper, we present a robust and time efficient suffix tree-based algorithm capable of detecting the periodicity of outlier patterns in a time series by giving more significance to less frequent yet periodic patterns. Several experiments have been conducted using both real and synthetic data; all aspects of the proposed approach are compared with the existing algorithm InfoMiner; the reported results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:23757597

  3. Finding hidden periodic signals in time series - an application to stock prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Data in the form of time series appear in many areas of science. In cases where the periodicity is apparent and the only other contribution to the time series is stochastic in origin, the data can be `folded' to improve signal to noise and this has been done for light curves of variable stars with the folding resulting in a cleaner light curve signal. Stock index prices versus time are classic examples of time series. Repeating patterns have been claimed by many workers and include unusually large returns on small-cap stocks during the month of January, and small returns on the Dow Jones Industrial average (DJIA) in the months June through September compared to the rest of the year. Such observations imply that these prices have a periodic component. We investigate this for the DJIA. If such a component exists it is hidden in a large non-periodic variation and a large stochastic variation. We show how to extract this periodic component and for the first time reveal its yearly (averaged) shape. This periodic component leads directly to the `Sell in May and buy at Halloween' adage. We also drill down and show that this yearly variation emerges from approximately half of the underlying stocks making up the DJIA index.

  4. A 5-year experience with an elective scholarly concentrations program

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul; Green, Emily P.; Park, Yoon S.; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Programs that encourage scholarly activities beyond the core curriculum and traditional biomedical research are now commonplace among US medical schools. Few studies have generated outcome data for these programs. The goal of the present study was to address this gap. Intervention The Scholarly Concentration (SC) Program, established in 2006 at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, is a 4-year elective program that not only encourages students to pursue scholarly work that may include traditional biomedical research but also seeks to broaden students’ focus to include less traditional areas. We compared characteristics and academic performance of SC students and non-SC students for the graduating classes of 2010–2014. Context Approximately one-third of our students opt to complete an SC during their 4-year undergraduate medical education. Because this program is additional to the regular MD curriculum, we sought to investigate whether SC students sustained the academic achievement of non-SC students while at the same time producing scholarly work as part of the program. Outcome Over 5 years, 35% of students elected to enter the program and approximately 81% of these students completed the program. The parameters that were similar for both SC and non-SC students were age at matriculation, admission route, proportion of undergraduate science majors, and number of undergraduate science courses. Most academic indicators, including United States Medical Licensing Examinations scores, were similar for the two groups; however, SC students achieved more honors in the six core clerkships and were more likely to be inducted into the medical school's two honor societies. Residency specialties selected by graduates in the two groups were similar. SC students published an average of 1.3 peer-reviewed manuscripts per student, higher than the 0.8 manuscripts per non-SC student (p=0.013). Conclusions An elective, interdisciplinary scholarly program with

  5. Rank One Strange Attractors in Periodically Kicked Predator-Prey System with Time-Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenjie; Lin, Yiping; Dai, Yunxian; Zhao, Huitao

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the problem of rank one strange attractor in a periodically kicked predator-prey system with time-delay. Our discussion is based on the theory of rank one maps formulated by Wang and Young. Firstly, we develop the rank one chaotic theory to delayed systems. It is shown that strange attractors occur when the delayed system undergoes a Hopf bifurcation and encounters an external periodic force. Then we use the theory to the periodically kicked predator-prey system with delay, deriving the conditions for Hopf bifurcation and rank one chaos along with the results of numerical simulations.

  6. A Recurrence Time versus Orbital Period Relation for the Z Camelopardalis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafter, Allen W.; Cannizzo, John K.; Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2005-09-01

    We examine AAVSO (American Association of Variable Star Observers) light curves of 16 Z Camelopardalis systems with measured orbital periods, with particular focus on intervals away from standstill. During these times, most of the systems display a sawtooth-like outburst behavior, with quiescent intervals comparable to the outburst durations. We report the discovery of a linear relation between the characteristic outburst period and orbital period for these systems, which is given by =62.0(+/-7.7)Porb(days)+2.41(+/-1.87).

  7. Physiological status of broiler chicks at pulling time and the relationship to duration of holding period.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; Demmers, T; Romanini, C E B; Bergoug, H; Roulston, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Guinebretière, M; Eterradossi, N; Garain, P; McGonnell, I M

    2015-07-01

    Newly hatched chicks may be held longer than 48 h and experience long periods of fasting in commercial hatcheries. Limited information is known about the physiological status of chicks in such situations, due to the difficulty of precisely recording time of hatch. This study investigated the effect of the time from hatch to pulling (holding period) on physiological measures/parameters in 109 broiler chicks. Fertile Ross 308 eggs were incubated in a custom built small-scale incubator. The individual hatching time of each focal chick was determined using eggshell temperature monitoring. At 'pulling' (512 h of incubation time), the quality of focal chicks was assessed using the chick scoring method and physiological parameters were measured including BW, organ (heart, liver and stomach) weights, blood values and plasma corticosterone level. The time from hatch to pulling varied from 7.58 to 44.97 h. Egg weight at setting was significantly correlated with chick BW and weight of organs at pulling, but had no effect on chick quality, blood values and plasma corticosterone. Relative BW at pulling was negatively associated with the duration of holding period (P=0.002). However, there was a positive correlation between relative stomach weight and the duration of the holding period (P<0.001). As the holding period duration increased, there was a trend that blood partial pressure of oxygen, haematocrit and haemoglobin also increased, and blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide, total carbon dioxide and bicarbonate decreased (P<0.05). A wide range of plasma corticosterone was observed from chicks that had experienced different durations of holding period. We conclude that shortening the hatch window and minimising the number of chicks that experience a long holding period before pulling may improve chick quality and physiological status, which may be due to unfavourable environmental conditions that include feed and water deprivation. PMID:25711527

  8. Failure to immunize children under 5 years: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lochhead, Y J

    1991-02-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical review of the current literature related to immunization default in children under 5 years of age. The author has used a health belief model as the framework for analysis, examining each area in detail. The principle recommendations for practice are addressed and critically evaluated with a concluding summary of the main points raised and the author's recommendation for practice. PMID:2013653

  9. A New Framework For Helicopter Vibration Suppression; Time-Periodic System Identification and Controller Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet

    In forward flight, helicopter rotor blades function within a highly complex aerodynamic environment that includes both near-blade and far-blade aerodynamic phenomena. These aerodynamic phenomena cause fluctuating aerodynamic loads on the rotor blades. These loads when coupled with the dynamic characteristics and elastic motion of the blade create excessive amount of vibration. These vibrations degrade helicopter performance, passenger comfort and contributes to high cost maintenance problems. In an effort to suppress helicopter vibration, recent studies have developed active control strategies using active pitch links, flaps, twist actuation and higher harmonic control of the swash plate. In active helicopter vibration control, designing a controller in a computationally efficient way requires accurate reduced-order models of complex helicopter aeroelasticity. In previous studies, controllers were designed using aeroelastic models that were obtained by coupling independently reduced aerodynamic and structural dynamic models. Unfortunately, these controllers could not satisfy stability and performance criteria when implemented in high-fidelity computer simulations or real-time experiments. In this thesis, we present a novel approach that provides accurate time-periodic reduced-order models and time-periodic H2 and H infinity controllers that satisfy the stability and performance criteria. Computational efficiency and the necessity of using the approach were validated by implementing an actively controlled flap strategy. In this proposed approach, the reduced-order models were directly identified from high-fidelity coupled aeroelastic analysis by using the time-periodic subspace identification method. Time-periodic H2 and Hinfinity controllers that update the control actuation at every time step were designed. The control synthesis problem was solved using Linear Matrix Inequality and periodic Riccati Equation based formulations, for which an in-house periodic

  10. Identification of periods of clear sky irradiance in time series of GHI measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Reno, Matthew J.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we present a simple algorithm for identifying periods of time with broadband global horizontal irradiance (GHI) similar to that occurring during clear sky conditions from a time series of GHI measurements. Other available methods to identify these periods do so by identifying periods with clear sky conditions using additional measurements, such as direct or diffuse irradiance. Our algorithm compares characteristics of the time series of measured GHI with the output of a clear sky model without requiring additional measurements. We validate our algorithm using data from several locations by comparing our results with those obtained from amore » clear sky detection algorithm, and with satellite and ground-based sky imagery.« less

  11. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  12. People's preference patterns for gains/losses in multiple time period situations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shin-Shin; Chang, Jung-Hua

    2013-10-01

    Little research to date has been devoted to investigating whether people treat time differently from money when facing multiple gains or losses. This study tested the hypothesis that because time is characterized by perishability, fixed supply, and infungibility, people with strong motivation to obtain a long period of uninterrupted discretionary time would strive to trim the time needed for non-discretionary activities or to combine several non-discretionary activities. As a result, people prefer integration over segregation of multiple time losses or gains, which is not consistent with the prediction based on hedonic editing theory or the renewable resource model. This proposition is supported by results from four experiments. PMID:24597454

  13. Adaptive time-delayed stabilization of steady states and periodic orbits.

    PubMed

    Selivanov, Anton; Lehnert, Judith; Fradkov, Alexander; Schöll, Eckehard

    2015-01-01

    We derive adaptive time-delayed feedback controllers that stabilize fixed points and periodic orbits. First, we develop an adaptive controller for stabilization of a steady state by applying the speed-gradient method to an appropriate goal function and prove global asymptotic stability of the resulting system. For an example we show that the advantage of the adaptive controller over the nonadaptive one is in a smaller controller gain. Second, we propose adaptive time-delayed algorithms for stabilization of periodic orbits. Their efficiency is confirmed by local stability analysis. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of the proposed controllers. PMID:25679681

  14. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. PMID:27274763

  15. Adaptive time-delayed stabilization of steady states and periodic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selivanov, Anton; Lehnert, Judith; Fradkov, Alexander; Schöll, Eckehard

    2015-01-01

    We derive adaptive time-delayed feedback controllers that stabilize fixed points and periodic orbits. First, we develop an adaptive controller for stabilization of a steady state by applying the speed-gradient method to an appropriate goal function and prove global asymptotic stability of the resulting system. For an example we show that the advantage of the adaptive controller over the nonadaptive one is in a smaller controller gain. Second, we propose adaptive time-delayed algorithms for stabilization of periodic orbits. Their efficiency is confirmed by local stability analysis. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of the proposed controllers.

  16. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations. PMID:27274763

  17. Prone Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Osa, Etin-Osa O.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Roses, Daniel; Speyer, James; Guth, Amber; Axelrod, Deborah; Fenton Kerimian, Maria; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To report the 5-year results of a technique of prone breast radiation therapy delivered by a regimen of accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concurrent boost to the tumor bed. Methods and Materials: Between 2003 and 2006, 404 patients with stage I-II breast cancer were prospectively enrolled into 2 consecutive protocols, institutional trials 03-30 and 05-181, that used the same regimen of 40.5 Gy/15 fractions delivered to the index breast over 3 weeks, with a concomitant daily boost to the tumor bed of 0.5 Gy (total dose 48 Gy). All patients were treated after segmental mastectomy and had negative margins and nodal assessment. Patients were set up prone: only if lung or heart volumes were in the field was a supine setup attempted and chosen if found to better spare these organs. Results: Ninety-two percent of patients were treated prone, 8% supine. Seventy-two percent had stage I, 28% stage II invasive breast cancer. In-field lung volume ranged from 0 to 228.27 cm{sup 3}, mean 19.65 cm{sup 3}. In-field heart volume for left breast cancer patients ranged from 0 to 21.24 cm{sup 3}, mean 1.59 cm{sup 3}. There was no heart in the field for right breast cancer patients. At a median follow-up of 5 years, the 5-year cumulative incidence of isolated ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence was 0.82% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65%-1.04%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of regional recurrence was 0.53% (95% CI 0.41%-0.69%), and the 5-year overall cumulative death rate was 1.28% (95% CI 0.48%-3.38%). Eighty-two percent (95% CI 77%-85%) of patients judged their final cosmetic result as excellent/good. Conclusions: Prone accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy with a concomitant boost results in excellent local control and optimal sparing of heart and lung, with good cosmesis. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 1005, a phase 3, multi-institutional, randomized trial is ongoing and is evaluating the equivalence of a similar dose and

  18. Developmental critical windows and sensitive periods as three-dimensional constructs in time and space.

    PubMed

    Burggren, Warren W; Mueller, Casey A

    2015-01-01

    A critical window (sensitive period) represents a period during development when an organism's phenotype is responsive to intrinsic or extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such windows represent a form of developmental phenotypic plasticity and result from the interaction between genotype and environment. Critical windows have typically been defined as comprising discrete periods in development with a distinct starting time and end time, as identified by experiments following an on and an off protocol. Yet in reality, periods of responsiveness during development are likely more ambiguous that depicted. Our goal is to extend the concept of the developmental critical window by introducing a three-dimensional construct in which time during development, dose of the stressor applied, and the resultant phenotypic modification can be utilized to more realistically define a critical window. Using the example of survival of the brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) during exposure to different salinity levels during development, we illustrate that it is not just stressor dose or exposure time but the interaction of these two factors that results in the measured phenotypic change, which itself may vary within a critical window. We additionally discuss a systems approach to critical windows, in which the components of a developing system--whether they be molecular, physiological, or morphological--may show differing responses with respect to time and dose. Thus, the plasticity of each component may contribute to a broader overall system response. PMID:25730265

  19. Prenatal Adversities and Latino Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Trajectories from 6 Months to 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G.; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers’ adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13–14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father’s absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers’ prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring’s parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring’s heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring’s sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p = .05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the

  20. Modeling laser-induced periodic surface structures: Finite-difference time-domain feedback simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Skolski, J. Z. P. Vincenc Obona, J.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in 't Veld, A. J.

    2014-03-14

    A model predicting the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) is presented. That is, the finite-difference time domain method is used to study the interaction of electromagnetic fields with rough surfaces. In this approach, the rough surface is modified by “ablation after each laser pulse,” according to the absorbed energy profile, in order to account for inter-pulse feedback mechanisms. LIPSSs with a periodicity significantly smaller than the laser wavelength are found to “grow” either parallel or orthogonal to the laser polarization. The change in orientation and periodicity follow from the model. LIPSSs with a periodicity larger than the wavelength of the laser radiation and complex superimposed LIPSS patterns are also predicted by the model.

  1. Natural convection in an enclosure under time periodic heating: An experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Antohe, B.V.; Lage, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The effect of the heating period on the heat transfer across a water filled rectangular enclosure is examined experimentally. The enclosure is designed such that periodic heat by Joule effect is delivered at one wall while the opposite wall is maintained at an approximately constant temperature. All other surfaces are insulated. Several heating power levels are chosen with equivalent time averaged heat-flux based Rayleigh number varying from 2.5 {times} 10{sup 8} to 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}. The heating period varies from 32 seconds to 1600 seconds. For the highest Rayleigh number, Ra = 1.0 {times} 10{sup 9}, the oscillatory heating process leads to a cycle averaged heat transfer coefficient 20 percent higher than obtained with steady averaged-heat flux heating. Results, presented in terms of temperature time series, phase-plane portrait, and time evolution of cooling and heating wall temperatures, indicate that for low heating frequencies the heat transfer across the enclosure is hindered, with the time averaged heat transfer coefficient decreasing by as much as 13 percent of the equivalent steady heating value. A plausible explanation for the phenomenon is offered and discussed. The instantaneous and cycle averaged heat transfer coefficients, and the corresponding Nusselt numbers, are also presented for various heating frequencies.

  2. Relaxation Time of Artificial Periodic Irregularities of the Ionospheric Plasma and Diffusion in the Inhomogeneous Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'ev, G. I.; Bakhmet'eva, N. V.; Tolmacheva, A. V.; Kalinina, E. E.

    2013-09-01

    We consider diffusion of the ionospheric-plasma irregularities as applied to the problem of experimental determination of the lower-ionosphere parameters by artificial periodic irregularities of the electron number density. A rigorous solution to the problem of diffusion of one-dimensional plasma irregularities in a weakly ionized medium, whose diffusion coefficient exponentially decreases with the altitude, is obtained. The Green's function for this problem is found. Three parameters are taken into account in the solution, namely, the size of the region occupied by the irregularities, the size of the irregularities, and a typical spatial scale of the e-fold decrease in the diffusion coefficient. Theoretical relaxation times of the irregularities as functions of these parameters are analyzed. Calculated relaxation times are compared with the times measured in the observation of the artificial periodic irregularities created by the SURA facility. Calculated relaxation times of these irregularities are in good agreement with the observed values.

  3. A Multidimensional Scaling Study of Visual Memory of 5-Year Olds and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabie, Phipps; And Others

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of memory development using nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Judgments of similarities between complex objects were obtained from 5-year-olds and adults under two conditions: (1) when objects were simultaneously present at the time of comparison, and (2) when the objects were not simultaneously present and had to be compared on…

  4. The Development of Regulatory Functions from Birth to 5 Years: Insights from Premature Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    This study examined physiological, emotional, and attentional regulatory functions as predictors of self-regulation in 125 infants followed 7 times from birth to 5 years. Physiological regulation was assessed by neonatal vagal tone and sleep-wake cyclicity; emotion regulation by response to stress at 3, 6, and 12 months; and attention regulation…

  5. ‘Workshops in healing’ for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of ‘physician know thyself’ (Workshop 1) and ‘confronting suffering’ (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008–2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  6. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  7. 'Workshops in healing' for senior medical students: a 5-year overview and appraisal.

    PubMed

    Kearsley, John H; Lobb, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    We report upon the design, content and feedback from an interactive, experiential series of Workshops in Healing for senior medical students. Fifty-six final year medical students enrolled in 2×3 h workshops designed around the core themes of 'physician know thyself' (Workshop 1) and 'confronting suffering' (Workshop 2). Of the 56 students who initially enrolled, 48 students completed both workshops and provided a written open-ended reflection of their learning experience. The study, undertaken over a consecutive 5-year period (2008-2012), employed an emergent, qualitative design using thematic analysis of the reflective comments. We found that the design and content of both workshops promoted transformative learning for these final year medical students. Students identified the following benefits: (1) the opportunity to reaffirm their commitment to their chosen career path; (2) the value of listening to other students share their stories; (3) the importance of the timing of the workshops to occur after exams; (4) the use of various mediums such as art, poetry, music and contemporary/classic literature to present concepts of suffering and healing; and (5) the creation of a safe and confidential space. Students reported that these innovative workshops gave them a renewed sense of drive and enthusiasm for their chosen career. They highlighted the importance of addressing an aspect of medicine (healing) not covered in the traditional medical curriculum. Workshops in Healing helped them to rediscover a deeper meaning to medicine and their roles as future healthcare professionals. PMID:24473159

  8. A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

  9. Thinking inside the Block Schedule: Strategies for Teaching in Extended Periods of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Gregory, Gayle; Herndon, Lynne E.

    This book provides an array of strategies that can help teachers, administrators, and staff-development personnel as they plan, develop, and deliver content within extended periods of instructional time. It emphasizes the importance of teachers and administrators working together to improve instruction and contends that staff development remains…

  10. 20 CFR 261.10 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired. 261.10 Section 261.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ADMINISTRATIVE FINALITY § 261.10 Increase in future...

  11. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... contract or agreement where food safety or animal welfare is concerned. These criteria, include, but...

  12. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... contract or agreement where food safety or animal welfare is concerned. These criteria, include, but...

  13. 9 CFR 201.217 - Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reasonable period of time to remedy a breach of contract. 201.217 Section 201.217 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... contract or agreement where food safety or animal welfare is concerned. These criteria, include, but...

  14. The Role of Thermal Properties in Periodic Time-Varying Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, E.

    2007-01-01

    The role played by physical parameters governing the transport of heat in periodical time-varying phenomena within solids is discussed. Starting with a brief look at the conduction heat transport mechanism, the equations governing heat conduction under static, stationary and non-stationary conditions, and the physical parameters involved, are…

  15. Asymptotic bounds for the time-periodic solutions to the singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations.

    PubMed

    Amiraliyev, Gabil M; Ucar, Aysenur

    2013-01-01

    The periodical in time problem for singularly perturbed second order linear ordinary differential equation is considered. The boundary layer behavior of the solution and its first and second derivatives have been established. An example supporting the theoretical analysis is presented. PMID:24369452

  16. Forum Page Letters in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during Relatively Free and Restricted Press Periods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaprasad, Jyotika; Ong, James

    In order to identify the scope or limits of the practice of development journalism, a study examined the content of the Forum page in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during relatively free (1979-1980) and restricted (1986-1987) press periods. The study had two major objectives: (1) to study the nature of the Forum page (a readers' letter page in…

  17. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  18. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  19. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  20. 41 CFR 105-8.150-3 - Time period for compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time period for compliance. 105-8.150-3 Section 105-8.150-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 8-ENFORCEMENT OF...

  1. 20 CFR 261.10 - Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Increase in future benefits where time period for reopening has expired. 261.10 Section 261.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT ADMINISTRATIVE FINALITY § 261.10 Increase in future...

  2. Determination of the Conservation Time of Periodicals for Optimal Shelf Maintenance of a Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Sadaaki; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    1981-01-01

    Presents a method based on a constrained optimization technique that determines the time of removal of scientific periodicals from the shelf of a library. A geometrical interpretation of the theoretical result is given, and a numerical example illustrates how the technique is applicable to real bibliographic data. (FM)

  3. 45 CFR 96.14 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds. 96.14 Section 96.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... first allotted shall remain available for obligation during the succeeding fiscal year for all...

  4. 45 CFR 96.14 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds. 96.14 Section 96.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... first allotted shall remain available for obligation during the succeeding fiscal year for all...

  5. 42 CFR 87.7 - For what period of time will grants be awarded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false For what period of time will grants be awarded? 87.7 Section 87.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY...

  6. 42 CFR 87.7 - For what period of time will grants be awarded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false For what period of time will grants be awarded? 87.7 Section 87.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY...

  7. Identifying the Critical Time Period for Information Extraction when Recognizing Sequences of Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Jamie S.; Williams, A. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The authors attempted to determine the critical time period for information extraction when recognizing play sequences in soccer. Although efforts have been made to identify the perceptual information underpinning such decisions, no researchers have attempted to determine "when" this information may be extracted from the display. The authors…

  8. 45 CFR 96.14 - Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Time period for obligation and expenditure of grant funds. 96.14 Section 96.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... first allotted shall remain available for obligation during the succeeding fiscal year for all...

  9. A Comparison of Terminally Ill Persons at Various Time Periods to Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Robert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined responses of 1,110 terminally ill persons with cancer at varying time periods prior to death. Disengagement and Objective Self-Awareness theories, which suggest that people nearing death would increase desire to separate from others, were not supported. Found few differences in responses of persons further from, or closer to, death.…

  10. 42 CFR 87.7 - For what period of time will grants be awarded?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... awards will be of such factors as the grantee's progress and management practices, and the availability... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false For what period of time will grants be awarded?...

  11. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery

  12. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue: Do women still want their tissue stored beyond 5 years?

    PubMed

    Macklon, Kirsten Tryde; Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2014-10-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond an initial 5-year period. Between 1999 and 2006, a total of 201 girls and young women had one ovary cryopreserved for fertility preservation in Denmark. One hundred of these met our inclusion criteria, which included a follow-up period of at least 5 years, and were mailed a questionnaire. The response rate was 95%. Sixteen of the patients (17%) stated that they wanted disposal of their tissue; the main reason was completion of family (63%). The mean age of those requesting disposal was 36.6 years, whereas those still wanting their tissue stored were significantly younger, with a mean age of 33.0 years (P < 0.008). In conclusion, most women with ovarian tissue cryobanked requested continued cryostorage after an initial period of at least 5 years. The main reason for requesting disposal was successful completion of a family. PMID:25129692

  13. Time Periods of Unusual Density Behavior Observed by GRACE and CHAMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, C. A.; Fattig, E.; Mysore Krishna, D.; Locke, T.; Mehta, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Time periods of low cross correlation between precision orbit ephemeris (POE) derived density and accelerometer density for CHAMP and GRACE are examined. In particular, the cross correlation for GRACE dropped from typical values near 0.9 to much lower values and then returned to typical over the time period of late October to late December of 2005. This time period includes a maneuver where GRACE-A and GRACE-B swapped positions. However, the drop in cross correlation begins and reaches its low point before the maneuvers begin. In addition, the densities were found using GRACE-A, but GRACE-B did most of the maneuvering. The time period is characterized by high frequency variations in accelerometer density of the same magnitude as the daylight to eclipse variations over the course of an orbit. However, the daylight to eclipse variations are particularly small during this time period because the orbit plane is near the terminator. Additionally, the difference between the accelerometer and POE derived densities are not unusually large during this time period. This implies the variations are not unusual, just more significant when the orbit plane is near terminator. Cyclical variations in correlation of the POE derived densities with accelerometer derived densities are seen for both GRACE and CHAMP, but the magnitude of the variations are much larger for GRACE, possibly because of the higher altitude of GRACE. The cycles seem to be phased so that low correlations occur with low beta angle when the orbit plane is near the terminator. The low correlation is possibly caused by the lower amplitude of the daylight to eclipse signal making higher frequency variations relatively more important. However, another possible explanation is terminator waves in density that propagate to the thermosphere from lower in the atmosphere. These waves have been observed in CHAMP accelerometer data and global circulation model simulations. Further investigation is needed to see if the

  14. Determination of Optimum Period between Inspections for Distribution System based on Availability Accounting Uncertainties in Inspection Time and Repair Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwary, A.; Arya, R.; Choube, S. C.; Arya, L. D.

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes a technique for determination of optimum duration between inspections for each distributor segment of a distribution system. The optimum period between inspections is decided based on maximization of availability of the distribution system. The view point presented is that after inspection a minor maintenance is carried out which may otherwise cause failure of the system in future, for example, trimming of tree branches, arcing and damages of jumper connections and to avoid breakdown of insulators. Such stray causes may have small failure rates in total but periodic inspection and maintenance will increase the availability. Exponential failure law has been assumed. Inspection time and repair time, if required after inspection, have been assumed to be normally distributed. Two-membered evolution strategy has been used for optimization. The algorithm has been implemented on a sample radial distribution system.

  15. Reliability of Fitness Tests Using Methods and Time Periods Common in Sport and Occupational Management

    PubMed Central

    Burnstein, Bryan D.; Steele, Russell J.; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Context: Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Patients or Other Participants: Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Intervention(s): Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. Main Outcome Measure(s): We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Results: Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Conclusions: Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators. PMID:22488138

  16. Time-space Variability of Weekly to Monthly Period Equatorial Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T.; Farrar, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Data from satellite altimetry are used to characterize wavelike variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean at periods of days to two months. This period band is of interest because the space-time scales of oceanic equatorial waves at these frequencies have historically made adequate observation of the variability difficult. These waves have zonal scales that are very large (exceeding 3000 km) and meridional scales that are relatively short (~100 km), making in situ measurements difficult, and the short temporal scales pose challenges for observation with satellite altimeters because the wave periods are short compared to orbit repeat periods. As a result, there has been relatively little progress since the early 1980s in characterizing and understanding these equatorial inertia-gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. In this analysis, we seek to exploit the long zonal length scales of these high-frequency equatorial waves in an analysis of satellite scatterometer and altimeter data to shed new light on the properties and dynamics of these waves. At periods of 2-14 days, there is clear evidence for the presence of several basin-scale equatorial wave modes, including mixed Rossby-gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves associated with baroclinic modes one and two. Here, we focus on equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves forced in the western Pacific, and examine their variability in time and space and their relation to wind.

  17. Recurrence times and periodicities in 4U 1608-52 as observed by Vela 5B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lochner, James C.; Roussel-Dupre, Diane

    1994-01-01

    We report on the Vela 5B 10 year history of the soft X-ray transient 4U 1608-52, and on the characteristics of its soft X-ray outbursts. The Vela 5B satellite observed the four known outbursts in 1975, 1977, and 1979, and four new outbursts in 1970 and 1971, altering the recurrence pattern of outbursts from this source. One of the 1970 outbursts is symmetric in its intensity profile, while the two outbursts in 1971 have short exponential profiles separated by 80 days. Despite suggestive recurrence periods of approximately 85 and approximately 150 days evident in the time intervals between the outbursts, there is no single statistically significant recurrence time on which the outbursts recur consistently. In the 1970 symmetric event, there is evidence for a period of either 4.10 or 5.19 days. Drawing upon the analogy with SU Ursa Majoris dwarf novae, we suggest that the short period is orbital and any longer period would be associated with a precession period of the accretion disk.

  18. The Varying Light Curve and Timings of the Ultrashort-period Contact Binary KIC 9532219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Park, Jang-Ho

    2016-03-01

    KIC 9532219 is a W UMa-type eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 0.1981549 days that is below the short-period limit (˜0.22 days) of the period distribution for contact binaries. The Kepler light curve of the system exhibits striking changes in both eclipse depths and light maxima. Applying third-body and spot effects, the light-curve synthesis indicates that the eclipsing pair is currently in a marginal contact stage with a mass ratio of q = 1.20, an orbital inclination of i = 66.°0, a temperature difference of T1-T2 = 172 K, and a third light of l3 = 75.9%. To understand the light variations with time, we divided up the light curve into 312 segments and analyzed them separately. The results reveal that variation of eclipse depth is primarily caused by changing amounts of contamination due to the nearby star KIC 9532228 between the Kepler Quarters and that the variable O’Connell effect originates from the starspot activity on the less massive primary component. Based on our light-curve timings, a period study of KIC 9532219 indicates that the orbital period has varied as a combination of a downward parabola and a light-travel-time (LTT) effect due to a third body, which has a period of 1196 days and a minimum mass of 0.0892 M⊙ in an orbit of eccentricity 0.150. The parabolic variation could be a small part of a second LTT orbit due to a fourth component in a wider orbit, instead of either mass transfer or angular momentum loss.

  19. Estimating the incubation period of raccoon rabies: a time-space clustering approach.

    PubMed

    Tinline, Rowland; Rosatte, Rick; MacInnes, Charles

    2002-11-29

    We used a time-space clustering approach to estimate the incubation period of raccoon rabies in the wild using data from the 1999-2001 invasion of raccoon rabies into eastern Ontario from northern New York State. The time differences and geographical distances between all possible pairs of rabies cases were computed, classified and assembled into a time-space matrix. The rows of that matrix represented differences in cases in weeks and the columns represent distances between cases in kilometers and the values in the cells of the matrix represent the counts of cases at specific time and distance intervals. There was a significant cluster of pairs 5 weeks apart with apparent harmonics at additional 5-week intervals. These results are explained by assuming the incubation period of raccoon rabies had a mode of 5 weeks. The time clusters appeared consistently at distance intervals of 5 km. We discuss the possibility that the spatial intervals were influenced by the 5 km radius of the point infection control depopulation process used in 1999 and the 10-15 km radial areas used in 2000. With the practical limits of those radii, there was an intensive effort to eliminate raccoons. Our procedure is easy to implement and provides an estimate of the shape of the distribution of incubation periods for raccoon rabies. PMID:12419602

  20. Periodic modulation in pulse arrival times from young pulsars: a renewed case for neutron star precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, M.; Hobbs, G.; Johnston, S.; Shannon, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In a search for periodic variation in the arrival times of pulses from 151 young, energetic pulsars, we have identified seven cases of modulation consistent with one or two harmonics of a single fundamental with time-scale 0.5-1.5 yr. We use simulations to show that these modulations are statistically significant and of high quality (sinusoidal) even when contaminated by the strong stochastic timing noise common to young pulsars. Although planetary companions could induce such modulation, the large implied masses and 2:1 mean motion resonances challenge such an explanation. Instead, the modulation is likely to be intrinsic to the pulsar, arising from quasi-periodic switching between stable magnetospheric states, and we propose that precession of the neutron star may regulate this switching.

  1. Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

  2. Association of intrinsic circadian period with morningness-eveningness, usual wake time, and circadian phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, J. F.; Rimmer, D. W.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    The biological basis of preferences for morning or evening activity patterns ("early birds" and "night owls") has been hypothesized but has remained elusive. The authors reported that, compared with evening types, the circadian pacemaker of morning types was entrained to an earlier hour with respect to both clock time and wake time. The present study explores a chronobiological mechanism by which the biological clock of morning types may be set to an earlier hour. Intrinsic period, a fundamental property of the circadian system, was measured in a month-long inpatient study. A subset of participants also had their circadian phase assessed. Participants completed a morningness-eveningness questionnaire before study. Circadian period was correlated with morningness-eveningness, circadian phase, and wake time, demonstrating that a fundamental property of the circadian pacemaker is correlated with the behavioral trait of morningness-eveningness.

  3. Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Cain, Sean W.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Andrew J. K.; Münch, Mirjam Y.; Gronfier, Claude; Wyatt, James K.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature are set to an earlier hour in women than in men, even when the women and men maintain nearly identical and consistent bedtimes and wake times. Moreover, women tend to wake up earlier than men and exhibit a greater preference for morning activities than men. Although the neurobiological mechanism underlying this sex difference in circadian alignment is unknown, multiple studies in nonhuman animals have demonstrated a sex difference in circadian period that could account for such a difference in circadian alignment between women and men. Whether a sex difference in intrinsic circadian period in humans underlies the difference in circadian alignment between men and women is unknown. We analyzed precise estimates of intrinsic circadian period collected from 157 individuals (52 women, 105 men; aged 18–74 y) studied in a month-long inpatient protocol designed to minimize confounding influences on circadian period estimation. Overall, the average intrinsic period of the melatonin and temperature rhythms in this population was very close to 24 h [24.15 ± 0.2 h (24 h 9 min ± 12 min)]. We further found that the intrinsic circadian period was significantly shorter in women [24.09 ± 0.2 h (24 h 5 min ± 12 min)] than in men [24.19 ± 0.2 h (24 h 11 min ± 12 min); P < 0.01] and that a significantly greater proportion of women have intrinsic circadian periods shorter than 24.0 h (35% vs. 14%; P < 0.01). The shorter average intrinsic circadian period observed in women may have implications for understanding sex differences in habitual sleep duration and insomnia prevalence. PMID:21536890

  4. A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy

    2016-06-01

    This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.

  5. Time Periodic Solutions to the One-Dimensional Nonlinear Wave Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shuguan; Li, Yong

    2011-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the time periodic solutions to the one-dimensional nonlinear wave equation with either variable or constant coefficients. By adjusting the basis of L 2 function space, we can circumvent the difficulties caused by η u = 0 and obtain the existence of a weak periodic solution, which was posed as an open problem by Baubu and Pavel in (Trans Am Math Soc 349:2035-2048, 1997). Finally, an application to the forced Sine-Gordon equation is presented to illustrate the utility of this technique.

  6. Predictive 5-Year Survivorship Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Theodore G.; Adler, Frederick R.; FitzSimmons, Stacey C.; Cahill, Barbara C.; Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 5-year survivorship model to identify key clinical features of cystic fibrosis. Such a model could help researchers and clinicians to evaluate therapies, improve the design of prospective studies, monitor practice patterns, counsel individual patients, and determine the best candidates for lung transplantation. The authors used information from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), which has collected longitudinal data on approximately 90% of cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed in the United States since 1986. They developed multivariate logistic regression models by using data on 5,820 patients randomly selected from 11,630 in the CFFPR in 1993. Models were tested for goodness of fit and were validated for the remaining 5,810 patients for 1993. The validated 5-year survivorship model included age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted normal, gender, weight-for-age z score, pancreatic sufficiency, diabetes mellitus, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Burkerholderia cepacia infection, and annual number of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The model provides insights into the complex nature of cystic fibrosis and supplies a rigorous tool for clinical practice and research. PMID:11207152

  7. Plasticity of the Intrinsic Period of the Human Circadian Timing System

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Kronauer, Richard E.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Human expeditions to Mars will require adaptation to the 24.65-h Martian solar day-night cycle (sol), which is outside the range of entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker under lighting intensities to which astronauts are typically exposed. Failure to entrain the circadian time-keeping system to the desired rest-activity cycle disturbs sleep and impairs cognitive function. Furthermore, differences between the intrinsic circadian period and Earth's 24-h light-dark cycle underlie human circadian rhythm sleep disorders, such as advanced sleep phase disorder and non-24-hour sleep-wake disorders. Therefore, first, we tested whether exposure to a model-based lighting regimen would entrain the human circadian pacemaker at a normal phase angle to the 24.65-h Martian sol and to the 23.5-h day length often required of astronauts during short duration space exploration. Second, we tested here whether such prior entrainment to non-24-h light-dark cycles would lead to subsequent modification of the intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system. Here we show that exposure to moderately bright light (∼450 lux; ∼1.2 W/m2) for the second or first half of the scheduled wake episode is effective for entraining individuals to the 24.65-h Martian sol and a 23.5-h day length, respectively. Estimations of the circadian periods of plasma melatonin, plasma cortisol, and core body temperature rhythms collected under forced desynchrony protocols revealed that the intrinsic circadian period of the human circadian pacemaker was significantly longer following entrainment to the Martian sol as compared to following entrainment to the 23.5-h day. The latter finding of after-effects of entrainment reveals for the first time plasticity of the period of the human circadian timing system. Both findings have important implications for the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders and human space exploration. PMID:17684566

  8. Insertion of Balloon Retained Gastrostomy Buttons: A 5-Year Retrospective Review of 260 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Power, Sarah Kavanagh, Liam N.; Shields, Mary C.; Given, Mark F.; Keeling, Aoife N.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2013-04-15

    Radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) is an established way of maintaining enteral nutrition in patients who cannot maintain nutrition orally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of primary placement of a wide bore button gastrostomy in a large, varied patient population through retrospective review. All patients who underwent gastrostomy placement from January 1, 2004 to January 1, 2009 were identified. 18-Fr gastrostomy buttons (MIC-Key G) were inserted in the majority. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 4.5 years. A total of 260 patients (M:F 140:120, average age 59.2 years) underwent gastrostomy during the study period. Overall success rate for RIG placement was 99.6 %, with success rate of 95.3 % for primary button insertion. Indications included neurological disorders (70 %), esophageal/head and neck malignancy (21 %), and other indications (9 %). Major and minor complication rates were 1.2 and 12.8 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality rate was 6.8 %. One third of patients underwent gastrostomy reinsertion during the study period, the main indication for which was inadvertent catheter removal. Patency rate was high at 99.5 %. The maximum number of procedures in any patient was 8 (n = 2), and the average tube dwell time was 125 days. Primary radiological insertion of a wide bore button gastrostomy is a safe technique, with high success rate, high patency rate, and low major complication rate. We believe that it is feasible to attempt button gastrostomy placement in all patients, once tract length is within limits of tube length. If difficulty is encountered, then a standard tube may simply be placed instead.

  9. Health transitions in sub-Saharan Africa: overview of mortality trends in children under 5 years old (1950-2000).

    PubMed Central

    Garenne, Michel; Gakusi, Enéas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reconstruct and analyse mortality trends in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa between 1950 and 2000. METHODS: We selected 66 Demographic and Health Surveys and World Fertility Surveys from 32 African countries for analysis. Death rates were calculated by yearly periods for each survey. When several surveys were available for the same country, overlapping years were combined. Country-specific time series were analysed to identify periods of monotonic trends, whether declining, steady or increasing. We tested changes in trends using a linear logistic model. FINDINGS: A quarter of the countries studied had monotonic declining mortality trends: i.e. a smooth health transition. Another quarter had long-term declines with some minor rises over short periods of time. Eight countries had periods of major increases in mortality due to political or economic crises, and in seven countries mortality stopped declining for several years. In eight other countries mortality has risen in recent years as a result of paediatric AIDS. Reconstructed levels and trends were compared with other estimates made by international organizations, usually based on indirect methods. CONCLUSION: Overall, major progress in child survival was achieved in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the twentieth century. However, transition has occurred more slowly than expected, with an average decline of 1.8% per year. Additionally, transition was chaotic in many countries. The main causes of mortality increase were political instability, serious economic downturns, and emerging diseases. PMID:16799731

  10. Dealing with periodical loads and harmonics in operational modal analysis using time-varying transmissibility functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijtjens, Wout; Lataire, John; Devriendt, Christof; Guillaume, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    Periodical loads, such as waves and rotating machinery, form a problem for operational modal analysis (OMA). In OMA only the vibrations of a structure of interest are measured and little to nothing is known about the loads causing these vibrations. Therefore, it is often assumed that all dynamics in the measured data are linked to the system of interest. Periodical loads defy this assumption as their periodical behavior is often visible within the measured vibrations. As a consequence most OMA techniques falsely associate the dynamics of the periodical load with the system of interest. Without additional information about the load, one is not able to correctly differentiate between structural dynamics and the dynamics of the load. In several applications, e.g. turbines and helicopters, it was observed that because of periodical loads one was unable to correctly identify one or multiple modes. Transmissibility based OMA (TOMA) is a completely different approach to OMA. By using transmissibility functions to estimate the structural dynamics of the system of interest, all influence of the load-spectrum can be eliminated. TOMA therefore allows to identify the modal parameters without being influenced by the presence of periodical loads, such as harmonics. One of the difficulties of TOMA is that the analyst is required to find two independent datasets, each associated with a different loading condition of the system of interest. This poses a dilemma for TOMA; how can an analyst identify two different loading conditions when little is known about the loads on the system? This paper tackles that problem by assuming that the loading conditions vary continuously over time, e.g. the changing wind directions. From this assumption TOMA is developed into a time-varying framework. This development allows TOMA to not only cope with the continuously changing loading conditions. The time-varying framework also enables the identification of the modal parameters from a single dataset

  11. Stability and attractivity of periodic solutions of parabolic systems with time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, C. V.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the existence, stability, and global attractivity of time-periodic solutions for a class of coupled parabolic equations in a bounded domain. The problem under consideration includes coupled system of parabolic and ordinary differential equations, and time delays may appear in the nonlinear reaction functions. Our approach to the problem is by the method of upper and lower solutions and its associated monotone iterations. The existence of time-periodic solutions is for a class of locally Lipschitz continuous reaction functions without any quasimonotone requirement using Schauder fixed point theorem, while the stability and attractivity analysis is for quasimonotone nondecreasing and mixed quasimonotone reaction functions using the monotone iterative scheme. The results for the general system are applied to the standard parabolic equations without time delay and to the corresponding ordinary differential system. Applications are also given to three Lotka-Volterra reaction diffusion model problems, and in each problem a sufficient condition on the reaction rates is obtained to ensure the stability and global attractivity of positive periodic solutions.

  12. Primate enamel evinces long period biological timing and regulation of life history.

    PubMed

    Bromage, Timothy G; Hogg, Russell T; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Hou, Chen

    2012-07-21

    The factor(s) regulating the combination of traits that define the overall life history matrix of mammalian species, comprising attributes such as brain and body weight, age at sexual maturity, lifespan and others, remains a complete mystery. The principal objectives of the present research are (1) to provide evidence for a key variable effecting life history integration and (2) to provide a model for how one would go about investigating the metabolic mechanisms responsible for this rhythm. We suggest here that a biological rhythm with a period greater than the circadian rhythm is responsible for observed variation in primate life history. Evidence for this rhythm derives from studies of tooth enamel formation. Enamel contains an enigmatic periodicity in its microstructure called the striae of Retzius, which develops at species specific intervals in units of whole days. We refer to this enamel rhythm as the repeat interval (RI). For primates, we identify statistically significant relationships between RI and all common life history traits. Importantly, RI also correlates with basal and specific metabolic rates. With the exception of estrous cyclicity, all relationships share a dependence upon body mass. This dependence on body mass informs us that some aspect of metabolism is responsible for periodic energy allocations at RI timescales, regulating cell proliferation rates and growth, thus controlling the pace, patterning, and co-variation of life history traits. Estrous cyclicity relates to the long period rhythm in a body mass-independent manner. The mass-dependency and -independency of life history relationships with RI periodicity align with hypothalamic-mediated neurosecretory anterior and posterior pituitary outputs. We term this period the Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO), in reference to Clopton Havers, a 17th Century hard tissue anatomist, and Franz Halberg, a long-time explorer of long-period rhythms. We propose a mathematical model that may help elucidate

  13. Time domain spectral method and its application on antenna array and PCB trace with periodic roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Minshen

    The primary interest of the electromagnetic behavior of a periodic structure is in its near field and far field. However, it is still numerically difficult to analyze either one in the time domain. The primary goal of this dissertation is to develop corresponding time domain technique to analyze two topics. The first one is to evaluate the far field of a realistic, large antenna array using an efficient method. The second one is to evaluate the propagation characteristic of a commercially available printed circuit board (PCB) with intentional roughness. Both of which are hot topics in the antenna and signal integrity (SI) society respectively; however, none of them have ever been solved in the time domain. To efficiently evaluate the far field pattern of a realistically large antenna array, the spectral domain method and the reciprocity theorem are implemented in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique to avoid the simulation of the near field. By taking advantage of the periodic boundary condition (PBC), the proposed method demonstrates its capability to speed up far field evaluation from hours to minutes. Good agreement of the results is provided for various cases: circular antenna array, arbitrary feeding array, and highly directional leaky wave antenna, etc. Periodic structure modeling with finite sized feedings is developed by the array scanning method (ASM) implemented in the FDTD technique. The minimally coupled electric and magnetic co-mingled antenna array is evaluated by the method. Moreover, a commercially available PCB with very small roughness is modeled by the ASM-FDTD and the propagation characteristic is evaluated. Both are evaluated by time domain method for the first time. Efficiency in terms of memory and computing time is shown for this method and parallelization in the future is proposed.

  14. Spin-dependent tunneling time in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the tunneling time (dwell time) in periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. It is found that spin-dependent resonant bands form in the spectra of dwell time, which can be effectively manipulated by not only the external magnetic field but also the geometric parameters of the system. Moreover, an intuitive semiclassical delay is defined to illustrate the behavior of the dwell time, and the former one is shown to be the result of "smoothing out" the latter one. We also find that the dwell time in diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor superlattices behaves surprisingly different from the DMS/NB case, especially for spin-down electrons.

  15. Computation of symmetric, time-periodic solutions of the vortex sheet with surface tension

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, David M.; Wilkening, Jon

    2010-01-01

    A numerical method is introduced for the computation of time-periodic vortex sheets with surface tension separating two immiscible, irrotational, two-dimensional ideal fluids of equal density. The approach is based on minimizing a nonlinear functional of the initial conditions and supposed period that is positive unless the solution is periodic, in which case it is zero. An adjoint-based optimal control technique is used to efficiently compute the gradient of this functional. Special care is required to handle singular integrals in the adjoint formulation. Starting with a solution of the linearized problem about the flat rest state, a family of smooth, symmetric breathers is found that, at quarter-period time intervals, alternately pass through a flat state of maximal kinetic energy, and a rest state in which all the energy is stored as potential energy in the interface. In some cases, the interface overturns before returning to the initial, flat configuration. It is found that the bifurcation diagram describing these solutions contains several disjoint curves separated by near-bifurcation events. PMID:20133691

  16. First-Passage and Residence Times in a Periodically Driven Integrate-and-Fire Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talkner, Peter; Schindler, Michael; Hänggi, Peter

    2004-03-01

    The stochastic integrate-and-fire model presents a simple description of the spiking behavior of neurons.In this model a neuron ``fires'' if an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process crosses a prescribed threshold. After the firing the process is assumed to be in a refractory state, and from there it is put back into its initial, active state.This process can be characterized by the distribution of the first passage times of the threshold and by the residence times in the active states.We determined the distributions of these times for the integrate-and-fire model for short refractory times in the presence of a periodic signal.This is done by numerical solutions both of the respective Langevin equation and the equivalent Fokker-Planck equation. The results are compared with an approximate analytic theory. If the period of the signal is large compared to the relaxation time of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and if the threshold is higher than a few times the noise strength we find theory and numerics to be in excellent agreement.

  17. Understanding persistence in bulimia nervosa: a 5-year naturalistic study.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Stice, Eric; Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen A; Norman, Patricia A; O'Connor, Marianne E

    2003-02-01

    Bulimia nervosa shows a marked tendency to persist, suggesting that powerful maintaining mechanisms operate. Using data from a prospective, 5-year, study of the natural course of 102 people with bulimia nervosa, the authors sought to identify predictors of persistence and to test specific hypotheses derived from the cognitive-behavioral theory of the persistence of bulimia nervosa. The results of both sets of analyses were consistent with the theory, with the degree of overevaluation of shape and weight and a history of childhood obesity predicting a persistent course. There was also support for the central prediction of the cognitive-behavioral theory. These findings suggest that the mechanisms specified by the theory influence its longer term natural course. PMID:12602430

  18. Pyomyositis in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Romeo, S; Sunshine, S

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain. PMID:10910315

  19. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model. PMID:26293488

  20. Is the use of underwater polarized light by fish restricted to crepuscular time periods?

    PubMed

    Novales Flamarique, I; Hawryshyn, C W

    1997-04-01

    We measured the spectral distributions of the underwater total and polarized light fields in the upper photic zone of meso-eutrophic waters (i.e., blue-green waters containing medium to high chlorophyll a concentrations). Per cent polarization levels during the day were always lower than 40%, but at crepuscular times these values could increase to 67%. A corresponding change occurred in the spectral distribution, with proportionately more shorter wavelength photons contributing to the total spectrum during crepuscular periods. Electrophysiological recordings from the optic nerve of rainbow trout subjected to light stimuli of varying polarization percentages show that the animal's threshold for detecting polarized light is between 63 and 72%. These physiological findings suggest that the use of water-induced polarized light cues by rainbow trout and similar percomorph fish should be restricted to crepuscular time periods. PMID:9196717

  1. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  2. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model. PMID:26293488

  3. Periodic solutions of a nonautonomous predator-prey system with stage structure and time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2006-11-01

    A nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model with stage structure and time delays is investigated. It is assumed in the model that the individuals in each species may belong to one of two classes: the immatures and the matures, the age to maturity is presented by a time delay, and that the immature predators do not feed on prey and do not have the ability to reproduce. By some comparison arguments we first discuss the permanence of the model. By using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, sufficient conditions are derived for the existence of positive periodic solutions to the model. By means of a suitable Lyapunov functional, sufficient conditions are obtained for the uniqueness and global stability of the positive periodic solutions to the model.

  4. Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, H.; Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in

  5. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  6. Sobolev type equations of time-fractional order with periodical boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plekhanova, Marina

    2016-08-01

    The existence of a unique local solution for a class of time-fractional Sobolev type partial differential equations endowed by the Cauchy initial conditions and periodical with respect to every spatial variable boundary conditions on a parallelepiped is proved. General results are applied to study of the unique solvability for the initial boundary value problem to Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers and Allair partial differential equations.

  7. Conditions for Recurrence of a Flow of Physical Events with Unextendable Dead Time Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezhel'skaya, L. A.

    2016-04-01

    A flow of physical events (photons, electrons, etc.) is studied. One of the mathematical models of such flows is the modulated MAP flow of events circulating under conditions of unextendable dead time period. The explicit form of the probability density of interarrival interval of the flow is presented together with the explicit form of the joint probability density of two adjacent intervals in the observed flow. The conditions for recurrence of the observable flow of events are presented.

  8. Thermal characteristics of time-periodic electroosmotic flow in a circular microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Ali Jabari

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical analysis is performed to explore the thermal characteristics of electroosmotic flow in a circular microchannel under an alternating electric field. An analytical approach is presented to solve energy equation, and then, the exact solution of temperature profiles is obtained by using the Green's function method. This study reveals that the temperature field repeats itself for each half-period. Frequency has a strong influence on the thermal behavior of the flow field. For small values of the dimensionless frequency (small channel size, large kinematic viscosity, or small frequency), the advection mechanism is dominant in the whole domain and the resultant heating (Joule heating and wall heat flux) can be transferred by the complete flow field in the axial direction; while, the middle portion of the flow field at high dimensionless frequencies does not have sufficient time to transfer heat by advection, and the bulk fluid temperature, especially in heating, may consequently become greater than the wall temperature. In a particular instance of cooling mode, a constant surface temperature case is temporarily occurred in which the axial temperature gradient will be zero. For relatively high frequencies, the unsteady bulk fluid temperature in some radial positions at some moments may be equal to the wall temperature; hence instantaneous cylindrical surfaces with zero radial heat flux may occur over a period of time. Depending on the value and sign of the thermal scale ratio, the quasi-steady-state Nusselt number (time-averaged at one period) approaches a specific value as the electrokinetic radius becomes infinity.

  9. Enhancement in dentin collagen’s biological stability after proanthocyanidins treatment in clinically relevant time periods

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Chen, Mingsheng; Yao, Xiaomei; Xu, Changqi; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether proanthocyanidins (PA) is capable of improving dentin collagen’s biological stability through cross-linking within time periods that are clinically relevant. Materials and methods Demineralized dentin collagen slabs were treated with 3.75 wt% PA solution for 10 s, 1 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min, 360 min, and 720 min, respectively. The resultant cross-linked collagen samples were subject to digestion with 0.1% collagenase at 37 °C for 2 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h. The percentage of weight loss after digestion was calculated to evaluate PA-treated collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic degradation. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe evidences of PA-collagen interactions after various periods of PA treatment. Results The collagenase digestion assay suggests that PA treatment as short as 10 s can enhance collagen’s resistance toward enzymatic challenge. The FTIR spectroscopy further verifies that PA is indeed incorporated into collagen regardless of treatment time, possibly via a mechanism involving the chemical interactions between PA and collagen. Significance This study confirmed that PA can effectively cross-link collagen and improve its biological stability in time periods as short as 10 s. The use of PA as a priming agent is therefore clinically feasible and is a promising approach to improving the durability of current dentin bonding systems. PMID:23434233

  10. Time-frequency manifold correlation matching for periodic fault identification in rotating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo; Wang, Xiangxiang

    2013-05-01

    For rotating machines, the localized faults of key components generally represent as periodic transient impulses in vibration signals. The existence of background noise will corrupt transient impulses in practice, and will thus increase the difficulty to identify specific faults. This paper combines the concepts of time-frequency manifold (TFM) and image template matching, and proposes a novel TFM correlation matching method to enhance identification of the periodic faults. This method is to conduct correlation matching of a vibration signal in the time-frequency domain by using the TFM with a short duration as a template. By this method, the time-frequency distribution (TFD) of a vibration signal is firstly achieved by the Smoothed Pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution (SPWVD) method. Then the TFM template is learned to do correlation matching with the TFD of the analyzed signal. Finally, the ridge is extracted from the correlation matching image and the ridge coefficients are analyzed for periodic fault identification. The proposed method takes advantages of the TFM in noise suppression and template matching in object enhancement, and can enhance the fault impulses of interest in a unified scale. The novel method is verified to be superior to traditional enveloping method with providing smoother and clearer fault impulse component via applications to gearbox fault detection and bearing defect identification.

  11. An approach to identify time consistent model parameters: sub-period calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharari, S.; Hrachowitz, M.; Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual hydrological models rely on calibration for the identification of their parameters. As these models are typically designed to reflect real catchment processes, a key objective of an appropriate calibration strategy is the determination of parameter sets that reflect a "realistic" model behavior. Previous studies have shown that parameter estimates for different calibration periods can be significantly different. This questions model transposability in time, which is one of the key conditions for the set-up of a "realistic" model. This paper presents a new approach that selects parameter sets that provide a consistent model performance in time. The approach consists of testing model performance in different periods, and selecting parameter sets that are as close as possible to the optimum of each individual sub-period. While aiding model calibration, the approach is also useful as a diagnostic tool, illustrating tradeoffs in the identification of time-consistent parameter sets. The approach is applied to a case study in Luxembourg using the HyMod hydrological model as an example.

  12. Periodic Time-Domain Nonlocal Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Duct Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Zorumski, William E.

    1996-01-01

    Periodic time-domain boundary conditions are formulated for direct numerical simulation of acoustic waves in ducts without flow. Well-developed frequency-domain boundary conditions are transformed into the time domain. The formulation is presented here in one space dimension and time; however, this formulation has an advantage in that its extension to variable-area, higher dimensional, and acoustically treated ducts is rigorous and straightforward. The boundary condition simulates a nonreflecting wave field in an infinite uniform duct and is implemented by impulse-response operators that are applied at the boundary of the computational domain. These operators are generated by convolution integrals of the corresponding frequency-domain operators. The acoustic solution is obtained by advancing the Euler equations to a periodic state with the MacCormack scheme. The MacCormack scheme utilizes the boundary condition to limit the computational space and preserve the radiation boundary condition. The success of the boundary condition is attributed to the fact that it is nonreflecting to periodic acoustic waves. In addition, transient waves can pass rapidly out of the solution domain. The boundary condition is tested for a pure tone and a multitone source in a linear setting. The effects of various initial conditions are assessed. Computational solutions with the boundary condition are consistent with the known solutions for nonreflecting wave fields in an infinite uniform duct.

  13. Time-varying singular value decomposition for periodic transient identification in bearing fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shangbin; Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo; Kong, Fanrang

    2016-09-01

    For rotating machines, the defective faults of bearings generally are represented as periodic transient impulses in acquired signals. The extraction of transient features from signals has been a key issue for fault diagnosis. However, the background noise reduces identification performance of periodic faults in practice. This paper proposes a time-varying singular value decomposition (TSVD) method to enhance the identification of periodic faults. The proposed method is inspired by the sliding window method. By applying singular value decomposition (SVD) to the signal under a sliding window, we can obtain a time-varying singular value matrix (TSVM). Each column in the TSVM is occupied by the singular values of the corresponding sliding window, and each row represents the intrinsic structure of the raw signal, namely time-singular-value-sequence (TSVS). Theoretical and experimental analyses show that the frequency of TSVS is exactly twice that of the corresponding intrinsic structure. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of TSVS is improved significantly in comparison with the raw signal. The proposed method takes advantages of the TSVS in noise suppression and feature extraction to enhance fault frequency for diagnosis. The effectiveness of the TSVD is verified by means of simulation studies and applications to diagnosis of bearing faults. Results indicate that the proposed method is superior to traditional methods for bearing fault diagnosis.

  14. 5 years of continuous seismic monitoring of snowmelt cycles in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Jordi; Sánchez-Pastor, Pilar; Gallart, Josep

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the analysis of background seismic noise variations in the proximity of river channels has revealed as a useful tool to monitor river flow, even for modest discharges. We will focus here in the application of this methodology to study the snowmelt cycle in an Pyrenean valley during the last 5 years, using data from the seismic geophysical station located inside the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (Central Pyrenees). Diaz et al. (2014) first identified in the seismic data the signature of river flow increases associated to snowmelt episodes in the catchment area of the Aragon River, based on the marked correlation between the seismic energy variations in the 2-8 Hz frequency band and the estimated variations in water resources from snowfall. The analysis of seismic data during the snowmelt periods allows to identify a clear 24h cycle, with energy increasing from about 14:00 GMT, remaining at a relatively high level for 12 hours and then smoothly vanishing. The spectrogram reveals richer information, as clear variations in the frequency content can be detected during the time intervals in which the amplitude of the seismic signal remains constant. The data available so far allow to compare the evolution of snowmelt in five seasons with very different hydrological behavior. The 2011 and 2012 seasons have been dry, with snow volumes 30-50 % beneath the average values, while the 2013, 2014 and in particular the 2015 seasons have been largely above the mean. Those variations are reflected in the seismic data, which allow to monitor the time occurrence of the main snowmelt stages for each season and to estimate the intensity of the different snowmelt episodes. Therefore, seismic data can be useful for long term monitoring of snowmelt in Alpine-style mountains.

  15. Spacecraft stability and control using new techniques for periodic and time-delayed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NAzari, Morad

    This dissertation addresses various problems in spacecraft stability and control using specialized theoretical and numerical techniques for time-periodic and time-delayed systems. First, the effects of energy dissipation are considered in the dual-spin spacecraft, where the damper masses in the platform (?) and the rotor (?) cause energy loss in the system. Floquet theory is employed to obtain stability charts for different relative spin rates of the subsystem [special characters omitted] with respect to the subsystem [special characters omitted]. Further, the stability and bifurcation of delayed feedback spin stabilization of a rigid spacecraft is investigated. The spin is stabilized about the principal axis of the intermediate moment of inertia using a simple delayed feedback control law. In particular, linear stability is analyzed via the exponential-polynomial characteristic equations and then the method of multiple scales is used to obtain the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation. Next, the dynamics of a rigid spacecraft with nonlinear delayed multi-actuator feedback control are studied, where a nonlinear feedback controller using an inverse dynamics approach is sought for the controlled system to have the desired linear delayed closed-loop dynamics (CLD). Later, three linear state feedback control strategies based on Chebyshev spectral collocation and the Lyapunov Floquet transformation (LFT) are explored for regulation control of linear periodic time delayed systems. First , a delayed feedback control law with discrete delay is implemented and the stability of the closed-loop response is investigated in the parameter space of available control gains using infinite-dimensional Floquet theory. Second, the delay differential equation (DDE) is discretized into a large set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using the Chebyshev spectral continuous time approximation (CSCTA) and delayed feedback with distributed delay is applied. The third strategy involves

  16. Quasiequilibrium directed hopping in a time-dependent two-well periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenbaum, V. M.; Shapochkina, I. V.

    2011-11-01

    We consider the directed motion of a Brownian particle in a two-well periodic potential with time-varying barriers and wells described by arbitrary periodic functions of time, v(t) and u(t), alternating with the period τ. In the framework of the low-temperature kinetic approach, we obtain explicit formulas for the probabilities of finding the particle in potential wells, average velocity of directed motion, input energy Pin and useful work Pout against additionally introduced stationary load force f. These formulas are considerably simplified by the assumption of the quasiequilibrium regime of motion corresponding to small values of u(t) and f. It is shown that depending on the same or opposite parity of the functions v(t) and u(t) with respect to time reversal, the motion direction of a Brownian particle is retained or reversed under the reversal of the direction of movement along the (v-u) loop in the phase space of the functions v(t) and u(t), and the nondiagonal kinetic coefficients are mutually symmetric or antisymmetric. In the adiabatic limit τ→∞, the average velocity is proportional to τ-1 in two cases: (i) the above loop has a nonzero area, (ii) the functions v(t) and u(t) are proportional to each other (zero loop area) and include intervals of fast changes with small durations τ0 on the period τ of their variations. In both of these cases, the efficiency of energy conversion, η=Pout/Pin, tends to unity at large variations of the barriers v(t). In the second case, the deviation of η from unity can be split into two contributions: The former decreases exponentially with increasing amplitude v0 of v(t), while the latter is a small nonadiabatic correction proportional to v0-3/2. It is the nonadiabatic correction that limits high efficiencies at large variations of barriers.

  17. Timing Studies of X Persei and the Discovery of Its Transient Quasi-periodic Oscillation Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuner, Z.; Inam,S. C.; Sahiner, S.; Serim, M. M.; Baykal, A.; Swank, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a timing analysis of X Persei (X Per) using observations made between 1998 and 2010 with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and with the INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI). All pulse arrival times obtained from the RXTE-PCA observations are phase-connected and a timing solution is obtained using these arrival times. We update the long-term pulse frequency history of the source by measuring its pulse frequencies using RXTE-PCA and ISGRI data. From the RXTEPCA data, the relation between the frequency derivative and X-ray flux suggests accretion via the companion's stellar wind. However, the detection of a transient quasi-periodic oscillation feature, peaking at approximately 0.2 Hz, suggests the existence of an accretion disc. We find that doublebreak models fit the average power spectra well, which suggests that the source has at least two different accretion flow components dominating the overall flow. From the power spectrum of frequency derivatives, we measure a power-law index of approximately - 1, which implies that, on short time-scales, disc accretion dominates over noise, while on time-scales longer than the viscous time-scales, the noise dominates. From pulse profiles, we find a correlation between the pulse fraction and the count rate of the source.

  18. Escape rate for a quantum particle moving in a time-periodic rapidly oscillating potential: a time-independent approach.

    PubMed

    Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2012-05-01

    We explore, in the quantum regime, the stochastic dynamics of a time-periodic, rapidly oscillating potential (having a characteristic frequency of ω) within the framework of a time-dependent system-reservoir Hamiltonian. We invoke the idea of a quantum gauge transformation in light of the standard Floquet theorem in an attempt to construct a Langevin equation (bearing a time-independent effective potential) by employing a systematic perturbative expansion in powers of ω^{-1} using the natural time-scale separation. The time-independent effective potential (corrected to ω^{-2} in leading order) that acts on the slow motion of the driven particle can be employed for trapping. We proceed further to evaluate the rate of escape of the driven particle from the metastable state in the high-temperature limit. We also envisage a resonance phenomena, a true hallmark of the system-reservoir quantization. This development would thus serve as a model template to investigate the trapping mechanism, as well as an appropriate analog to understand the dynamics of a fluctuation-induced escape process from the trap. PMID:23004698

  19. Transfer-matrix approach for finite-difference time-domain simulation of periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Deinega, Alexei; Belousov, Sergei; Valuev, Ilya

    2013-11-01

    Optical properties of periodic structures can be calculated using the transfer-matrix approach, which establishes a relation between amplitudes of the wave incident on a structure with transmitted or reflected waves. The transfer matrix can be used to obtain transmittance and reflectance spectra of finite periodic structures as well as eigenmodes of infinite structures. Traditionally, calculation of the transfer matrix is performed in the frequency domain and involves linear algebra. In this work, we present a technique for calculation of the transfer matrix using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and show the way of its implementation in FDTD code. To illustrate the performance of our technique we calculate the transmittance spectra for opal photonic crystal slabs consisting of multiple layers of spherical scatterers. Our technique can be used for photonic band structure calculations. It can also be combined with existing FDTD methods for the analysis of periodic structures at an oblique incidence, as well as for modeling point sources in a periodic environment. PMID:24329377

  20. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: ‘importance of extra-time’, ‘rule changes’, ‘efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision’, ‘nutritional timing’, ‘future research directions’, ‘preparatory modulations’ and ‘recovery’. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses

  1. Concentration of hydrogen ions in several calcium hydroxide pastes over different periods of time.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Morgana Eli; Zilio, Danila M; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the concentration of hydrogen ions (pH) of calcium hydroxide [(Ca(OH)2] pastes combined with different vehicles over 7 periods of time. The Ca(OH)2 was manipulated with the following vehicles: i: sterile water; ii: iodoform plus sterile water; iii: local anesthetics (Lydocaine 2% with 1: 100,000 epinephrine); iv: polyethyleneglycol; v: glycerin; vi: 2.0% chlorhexidine gel; vii: camphorated paramonochlorophenol (CMCP); viii: (CMCP) + glycerin; and ix: polyethyleneglycol plus CMCP. The pastes were made on a glass plate to toothpaste consistency and the pH was measured at the following times: 5 min, 1, 24, 48 h; 7, 14 and 28 days. The data were statistically analyzed (Kruskal-Wallis at p<0.05). At 5 min, 1 and 24 h, the pH of all tested pastes ranged from 13.05 to 11.16. At 48 h and 7 days the pH of all tested pastes ranged from 11.66 to 8.92. At 14 and 28 days almost all pastes had pH means lower than 10. In conclusion, the mean pH of all tested calcium hydroxide pastes decreased with the time. Pastes made with aqueous vehicles (especially with sterile water), followed by oily vehicles (especially with CMCP + glycerin), held the highest pH means over the periods of time tested. PMID:20126906

  2. Intraindividual variation in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D measures 5 years apart among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jennifer E.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Andrews, Christopher A; LaMonte, Michael J.; Horst, Ronald L.; Genco, Robert J.; Millen, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current literature examining associations between vitamin D and chronic disease generally use a single assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), assuming an individual’s 25(OH)D concentration is consistent over time. Methods We investigated the intraindividual variability between two measures of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations collected ~5 years apart (1997-2000 to 2002-2005) in 672 postmenopausal women participating in the Women’s Health Initiative. Plasma 25(OH)D was assessed using the DiaSorin LIAISON® chemiluminescence immunoassay. The within-pair coefficient of variation (CV) was 4.9% using blinded quality control samples. Mean and standard deviations (SD) of 25(OH)D at the two time points were compared using a paired t-test. An intraindividual CV and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess intraindividual variability. A Spearman correlation coefficient (r) assessed the strength of the association between the two measures and concordance in vitamin D status at two time points Results Mean 25(OH)D concentrations (nmol/L) significantly increased over time from 60.0 (SD=22.2) to 67.8 (SD=22.2) (p<0.05). The CV was 24.6%, the ICC (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) was 0.59 (0.54-0.64), and the Spearman r was 0.61 (95% CI=0.56-0.66). Greater concordance over 5 years was observed in participants with sufficient compared to deficient or inadequate baseline 25(OH)D concentrations (weighted kappa=0.39). Reliability measures were moderately influenced by season of blood draw and vitamin D supplement use. Conclusion There is moderate intraindividual variation in 25(OH)D concentrations over approximately 5 years. Impact These data support the use of a one-time measure of blood 25(OH)D in prospective studies with ≤ 5 years of follow-up. PMID:22523182

  3. Performance of ROB's near real-time ionospheric product during normal and disturbed space weather periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Bruyninx, Carine

    2015-04-01

    Several agencies are routinely monitoring the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) using GNSS data. Derived maps are available with different latencies, area extents, and grid/time resolutions. However, no high-resolution maps are publically available over Europe in near real-time. In this frame, the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) developed the ROB-IONO software which takes advantage of the dense EUREF Permanent GNSS Network (EPN) to monitor the ionosphere. The main ROB products consist of ionospheric vTEC maps over Europe and their variability estimated in near real-time every 15 min on 0.5° x 0.5° grids using GPS observations. The maps are available online with a latency of ~3 min in the IONEX format at ftp://gnss.oma.be and as interactive web pages at www.gnss.be. During normal ionospheric activity, the ROB-TEC maps show a good agreement with widely used post-processed global products from IGS, CODE and ESA, with mean differences of 1.3 ± 0.9, 0.6 ± 0.7 and 0.4 ± 1.6 TECu respectively for the period 2012 to mid-2013. For a disturbed period, such as the 2003 Halloween ionospheric storm, the mean differences with IGS, CODE and ESA maps are respectively 0.9 ± 2.2, 0.1 ± 2.0 and 0.6 ± 6.8 TECu, with maximum differences (>38 TECu) occurring during the major phase of the storm. These differences are due to the lower resolution of global products in time and space compared to the ROB-TEC maps. A description of two recent events, on March 17, 2013 and February 27, 2014 highlights the capability of the method adopted to detect in near real-time abnormal ionospheric behaviour over Europe. The potential of the variability maps as an indicator of rapid ionospheric variations during the 15 min of observations is also highlighted. More than 30 ionospheric events associated with Space weather were detected during the period 2012-2014. The ionospheric perturbations are associated with Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs, ~70% of the time), active geomagnetic conditions

  4. Dynamic effective properties of heterogeneous geological formations with spherical inclusions under periodic time variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A.; Dagan, G.; Miloh, T.

    2013-04-01

    In unsteady groundwater flow (or similar processes of heat/electrical conduction), the heterogeneous medium structure is characterized by two random properties, the conductivity K and the specific storativity S. The average head field ⟨H ⟩and the associated effective properties Kef, Sef are determined for a layer with a periodic head drop between boundaries, such that H is periodic in time, and a medium made up of a matrix with a dilute concentration of spherical inclusions. In the common quasi-steady approximation, Kef is equal to the classical steady solution while Sef = SA, the arithmetic mean. We derive expressions for the frequency dependent Kef, Sef, which are generally complex, i.e., dynamic. The main result is the delineation of the ranges of the parameters: dimensionless frequency (ω) and contrasts of conductivity (κ) and storativity (s) between the matrix and the inclusions, for which dynamic effects are significant.

  5. Ultrafast time dynamics studies of periodic lattices with free electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, W.; Busse, G.; Hallmann, J.; More, R.; Petri, M.; Rajkovic, I.; Krasniqi, F.; Rudenko, A.; Tschentscher, T.; Stojanovic, N.; Duesterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Tolkiehn, M.; Techert, S.

    2012-11-01

    It has been proposed that radiation from free electron laser (FEL) at Hamburg (FLASH) can be used for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments based on the near-infrared (NIR) pump/FEL probe scheme. Here, investigation probing the ultrafast structural dynamics of periodic nano-crystalline organic matter (silver behenate) with such a scheme is reported. Excitation with a femtosecond NIR laser leads to an ultrafast lattice modification which time evolution has been studied through the scattering of vacuum ultraviolet FEL pulses. The found effect last for 6 ps and underpins the possibility for studying nanoperiodic dynamics down to the FEL source time resolution. Furthermore, the possibility of extending the use of silver behenate (AgBh) as a wavelength and temporal calibration tool for experiments with soft x-ray/FEL sources is suggested.

  6. Evaluation of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during night periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Detelin

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-understand procedure for prediction of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during the night periods. The mathematical model is based on the assumptions for homogeneity and perfect mixing of the indoor air, the ideal gas model for non-reacting gas mixtures, mass conservation equations for the entire system and for each species, a model for prediction of basal metabolic rate of humans as well as a model for prediction of O2 consumption rate and both CO2 and H2O generation rates by breathing. Time variation of indoor air composition is predicted at constant indoor air temperature for three scenarios based on the analytical solution of the mathematical model. The results achieved reveal both the most probable scenario for indoor air time variation in air-tight occupied spaces as well as the cause for morning tiredness after having a sleep in a modern energy efficient space.

  7. Time-headway distribution for periodic totally asymmetric exclusion process with various updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabák, P.; Krbálek, M.

    2016-03-01

    The totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with periodic boundaries is considered as traffic flow model. The large-L approximation of the stationary state is used for the derivation of the time-headway distribution (an important microscopic characteristic of traffic flow) for the model with generalized update (genTASEP) in both, forward- and backward-sequential representations. The usually used updates, fully-parallel and regular forward- and backward-sequential, are analyzed as special cases of the genTASEP. It is shown that only for those cases, the time-headway distribution is determined by the flow regardless to the density. The qualitative comparison of the results with traffic data demonstrates that the genTASEP with backward order and attractive interaction evinces similar properties of time-headway distribution as the real traffic sample.

  8. Timing and periodicity of paraglacial rock-slope failures in the Scottish Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, Colin K.; Stone, John O.

    2013-03-01

    Many formerly-glaciated mountains exhibit a high density of postglacial rock-slope failures (RSFs) in the form of rockslides, rock avalanches or deep-seated gravitational slope deformations. Such RSFs are often termed 'paraglacial' as they reflect pre-conditioning by glaciation and deglaciation. The temporal pattern of paraglacial RSFs is unknown. We employ 47 cosmogenic isotope exposure ages obtained for 17 catastrophic RSFs in the Scottish Highlands to test models of changes in RSF frequency since deglaciation. Our results show that RSF activity spans almost the entire postglacial period from ~ 17 ka until ~ 1.5 ka, and that the periodicity of sampled postglacial RSFs is statistically indistinguishable from a pattern of uniform periodicity (~ 1 ka- 1). Our data do not conform to proposed models of declining RSF frequency with time elapsed since deglaciation, but suggest that the temporal distribution of postglacial RSFs is best described by a combination of rapid response (enhanced RSF frequency during or immediately after deglaciation) followed by approximately constant periodicity. Our findings are consistent with near-surface fracturing of rock when glacially-induced confining stresses are removed, causing some failures during or immediately after deglaciation and reducing other slopes to critical conditional stability so that failure is triggered by progressive rock-mass weakening or by transient triggering mechanisms. Neither permafrost degradation (thaw of ice in joints) nor seismic activity offers a general explanation for triggering Scottish RSFs, but could be contributory in some cases. The quasi-constant periodicity inferred for Holocene RSFs implies that the probability of RSFs in this seismically-quiescent intraplate area has not changed in the past ~ 10 ka, and that further (though infrequent) catastrophic RSFs are likely to occur in the future.

  9. NASA Infrared Telescope Facility- The Next 5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, A. T.; Bus, S. J.; Tollestrup, E. V.; Rayner, J. T.

    2005-08-01

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) is a 3-meter optical/IR telescope dedicated to NASA-related programs of mission support and basic solar system research. All of the funding for IRTF operations comes from the Planetary Astronomy Program. We are preparing the Cooperative Agreement with NASA for the next 5 years (Feb. 2006 -- Jan. 2011). We will strive to refurbish the telescope in order to provide mission support and to allow the IRTF to provide fundamental data for future missions to Mars, comets, satellites, Near-Earth Objects, and asteroids. A major component of our activities will be to improve the image quality of the telescope and to provide high dynamic imaging on the IRTF. Details of our plans can be obtained at: http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/Documents/pdf/1_plan_mar04C.pdf We acknowledge the support of NASA Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Planetary Astronomy Program.

  10. Time-Periodic Solutions of Driven-Damped Trimer Granular Crystals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Charalampidis, E. G.; Li, F.; Chong, C.; Yang, J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    We consider time-periodic structures of granular crystals consisting of alternate chrome steel (S) and tungsten carbide (W) spherical particles where each unit cell follows the pattern of a 2 : 1 trimer: S-W-S. The configuration at the left boundary is driven by a harmonic in-time actuation with given amplitude and frequency while the right one is a fixed wall. Similar to the case of a dimer chain, the combination of dissipation, driving of the boundary, and intrinsic nonlinearity leads to complex dynamics. For fixed driving frequencies in each of the spectral gaps, we find that the nonlinear surface modes and the statesmore » dictated by the linear drive collide in a saddle-node bifurcation as the driving amplitude is increased, beyond which the dynamics of the system becomes chaotic. While the bifurcation structure is similar for solutions within the first and second gap, those in the first gap appear to be less robust. We also conduct a continuation in driving frequency, where it is apparent that the nonlinearity of the system results in a complex bifurcation diagram, involving an intricate set of loops of branches, especially within the spectral gap. The theoretical findings are qualitatively corroborated by the experimental full-field visualization of the time-periodic structures.« less

  11. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  12. Endocrine dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: a 5-year follow-up nationwide-based study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Ting-Chung; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic endocrine dysfunction is a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, there is lack of long-term follow-up and large sample size studies. This study included patients suffering from TBI registered in the Health Insurance Database. Endocrine disorders were identified using the ICD codes: 244 (acquired hypothyroidism), 253 (pituitary dysfunction), 255 (disorders of the adrenal glands), 258 (polyglandular dysfunction), and 259 (other endocrine disorders) with at least three outpatient visits within 1 year or one admission diagnosis. Overall, 156,945 insured subjects were included in the final analysis. The 1- and 5-year incidence rates of post-traumatic endocrinopathies were 0.4% and 2%, respectively. The risks of developing a common endocrinopathy (p < 0.001) or pituitary dysfunction (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with a TBI history. Patients with a skull bone fracture had a higher risk of developing pituitary dysfunction at the 1-year follow up (p value < 0.001). At the 5-year follow up, the association between intracranial hemorrhage and pituitary dysfunction (p value: 0.002) was significant. The risk of developing endocrine dysfunction after TBI increased during the entire 5-year follow-up period. Skull bone fracture and intracranial hemorrhage may be associated with short and long-term post-traumatic pituitary dysfunction, respectively. PMID:27608606

  13. Hypospadias repair and outcome in Abuja, Nigeria: A 5-year single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Aisuodionoe-Shadrach, Oseremen Inokhoife; Atim, Terkaa; Eniola, Bolarinwa Sefiu; Ohemu, Alexander Akogwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine the outcome of hypospadias repair in children. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of all patients with hypospadias managed at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria from January 2009 to December 2013. Results: Twenty-four cases of hypospadias had corrective surgery during the 5-year period under review. Seventy-five percent of the patients (n = 18) were seen after the 1st year of life. There were two peaks of ages at corrective repair; 45.8% between age 1 and 3 years and 29.1% between age 5 and 10 years. The average age at time of surgery was 44.9 months. Distal hypospadias were more common (58.4%), followed by glanular (20.8%) and proximal (20.8%) hypospadias. Associated anomalies included chordee, maldescended testicles and inguinal hernia in 20.8%, 4.1% and 8.3% cases, respectively. Operative techniques were single-stage procedures in 79.1% of patients consisting of simple circumcision in two cases (10.5%), Mathieu's peri-meatal based flap in four cases (21%), meatal advancement and glanuloplasty incorporated in three cases (16%) and Snodgrass tubularised incised urethral plate tubularised incised plate in 10 cases (52.5%). The remaining 20.9% (n = 5) had multi-staged procedures. The most common post-operative complications were urethrocutenous fistula in nine patients (33.3%) and metal stenosis in 3 patients (12.5%). Conclusions: Our results show that hypospadia repair is froth with attendant high complications in our setting. PMID:25659549

  14. Abdominal computed tomography during pregnancy for suspected appendicitis: a 5-year experience at a maternity hospital.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh K; Garrett, Nan M; Carpenter, Wendy S; Shah, Yogesh P; Roberts, Candace

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the role of computed tomography (CT) in a pregnant patient with right lower quadrant pain in whom there was a clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis. During a 5-year period the clinical records of all pregnant women who underwent imaging examination for clinically suspected appendicitis were reviewed. The imaging findings were correlated with patient management and final outcome. Thirty-nine pregnant patients were referred for imaging, of which 35 underwent initial evaluation with sonography, 23 of these women underwent a computed tomographic examination, and an additional 4 patients were directly imaged with CT without earlier sonographic assessment. Surgery confirmed appendicitis in all 5 patients who were operated on on the basis of findings of appendicitis on a CT scan. Two patients underwent surgery based on an alternate diagnosis suggested preoperatively (tubal torsion = 1, ovarian torsion = 1). All patients with negative findings at CT had an uneventful clinical course. In those patients who were evaluated only with ultrasound, a diagnosis of appendicitis was missed in 5 patients. The sensitivity of CT in the diagnosis of appendicitis in our study group was 100%, compared with a sensitivity of 46.1% for ultrasound. CT provides an accurate diagnosis in patients suspected to have acute appendicitis and is of value in avoiding false negative exploratory laparatomy with its consequent risk of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Although sonography is the preferred initial imaging modality as its lack of ionizing radiation, CT is more accurate in providing a timely diagnosis and its use is justified to reduce maternal mortality and mortality in patients with appendicitis. PMID:20102691

  15. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesanya, S. O.; Oluwadare, E. O.; Falade, J. A.; Makinde, O. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow.

  16. The Cluster Science Archive: from Time Period to Physics Based Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, A.; Escoubet, C. P.; Laakso, H. E.; Perry, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, the Cluster spacecraft relay the most detailed information on how the solar wind affects our geospace in three dimensions. Science output from Cluster is a leap forward in our knowledge of space plasma physics: the science behind space weather. It has been key in improving the modeling of the magnetosphere and understanding its various physical processes. Cluster data have enabled the publication of more than 2000 refereed papers and counting. This substantial scientific return is often attributed to the online availability of the Cluster data archive, now called the Cluster Science Archive (CSA). It is being developed by the ESAC Science Data Center (ESDC) team and maintained alongside other science ESA archives at ESAC (ESA Space Astronomy Center, Madrid, Spain). CSA is a public archive, which contains the entire set of Cluster high-resolution data, and other related products in a standard format and with a complete set of metadata. Since May 2015, it also contains data from the CNSA/ESA Double Star mission (2003-2008), a mission operated in conjunction with Cluster. The total amount of data format now exceeds 100 TB. Accessing CSA requires to be registered to enable user profiles and CSA accounts more than 1,500 users. CSA provides unique tools for visualizing its data including - on-demand particle distribution functions visualization - fast data browsing with more than 15TB of pre-generated plots - inventory plots It also offers command line capabilities (e.g. data access via Matlab or IDL softwares, data streaming). Despite its reliability, users can only request data for a specific time period while scientists often focus on specific regions or data signatures. For these reasons, a data-mining tool is being developed to do just that. It offers an interface to select data based not only on a time period but on various criteria including: key physical parameters, regions of space and spacecraft constellation geometry. The output of this tool is a

  17. Geometric tools for solving the FDI problem for linear periodic discrete-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Sauro; Monteriù, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies the problem of detecting and isolating faults in linear periodic discrete-time systems. The aim is to design an observer-based residual generator where each residual is sensitive to one fault, whilst remaining insensitive to the other faults that can affect the system. Making use of the geometric tools, and in particular of the outer observable subspace notion, the Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) problem is formulated and necessary and solvability conditions are given. An algorithmic procedure is described to determine the solution of the FDI problem.

  18. Thermomagnetic convection in a ferrofluid layer exposed to a time-periodic magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matura, P.; Lücke, M.

    2009-08-01

    We have investigated the influence of a time-periodic and spatially homogeneous magnetic field on the linear stability properties and on the nonlinear response of a ferrofluid layer heated from below and from above. A competition between stabilizing thermal and viscous diffusion and destabilizing buoyancy and Kelvin forces occurs. Floquet theory is used to determine the stability boundaries of the motionless conductive state for a harmonic and subharmonic response. Full numerical simulations with a finite difference method were made to obtain nonlinear convective states. The effect of low- and high-frequency modulation on the stability boundaries as well as on the nonlinear oscillations that may occur is investigated.

  19. Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium: a 5-year experience utilizing preoperative cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Belinson, J.L.; Spirou, B.; McClure, M.; Badger, G.; Pretorius, R.G.; Roland, T.A.

    1985-03-01

    A treatment protocol for the management of stage I endometrial carcinoma utilizing preoperative cesium is evaluated. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients were treated according to this protocol over a 5-year period. Based on this experience and a literature review a new protocol is recommended. The significant changes include primary surgery without preoperative cesium, primary treatment based on grade without regard to uterine size, modified radical hysterectomy for G3 tumors, pelvic radiotherapy for clear cell carcinoma confined to the pelvis regardless of depth of invasion, cytoxan, adriamycin, and cis-platinum for papillary serous tumors, and postoperative vaginal cuff cesium for G2 and G3 tumors not requiring pelvic radiotherapy.

  20. Equatorial Annual Oscillation with QBO-driven 5-year Modulation in NCEP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Huang, F. T.; Nash, E. R.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the zonal wind and temperature variations supplied by the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), which have been assimilated in the Reanalysis and the Climate Prediction Center (CCP) data sets. The derived zonal-mean variations are employed. Stimulated by modeling studies, the data are separated into the hemispherically symmetric and anti-symmetric components, and spectral analysis is applied to study the annual 12-month oscillation and Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). For data samples that cover as much as 40 years, the results reveal a pronounced 5-year modulation of the symmetric AO in the lower stratosphere, which is confined to equatorial latitudes. This modulation is also inferred for the temperature variations but extends to high latitudes, qualitatively consistent with published model results. A comparison between different data samples indicates that the signature of the 5-year oscillation is larger when the QBO of 30 months is more pronounced. Thus there is circumstantial evidence that this periodicity of the QBO is involved in generating the oscillation. The spectral analysis shows that there is a weak anti-symmetric 5-year oscillation in the zonal winds, which could interact with the large antisymmetric A0 to produce the modulation of the symmetric AO as was shown in earlier modeling studies. According to these studies, the 30-month QBO tends to be synchronized by the equatorial Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO), and this would explain why the inferred 5-year modulation is observed to persist and is phase locked over several cycles.

  1. Time series modelling of increased soil temperature anomalies during long period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, Amin; Moradi, Farzad; Moosavi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Soil temperature just beneath the soil surface is highly dynamic and has a direct impact on plant seed germination and is probably the most distinct and recognisable factor governing emergence. Autoregressive integrated moving average as a stochastic model was developed to predict the weekly soil temperature anomalies at 10 cm depth, one of the most important soil parameters. The weekly soil temperature anomalies for the periods of January1986-December 2011 and January 2012-December 2013 were taken into consideration to construct and test autoregressive integrated moving average models. The proposed model autoregressive integrated moving average (2,1,1) had a minimum value of Akaike information criterion and its estimated coefficients were different from zero at 5% significance level. The prediction of the weekly soil temperature anomalies during the test period using this proposed model indicated a high correlation coefficient between the observed and predicted data - that was 0.99 for lead time 1 week. Linear trend analysis indicated that the soil temperature anomalies warmed up significantly by 1.8°C during the period of 1986-2011.

  2. Periodic boundary conditions for long-time nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a generalization of the Kraynik-Reinelt (KR) boundary conditions for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In the simulation of steady, homogeneous flows with periodic boundary conditions, the simulation box deforms with the flow, and it is possible for image particles to become arbitrarily close, causing a breakdown in the simulation. The KR boundary conditions avoid this problem for planar elongational flow and general planar mixed flow [T. A. Hunt, S. Bernardi, and B. D. Todd, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154116 (2010)] through careful choice of the initial simulation box and by periodically remapping the simulation box in a way that conserves image locations. In this work, the ideas are extended to a large class of three-dimensional flows by using multiple remappings for the simulation box. The simulation box geometry is no longer time-periodic (which was shown to be impossible for uniaxial and biaxial stretching flows in the original work by Kraynik and Reinelt [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 18, 1045 (1992)]. The presented algorithm applies to all flows with nondefective flow matrices, and in particular, to uniaxial and biaxial flows.

  3. Symbolic dynamics of pulse transit time and heart period in children with upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Baumert, Mathias; Kohler, Mark; Pamula, Yvonne; Immanuel, Sarah A

    2015-08-01

    Upper airway obstruction (UAO) is a relatively common condition during childhood that is characterized by periods of partial or complete upper airway closure, resulting in restless sleep. It has also been suggested that UAO triggers early cardiovascular changes that may predispose to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal dynamics of heart period (HP) and pulse transit time (PTT) during quite, event-free periods of sleep in children with UAO (n = 40) and matched healthy controls. The dynamics of HP and PTT were symbolized based on the sextiles of their distribution and words of length three were formed and classified into four types based on their patterns. Joint symbolic dynamics represent the concomitant occurrence of words in HP and PTT. Children with UAO showed a significantly increased frequency in word types of monotonously increasing and decreasing HP and PTT as well as joint dynamics across all stages of sleep. The dynamics of HP showed a marked sleep stage dependence, while PTT dynamics appeared to be relatively unaffected. In conclusion, cardiovascular dynamics are altered in children with UAO during scored event-free sleep, indicative of frequent bursts in sympathetic nervous system activity, possibly reflecting subcortical arousal responses to brief and subtle increases in UAO. PMID:26736629

  4. Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture. A 5-year experience.

    PubMed

    Brathwaite, C E; Rodriguez, A; Turney, S Z; Dunham, C M; Cowley, R

    1990-12-01

    Blunt traumatic cardiac rupture is associated with a high rate of mortality. A review of the computerized trauma registry (1983 to 1988) identified 32 patients with this injury (ages 19 to 65 years; mean age, 39.5 years; 21 men and 11 women). Twenty-one patients (65.6%) were injured in vehicular crashes, 3 (9.4%) in pedestrian accidents, 3 (9.4%) in motorcycle accidents; 3 (9.4%) sustained crush injury; 1 (3.1%) was injured by a fall; and 1 (3.1%) was kicked in the chest by a horse. Anatomic injuries included right atrial rupture (13[40.6%]), left atrial rupture (8 [25%]), right ventricular rupture (10[31.3%]), left ventricular rupture (4[12.5%]), and rupture of two cardiac chambers (3 [9.4%]). Diagnosis was made by thoracotomy in all 20 patients presenting in cardiac arrest. In the remaining 12 patients, the diagnosis was established in seven by emergency left anterolateral thoracotomy and in five by subxyphoid pericardial window. Seven of these 12 patients (58.3%) had clinical cardiac tamponade and significant upper torso cyanosis. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Score (TS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were 33.8, 13.2, and 14.3, respectively, among survivors and 51.5, 8.3, and 7.0 for nonsurvivors. The overall mortality rate was 81.3% (26 of 32 patients), the only survivors being those presenting with vital signs (6 of 12 patients [50%]). All patients with rupture of two cardiac chambers or with ventricular rupture died. The mortality rate from myocardial rupture is very high. Rapid prehospital transportation, a high index of suspicion, and prompt surgical intervention contribute to survival in these patients. PMID:2256761

  5. Working with Workflows: Highlights from 5 years Building Scientific Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Critchlow, Terence J.; Altintas, Ilkay; Chin, George; Crawl, Daniel; Iyer, H.; Khan, Ayla; Klasky, S.; Koehler, Sven; Ludaescher, Bertram T.; Mouallem, Pierre; Nagappan, Mie; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Silva, C.; Tchoua, Roselynne; Vouk, M.

    2011-07-30

    In 2006, the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center proposed to continue its work deploying leading edge data management and analysis capabilities to scientific applications. One of three thrust areas within the proposed center was focused on Scientific Process Automation (SPA) using workflow technology. As a founding member of the Kepler consortium [LAB+09], the SDM Center team was well positioned to begin deploying workflows immediately. We were also keenly aware of some of the deficiencies in Kepler when applied to high performance computing workflows, which allowed us to focus our research and development efforts on critical new capabilities which were ultimately integrated into the Kepler open source distribution, benefiting the entire community. Significant work was required to ensure Kepler was capable of supporting large-scale production runs for SciDAC applications. Our work on generic actors and templates have improved the portability of workflows across machines and provided a higher level of abstraction for workflow developers. Fault tolerance and provenance tracking were obvious areas for improvement within Kepler given the longevity and complexity of our target workflows. To monitor workflow execution, we developed and deployed a web-based dashboard. We then generalized this interface and released it so it could be deployed at other locations. Outreach has always been a primary focus of our work and we had many successful deployments across a number of scientific domains while continually publishing and presenting our work. This short paper describes our most significant accomplishments over the past 5 years. Additional information about the SDM Center can be found in the companion paper: The Scientific Data Management Center: Available Technologies and Highlights.

  6. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  7. Time-dependent Mott transition in the periodic Anderson model with nonlocal hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Felix; Potthoff, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependent Mott transition in a periodic Anderson model with off-site, nearest-neighbor hybridization is studied within the framework of nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Using the two-site dynamical-impurity approximation, we compute the real-time dynamics of the optimal variational parameter and of different observables initiated by sudden quenches of the Hubbard-U and identify the critical interaction. The time-dependent transition is orbital selective, i.e., in the final state, reached in the long-time limit after the quench to the critical interaction, the Mott gap opens in the spectral function of the localized orbitals only. We discuss the dependence of the critical interaction and of the final-state effective temperature on the hybridization strength and point out the various similarities between the nonequilibrium and the equilibrium Mott transition. It is shown that these can also be smoothly connected to each other by increasing the duration of a U-ramp from a sudden quench to a quasi-static process. The physics found for the model with off-site hybridization is compared with the dynamical Mott transition in the single-orbital Hubbard model and with the dynamical crossover found for the real-time dynamics of the conventional Anderson lattice with on-site hybridization.

  8. Tracking rhythmicity in nonstationary quasi-periodic biomedical signals using adaptive time-varying covariance.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Jung, Ranu

    2002-07-01

    A time-varying covariance method for detecting and quantifying the evolution of rhythmicity (frequency) in persistently varying quasi-periodic nonstationary signals is presented. The basic method, evaluated using chirp signals, utilizes a shifting window of fixed length. A substantial reduction in estimation bias and variability are obtained by utilizing an adaptive window whose length is dependent on past frequency estimates. The adaptive window yields estimates that are comparable in accuracy to those obtained using high-resolution time-frequency representation but with lower computation requirements and the potential for on-line application. Finally, an example of the application of the method for analyzing a neural recording is also illustrated. PMID:11931864

  9. Spectral factorization in periodically time-varying systems and application to navigation problems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, T.

    1972-01-01

    Spectral factorization has been used previously to derive the steady-state solution of Kalman filtering equations without iteration for constant coefficient systems. The present work extends the spectral factorization algorithm to time-varying systems having periodic coefficient matrices for cases of both discrete and continuous systems. Time-consuming, expensive iterations of sequential covariance equations are not required to reach the final solution since this is an algebraic algorithm employing existing eigenvalue, eigenvector subroutines. The computer program incorporating the algorithm is suitable for sensitivity studies in formulating navigation and guidance strategies of low-thrust interplanetary missions. The determination of an optimum tracking pattern from an earth station is examined as an example.

  10. Nonlinear time-periodic models of the longitudinal flight dynamics of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Graham K; Żbikowski, Rafał

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of insect flight control have been statistical in approach, simply correlating wing kinematics with body kinematics or force production. Kinematics and forces are linked by Newtonian mechanics, so adopting a dynamics-based approach is necessary if we are to place the study of insect flight on its proper physical footing. Here we develop semi-empirical models of the longitudinal flight dynamics of desert locusts Schistocerca gregaria. We use instantaneous force–moment measurements from individual locusts to parametrize the nonlinear rigid body equations of motion. Since the instantaneous forces are approximately periodic, we represent them using Fourier series, which are embedded in the equations of motion to give a nonlinear time-periodic (NLTP) model. This is a proper mathematical generalization of an earlier linear-time invariant (LTI) model of locust flight dynamics, developed using previously published time-averaged versions of the instantaneous force recordings. We perform various numerical simulations, within the fitted range of the model, and across the range of body angles used by free-flying locusts, to explore the likely behaviour of the locusts upon release from the tether. Solutions of the NLTP models are compared with solutions of the nonlinear time-invariant (NLTI) models to which they reduce when the periodic terms are dropped. Both sets of models are unstable and therefore fail to explain locust flight stability fully. Nevertheless, whereas the measured forces include statistically significant harmonic content up to about the eighth harmonic, the simulated flight trajectories display no harmonic content above the fundamental forcing frequency. Hence, manoeuvre control in locusts will not directly reflect subtle changes in the higher harmonics of the wing beat, but must operate on a coarser time-scale. A state-space analysis of the NLTP models reveals orbital trajectories that are impossible to capture in the LTI and NLTI models

  11. Period-independent novel circadian oscillators revealed by timed exercise and palatable meals

    PubMed Central

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is a hierarchical network of oscillators organized to optimally coordinate behavior and physiology with daily environmental cycles. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is at the top of this hierarchy, synchronizing to the environmental light-dark cycle, and coordinates the phases of peripheral clocks. The Period genes are critical components of the molecular timekeeping mechanism of these clocks. Circadian clocks are disabled in Period1/2/3 triple mutant mice, resulting in arrhythmic behavior in constant conditions. We uncovered rhythmic behavior in this mutant by simply exposing the mice to timed access to a palatable meal or running wheel. The emergent circadian behavior rhythms free-ran for many cycles under constant conditions without cyclic environmental cues. Together, these data demonstrate that the palatable meal-inducible circadian oscillator (PICO) and wheel-inducible circadian oscillator (WICO) are generated by non-canonical circadian clocks. Entrainment of these novel oscillators by palatable snacks and timed exercise could become novel therapeutics for human conditions caused by disruptions of the circadian clocks. PMID:26904978

  12. Period-independent novel circadian oscillators revealed by timed exercise and palatable meals.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is a hierarchical network of oscillators organized to optimally coordinate behavior and physiology with daily environmental cycles. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is at the top of this hierarchy, synchronizing to the environmental light-dark cycle, and coordinates the phases of peripheral clocks. The Period genes are critical components of the molecular timekeeping mechanism of these clocks. Circadian clocks are disabled in Period1/2/3 triple mutant mice, resulting in arrhythmic behavior in constant conditions. We uncovered rhythmic behavior in this mutant by simply exposing the mice to timed access to a palatable meal or running wheel. The emergent circadian behavior rhythms free-ran for many cycles under constant conditions without cyclic environmental cues. Together, these data demonstrate that the palatable meal-inducible circadian oscillator (PICO) and wheel-inducible circadian oscillator (WICO) are generated by non-canonical circadian clocks. Entrainment of these novel oscillators by palatable snacks and timed exercise could become novel therapeutics for human conditions caused by disruptions of the circadian clocks. PMID:26904978

  13. Regulation of emotion and behavior among 3- and 5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Kalpidou, Maria D; Power, Thomas G; Cherry, Katie E; Gottfried, Nathan W

    2004-04-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the authors examined the relationship between emotion and behavior regulation in 3- and 5-year olds. Eighty-seven children performed a compliance sorting task. The authors manipulated the demand for emotion regulation by presenting and then hiding toys (low) or making toys visible (high). Mothers and teachers rated children's coping responses. Five-year-olds sorted less in the high condition than in the low condition, and 3-year-olds spent equal time sorting in both conditions. Compliance was positively correlated with problem-focused coping and negatively correlated with emotion-focused coping. Correlations between emotion and behavior regulation were stronger for the 5-year-olds. Age groups were differently affected by the higher demands of emotion regulation, indicating that the child's resources for regulation interact with the task demands to determine behavioral outcome. PMID:15088868

  14. Clinical spectrum and outcome of pulmonary nocardiosis: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akashdeep; Chhina, Deepinder; Soni, RK; Kakkar, Chandan; Sidhu, US

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary nocardiosis is a rare but a life-threatening infection caused by Nocardia spp. The diagnosis is often missed and delayed resulting in delay in appropriate treatment and thus higher mortality. Aim: In this study, we aim to evaluate the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis. Methods: A retrospective, 5-year (2009–2014) review of demographic profile, risk factors, clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment, and outcome of patients with pulmonary nocardiosis admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Results: The median age of the study subjects was 54 years (range, 16–76) and majority of them (75%) were males. The risk factors for pulmonary nocardiosis identified in our study were long-term steroid use (55.6%), chronic lung disease (52.8%), diabetes (27.8%), and solid-organ transplantation (22.2%). All the patients were symptomatic, and the most common symptoms were cough (91.7%), fever (78%), and expectoration (72%). Almost two-third of the patients were initially misdiagnosed and the alternative diagnosis included pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 7), community-acquired pneumonia (n = 5), lung abscess (n = 4), invasive fungal infection (n = 3), lung cancer (n = 2), and Wegener's granulomatosis (n = 2). The most common radiographic features were consolidation (77.8%) and nodules (56%). The mortality rate for indoor patients was 33% despite treatment. Higher mortality rate was observed among those who had brain abscess (100.0%), HIV positivity (100%), need for mechanical ventilation (87.5%), solid-organ transplantation (50%), and elderly (age > 60 years) patients (43%). Conclusion: The diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis is often missed and delayed resulting in delay in appropriate treatment and thus high mortality. A lower threshold for diagnosing pulmonary nocardiosis needs to be exercised, in chest symptomatic patients with underlying chronic lung diseases or systemic immunosuppression, for the early diagnosis

  15. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the

  16. Fracture Prediction After Discontinuation of 4 to 5 Years of Alendronate Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Douglas C.; Schwartz, Ann; Palermo, Lisa; Cauley, Jane; Hochberg, Marc; Santora, Art; Cummings, Steven R.; Black, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Discontinuation of bisphosphonate therapy after 3 to 5 years is increasingly considered, but methods to monitor fracture risk after discontinuation have not been established. OBJECTIVE To test methods of predicting fracture risk among women who have discontinued alendronate therapy after 4 to 5 years. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The prospective Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX) study randomized postmenopausal women aged 61 to 86 years previously treated with 4 to 5 years of alendronate therapy to 5 more years of alendronate or placebo from 1998 through 2003; the present analysis includes only the placebo group. Hip and spine dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured when placebo was begun (FLEX baseline) and after 1 to 3 years of follow-up. Two biochemical markers of bone turnover, urinary type 1 collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX) and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), were measured at FLEX baseline and after 1 and 3 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Symptomatic spine and nonspine fractures occurring after the follow-up measurement of DXA or bone turnover. RESULTS During 5 years of placebo, 94 of 437 women (22%) experienced 1 or more symptomatic fractures; 82 had fractures after 1 year. One-year changes in hip DXA, NTX, and BAP were not related to subsequent fracture risk, but older age and lower hip DXA at time of discontinuation were significantly related to increased fracture risk (lowest tertile of baseline femoral neck DXA vs other 2 tertiles relative hazard ratio, 2.17 [95%CI, 1.38–3.41]; total hip DXA relative hazard ratio, 1.87 [95%CI, 1.20–2.92]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among postmenopausal women who discontinue alendronate therapy after 4 to 5 years, age and hip BMD at discontinuation predict clinical fractures during the subsequent 5 years. Follow-up measurements of DXA 1 year after discontinuation and of BAP or NTX 1 to 2 years after discontinuation are not associated with

  17. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    PubMed

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  18. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  19. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  20. 24 CFR 903.6 - What information must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in the 5-Year Plan? 903.6 Section 903.6 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING... must a PHA provide in the 5-Year Plan? (a) A PHA must include in its 5-Year Plan a statement of: (1... domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. (b) After submitting its first 5-Year...

  1. Enhanced Transport of Passive Tracers In A Time Periodic Two-dimensional Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, G.; Cencini, M.; Espa, S.; Musacchio, S.

    , investigating systems in which the second condition is violated is much more inter- esting. With this purpose, some experiments have shown how superdiffusion arises in a two-dimensional quasi-geostrophic (planetary-type) flow, where particles can jump for very long time in the same direction performing a Levy flight (Castiglione et al., 2001 ). Moreover, two recent papers (Vulpiani, 1998; Solomon, 2001) show how, also in very simple two-dimensional, time and space periodic cellular flows,anomalous diffusive behaviours can appear. In this paper we present an experimental study of transport in an electromagnetically forced time periodic two-dimensional flow. The flow is generated by applying an electromagnetic forcing on a thin layer of an elec- trolyte solution and reveals in a square grid of alternating vortices. Time dependence can be easily obtained by changing the time dependence of the electric fields. In par- ticular, considering certain values of the imposed oscillation frequencies, particles can display very long jump. Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) is used to measure the flow field. This technique is the most suitable for studying dispersion phenomena in a Lagrangian framework allowing the direct evaluation of particle displacements and related quantities (Cenedese, Querzoli; 2000). Moreover, due to the characteristics of the analyzed flow and to the improvement of the tracking procedure, we have been able to track a great number of particles for time intervals greater than the charac- teristic time-scales of the flow. In order to characterize the time correlations we will evaluate the so-called jumps probabilities with memory which represent the probabil- ities to jump in a given direction conditioned to having experienced jumps in the same direction at previous times. Such statistics will revealed very useful and suitable for detecting the onset of the aforementioned correlations. 2

  2. An extraordinarily long larval duration of 4.5 years from hatching to metamorphosis for teleplanic veligers of Fusitriton oregonensis.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Megumi F; Strathmann, Richard R

    2007-10-01

    Veliger larvae of the NE Pacific snail Fusitriton oregonensis were reared in culture for 4.5 to 4.6 years from hatching to metamorphosis and through postlarval growth to reproduction. Larval shells grew in length from 0.20 to 3.9 mm. Late veligers grew slowly, but shell sizes increased even in the 4th and 5th years. Widths of larval shells at late stages equaled or exceeded those of the protoconchs of two juveniles from the field. Cultured larvae did not metamorphose until presented with subtidal rocks and associated biota. There was no indication of larval senescence: the first 2 years of postmetamorphic shell growth were slightly faster, and time from metamorphosis to first reproduction (3.3 years) was slightly less than for an individual that had developed to metamorphic competence in the plankton. A 4.5-year larval phase exceeds previous estimates for teleplanic larval durations and greatly exceeds estimates of the time for transport across oceans. This extraordinarily long larval period may exceed the usual duration in nature but shows that larval periods can be much longer than previously suspected without complete stasis in growth and with little if any loss of viability. PMID:17928522

  3. Evolution of illustrations in anatomy: a study from the classical period in Europe to modern times.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Illustrations constitute an essential element of learning anatomy in modern times. However it required a significant evolutionary process spread over centuries, for illustrations to achieve the present status in the subject of anatomy. This review article attempts to outline the evolutionary process by highlighting on the works of esteemed anatomists in a chronological manner. Available literature suggests that illustrations were not used in anatomy during the classical period when the subject was dominated by the descriptive text of Galen. Guido da Vigevano was first to use illustrations in anatomy during the Late Middle Ages and this concept developed further during the Renaissance period when Andreas Vesalius pioneered in illustrations becoming an indispensable tool in conveying anatomical details. Toward later stages of the Renaissance period, Fabricius ab Aquapendente endeavored to restrict dramatization of anatomical illustrations which was a prevalent trend in early Renaissance. During the 18th century, anatomical artwork was characterized by the individual styles of prominent anatomists leading to suppression of anatomical details. In the 19th century, Henry Gray used illustrations in his anatomical masterpiece that focused on depicting anatomical structures and were free from any artistic style. From early part of the 20th century medical images and photographs started to complement traditional handmade anatomical illustrations. Computer technology and advanced software systems played a key role in the evolution of anatomical illustrations during the late 20th century resulting in new generation 3D image datasets that are being used in the 21st century in innovative formats for teaching and learning anatomy. PMID:25053471

  4. The relationship between clinical periodontal status and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Results after 5 years.

    PubMed

    Firatli, E

    1997-02-01

    The clinical periodontal status of 44 insulin-dependent diabetic children and adolescents and 20 healthy control subjects was compared for a period of approximately 5 years. Fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1) values were determined at baseline and 5 years later. The differences in the clinical and laboratory parameters were compared during the study period. The differences between the two groups were also evaluated. The only statistically significant difference observed in the diabetic group was clinical attachment loss (CAL). The CAL was statistically significantly higher in the diabetic group compared to the controls, and a statistically significantly higher in the diabetic group compared to the controls, and a statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the duration of diabetes and CAL. Fructosamine was also correlated with the gingival index in the diabetic group while there was no correlation in the controls. It may be concluded that diabetes modifies the clinical status of the periodontal tissues and increases clinical attachment loss. PMID:9058330

  5. A 5-Year Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Journal Article Publications of Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members

    PubMed Central

    Spivey, Christina; Martin, Jennifer R.; Wyles, Christina; Ehrman, Clara; Schlesselman, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate scholarship, as represented by peer-reviewed journal articles, among US pharmacy practice faculty members; contribute evidence that may better inform benchmarking by academic pharmacy practice departments; and examine factors that may be related to publication rates. Methods. Journal articles published by all pharmacy practice faculty members between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, were identified. College and school publication rates were compared based on public vs. private status, being part of a health science campus, having a graduate program, and having doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) faculty members funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Results. Pharmacy practice faculty members published 6,101 articles during the 5-year study period, and a pharmacy practice faculty member was the primary author on 2,698 of the articles. Pharmacy practice faculty members published an average of 0.51 articles per year. Pharmacy colleges and schools affiliated with health science campuses, at public institutions, with NIH-funded PharmD faculty members, and with graduate programs had significantly higher total publication rates compared with those that did not have these characteristics (p<0.006). Conclusion. Pharmacy practice faculty members contributed nearly 6,000 unique publications over the 5-year period studied. However, this reflects a rate of less than 1 publication per faculty member per year, suggesting that a limited number of faculty members produced the majority of publications. PMID:23049099

  6. 75 FR 37385 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of the Eastern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate in Population Segments (61 FR 4722). For a population to be...) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). A 5-year review is a periodic process... law. If you wish us to withhold your name or address, you must state this request clearly at...

  7. Periodic coupling strength-dependent multiple coherence resonance by time delay in Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanan; Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Recently, multiple coherence resonance induced by time delay has been observed in neuronal networks with constant coupling strength. In this paper, by employing Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuron networks with time-periodic coupling strength, we study how the temporal coherence of spiking behavior and coherence resonance by time delay change when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is varied. It is found that delay induced coherence resonance is dependent on periodic coupling strength and increases when the frequency of periodic coupling strength increases. Periodic coupling strength can also induce multiple coherence resonance, and the coherence resonance occurs when the frequency of periodic coupling strength is approximately multiple of the spiking frequency. These results show that for periodic coupling strength time delay can more frequently optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity, and periodic coupling strength can repetitively optimize the temporal coherence of spiking activity as well. Frequency locking may be the mechanism for multiple coherence resonance induced by periodic coupling strength. These findings imply that periodic coupling strength is more efficient for enhancing the temporal coherence of spiking activity of neuronal networks, and thus it could play a more important role in improving the time precision of information processing and transmission in neural networks. PMID:24060612

  8. Stochastic extinction of tumor cells due to synchronization effect through time periodic treatment in a tumor-immune interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisu, Ryota; Horita, Takehiko

    The response to a time periodic treatment of the immunotherapy in a stochastic model of tumor-immune interaction is numerically investigated. Due to the effect of synchronization among the intrinsic oscillation and the treatment, an enhanced extinction of the tumor cells is observed. It suggests that compared with the static treatment, by controlling the period of the treatment, the time periodic treatment could be an effective way of treatment leading to tumor extinction.

  9. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  10. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  11. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  12. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  13. 40 CFR 270.215 - How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? 270.215 Section 270.215 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) Operating Under Your Rap § 270.215 How are time periods in the requirements in this subpart and my RAP computed? (a) Any time period scheduled to begin...

  14. 45 CFR 2526.40 - What is the time period during which an individual may use an education award?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the time period during which an individual may use an education award? 2526.40 Section 2526.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBILITY FOR AN EDUCATION AWARD § 2526.40 What is the time period during which...

  15. 41 CFR 302-8.203 - What is the authorized time period for extended storage of my HHG?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... time period for extended storage of my HHG? 302-8.203 Section 302-8.203 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY 8... Continental United States (OCONUS) § 302-8.203 What is the authorized time period for extended storage of...

  16. Sustained and transient attentional processes modulate neural predictors of memory encoding in consecutive time periods

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Eckstein, Doris; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    Memory formation is commonly thought to rely on brain activity following an event. Yet, recent research has shown that even brain activity previous to an event can predict later recollection (subsequent memory effect, SME). In order to investigate the attentional sources of the SME, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task cues preceding target words were recorded in a switched task paradigm that was followed by a surprise recognition test. Stay trials, that is, those with the same task as the previous trial, were contrasted with switch trials, which included a task switch compared to the previous trial. The underlying assumption was that sustained attention would be dominant in stay trials and that transient attentional reconfiguration processes would be dominant in switch trials. To determine the SME, local and global statistics of scalp electric fields were used to identify differences between subsequently remembered and forgotten items. Results showed that the SME in stay trials occurred in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, whereas the SME in switch trials occurred subsequently, in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. Both SMEs showed a frontal negativity resembling the topography of previously reported effects, which suggests that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods. PMID:24381815

  17. A General Time-Periodic Driving Approach to Realize Topological Phases in Cold Atomic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhongbo; Li, Bo; Yang, Xiaosen; Wan, Shaolong

    2015-01-01

    For time-reversal symmetric cold atomic insulating systems, it is found that the usual driving approach based on electromagnetic field used in solid state systems loses its power to drive them from trivial regimes to topological regimes if the driven systems still hold time-reversal symmetry (TRS). For such systems, we point out that simply varying the optical lattice potential periodically provides a general and effective way to drive them into topological regimes without breaking their symmetries. Based on this approach, we find that the time-reversal symmetric Kane-Mele model can be effectively driven from the trivial phase to topological phases named as Floquet Quantum Spin Hall insulator. Due to the existence of two gaps in the Floquet system, this novel state of matter can stably host one or two pair of gapless helical states on the same boundary, which suggests this state is not a simple analog of the Quantum Spin Hall insulator. This new driving approach to a system without TRS is also investigated. PMID:26541611

  18. Dynamical generalized Hurst exponent as a tool to monitor unstable periods in financial time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Raffaello; Di Matteo, T.; Gramatica, Ruggero; Aste, Tomaso

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the use of the Hurst exponent, dynamically computed over a weighted moving time-window, to evaluate the level of stability/instability of financial firms. Financial firms bailed-out as a consequence of the 2007-2008 credit crisis show a neat increase with time of the generalized Hurst exponent in the period preceding the unfolding of the crisis. Conversely, firms belonging to other market sectors, which suffered the least throughout the crisis, show opposite behaviors. We find that the multifractality of the bailed-out firms increase at the crisis suggesting that the multi fractal properties of the time series are changing. These findings suggest the possibility of using the scaling behavior as a tool to track the level of stability of a firm. In this paper, we introduce a method to compute the generalized Hurst exponent which assigns larger weights to more recent events with respect to older ones. In this way large fluctuations in the remote past are less likely to influence the recent past. We also investigate the scaling associated with the tails of the log-returns distributions and compare this scaling with the scaling associated with the Hurst exponent, observing that the processes underlying the price dynamics of these firms are truly multi-scaling.

  19. Sustained and transient attentional processes modulate neural predictors of memory encoding in consecutive time periods.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Tullia; Koenig, Thomas; Eckstein, Doris; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-07-01

    Memory formation is commonly thought to rely on brain activity following an event. Yet, recent research has shown that even brain activity previous to an event can predict later recollection (subsequent memory effect, SME). In order to investigate the attentional sources of the SME, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by task cues preceding target words were recorded in a switched task paradigm that was followed by a surprise recognition test. Stay trials, that is, those with the same task as the previous trial, were contrasted with switch trials, which included a task switch compared to the previous trial. The underlying assumption was that sustained attention would be dominant in stay trials and that transient attentional reconfiguration processes would be dominant in switch trials. To determine the SME, local and global statistics of scalp electric fields were used to identify differences between subsequently remembered and forgotten items. Results showed that the SME in stay trials occurred in a time window from 2 to 1 sec before target onset, whereas the SME in switch trials occurred subsequently, in a time window from 1 to 0 sec before target onset. Both SMEs showed a frontal negativity resembling the topography of previously reported effects, which suggests that sustained and transient attentional processes contribute to the prestimulus SME in consecutive time periods. PMID:24381815

  20. Multi Band Insar Analysis of Subsidence Development Based on the Long Period Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çomut, F. C.; Ustun, A.; Lazecky, M.; Aref, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The SAR Interferometry (InSAR) application has shown great potential in monitoring of land terrain changes and in detection of land deformations such as subsidence. Longer time analysis can lead to understand longer trends and changes. Using different bands of SAR satellite (C- from ERS 1-2 and Envisat, L- from ALOS) over the study area, we achieve knowledge of movements in long-term and evaluation of its dynamic changes within observed period of time. Results from InSAR processing fit with the position changes in vertical direction based on GPS network established over the basin as an effective geodetic network. Time series (StaMPS PS+SB) of several points over Çumra County in eastern part of Konya City show a general trend of the deformation that is expected to be approximately between -13 to -17 mm/year. Northern part of Karaman is affected by faster subsidence, borders of the subsidence trough were identified from Envisat. Presenting InSAR results together with GIS information about locations and time of occurrence of sudden subsidence, urban/industrial growth in time and climate changes helps in better understanding of the situation. This way, the impact of natural and man-made changes will be shown for urban planning thanks to InSAR and GIS comparisons with hydrogeological modeling. In this study we present results of differential and multitemporal InSAR series using different bands and GIS conjunction associated with seasonal and temporal groundwater level changes in Konya Closed Basin.

  1. On the periodicity of symbolic observations of piecewise smooth discrete-time systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramadge, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    A study is made of the behavior of discrete-time systems composed of a set of smooth transition maps coupled by a quantized feedback function. The feedback function partitions the state space into disjoint regions and assigns a smooth transition function to each region. The main result is that under a constraint on the norm of the derivative of the transition maps, a bounded state trajectory with limit points in the interior of the switching regions leads to a region index sequence that is eventually periodic. Under these assumptions, it is shown that eventually the feedback function is determined by a finite state automaton. A similar result is proved in the case of finite state dynamic feedback.

  2. Removing tidal-period variations from time-series data using low-pass digital filters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.; Heston, Cynthia

    1982-01-01

    Several low-pass, digital filters are examined for their ability to remove tidal Period Variations from a time-series of water surface elevation for San Francisco Bay. The most efficient filter is the one which is applied to the Fourier coefficients of the transformed data, and the filtered data recovered through an inverse transform. The ability of the filters to remove the tidal components increased in the following order: 1) cosine-Lanczos filter, 2) cosine-Lanczos squared filter; 3) Godin filter; and 4) a transform fitter. The Godin fitter is not sufficiently sharp to prevent severe attenuation of 2–3 day variations in surface elevation resulting from weather events.

  3. Controllability discrepancy and irreducibility/reducibility of Floquet factorisations in linear continuous-time periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.

  4. Intercomparison of UT1 measurements during the MERIT campaign period. [Universal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spieth, M. A.; Eubanks, T. M.; Steppe, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Universal time (UT1) measurements obtained using VLBI, lunar laser ranging (LLR), and BIH optical astronomy are compared. The JPL Kalman filter for the earth rotation and the polar motion is utilized to smooth one data set or combine data sets for intercomparison. The differences between raw UT1 data and independently smoothed data are employed to assess the accuracy of the measured series and the sufficiency of the error budget. Systematic errors in periodic signatures and length of day estimates are analyzed. The data reveal that the techniques of LLR and VLBI agree to within their formal errors. It is determined that the residual error for the LLR is too large and the residual error estimated for the BIH data is too small.

  5. Efficiency, Power and Period of a model quantum heat engine working in a finite time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekele, Mulugeta; Dima, Tolasa A.; Alemye, Mekuannent; Chegeno, Warga

    We take a spin-half quantum particle undergoing Carnot type cyclic process in a finite time assisted by two heat reservoirs and an external magnetic field. We find that the power of the heat engine is maximum at a particular period of the cyclic process and efficiency at the maximum power is at least half of the Carnot efficiency. We further apply the Omega-criterion for a figure of merit representing a compromise between useful power and lost power determining the corresponding efficiency for the optimization criterion to be at least three fourth of the Carnot efficiency. The authers are thankful to the International Science programme, IPS, Uppsala, Sweden for their support to our research lab.

  6. Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1992-08-01

    A 5-year longitudinal study investigated the interrelationships among children's experiences of depressive symptoms, negative life events, explanatory style, and helplessness behaviors in social and achievement situations. The results revealed that early in childhood, negative events, but not explanatory style, predicted depressive symptoms; later in childhood, a pessimistic explanatory style emerged as a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, alone and in conjunction with negative events. When children suffered periods of depression, their explanatory styles not only deteriorated but remained pessimistic even after their depression subsided, presumably putting them at risk for future episodes of depression. Some children seem repeatedly prone to depressive symptoms over periods of at least 2 years. Depressed children consistently showed helpless behaviors in social and achievement settings. PMID:1500598

  7. Low-thrust roundtrip trajectories to Mars with one-synodic-period repeat time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okutsu, Masataka; Landau, Damon F.; Rogers, Blake A.; Longuski, James M.

    2015-05-01

    Cycler trajectories-both ballistic and powered-are reported in the literature in which there are two-vehicle, three-vehicle, and four-vehicle cases. Such trajectories permit the installation of cycler vehicles which provide safe and comfortable living conditions for human space travel between Earth and Mars during every synodic opportunity. The question the present paper answers is a logical, obvious one: Does a single-vehicle, one-synodic-period cycler exist? The answer is yes: such a trajectory can be flown-but only with a high-power electric propulsion system. In our example, it is found that "stopover" trajectories that spend 30 days in orbit about Earth and 30 days about Mars, and return astronauts to Earth in one synodic period require a 90-t power generator with a power level of 11 MWe. Fortuitously, and in lieu of using chemical propulsion, the high power level of the electric propulsion system would also be effective in hauling the cargo payload via a spiral trajectory about the Earth. But because one synodic period is not enough for the cycler vehicle to fly both the interplanetary trajectories and the Earth-spiral trajectories, we suggest developing two nuclear power generators, which could alternate flying the interplanetary trajectories and the Earth-spiral trajectories. Once these power generators are launched and begin operating in space, the mass requirement in seven subsequent missions (over a period of 15 years beginning in 2022) would be modest at 250-300 metric tons to low-Earth orbit per mission. Thus two cargo launches of NASA's Space Launch System and one crew launch of the Falcon Heavy, for example, would be adequate to maintain support for each consecutive mission. Although we propose developing two sets of electric propulsion systems to account for the Earth-spiral phases, only one vehicle is flown on a heliocentric trajectory at any given time. Thus, our low-thrust stopover cycler with zero encounter velocities falls into a category of a

  8. Spectral analysis of radial Dirac operators in the Kerr-Newman metric and its applications to time-periodic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winklmeier, Monika; Yamada, Osanobu

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the existence of time-periodic solutions of the Dirac equation in the Kerr-Newman background metric. To this end, the solutions are expanded in a Fourier series with respect to the time variable t, and the Chandrasekhar separation ansatz is applied so that the question of existence of a time-periodic solution is reduced to the solvability of a certain coupled system of ordinary differential equations. First, we prove the already known result that there are no time-periodic solutions in the nonextreme case. Then, it is shown that in the extreme case for fixed black hole data there is a sequence of particle masses (mN)NɛN for which a time-periodic solution of the Dirac equation does exist. The period of the solution depends only on the data of the black hole described by the Kerr-Newman metric.

  9. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454

  10. Urethrovaginal Fistula in a 5-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Noël; Sangaré, Ibrahima Séga

    2015-01-01

    Urethral fistulas are rare in girls. They occur most of the time during trauma. The case presented here is an iatrogenic fistula. The treatment was simple and consisted of a simple dissection and suture of urethra and vagina. PMID:25954566

  11. Participation in an Intensive Longitudinal Study with Weekly Web Surveys Over 2.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Schulz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Technological advances have made it easier for researchers to collect more frequent longitudinal data from survey respondents via personal computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices. Although technology has led to an increase in data-intensive longitudinal studies, little is known about attrition from such studies or the differences between respondents who complete frequently administered surveys in a timely manner, and respondents who do not. Objective We examined respondent characteristics and behaviors associated with continued and on-time participation in a population-based intensive longitudinal study, using weekly web-based survey interviews over an extended period. Methods We analyzed data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, an intensive longitudinal study that collected weekly web-based survey interviews for 2.5 years from 1003 18- and 19-year-olds to investigate factors shaping the dynamics of their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancies. Results Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses showed background respondent characteristics measured at baseline were associated with the number of days respondents remained enrolled in the study, the number of interviews they completed, and the odds that they were late completing interviews. In addition, we found that changes in pregnancy-related behaviors reported in the weekly interviews were associated with late completion of interviews. Specifically, after controlling for sociodemographic, personality, contact information, and prior experience variables, we found that weekly reports such as starting to have sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32, P=.01), getting a new partner (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.53-2.03, P<.001), stopping the use of contraception (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49, P=.001), and having a new pregnancy (OR 5.57, 95% CI 4.26-7.29, P<.001) were significantly associated with late survey completion. However, young women who reported changes in

  12. Percutaneous Nucleoplasty Using Coblation Technique for the Treatment of Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: 5-year Follow-up Results

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiu-Mei; Du, Sui-Yong; Sun, Tian-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Li, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the efficacy of percutaneous nucleoplasty using coblation technique for the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain (LBP), after 5 years of follow-up. Methods: From September 2004 to November 2006, 172 patients underwent percutaneous nucleoplasty for chronic LBP in our department. Forty-one of these patients were followed up for a mean period of 67 months. Nucleoplasty was performed at L3/4 in 1 patient; L4/5 in 25 patients; L5/S1 in 2 patients; L3/4 and L4/5 in 2 patients; L4/5 and L5/S1 in 7 patients; and L3/4, L4/5, and L5/S1 in 4 patients. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 1 week, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years postoperatively. Pain was graded using a 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the percentage reduction in pain score was calculated at each postoperative time point. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to assess disability-related to lumbar spine degeneration, and patient satisfaction was assessed using the modified MacNab criteria. Results: There were significant differences among the preoperative, 1-week postoperative, and 3-year postoperative VAS and ODI scores, but not between the 3- and 5-year postoperative scores. There were no significant differences in age, sex, or preoperative symptoms between patients with effective and ineffective treatment, but there were significant differences in the number of levels treated, Pfirrmann grade of intervertebral disc degeneration, and provocative discography findings between these two groups. Excellent or good patient satisfaction was achieved in 87.9% of patients after 1 week, 72.4% after 1 year, 67.7% after 3 years, and 63.4% at the last follow-up. Conclusions: Although previously published short- and medium-term outcomes after percutaneous nucleoplasty appeared to be satisfactory, our long-term follow-up results show a significant decline in patient satisfaction over time. Percutaneous nucleoplasty is a safe and simple technique, with therapeutic

  13. Time periods of GSR particles deposition after discharge-final results.

    PubMed

    Fojtásek, Lubor; Kmjec, Tomás

    2005-10-29

    The elemental objects of the research study are: determination of time periods corresponding to gunshot residue particles (GSR) deposition after the shot from selected pistols and a revolver, and evaluation of the deposited particles number. For several shooting experiments were used a pistol CZ model 85, caliber 9 mm Luger with common ammunition 9 mm Luger FMJ Sellier & Bellot, a pistol CZ model 70, caliber 7.65 mm Browning (32 ACP) with common 7.65 mm Browning FMJ Sellier & Bellot ammunition and a revolver S&W Modell 60, barell length 2-1/8'', cal. .38 Special with common Sellier&Bellot (FMJ) ammunition. The results of the study have indicated the behavior of GSR particles deposited after a single discharge. The overall time interval of GSR particles deposition and the number of deposited particles with the above mentioned arms and ammunition were established. The results can potentially be used for clarifying the situation at crime scenes and for subsequent interpretation of GSR evidential value in caseworks. PMID:16139100

  14. The timing of vortex shedding in a cylinder wake imposed by periodic inflow perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, E.; Balabani, S.; Yianneskis, M.

    2005-10-01

    The interaction of vortex shedding from a circular cylinder with an inflow which has low-amplitude periodic velocity oscillations (perturbations) superimposed upon it, was investigated experimentally by means of particle image velocimetry. The experiments were made at three perturbation frequencies across the lock-on range in which the vortex shedding frequency is synchronized with the subharmonic of the imposed frequency. The basic wake pattern in this range is antisymmetric vortex shedding, i.e. the familiar 2S mode. The timing of vortex shedding is defined with respect to the cross-flow oscillation of the wake which is found to play a critical role. Quantitative analysis of the phase-referenced patterns of vorticity distribution in the wake shows that a vortex is actually shed from the cylinder when the cross-flow oscillation of the wake is strongest, marked by a sudden drop in the computed vortex strength. At the middle of the lock-on range, shedding occurs near the minimum inflow velocity in the cycle or, equivalently, during the forward stroke of a cylinder oscillating in-line with the flow. It is argued that the imposed timing of vortex shedding relative to the cylinder motion induces a negative excitation from the fluid, which might explain why the in-line response of a freely vibrating cylinder exhibits two positive excitation regions separated by the lock-on region found in forced oscillations.

  15. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A.

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes—including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans—can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.

  16. Local time distributions of repetition periods for rising tone lower band chorus waves in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shue, Jih-Hong; Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Tam, Sunny W. Y.; Wang, Kaiti; Fu, Hui Shan; Bortnik, Jacob; Tao, Xin; Hsieh, Wen-Chieh; Pi, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Whistler mode chorus waves generally occur outside the plasmapause in the magnetosphere. The most striking feature of the waves is their occurrence in discrete elements. One of the parameters that describe the discrete elements is the repetition period (Trp), the time between consecutive elements. The Trp has not been studied statistically before. We use high-resolution waveform data to derive distributions of Trp for different local times. We find that the average Trp for the nightside (0.56 s) and dawnside (0.53 s) are smaller than those for the dayside (0.81 s) and duskside (0.97 s). Through a comparison with the background plasma and magnetic fields, we also find that the total magnetic field and temperature are the main controlling factors that affect the variability of Trp. These results are important for understanding the generation mechanism of chorus and choosing parameters in simulations that model the acceleration and loss of electrons by wave-particle interactions.

  17. The Effects of Time-Periodic Shear on a Diffusion Flame Anchored to a Model Propellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Zhang, Ju; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2008-11-01

    Propellants of solid rocket motors are subject to intense time-dependent shear flows and the response of the combustion field to these flows is of fundamental interest. Erosive burning (EB), the enhanced regression rate that can arise due to these flows, affects the performance of the solid rocket motor: the specific-impulse history. It is generally agreed that EB results from an increased heat transfer to the surface. The geometry is that of two quarter-planes of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and binder (or a blend of AP/binder). Three step kinetics is considered: AP decomposition and two diffusion flames, one between the virgin AP gases and binder and one between AP decomposed gases and binder. Gas and solid phases are coupled and temperature along the surface as well as the burn rate is solved for. We present an estimation of the shear parameters as a function of the motor size using a 2D planar periodic rocket (PPR) analysis without resorting to fully time-dependent three-dimensional turbulent simulations. These parameters are then used to study the change in the heat flux to the surface and the burn rate. It is shown that the burn rate is increased by more than two folds for larger amplitudes and frequencies.

  18. Growth mechanism of photoreduced silver nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate: Time and concentration dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Carville, N.; Denning, Denise; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia

    2013-05-14

    Photodeposition of metallic nanostructures onto ferroelectric surfaces, which have been chemically patterned using a proton exchange process, has recently been demonstrated. By varying the molar concentration of the AgNO{sub 3} solution and the illumination time, one can determine the initial nucleation sites, control the rate of nucleation and the height of silver nanostructures formed, and study the mechanisms by which these processes occurs. The nanoparticles are found to deposit preferentially in the boundary between ferroelectric and proton exchanged regions, in an area proton exchanged via lateral diffusion under the masking layer used for chemical patterning, consistent with our previous results. Using a short illumination time (3 min), we are able to determine that the initial nucleation of the silver nanostructure, having a width of 0.17 {+-} 0.02 {mu}m and a height of 1.61 {+-} 0.98 nm, occurs near the edge of the reactive ion etched area within this lateral diffusion region. Over longer illumination times (15 min), we find that the silver deposition has spread to a width of 1.29 {+-} 0.06 {mu}m, extending across the entire lateral diffusion region. We report that at a high molar concentration of AgNO{sub 3} (10{sup -2} M), the amount of silver deposition for 5 min UV illumination is greater (2.88 {+-} 0.58 nm) compared to that at low (10{sup -4} M) concentrations (0.78 {+-} 0.35 nm), however, this is not the case for longer time periods. With increasing illumination time (15 min), experiments at 10{sup -4} M had greater overall deposition, 6.90 {+-} 1.52 nm, compared to 4.50 {+-} 0.76 nm at 10{sup -2} M. For longer exposure times (30 min) at 10{sup -2} M, the nanostructure height is 4.72 {+-} 0.59 nm, suggesting a saturation in the nanostructure height. The results are discussed in terms of the electric double layer that forms at the crystal surface. There is an order of magnitude difference between the Debye lengths for 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -4} M

  19. Almost periodic solutions for a memristor-based neural networks with leakage, time-varying and distributed delays.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Zeng, Zhigang; Chen, Jiejie

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study the existence and global exponential stability of almost periodic solution for memristor-based neural networks with leakage, time-varying and distributed delays. Using a new Lyapunov function method, we prove that this delayed neural network has a unique almost periodic solution, which is globally exponentially stable. Moreover, the obtained conclusion on the almost periodic solution is applied to prove the existence and stability of periodic solution (or equilibrium point) for this delayed neural network with periodic coefficients (or constant coefficients). PMID:25978771

  20. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  1. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    PubMed

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  2. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods

    PubMed Central

    Tovey, Euan R.; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L.; Oliver, Brian G.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Marks, Guy B.

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  3. The variations of long time period slow slip events along the Ryukyu subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Y. T.; Heki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) are a type of slow earthquakes that can be observed with Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in the world. Those events are detected on intensely coupled plate boundaries such as Cascadia subduction zone (Dragert et al., 2001), western North America, Mexico (Kostoglodov et al., 2003), Alaska (Ohta et al., 2007) and Tokai and Boso areas (Ozawa et al., 2002, 2003), central Japan and are considered to have relations to large subduction thrust earthquakes. However, in southwestern Ryukyu trench where most of researchers believe that it should be a decoupled plate boundary, SSEs recur regularly and are located at a patch that is as deep as 20 to 40 km (Heki and Kataoka, 2008). For comprehending the characteristics and time variations of SSEs in this area, the GEONET GPS data of 16 years are used in this study. During 1997 to 2014, more than thirty SSEs are identified near Hateruma Island, Ryukyu. The average recurrence interval is calculated to be 6.3 months and release seismic moment is Mw 6.6 on average. However, the values of recurrence interval are not invariable. From 1997 to 2002, interval period of SSEs is 7.5 months, but during 2002 to 2008, the interval period decreases suddenly to 5.5 months. After 2008, the value restores to 7.2 months again. Furthermore, the slip amount of SSEs in this area varies with time. From 1997 to 2002, the slip is 9.5 cm/year; and during 2002 to 2008, the value slightly increases to 10.5 cm/year. However, in 2008 to 2013, the slip drops to 6.6 cm/year, but accord to the trend of cumulative slip, the slip value would increase in 2014. Considering these data, we find the slip values increase conspicuously in 2002 and 2013. Coincidentally, one Mw 7.1 thrust earthquake occurred in 2002 and earthquake swarm activity started in the Okinawa trough approximately 50km north of the SSE patch. In 2013, another earthquake swarm activity occurred in nearly the same area as the 2002 activity. This suggests that the

  4. Small bowel obstruction 5 years following the ingestion of serrated scissors

    PubMed Central

    Limb, Richard; Karam, Edward; Lingam, Krishna M.

    2016-01-01

    Ingested foreign bodies are common in the cohort of psychiatric patients, however clinical quiescence in this group is rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old female with emotionally unstable personality disorder (borderline type) presenting with partial intestinal obstruction 5 years after the known ingestion of serrated metallic scissors. In the asymptomatic interim a conservative approach of tracking the blades radiologically was taken. Following discussion, we conclude the following: early surgical intervention is encouraged if natural passage does not occur within 3 days following ingestion, and that any concurrent surgical needs should be addressed at this time. PMID:27190200

  5. Drifter-based estimate of the 5 year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I. I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K.

    2014-11-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Good agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  6. Small bowel obstruction 5 years following the ingestion of serrated scissors.

    PubMed

    Limb, Richard; Karam, Edward; Lingam, Krishna M

    2016-01-01

    Ingested foreign bodies are common in the cohort of psychiatric patients, however clinical quiescence in this group is rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old female with emotionally unstable personality disorder (borderline type) presenting with partial intestinal obstruction 5 years after the known ingestion of serrated metallic scissors. In the asymptomatic interim a conservative approach of tracking the blades radiologically was taken. Following discussion, we conclude the following: early surgical intervention is encouraged if natural passage does not occur within 3 days following ingestion, and that any concurrent surgical needs should be addressed at this time. PMID:27190200

  7. Drifter-based estimate of the 5-year dispersal of Fukushima-derived radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypina, I.; Jayne, S. R.; Yoshida, S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2014-12-01

    Employing some 40 years of North Pacific drifter-track observations from the Global Drifter Program database, statistics defining the horizontal spread of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant into the Pacific Ocean are investigated over a time-scale of 5 years. A novel two-iteration method is employed to make the best use of the available drifter data. Drifter-based predictions of the temporal progression of the leading edge of the radionuclide distribution are compared to observed radionuclide concentrations from research surveys occupied in 2012 and 2013. Excellent agreement between the drifter-based predictions and the observations is found.

  8. Vertical distribution of the Saharan Air Layer from 5 years of CALIPSO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamalis, C.; Chédin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Saharan Air Layer (SAL) forms as dry and hot air moves across the Sahara desert. SAL, containing substantial amounts of mineral dust, is a dominant feature that influences the large scale environment from West Africa to eastern tropical America, inhibiting tropical cyclogenesis and Atlantic hurricane formation. Furthermore, SAL dust aerosols have a strong impact on the energy budget through the so-called direct and indirect effects. The SAL has been studied with dedicated campaigns at the two sides of the Atlantic or using space observations due to lack of systematic in situ measurements away from the continents. However the campaigns are restricted in time, while satellite observations of thermodynamic variables are affected by the presence of dust. Moreover, satellite measurements of aerosols, particularly in the visible, mostly provide column integrated properties like the optical depth, without information about the vertical distribution. On the other hand, new generation infrared sounders now bring reliable information on the dust layer mean altitude, but their new established results need further validation. However, the two-wavelength lidar CALIOP, launched on board CALIPSO in April 2006, permits an accurate determination of the aerosol vertical distribution, on a global scale. Thanks to depolarisation at 532 nm, CALIOP is able to discriminate between dust and other types of aerosols, which generally do not depolarize light. Here, the L2 5 km aerosol layer product (version 3.01) is used to calculate the vertical distribution of the dust aerosols above the Atlantic during the last 5 years (June 2006 - May 2011) with a horizontal resolution of 1 degree for the four seasons. More specifically, two classes of aerosols are used from the L2 product: dust and polluted dust, in order to take into account the change of dust aerosols optical properties with transport. Results show the latitudinal displacement of the SAL between winter [-5, 15]°N and summer [10

  9. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  10. Fatal head injuries in children under the age of 5 years in Pretoria.

    PubMed

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Saayman, Gert

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of fatal injuries in children has been reported to be highest among children aged 1 to 4 years. Major causes of head injury include road traffic accidents, falls, and intentional or inflicted injury (such as nonaccidental injury syndrome). This study reviewed the profile of children (under 5 years of age) who had been admitted to a large urban medicolegal mortuary (in Pretoria, the capital city of South Africa), after having suffered fatal head injuries. This study was conducted over a 5-year period (from January 2004 through December 2008), and a total of 107 cases were identified for inclusion. These cases constituted nearly a fifth of admissions in this age group. The male-to-female ratio was 56%:44%, and the peak age of injury was less than 1 year. Most head injuries were sustained in road traffic accidents (70%) followed by falls (10%) and other types of blunt force injuries (9%). Only 1 case of nonaccidental injury syndrome (child abuse) was found. The great majority of deaths were deemed to have been accidental in nature (91%) with 6 (6%) homicides. Urgent review pertaining to the use of child restraint devices and the safety of pedestrians is required, and the institution of childhood injury registers could aid in reducing childhood fatalities in South Africa. PMID:25072811

  11. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  12. Pure Point Spectrum of the Floquet Hamiltonian for the Quantum Harmonic Oscillator Under Time Quasi-Periodic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.-M.

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the 1- d quantum harmonic oscillator is stable under spatially localized, time quasi-periodic perturbations on a set of Diophantine frequencies of positive measure. This proves a conjecture raised by Enss-Veselic in their 1983 paper [EV] in the general quasi-periodic setting. The motivation of the present paper also comes from construction of quasi-periodic solutions for the corresponding nonlinear equation.

  13. Generational and Time Period Differences in American Adolescents’ Religious Orientation, 1966–2014

    PubMed Central

    Twenge, Jean M.; Exline, Julie J.; Grubbs, Joshua B.; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W. Keith

    2015-01-01

    In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976–2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991–2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966–2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%–40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s–70s) give their religious affiliation as “none,” as do 40%–50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age. PMID:25962174

  14. Generational and time period differences in American adolescents' religious orientation, 1966-2014.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Exline, Julie J; Grubbs, Joshua B; Sastry, Ramya; Campbell, W Keith

    2015-01-01

    In four large, nationally representative surveys (N = 11.2 million), American adolescents and emerging adults in the 2010s (Millennials) were significantly less religious than previous generations (Boomers, Generation X) at the same age. The data are from the Monitoring the Future studies of 12th graders (1976-2013), 8th and 10th graders (1991-2013), and the American Freshman survey of entering college students (1966-2014). Although the majority of adolescents and emerging adults are still religiously involved, twice as many 12th graders and college students, and 20%-40% more 8th and 10th graders, never attend religious services. Twice as many 12th graders and entering college students in the 2010s (vs. the 1960s-70s) give their religious affiliation as "none," as do 40%-50% more 8th and 10th graders. Recent birth cohorts report less approval of religious organizations, are less likely to say that religion is important in their lives, report being less spiritual, and spend less time praying or meditating. Thus, declines in religious orientation reach beyond affiliation to religious participation and religiosity, suggesting a movement toward secularism among a growing minority. The declines are larger among girls, Whites, lower-SES individuals, and in the Northeastern U.S., very small among Blacks, and non-existent among political conservatives. Religious affiliation is lower in years with more income inequality, higher median family income, higher materialism, more positive self-views, and lower social support. Overall, these results suggest that the lower religious orientation of Millennials is due to time period or generation, and not to age. PMID:25962174

  15. Global upper mantle structure from long-period differential travel times

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, R.L.; Masters, G. )

    1991-04-10

    The authors have made over ten thousand measurements of PP-P and SS-S differential travel times from long-period Global Digital Seismograph Network recordings of all events with m{sub b} {ge} 5.5 which occurred during the years 1976 and 1986. The experiments indicate that lower-mantle structure and source-receiver structure can each contribute approximately {plus minus}0.5 s to the measured PP-P residuals so there is considerable signal to be explained. The pattern observed in the PP-P measurements is similar to the pattern observed in the SS-S measurements, with the SS-S residuals 2 to 4 times larger in magnitude. Comparisons of measured residuals to those predicted by the upper-mantle models of Woodhouse and Dziewonski show that the overall patterns are quite similar but the amplitude of the model residuals is roughly a factor of 2 too small. Comparisons with the predictions of a whole-mantle model of Tanimoto again shows that the predicted pattern of residuals is reasonably consistent with the observations but now the predicted residuals are too large by about a factor of 2. They have also binned the measurements according to the tectonic regionalization GTR1 of Jordan and find a qualitative correlation of average residual with tectonic region. In particular, Precambrian shields show a strong anomaly, and there is a correlation of residual size with the age of oceanic crust at the bounce point. For all tectonic regions the ratio of SS-S to PP-P residuals is approximately 2. This ratio is consistent with a thermal origin for the observed signal. Finally, measurements show no compelling evidence for azimuthal anisotroph which might be related to fossil spreading direction or the direction of absolute plate motion.

  16. Cardiac systolic time intervals in fetal monkeys: pre-ejection period.

    PubMed

    Murata, Y; Martin, C B; Ikenoue, T; Petrie, R H

    1978-10-01

    The systolic time intervals of the fetal cardiac cycle were studied by means of simultaneous recordings of electrocardiogram (ECG) and ultrasound Doppler cardiogram (DCG) in chronic preparations of fetal rhesus monkeys. Recordings were made under physiologic conditions as well as during various experimental stresses. The pre-ejection period (PEP) showed no significant relationship with heart rate in the unstressed fetuses, but the acceleration of heart rate induced by epinephrine was accompanied by shortening of PEP. The PEP increased with advancing fetal age. The PEP was inversely correlated with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and arterial pulse pressure, but showed a positive correlation with both systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. The PEP also exhibited strong negative correlation with arterial blood pH. the prolongation was essentially the same whether acidosis was of respiratory or metabolic origin. The PEP increased slightly but significantly during nonacidemic hypoxemia; however, there was no correlation between Pao2 and PEP Epinephrine shortened the PEP significantly, whereas the effect of atropine was inconsistent. Alteration of the plasma glucose level by injection of insulin or glucose did not affect PEP. These findings demonstrate that the PEP may be a useful indicator of fetal cardiac performance, reflecting both myocardial contractility and the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. PMID:30282

  17. Dynamics of thin liquid films on surfaces with a time-periodic wettability.

    PubMed

    Suman, Balram; Kumar, Satish

    2006-12-01

    The dynamics of thin liquid films on surfaces whose wettability changes in a time-periodic manner are examined in this work. A nonlinear evolution equation based on the lubrication approximation is used to describe the film height, and attractions due to van der Waals forces are incorporated. Film wettability is varied through an imposed sinusoidal modulation of the Hamaker constant. A linear stability analysis predicts that if the mean Hamaker constant is negative, disturbances at the film surface will eventually decay regardless of the amplitude and frequency of the oscillation. However, numerical solution of the evolution equation shows that the film can rupture at a given frequency if the amplitude is sufficiently large. The associated characteristic wavelength can be predicted from results for constant-wettability surfaces if an appropriate effective Hamaker constant is used. For positive mean Hamaker constants, film rupture can be accelerated, delayed, or prevented depending on how the Hamaker constant changes early in the oscillation cycle. The effects of spatial gradients in wettability are also considered, and it is found that oscillation can delay but not prevent rupture. Inclusion of short-range repulsive forces leads to the formation of droplet-like structures separated by ultra-thin films, but this can be prevented by sufficiently large and slow oscillations of the Hamaker constant. The results of this work may find use in applications that make use of surfaces whose wettability can be controlled by external stimuli. PMID:17011570

  18. Mars exploration, Venus swingby and conjunction class mission modes, time period 2000 to 2045

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. C.; Mulqueen, J. A.; Skinner, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth-Mars opposition class and conjunction class round trip stopover mission opportunities available during the time period year 2000 to year 2045. The opposition class mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg. The gravitational field of Venus was used to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. Representative space vehicle systems are sized to compare the initial mass required in low Earth orbit of one mission opportunity with another mission opportunity. The interplanetary space vehicle is made up of the spacecraft and the space vehicle acceleration system. The space vehicle acceleration system consists of three propulsion stages. The first propulsion stage performs the Earth escape maneuver; the second stage brakes the spacecraft and Earth braking stage into the Mars elliptical orbit and effects the escape maneuver from the Mars elliptical orbit. The third propulsion stage brakes the mission module into an elliptical orbit at Earth return. The interplanetary space vehicle was assumed to be assembled in and depart from the space station circular orbit.

  19. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Chen, J.H.; Ku, T.L.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1987-06-19

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of STTh abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in STYU-STUU-STTh dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10Y atoms of STTh can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 3% (2sigma) and 3 x 10 atoms of STTh can be measured to an accuracy of +/- 0.2%. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to UC dating. The precision should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly postdate, the summer solar insolation high at 65N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  20. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of thorium-230 in corals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ku, T.-L.; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    The development of mass spectrometric techniques for determination of Th-230 abundance has made it possible to reduce analytical errors in (U-238)-(U-234)-(Th-230) dating of corals even with very small samples. Samples of 6 x 10 to the 8th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 3 percent (2sigma), and 3 x 10 to the 10th atoms of Th-230 can be measured to an accuracy of + or - 0.2 percent. The time range over which useful age data on corals can be obtained now ranges from about 50 to about 500,000 years. For young corals, this approach may be preferable to C-14 dating. The precision with which the age of a coral can now be determined should make it possible to critically test the Milankovitch hypothesis concerning Pleistocene climate fluctuations. Analyses of a number of corals that grew during the last interglacial period yield ages of 122,000 to 130,000 years. The ages coincide with, or slightly post-date, the summer solar insolation high at 65 deg N latitude which occurred 128,000 years ago. This supports the idea that changes in Pleistocene climate can be the result of variations in the distribution of solar insolation caused by changes in the geometry of the earth's orbit and rotation axis.

  1. Meningitis in infancy in England and Wales: follow up at age 5 years

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Helen; de Louvois, John; Halket, Susan; Peckham, Catherine; Hurley, Rosalinde; Harvey, David

    2001-01-01

    found that they had a 10-fold increase in risk of severe or moderate disabilities at age 5 years compared with children in the control groupThe outcome of having meningitis was associated with the age at infection, and children who had meningitis in the neonatal period were more likely to have health and development problems than those older than 1 monthSubtle deficits, such as middle ear disease and visual and behavioural problems, were more prevalent among children who had had meningitis in infancy PMID:11546697

  2. 5-Year Longitudinal Follow-up after Retropubic and Transobturator Midurethral Slings

    PubMed Central

    Kenton, Kimberly; Stoddard, Anne M.; Zyczynski, Halina; Albo, Michael; Rickey, Leslie; Norton, Peggy; Wai, Clifford; Kraus, Stephen R.; Sirls, Larry T.; Kusek, John W.; Litman, Heather J.; Chang, Robert P.; Richter, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have characterized longer-term outcomes after retropubic and transobturator midurethral slings. Methods Women completing 2-year participation in a randomized equivalence trial who had not received surgical retreatment for stress urinary incontinence were invited to participate in a 5-year observational cohort. The primary outcome, treatment success, was defined as no retreatment or self-reported stress incontinence symptoms. Secondary outcomes included urinary symptoms and quality of life, satisfaction, sexual function and adverse events. Results 404 of 597 (68%) women from the original trial enrolled. Five-years after surgical treatment, success was 7.9% greater in women assigned to retropubic-sling compared to transobturator-sling (51.3% vs 43.4%, 95% CI −1.4%, 17.2%) not meeting pre-specified criteria for equivalence. Satisfaction decreased over 5-years, but remained high and similar between arms (79%, retropubic-sling vs 85%, transobturator-sling groups, p=0.15). Urinary symptoms and quality of life worsened over time (p<0.001), and women with retropubic-sling reported greater urinary urgency (P=0.001), more negative quality of life impact (p=0.02), and worse sexual function (P=0.001). There was no difference in proportion of women experiencing at least 1 adverse event (p=0.17). Seven new mesh erosions were noted (retropubic-sling-3, transobturator-sling-4). Conclusion Treatment success declined over 5-years for retropubic and transobturator-slings and did not meet pre-specified criteria for equivalence with retropubic demonstrating a slight benefit. However, satisfaction remained high in both arms. Women undergoing transobturator-sling reported more sustained improvement in urinary symptoms and sexual function. New mesh erosions occurred in both arms over time, although at a similarly low rate. PMID:25158274

  3. It's T time: A study on the return period of multivariate problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michailidi, Eleni Maria; Balistrocchi, Matteo; Bacchi, Baldassare

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important tasks a hydrologist must face is the proper estimation of the 'design values' of a natural variable corresponding to a given Return Period, T, of failures of the hydraulic 'structure' to be designed or verified. Sometimes the 'structure' is simply the embankments, the failure of which corresponds to the outflows of flood runoff on the surrounding land. The widely adopted definition of T, in a problem regarding the maxima of hydrological variables, is "the average time elapsing between two successive occurrences of an event exceeding a certain magnitude of the natural variables". If T is referred to the minima, the symmetric definition pertains to the "average time between two periods during which the variable ranges below a given magnitude". Conventional (and the only accepted) approaches for estimation of T involve a single natural variable (i.e. flood-peak of a river at a given cross section, the daily maximum discharge, the maximum daily rainfall depth observed at a given rain-gauge). The method of estimation of T entails a frequency analysis of the variable of interest, where the design value of a given T is needed to design the structure of interest (e.g. dams, sewers). In other words, T is used as the index value to set the assigned risk level for the hydraulic works. However, a univariate approach in complex problems ignores the effect of significant variables interrelation leading to different risk levels for each quantity of interest and resulting in a completely wrong estimate of the risk. For example, if one considers the flood inflow in a lake around which cities and villages are positioned, the variable to be investigated in relation to the risk assessment is the lake water level. It is obvious that the same water level may occur from very different flood hydrographs, even when the same initial water level and the same rate curve of outflows are considered. This is a consequence of the interaction of at least three joint

  4. 24 CFR 257.303 - Prohibition on subordinate liens during first 5 years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 226.2). ... during first 5 years. 257.303 Section 257.303 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Prohibition on subordinate liens during first 5 years. (a) Prohibition on subordinate liens during first...

  5. A 5-year experience of the changing management of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berry, Janet; Davey, Mark; Hon, Mei-See; Behrens, Renée

    2016-07-01

    This retrospective audit reviewed all ectopic pregnancies over a 5-year period in a district general hospital setting. Of 215 ectopic pregnancies identified, notes were available for 208 (97%). 202 cases were determined to have been diagnosed and managed as ectopic pregnancies. Six cases were excluded as they were pregnancies of unknown location managed as such. The proportion of patients managed non-surgically has increased following the introduction of our consultant-led early pregnancy assessment unit from 25% prior to 31% currently. The success rates have improved in both those managed expectantly (50%-73%) and those with methotrexate (75%-90%). There has been a corresponding drop in those managed surgically from 75% to 69%, and a reduction in negative laparoscopies from 13% to 6%. Provided recommended criteria and follow-up are adhered to, non-surgical management has been shown to have comparative safety to traditional surgical management with acceptable efficacy and patient acceptability. PMID:27012598

  6. In-111 polyclonal HIG identifies patients but not atherosclerotic lesions at risk - a 5 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Berent, Robert; Auer, Johann; Granegger, Susanne; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong need for non-invasive detection of human atherosclerotic lesions. One of the radioisotopic approaches using Indium-111-HIG has been shown to accumulate in oxidized LDL-rich foam cells and inflammatory vascular lesions. Earlier human studies in 200 patients, 100 with peripheral vascular disease and 100 with carotid artery disease comparing In-111-HIG scintigraphy with sonographic data revealed a high sensitivity (70%-77%) but a very low specificity (33%-41%). At this time we concluded the approach "not promising" for human studies. However, clinical follow-up over 5 years now shows that those patients with positive In-111-HIG scintigraphy exhibited a significantly higher vascular morbidity (P<0,01) and mortality (P<0,01), especially in the immediate follow-up period. Retrospective analysis discovered higher CRP and isoprostane (8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F2α) levels in HIG-positive patients at the time of scintigraphy. These findings indicate that In-111-HIG reflecting vascular lesions with a high inflammatory component, probably more prone to rupture, may identify a population at high vascular risk rather than a lesion at risk. The clinical impact of this finding should be assessed in prospective studies. PMID:26665225

  7. 5 Years review of periocular basal cell carcinoma and proposed follow-up protocol

    PubMed Central

    Ho, S F; Brown, L; Bamford, M; Sampath, R; Burns, J

    2013-01-01

    Aim (1) To investigate the recurrence of periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) reported as completely excised on histology. (2) To identify risks associated with recurrence. (3) To recommend a rational follow-up protocol. Methods This is a cohort study by case note review of consecutive patients undergoing excision of periocular BCC between 2000 and 2006 at University Hospitals of Leicester. All lesions were excised with 3 mm clinical margin and the defect reconstructed only after the excision margin was declared clear. Results A total of 413 episodes of surgical excision were recorded for 270 patients over the 7-year period of 2000–2006. All of them have 5 years follow-up. Mean age 73.7 (±12.5). In all, 67% were nodular BCC and 45.4% located in the lower eyelid. The main outcome measure was the recurrence rate. None of the patients with primary nodular BCC suffered recurrence. The recurrence rate for primary morphoeaform BCC following complete excision is 3.8%. In total, 8.1% of patients had several lesions simultaneously whereas 7.8% patients had BCC in multiple locations subsequently (metachronous). Three patients who had previously recurrent BCC (rBCC) treated elsewhere or not using this method had orbital/lacrimal drainage system involvement requiring exenteration. Conclusion We recommend that patients with a single, completely excised primary solid or nodular BCC can be discharged after one 6-monthly review, although they should be instructed to monitor for the development of further lesions. The incidence of recurrence for primary morphoeaform BCC is 3.8% and for rBCC is 3.6% over 5 years and these patients should stay under review for this period. PMID:23154501

  8. Endoscopic removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract: 5-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed H; Darwiesh, Ehab M; Refaey, Mohamed M; Galal, Sherif M

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign bodies (FBs) in the upper gastrointestinal tract are produced chiefly by accidental swallowing but rarely produce symptoms. Removal of FBs is not an infrequent challenge for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study is to elicit our experience in a 5-year period in dealing with FBs in the upper gastrointestinal tract using upper endoscopy. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, over a 5-year period. We reviewed all patients’ files with full notations on age, sex, type of FB and its anatomical location, treatments, and outcomes (complications, success rates, and mortalities). Patients with incomplete files and those with FBs not identified at the endoscopic examination were excluded. Results A total of 45 patients were identified. Their ages ranged from 6 months to 102 years. Slight male predominance was noticed (53.3%). The most frequent presentation was a history of FB ingestion without any associated manifestations (44.4%). Coins were the most commonly encountered FBs (14/45). Esophagus was the most common site of trapping (27/45). The overall success rate was 95.6% (43/45). Upper endoscopy successfully resolved the problem by either FB removal (41/43) or dislodgment of the impacted fleshy meat to the stomach (2/43). Two cases were referred for surgical removal. The rate of complications was 6.7%. Furthermore, no mortalities due to FB ingestion or removal had been reported throughout the study. Conclusion Our experience with FB removal emphasizes its importance and ease when performed by experienced hands, at well-equipped endoscopy units, and under conscious sedation in most cases, with high success rates and minor complications. PMID:25053889

  9. Configuring Balanced Scorecards for Measuring Health System Performance: Evidence from 5 Years' Evaluation in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Edward, Anbrasi; Kumar, Binay; Kakar, Faizullah; Salehi, Ahmad Shah; Burnham, Gilbert; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. Methods and Findings Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually through 5,500 patient observations and exit interviews and 1,500 provider interviews in >600 facilities selected by stratified random sampling in each province. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to assess trends in BSC parameters. There was a progressive improvement in the national median scores scaled from 0–100 between 2004 and 2008 in all six domains: patient and community satisfaction of services (65.3–84.5, p<0.0001); provider satisfaction (65.4–79.2, p<0.01); capacity for service provision (47.4–76.4, p<0.0001); quality of services (40.5–67.4, p<0.0001); and overall vision for pro-poor and pro-female health services (52.0–52.6). The financial domain also showed improvement until 2007 (84.4–95.7, p<0.01), after which user fees were eliminated. By 2008, all provinces achieved the upper benchmark of national median set in 2004. Conclusions The BSC has been successfully employed to assess and improve health service capacity and service delivery using performance benchmarking during the 5-year period. However, scorecard reconfigurations are needed to integrate effectiveness and efficiency measures and accommodate changes in health systems policy and strategy architecture to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness as a comprehensive health system performance measure. The process of BSC design and implementation can serve as a valuable prototype for health policy planners managing performance in similar health care contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21814499

  10. Comparative analysis of Clostridium difficile clinical isolates belonging to different genetic lineages and time periods.

    PubMed

    Spigaglia, Patrizia; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2004-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that Clostridium difficile strains with variant toxins and those with resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) are increasingly causing severe disease and outbreaks in hospital settings. Here, the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc), the acquisition of binary toxin, and the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance of 74 C. difficile clinical strains isolated from symptomatic patients in Italy during different time periods were studied. These strains were found to belong to two different lineages, and those isolated before 1991 were genetically unrelated to the more recent strains. The majority of recent C. difficile strains showed variations in toxin genes and in the toxin negative regulator (tcdC) and had the binary toxin. In 62 % of them, variations in tcdC and the presence of the binary toxin were associated. Five classes of susceptibility/resistance pattern (EC-a to -e) for erythromycin and clindamycin were identified in all strains studied. Most of the recent isolates belonged to EC-d and EC-e and, although erythromycin-resistant in vitro, did not harbour the commonly associated ermB determinant. Interestingly, two strains of the EC-d class were resistant to clindamycin only after induction with subinhibitory concentrations of the antibiotic. A decrease in tetracycline and chloramphenicol MIC values was also observed in the recently isolated strains, associated with less frequent detection of the catD and tetM genes. Two tetM-positive strains were resistant in vitro only after induction with subinhibitory concentrations of the antibiotic. The acquisition of the binary toxin, the possible increase in toxin production due to a mutated negative regulator and a decrease in the fitness cost as a result of lower levels of antibiotic resistance or other mechanisms may have led to the successful establishment of these new phenotypes, with potentially serious clinical implications. PMID:15496392

  11. Survival of Bacillus pumilus spores for a prolonged period of time in real space conditions.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J

    2012-05-01

    To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life-detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated surfaces, spores of Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 exhibited unusually high resistance to decontamination techniques such as UV radiation and peroxide treatment. Subsequently, B. pumilus SAFR-032 was flown to the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to a variety of space conditions via the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF). After 18 months of exposure in the EXPOSE facility of the European Space Agency (ESA) on EuTEF under dark space conditions, SAFR-032 spores showed 10-40% survivability, whereas a survival rate of 85-100% was observed when these spores were kept aboard the ISS under dark simulated martian atmospheric conditions. In contrast, when UV (>110 nm) was applied on SAFR-032 spores for the same time period and under the same conditions used in EXPOSE, a ∼7-log reduction in viability was observed. A parallel experiment was conducted on Earth with identical samples under simulated space conditions. Spores exposed to ground simulations showed less of a reduction in viability when compared with the "real space" exposed spores (∼3-log reduction in viability for "UV-Mars," and ∼4-log reduction in viability for "UV-Space"). A comparative proteomics analysis indicated that proteins conferring resistant traits (superoxide dismutase) were present in higher concentration in space-exposed spores when compared to controls. Also, the first-generation cells and spores derived from space-exposed samples exhibited elevated UVC resistance when compared with their ground control counterparts. The data generated are important for calculating the probability and mechanisms of microbial survival in space conditions and assessing microbial contaminants

  12. Traditional endodontic surgery versus modern technique: a 5-year controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tortorici, Silvia; Difalco, Paolo; Caradonna, Luigi; Tetè, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we compared outcomes of traditional apicoectomy versus modern apicoectomy, by means of a controlled clinical trial with a 5-year follow-up. The study investigated 938 teeth in 843 patients. On the basis of the procedure performed, the teeth were grouped in 3 groups. Differences between the groups were the method of osteotomy (type of instruments used), type of preparation of retrograde cavity (different apicoectomy angles and instruments used for root-end preparation), and root-end filling material used (gray mineral trioxide aggregate or silver amalgam). Outcome (tooth healing) was estimated after 1 and 5 years, postoperatively. Clinical success rates after 1 year were 67% (306 teeth), 90% (186 teeth), and 94% (256 teeth) according to traditional apicoectomy (group 1), modern microsurgical apicoectomy using burns for osteotomy (group 2) or using piezo-osteotomy (group 3), respectively. After 1 year, group comparison results were statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Linear trend test was also statistically significant (P < 0.0001), pointing out larger healing from group 1 to group 3. After 5 years, teeth were classified into 2 groups on the basis of root-end filling material used. Clinical success was 90.8% (197 teeth) in the silver amalgam group versus 96% (309 teeth) in the mineral trioxide aggregate group (P < 0.00214). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that surgical technique was independently associated to tooth healing. In conclusion, modern apicoectomy resulted in a probability of success more than 5 times higher (odds ratio, 5.20 [95% confidence interval, 3.94-6.92]; P < 0.001) compared with the traditional technique. PMID:24469371

  13. Calcineurin activity in tacrolimus-treated renal transplant patients early after and 5 years after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, D M; Koefoed-Nielsen, P B; Jørgensen, K A

    2006-10-01

    The pharmacodynamic (PD) action of tacrolimus (FK) within the T-cell is inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase (CaN). Determination of CaN activity provides us with an important PD marker. Eleven renal transplant patients treated with FK were investigated on day 14 following transplantation and 5 years later. Blood samples drawn before as well as 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after oral intake of FK were analyzed for CaN activity and blood FK concentrations. Twenty healthy subjects had one blood sample drawn for CaN activity, which was measured as the release of (32)P from a phosphorylated peptide. Radioactivity of (32)P was quantitated by liquid scintillation counting with the results converted to units of CaN utilizing a calibration curve. On day 14, we observed significant inhibition of CaN activity at T:1, 2, and 3 compared with the predose level (P = .002; P = .015; P = .015). Furthermore, all measured CaN activities were significantly different from those observed in healthy nonmedicated subjects. In contrast, at 5 years posttransplant only the CaN activity at T:2 was significantly inhibited compared with the predose level (P = .02). Additionally, all CaN activities at this time were not significantly different from CaN activities in the healthy subjects. We were not able to demonstrate individual CaN activity profiles in the patients. The lack of CaN inhibition at 5 years after transplantation despite relevant drug concentrations, probably reflected the lower drug dose used long after transplantation. This result raises the question of whether CaN inhibition is necessary to hold graft function and whether FK possess CaN-independent mechanisms of action. PMID:17098028

  14. Sharp spatiotemporal patterns in the diffusive time-periodic logistic equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yihong; Peng, Rui

    To reveal the complex influence of heterogeneous environment on population systems, we examine the asymptotic profile (as ɛ→0) of the positive solution to the perturbed periodic logistic equation {

  15. Timing analysis of the periodic radio and optical brightness variations of the ultracool dwarf, TVLM 513-46546

    SciTech Connect

    Wolszczan, A.; Route, M. E-mail: matthew.route@ngc.com

    2014-06-10

    We describe the arrival time measurements and timing modeling of the periodic radio flares and optical brightness variations of the M9 ultracool dwarf, TVLM 513-46546. We confirm the stability of the observed period and determine its best-fit value to be 7054.468 ± 0.007 s over the last 7 yr, based on both the new and archival radio observations and the archival optical data. The period, when measured separately for the radio flare and the optical periodicities, is the same to within ±0.02 s. We show that the radio flares are out of phase with respect to the optical brightness maxima by 0.41 ± 0.02 of the period. Our analysis also reveals that, on shorter timescales, the period varies with the amplitude of ±1-2 s about its long-term average and that these variations are correlated between the radio and the optical wavelengths. These results provide further evidence that TVLM 513-46546 is equipped with a stable, approximately dipolar magnetic field that powers the activity of the star observed over a wide wavelength range, and that the active area has been maintaining its identity and positional stability over no less than 7 yr. A stepwise decline of the apparent radio flaring period of TVLM 513-46546, deduced from timing observations with the Arecibo radio telescope in late 2012 and early 2013, suggests that this effect may be the manifestation of differential rotation of the star.

  16. Pre-exercise glucose ingestion at different time periods and blood glucose concentration during exercise.

    PubMed

    Tokmakidis, S P; Volaklis, K A

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of glucose ingestion (GI) at different time periods prior to exercise on blood glucose (BG) levels during prolonged treadmill running. Eight subjects (X+/-SD), age 20+/-0.5yr, bodymass 70.7+/-4.1 kg, height 177+/-4 cm, VO2max 52.8+/-7.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) who underwent different experimental conditions ingested a glucose solution (1 g/kg at 350 ml) 30 min (gl-30), 60 min (gl-60), 90 min (gl-90), and a placebo one 60 min (pl-60) prior to exercise in a counterbalanced design. Afterwards they ran at 65% of VO2max for 1 hour and then at 75 % of VO2max till exhaustion. Fingertip blood samples (10 microl) were drawn every 15 min before and during exercise for the determination of BG levels. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate (La) were also measured every 15 min during exercise. Peak BG values were reached within 30 min after GI but were different (p < 0.01) at the onset of exercise (gl-30: 147+/-22, gl-60: 118+/-25, gl-90: 109+/-22, pl-60: 79+/-5mg/dl). The two-way ANOVA repeated measures and the Tukey post-hoc test revealed a higher BG concentration (p < 0.05) for the gl-30 and the pl-60 as compared to the gl-60 and gl-90 during running (e.g. 15min run: 82+/-11, 68+/-5, 64+/-3, 78+/-7, and 60min run: 98+/-12, 85+/-12, 83+/-11, 94+/-11 mg/dl for gl-30, gl-60, gl-90, and pl-60, respectively). However, this did not significantly affect the duration of treadmill running. The La levels were higher (p < 0.05) after GI as compared to placebo throughout exercise (values at exhaustion: 4.6+/-0.2, 5.0+/-1.5, 4.8+/- 1.7 mmol/l for gl-30, gl-60, gl-90, and 3.5+/-0.8 mmol/l for placebo). The gl-30 and the placebo fluctuated closer to normoglycaemic levels. The glucose ingestion (60 to 90 min) prior to exercise lowered the blood glucose levels without affecting the duration of running performance at 75% VO2max. Thus, in order to maintain normoglycaemic levels, pre-exercise glucose supplementation should

  17. Long-Term Effects of the Life Skills Program IPSY on Substance Use: Results of a 4.5-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Weichold, Karina; Blumenthal, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of a Life Skills program with regard to use and proneness to legal and illicit drug use across a 4.5-year study interval. The universal school-based Life Skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3 years (basic program in grade 5 and booster sessions in grades 6 and 7). Over the same time period, it was evaluated based on a longitudinal quasi-experimental design with intervention and control group, including two follow-up assessments after program completion [six measurement points; N (T1) = 1657 German students; M age (T1) = 10.5 years]. Applying an HLM approach, results showed that participation in IPSY had a significant effect on the frequency of smoking, and proneness to illicit drug use, across the entire study period. In addition, shorter-term effects were found for the frequency of alcohol use in that intervention effects were evident until the end of program implementation but diminished 2 years later. Thus, IPSY can be deemed an effective intervention against tobacco use and proneness to and use of illicit drugs during adolescence; however, further booster sessions may be necessary in later adolescence to enhance youths' resistance skills when alcohol use becomes highly normative among peers. PMID:26202801

  18. HIV rapid testing in a Veterans Affairs hospital ED setting: a 5-year sustainability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Herschel; Hagedorn, Hildi; Anaya, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    Routine HIV testing in primary care settings is now recommended in the United States. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has increased the number of patients tested for HIV, but overall HIV testing rates in VA remain low. A proven strategy for increasing such testing involves nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing (HIV RT). The purpose of this work was to use a mixed methodology approach to evaluate the 5-year sustainability of an intervention that implemented HIV RT in a VA emergency department setting in a large, urban VA medical center to reduce missed diagnostic and treatment opportunities in this vulnerable patient population. In-person semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and stakeholders. Interview notes were qualitatively coded for emerging themes. Quarterly testing rates were evaluated for a 5-year time span starting from the launch in July 2008. Findings indicate that HIV RT was sustained by the enthusiasm of 2 clinical champions who oversaw the registered nurses responsible for conducting the testing. The departure of the clinical champions was correlated with a substantial drop-off in testing. Findings also indicate potential strategies for improving sustainability including engaging senior leadership in the project, engaging line staff in the implementation planning from the start to increase ownership over the innovation, incorporating information into initial training explaining the importance of the innovation to quality patient care, providing ongoing training to maintain skills, and providing routine progress reports to staff to demonstrate the ongoing impact of their efforts. PMID:24908442

  19. Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

  20. An implantable neuroprosthesis for standing and walking in paraplegia: 5-year patient follow-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiraud, David; Stieglitz, Thomas; Koch, Klaus Peter; Divoux, Jean-Louis; Rabischong, Pierre

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of a 5-year patient follow-up after implantation of an original neuroprosthesis. The system is able to stimulate both epimysial and neural electrodes in such a way that the complete flexor-extensor chain of the lower limb can be activated without using the withdrawal reflex. We demonstrate that standing and assisted walking are possible, and the results have remained stable for 5 years. Nevertheless, some problems were noted, particularly regarding the muscle response on the epimysial channels. Analysis of the electrical behaviour and thresholds indicated that the surgical phase is crucial because of the sensitivity of the functional responses to electrode placement. Neural stimulation proved to be more efficient and more stable over time. This mode requires less energy and provides more selective stimulation. This FES system can be improved to enable balanced standing and less fatiguing gait, but this will require feedback on event detection to trigger transitions between stimulation sequences, as well as feedback to the patient about the state of his lower limbs.

  1. [Local fractal analysis of noise-like time series by all permutations method for 1-115 min periods].

    PubMed

    Panchelyuga, V A; Panchelyuga, M S

    2015-01-01

    Results of local fractal analysis of 329-per-day time series of 239Pu alpha-decay rate fluctuations by means of all permutations method (APM) are presented. The APM-analysis reveals in the time series some steady frequency set. The coincidence of the frequency set with the Earth natural oscillations was demonstrated. A short review of works by different authors who analyzed the time series of fluctuations in processes of different nature is given. We have shown that the periods observed in those works correspond to the periods revealed in our study. It points to a common mechanism of the phenomenon observed. PMID:26016038

  2. Changes in the American Interventional Radiology Literature: Comparison over a 10-Year Time Period

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Charles E. Gupta, Rajan; Blackwell, John

    2006-08-15

    Purpose. To determine the changes that occurred regarding interventional radiologic research in the major American radiology journals between 1992-1993 and 2002-2003. Methods. Articles published in three major American radiology journals (Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, American Journal of Roentgenology, and Radiology) during two distinct 24-month time periods (1992-1993 and 2002-2003) were evaluated. All articles judged to be pertinent to the interventional radiologic community were included. Investigations included in journal subheadings other than 'interventional' or 'vascular radiology' were included if the emphasis of the article was on a vascular imaging modality or peripheral intervention. Exclusions included: case reports, technical reports, letters to the editor, breast interventions, and primary neurointerventions. Data were collected regarding the affiliations of the primary author (nationality, hospital type, department); primary category of interest of the investigation; funding information; and study design variables. Two-by-two chi-squared statistical analyses were performed comparing the variables from the early and late data sets. Results. A total of 405 articles met the inclusion criteria for the early data set (1992-1993); 488 articles met the inclusion criteria for the late data set (2002-2003). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant decrease from the early data set to the late data set included: articles in which the primary author was from a department of radiology (91.1% vs. 86.3%; p < 0.025); articles written by a primary author who was American (69.4% vs. 44.6%; p < 0.001); and articles with a primary category of investigation that had a nonvascular intervention focus (22.7% vs. 11.9%; p < 0.001). Variables that demonstrated a statistically significant increase from the early data set to the late data set included primary authors from Western Europe (18.0% vs. 30.1%; p < 0.001) and Asia (6.6% vs. 18.4%; p

  3. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  4. Atmospheric Poaceae pollen frequencies and associations with meteorological parameters in Brisbane, Australia: a 5-year record, 1994-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Brett James; Dettmann, Mary; Yli-Panula, Eija; Rutherford, Shannon; Simpson, Rod

    Grass pollen is an important risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma in Australia and is the most prevalent pollen component of the aerospora of Brisbane, accounting for 71.6% of the annual airborne pollen load. A 5-year (June 1994-May 1999) monitoring program shows the grass pollen season to occur during the summer and autumn months (December-April), however the timing of onset and intensity of the season vary from year to year. During the pollen season, Poaceae counts exceeding 30 grains m-3 were recorded on 244 days and coincided with maximum temperatures of 28.1 +/- 2.0 °C. In this study, statistical associations between atmospheric grass pollen loads and several weather parameters, including maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation, were investigated. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated that daily grass pollen counts were positively associated (P < 0.0001) with maximum and minimum temperature during each sampling year. Precipitation, although considered a less important daily factor (P < 0.05), was observed to remove pollen grains from the atmosphere during significant periods of rainfall. This study provides the first insight into the influence of meteorological variables, in particular temperature, on atmospheric Poaceae pollen counts in Brisbane. An awareness of these associations is critical for the prevention and management of allergy and asthma for atopic individuals within this region.

  5. Long Term Results (>5 Years) in Patients With Peritoneovenous Shunting for Intractable Ascites: Liver Function and Cancer Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Meakins, Jonathan L.; Wu, Andrew; Smadja, Claude; Bonnet, Patrick; Gouffier, Etienne; Campillo, Bernard

    1989-01-01

    This report is based on twenty-eight (26%) of 107 patients included in a protocol for prospective evaluation of elective peritoneo-venous shunting for intractable ascites in cirrhosis. These patients had no other procedures and survived more than 5 years after the operation. All patients were free of ascites except one in whom it was mild. One patient refused follow-up. Shunt patency was assessed in 23 patients. In 14 patients (60.9%), the shunt was obstructed and the superior vena cava was occluded in 5 of them. In 9 patients (39.1%), the shunt was still functioning. No clinical or biological parameters differentiated these two groups of patients. Of the 24 patients who were alcoholics, 2 abstained completely and 20 significantly reduced their drinking habits. In 25 patients, the Pugh's score improved and was A at the time of the study. Seven patients (25.9%) developed a malignant tumor of the oro-pharynx or digestive tract, all other patients were alive and in good health. This study suggests that patients with intractable ascites treated by a peritoneo-venous shunt may survive for a long period. In patients abstaining from heavy drinking, it may function as a therapeutic bridge permitting spontaneous improvement of liver function. The risk of supervening neoplasms suggests that a continuous follow-up of these patients is warranted. PMID:2487384

  6. Lower Health-Related Quality of Life in Polytrauma Patients: Long-Term Follow-Up After Over 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Zwingmann, Jörn; Hagelschuer, Paul; Langenmair, Elia; Bode, Gerrit; Herget, Georg; Südkamp, Norbert P; Hammer, Thorsten

    2016-05-01

    Although trauma-associated mortality has fallen in recent decades, and medical care has continued to improve in many fields, the quality of life after experiencing polytrauma has attracted little attention in the literature. This group of patients suffer from persisting physical disabilities. Moreover, they experience long-term social, emotional, and psychological effects that limit/lower considerably their quality of life.We analyzed retrospective data on 147 polytraumatized patients by administering written questionnaires and conducting face-to-face interviews 6 ± 0.8 years after the trauma in consideration of the following validated scores: Glasgow Outcome Scale, European Quality of Life Score, Short Form-36, Trauma Outcome Profile, and Beck Depressions Inventory II.Our analysis of these results reveals that polytraumatized patients suffer from persistent pain and functional disabilities after >5 years. We also observed changes in their socioeconomic situation, as well as psychological after-effects.The rehabilitation of this particular group of patients should not only address their physical disabilities. The psychological after-effects of trauma must be acknowledged and addressed for an even longer period of time. PMID:27175646

  7. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  8. Instabilities of time-periodic, incompressible, inviscid flow in ellipsoidal domains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biello, Joseph A.; Saldanha, Kenneth I.; Lebovitz, Norman R.

    1999-11-01

    We consider the linear stability of exact, temporally periodic solutions of the Euler equations of incompressible, inviscid flow in an ellipsoidal domain. The problem of linear stability is reduced, without approximation, to a hierarchy of finite-dimensional Floquet problems governing fluid-dynamical perturbations of differing spatial scales and symmetries. We study two of these Floquet problems in detail, emphasizing parameter regimes of special physical significance. One of these regimes includes periodic flows differing only slightly from steady flows. Another includes long-period flows representing the nonlinear outcome of an instability of steady flows. In both cases much of the parameter space corresponds to instability, excepting a region adjacent to the spherical configuration. In the second case, even if the ellipsoid departs only moderately from a sphere, there are filamentary regions of instability in the parameter space. We relate this and other features of our results to properties of reversible and Hamiltonian systems, and compare our results with related studies of periodic flows.

  9. Instabilities of exact, time-periodic solutions of the incompressible Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biello, Joseph A.; Saldanha, Kenneth I.; Lebovitz, Norman R.

    2000-02-01

    We consider the linear stability of exact, temporally periodic solutions of the Euler equations of incompressible, inviscid flow in an ellipsoidal domain. The problem of linear stability is reduced, without approximation, to a hierarchy of finite-dimensional Floquet problems governing fluid-dynamical perturbations of differing spatial scales and symmetries. We study two of these Floquet problems in detail, emphasizing parameter regimes of special physical significance. One of these regimes includes periodic flows differing only slightly from steady flows. Another includes long-period flows representing the nonlinear outcome of an instability of steady flows. In both cases much of the parameter space corresponds to instability, excepting a region adjacent to the spherical configuration. In the second case, even if the ellipsoid departs only moderately from a sphere, there are filamentary regions of instability in the parameter space. We relate this and other features of our results to properties of reversible and Hamiltonian systems, and compare our results with related studies of periodic flows.

  10. A 2-year longitudinal nutritional survey of 405 Northumberland children initially aged 11.5 years.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A F; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Appleton, D R; Eastoe, J E; Jenkins, G N

    1984-01-01

    Children (405), initially of average age 11.5 years, recorded all food and drinks consumed for three consecutive days (with an interview on the fourth day) on five separate occasions over a 2-year period. Food tables (Paul & Southgate, 1978) enabled nutrient intakes to be calculated. The data collected were found to be of high reliability (Hackett et al. 1983). The mean energy intakes showed broad agreement with other recent British dietary surveys but were well below those recorded in the prewar study by Widdowson (1947) and the FAO/WHO (1973) recommended levels. They were slightly below the current Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS; 1979) recommended intakes. Over the 2-year period, the energy intake of the boys increased by 13% compared with an increase of only 7% in the girls. The iron and vitamin A intakes of all groups of children were low compared with current recommendations (DHSS, 1979). This seems to be a result of falling energy intake. Mean calcium intakes were also only marginally in excess of the recommended intake, and those of most of the girls would fall below the recommendation if the proposal to end the fortification of flour (DHSS, 1981) is implemented. PMID:6317011

  11. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--TIME-ACTIVITY DIARY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (MONITORING PERIOD 1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 time-activity diary questionnaires. The Time Diary and Activity Questionnaire was used for collecting data on detailed (daily) time and location information and activity patterns (for relatively frequent activities when recalling events ov...

  12. Fourth-grade Children’s Dietary Recall Accuracy is Influenced by Retention Interval (Target Period and Interview Time)

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, James W.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Royer, Julie A.; Mackelprang, Alyssa J.; Smith, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background For a 24-hour dietary recall, two possible target periods are the prior 24 hours (24 hours immediately preceding the interview time) and previous day (midnight to midnight of the day before the interview), and three possible interview times are morning, afternoon, and evening. Target period and interview time determine the retention interval (elapsed time between to-be-reported meals and the interview), which, along with intervening meals, can influence reporting accuracy. Objective The effects of target period and interview time on children’s accuracy for reporting school meals during 24-hour dietary recalls were investigated. Design and subjects/setting During the 2004–05, 2005–06, and 2006–07 school years in (city), (state), each of 374 randomly selected fourth-grade children (96% Black) was observed eating two consecutive school meals (breakfast, lunch) and interviewed to obtain a 24-hour dietary recall using one of six conditions defined by crossing two target periods with three interview times. Each condition had 62 or 64 children (half boys). Main outcome measures Accuracy for reporting school meals was quantified by calculating rates for omissions (food items observed eaten but unreported) and intrusions (food items reported eaten but unobserved); a measure of total inaccuracy combined errors for reporting food items and amounts. Statistical analyses performed For each accuracy measure, analysis of variance was conducted with target period, interview time, their interaction, sex, interviewer, and school year in the model. Results There was a target-period effect and a target-period by interview-time interaction on omission rates, intrusion rates, and total inaccuracy (six P values <0.004). For prior-24-hour recalls compared to previous-day recalls, and for prior-24-hour recalls in the afternoon and evening compared to previous-day recalls in the afternoon and evening, omission rates were better by one-third, intrusion rates were better by

  13. Diffusive KPP equations with free boundaries in time almost periodic environments: II. Spreading speeds and semi-wave solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Liang, Xing; Shen, Wenxian

    2016-08-01

    In this series of papers, we investigate the spreading and vanishing dynamics of time almost periodic diffusive KPP equations with free boundaries. Such equations are used to characterize the spreading of a new species in time almost periodic environments with free boundaries representing the spreading fronts. In the first part of the series, we showed that a spreading-vanishing dichotomy occurs for such free boundary problems (see [16]). In this second part of the series, we investigate the spreading speeds of such free boundary problems in the case that the spreading occurs. We first prove the existence of a unique time almost periodic semi-wave solution associated to such a free boundary problem. Using the semi-wave solution, we then prove that the free boundary problem has a unique spreading speed.

  14. Persistent spatial clusters of high body mass index in a Swiss urban population as revealed by the 5-year GeoCoLaus longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Paccaud, Fred; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Theler, Jean-Marc; Chételat, Joël; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Guessous, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Objective Body mass index (BMI) may cluster in space among adults and be spatially dependent. Whether and how BMI clusters evolve over time in a population is currently unknown. We aimed to determine the spatial dependence of BMI and its 5-year evolution in a Swiss general adult urban population, taking into account the neighbourhood-level and individual-level characteristics. Design Cohort study. Setting Swiss general urban population. Participants 6481 georeferenced individuals from the CoLaus cohort at baseline (age range 35–74 years, period=2003–2006) and 4460 at follow-up (period=2009–2012). Outcome measures Body weight and height were measured by trained healthcare professionals with participants standing without shoes in light indoor clothing. BMI was calculated as weight (kg) divided by height squared (m2). Participants were geocoded using their postal address (geographic coordinates of the place of residence). Getis-Ord Gi statistic was used to measure the spatial dependence of BMI values at baseline and its evolution at follow-up. Results BMI was not randomly distributed across the city. At baseline and at follow-up, significant clusters of high versus low BMIs were identified and remained stable during the two periods. These clusters were meaningfully attenuated after adjustment for neighbourhood-level income but not individual-level characteristics. Similar results were observed among participants who showed a significant weight gain. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report longitudinal changes in BMI clusters in adults from a general population. Spatial clusters of high BMI persisted over a 5-year period and were mainly influenced by neighbourhood-level income. PMID:26733572

  15. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor Detection of the Orbital Period of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlinde, Keith W.; Levine, Alan M.; Rappaport, Saul A.

    2003-06-01

    The orbital period of Scorpius X-1 has been accepted as 0.787313 days since its discovery in archival optical photometric data by Gottlieb, Wright, & Liller. This period has apparently been confirmed multiple times in the years since in both photometric and spectroscopic optical observations, although to date only marginal evidence has been reported for modulation of the X-ray intensity at that period. We have used data taken with the All Sky Monitor on board the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer over the past 6 years to search for such a modulation. A major difficulty in detecting the orbit in X-ray data is presented by the flaring behavior in this source, wherein the (1.5-12 keV) X-ray intensity can change by up to a factor of 2 within a fraction of a day. These flares contribute nearly white noise to Fourier transforms of the intensity time series and thereby tend to obscure weak modulations, i.e., of a few percent or less. We present herein a technique for substantially reducing the effects of the flaring behavior while, at the same time, retaining much of any periodic orbital modulation, provided only that the two temporal behaviors exhibit different spectral signatures. Through such a search, we have found evidence for orbital modulation at the ~1% level with a period of 0.78893 days. This period is equal within our accuracy to a period (0.78901 days) that differs by 1 cycle yr-1 from the accepted value and that was also detected by Gottlieb et al. at a strength nearly as great as that of the 0.787313 day periodicity. We note that many of the reported optical observations of Sco X-1 have been made within 1 or 2 months of early June, when Sco X-1 transits the meridian at midnight. All periodicity searches based only on such observations would have been subject to the same 1 cycle yr-1 alias that affected the search of Gottlieb and coworkers. These considerations lead us to suggest that the actual period may in fact be 0.78901 days and that further observations will

  16. Spatial distribution of the persistent organic pollutants across the Tibetan Plateau and its linkage with the climate systems: a 5-year air monitoring study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Ren, Jiao; Gong, Ping; Wang, Chuanfei; Xue, Yonggang; Yao, Tandong; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through atmospheric transport. The exact source regions, transport pathways and time trends of POPs to the TP are not well understood. Here polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer resin (XAD)-based passive air samplers (PASs) were deployed at 16 Tibetan background sites from 2007 to 2012 to gain further insight into spatial patterns and temporal trends of OCPs and PCBs. The southeastern TP was characterized by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related chemicals delivered by Indian monsoon air masses. The northern and northwestern TP displayed the greatest absolute concentration and relative abundance of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the atmosphere, caused by the westerly-driven European air masses. The interactions between the DDT polluted Indian monsoon air and the clean westerly winds formed a transition zone in central Tibet, where both DDT and HCB were the dominant chemicals. Based on 5 years of continuous sampling, our data indicated declining concentrations of HCB and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) across the Tibetan region. Inter-annual trends of DDT class chemicals, however, showed less variation during this 5-year sampling period, which may be due to the ongoing usage of DDT in India. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using POP fingerprints to investigate the climate interactions and the validity of using PAS to derive inter-annual atmospheric POP time trends.

  17. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications. PMID:24832710

  18. The impact patient-specific instrumentation has had on my practice in the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    I have performed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using patient- specific instrumentation (PSI) (TRUMATCH® Personalized Solutions, DePuy Synthes Joint Reconstruction, Warsaw, Indiana) since July 2009. Since that time, I have performed over 600 of these procedures, all at the same hospital and all using the same personnel I worked with before I began using PSI. I do not have a physician assistant, but I do have a surgical assistant who scrubs with and assists me on all TKAs. There are a number of reasons why a surgeon may decide to use PSI. This paper discusses the effect PSI has had on my practice in the last 5 years, including my experiences and conclusions. PMID:24911641

  19. Time-Resolved Measurement of Landau-Zener Tunneling in Periodic Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Zenesini, A.; Radogostowicz, J.; Ciampini, D.; Mannella, R.; Arimondo, E.; Lignier, H.; Morsch, O.; Tayebirad, G.; Wimberger, S.

    2009-08-28

    We report time-resolved measurements of Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in accelerated optical lattices, clearly resolving the steplike time dependence of the band populations. Using different experimental protocols we were able to measure the tunneling probability both in the adiabatic and in the diabatic bases of the system. We also experimentally determine the contribution of the momentum width of the Bose condensates to the temporal width of the tunneling steps and discuss the implications for measuring the jump time in the Landau-Zener problem.

  20. Errors in visuo-haptic and haptic-haptic location matching are stable over long periods of time.

    PubMed

    Kuling, Irene A; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2016-05-01

    People make systematic errors when they move their unseen dominant hand to a visual target (visuo-haptic matching) or to their other unseen hand (haptic-haptic matching). Why they make such errors is still unknown. A key question in determining the reason is to what extent individual participants' errors are stable over time. To examine this, we developed a method to quantify the consistency. With this method, we studied the stability of systematic matching errors across time intervals of at least a month. Within this time period, individual subjects' matches were as consistent as one could expect on the basis of the variability in the individual participants' performance within each session. Thus individual participants make quite different systematic errors, but in similar circumstances they make the same errors across long periods of time. PMID:27043253

  1. Space Radiation Cancer Risks and Uncertainities for Different Mission Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim,Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Space radiation consists of solar particle events (SPEs), comprised largely of medium energy protons (less than several hundred MeV); and galactic cosmic ray (GCR), which includes high energy protons and high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei. For long duration missions, space radiation presents significant health risks including cancer mortality. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is essential for radiation protection of crews on long term space missions outside of the protection of the Earth s magnetic field and for optimization of mission planning and costs. For the assessment of organ dosimetric quantities and cancer risks, the particle spectra at each critical body organs must be characterized. In implementing a PRA approach, a statistical model of SPE fluence was developed, because the individual SPE occurrences themselves are random in nature while the frequency distribution of SPEs depends strongly upon the phase within the solar activity cycle. Spectral variability of SPEs was also examined, because the detailed energy spectra of protons are important especially at high energy levels for assessing the cancer risk associated with energetic particles for large events. An overall cumulative probability of a GCR environment for a specified mission period was estimated for the temporal characterization of the GCR environment represented by the deceleration potential (theta). Finally, this probabilistic approach to space radiation cancer risk was coupled with a model of the radiobiological factors and uncertainties in projecting cancer risks. Probabilities of fatal cancer risk and 95% confidence intervals will be reported for various periods of space missions.

  2. Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in Turkey for the period 1976-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Nussaïbah B.; Aydin, Olgu; Türkoğlu, Necla; Çiçek, Ihsan

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to revaluate the changing spatial and temporal trends of precipitation in Turkey. Turkey is located in one of the regions at greatest risk from the potential effects of climate change. Since the 1970s, a decreasing trend in annual precipitation has been observed, in addition to an increasing number of precipitation-related natural hazards such as floods, extreme precipitation, and droughts. An understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation is therefore crucial to hazard management as well as planning and managing water resources, which depend heavily on precipitation. The ordinary kriging method was employed to interpolate precipitation estimates using precipitation records from 228 meteorological stations across the country for the period 1976-2010. A decreasing trend was observed across the Central Anatolian region, except for 1996-2000 which saw an increase in precipitation. However, this same period is identified as the driest year in Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia. The Eastern Black Sea region has the highest precipitation in the country; after 1996, an increase in annual precipitation in this region is observed. An overall reduction is also seen in southwest Turkey, with less variation in precipitation.

  3. Detecting unstable periodic orbits in high-dimensional chaotic systems from time series: reconstruction meeting with adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huanfei; Lin, Wei; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Detecting unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) in chaotic systems based solely on time series is a fundamental but extremely challenging problem in nonlinear dynamics. Previous approaches were applicable but mostly for low-dimensional chaotic systems. We develop a framework, integrating approximation theory of neural networks and adaptive synchronization, to address the problem of time-series-based detection of UPOs in high-dimensional chaotic systems. An example of finding UPOs from the classic Mackey-Glass equation is presented. PMID:23767476

  4. Observational clinical study of 22 adult-onset Pompe disease patients undergoing enzyme replacement therapy over 5years.

    PubMed

    Stepien, Karolina M; Hendriksz, Christian J; Roberts, Mark; Sharma, Reena

    2016-04-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from deficiency of the acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). The late-onset Pompe Disease (LOPD) patients develop muscular and respiratory complications later in life. We describe a retrospective observational cohort study including 22 patients with LOPD. The cohort was assessed at baseline before Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) with alglucosidase alpha (20mg/kg biweekly) was commenced and subsequently relevant information was collected at 2, 4 and 5years later. The median age of the patients at study entry was 44years (16-64years), with median disease duration of 11.5years (4-31years). At baseline, 10 patients (45%) could walk without support, 12 (55%) could walk with unilateral or bilateral support including 3/12 were wheelchair bound. Mean predicted FVC % was 55.7 (95% CI 45-66) of predicted normal at baseline and showed no significant change after 5years (54.6 (95% CI 43-66)), (all p=0.9815). Mean FVC % supine was 41.8 (95% CI 33.8-49) of predicted normal at baseline and remained significantly unchanged at 5years (48.4 (95% CI 37-59.6)), (all p=0.8680). The overnight non-invasive ventilator dependence increased by 18.2% as compared with baseline and requirement of mobility aids increased during this period by 5.2% as compared with the baseline. Mean walking distance at 6min walk test was 411.5 (95% CI 338-485) at baseline, 266.5 (95% CI 187-346) m at 2years, 238.6 (95% CI 162-315) m at 4years and 286.8 (95% CI 203-370) m at 5years (p=0.1981; ANOVA was completed only for 14 patients). A gradual decline in FVC% predicted was noted only in four cases and a decline in FVC% supine in two other. Only one patient showed a decline in both pulmonary function tests. In all remaining cases (17/22) respiratory function remains stable. In conclusion overall pulmonary function tests and mobility remained stable for 5years in majority of patients on ERT. However, in some patients they continued to decline in spite of ERT

  5. 45 CFR 2526.40 - What is the time period during which an individual may use an education award?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may use an education award? 2526.40 Section 2526.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBILITY FOR AN EDUCATION AWARD § 2526.40 What is the time period during which an individual may use an education award? (a)...

  6. 45 CFR 2526.40 - What is the time period during which an individual may use an education award?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may use an education award? 2526.40 Section 2526.40 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE ELIGIBILITY FOR AN EDUCATION AWARD § 2526.40 What is the time period during which an individual may use an education award? (a)...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1161 - When may I flare or vent gas for extended periods of time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may I flare or vent gas for extended periods of time? 250.1161 Section 250.1161 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... supported by engineering, geologic, and economic data indicating that the oil and gas produced from the...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1161 - When may I flare or vent gas for extended periods of time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may I flare or vent gas for extended periods of time? 250.1161 Section 250.1161 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1161 - When may I flare or vent gas for extended periods of time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may I flare or vent gas for extended periods of time? 250.1161 Section 250.1161 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Requirements...

  10. Numerical evaluation of the PERTH (PERiodic Tracer Hierarchy) method for estimating time-variable travel time distribution in variably saturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Harman, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of water travel times is one of the crucial hydrologic characteristics of the catchment. Recently, it has been argued that a rigorous treatment of travel time distributions should allow for their variability in time because of the variable fluxes and partitioning of water in the water balance, and the consequent variable storage of a catchment. We would like to be able to observe the structure of the temporal variations in travel time distributions under controlled conditions, such as in a soil column or under irrigation experiments. However, time-variable travel time distributions are difficult to observe using typical active and passive tracer approaches. Time-variability implies that tracers introduced at different times will have different travel time distributions. The distribution may also vary during injection periods. Moreover, repeat application of a single tracer in a system with significant memory leads to overprinting of break-through curves, which makes it difficult to extract the original break-through curves, and the number of ideal tracers that can be applied is usually limited. Recognizing these difficulties, the PERTH (PERiodic Tracer Hierarchy) method has been developed. The method provides a way to estimate time-variable travel time distributions by tracer experiments under controlled conditions by employing a multi-tracer hierarchy under periodical hydrologic forcing inputs. The key assumption of the PERTH method is that as time gets sufficiently large relative to injection time, the average travel time distribution of two distinct ideal tracers injected during overlapping periods become approximately equal. Thus one can be used as a proxy for the other, and the breakthrough curves of tracers applied at different times in a periodic forcing condition can be separated from one another. In this study, we tested the PERTH method numerically for the case of infiltration at the plot scale using HYDRUS-1D and a particle

  11. Time dependent human hip joint lubrication for periodic motion with stochastic asymmetric density function.

    PubMed

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the calculation of the human hip joint parameters for periodic, stochastic unsteady, motion with asymmetric probability density function for gap height. The asymmetric density function indicates that the stochastic probabilities of gap height decreasing are different in comparison with the probabilities of the gap height increasing. The models of asymmetric density functions are considered on the grounds of experimental observations. Some methods are proposed for calculation of pressure distributions and load carrying capacities for unsteady stochastic conditions in a super thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical bone acetabulum. Numerical calculations are performed in Mathcad 12 Professional Program, by using the method of finite differences. This method assures stability of numerical solutions of partial differential equations and gives proper values of pressure and load carrying capacity forces occurring in human hip joints. PMID:24707824

  12. UTILISATION ANALYSIS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA FOR THE TIME-PERIOD 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Selmanovic, Kenan; Zec, Svjetlana Loga; Vanis, Nenad; Zecevic, Lamija; Setkic, Manja; Rasic, Azra; Zerem, Enver

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Expenditures for drugs are increasingly burdening already insufficient funds for health protection. This is especially evident in less developed European countries such as Bosnia and Herzegovina. The question is whether such analyses can help save funds for financing treatment for diseases, with an emphasis on a more rational choice of drug for appropriate indication, whereby clinical complications of hypertension would be prevented and patients would have quality of their lives improved. Aim: Focus of research has been set on analysis of use of antihypertensive drugs in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the time-period January 2013–March 2015. Use of all drugs for treatment of hypertension in that time-period in the country has been shown in an unbiased manner. Methods: The study is designed as retrospective-prospective comparative research of use of antihypertensive drugs in BiH in a certain time-period. Data are collected from relevant drug utilisation database which has been established in Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2013. Results: We have calculated financial expenditure for prescribed antihypertensives in the time- period of 2013, 2014 and Q1 2015. Use of antihypertensives at the country level for this time-period is BAM 200,242,218. At the country level, physicians are most often opting for combination therapy: ACE inhibitors + diuretics (20.2%) and ACE inhibitors + Ca channel antagonists (18.0%). Conclusion: In this research, it has been shown that modern drugs are used for treatment of hypertension in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These drugs are used in the same order as they are prescribed in developed countries. PMID:27147917

  13. The relationship between state abortion-restrictions and homicide deaths among children under 5 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha Slay; Kirby, Russell

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether, in the U.S., there are associations between state-level variations in mortality among young children and state abortion restriction policies - such as parental-consent requirements, parental-notification requirements, mandatory delay laws, and restrictions on Medicaid funding for abortion. To investigate this, we used NCHS Multiple Cause of Deaths public-use data files for the period 1983-2002, and compiled data on children ages 0-4 identified as having died as a result of assault/homicide in each state and year. Medicaid funding of abortion, mandatory delay laws, and parental involvement laws for minors seeking abortions were included as the main predictor variables of interest. Multivariate count data models using pooled state-year-age cohort data, with state and time fixed effects and other state-level controls, were estimated. Results indicated that, between 1983 and 2002, the average increase in the number of homicide deaths for children under 5 years of age was 5.70 per state among states that implemented stricter abortion policies over that time, and 2.00 per state for states that did not. In the count data models, parental-consent laws were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths; parental-notification laws were associated with an 8 percent increase in child homicide deaths though the results were less robust to alternate model specifications; mandatory delay requirements were associated with a 13 percent increase in child homicide deaths. While these data do not allow us to discern precise pathways via which state abortion-restrictions can lead to more child homicide deaths, we speculate that state restrictions on abortion may result in a disproportionate increase in children born into relatively high-risk environments. Additional research is called for to explore the association of state abortion-restrictions with other measures of infant/child health and well-being. PMID:22497846

  14. 77 FR 5491 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Sei Whales AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...; request for information. SUMMARY: NMFS announces a 5-year review of sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis... of any such information on sei whales that has become available since that has become available...

  15. Continuous improvement of arterial compliance beyond blood pressure decrease after 5 years of antihypertensive treatment.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Claudio A; Iavicoli, Oscar R; Rusak, Eduardo J; Vazquez, Sonia T; Piñeiro, Daniel J; Lerman, Jorge

    2006-08-01

    Pulse wave velocity is a reliable marker of arterial compliance. Stiffness of large and elastic arteries leads to a faster propagation of pulse wave. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in arterial distensibility using antihypertensive drugs. This treatment focused on the inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the changes produced in blood pressure. Measurements were taken at baseline and throughout 60 months in 66 previously untreated hypertensive patients (22 men and 44 women, aged 54 +/- 9.5 years, range 38-73 years at baseline). All patients received either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or, in case of adverse effects, angiotensin receptor blockers. To control blood pressure, diuretics, calcium channel blocking agents, or beta blockers were added when appropriate. Statistical analysis was performed by means of ANOVA with alpha = 0.05. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased during the first year without significant changes thereafter. There were no significant changes in pulse pressure. Pulse wave velocity showed a continuous and significant decrease throughout the follow-up period, but its reduction since the third year was more evident than the decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001 for both). This observation could be related to changes in arterial remodeling probably due to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or renin angiotensin system blockade. Further investigations are needed to establish this relationship. PMID:16896271

  16. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. PMID:26922086

  17. Results of proximal gastric vagotomy over 1-5 years in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Tovey, F I; Heald, R J

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-three underwent proximal gastric vagotomy for duodenal ulceration over a 6-year period. One hundred and fifteen of these have been followed up for 1-5 years. The operative mortality was nil and the result was satisfactory in 91 per cent. The incidence of side effects was small, notably that of dumping being 2.4 per cent and of diarrhoea, 3.6 per cent. Incidence of postoperative heartburn was reduced from 13 per cent to 4 per cent by the introduction of hepatic interposition. The incidence of recurrent ulceration was 5.1 per cent after an average interval of 2 years and that of new gastric ulceration 2.6 per cent after an average of 4 years. There were no recurrent ulcers in those who had peroperative Burge tests, although secretory studies showed no difference between those tested and those not tested. Most recurrences occurred in the earliest cases operated on before Burge testing was introduced and when only 2 cm of the lower oesophagus were exposed. PMID:420970

  18. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  19. Epidemiology and mortality of burns in the Lucknow Region, India--a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Ali, Wahid; Verma, Anoop K; Pandey, Abhishek; Rathore, Shiuli

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 95% of global burn deaths and disabilities are estimated to occur in low and middle income countries of the world. Burns are extremely common and are a major public health problem in a developing country like India. The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate the causes and the magnitude of the fatal burns retrospectively. An analysis of autopsy records revealed 2225 (10.7%) cases of burns among the total autopsies done over 5 years period (1st January 2008-27th November 2012) in the mortuary of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, K.G.M.U., Lucknow. The majority of deaths (88.8%) occurred between 10 and 49 years of age group with a preponderance of females (87.5%). The flame burns were seen in 60.1% of the victims. The majority of burn incidents were suicidal (38.6%) in nature followed by accidental (37.3%) and homicidal (24.1%) deaths. The percentages of burns with a total body surface area (TBSA) over 50% were observed in most of the cases (82.5%). In most of the cases deaths occurred within a week (82%) and most of the victims died from septicaemia and pneumonia (43.7%) followed by neurogenic shock (28.5%). The results of this study provide the necessary information to implement programmes for health education relating to prevention of burns focusing on the domestic setting. PMID:23663899

  20. A 5-year follow-up study of an atypical case of myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Macniven, J A B; Graham, N L; Davies, R R; Wilson, B A

    2005-12-20

    This study presents 5-year follow-up data on NG, a woman with adult onset myotonic dystrophy and progressive cognitive decline who was first described by Wilson et al. The extent of the cognitive impairment is atypical of symptom-onset in adulthood and of paternal inheritance, both of which apply to this case. Together, the present and earlier studies report the results of regular neuropsychological assessments over a 16-year period. Severe impairment in executive functioning, episodic and semantic memory were apparent early in the history, while visuospatial skills and working memory were only mildly impaired after 16 years of follow-up. There was also a progressive dyslexia, initially characterized by the regularization errors typical of surface dyslexia, but subsequently dominated by visual/phonological reading errors. This pattern of impairment is not typical of myotonic dystrophy but resembles semantic dementia. Whilst the deficits may be attributable wholly to myotonic dystrophy pathology, the co-existence of a form of semantic dementia is also possible. It is noted that the aggregation of tau protein is a neuropathological feature common to both diseases. PMID:16286337

  1. Bilateral, tumorlike diabetic mastopathy-progression and regression of the disease during 5-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Bayer, U; Horn, L C; Schulz, H G

    1998-02-01

    Diabetic mastopathy is a recently described collection of radiographical and histological features found in dense fibrous masses of the breast in long standing Type I diabetes. We describe the first case of bilateral disease with the alternate progression and regression of the disease over a 5 year period. A 45-year-old woman has been affected of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) for 21 years. She developed palpable mass retromamillar of the right side, indistinguishable radiographically from cancer. The histology showed a diabetic mastopathy (DMP) with B-lymphocytic ductitis and lobulitis, a discrete monocellular vasculitis and a keloid-like fibrosis. After 22 months she developed a suspicious palpable mass contralateral on the left side. The FNAB presented an identical morphology on histology. Additionally 10 months later there were no palpable masses of both mammae. Mammographically no suspect alterations were observed. One year later the clinical and mammographical examination showed similar findings, mentioned before. The pathogenesis is still obscure and includes the hypothesis of extracellular accumulation, secondary to prolonged hyperglycemia in IDDM, production of alternated non-enzymatic glycosylated end products with neoantigen formation, B cell predominant inflammation with autoimmune response against neoantigens and cytokine release secondary to the autoimmune response. PMID:9587750

  2. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  3. A high-order full-discretization method using Hermite interpolation for periodic time-delayed differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yilong; Fischer, Achim; Eberhard, Peter; Wu, Baohai

    2015-06-01

    A high-order full-discretization method (FDM) using Hermite interpolation (HFDM) is proposed and implemented for periodic systems with time delay. Both Lagrange interpolation and Hermite interpolation are used to approximate state values and delayed state values in each discretization step. The transition matrix over a single period is determined and used for stability analysis. The proposed method increases the approximation order of the semidiscretization method and the FDM without increasing the computational time. The convergence, precision, and efficiency of the proposed method are investigated using several Mathieu equations and a complex turning model as examples. Comparison shows that the proposed HFDM converges faster and uses less computational time than existing methods.

  4. A procedure of multiple period searching in unequally spaced time-series with the Lomb-Scargle method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, H. P.; Olofsen, E.; VanHartevelt, J. H.; Kruyt, E. W.; Dinges, D. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Periodogram analysis of unequally spaced time-series, as part of many biological rhythm investigations, is complicated. The mathematical framework is scattered over the literature, and the interpretation of results is often debatable. In this paper, we show that the Lomb-Scargle method is the appropriate tool for periodogram analysis of unequally spaced data. A unique procedure of multiple period searching is derived, facilitating the assessment of the various rhythms that may be present in a time-series. All relevant mathematical and statistical aspects are considered in detail, and much attention is given to the correct interpretation of results. The use of the procedure is illustrated by examples, and problems that may be encountered are discussed. It is argued that, when following the procedure of multiple period searching, we can even benefit from the unequal spacing of a time-series in biological rhythm research.

  5. Analysis of log-periodic power law singularity patterns in time series related to credit risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnitza, Jan Henrik; Sornette, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The log-periodic (super-exponential) power law singularity (LPPLS) has become a promising tool for predicting extreme behavior of self-organizing systems in natural sciences and finance. Some researchers have recently proposed to employ the LPPLS on credit risk markets. The review article at hand summarizes four papers in this field and shows how they are linked. After structuring the research questions, we collect the corresponding answers from the four articles. This eventually gives us an overall picture of the application of the LPPLS to credit risk data. Our literature review begins with grounding the view that credit default swap (CDS) spreads are hotbeds for LPPLS patterns and it ends up with drawing attention to the recently proposed alarm index for the prediction of institutional bank runs. By presenting a new field of application for the LPPLS, the reviewed strand of literature further substantiates the LPPLS hypothesis. Moreover, the results suggest that CDS spread trajectories belong to a different universality class than, for instance, stock prices.

  6. Time-Perception Network and Default Mode Network Are Associated with Temporal Prediction in a Periodic Motion Task.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fabiana M; Chaim, Khallil T; Sanchez, Tiago A; de Araujo, Draulio B

    2016-01-01

    The updating of prospective internal models is necessary to accurately predict future observations. Uncertainty-driven internal model updating has been studied using a variety of perceptual paradigms, and have revealed engagement of frontal and parietal areas. In a distinct literature, studies on temporal expectations have also characterized a time-perception network, which relies on temporal orienting of attention. However, the updating of prospective internal models is highly dependent on temporal attention, since temporal attention must be reoriented according to the current environmental demands. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate to what extend the continuous manipulation of temporal prediction would recruit update-related areas and the time-perception network areas. We developed an exogenous temporal task that combines rhythm cueing and time-to-contact principles to generate implicit temporal expectation. Two patterns of motion were created: periodic (simple harmonic oscillation) and non-periodic (harmonic oscillation with variable acceleration). We found that non-periodic motion engaged the exogenous temporal orienting network, which includes the ventral premotor and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum, as well as the presupplementary motor area, which has previously been implicated in internal model updating, and the motion-sensitive area MT+. Interestingly, we found a right-hemisphere preponderance suggesting the engagement of explicit timing mechanisms. We also show that the periodic motion condition, when compared to the non-periodic motion, activated a particular subset of the default-mode network (DMN) midline areas, including the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PC). It suggests that the DMN plays a role in processing contextually expected information and supports recent evidence that the DMN may

  7. Time-Perception Network and Default Mode Network Are Associated with Temporal Prediction in a Periodic Motion Task

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fabiana M.; Chaim, Khallil T.; Sanchez, Tiago A.; de Araujo, Draulio B.

    2016-01-01

    The updating of prospective internal models is necessary to accurately predict future observations. Uncertainty-driven internal model updating has been studied using a variety of perceptual paradigms, and have revealed engagement of frontal and parietal areas. In a distinct literature, studies on temporal expectations have also characterized a time-perception network, which relies on temporal orienting of attention. However, the updating of prospective internal models is highly dependent on temporal attention, since temporal attention must be reoriented according to the current environmental demands. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate to what extend the continuous manipulation of temporal prediction would recruit update-related areas and the time-perception network areas. We developed an exogenous temporal task that combines rhythm cueing and time-to-contact principles to generate implicit temporal expectation. Two patterns of motion were created: periodic (simple harmonic oscillation) and non-periodic (harmonic oscillation with variable acceleration). We found that non-periodic motion engaged the exogenous temporal orienting network, which includes the ventral premotor and inferior parietal cortices, and the cerebellum, as well as the presupplementary motor area, which has previously been implicated in internal model updating, and the motion-sensitive area MT+. Interestingly, we found a right-hemisphere preponderance suggesting the engagement of explicit timing mechanisms. We also show that the periodic motion condition, when compared to the non-periodic motion, activated a particular subset of the default-mode network (DMN) midline areas, including the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PC). It suggests that the DMN plays a role in processing contextually expected information and supports recent evidence that the DMN may

  8. Indirect monitoring and analysis of truncal stress over extended time periods.

    PubMed

    Bryant, T N; Fernandes, A; Baty, D

    1986-04-01

    Low back pain is a common ailment encountered in clinical practice, yet there has hitherto been no completely satisfactory method for the measurement of truncal stress, which is a major factor in low back pain. Truncal stress has been difficult to record during the course of a working day because subjects were constrained by trailing cables attached to the monitoring equipment. We have used a pressure sensitive transmitter (radio pill) to record intra-abdominal pressure, which has been shown previously to be an indirect measure of truncal stress. The system makes possible multichannel recordings on magnetic tape throughout the working day by using a portable, battery powered recorder strapped to the subject's waist. A novel ferrite rod contributes materially to minimizing artefacts due to signal loss. The recorded data are replayed, at 60 times real time, into a microcomputer programmed to analyse this data. PMID:2940418

  9. Results of treatment in patients with IIa - IIIast. breast cancer treated by combination of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and surgery (5-year experience)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. A.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Denisov, I. N.; Frank, George A.; Voltchenko, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    Laser therapy with semiconductor laser (wavelength 890 nm) was performed in 41 patients with IIa - IIIast. breast cancer. LLLT was used before surgery and in postoperative period during 2 years. LLLT decreased postoperative complications by 15.3% and decreased duration of lymphorrhea. 5 years survival in patients with IIast. breast cancer treated by LLLT was 100%, in control group--85.71%. In patients with IIIast. breast cancer treated by LLLT survival was 94.44%, in control group--78.94%. 91.3% of patients with IIast. treated by LLLT had not recurrences in 5 year period, in the controls they were in about 77.7%. 82.35% of patients with IIIast. treated by laser therapy had no recurrences in 5 year period, in control group--60%.

  10. VHF radar remote sensing of atmospheric parameters over Taiwan during the time period of Typhoon Wayne

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Johnson, D. L.; Chen, A. J.; Lin, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    The VHF radar located at the subtropical and low latitude observing site of Taiwan has been used to observe atmospheric parameters from the troposphere to the middle atmosphere during the time passage of Typhoon Wayne in August 1986. Time-dependent wind velocities with three-dimensional profiles have been plotted by processing the recorded data of the backscattered echo power and the Doppler spectral width of the signal returns from the VHF radar. Propagation characteristics of the gravity waves excited by the enhanced convective motions of Typhoon Wayne have been detected from the Fourier power spectrum analysis of the three-dimensional wind velocities from multiple beams of the VHF radar and their cross-correlation analysis. The density perturbations caused by the propagation of the gravity waves can be calculated from the VHF radar observations. The VHF radar can also be used to detect time-dependent vertical profiles of the liquid water content. The present study shows that the equivalent rainfall rate calculated from the VHF radar is in good agreement with the ground-based measurement of rainfall rate at the same area.

  11. Trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department in Taiwan: a 5-year retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sung-Yuan; Hsieh, Ming-Shun; Lin, Meng-Yu; Hsu, Chiann-Yi; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; How, Chorng-Kuang; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Jeffrey Che-Hung; Wu, Yu-Hui; Chang, Yan-Zin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between the trends of CT utilisation in an emergency department (ED) and changes in clinical imaging practice and patients' disposition. Setting A hospital-based retrospective observational study of a public 1520-bed referral medical centre in Taiwan. Participants Adult ED visits (aged ≥18 years) during 2009–2013, with or without receiving CT, were enrolled as the study participants. Main outcome measures For all enrolled ED visits, we retrospectively analysed: (1) demographic characteristics, (2) triage categories, (3) whether CT was performed and the type of CT scan, (4) further ED disposition, (5) ED cost and (6) ED length of stay. Results In all, 269 239 adult ED visits (148 613 male patients and 120 626 female patients) were collected during the 5-year study period, comprising 38 609 CT scans. CT utilisation increased from 11.10% in 2009 to 17.70% in 2013 (trend test, p<0.001). Four in 5 types of CT scan (head, chest, abdomen and miscellaneous) were increasingly utilised during the study period. Also, CT was increasingly ordered annually in all age groups. Although ED CT utilisation rates increased markedly, the annual ED visits did not actually increase. Moreover, the subsequent admission rate, after receiving ED CT, declined (59.9% in 2009 to 48.2% in 2013). Conclusions ED CT utilisation rates increased significantly during 2009–2013. Emergency physicians may be using CT for non-emergent studies in the ED. Further investigation is needed to determine whether increasing CT utilisation is efficient and cost-effective. PMID:27279477

  12. Fixed-time induction of ovulation in camels superovulated by different eCG modalities during the transition period in Egypt : Superovulation in camels during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Marwa Ahmed; Rateb, Sherif Abdel-Razzak; El-Bahrawy, Khalid Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    The current investigation aimed to establish a fixed-time induction of ovulation/ insemination protocol in camels superovulated by different equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) regimens during the transition period in Egypt (mid-October to mid-November). Seventeen pluriparous camels, Camelus dromedarius, were used. All females retained controlled intra-vaginal drug releasers (CIDRs) for 13 consecutive days, and at CIDR withdrawal, the camels were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (n = 5) received 1 ml saline intra-muscularly (i.m.), whereas remaining camels were superovulated by 2500 IU eCG either in a single shot (SS, n = 6) or in serial decreasing doses over 3 days (DD, n = 6). Ovarian dynamics were monitored by transrectal ultrasonography at 2-day intervals, and ovulation was induced by 5000 IU hCG i.m. The changes in reproductive hormones throughout the period of the study were determined. The results showed that mean values of total no. of follicles and size of dominant follicles remained low (P < 0.05) in all groups until day of CIDR removal. Thereafter, total follicle no. increased (P < 0.05) in both superovulated groups compared to the control, where the dominant follicles attained the highest (P < 0.05) diameter 12 days after the eCG treatment. Double-ovulation rate was higher (P < 0.05) in SS (50%) and DD (66.6%) groups compared to that of control (0.0%). However, 33.3% of the SS group developed large anovulatory follicles (ø > 25 mm), which did not respond to induction to ovulation. These results elucidate that eCG administration in serial decreasing doses generates a reliable superovulatory response in camels, and ovulation can be blindly induced 12 days after the gonadotropin treatment. This fixed-time hormonal protocol represents a sufficient alternative to conventional day-to-day ultrasonography and would have profound implication for enhanced fertility in dromedary camels by facilitating infield application of embryo transfer

  13. Are there sensitive time periods for dementia caregivers? The occurrence of behavioral and psychological symptoms in the early stages of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Ornstein, K. A.; Gaugler, J. E.; Devanand, D. P.; Scarmeas, N.; Zhu, C. W.; Stern, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background The behavioral and psychological symptoms associated with dementia (BPSD) can be burdensome to informal/family caregivers, negatively affecting mental health and expediting the institutionalization of patients. Because the dementia patient–caregiver relationship extends over long periods of time, it is useful to examine how BPSD impact caregiver depressive symptoms at varied stages of illness. The goal of this study was to assess the association of BPSD that occur during early stage dementia with subsequent caregiver depressive symptoms. Methods Patients were followed from the early stages of dementia every six months for up to 12 years or until death (n = 160). Caregiver symptoms were assessed on average 4.5 years following patient’s early dementia behaviors. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) extension of the logistic regression model was used to determine the association between informal caregiver depressive symptoms and BPSD symptoms that occurred at the earliest stages dementia, including those persistent during the first year of dementia diagnosis. Results BPSD were common in early dementia. None of the individual symptoms observed during the first year of early stage dementia significantly impacted subsequent caregiver depressive symptoms. Only patient agitation/aggression was associated with subsequent caregiver depressive symptoms (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.04–2.97) after controlling for concurrent BPSD, although not in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Persistent agitation/aggression early in dementia diagnosis may be associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in caregivers. Future longitudinal analyses of the dementia caregiving relationship should continue to examine the negative impact of persistent agitation/aggression in the diagnosis of early stage dementia on caregivers. PMID:23725657

  14. Wavelets, period-doubling, and time-frequency localization with application to organization of convection over the tropical western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weng, Hengyi; Lau, K.-M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, preliminary results in using orthogonal and continuous wavelet transform (WT) to identify period doubling and time-frequency localization in both synthetic and real data are presented. First, the Haar WT is applied to synthetic time series derived from a simple nonlinear dynamical system- a first-order quadratic difference equation. Second, the complex Morlet WT is used to study the time-frequency localization of tropical convection based on a high-resolution Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite infrared (IR) radiance dataset. The Haar WT of the synthetic time series indicates the presence and distinct separation of multiple frequencies in a period-doubling sequence. The period-doubling process generates a multiplicity of intermediate frequencies, which are manifested in the nonuniformity in time with respect to the phase of oscillations in the lower frequencies. Wavelet transform also enables the detection of extremely weak signals in high-order subharmonics resulting from the period-doubling bifurcations. These signals are either undetected or considered statistically insignificant by traditional Fourier analysis. The Morlet WT of the IR radiance dataset indicates the presence of multiple timescales, which are localized in both frequency and time. There are two regimes in the variation of IR radiance, corresponding to the wet and dry periods. Multiple timescales, ranging from semidiurnal, diurnal, synoptic, to intraseasonal with embedding structures, are active in the wet regime. In particular, synoptic variability is more prominent during the wet phase of an intensive intraseasonal cycle. These are not only consistent with, but also show more details than, previous findings by using other techniques. The phase-locking relationships among the oscillations with different time-scales suggest that both synoptic and intraseasonal variations may be mixed oscillations due to the interaction of self-excited oscillations in the tropical

  15. Nonparametric decomposition of quasi-periodic time series for change-point detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemov, Alexey; Burnaev, Evgeny; Lokot, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    The paper is concerned with the sequential online change-point detection problem for a dynamical system driven by a quasiperiodic stochastic process. We propose a multicomponent time series model and an effective online decomposition algorithm to approximate the components of the models. Assuming the stationarity of the obtained components, we approach the change-point detection problem on a per-component basis and propose two online change-point detection schemes corresponding to two real-world scenarios. Experimental results for decomposition and detection algorithms for synthesized and real-world datasets are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of our change-point detection framework.

  16. Lower thermospheric density fluctuations during the time period of Typhoon Dinah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.; Johnson, D. L.; Chen, A. J.; Liu, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    High frequency Doppler sounder arrays were used to study the thermospheric density fluctuations caused by Typhoon Dinah in August, 1987. The results show that the maximum density fluctuations caused by the typhoon at altitudes of 150 to 350 km were close to + or - 30 percent deviation from the quiet background. The time-dependent density fluctuations were in phase with the horizontal phase velocity of major gravity waves excited by the storm. It is suggested that the study demonstrates the use of HF Doppler sounder measurement of gravity waves, horizontal wind velocity in the direction of gravity wave propagation, and density perturbations at thermospheric heights.

  17. High-order fuzzy time-series based on multi-period adaptation model for forecasting stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tai-Liang; Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Teoh, Hia-Jong

    2008-02-01

    Stock investors usually make their short-term investment decisions according to recent stock information such as the late market news, technical analysis reports, and price fluctuations. To reflect these short-term factors which impact stock price, this paper proposes a comprehensive fuzzy time-series, which factors linear relationships between recent periods of stock prices and fuzzy logical relationships (nonlinear relationships) mined from time-series into forecasting processes. In empirical analysis, the TAIEX (Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index) and HSI (Heng Seng Index) are employed as experimental datasets, and four recent fuzzy time-series models, Chen’s (1996), Yu’s (2005), Cheng’s (2006) and Chen’s (2007), are used as comparison models. Besides, to compare with conventional statistic method, the method of least squares is utilized to estimate the auto-regressive models of the testing periods within the databases. From analysis results, the performance comparisons indicate that the multi-period adaptation model, proposed in this paper, can effectively improve the forecasting performance of conventional fuzzy time-series models which only factor fuzzy logical relationships in forecasting processes. From the empirical study, the traditional statistic method and the proposed model both reveal that stock price patterns in the Taiwan stock and Hong Kong stock markets are short-term.

  18. A multivariate time-frequency method to characterize the influence of respiration over heart period and arterial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orini, Michele; Bailón, Raquel; Laguna, Pablo; Mainardi, Luca T.; Barbieri, Riccardo

    2012-12-01

    Respiratory activity introduces oscillations both in arterial pressure and heart period, through mechanical and autonomic mechanisms. Respiration, arterial pressure, and heart period are, generally, non-stationary processes and the interactions between them are dynamic. In this study we present a methodology to robustly estimate the time course of cross spectral indices to characterize dynamic interactions between respiratory oscillations of heart period and blood pressure, as well as their interactions with respiratory activity. Time-frequency distributions belonging to Cohen's class are used to estimate time-frequency (TF) representations of coherence, partial coherence and phase difference. The characterization is based on the estimation of the time course of cross spectral indices estimated in specific TF regions around the respiratory frequency. We used this methodology to describe the interactions between respiration, heart period variability (HPV) and systolic arterial pressure variability (SAPV) during tilt table test with both spontaneous and controlled respiratory patterns. The effect of selective autonomic blockade was also studied. Results suggest the presence of common underling mechanisms of regulation between cardiovascular signals, whose interactions are time-varying. SAPV changes followed respiratory flow both in supine and standing positions and even after selective autonomic blockade. During head-up tilt, phase differences between respiration and SAPV increased. Phase differences between respiration and HPV were comparable to those between respiration and SAPV during supine position, and significantly increased during standing. As a result, respiratory oscillations in SAPV preceded respiratory oscillations in HPV during standing. Partial coherence was the most sensitive index to orthostatic stress. Phase difference estimates were consistent among spontaneous and controlled breathing patterns, whereas coherence was higher in spontaneous breathing

  19. Identifying parameters of multi-degree-of-freedom nonlinear structural dynamic systems using linear time periodic approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracic, Michael W.; Allen, Matthew S.

    2014-06-01

    The authors recently presented a new nonlinear system identification method, here dubbed the NL-LTP method, in which the system of interest is forced harmonically so that it responds in a stable periodic orbit, and then it is perturbed slightly and its response is recorded as it returns to the orbit. Under mild assumptions the response about the periodic orbit can be approximated using a linear time periodic system model, which can be identified from the measurements using techniques that are akin to linear modal analysis. While the prior work focused on simulated measurements from single degree-of-freedom systems, this work presents several tools that are needed in order to use this approach on multi-degree-of-freedom systems and focuses on applying the method to experimental hardware. The proposed system identification methodology is unique in that it identifies both the order of the nonlinear system and a mathematical model for the nonlinear restoring forces without assuming the mathematical form for the nonlinearities a priori. Towards these ends, this work explains how to extract the underlying nonlinear system model, or nonlinear restoring force versus displacement relationships, from the time periodic model that governs deviations of the system from its periodic orbit, and presents various metrics that can be used to determine which terms in the model are meaningful. These new tools are used to apply the identification method to a continuous, multi-degree-of-freedom structure with a discrete geometric nonlinearity, using both simulated and experimental measurements. The experimental hardware consists of a cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring attached to its tip, which is driven in a periodic limit cycle by an electromagnetic shaker.

  20. The Evolution of Cloud Features on Neptune over a 20-day time period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. C.; Roe, H.; de Pater, I.; Macintosh, B.; Gibbard, S.; Max, C. E.; Gavel, D.; Brown, M.; Ghez, A.

    2000-10-01

    Near-infrared images of Neptune were taken with SCAM, the slit-viewing camera of the AO/NIRSPEC system at the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope, on 2000 June 8,17,18,22,23 and 29 UT. Observations with broad-band filter Nirspec-5 [1.61 micron], Nirspec-6 [1.93 micron], and K' [2.12 micron], and several narrow-band filters between 1.279 and 1.702 microns are compared to determine the temporal evolution of cloud features over the 20-day period. These images taken with the Keck Adaptive Optics system are spectacular, revealing narrow zonal bands at 3-4 degree latitude spacings within bright regions and near the equator. There are three regions of latitude that contain bright features along zonal bands. The dimmest of these bright regions is located in the Northern hemisphere and extends from 20 deg N to 40 deg N. The remaining two bright regions are located in the Southern hemisphere extending from 20 deg S to 50 deg S, and from 60 deg S to 70 deg S. The region near the South pole (a recently quiet location) contains a bright teardrop-shaped feature which may be related to the Westerly jet observed by Voyager and reported by Sanjay et.al. (Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.6, pp. 18941-18960, 1991) at a similar latitude. This research was supported in part by the STC Program of the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. AST-9876783, and in part under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Univ. of Calif. under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. Data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.