Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha; Abdalqader, Mohammed A
The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of <-2 is considered to be malnourished. The overall prevalence rate of underweight children was 18.2%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between males and females (p=0.797). However, the percentage of underweight children was slightly higher among females (18.9%) compared to males (17.6%). There was no association between parents' educational level or employment status and childhood malnutrition. There was no association between a family's movement from their house and childhood malnutrition (p=0.322). Living in an unsafe neighbourhood and having a family member killed during the past five years were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (p=0.016 and 0.018 respectively). Childhood malnutrition is still a public-health concern in Baghdad city, especially after the war of 2003. Malnutrition is significantly associated with living in unsafe neighbourhoods and at least one family member having been killed during the past five years.
Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p < .001), CBCL-Total 41.1 ± 8.6 (p < .001), BRIEF-P-Global Executive Composite 44.8 ± 9.5 (p = .009). Twelve (44%) of the PGD children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.
Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Nøhr, Ellen A.
Background An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. Methods We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence – Revised (WPPSI-R). Results The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of −0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of −0.27 (−0.50 to −0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of −0.26 (−0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (−0.20 (−0.44 to 0.04)). Conclusion Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect. PMID:24727836
This study is part of a longitudinal research project which investigated the cognitive and social development of rural children (ages 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11 years) in eight states of the U.S.A. This paper, however, reports only the cognitive development of 3- to 5-year-old subjects in rural Nebraska from 1976-1978. The longitudinal sample plus control…
Frank, Marion; Kattenbeck, Sabine; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Wachtel, Herbert; Zielen, Stefan
Abstract Background: Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) is a hand-held device that generates an aerosol with a high, fine-particle fraction, enabling efficient lung deposition. The study objective was to assess inhalation success among children using Respimat SMI, and the requirement for assistance by the parent/caregiver and/or a valved holding chamber (VHC). Methods: This open-label study enrolled patients aged <5 years with respiratory disease and history of coughing and/or recurrent wheezing. Patients inhaled from the Respimat SMI (air only; no aerosol) using a stepwise configuration: “1” (dose released by child); “2” (dose released by parent/caregiver), and “3” (Respimat SMI with VHC, facemask, and parent/caregiver help). Co-primary endpoints included the ability to perform successful inhalation as assessed by the investigators using a standardized handling questionnaire and evaluation of the reasons for success. Inhalation profile in the successful handling configuration was verified with a pneumotachograph. Patient satisfaction and preferences were investigated in a questionnaire. Results: Of the children aged 4 to <5 years (n=27) and 3 to <4 years (n=30), 55.6% and 30.0%, respectively, achieved success without a VHC or help; with assistance, another 29.6% and 10.0%, respectively, achieved success, and the remaining children were successful with VHC. All children aged 2 to <3 years (n=20) achieved success with the Respimat SMI and VHC. Of those aged <2 years (n=22), 95.5% had successful handling of the Respimat SMI with VHC and parent/caregiver help. Inhalation flow profiles generally confirmed the outcome of the handling assessment by the investigators. Most parent/caregiver and/or child respondents were satisfied with operation, instructions for use, handling, and ease of holding the Respimat SMI with or without a VHC. Conclusions: The Respimat SMI is suitable for children aged <5 years; however, children aged <5 years are advised to add a
Nouhjah, Sedigheh; R. Niakan Kalhori, Sharareh; Saki, Azadeh
Introduction: In addition to the annual mortality rate, unintentional home injury may result in temporary or permanent disability and requires medical attention and continuous care in millions of children. This study aimed to explore features and risk factors of these injuries. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, demographic variables and epidemiologic pattern of home injuries among children under 5 years of age were collected via a population-based survey in seven main cities of Khuzestan province, southwest Iran, during September 2011 to December 2012. Developing a risk stratification model, independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were determined and put to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Result: 2693 children with the mean age of 27.36 ± 15.55 months (1 to 60) were evaluated (50.9% boy). 827 (30.7%) cases had a history of at least one home injury occurrence since birth to study time. The most common injury mechanisms were burning with 291 (38.4%) cases, falling with 214 (28.3%) and poisoning with 66 (8.7%) cases, respectively. The independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were age ≥ 24 month (p<0.001), residency in Ahvaz city (p<0.001), mother’s illiteracy (p<0.014), ethnicity (p<0.001), private housing (p=0.01), birth weight (p<0.001), and being the first child (p=0. 01). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve of the model designed by multivariate analysis were 53.5%, 84.8%, and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73- 0.77; P < 0.001, figure 1), respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, 30.7% of the studied children were injured at least once since birth. Burning, falling, poisoning, swallowing objects, choking, and biting were the main home injury mechanisms. Age ≥ 24 months, being the first child, living in a private house, being a resident of Ahvaz city, and having an illiterate mother were found to be risk factors of home injury. PMID:28286813
Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Just, Allan C.; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M.; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.
Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult. Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors. Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs. Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (≤ 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (β = 2.5; 95% CI: –0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (β = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.8–7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (β = –3.0; 95% CI: –6.3, 0.2), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β = –3.3; 95% CI: –6.1, –0.5), or PBDE-85 (β = –3.2; 95% CI: –5.9, –0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (β = –2.0; 95% CI: –4.4, 0.4). Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be
O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, Benjamin; Nyaguara, Amek; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Williams, Kara A.; Vinjé, Jan; Blanton, Elizabeth; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Vulule, John; Laserson, Kayla F.; Breiman, Robert F.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Mintz, Eric
Background Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. Methods and Findings We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours) at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9%) children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118), Campylobacter in 5% (57), and Shigella in 4% (42) of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196) of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1–14·9), and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2–14·0) identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2–0·8). Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1–8·7); having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4–3·8); having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2–3·8); and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5–4·1). A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen
Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.
Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…
Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W
Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243
Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka
The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.
Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W
Background and purpose - Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods - Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results - No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation - Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait.
Gisel, E G; Schwaab, L; Lange-Stemmler, L; Niman, C W; Schwartz, J L
Normative data on skills of the tongue used in eating are presented. Normal children 2 to 5 years old were studied regarding their preference of placing food either on the right or left side when eating, and they were compared with age-matched Down's syndrome children. In addition, the ability to move food from the right to the left side of the mouth was studied. Normal children underwent a transition from predominantly placing food on the right side at 2 years of age to predominantly placing it on the left side at 4 years of age. Among Down's syndrome children females preferred the right side, and males preferred the left side. The ability to move food from right to left (lateralizing) undergoes a developmental progression from tilting the head to rolling, followed by slow and eventually by smooth movement from one side to the other. Only 15% of the 5-year-olds were able to move food smoothly from side to side. These data provide a baseline against which children with eating problems can be compared.
Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Raat, Hein
It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health. PMID:23743794
Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein
It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.
Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador
Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.
Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru
This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…
Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David
Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…
Short, Lindsey A; Lee, Kang; Fu, Genyue; Mondloch, Catherine J
Adults' expertise in face recognition has been attributed to norm-based coding. Moreover, adults possess separable norms for a variety of face categories (e.g., race, sex, age) that appear to enhance recognition by reducing redundancy in the information shared by faces and ensuring that only relevant dimensions are used to encode faces from a given category. Although 5-year-old children process own-race faces using norm-based coding, little is known about the organization and refinement of their face space. The current study investigated whether 5-year-olds rely on category-specific norms and whether experience facilitates the development of dissociable face prototypes. In Experiment 1, we examined whether Chinese 5-year-olds show race-contingent opposing aftereffects and the extent to which aftereffects transfer across face race among Caucasian and Chinese 5-year-olds. Both participant races showed partial transfer of aftereffects across face race; however, there was no evidence for race-contingent opposing aftereffects. To examine whether experience facilitates the development of category-specific prototypes, we investigated whether race-contingent aftereffects are present among Caucasian 5-year-olds with abundant exposure to Chinese faces (Experiment 2) and then tested separate groups of 5-year-olds with two other categories with which they have considerable experience: sex (male/female faces) and age (adult/child faces) (Experiment 3). Across all three categories, 5-year-olds showed no category-contingent opposing aftereffects. These results demonstrate that 5 years of age is a stage characterized by minimal separation in the norms and associated coding dimensions used for faces from different categories and suggest that refinement of the mechanisms that underlie expert face processing occurs throughout childhood.
Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice
Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.
Meunier, Benjamin; Cordier, Francoise
The present study investigated the role of the causal status of features and feature type in biological categorizations by young children. Study 1 showed that 5-year-olds are more strongly influenced by causal features than effect features; 4-year-olds exhibit no such tendency. There therefore appears to be a conceptual change between the ages of…
Hispanic pre-schoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on pre-schooler physical activity (PA) (Ninos Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hisp...
Nunes, Vinícius Humberto; Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen
Dental decay affects many children, especially those from the lower socioeconomic classes. In this cross-sectional study designed to investigate the role played by sociodemographic factors, parental attitudes, and monitoring points, which are an indicator of personal perception of what controls individual health, on the prevalence of tooth decay among 5-year-old pre-school children living in a midsized city in São Paulo, Brazil. The ceo-d index of 426 children was assessed; the parents reported sociodemographic characteristics and completed two questionnaires concerning monitoring points and parental attitudes. The results show that 52.35% of the children had decay; higher levels of severe decay were observed among lower E-F socioeconomic classes. Higher socioeconomic status and low externality appear to be protective factors. Low parental internality emerged as a risk factor for decay in primary teeth, possibly because the mother expects or delegates the action to others, delaying care. Parental perceptions of control over a child's health seem to impact preventive care and, consequently, the level of tooth decay among children.
Numminen, Pirkko; And Others
This study examined characteristics of human figures representing the self as drawn by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds and the presence of age or gender differences. A total of 150 children who were selected randomly from day care centers drew themselves on paper with crayons. There were equal numbers of boys and girls in each age group. Human figure…
This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…
Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice
Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one’s own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children’s abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology. PMID:26517260
Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen
Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706
Zhou, Xinhua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuehua
The aim of the present study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusions in preschool children in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2335 children aged 3–5 years from kindergartens. Several occlusal parameters were clinically assessed, including second deciduous molar terminal plane, canine relationship, degree of overjet and overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, and the presence or absence of physiologic spaces and crowding. All parents of subjects were asked to fill in the oral health knowledge questionnaires. The prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in Shanghai was 83.9%, and no significant differences were found in genders. Data showed that the prevalence of deep overbite (63.7%) was the highest in children with malocclusion, followed by deep overjet (33.9%), midline deviation (26.6%), anterior crossbite (8.0%) and anterior crowding (6.5%). The results revealed a high prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in children aged 3–5 years old of Shanghai, especially in vertical anomalies. The need for preventive orthodontic therapy is extremely desired and oral health education about malocclusion should be strengthened. PMID:28327525
Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen
In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…
Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e
Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom
In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591
Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Mortensen, Erik L; Manly, Tom
In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest.
Levin, Kate A; Davies, Carolyn A; Douglas, Gail V A; Pitts, Nigel B
Previous research suggests there are significant differences between urban and rural areas in Scotland for health outcomes including heart disease, cancer and self reported health. The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary urban/rural variation in obvious decay experience amongst 5-year-olds in Scotland. Scotland was split into 6 geographies, ranging from 'The 4 Cities' (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) to 'Remote Rural' areas. Data derived from the 2007/08 National Dental Inspection Programme, representative of the whole of Scotland, were modelled using Bayesian multilevel zero-inflated Negative Binomial and multilevel Poisson modelling, adjusting for age, sex and deprivation. The outcome variables modelled were d(3)mft (carious, extracted or filled deciduous teeth), d(3)t (carious teeth), mt (missing teeth, extracted due to caries) and ft (filled teeth). The proportion of 5-year old children in Scotland with d(3)mft = 0 was 58% in 2008. Adjusting for age and sex, the odds of a child in a Remote Rural area having d(3)mft>0 was 0.52 that of a city dweller. However, when deprivation was included in the model, the odds of having d(3)mft >0 rose to 0.74. The odds of d(3)mft>0 in 'Accessible Rural' areas also remained significantly lower than in the 4 Cities after adjustment for deprivation. For those with d(3)mft>0, the relative risk of additional d(3)mft was also significantly lower in Remote Rural areas, however this was explained by deprivation, while in Accessible Rural areas this remained significant even after adjustment for deprivation. The odds of having any extractions was lower in Rural areas, even after adjustment for deprivation, while the Care Index (ft/d(3)mft) was higher in Remote Towns. Deprivation, therefore, accounted for much but not all of the geographical difference in d(3)mft which exist in Scotland. Children in Remote and Rural areas appear to have better dental health and a higher proportion of filled teeth when compared
Persson, M; Sandy, J R; Waylen, A; Wills, A K; Al-Ghatam, R; Ireland, A J; Hall, A J; Hollingworth, W; Jones, T; Peters, T J; Preston, R; Sell, D; Smallridge, J; Worthington, H; Ness, A R
Structured Abstract Objectives We describe the methodology for a major study investigating the impact of reconfigured cleft care in the United Kingdom (UK) 15 years after an initial survey, detailed in the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report in 1998, had informed government recommendations on centralization. Setting and Sample Population This is a UK multicentre cross-sectional study of 5-year-olds born with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. Children born between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 were seen in cleft centre audit clinics. Materials and Methods Consent was obtained for the collection of routine clinical measures (speech recordings, hearing, photographs, models, oral health, psychosocial factors) and anthropometric measures (height, weight, head circumference). The methodology for each clinical measure followed those of the earlier survey as closely as possible. Results We identified 359 eligible children and recruited 268 (74.7%) to the study. Eleven separate records for each child were collected at the audit clinics. In total, 2666 (90.4%) were collected from a potential 2948 records. The response rates for the self-reported questionnaires, completed at home, were 52.6% for the Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire and 52.2% for the Satisfaction with Service Questionnaire. Conclusions Response rates and measures were similar to those achieved in the previous survey. There are practical, administrative and methodological challenges in repeating cross-sectional surveys 15 years apart and producing comparable data. PMID:26567851
Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…
Sweeny, Timothy D; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David
Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the 'gist' of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use ensemble coding to perceive the average size of a group of objects. Children viewed a pair of trees, with each containing a group of differently sized oranges. We found that, in order to determine which tree had the larger oranges overall, children integrated the sizes of multiple oranges into ensemble representations. This pooling occurred rapidly, and it occurred despite conflicting information from numerosity, continuous extent, density, and contrast. An ideal observer analysis showed that although children's integration mechanisms are sensitive, they are not yet as efficient as adults'. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the way children see and understand the environment, and they illustrate the fundamental nature of ensemble coding in visual perception.
Chen, Hong-Sen; Yang, Pei-Ling; Lee, Chen-Yi; Chen, Ker-Kong; Lee, Kun-Tsung
Maximum mouth opening (MMO) can reflect the function of the dentofacial musculature and joint system, and routine oral examinations should include its assessment. To diagnose abnormalities using MMO measurements, it is necessary to establish the normal range of MMO; however, few studies have investigated this subject in Taiwan. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the normal MMO range in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children and to investigate the factors correlated with MMO. We examined the interincisal distance, defined as the distance between the edges of the upper and lower incisors, in 518 preschool children (age range 3-5 years; 271 boys and 247 girls) with a plastic sliding caliper. The MMO on both sides of the mouth and mouth width (MW) was measured 3 times. No differences in MMO were found between the genders. The interincisal distance was 37.47 (±4.11) mm for boys and 36.93 (±3.85) mm for girls, whereas the mean MMO was 37.21 (±3.99) mm. The MMO increased with the increasing age of the children, and the mean value of MMO in children aged 3, 4, and 5 was 35.31 (±4.03), 36.61 (±3.79), and 38.31 (±3.88) mm, respectively. Furthermore, MMO was found to correlate with weight and MW. MMO increased by 0.19 mm per increased weight and 0.37 mm per increased MW. The mean value of MMO in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children was 37.21 (±3.99) mm. MMO in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children increased with age and was correlated with weight and MW.
Astheimer, Lori B; Sanders, Lisa D
Recent event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that adults employ temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech. Doing so is an effective listening strategy since word-initial segments are highly informative. Although the development of this process remains unexplored, directing attention to word onsets may be important for speech processing in young children who would otherwise be overwhelmed by the rapidly changing acoustic signals that constitute speech. We examined the use of temporally selective attention in 3- to 5-year-old children listening to stories by comparing ERPs elicited by attention probes presented at four acoustically matched times relative to word onsets: concurrently with a word onset, 100 ms before, 100 ms after, and at random control times. By 80 ms, probes presented at and after word onsets elicited a larger negativity than probes presented before word onsets or at control times. The latency and distribution of this effect is similar to temporally and spatially selective attention effects measured in adults and, despite differences in polarity, spatially selective attention effects measured in children. These results indicate that, like adults, preschool aged children modulate temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech.
Raos, Robert; Janus, Magdalena
The purpose of this study is to examine spatial variations in the prevalence rates of the three most common behaviour problems among 5-year-old children in Canada, to establish the data's suitability for potential spatial analyses of factors contributing to the prevalence of such problems. Data on kindergarten children's outcomes are routinely collected for populations of children in Canada using the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a population-level, teacher completed questionnaire. These data have been previously used to estimate prevalence rates of aggression, anxiety, and hyperactivity. The current study geographically analyzed these estimates to examine their consistency in relation to gender differences at larger provincial geographies and smaller Census Subdivision (CSD) geographies. Multilevel analyses were completed to examine the variation in prevalence at both levels of geography. Data for over 150,000 5-year-olds in three Canadian provinces and 410 Census Subdivisions were available for analyses. Prevalence rates of behaviour problems estimated with the EDI showed consistent gender relationships at both levels of aggregation. Controlling for individuals' age and sex, there was significant variation at the CSD level in risk of behavioural problems, and for anxiety and aggression, this was not explained by the distribution of CSDs in different provinces. This suggests local variation in these aspects of children's behaviour, within provinces. These findings open up the opportunity to further explore the utility and variability of EDI-based spatial variation in children's mental health.
Proietti, Valentina; Pavone, Sarah; Ricciardelli, Paola; Macchi Cassia, Viola
A large number of studies have shown that adults rely more heavily on information conveyed by the left side of the face in judging emotional state, gender and identity. This phenomenon, called left perceptual bias (LPB), suggests a right hemisphere lateralization of face processing mechanisms. Although specialization of neural mechanisms for processing over-experienced face categories begins during the first year of life, little is known about the developmental trajectory of the LPB and whether or when the bias becomes selective for specific face categories as a result of experience. To address these questions we tested adults (Experiment 1) and 5-year-old children (Experiment 2) with null or limited experience with infants in an identity matching-to-sample task with chimeric adult and infant faces, for which both adults and children have been shown to manifest differential processing abilities. Results showed that 5-year-olds manifest a leftward bias selective for adult faces, and the magnitude of the bias is larger for adult compared to infant faces in adults. This evidence is in line with earlier demonstrations of a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in adults and children and points to the role of experience in shaping neurocognitive specialization for face processing.
Searl, Jeff; Knollhoff, Stephanie
Objectives : (1) To compare oral pressure and nasal airflow in 3- to 5-year-olds versus older children and adults; (2) to describe stability of these measures in 3- to 5-year-olds at two recording times; and (3) to report participation rates of 3- to 5-year-olds for the aerodynamic protocol. Design : Prospective, nonrandomized, convenience samples in four age groups. Setting : University clinic. Participants : A total of 105 individuals without cleft palate and with normal speech for their age who were 3 to 5 (n = 45), 7 to 9 (n = 20), 11 to 13 (n = 20), or 20 to 30 years old (n = 20). All had normal nasal resonance and absence of nasally obstructive conditions on the testing day. Main Outcome Measures : Oral pressure and nasal airflow on /p/ and /m/ in syllable series and the word "hamper." Results : Oral pressure was significantly higher on /p/ for 3- to 5-year-olds versus the two oldest groups. Nasal airflow on /p/ occurred infrequently across groups. Oral pressure on /m/ was significantly higher for 3- to 5-year-olds versus adults. Nasal airflow on /m/ increased significantly with age. Oral pressure and nasal flow did not differ at two measurement times for the 3- to 5-year-olds. Of the 3- to 5-year-olds, 88% completed the protocol. Conclusions : Oral pressure decreased on /p/ and nasal airflow increased on /m/ from early childhood into adulthood. Nasal air escape on /p/ occurred rarely for speakers of any age; when it did occur, the magnitude was limited. Most preschool-aged children should be able to complete a velopharyngeal aerodynamic protocol, and measures are stable even for these young speakers.
Bentley, Judy K.
These guidelines were developed to help registered nurses identify preschoolers with potential handicaps in the course of health assessments. Contents include guidelines on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Contents are organized within age levels in terms of functioning levels and anticipatory guidance. Functional areas covered include physical,…
Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar
Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401
Saraithong, P.; Pattanaporn, K.; Chen, Z.; Khongkhunthian, S.; Laohapensang, P.; Chhun, N.; Pattanaporn, W.; Gaw, H. Y.; Li, Y.
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in supra-gingival plaque samples and to determine their correlation with the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in Thai children. Materials and methods A total of 344 Thai children, ages 3 and 5 years, were invited to participate in this study. Caries status of the children was examined. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to evaluate DNA levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Results Eighty-five percent of the children were colonized by S. mutans and 50.9 % of them were colonized by S. sobrinus. The prevalence of ECC was 43.8 % and 56.2 % among 3- and 5-year-old children, respectively, and was significantly associated with the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The severity of ECC was significantly correlated with increased DNA levels of the two bacteria. Children who were positive for S. mutans and S. sobrinus (Sm+/Sb+) were 8 times or 44 times more likely to experience ECC than children who were Sm−/Sb+or were Sm−/Sb−. Conclusions The study evidence further suggest that children colonized by both S. mutans and S. sobrinus are at the higher risk for ECC. Clinical relevance Molecular-based qPCR can be used to detect and quantify S. mutans and S. sobrinus colonization for epidemiological and clinical studies for ECC risk assessment. PMID:25753978
Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to these skills are reported in children with 22q11DS, weak VMI skills may contribute to the lower than average IQ scores commonly reported. To investigate if the correlation of VMI and IQ score was mainly influenced by problems with visual perception skills (VP), motor coordination skills (MC) or difficulties with the integration of both skills (VMI), a subgroup (n = 28) was also administered the Beery VMI supplemental developmental tests. Due to the narrow age range of this study, we were also able to provide an insight into the neurocognitive phenotype of 5-year olds with 22q11DS and the influence of gender, heart disease and origin of deletion on this phenotype. Results show a mean full scale IQ (FSIQ) = 73.0 (SD 10.4) and mean VMI = 86.2 (SD 8.4). A significant correlation between FSIQ and VMI was found (r = .45, p = .000), with most variation (26%) explained in the performance IQ score ((PIQ), r = .51, p = .000). VP correlated significantly with FSIQ (r = .44, p = .01) and PIQ (r = .49, p = .004). MC was not significantly correlated with IQ (FSIQ, r = .21, p = .15; PIQ, r = .28, p = .07), suggesting that problems with motor coordination do not influence results on IQ-tests in a significant way at this age. Girls scored significantly higher on FSIQ and PIQ than boys; cardiac anomalies were not predictive of FSIQ or VMI scores. The results of this study suggest a characteristic neurocognitive phenotype for 5-year olds with 22q11DS. Deficiencies in visual perception and/or processing are negatively correlated with IQ scores, whereas deficiencies in motor skills do not have a relevant negative impact at this age. These findings
Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie
This study was designed to examine whether a variety of cognitive and linguistic factors theoretically considered to be predictive of reading comprehension skills in elementary school children were also predictive of listening comprehension skills in 131 five-year-old children. The results showed that the predictors of young children's listening…
Feldens, Eliane Gerson; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Simone Helena
This cross-sectional study investigated the distribution of plaque and gingivitis and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and orthodontic variables (spacing in anterior teeth, anterior open bite, and crossbite), and visible plaque level (low, medium, high) in Brazilian preschoolers. The sample comprised 490 3- to 5-year-old children from nursery schools in Canoas, a city in southern Brazil. One single, trained observer examined children's oral cavities and determined visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI). Results showed that 99% of the children had visible plaque and 77% had gingivitis (GBI>0). A positive (r(s)=0.32) and significant correlation was found between VPI and GBI. VPI and GBI were significantly higher in posterior teeth and buccal and lingual surfaces. VPI was significantly higher in boys, children of low-income families, and without spacing in maxillary anterior teeth. Gingivitis was associated with absence of spacing in maxillary anterior teeth and plaque level. The most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children and mothers-particularly those with a low socioeconomic status--to motivate self-care and prevent gingivitis.
Addessi, Anna Rita; Pachet, François
The relationship between new technology and learning is gaining increasing relevance in the field of music education (Webster, 2002; Folkestad et al., 1998). However, only a few studies have considered the nature of the interaction between children and musical machines. This article describes an observation study of children aged 3-5 years…
Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.
Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…
Elam, Kit K; Carlson, Joshua M; Dilalla, Lisabeth F; Reinke, Karen S
Emotional facial expressions are important social cues that convey salient affective information. Infants, younger children, and adults all appear to orient spatial attention to emotional faces with a particularly strong bias to fearful faces. Yet in young children it is unclear whether or not both happy and fearful faces extract attention. Given that the processing of emotional faces is believed by some to serve an evolutionarily adaptive purpose, attentional biases to both fearful and happy expressions would be expected in younger children. However, the extent to which this ability is present in young children and whether or not this ability is genetically mediated is untested. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to assess the spatial-attentional properties of emotional faces in young children, with a preliminary test of whether this effect was influenced by genetics. Five-year-old twin pairs performed a dot-probe task. The results suggest that children preferentially direct spatial attention to emotional faces, particularly right visual field faces. The results provide support for the notion that the direction of spatial attention to emotional faces serves an evolutionarily adaptive function and may be mediated by genetic mechanisms.
Bougma, Karim; Aboud, Frances E.; Harding, Kimberly B.; Marquis, Grace S.
Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011) was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1) randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2) non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3) prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4) prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies), 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies), 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status), and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status). This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt. PMID:23609774
This study explores preschoolers' real life engagement with music in everyday life, examining the choices that they have over music listening and the engagement that they show in relation to music in different contexts. A total of 32 children from the United Kingdom aged 3.2-3.9 years participated with their families, nursery teachers and other…
Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie
Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…
Mageean, J F; Holland, T J; Gleeson, P
295 5-year-old children were examined in Mallow, a non-fluoridated town in North Cork to ascertain the dental status of children commencing first level education. The results were compared with those found in Baja, Hungary and in Barnsley, England. The def in Mallow was found to be 5.15 and the Met Need Index 14%. The authors suggest that the programmes of dental care should be re-examined in the light of these findings and more emphasis placed on the prevention and treatment of caries at an earlier age.
Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula
We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.
Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula
We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868
Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y; Al-Jeffri, Mohamed H; Al-Haggar, Sami H; Musa, Elgeili K; Mohamed, Omer M; Abdalla, Mohamed N
This study was designed to determine the magnitude of bacterial meningitis in general and Hib meningitis in particular among children below the age of 5 years. A population-based, prospective descriptive and analytical study was conducted in five regions, one each in northern, southern, eastern, western, and central parts of Saudi Arabia. Active surveillance for cases of bacterial meningitis among the study population, which comprised 171,818 children under 5 years of age, was implemented. A total of 208 cases of meningitis were identified, of which 141 (67.8 per cent) were identified with a definite causative organism. The remaining 67 cases (32 per cent) were labeled as aseptic meningitis. The overall incidence of meningitis was 60.53/10(5) in under-fives with a disease spectrum similar to that reported in studies conducted in other countries. The three leading causes of meningitis were Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), MCM (Neisseria menigitides) and SPN (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Hib meningitis constituted 28 per cent of cases with an incidence rate of 16.88/10(5) children. There was a marked regional variation in Hib incidence. MCM was the second leading cause (18 per cent) of meningitis with an incidence of 10.77/10(5) while SPN comprised 11 per cent of cases and its incidence was 9.69/10(5). Almost all MCM cases were related to meningitis outbreaks that occurred in Saudi Arabia during two successive Hajj seasons (2000-2001). Hib cases showed a bimodal seasonality, one peak during March-May, the other during September-November. The fact that this study is the first national base-line data on meningitis in general and Hib incidence in particular, has augmented further justification for introducing Hib vaccine within the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Based on the experience gained during this study regarding surveillance of meningitis disease, optimal methods to strengthen meningitis surveillance were identified. A model of Meningitis
Peterson, Karen E.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Cantonwine, David; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.
Background: Cumulative prenatal lead exposure, as measured by maternal bone lead burden, has been associated with smaller weight of offspring at birth and 1 month of age, but no study has examined whether this effect persists into early childhood. Objective: We investigated the association of perinatal maternal bone lead, a biomarker of cumulative prenatal lead exposure, with children’s attained weight over time from birth to 5 years of age. Methods: Children were weighed at birth and at several intervals up until 60 months. Maternal tibia and patella lead were measured at 1 month postpartum using in vivo K-shell X-ray fluorescence. We used varying coefficient models with random effects to assess the association of maternal bone lead with weight trajectories of 522 boys and 477 girls born between 1994 and 2005 in Mexico City. Results: After controlling for breast-feeding duration, maternal anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, a 1-SD increase in maternal patella lead (micrograms per gram) was associated with a 130.9-g decrease in weight [95% confidence interval (CI), –227.4 to –34.4 g] among females and a 13.0-g nonsignificant increase in weight among males (95% CI, –73.7 to 99.9 g) at 5 years of age. These associations were similar after controlling for concurrent blood lead levels between birth and 5 years. Conclusions: Maternal bone lead was associated with lower weight over time among female but not male children up to 5 years of age. Given that the association was evident for patellar but not tibial lead levels, and was limited to females, results need to be confirmed in other studies. PMID:21715242
Kyrios, Michael; Prior, Margot
Temperamental characteristics, especially low reactivity-high manageability, appeared to curtail the influence of adverse family factors on children's adjustment. Strength of relationships between temperament and children's behavioral adjustment differed as a function of time, temperamental characteristics, and the source of behavioral ratings.…
Larsson, Jan-Olov; Bergman, Lars R.; Earls, Felton; Rydelius, Per-Anders
Normal and psychopathological patterns of behavior symptoms in preschool children were described by a classification approach using cluster analysis. The behavior of 406 children, average age 4 years 9 months, from the general population was evaluated at home visits. Seven clusters were identified based on empirically defined dimensions:…
Salbe, A D; Fontvieille, A M; Pettitt, D J; Ravussin, E
Children of women who have diabetes during pregnancy are more likely to become obese by early adulthood than those of women with normal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Obesity can result from either excess food intake, low levels of energy expenditure or both. In our study, we tested whether maternal diabetes status influences total energy expenditure (TEE by doubly labelled water), resting metabolic rate (RMR by ventilated hood) and physical activity level (PAL = TEE/RMR and assessed by activity questionnaire). Measurements were taken in 88 5-year-old Pima Indian children, 24 children of women with diabetes (2-h plasma glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l) diagnosed before or during pregnancy and 64 children of women with normal glucose tolerance (2-h plasma glucose < 7.8 mmol/l during pregnancy and no prior history of abnormal glucose tolerance). Although birth weight was higher in children of diabetic than of nondiabetic women (mean +/- SD; 3.8 +/- 0.6 vs 3.5 +/- 0.4 kg, p < 0.03), there were no differences in weight (26.4 +/- 6.9 vs 24.2 +/- 5.6 kg) or per cent body fat (18O dilution; 33 +/- 8 vs 31 +/- 8%) between the groups at 5 years of age. There was no difference in TEE (6508 +/- 1109 vs 6175 +/- 942 kJ/d) or in RMR (4674 +/- 786 vs 4483 +/- 603 kJ/d) expressed as absolute values or after adjustment for weight and sex (TEE) or fat-free mass, fat mass, and sex (RMR). Physical activity level was also similar between the groups (1.40 +/- 0.12 vs 1.38 +/- 0.12). These results suggest that maternal diabetes status does not influence energy expenditure in the children by 5 years of age. Thus the greater obesity seen at older ages in the children of women with diabetes could be due to excess energy intake. Alternatively, if energy expenditure does have a role in the aetiology of obesity in these children, perhaps it does so only in older children.
Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Wright, Kira L.
Purpose: English speech acquisition in Russian-English (RE) bilingual children was investigated, exploring the effects of Russian phonetic and phonological properties on English single-word productions. Russian has more complex consonants and clusters and a smaller vowel inventory than English. Method: One hundred thirty-seven single-word samples…
This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.
Vlamings, Petra H J M; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep
Inhibitory control has been suggested as a key predictive measure of problem-solving skills in human and nonhuman animals. However, there has yet to be a direct comparison of the inhibitory skills of the nonhuman apes and their development in human children. We compared the inhibitory skills of all great ape species, including 3-5-year-old children in a detour-reaching task, which required subjects to avoid reaching directly for food and instead use an indirect reaching method to successfully obtain the food. We tested 22 chimpanzees, 18 bonobos, 18 orangutans, 6 gorillas and 42 children. Our sample included chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans housed in zoos (N = 27) and others housed in sanctuaries in their native habitats (N = 37). Overall, orangutans were the most skilful apes, including human children. As expected older children outperformed younger children. Sanctuary chimpanzees and bonobos outperformed their zoo counterparts whereas there was no difference between the two orangutan samples. Most zoo chimpanzees and bonobos failed to solve the original task, but improved their performance with additional training, although the training method determined to a considerable extent the level of success that the apes achieved in a transfer phase. In general, the performance of the older children was far from perfect and comparable to some of the nonhuman apes tested.
Background The responsiveness of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments has become relevant, given the increasing tendency to use OHRQoL measures as outcomes in clinical trials and evaluations studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the responsiveness of the Brazilian Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) to dental treatment. Methods One hundred and fifty-four children and their parents completed the child self- and parental’ reports of the SOHO-5 prior to treatment and 7 to 14 days after the completion of treatment. The post-treatment questionnaire also included a global transition judgment that assessed subject’s perceptions of change in their oral health following treatment. Change scores were calculated by subtracting post-treatment SOHO-5 scores from pre-treatment scores. Longitudinal construct validity was assessed by using one-way analysis of variance to examine the association between change scores and the global transition judgments. Measures of responsiveness included standardized effect sizes (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM). Results The improvement of children’s oral health after treatment are reflected in mean pre- and post-treatment SOHO-5 scores that declined from 2.67 to 0.61 (p < 0.001) for the child-self reports, and 4.04 to 0.71 (p < 0.001) for the parental reports. Mean change scores showed a gradient in the expected direction across categories of the global transition judgment, and there were significant differences in the pre- and post-treatment scores of those who reported improving a little (p < 0.05) and those who reported improving a lot (p < 0.001). For both versions, the ES and SRM based on change scores mean for total scores and for categories of global transitions judgments were moderate to large. Conclusions The Brazilian SOHO-5 is responsive to change and can be used as an outcome indicator in future clinical trials. Both the parental and the child
Bokhout, B; Hofman, F X; van Limbeek, J; Kramer, G J; Prahl-Andersen, B
The prevalence of dental caries was determined clinically in 2.5-year-old Dutch cleft lip and/or palate children (n = 76) and in children without congenital malformation (n = 75). The parents were given a structured questionnaire regarding the child's dietary habits, oral hygiene, fluoride exposure and social economic background. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in children with oral cleft than in children without oral cleft. Initial caries (white spots) was diagnosed in 17.1% of the subjects with oral cleft compared with 4.0% of the control subjects. Manifest caries (cavities) was found in 26.3% of the children with oral cleft compared with 5.3% of the controls. The dft score (manifest caries) was significantly higher for the oral cleft group (0.59 +/- 1.35) than for the control group (0.11 +/- 0.54). 52% of the total number of initial and manifest lesions were localized to the maxillary incisors. A multivariate analysis yielded initial caries, oral hygiene and treatment with preoperative infant orthopaedics as the variables significantly associated with manifest caries.
Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark
This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.
Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark
This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553
Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which strategy children would prefer to use in 2 hypothetical conflict situations. Results indicated that, first, for disagreement, 3-year-olds in the 3 countries equally preferred the dominating strategy. For competition for resources, 3-year-olds differed in their strategy preference across all cultures. Second, the observed strategy preference of 3- to 5-year-old children in this study was more or less different from that of older schoolchildren, regardless of culture. Practice or Policy: These findings suggest the significance of the context, the complexity of the phenomenon of the development of cultural differences, and the significance of cohort sampling. PMID:26430351
Altay, Aylin; Bozdayı, Gülendam; Meral, Melda; Dallar Bilge, Yıldız; Dalgıç, Buket; Ozkan, Seçil; Ahmed, Kamruddin
Norovirus causes severe gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization especially in children less than five years of age both in developed and developing countries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence of norovirus (NoV) in 0-5 years old children with acute gastroenteritis in two large hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Stool samples were obtained from 1000 (413 female, 587 male) children between 0-5 years old with acute gastroenteritis who attended to the Department of Paediatrics, Ministry of Health Ankara Training and Education Hospital and affiliated hospital of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine between October 2004 and June 2011. Antigens of norovirus GI and GII genogroups in the stool specimens were detected by ELISA (RIDASCREEN® Norovirus (C1401) 3rd Generation, R-Biopharm, Germany). Norovirus GI and GII antigens were determined in a total of 141 (14.1%) samples, of them 62 (15%) were female and 79 (13.5%) were male, yielding no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05). The highest NoV positivity was detected in children between 12-23 months (17.1%), however there was no statistically significant difference between ELISA positivity and age (p> 0.05). NoV detection rate was highest in 2007 (18.4%) and in 2009 (18%), and the difference regarding ELISA positivity among the study years was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). The prevalences of norovirus infection in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 13.8%, 17.7%, 14.7% and 11.2%, respectively. Therefore no seasonal variation was found in the incidence of norovirus infection. However when the monthly prevalence was analyzed, a statistically significant difference was found (p< 0.05) between the rate of norovirus infection in july (24.2%) and december (4.1%). When evaluating the clinical symptoms, all of 141 patients (100%) had diarrhoea, while 72 (51.1%) had vomiting. Stool samples were also evaluated for the presence of parasitic and bacterial agents. Coinfection rate with parasites was
Office of Head Start, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010
This report presents a revision of the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework (2000), renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old. The Framework outlines the essential areas of development and learning that are to be used by Head Start programs…
Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Komatsu, Masatoshi; Inaba, Yuji; Kosho, Tomoki; Kato, Hiroyuki
Surgical procedures for atlantoaxial (C1–C2) fusion in young children are relatively uncommon. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical treatment for a case of atlantoaxial instability caused by os-odontoideum in association with quadriparesis and respiratory paralysis in a 5-year-old girl. We present the patient's history, physical examination, and radiographic findings, describe the surgical treatment and a five year follow-up, and provide a literature review. The instability was treated by halo immobilization, followed by C1–C2 transarticular screw fixation using a computed tomography-based navigation system. At the five year follow-up, the patient had made a complete recovery with solid union. The authors conclude that C1–2 transarticular screw fixation is technically possible as in a case of atlantoaxial instability in a five-year-old child. PMID:27790327
Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John
During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…
Arbour, MaryCatherine; Murray, Kara A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Arriet, Felipe; Moraga, Cecilia; Vega, Miguel Angel Cordero
An 8.8-magnitude earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010, displacing nearly 2,000 children aged less than five years to emergency housing camps. Nine months later, this study assessed the needs of 140 displaced 0-5-year-old children in six domains: caregiver stability and protection; health; housing; nutrition; psychosocial situation; and stimulation. Multivariate regression was applied to examine the degree to which emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with baseline characteristics and exposure to the earthquake, to stressful events, and to ongoing risks in the proximal post-earthquake context. In each domain, 20 per cent or fewer children had unmet needs. Of all children in the sample, 20 per cent had unmet needs in multiple domains. Children's emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with ongoing exposures amenable to intervention, more than with baseline characteristics or epicentre proximity. Relief efforts should address multiple interrelated domains of child well-being and ongoing risks in post-disaster settings.
Mason, Maryann; Meleedy-Rey, Patricia; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Longjohn, Matt; Garcia, Myrna P.; Ashlaw, Catherine
This article reports the first estimates of overweight prevalence in Chicago children entering school (aged 3-5 years). Chicago data are compared with those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Data were from 2 separate convenience samples of children aged 3-5 years…
Bergallo, Massimiliano; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Brusin, Martina Rosa; Finotti, Serena; Paderi, Giulia; Gabiano, Clara
Gastroenteritis is a common disease in children. It is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis, but it causes milder illness than do rotavirus and norovirus. There is high variability in the analytical performance of quantitative PCR-based assays among clinical laboratories. This study developed a reverse transcription real-time PCR method to detect SaV in fecal specimens collected from children under 5-years-old with acute gastroenteritis. Of 137 episodes of acute gastroenteritis, 15 (10.9%) were associated with SaV genomic detection, with a median viral load of 6.6(log10) ± 7.1(log10) genomes/mg fecal specimens. There was a significant difference in detection rate between males and females (9.48% (13/15) vs. 1.46% (2/15), p = 0.0232). Among the 15 SaV-positive cases, 6 were also positive for rotavirus. Viral RNA recovery rate ranged from 46% to 77% in the manual RNAzol protocol and from 31% to 90% in the automated Maxwell protocol. We also studied whether human genomic DNA influences the sensitivity of the assay: its presence caused a decrease in PCR sensitivity. The development of a laboratory-designed real-time PCR TaqMan assay for quantitative detection of SaV and the optimization and standardization of this assay, using stools of children with acute gastroenteritis, are described.
Houwen, Suzanne; van der Veer, Gerda; Visser, Jan; Cantell, Marja
It is generally agreed that motor performance and executive functioning (EF) are intertwined. As the literature on this issue concerning preschool children is scarce, we examined the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children with different levels of motor skill proficiency, while controlling for age, gender, socio-economic status (SES), and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. EF was reported by parents of 153 children (mean age 4years 1months, SD 8months; 75 male) by means of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Parent-reported ADHD symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity-Inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire3-4. In addition, the children performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2). Several weak to moderate relationships were found between the MABC-2 Total Score and the EF subscales. Once other variables such as age, gender, SES, and ADHD symptomatology were taken into account, the only BRIEF-P subscale that was associated with the MABC-2 Total Score was the Working Memory subscale. Compared to their typically developing peers, children who are at risk for motor coordination difficulties (⩽the 16th percentile on the MABC-2) performed poorly on the Working Memory subscale, which confirms the results of the regression analyses. The at risk group also performed significantly worse on the Planning/Organize subscale, however. This is one of the first studies investigating the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in such a young age group. It shows that the relationship between motor performance and EF in young children is complex and may be influenced by the presence of confounding variables such as ADHD symptomatology.
Størksen, Ingunn; Ellingsen, Ingunn T.; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.
Research Findings: Self-regulation in young children predicts later social adjustment and academic success across cultural contexts. Therefore, it is crucial to identify factors that promote or inhibit behavioral self-regulation skills. In this study, we focus on gender and socioeconomic status (SES; parental education and income) as possible…
Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C
Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.
Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US
Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749
Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C
Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2-5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p < 0.01) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p < 0.001). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.
Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C.
Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p < 0.01) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p < 0.001). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics. PMID:26199741
Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which…
Stirling, Leia; Weatherly, Jake
To develop active pediatric orthotics, it is important to accurately predict alterations to a straight path, such as turns. In this study we examine anticipatory signals prior to a pre-defined turn in seven healthy children. Subjects walked along a predefined 4.25m straight path and then made either a 40-degree turn left or right, or continued straight based on a pre-set color panel at the endpoint. The forward center of mass (COM) velocity for the stride prior to the turn region was 1.16±0.22m/s (no significant difference was seen with respect to turn direction, p>0.05). In the stride prior to landing in the turn region, subjects showed a significant difference in the mediolateral COM velocity with respect to the turn direction (p=0.003 for 30% and p<0.0005 for 40-100% of the gait cycle). No significant differences were observed in the sagittal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, or ankle during the preparatory stride with respect to turn direction (p>0.05) when compared at 10% gait increments. However, significant differences were observed in pelvic rotation for 10-30% (p<0.05) and 70-100% (p<0.0005) of the gait cycle. The subjects were inconsistent in strategy used to perform a turn. In trials to the left and right, 66% and 56% of the trials were step turns, respectively. The varying turn strategy may be a function of limited instructions provided to the child, or ongoing development in the children's COM control. Yet even with the varying strategies, there exist anticipatory signals that can be used to design real-time controllers for assistive devices with readily available sensor systems.
Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.
We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…
Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John
Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…
Smith, I M; Harvey, N; Logan, R M; David, D J; Anderson, P J
Odontogenic keratocysts in children are uncommon. They are cysts of the jaws that have a tendency for recurrence and are usually seen in adults. We report an exceptionally rare case in a young child and discuss its management.
Garenne, Michel; Gakusi, Enéas
OBJECTIVE: To reconstruct and analyse mortality trends in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa between 1950 and 2000. METHODS: We selected 66 Demographic and Health Surveys and World Fertility Surveys from 32 African countries for analysis. Death rates were calculated by yearly periods for each survey. When several surveys were available for the same country, overlapping years were combined. Country-specific time series were analysed to identify periods of monotonic trends, whether declining, steady or increasing. We tested changes in trends using a linear logistic model. FINDINGS: A quarter of the countries studied had monotonic declining mortality trends: i.e. a smooth health transition. Another quarter had long-term declines with some minor rises over short periods of time. Eight countries had periods of major increases in mortality due to political or economic crises, and in seven countries mortality stopped declining for several years. In eight other countries mortality has risen in recent years as a result of paediatric AIDS. Reconstructed levels and trends were compared with other estimates made by international organizations, usually based on indirect methods. CONCLUSION: Overall, major progress in child survival was achieved in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the twentieth century. However, transition has occurred more slowly than expected, with an average decline of 1.8% per year. Additionally, transition was chaotic in many countries. The main causes of mortality increase were political instability, serious economic downturns, and emerging diseases. PMID:16799731
Skogerbø, Å; Kesmodel, US; Wimberley, T; Støvring, H; Bertrand, J; Landrø, NI; Mortensen, EL
Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children’s executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child’s age at testing, and the child’s gender were considered core confounding factors. The full model also included maternal binge drinking or low to moderate alcohol consumption, maternal age, parity, maternal marital status, family home environment, postnatal parental smoking, pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), and the health status of the child. Main outcome measures The BRIEF parent and teacher forms. Results Adjusted for all potential confounding factors, no statistically significant associations between maternal low to moderate average weekly consumption and BRIEF index scores were observed. In adjusted analyses, binge drinking in gestational week 9 or later was significantly associated with elevated Behavioural Regulation Index parent scores (OR 2.04, 95% CI 0.33–3.76), and with the risk of high scores on the Metacognitive Index assessed by the teacher (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.01–4.23). Conclusions This study did not observe significant effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on executive functioning at the age of 5 years. Furthermore, only weak and no consistent associations between maternal binge drinking and executive functions were observed. PMID:22712874
Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark
This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…
Lal, Aparna; Dobbins, Timothy; Bagheri, Nasser; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P; Hales, Simon
The public health risks associated with dairy farming intensification are an emerging concern. We examine the association between dairy cattle density and cryptosporidiosis risk in children <5 years old in New Zealand from 1997 to 2008, a period of rapid intensification of the dairy industry. Multi-level Poisson regression was used to model reported cryptosporidiosis (N = 3869 cases) incidence in relation to dairy cattle densities across urban and rural areas separately, after controlling for microbiological quality of public drinking water supplies and neighbourhood socio-economic factors using the Census Area Unit of residence. Within urban areas, the risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old was significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density IRR 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. Within rural areas, the incidence risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old were significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density: IRR 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.3) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.5, 2.8) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. These results have public health implications for children living on and in proximity to intensively stocked dairy cattle farms.
Zanini, Chiara; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Lorusso, Riccardina; Franzon, Francesca
Is the mass-count distinction merely a linguistic issue, or is it coded in representations other than language? We hypothesized that a difference between mass and count properties should be observed even in absence of linguistic distinctions driven by the morphosyntactic context. We tested 5-6-year-old children's ability to judge sentences with mass nouns (sand), count nouns (ring), and neutral nouns (i.e., those that appear in mass and count contexts with similar frequency; cake). Children refused neutral nouns embedded in uncountable morphosyntactic contexts, showing a preference for a count interpretation. This suggests that linguistic features alone are not sufficient to define the mass-count distinction. Additional analyses showed that children's performance with mass-but not count-morphosyntax correlated with their performance in tasks concerning logical and conservation operations. Altogether, these results suggest that the processing of mass features is not more demanding than count features from a linguistic point of view; rather, mass features entail additional abstraction abilities.
Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong
Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children's prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called "game" where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception-no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children's social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors.
Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion
The experience of empathy has been described as involving both emotional and cognitive components. The primary hypothesis tested in this study is that cognition and emotion are integrated within 2 distinct types of abilities--control and perspective taking--and that interactions between emotional and cognitive control and between affective and…
Holmberg, Hanna; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Vaarala, Outi; Ludvigsson, Johnny
Breast-feeding has been suggested to have a protective effect against the development of type 1 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the relation between duration of breast-feeding and beta-cell autoantibodies in 5-year-old non-diabetic children who participated in a prospective population-based follow-up study (the All Babies in Southeast Sweden study). Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and the protein tryosine phosphatase-like IA-2 (IA-2A) were measured by radiobinding assays. A short duration of total breast-feeding was associated with an increased risk of GADA and/or IAA above the ninety-fifth percentile at 5 years of age (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.45, 3.02; P<0.000) as well as with an increased risk of IAA above the ninety-fifth percentile at this age (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.81, 4.62, P<0.000). A short duration of exclusive breast-feeding was associated with an increased risk of GADA, IAA and/or IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.08, 3.73; P=0.028) as well as with an increased risk of IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.38, 8.92, P=0.009) at 5 years of age. An early introduction of formula was associated with an increased risk of GADA, IAA and/or IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.01, 3.37; P=0.047) at 5 years of age. The positive association between a short duration of both total and exclusive breast-feeding, as well as an early introduction of formula, and positivity for beta-cell autoantibodies in children from the general population suggest that breast-feeding modifies the risk of beta-cell autoimmunity, even years after finishing breast-feeding.
Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Harding, Jane E.; Thompson, Benjamin
Global motion processing depends on a network of brain regions that includes extrastriate area V5 in the dorsal visual stream. For this reason, psychophysical measures of global motion perception have been used to provide a behavioural measure of dorsal stream function. This approach assumes that global motion is relatively independent of visual functions that arise earlier in the visual processing hierarchy such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested this assumption by assessing the relationships between global motion perception, contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination (henceforth referred to as contrast sensitivity) and habitual visual acuity in a large group of 4.5-year-old children (n = 117). The children were born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment because of prenatal drug exposure or risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia. Motion coherence thresholds, a measure of global motion perception, were assessed using random dot kinematograms. The contrast of the stimuli was fixed at 100% and coherence was varied. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the same stimuli by fixing motion coherence at 100% and varying dot contrast. Stereoacuity was also measured. Motion coherence thresholds were not correlated with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity. However, lower (better) motion coherence thresholds were correlated with finer stereoacuity (rho=0.38, p=0.004). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were also correlated (rho= −0.26, p=0.004) with each other. These results indicate that global motion perception for high contrast stimuli is independent of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity and can be used to assess motion integration mechanisms in children. PMID:26318529
Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne
Purpose: To determine risk and protective factors for speech and language impairment in early childhood. Method: Data are presented for a nationally representative sample of 4,983 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (described in McLeod & Harrison, 2009). Thirty-one child, parent, family, and community…
This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on children as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…
Bonnet, Marielle; Goossens, Frits A.; Schuengel, Carlo
This study was designed to examine how parental strategies contribute to explaining trajectories of peer victimization in young children. A total of 73 4 and 5 year old children identified as victims of peer aggression in the fall semester and their parents were recruited from 46 classrooms in 18 schools in the Netherlands. All children were…
Neiworth, Julie J; Gleichman, Amy J; Olinick, Anne S; Lamp, Kristen E
This study compared adults (Homo sapiens), young children (Homo sapiens), and adult tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) while they discriminated global and local properties of stimuli. Subjects were trained to discriminate a circle made of circle elements from a square made of square elements and were tested with circles made of squares and squares made of circles. Adult humans showed a global bias in testing that was unaffected by the density of the elements in the stimuli. Children showed a global bias with dense displays but discriminated by both local and global properties with sparse displays. Adult tamarins' biases matched those of the children. The striking similarity between the perceptual processing of adult monkeys and humans diagnosed with autism and the difference between this and normatively developing human perception is discussed.
Uceda, Paola R; Sanzone, Lauren A; Phillips, Ceib L; Roberts, Michael W
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that includes behavioral and cultural components. The study's purpose was to determine the caries experienced (as measured by dmft) in a group of 2-5 y/o children, assess their family and home environment including consumption of fluoridated drinking water, use of a fluoride containing dentifrice, and level of caregiver formal education. Parents of children referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia and who either spoke and read English or Spanish were recruited and consent obtained. Selected information on the family home, parental education and selected fluoride contact data was obtained. An oral clinical examination of the child assisted by intraoral radiographs was completed and the number of decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) recorded for each child. Bitewings were obtained if posterior or anterior teeth contacts were closed but only periapical radiographs were obtained if contacts were open. Children of English speaking caregivers had statistically more dmft after controlling for the effect of the child's age and years of parental education (p=0.04). English speaking families had lived in their current home longer and the parent had more formal education than did the Spanish speaking parent. When available, the English children drank municipal tap water more often than did the Spanish children. Spanish speaking parents often chose bottled drinking water. No difference between the two groups was found in the use of tap water for cooking or the use of fluoridated dentifrice. In conclusion, increased parent education, language spoken by the parents and time living in the current home were not associated with lower dmft. Drinking fluoridated drinking water did not affect the dmft. However, using fluoridated water when available to cook and using fluoride containing dentifrice by both groups may have been mutually beneficial.
Qiu, Ting; Chang, Chen; Li, Yun; Qian, Lu; Xiao, Chao Yong; Xiao, Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Yun Hua; Chu, Kang Kang; Lewis, Mark H; Ke, Xiaoyan
Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2-3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD) at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.
Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria
This study determined the seasonal availability and dietary intake of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit in a rural South African community growing these crops at household level. Monitoring year-round availability of vegetables and fruit in five local shops during 2004 showed that beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit were seldom available in the shops. The dietary intake of 2-year-old to 5-year-old children was determined during February, May, August and November in 2004 and 2005 using an unquantified food frequency questionnaire and 5-day repeated 24-h recall (2005 only). Consumption of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit showed seasonal variation. Inadequate dietary vitamin A intake ranged from 6% in November to 21% in February and August. beta-Carotene-rich vegetables and fruit contributed 49-74% of the total vitamin A intake. It is concluded that beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit contribute a major part of the dietary vitamin A intake. Consumption of individual beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit fluctuated according to the season; nonetheless, an adequate dietary vitamin A intake was maintained throughout the year for the majority of the study population.
Hoffmann, Jonathan; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Randriamarotia, Martin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Najjar, Josette; Vernet, Guy; Contamin, Bénédicte; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia
Background In Madagascar, very little is known about the etiology and prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a rural tropical area. Recent data are needed to determine the viral and atypical bacterial etiologies in children with defined clinical manifestations of ARIs. Methods During one year, we conducted a prospective study on ARIs in children between 2 to 59 months in the community hospital of Ampasimanjeva, located in the south-east of Madagascar. Respiratory samples were analyzed by multiplex real-time RT-PCR, including 18 viruses and 2 atypical bacteria. The various episodes of ARI were grouped into four clinical manifestations with well-documented diagnosis: “Community Acquired Pneumonia”(CAP, group I), “Other acute lower respiratory infections (Other ALRIs, group II)”, “Upper respiratory tract infections with cough (URTIs with cough, group III)”and “Upper respiratory tract infections without cough (URTIs without cough, group IV)”. Results 295 children were included in the study between February 2010 and February 2011. Viruses and/or atypical bacteria respiratory pathogens were detected in 74.6% of samples, the rate of co-infection was 27.3%. Human rhinovirus (HRV; 20.5%), metapneumovirus (HMPV A/B, 13.8%), coronaviruses (HCoV, 12.5%), parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 11.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus A and B (RSV A/B, 11.8%) were the most detected. HRV was predominantly single detected (23.8%) in all the clinical groups while HMPV A/B (23.9%) was mainly related to CAP (group I), HPIV (17.3%) to the “Other ALRIs” (group II), RSV A/B (19.5%) predominated in the group “URTIs with cough” (group III) and Adenovirus (HAdV, 17.8%) was mainly detected in the “without cough” (group IV). Interpretation This study describes for the first time the etiology of respiratory infections in febrile children under 5 years in a malaria rural area of Madagascar and highlights the role of respiratory viruses in a well clinically defined
Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…
Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola
Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format (Clayton & Russell, 2009; Hassabis & Maguire, 2007). Accordingly, we asked children of 3, 4, and 5 to chose items they would need to play a game (blow football) from the opposite side of the table on which they had never before played. The crucial item was the box that was needed by children to reach the table from the other side. Over four experiments, we demonstrated that, while children of 3 perform poorly on future questions and children of 5 generally perform quite well, children of 4 years find a question about what they themselves will need to play in the future harder to answer than a similar question posed about another child. We suggest that this result is due to the 'growth error' of over-applying newly-developed Level 2 perspective-taking skills (Flavell et al., 1981), which encourages the selection of non-functional items. The data are discussed in terms of perspective-taking abilities in children and of the neural correlates of episodic cognition, navigation, and theory of mind.
Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T.; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug
Background Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization’s decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis. Results Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7–22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7–21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65–1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7). Conclusion PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150 PMID:25938681
Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.
It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as "Labrador," "dog," and "animal." Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and…
This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on portraits as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…
This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on the theme: shapes, colors, and stories. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trip, and…
This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on animals as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…
Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.
It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as “Labrador,” “dog,” and “animal.” Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and adults. Here, we report data testing a developmental prediction of the Bayesian model—that more knowledge should lead to narrower category inferences when presented with multiple subordinate examples. Two experiments did not support this prediction. Children with more category knowledge showed broader generalization when presented with multiple subordinate examples, compared to less knowledgeable children and adults. This implies a U-shaped developmental trend. The Bayesian model was not able to account for these data, even with inputs that reflected the similarity judgments of children. We discuss implications for the Bayesian model including a combined Bayesian/morphological knowledge account that could explain the demonstrated U-shaped trend. PMID:24961497
Uceda, Paola R.; Sanzone, Lauren A.; Phillips, Ceib L.; Roberts, Michael W.
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that includes behavioral and cultural components. The study’s purpose was to determine the caries experienced (as measured by dmft) in a group of 2-5 y/o children, assess their family and home environment including consumption of fluoridated drinking water, use of a fluoride containing dentifrice, and level of caregiver formal education. Parents of children referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia and who either spoke and read English or Spanish were recruited and consent obtained. Selected information on the family home, parental education and selected fluoride contact data was obtained. An oral clinical examination of the child assisted by intraoral radiographs was completed and the number of decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) recorded for each child. Bitewings were obtained if posterior or anterior teeth contacts were closed but only periapical radiographs were obtained if contacts were open. Children of English speaking caregivers had statistically more dmft after controlling for the effect of the child’s age and years of parental education (p=0.04). English speaking families had lived in their current home longer and the parent had more formal education than did the Spanish speaking parent. When available, the English children drank municipal tap water more often than did the Spanish children. Spanish speaking parents often chose bottled drinking water. No difference between the two groups was found in the use of tap water for cooking or the use of fluoridated dentifrice. In conclusion, increased parent education, language spoken by the parents and time living in the current home were not associated with lower dmft. Drinking fluoridated drinking water did not affect the dmft. However, using fluoridated water when available to cook and using fluoride containing dentifrice by both groups may have been mutually beneficial. PMID:24379894
Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko
The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…
Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Zelikovich, E I; Soldatsky, Yu L; Burova, O V
This publication was designed to describe a rare case of development of apicalpetrositis in a child presenting with acute otitis mediafollowing chicken pox experienced in the preceding period. We carried out the study with the use of computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated destruction of the temporal bone, bones of the base of the skull and of the first cervical vertebra. The treatment strategy chosen for the management of this condition that included antibiotic therapy and expectant observation proved justified and can be recommended as an algorithm of choice taking into consideration the difficulty of surgical approach to the apex of the petrous pyramid. However, this approach is associated with the high risk of disability arising from the potential injury to the craniocerebral nerves.
Gopinath, Vellore Kannan
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899
Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Nakayama, Tojo; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Kure, Shigeo; Kamada, Fumiaki; Abe, Yu; Arai, Natsuko; Togashi, Noriko; Onuma, Akira; Tsuchiya, Shigeru
Smith-Magenis syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation caused by the heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 17p11.2. We present a long-term follow-up study of a girl with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome. West syndrome became apparent at 7 months of age. Since then, mental retardation, particularly in terms of language development, became increasingly more obvious. The patient's spasms and hypsarrhythmia disappeared after a course of adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy, but focal seizures reappeared at the age of 3 years and 3 months. Her craniofacial dysmorphia and mental retardation became increasingly evident compared to her condition at the onset of West syndrome. Chromosome analysis detected the characteristic 17p deletion, which was then confirmed via fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. This is the second report of a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome; taken together, these results suggest that Smith-Magenis syndrome may be a further cause of West syndrome.
Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick
Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children
... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fitness and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old KidsHealth > ... the risk of serious illnesses later in life. Fitness for Preschoolers Physical activity guidelines for preschoolers recommend ...
... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... cooperatively with other kids understand the concept of gender identify colors Developmental milestones for 5-year-olds ...
Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette
Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…
Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.
Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E
Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).
Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán G
Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r=0.55, p<0.001), fewer chews per gram (r=-0.71, p<0.001) and shorter oral exposure time per bite (r=-0.25, p<0.001), and with higher energy intakes (r=0.61, p<0.001). Children with overweight and higher adiposity had faster eating rates (p<0.01) and higher energy intakes (p<0.01), driven by larger bite sizes (p<0.05). Eating behaviours varied by sex, ethnicity and early feeding regimes, partially attributable to BMI. We propose that these behaviours describe an 'obesogenic eating style' that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight
Simão, Inês; Gaspar, Iuri; Faustino, Rosário; Brito, Maria João Rocha
Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is rare in Western Europe. We report the case of a 5-year-old Portuguese boy diagnosed with rhinoscleroma in the context of recurrent epistaxis. He had a 6-month course of antibiotic (amoxicillin plus clavulanate) therapy with full recovery.
Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.
Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai
A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.
Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun
Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…
Peterson, Paula J.
Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…
Romeo, S; Sunshine, S
We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain.
Ljungberg; Westlund; Lindqvist Forsberg AJ
In nonhuman primates, affiliative behaviours, such as social grooming and various forms of body contact, become more frequent after an aggressive interaction. Since such behaviours lead to a decrease in postconflict aggressive behaviour and displacement activities and to increased social tolerance, they have been labelled reconciliatory. We videofilmed sessions of free play in daycare centres in Stockholm and investigated whether affiliative behaviours used by 5-year-old boys in the postconflict period had a similar reconciliatory function. For 219 conflicts in 21 h 40 min of observation we recorded postconflict affiliative/prosocial, aggressive and displacement behaviours. When affiliative behaviours were shown and accepted by the opponent, aggressive and displacement behaviours decreased and play was promoted. These behaviours thus serve a function similar to reconciliatory behaviour in nonhuman primates and we think it is applicable to call accepted affiliative behaviours in postconflict periods of preschool children reconciliatory. However, conflicts were often polyadic and nonconflict periods consisted of intense play with a rich exchange of affiliative behaviours. These factors were limitations to the postconflict/matched-control method traditionally used in primatological research to document reconciliatory behaviour. We suggest that for preschool children, video recordings and an analysis and description of postconflict affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours can be used instead. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa
Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811
Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen
In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…
Creel, Sarah C; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang
Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination). The findings support the Pitch Generalization Hypothesis that tone languages drive attention to pitch in nonlinguistic contexts, and suggest that language learning benefits aspects of music perception in early development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/UY0kpGpPNA0.
Schuele, C. Melanie
The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables—phonological memory and phonological awareness—is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word learning. Children were exposed to target words in a read-aloud story that accompanied a wordless picture book. Target word comprehension was assessed before and after two readings of the story. Phonological awareness predicted incidental word learning but phonological memory did not. The influence of phonological awareness and phonological memory on word learning may be dependent on the demands of the word learning task. PMID:23979141
Flynn, Emma; Whiten, Andrew
We investigated developmental changes in the level of information children incorporate into their imitation when a model executes complex, hierarchically organized actions. A total of 57 3-year-olds and 60 5-year-olds participated, watching video demonstrations of an "artificial fruit" box being opened through a complex series of nine different…
Apel, Kenn; Wolter, Julie A; Masterson, Julie J
The purpose of this study was to investigate the orthographic-processing skills of typically developing 5-year-old preschool children. Of interest was whether phonotactic probabilities and/or orthotactic probabilities affected their ability to quickly learn the orthographic forms of 12 novel words. Orthographic processing was measured by the children's ability to spell and identify spellings of the novel words. Specifically, we were interested in whether (a) children quickly stored or "fast mapped" orthographic information after minimal exposure to novel words during storybook readings, (b) phonotactic and orthotactic probabilities affected orthographic fast-mapping skills, and (c) orthographic processing explained unique variance on a measure of the children's early spelling abilities. The results of this study indicated that young children quickly fast mapped orthographic information after minimal exposure to novel words, and their spelling (generation or reproduction but not recognition) was influenced by phonotactic and orthotactic probabilities. The significance of this work is that it demonstrates that preschoolers can fast map orthographic words they see onto spoken words they hear while listening to storybooks read to them and that the spelling of preschoolers is influenced uniquely by both phonological and orthographic information (probability of frequent letter and sound sequences in English words).
Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J
Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.
Arnhold, Anja; Chen, Aoju; Järvikivi, Juhani
Using a language game to elicit short sentences in various information structural conditions, we found that Finnish 4- to 5-year-olds already exhibit a characteristic interaction between prosody and word order in marking information structure. Providing insights into the acquisition of this complex system of interactions, the production data showed interesting parallels to adult speakers of Finnish on the one hand and to children acquiring other languages on the other hand. Analyzing a total of 571 sentences produced by 16 children, we found that children rarely adjusted input word order, but did systematically avoid marked OVS order in contrastive object focus condition. Focus condition also significantly affected four prosodic parameters, f0, duration, pauses and voice quality. Differing slightly from effects displayed in adult Finnish speech, the children produced larger f0 ranges for words in contrastive focus and smaller ones for unfocused words, varied only the duration of object constituents to be longer in focus and shorter in unfocused condition, inserted more pauses before and after focused constituents and systematically modified their use of non-modal voice quality only in utterances with narrow focus. Crucially, these effects were modulated by word order. In contrast to comparable data from children acquiring Germanic languages, the present findings reflect the more central role of word order and of interactions between word order and prosody in marking information structure in Finnish. Thus, the study highlights the role of the target language in determining linguistic development. PMID:27990130
Romero Ibarra, C; Bueno Campaña, M; Barriuso Lapresa, L M; de Miguel Medina, C; Maraví Poma, E
We present the case of a child five and half years-old that died suddenly due to an acute myocardial infarction. The anatomopathological study showed a total obstruction of the left coronary ostium by mixoide dysplasia of the aortic valve. We revise the literature and briefly expose the more frequent causes of infarction in infancy.
Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena
This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…
Bunce, John P; Scott, Rose M
While recent studies suggest children can use cross-situational information to learn words, these studies involved minimal referential ambiguity, and the cross-situational evidence overwhelmingly favored a single referent for each word. Here we asked whether 2·5-year-olds could identify a noun's referent when the scene and cross-situational evidence were more ambiguous. Children saw four trials in which a novel word occurred with four novel objects; only one object consistently co-occurred with the word across trials. The frequency of distracter objects varied across conditions. When all distracter referents occurred only once (no-competition), children successfully identified the noun's referent. When a high-probability competitor referent occurred on three trials, children identified the target referent if the competitor was absent on the third trial (short-competition) but not if it was present until the fourth trial (long-competition). This suggests that although 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational learning scales up to more ambiguous scenes, it is disrupted by high-probability competitor referents.
Song, Hyun-joo; Fisher, Cynthia
Three experiments examined 2.5-year-olds’ sensitivity to discourse structure in pronoun interpretation. Children heard simple two-character stories illustrated by pictures on two video screens. In Experiments 1 and 2, one character in each story was established as more prominent than the other in several context sentences because it was mentioned first, appeared in subject position, was mentioned more often, and was pronominalized once. In Experiment 3, one character was singled out as more prominent only by being mentioned first and placed in subject position. In all three experiments, after hearing a pronoun subject in the final (test) sentence of each story, children looked longer at the character established as more prominent in the preceding sentences. These experiments show that 2.5-year-olds, like older children and adults, interpret pronouns relative to a discourse representation in which referents are ranked in prominence, and that the prominence of discourse referents is influenced by some of the same factors that guide pronoun interpretation in adulthood. PMID:18978930
Goudarzipour, K.; Zavvar, N.; Behnam, B.; Ahmadi, M. A.
Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare syndrome characterized by clinical symptoms and signs of Vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria. Our patient was a 5-year-old boy with pallor, lack of appetite, and low weight gain. Laboratory studies showed severe macrocytic anemia, normal reticulocyte count, negative direct coombs test, normal osmotic fragility, and autohemolysis test. He has had intermittent proteinuria since 3 years ago despite normal creatinine level and absence of hematuria or hypertension. Finally, based on low level of serum B12 vitamin and normal folate level accompanied by asymptomatic proteinuria, the diagnosis of IGS was made. Furthermore, his sister has had laboratory abnormalities without any symptoms. IGS responded to B12 replacement therapy dramatically but intermittent proteinuria persisted even after appropriate therapy. PMID:27942180
Ali, N J; Pitson, D J; Stradling, J R
Parents of 996 children aged 4-5 years identified consecutively from the Oxford health visitor register were asked to complete a questionnaire about breathing disorders during sleep. A total of 782 (78.5%) was returned. Ninety five (12.1%) children were reported to snore on most nights. Habitual snoring was significantly associated with daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and hyperactivity. The questionnaire responses were used to select two subgroups, one at high risk of a sleep and breathing disorder and a control group. These children (132 in total) were monitored at home with overnight video recording and oximetry, and had formal behavioural assessment using the Conners scale. Seven (7/66) children from the high risk group and none from the control group had obvious sleep disturbance consequent on snoring and upper airway obstruction. Thus our estimate of the prevalence of sleep and breathing disorders in this age group is 7/996 or 0.7%. The high risk group had significantly higher nocturnal movement, oxygen saturation dip rates, and overnight pulse rates than the controls. Maternal but not paternal smoking was associated with the high risk group. Parents and teachers thought those in the high risk group were more hyperactive and inattentive than the controls, but only their parents thought them more aggressive. Significant sleep and breathing disorders occur in about 0.7% of 4-5 year olds. Children whose parents report snoring and sleep disturbance have objective evidence of sleep disruption and show more behaviour problems than controls. PMID:8280201
Beck, J; Pluchart, C; Durlach, A; Durez, O; Abely, M; Pietrement, C
A subcutaneous mass of the skull in children can have many different causes (infectious, tumoral, and inflammatory). We report on the case of a 5-year-old patient with a subcutaneous mass of the skull evolving over several months. The first pathological analysis concluded in Kimura disease. The progression and scarcity of this entity in children led to a second pathological analysis that showed lymphoblastic lymphoma B (LLB). This case reminds us that when there are discrepancies between pathological conclusions and clinical progression of a tumoral process, repeated analysis and immunochemistry are necessary.
Kim, Jong Won; Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A
Hygroscopic growth within the human respiratory tract can be significant, which may notably alter the behavior and fate of the inhaled aerosols. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hygroscopic effects upon the transport and deposition of nasally inhaled fine-regime aerosols in children. A physiologically realistic nasal-laryngeal airway model was developed based on magnetic resonance imaging of a 5-year-old boy. Temperature and relative humidity field were simulated using the low Reynolds number k - ε turbulence model and chemical specie transport model under a spectrum of four thermo-humidity conditions. Particle growth and transport were simulated using a well validated Lagrangian tracking model coupled with a user-defined hygroscopic growth module. The subsequent aerosol depositions for the four inhalation scenarios were evaluated on a multiscale basis such as total, subregional, and cellular-level depositions. Results of this study show that a supersaturated humid environment is possible in the nasal turbinate region and can lead to significant condensation growth (d / d(0) > 10) of nasally inhaled aerosols. Depositions in the nasal airway can also be greatly enhanced by condensation growth with appropriate inhalation temperature and humidity. For subsaturated and mild inhalation conditions, the hygroscopic effects were found to be nonsignificant for total depositions, while exerting a large impact upon localized depositions.
Kasmi, Irena; Sallabanda, Sashenka; Kasmi, Gentian
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is a drug widely used in children because of its safety and efficacy. Although the risk of its toxicity is lower in children such reactions occur in pediatric patients from intentional overdoses and less frequently attributable to unintended inappropriate dosing. The aim of reporting this case is to attract the attention to the risk of the acetaminophen toxicity when administered in high doses. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a 5 year old girl who developed fulminate liver failure with renal impairment and acute pancreatitis, as a result of acetaminophen toxicity caused from unintentional repeated supratherapeutic ingestion, with a total administered dose of 4800 mg in three consecutive days, 1600 mg/day, approximately 90 mg/kg/day. The blood level of acetaminophen after 10 hours of the last administered dose was 32 mg/l. The patient presented with high fever, jaundice, lethargic, agitating with abdominal pain accompanied by encephalopathy. The liver function test revealed with high level of alanine aminotransferase 5794 UI/l and aspartate aminotransferase 6000 UI/l. Early initiation of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) after biochemical evidence of liver toxicity was beneficial with rapid improvement of liver enzymes, hepatic function and encephalopathy. During the course of the illness the child developed acute pancreatitis with hyperamylasemia 255 UI/L and hyperlypasemia 514 UI/L. Patient totally recovered within 29 days. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers should considered probable acetaminophen toxicity in any child who has received the drug and presented with liver failure. When there is a high index of suspicion of acetaminophen toxicity NAC should be initiated and continued until there are no signs of hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27275268
Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Tandon, Vivek; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Rajeshwari, Madhu; Sharma, Mehar Chand
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare central nervous system neoplasm affecting children, and isolated primary spinal involvement is extremely rare. Authors describe a case of spinal AT/RT in a 5-year-old male child presenting with rapidly progressing quadriparesis diagnosed and managed surgically and medically. Biopsy revealed large, rhabdoid cells with prominent nucleoli in nest and immunohistochemistry further showed loss of integrase integrator 1 expression considered to be gold standard for diagnosis. AT/RT has extremely poor prognosis with median survival being 6 months. PMID:27606020
Janssen, R L H; Roeleveld-Versteegh, A B C; Wessels-Basten, S J W; Hendriks, T
A 5-year-old boy with food allergies complicated by anaphylactic reactions with dyspnoea and angioedema had been prescribed an autoinjector with epinephrine (0.15 mg) so that his parents could treat him at home if necessary. The patient accidentally injected himself in a finger, which likely makes him the youngest patient to receive an epinephrine auto-injection reported to date. Treatment consisted of phentolamine (0.15 mg in 0.5 ml normal saline) injected subcutaneously at the site of accidental injection; the dose and volume were not adapted according to the age and body weight of the patient as only a local effect was intended. Finger circulation was restored within 20 minutes. Headache, nausea and vomiting were observed after 30 minutes and were most likely a systemic side effect of phentolamine. No other complications occurred. The patient recovered fully and was discharged the following morning. Intramuscular epinephrine autoinjection is standard therapy for severe anaphylactic reactions. The epinephrine autoinjector was introduced in 1980. As allergy and anaphylaxis become more common, increasing numbers of autoinjectors are prescribed, and it is likely that the number of accidental digital autoinjections will also increase. These digits are then at risk of ischaemic necrosis. There is no consensus on therapeutic strategies in such cases. Phentolamine administration appears to be an effective intervention. However, several recent studies have shown that epinephrine may be used safely in hand surgery, which suggests that accidental digital epinephrine autoinjection may not always require immediate treatment.
Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…
In this paper, I describe the first 2 years of intensive psychotherapy of a multiply traumatized 5-year-old girl. I explore some of the ways in which violent and traumatic experiences were re-lived in the therapy and how they impacted on both patient and therapist. Within the discussion and illustrated by clinical vignettes, I consider the…
Gilder, Sharon Allen
Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…
Amodeo, A; Di Donato, R; Dessanti, A; Caccia, G; Zaltron, D; Alberti, D; Callea, F; Marcelletti, C
Membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly that may present clinical features of Budd-Chiari syndrome caused by chronic obstruction of the hepatic drainage. We report membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava in a 5-year-old boy. Surgical repair was prompted by signs and symptoms of hepatic venous obstruction. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient successfully operated on for this anomaly.
Hazirolan, Tuncay; Ozkan, Efe; Haliloglu, Mithat; Celiker, Alpay; Balkanci, Ferhun
We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a very unusual venous anomaly case. A 5-year-old boy who had surgical repair of coarctation of the thoracic aorta was referred to our department for evaluation of an enlarged venous structure anterior to the aorta, which had been noted during the surgery. Contrast enhanced dynamic MRI revealed partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the left azygos vein, double inferior and superior vena cava with the left azygos continuation of the left superior vena cava. The recognition of venous anomalies allows correct planning of surgical and interventional procedures. MRI is a valuable imaging tool providing detailed anatomical information.
Mrozińska, M; Horwath, A; Ostoja-Chrzastowski, W
A case of acute cerebellar ataxia caused by ECHO virus 30.5-year-old boy admitted to the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Warsaw, in September, 1996, complaining of headache, dizziness, weakness, somnolence, dysarthria and an unsteady walk. On neurological examination he had imparied coordination, rombergism, generalized hypotonia. There was no history of exposure to contagious diseases, ear discharge, convulsions, trauma. Parents suggested that the child could have swallowed an unidentified pill--toxicological tests ruled out poisoning. The diagnosis is based on the clinical examination and amplification ECHO virus from CSF.
Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa
Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519
Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan
Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications.
Danstrup, Christian Sander; Madsen, Mette Hjørringgaard; Bille, Jesper
A 5-year-old boy was admitted with stridor, which was initially interpreted as subglottic laryngitis. He had a history of prolonged hoarseness and his voice was deep for his age. The stridor persisted despite treatment with epinephrine inhalations and intravenous glucocorticoids. A direct laryngoscopy and blood work up did not support the suspected diagnosis. A MRI was then carried out, followed by angiography. The latter revealed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) involving the lingual and superior thyroid arteries bilaterally. Owing to the rareness and extent of such an AVM, the patient was referred to Paris for further treatment. This case presents the difficulties in diagnostics and emphasises the importance of diagnostics and multidisciplinary approaches with regard to treatment of AVMs. PMID:25795744
Choi, Ji Na; Song, Ji Eun; Shin, Jae Il; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Jae Seung
In this paper, we report on a 5-year-old girl who developed a renal stone while following the ketogenic diet to treat refractory seizure disorder. Three months after initiating the ketogenic diet, she developed severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The spot urine calcium-to-creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio and 24-hour urine evaluation showed hypercalciuria. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a stone in the right ureteropelvic junction, resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. The renal stone disappeared 5 days after conservative treatment; the patient's microscopic hematuria resolved concurrently. In light of this case report, we recommend regularly monitoring the urine Ca/Cr ratio with ultrasonography for further development of renal stones in patients following the ketogenic diet. If these patients exhibit evidence of symptomatic hypercalciuria or cyristalluria, liberalization of fluid restriction and urine alkalization using oral potassium citrate should be considered.
Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Fischer, Adina; Schulz, Laura
Previous research suggests that 3-year-olds fail to learn from statistical data when their prior beliefs conflict with evidence. Are children's beliefs entrenched in their folk theories, or can preschoolers rationally update their beliefs? Motivated by a Bayesian account, we conducted a training study to investigate this question. Children (45…
Haberlandt, Edda; Spreiz, Ana; Sigl, Sara Baumgartner; Janetschek, Carolin; Röthlisberger, Benno; Zotter, Sibylle; Rostasy, Kevin; Zschocke, Johannes; Kotzot, Dieter
Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 19 are rarely found by conventional cytogenetic techniques. This region has a high gene density and this is likely the reason why deletions in this region are associated with a severe phenotype. Since the implementation of modern high-resolution SNP- and CGH-array techniques more cases have been reported. Here, we present an almost 5-year-old boy with intellectual disability, minor dysmorphisms, febrile seizures, and a de novo deletion of 834.2 kb on 19p13.2 encompassing 32 genes. The deletion was found by the Illumina Infinium HD Human1M-Duo v1 BeadChip SNP-array and confirmed by the NimbleGen Human CGH 2.1M Whole Genome Tiling v2.0D oligonucleotide array. PCR amplification of the junction fragment and subsequent sequencing defined the breakpoints and indicated that formation was mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). The phenotype of our patient shows that microrearrangements even at gene-dense chromosomes may result in mild clinical consequences.
Holland, C. R.; Williams, R. L.
Tests of a new acoustic system in the spring of 1982, using radio frequency transmission of the data, required the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) to reconsider the use of lithium battery technology. A request was made to the Navy Safety Office, Naval Sea Systems Command Code 06H, for permission to utilize lithium batteries in the R&D project and for permission to use existing lithium sulphur dioxide cells, which had been purchased in previous years. The safety office tentatively approved the intended useage but subject to a performance test and evaluation of a representative sample of the existing cells. In response to the NAVSEA direction, 32 cells were randomly chosen and subjected to forming and discharge tests. The cells, as a group, performed beyond expectations and provided energy in excess of the manufacturer's original specifications for these cells. All tests were performed without safety problems or any incidents. Similar cells from the same lot were subsequently used at sea in the R&D project and performed equally as well as those tested in the laboratory. This report documents the testing procedures used to evaluate 4 to 5 year old Li/SO2 cells and the test results achieved.
Flohr, John W.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…
Brady, Deon LaMount
Parent education programs have been very successful in meeting the pre-established goals and expectations of their program without the input of parent participants prior to program implementation. Although programs continue to improve, it is important that programs begin to consider the specific needs of their target population. One parent…
The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...
Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong
The present study examined whether fathers' additive risk and resilience when the child is an infant and age 5 predicted paternal engagement with children at age 5. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study (N = 4,898), we found that the results confirmed the hypothesis that early risk has a negative effect and early…
Hammoud, Nurah M.; de Valk, Harold W.; Biesma, Douwe H.; Visser, Gerhard H.A.
Background Pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes are associated with disproportionate intrauterine growth that subsequently may lead to pediatric adiposity. Objectives We investigated whether disproportionate intrauterine growth leads to differences in BMI in 4- to 5-year-old offspring from pregnancies complicated by type 1 (ODM1), type 2 (ODM2), or gestational diabetes (OGDM). Methods Ultrasound data of fetal head-to-abdominal circumference (HC/AC) ratio obtained between 32 and 36 weeks of gestational age were related to offspring anthropometrics that were retrieved from infant welfare centers. Results Data from 27 ODM1, 22 ODM2, and 24 OGDM were obtained. Ultrasound measurements for the HC/AC ratio were performed at a mean of 33-34 weeks, with a mean Z-score of the HC/AC ratio of -0.801, -0.879, and 0.017 in ODM1, ODM2, and OGDM. Mean BMI SDS was highest in ODM2 as compared to ODM1 and OGDM. In ODM1 there was a negative correlation between HC/AC ratio and BMI SDS at the ages of 4 and 5 years, but not in ODM2 or OGDM. The birth weight Z-score was positively correlated to BMI SDS in ODM2 and OGDM. Conclusion Disproportionate intrauterine growth, expressed as the HC/AC ratio, was inversely related with BMI SDS in ODM1 at the ages of 4-5 years, but not in ODM2 or OGDM. Weight and maybe obesity in ODM1 offspring are likely to be related to intrauterine adiposity, whereas overweight in ODM2 and OGDM offspring seems more related to other factors such as birth weight centile, maternal obesity, and altered lifestyle factors during childhood. PMID:27788515
Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Warneken, Felix
Cooperation can be maintained if individuals reciprocate favors over repeated interactions. However, it is not known when during development the psychological capacities to engage in contingent reciprocation emerge. Therefore, we tested when children begin to differentiate between reciprocal and nonreciprocal interactions in their resource sharing. We compared the sharing behavior of 3- and 5-year-olds in two situations. In an experimental condition, the child and a puppet partner alternated the roles of donor and recipient. In a control condition, the puppet had no opportunity to reciprocate. Results showed that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, increased their sharing toward a potential reciprocator. In addition, we found that children's ability to delay gratification was positively related to their tendency to share in both conditions. These findings show that reciprocity in anticipation of repeated interactions emerges during middle childhood. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of the ability to delay gratification as a prerequisite for children's sharing. We discuss how children's emerging cognitive abilities enable reciprocal sharing in situations where a child must react to or anticipate a partner's behavior.
Suglia, Shakira F; Solnick, Sara; Hemenway, David
Objective To examine soda consumption and aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and withdrawn behavior among five-year-old children. Study design The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a prospective birth cohort study that follows a sample of mother-child pairs from 20 large cities in the US. Mothers reported children’s behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 and were asked to report how many servings of soda the child drinks on a typical day. Results In the sample of 2929 children, 52% were boys, 51% were African-American 43% consumed at least one serving of soda per day and 4% consumed 4 or more servings per day. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, consuming one (Beta 0.7 95% CI 0.1,1.4), two (Beta 1.8 95%CI 0.8,2.7), three (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.6,3.4) or four or more (Beta 4.7 95%CI 3.2,6.2) servings was associated with a higher aggressive behavior score compared with consuming no soda. Furthermore, those who consumed four or more (Beta 1.7 95%CI 1.0,2.4) soda servings had higher scores on the attention problems subscale. Higher withdrawn behavior scores were noted among those consuming two (Beta 1.0 95%CI 0.3,1.8), or four or more (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.8,3.1) soda servings compared with those who consumed no soda. Conclusion We note an association between soda consumption and negative behavior among very young children; future studies should explore potential mechanisms that could explain this association. PMID:23968739
Aldaghri, Faris; Mrad, Mohamed Amir
Introduction: Cartilaginous nasal septal agenesis is a rare finding. In fact, just one case has been reported to have congenital agenesis of all nasal cartilages in a 6-year-old child by Bakhshaee et al. The literature review shows another case that was reported by Ozek et al in Turkey, where they reported a case of total nasal agenesis that was associated with Tessier no. 30. We could not find a similar case in the literature where only agenesis of the nasal cartilaginous septum was present. Methods/Case Report: This is a case report of a 5-year-old child presenting to our clinic with agenesis of his nasal septum and attenuation of the upper and lower lateral cartilages. His parents were seeking a corrective procedure to improve the shape of his nose. He was a male child with a right unilateral cleft lip and palate that were corrected surgically in 2009 (lip repair) and 2010 (palate repair), respectively. Results: On postoperative week 3, the patient's mother brought him to the emergency department with a history of falling on his face while playing at home. Examination revealed swelling of the nose but no breathing difficulties. He still had an acceptable augmented nose but with sings of deviation and collapse. Discussion: We report this case to find an answer to how such cases can be approached in the future in terms of the surgical intervention required and to study the options of redoing such cases. PMID:28101289
Campos Alberto, Eduardo; Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Yoshinori; Hoshioka, Akira; Abe, Hiroki; Saito, Kimiyuki; Tsubaki, Toshikazu; Haraki, Mana; Sawa, Akiko; Nakayama, Yoshio; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shigeta, Midori; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Shimojo, Naoki
Background Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been used to prevent virus-induced asthma exacerbations in autumn. Its efficacy, however, might differ with age and sex. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether pranlukast added to usual asthma therapy in Japanese children during autumn, season associated with the peak of asthma, reduces asthma exacerbations. It was also evaluated the effect of age and sex on pranlukast's efficacy. Methods A total of 121 asthmatic children aged 1 to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive regular pranlukast or not according to sex, and were divided in 2 age groups, 1–5 years and 6–14 years. The primary outcome was total asthma score calculated during 8 weeks by using a sticker calendar related to the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms. This open study lasted 60 days from September 15 to November 14, 2007. Results Significant differences in pranlukast efficacy were observed between sex and age groups. Boys aged 1 to 5 years had the lower total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.002), and experienced fewer cold episodes (p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between pranlukast and control group in total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.35), and in the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms (p = 0.67). Conclusion There was a substantial benefit of adding pranlukast to usual therapy in asthmatic children, especially in boys aged 1 to 5 years, during autumn season. PMID:28154801
Gosschalk, Philip O.
This paper describes the behavioral treatment of acute onset school refusal in a 5-year old girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A functional classification was used to select a treatment approach that involved the parent and teacher using shaping, positive reinforcement and extinction. Results showed that by the end of the fifth week of…
Santhosh, Sampath; Guha, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bawa, Monika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai
Scintigraphic differentiation between acute torsion, hydrocele and testicular or scrotal abscess can be difficult. Doppler sonography may provide useful complimentary information toward diagnosis. The authors describe a 5-year-old child where epididymitis with hydrocele was misdiagnosed as testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy.
Seligman, Linda; And Others
Examined whether, how, and to what extent young children's (N= 24) perceptions of themselves and their families related to their career development, career awareness, and work and family aspirations. Results suggest that young children cannot be clearly differentiated between those who are family-oriented and those who are career-oriented. (ABL)
Dabin, Jérémie; Mencarelli, Alessandra; McMillan, Dayton; Romanyukha, Anna; Struelens, Lara; Lee, Choonsik
Many organ dose calculation tools for computed tomography (CT) scans rely on the assumptions: (1) organ doses estimated for one CT scanner can be converted into organ doses for another CT scanner using the ratio of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) between two CT scanners; and (2) helical scans can be approximated as the summation of axial slices covering the same scan range. The current study aims to validate experimentally these two assumptions. We performed organ dose measurements in a 5 year-old physical anthropomorphic phantom for five different CT scanners from four manufacturers. Absorbed doses to 22 organs were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters for head-to-torso scans. We then compared the measured organ doses with the values calculated from the National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT (NCICT) computer program, developed at the National Cancer Institute. Whereas the measured organ doses showed significant variability (coefficient of variation (CoV) up to 53% at 80 kV) across different scanner models, the CoV of organ doses normalised to CTDIvol substantially decreased (12% CoV on average at 80 kV). For most organs, the difference between measured and simulated organ doses was within ±20% except for the bone marrow, breasts and ovaries. The discrepancies were further explained by additional Monte Carlo calculations of organ doses using a voxel phantom developed from CT images of the physical phantom. The results demonstrate that organ doses calculated for one CT scanner can be used to assess organ doses from other CT scanners with 20% uncertainty (k = 1), for the scan settings considered in the study.
This guide provides a curriculum model for preschool programs specifically designed for preschool children (ages 3-5) with visual impairments. The book provides an extensive review of the literature with measurable behavioral objectives for each developmental level. Chapter 1, "Psychological Evaluation for the Preschool Visually Impaired Child"…
McLennan, Deanna Pecaski
In this article, the author describes how placing a plastic, gazebo-style bird feeder outside the classroom windows one cold autumn morning had been a catalyst for capturing and inspiring the children's imaginations. This empowered them to explore self-directed activities that resulted in meaningful, collaborative learning for most of the school…
Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.
In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis…
Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.
What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children’s reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children’s reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds’ reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children’s books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children’s books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children’s attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493
Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J A
In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predictors: child sex, partner support reported by the caregiver, disorganized infant-parent attachment at 15 months, child anger proneness at 28 months, and one of the two parent-child interaction factors observed at 28 months, namely negative parent-child interactions. The other, i.e., a lack of effective guidance, predicted externalizing problems only in highly anger-prone children. Furthermore, mediated pathways of influence were found for the parent-child interaction at 15 months (via disorganized attachment) and parental ego-resiliency (via negative parent-child interaction at 28 months).
Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.
School-aged children and adolescents with autism demonstrate circumscribed attentional patterns to nonsocial aspects of complex visual arrays (Sasson et al. "2008"). The current study downward extended these findings to a sample of 2-5 year-olds with autism and 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Eye-tracking was used to quantify discrete…
Lee, Ju Hyun; Im, Soo Ah; Cho, Bin
Aspergillus species have angioinvasive properties and can involve extrapulmonary organs by hematogenous spread from the lungs. However, renal involvement by Aspergillus is uncommon and is usually associated with the formation of abscesses. We report an unusual case of invasive renal aspergillosis presenting with extensive renal infarction in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case emphasizes the fact that renal aspergillosis initially presents with only renal infarction, and metastatic-embolism by invasive aspergillosis should be considered in differential diagnosis for any focal lesion of kidney in a patient with leukemia.
KUSANO, Kanichi; YAMAZAKI, Masahiko; KIUCHI, Masataka; KANEKO, Kouki; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro
ABSTRACT The oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium is known to play an important role in equine medicine and equine exercise physiology. There are abundant findings in this field; however, not many studies have been conducted for reference ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers in horses. This study was conducted to determine the reference values of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) using blood samples from 372 (191 males, 181 females) Thoroughbred racehorse aged 2 to 5 (3.43 ± 1.10 (mean ± SD)) years old. There were obvious gender differences in oxidative biomarkers, and growth/age-related changes were observed especially in females. Gender and age must be considered when interpreting obtained oxidative stress biomarkers for diagnosis of disease or fitness alterations in Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:27703408
Danisman, Sahin; Iman, Esra Dereli; Demircan, Zeynep Akin; Yaya, Dilara
Introduction: Emotional Regulation Checklist is frequently used to determine emotional developments of children by teacher and parents of children. The purpose of this study was to examining the Psychometric Properties of "Emotional Regulation Check List" for 4-5 years age in preschool children. Method: The sample of the research was…
Bolocan, Anamaria; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Seferian, Andreea M; Baumann, Clarisse; Allamand, Valérie; Richard, Pascale; Estournet, Brigitte; Carlier, Robert; Cavé, Hélène; Gartioux, Corine; Blin, Nathalie; Le Moing, Anne-Gaëlle; Gidaro, Teresa; Germain, Dominique P; Fardeau, Michel; Voit, Thomas; Servais, Laurent; Romero, Norma Beatriz
We report on a 5-year-old girl who presented with an association of symptoms reminiscent of an Ullrich-like congenital muscular dystrophy including congenital hypotonia, proximal joint contractures, hyperlaxity of distal joints, normal cognitive development, and kyphoscoliosis. There was an excess of neuromuscular spindles on the skeletal muscle biopsy. This very peculiar feature on muscle biopsy has been reported only in patients with mutations in the HRAS gene. Sequence analysis of the subject's HRAS gene from blood leukocytes and skeletal muscle revealed a previously described heterozygous missense mutation (c.187G>A, p. Glu63Lys). The present report thus extends the differential diagnosis of congenital muscular dystrophy with major "retractile" phenotypes and adds congenital muscular dystrophy to the clinical spectrum of HRAS-related disorders.
Thomas, P; Korting, H C; Strassl, W; Ruzicka, T
Microsporum canis is one of the most common zoophilic dermatophytes. If transmitted to humans, inflammatory lesions may develop, e.g. on the scalp. M. canis was isolated from a 5-year-old boy living in a suburban area who suffered from a long-standing, mildly inflammatory lesion on the scalp that had been treated for several months with anti-eczematous regimens. There had been no contact with animals, e.g. cats or dogs, in the previous months, but the lesions had developed a few weeks after the family had bought a used car from a dog owner. Indeed, M. canis could be grown on contact plates from the car's interior. This case illustrates that attention should be paid to the often neglected diagnosis of M. canis-induced tinea capitis and to unusual routes of infection.
Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone
Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…
Barrett, Martyn; And Others
Recent studies have revealed that 5-year-old children can be induced to produce visually realistic drawings, either by manipulating the nature of the model which is being drawn, or by turning the drawing task into a communicative game. However, it has also been found that 5-year-olds cannot be induced to produce visually realistic drawings merely…
Gumus, Burcak Cevik, Halime; Vuran, Can; Omay, Oguz; Kocyigit, Ozgen Ilgaz; Turkoz, Riza
The aim of this report is to demonstrate the successful endovascular treatment of bilateral renal artery stenosis due to Takayasu arteritis by cutting balloon angioplasty in a 5-year-old child with mid-term follow-up.
Lahti, M; Aphalo, P J; Finér, L; Ryyppö, A; Lehto, T; Mannerkoski, H
Soil temperature is a main factor limiting root growth in the boreal forest. To simulate the possible soil-warming effect of future climate change, 5-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment rooms. The seedlings were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C during the first (GS I) and third growing seasons (GS III), but were assigned to random soil-temperature treatments of 9, 13, 18 and 21 degrees C during the second growing season (GS II). In GS II, shoot diameter growth was lowest in the 21 degrees C treatment and root growth was lowest in the 9 degrees C treatment. In GS III, shoot height and root length growth improved in seedlings that had been kept at 9 degrees C during GS II, indicating compensatory growth in response to increased soil temperature. The temporary decrease in soil temperature had no long-lasting significant effect on seedling biomass or total nutrient uptake. At the end of GS III, fine roots of seedlings exposed to a soil temperature of 21 degrees C in GS II were distributed more evenly between the organic and mineral soil layers than roots of seedlings in the other treatments. During GS II and GS III, root growth started earlier than shoot growth, decreased during the rapid shoot elongation phase and increased again as shoot growth decreased.
Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…
Brinkman, Sally A; Gialamas, Angela; Rahman, Azizur; Mittinty, Murthy N; Gregory, Tess A; Silburn, Sven; Goldfeld, Sharon; Zubrick, Stephen R; Carr, Vaughan; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde; Lynch, John W
Objectives Early child development may have important consequences for inequalities in health and well-being. This paper explores population level patterns of child development across Australian jurisdictions, considering socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Design Census of child development across Australia. Setting and participants Teachers complete a developmental checklist, the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI), for all children in their first year of full-time schooling. Between May and July 2009, the AEDI was collected by 14 628 teachers in primary schools (government and non-government) across Australia, providing information on 261 147 children (approximately 97.5% of the estimated 5-year-old population). Outcome measures Level of developmental vulnerability in Australian children for five developmental domains: physical well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive skills and communication skills and general knowledge. Results The results show demographic and socioeconomic inequalities in child development as well as within and between jurisdiction inequalities. The magnitude of the overall level of inequality in child development and the impact of covariates varies considerably both between and within jurisdiction by sex. For example, the difference in overall developmental vulnerability between the best-performing and worst-performing jurisdiction is 12.5% for males and 7.1% for females. Levels of absolute social inequality within jurisdictions range from 8.2% for females to 12.7% for males. Conclusions The different mix of universal and targeted services provided within jurisdictions from pregnancy to age 5 may contribute to inequality across the country. These results illustrate the potential utility of a developmental census to shed light on the impact of differences in universal and targeted services to support child development by school entry. PMID:22952161
Creel, Sarah C.
Recent research has considered the phonological specificity of children's word representations, but few studies have examined the flexibility of those representations. Tolerating acoustic-phonetic deviations has been viewed as a negative in terms of discriminating minimally different word forms, but may be a positive in an increasingly…
Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan
Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…
Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John
Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher-order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development – due, largely, to the paucity of developmentally-appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed to investigate SSA in preschoolers. The findings indicate that this task (1) has good psychometric and parametric properties, and (2) allows investigation of exogenous and endogenous factors within the same task, making it possible to attribute changes in performance to different mechanisms of attentional control rather than to differences in engagement in different tasks. PMID:23022318
Pritchard, P. Scott; Martin, Stacey W.; Dusek, Cristina; Cathey, Erika; D’Alessio, Rebecca; Kirsch, Marjorie
In September 2013, local county health officials in Tallahassee, Florida, USA, were notified of a laboratory-confirmed pertussis case in a 1-year-old preschool attendee. During a 5-month period, 26 (22%) students 1–5 years of age, 2 staff from the same preschool, and 11 family members met the national case definition for pertussis. Four persons during this outbreak were hospitalized for clinical management of pertussis symptoms. Only 5 students, including 2 students with pertussis, had not received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis. Attack rates in 1 classroom for all students who received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis approached 50%. This outbreak raises concerns about vaccine effectiveness in this preschool age group and reinforces the idea that recent pertussis vaccination should not dissuade physicians from diagnosing, testing, or treating persons with compatible illness for pertussis. PMID:26814429
Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John
Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development, due largely to the paucity of developmentally appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed…
Nampijja, M.; Apule, B.; Lule, S.; Akurut, H.; Muhangi, L.; Elliott, A. M.; Alcock, K. J.
Background: The majority of available psychometric tests originates from the Western World and was designed to suit the culture, language, and socio-economic status of the respective populations. Few tests have been validated in the developing world despite the growing interest in examining effects of biological and environmental factors on…
Butler, M.G.; Christian, S.L.; Kubota, T.; Ledbetter, D.H.
We report on a 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a submicroscopic deletion of 15q11q13 of approximately 100-200 kb in size. High resolution chromosome analysis was normal but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern hybridization, and microsatellite data from the 15q11q13 region demonstrated that the deletion was paternal in origin and included the SNRPN, PAR-5, and PAR-7 genes from the proximal to distal boundaries of the deletion segment. SNRPN and PW71B methylation studies showed an abnormal pattern consistent with the diagnosis of PWS and supported the presence of a paternal deletion of 15q11q13 or an imprinting mutation. Biparental (normal) inheritance of PW71B (D15S63 locus) and a deletion of the SNRPN gene were observed by microsatellite, quantitative Southern hybridization, and/or FISH analyses. Our patient met the diagnostic criteria for PWS, but has no reported behavior problems, hyperphagia, or hypopigmentation. Our patient further supports SNRPN and possibly other genomic sequences which are deleted as the cause of the phenotype recognized in PWS patients. 21 refs., 7 figs.
Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel
This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…
Ford, Ruth M.; Lobao, Sheila N.; Macaulay, Catrin; Herdman, Lynsey M.
Evidence that young children often claim ownership of their partner's contributions to an earlier collaborative activity, the "appropriation bias", has been attributed to shared intentionality ("Cognitive Development" (1998) 13, 91-108). The current investigation explored this notion by examining individual differences in the bias among 4- and…
Wössmann, W; Wiemann, J; Körber, F; Gortner, L
The diagnosis of HFI is easily missed during childhood. It should be suspected in children presenting with hepatomegaly and an isolated increase in GGT. A carefully taken nutritional history forms the basis of the diagnosis of HFI which can be confirmed by molecular analysis with a sensitivity of > 95%. I.v. fructose tolerance tests and liver biopsies often can be omitted.
Cho, Yong Se; Chung, Bo Young; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Hye One
A eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) is used topically to provide local anesthesia for a variety of painful superficial procedures. Although the side effects of EMLA are usually mild and transient local reactions, potentially life-threatening complications can occur. We report a case of generalized seizures and methemoglobinemia after topical application of EMLA for curettage of molluscum contagiosum lesions in a 3.5-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis.
Sönju Clasen, A B; von der Fehr, F R; Kant van Daal, J M
In a comparable epidemiological study of kindergarten children, 455 4- and 5-year-olds in Salzgitter (FRG) and 171 4- and 5-year-olds in Oslo (Norway) were examined. Caries was scored at the cavitation level according to WHO criteria. The percentage of caries-free children was higher and the dmfs scores were lower in Oslo than in Salzgitter. It is postulated that this was the result of different levels of fluoride exposure, nutritional habits and dental treatment provision.
Wigal, Tim; Greenhill, Laurence; Chuang, Shirley; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Skrobala, Anne; Swanson, James; Wigal, Sharon; Abikoff, Howard; Kollins, Scott; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Davies, Mark; Thorp, Ben; Stehli, Annamarie
Objective: To report on the safety and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) 3- to 5-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during 1 year of treatment. Method: Exactly 183 children (3-5 years old) entered a treatment study of MPH, consisting of a 1-week open-label lead-in (n = 183); a 5-week placebo-controlled,…
Four and half year-old girl with type I diabetes mellitus and latent coeliac disease was presented. The typical serological screening at type I diabetes mellitus onset was negative. Three years later serological screening was performed again because of recurrent diarrhoea. At the time serum IgA antiendomysial antibody was positive. The intestinal biopsy showed subtotal villous atrophy with intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration and elongated crypts. It seems that diabetic children should be periodically checked by screening tests for coeliac disease.
Davis, A P
South Carolina has been a national leader in such health problems as cardiovascular disease, syphillis and gonorrhea. Since many of the problems could be attributed to poor health habits, education of the state's residents seemed in order. The education/re-education of inaccessible adults with firmly established health habits--poor or otherwise--was not feasible, but the education of impressionable, readily accessible three-, four- and five-year olds was possible. Through a grant from the federal government, an individualized health curriculum that could accommodate the differences of the learners and include vital health content was developed. This project of developing and distributing the health curriculum to teachers of young children was called Project HITE (Health Individualization and Teacher Education).
Patel, Umesh I.; Gohil, Jayendra R.; Parekh, Alpa N.; Chauhan, Hardik R.
Scurvy usually presents with tender and painful limbs, swelling of joints, gum bleeding, poor wound healing, and muscle weakness. Here, we report a case of 5-year-old child with global developmental delay who presented with soft swelling of the head over scalp and protrusion of the left eye with extremely irritability. Neuroimaging was suggestive of diffuse extensive soft-tissue swelling involving the entire scalp with large necrotic collections with mild proptosis of the left orbit. It is not mentioned elsewhere, so we are giving name to this magnetic resonance imaging finding as “headband” sign or “turban” sign. PMID:28217165
Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Hallett, Darcy; Bell, Daniel; Evans, Deborah
Two intervention studies are described. Both were designed to study the effects of teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. The interventions were successful with 8-year-old children in Study 1 and to a limited extent with 5-year-old children in Study 2. In Study 1 teaching children about inversion increased…
Siegler, Robert S; Svetina, Matija
Learning of class inclusion by 5-year-olds in response to empirical and logical explanations of an adult's answers was examined. Contrary to the view that young children possess an empirical bias, 5-year-olds learned more, and continued learning for longer, when given logical explanations of correct answers than when given empirical explanations. Once children discovered how to solve the problems, they showed few regressions. Many children in the microgenetic experiment followed the path of change anticipated from previous cross-sectional studies, but children in the cross-sectional part of the study seemed to follow a different path. Reasons for the superior effectiveness of the logical explanations were discussed.
Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah
This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…
Paulus, Markus; Schuwerk, Tobias; Sodian, Beate; Ganglmayer, Kerstin
According to recent theories, social cognition is based on two different types of information-processing; an implicit or action-based one and an explicit or verbal one. The present study examined whether implicit and explicit social-cognitive information processing interact with each other by investigating young children's and adults' use of verbal (i.e., explicit) information to predict others' actions. Employing eye-tracking to measure anticipatory eye-movements as a measure of implicit processing, Experiment 1 presented 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3.5-year-old children as well as adults with agents who announced to move to either of two possible targets. The results show that only the 3.5-year-old children and adults, but not the 1.5- and 2.5-year-old children were able to use verbal information to correctly anticipate others' actions. Yet, Experiments 2 and 3 showed that 2.5-year-old children were able to use explicit information to give a correct explicit answer (Experiment 2) and that they were able to use statistical information to anticipate the other's actions (Experiment 3). Overall, the study is in line with theoretical claims that two types of information-processing underlie human social cognition. It shows that these two inform each other by 3years of age.
Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru
This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.
Sidhu, B K; Kaur, B; Bagga, V; Cheema, S S; Sidhu, A S
In India, interviews with mothers of 3-5 year old children living in the Badungarh slum of Patiala City in the Punjab were conducted at 4 anganwadies of the Integrated Child Development Services. The aim of the study was to determine the children's nutritional status. Anganwadies provided the same food supplement daily to 3-5 years old children. The amount provided was less than the recommended amount, however. 75% of the children were not vegetarians. Many children did not like pumpkin brinjal, spinach, and other leafy vegetables. Children's intake of cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, milk and milk products, meat, fish and eggs, sugar and jaggery, and fats and oils was lower than recommended allowances. The low intake of meat, fish, and eggs was likely due to the families low income. Consumption of cereals and pulses together resulted in adequate protein intake, but the low intake of leafy vegetables, milk, egg, meat, fish, and fruits resulted in insufficient intake of calcium and bete-carotene. Caloric intake was lower among the 4-5 year olds than among the 3-4 year olds (831.7 vs. 858.9 Kcal). Mothers tended to take the food supplements home to share with all the children in the households. These findings led the researchers to recommend that children eat different and more tastier types of food supplements at the anganwadies. Other recommendations include more frequent checks of food supplement stocks and better supervision.
Sugiyama, Nobuyoshi; Matsuda, Shin-ichi; Shimizu, Mie; Obara, Saori; Ikegami, Mariko; Yokoyama, Jyun-ichi; Miyashita, Yoshihiro; Takizawa, Shyunya; Takagi, Shigeharu
We present a 5-year-old boy with recurrent idiopathic cerebral infarction in which analysis of platelet hyperaggregability was useful in choosing appropriate anti-platelet drugs. The patient presented with gait disturbance at the age of 5 years and 1 month. Brain MRI demonstrated multiple infarctions in the right thalamus and left cerebellum. There were no apparent underlying diseases including hematological, cardiac and vascular abnormalities. He was diagnosed as idiopathic cerebral infarction. First, we administered ticlopidine and he remained stable with persistent mild intention tremor in the left upper extremity for 4 months. Then he developed the second stroke at the age of 5 years and 5 months, and multiple infarctions in the right celebellum and cerebellar vermis were demonstrated. On platelet aggregation analysis, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation was inhibited, probably due to ticlopidine administration. Collagen- and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation showed hyperaggregation, so we started to administer cilostazol, which inhibits only epinephrine-induced hyperaggregation. We also added aspirin, which inhibits collagen-induced hyperaggregation. The combination of anti-platelet drugs inhibited epinephrine-, collagen- and ADP-induced hyperaggregation in this patient. He has been stable on the triple combination of anti-platelet drugs without further episodes of cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack for 4 years to date. Appropriate selection of anti-platelet therapy was achieved by the simple and repeatable platelet aggregation analyses, which must be considered even in pediatric patients with cerebral infarction.
He, Zijing; Bolz, Matthias; Baillargeon, Renée
Until recently, it was generally assumed that the ability to attribute false beliefs did not emerge until about 4 years of age. However, recent reports using spontaneous- as opposed to elicited-response tasks have suggested that this ability may be present much earlier. To date, researchers have employed two kinds of spontaneous-response false-belief tasks: violation-of-expectation tasks have been used with infants in the second year of life, and anticipatory-looking tasks have been used with toddlers in the third year of life. In the present research, 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested in violation-of-expectation tasks involving a change-of-location situation (Experiment 1) and an unexpected-contents situation (Experiment 2). Results were positive in both situations, providing the first demonstrations of false-belief understanding in toddlers using violation-of-expectation tasks and, as such, pointing to a consistent and continuous picture of early false-belief understanding. PMID:22213902
Brittain, W. Lambert
This a report of several studies of children's artistic behavior carried out at Cornell University with 3- to 5-year-old nursery school children. The studies involved: (1) taping comments children made while painting at nursery school; (2) determining if there was a difference in difficulty between two- and three-dimensional representations; (3)…
Zill, Nicholas; And Others
In order to provide data to help schools respond to the diversity in the backgrounds and educational needs of children entering school, a U.S. Department of Education study asked parents of 3- to 5-year-old children who had not yet started kindergarten about their children's accomplishments that indicated emerging literacy and numeracy skills and…
Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela
Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…
François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni
Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a
In a study of behavior modification two Down's syndrome preschool children, the first a 5-year-old boy with autistic behavior patterns and the second a 4-year-old girl whose behavior problem was to reject other children, were examined. The first S was engaged in ball catching activities with a teacher with positive reinforcement (playing the S's…
Goulart, Maria Ines Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of…
Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.; Carrick, Nathalie
Two studies examined young children's early understanding and evaluation of truth telling and lying and the role that factuality plays in their judgments. Study 1 (one hundred four 2- to 5-year-olds) found that even the youngest children reliably accepted true statements and rejected false statements and that older children's ability to…
This study concerns children's representational knowledge, more specifically, their "invented notations" of music. A small-scale empirical study of four 5-year-old children and their teachers working on the representation of music is reported. The challenges posed by the teachers and how the children respond to these challenges are analysed. The…
Lu, Weichen V.
This study investigates Taiwanese parents' opinions on sex education for young children. Participants in the study included 97 randomly selected Taiwanese parents of 3 through 5-year old children at three different preschools in northern Taiwan. Results indicate that subjects' age and education influenced parental views toward sexual issues:…
van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans
In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an extensive battery of tests. Working memory was…
Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen
This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…
Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey
This study examined the role that mothers' scaffolding plays in the autobiographical memory (AM) and storybook narratives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Seven 4-5-year-old children and their mothers co-constructed narratives in both contexts. We also compared children's narratives with mothers to their narratives with an…
Lai, Wen-Feng; Lee, Young-Ja; Lee, Jeehyun
Research Findings: This study aimed to explain age and cultural differences in the narrative development of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old Korean and Taiwanese children. The participants comprised 140 children of middle-class, two-parent families, half from each cultural group. Children were individually interviewed about their experience of visiting…
Renno, Maggie P.; Shutts, Kristin
Do young children use information about gender and race to guide their prosocial gestures, and to what extent is children's selective prosociality related to other intergroup phenomena? Two studies tested 3- to 5-year-old children's allocation of resources to, social preferences for, and expectations about the behaviors of unfamiliar people who…
Louie, Lobo; Chan, Lily
This study used pedometry and the Children Activity Rating Scale (CARS) to investigate physical activity among 3- to 5-year-olds in Hong Kong preschools. Findings indicated that older children were more active than younger ones; boys were more active than girls. Older children in the rural school with larger outdoor play space were more active…
Colwell, Malinda J.; Corson, Kimberly; Sastry, Anuradha; Wright, Holly
In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?21) in a university-sponsored preschool programme and children completed a theory of mind (ToM) task. After grouping children into pass/no pass groups for the ToM tasks, analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children explain…
This qualitative study of 3-to-5-year-old children's hiding places and experiences is framed around the importance of recognizing children as active agents in creating their own culture and places in the world. Through the use of interactive data collection strategies collected at school and in children's homes, including book discussions,…
Williams, J H; Birrell, J; Van Wilpe, E
Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, which may be primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined. Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as loosely-arranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the broad ligament and
Callaghan, Tara C.; Rochat, Philippe; Corbit, John
Three- to 5-year-old children's knowledge that pictures have a representational function for others was investigated using a pictorial false-belief task. In Study 1, children passed the task at around 4 years old, and performance was correlated with standard false-belief and pictorial symbol tasks. In Study 2, the performance of children from two…
Williams, R. Ann; Beeson, Betty Spillers
A follow-up study was conducted to determine if changes would occur in the sex stereotyping of child- selected play activities over a 6-month period. Subjects were fifty 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children enrolled in nursery school programs at a midwestern university during the 1979-80 school year. For one 6-week period in the fall and one in the…
Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.
This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…
Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona
The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24 h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance…
Gillis, Randall L.; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.
Knowledge transfer is most effective when speakers provide good quality (in addition to accurate) information. Two studies investigated whether preschool- (4-5 years old) and school-age (6-7 years old) children prefer speakers who provide sufficient information over those who provide insufficient (yet accurate) information. Children were provided…
Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.
Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…
Zimmer, Elly Jane
This study asks whether children accept both interpretations of ambiguous sentences with contexts supporting each option. Twenty-six 3- to 5-year-old English-speaking children and a control group of 30 English-speaking adults participated in a truth value judgment task. As a step towards evaluating the complexity of syntactic ambiguity, the…
Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte
The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…
Kidd, Evan; Holler, Judith
We report on a study investigating 3-5-year-old children's use of gesture to resolve lexical ambiguity. Children were told three short stories that contained two homonym senses; for example, "bat" (flying mammal) and "bat" (sports equipment). They were then asked to re-tell these stories to a second experimenter. The data were coded for the means…
Carrick, Nathalie; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas
Objectives: The purpose of the study was to examine differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated children's ability to differentiate emotionally evocative fantastic and real events. Methods: Four- and 5-year-old (n=145) maltreated and nonmaltreated children viewed images depicting positive and negative fantastic and real events and reported…
Bjorklund, David F.; Hubertz, Martha J.; Reubens, Andrea C.
We examined the relationship between parents' behaviour and children's use of simple arithmetic strategies while playing a board game in contrast to solving arithmetic problems. In a microgenetic study spanning 3 weeks, 5-year-old children who were just beginning kindergarten played a modified game of "Chutes and Ladders" with one of…
This article outlines an ecological framework for describing children's social experiences during digital play. It presents evidence from a study that explored how 3- to 5-year-old children negotiated their social experiences as they used technologies in preschool. Utilising a systematic and iterative cycle of data collection and analysis,…
Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline
Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children's emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, 3 false belief tasks were administered to 5-year-old children whose mothers had either met…
Britain, Susan D.; And Others
Kindergarten children were exposed to a behavior modification training activity involving perceptual scanning, which was designed to increase the field-independent mode of perception. The training was evaluated, based upon a group of 18 experimental subjects and a control group of 17 children. Subjects in the training group were individually…
Hardin, Belinda J.; Figueras, Olimpia
This qualitative study investigated the temporal identities of 4- and 5-year-old children in Mexico and the United States, and the conditions that shaped changes in their ideas about time after they entered public school kindergarten. The study also examined the children's families, communities, and classrooms to gain a comprehensive view of the…
Wandrey, Lindsay; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.
Early deceptive behavior often involves acts of wrongdoings on the part of children. As a result, it has often been assumed, although not tested directly, that children are better at identifying lies about wrongdoing than lies about other activities. We tested this assumption in two studies. In Study 1, 67 3- to 5-year-olds viewed vignettes in…
Hsin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Hsin-Kai
The purposes of this study are to examine young children's explanations of floating and sinking and to investigate how scaffolding strategies provided by a tutor could promote their scientific understandings. Fifteen 4-year-olds and fifteen 5-year-olds from a public kindergarten in northern Taiwan participated in this study. The children were…
Kolb, Doris H.; Etzel, Barbara C.
Several 3- to 5-year-old children participated in this study designed to discover the necessary procedures to establish nonresponding in preschool children during delay of reinforcement. The children were divided into two groups: (1) the programed group (PG), to which a 60-second delay period was introduced gradually and (2) the baseline group…
Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia
This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…
Capizzano, Jeffrey; Adams, Gina
As part of the Assessing the New Federalism project, this study investigated the number of child care arrangements that employed mothers with children under 5 years old. The study began by examining national and state estimates of the number of arrangements used by these children, focusing on how these patterns differ for children of different…
Organization of American States, Washington, DC.
Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…
Kinnear, Virginia; Clark, Julie
This paper reports findings from a classroom based study with 5 year old children in their first term of school. A data modelling activity contextualised by a picture story book was used to present a prediction problem. A data table with numerical data values provided for three consecutive days of rubbish collection was provided, with a fourth day…
Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.
Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…
Frazee, Bruce M.
What advanced 4- and 5-year-old children know about night and day in relationship to the earth and sun was studied to test the hypothesis that two teaching activities would help children to understand the cause of the phenomenon. Participants were 21 middle to upper class boys and girls enrolled in a part-time early childhood enrichment program…
Fisch, Shalom M.; Brown, Susan K. McCann; Cohen, David I.
Several current television series for preschool children convey stories, not through meaningful dialogue, but through visual information and intonational cues embedded within nonsensical dialogue. This study examined young children's ability to construct meaning from such materials. Participating were 135 preschoolers, 3 to 5 years old. Subjects…
Askins, Billy E.; And Others
This paper describes an external evaluation study of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program (formerly known as the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children), an educational intervention program for "high risk" (low birth weight) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in Clovis, New Mexico. Major goals of the…
Objective: This study aimed to replicate and extend previous work showing an association between maternal pre-pregnancy adiposity and risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children. Methods: A Swedish population-based prospective pregnancy-offspring cohort was followed up when children were 5 years old (N = 1,714).…
This report, one of several background papers for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education, examines the effects of preschool experience on Illinois children from low income families. The 1980 U. S. Census for Illinois identified 81,959 preschool-age children (3 to 5 years old) from poverty-level families; 54 of these young…
This article describes the formation of children's social interactions around technologies in preschools. This paper presents evidence from a study that explores how 3- to 5-year-old children construct their social interactions through the mediation of their peers while using technological resources. Utilising a systematic and iterative data…
Miltenberger, Raymond G; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin
This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ training. PMID:15669410
Tennis, Gay H.
This study examines patterns of mother/child verbal interactions during task performance for differences related to the sex and locus of control (LOC) of the child. Subjects were 40 pairs of white, middle-class mothers and their children. The children--20 boys and 20 girls--were divided equally among first- and later-born 4- and 5-year olds. The…
Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.
Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…
Nelson, Jo Ann N.; Simmerer, Norma J.
This report summarizes three related studies of 3- to 5-year-old children's temperament and its relationship to their social competence, ability to solve interpersonal problems, locus of control, parent behavior and teacher/child interactions. Fifty-eight children, predominantly middle class participants in a laboratory preschool, and their…
Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.
This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…
Diesendruck, Gil; Peretz, Shimon
Visual appearance is one of the main cues children rely on when categorizing novel objects. In 3 studies, testing 128 3-year-olds and 192 5-year-olds, we investigated how various kinds of information may differentially lead children to overlook visual appearance in their categorization decisions across domains. Participants saw novel animals or…
Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian; Johnson, Brigitte; Satterlund, Melisa; Egemo, Kristin
This study evaluated behavioral skills training (BST), in a multiple baseline across subjects design, for teaching firearm safety skills to 6 6- and 7-year-old children. Similar to previous research with 4- and 5-year-olds, half of the children acquired the safety skills following BST and half acquired the skills following BST plus in situ…
Cantor, Joanne; Wilson, Barbara J.
Describes a study comparing the way cognitive manipulations affected the emotional responses of preschool and elementary school children to a frightening film, i.e., telling children the presentation is not real, and role-taking. Emotional responses of 9- to 11-year-olds were modified by instructional sets while 3- to 5-year-olds' responses were…
Paulus, Markus; Moore, Chris
This study investigated the development of sharing expectations and sharing behavior in 3 groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. We examined (a) whether preschool children expect a person to share more with a friend than with a disliked peer and (b) whether their expectation about others' sharing behavior depends on whether there is a cost or…
Lin, Dan; Liu, Yingyi; Sun, Huilin; Wong, Richard Kwok; Yeung, Susanna Siu-sze
The present longitudinal study investigated the role of spelling as a bridge between various reading-related predictors and English word reading in Chinese children learning English as a Second Language (ESL). One hundred and forty-one 5-year-old kindergarten children from Hong Kong, whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and second language (L2)…
Guajardo, Nicole R.; Snyder, Gregory; Petersen, Rachel
The present study included observational and self-report measures to examine associations among parental stress, parental behaviour, child behaviour, and children's theory of mind and emotion understanding. Eighty-three parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children participated. Parents completed measures of parental stress, parenting (laxness,…
Horowitz, Alexandra C.; Frank, Michael C.
This study investigated whether children can infer category properties based on how a speaker describes an individual (e.g., saying something is a "small zib" implies that zibs are generally bigger than this one). Three- to 5-year-olds (N = 264) from a university preschool and a children's museum were tested on their ability to make this…
Rizzo, Michael T.; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie
The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns,…
Proving that project work can be done with young children who are schooled in a full-immersion program in a second language, this article describes a study of bones undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. The article discusses the process and shows the results achieved by the children during the three phases of the…
Kim, Do-Hong; Lambert, Richard G.; Burts, Diane C.
Research Findings: This study examined the measurement equivalence of the "Teaching Strategies GOLD[R]" assessment system across subgroups of children based on their primary language and disability status. This study is based on teacher-collected assessment data for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children for the fall of 2010, winter of 2010, and spring…
Kratochvil, Christopher; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Camporeale, Angelo; Lipsius, Sarah; D'Souza, Deborah; Tanaka, Yoko
Abstract Objectives: This extrapolation analysis qualitatively compared the efficacy and safety profile of atomoxetine from Lilly clinical trial data in 6–7-year-old patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of published literature in 4–5-year-old patients with ADHD (two open-label [4–5-year-old patients] and one placebo-controlled study [5-year-old patients]). Methods: The main efficacy analyses included placebo-controlled Lilly data and the placebo-controlled external study (5-year-old patients) data. The primary efficacy variables used in these studies were the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parent Version, Investigator Administered (ADHD-RS-IV-Parent:Inv) total score, or the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV) scale score. Safety analyses included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and vital signs. Descriptive statistics (means, percentages) are presented. Results: Acute atomoxetine treatment improved core ADHD symptoms in both 6–7-year-old patients (n=565) and 5-year-old patients (n=37) (treatment effect: −10.16 and −7.42). In an analysis of placebo-controlled groups, the mean duration of exposure to atomoxetine was ∼7 weeks for 6–7-year-old patients and 9 weeks for 5-year-old patients. Decreased appetite was the most common TEAE in atomoxetine-treated patients. The TEAEs observed at a higher rate in 5-year-old versus 6–7-year-old patients were irritability (36.8% vs. 3.6%) and other mood-related events (6.9% each vs. <3.0%). Blood pressure and pulse increased in both 4–5-year-old patients and 6–7-year-old patients, whereas a weight increase was seen only in the 6–7-year-old patients. Conclusions: Although limited by the small sample size of the external studies, these analyses suggest that in 5-year-old patients with ADHD, atomoxetine may improve ADHD symptoms, but possibly to a lesser extent than in older children, with some adverse events occurring at a higher rate in 5-year-old patients. PMID:25265343
Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.; Brickman, Daniel
Two studies compared children's attention to sample composition--whether a sample provides a diverse representation of a category of interest--during teacher-led and learner-driven learning contexts. In Study 1 (n = 48), 5-year-olds attended to sample composition to make inferences about biological properties only when samples were presented by a…
Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen
Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 5-year-olds performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on two rules and four rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands…
Bunce, Louise; Harris, Margaret
During the preschool years, children develop an understanding of 2 types of real/not-real distinctions: ontological status and authenticity (Bunce & Harris, 2008). Two studies compared 3- to 5-year-old children's real/not-real judgments and justifications for 3 types of contrast involving a real entity and either a fictional character, a child…
Miller, Peggy J.; And Others
How young children portray themselves in relation to others was examined in naturally occurring stories of personal experience told jointly with family members. The study of 2.5- to 5-year-old culturally diverse children supported developmental theorists' claims about the relational nature of self-development when connected discourse is taken as…
Burbach, Ann D.; Fox, Robert A.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.
In this study, the authors examined the parenting practices, developmental expectations, and stress levels of 136 fathers and the challenging and prosocial behaviors of their 1- to 5-year-old children. In addition, the authors systematically addressed fathers' qualitative concerns about their parenting. The authors divided the participants into 4…
Frech, Adrianne; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert
We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,572) to examine relationships between maternal depression and mothers' time investments with their 5-year-old children in outings, trips to playgrounds or parks, time spent reading with the child, and time spent playing indoors with the child. We also examine whether mothers'…
Beck, Sarah R.; Carroll, Daniel J.; Brunsdon, Victoria E. A.; Gryg, Charlotte K.
To speculate about counterfactual worlds, children need to ignore what they know to be true about the real world. Prior studies yielding individual differences data suggested that counterfactual thinking may be related to overcoming prepotent responses. In two experiments, we manipulated how 3- to 5-year-olds responded to counterfactual…
Background Few data exist on viral and bacterial etiology of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in ≥5 year –old persons in the tropics. Methods We conducted active surveillance of community-acquired ALRI in two hospitals in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country. Patients were tested for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by direct sputum examination, other bacteria by blood and/or sputum cultures, and respiratory viruses using molecular techniques on nasopharyngeal/throat swabs. Pulmonologists reviewed clinical/laboratory data and interpreted chest X-rays (CXR) to confirm ALRI. Results Between April 2007 - December 2009, 1,904 patients aged ≥5 years were admitted with acute pneumonia (50.4%), lung sequelae-associated ALRI (24.3%), isolated pleural effusions (8.9%) or normal CXR-related ALRI (17.1%); 61 (3.2%) died during hospitalization. The two former diagnoses were predominantly due to bacterial etiologies while viral detection was more frequent in the two latter diagnoses. AFB-positive accounted for 25.6% of acute pneumonia. Of the positive cultures (16.8%), abscess-prone Gram-negative bacteria (39.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38.0%) were most frequent, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.7%). Of the identified viruses, the three most common viruses included rhinoviruses (49.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (17.7%) and influenza viruses (12.1%) regardless of the diagnostic groups. Wheezing was associated with viral identification (31.9% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001) independent of age and time-to-admission. Conclusions High frequency of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae infections support the need for introduction of the respective vaccines in the national immunization program. Tuberculosis was frequent in patients with acute pneumonia, requiring further investigation. The relationship between respiratory viruses and wheezing merits further studies. PMID:23432906
Parker, Jeffrey G.; Gottman, John M.
A novel paradigm was developed and two studies conducted to test the contribution of six conversational skills to children's friendship formation. In study 1, 4- and 5-year-olds individually played for 30 minutes with a 2-foot-tall talking doll. The doll contained a wireless hidden receiver/speaker enabling a concealed female assistant to converse…
Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.
Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…
Taylor, Nicole A.; Greenberg, Daphne; Terry, Nicole Patton
The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlational and predictive relationships between parents with low literacy skills (n = 96) and their 3-5 year old children's emergent literacy skills (n = 96). In the study parents were assessed on measures of reading comprehension, decoding, fluency, oral vocabulary, and word identification,…
Drager, Kathryn D. R.; Clark-Serpentine, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Kate E.; Roeser, Jennifer L.
Purpose: The present study investigated the intelligibility of digitized and synthesized speech output in background noise for children 3-5 years old. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there was a difference in the intelligibility (ability to repeat) of 3 types of speech output (digitized, DECTalk synthesized, and MacinTalk…
Halphen, G M; Lindsay Estupiñán, J; Márquez, L E; Pon Chow, R L; Méndez, J R; Brandáriz, C; Oduber, L; Chanis, R
A study of seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori determined by ELISA IgG, was conducted in 83 consecutive healthy children. The majority of the children (55%) had the bacterium. Seropositivity was demonstrated in 55% of the age group 0-5 years old, in 47% of 6-10, and in 67%, of the group 11 to 15. Of the children without sanitary inside their homes 86% were seropositive, versus 47% of the children with sanitary in their homes.
Iosa, Marco; Marro, Tiziana; Paolucci, Stefano; Morelli, Daniela
The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with spastic hemiplegia due to cerebral palsy (5.0 [plus or minus] 2.3 years old) who were able to walk autonomously and seventeen age-matched children with typical development (5.7 [plus or minus] 2.5 years old,…
Four experiments were conducted with Japanese children and adult participants to assess their awareness of the effectiveness of biological and psychological treatments for psychogenic bodily reactions. Study 1 had 116 participants, composed of 4-year-olds (17), 5-year-olds (20), 7-year-olds (24), 10-year-olds (20), and college students (35). The…
Beck, Robert J.
In a movie retelling task that was concerned with the moral dilemma of how to treat a hurt wild animal, the extended preparatory dialogues of seven effective middle-class mothers and their 5-year-olds were studied to develop a moral script and dialogic inquiry model of scaffolding children's narrative competency. A content analysis of the…
Salsa, Analía M.; Vivaldi, Romina A.
Three studies investigated the effects of pedagogical cues to an artist's referential intention on 2- and 2.5-year-old children's understanding of drawings in a matching task without verbal labels support. Results showed that pedagogical cues, the combination of the artist's eye gaze while she was creating the drawings (nonlinguistic cues), and…
Sun, Jin; Rao, Nirmala
This study investigated how Chinese adults adjusted their scaffolding in interactions with children during problem-solving tasks. Fifty-seven 5-year-olds (from low and high socioeconomic status [SES] backgrounds) completed a playlike task (puzzle) and a school-like task (worksheet) with their mothers and teachers, respectively. Adult-child…
Canobi, Katherine H.; Bethune, Narelle E.
Three studies addressed children's arithmetic. First, 50 3- to 5-year-olds judged physical demonstrations of addition, subtraction and inversion, with and without number words. Second, 20 3- to 4-year-olds made equivalence judgments of additions and subtractions. Third, 60 4- to 6-year-olds solved addition, subtraction and inversion problems that…
Price, Heather L.; Connolly, Deborah A.
The current study examined 4- and 5-year-olds' memory for an event that was experienced once or was the first in a sequence of four similar events. The event was private swimming lessons for beginners that, because of natural variation in fear of water, were experienced as stressful for some children and not stressful for others. Consistent with…
Schwenk, Krista A.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.
This study investigated the maintenance of attention and adaptation to background stimuli of preschool children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS). Participants were 13 monolingual, Standard American English speaking, 3-5-year-old CWS and 14 CWNS. Results indicated that CWS were significantly more apt than CWNS to attend to or look at changes…
Studied time estimation for a button-pressing response in 3- and 5.5-year-olds under "minimal,""temporal," and "force" instructions. Found that force--but not temporal--instructions improved 3-year-olds' timing accuracy. When instructed to press harder, they pressed longer. Older children were more accurate with…
Goods, Kelly Stickles; Ishijima, Eric; Chang, Ya-Chih; Kasari, Connie
In this pilot study, we tested the effects of a novel intervention (JASPER, Joint Attention Symbolic Play Engagement and Regulation) on 3 to 5 year old, minimally verbal children with autism who were attending a non-public preschool. Participants were randomized to a control group (treatment as usual, 30 h of ABA-based therapy per week) or a…
Eivers, Areana R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Borge, Anne I. H.
Concurrent and longitudinal links between children's own and their nominated best friends' antisocial and prosocial behavior were studied in a normative sample of 3-5-year-olds (N = 203). Moderating effects of age and gender were also explored. Subscales of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were used to obtain teacher ratings of…
Hay, Dale F.; Hudson, Kathryn; Liang, Wentao
The aim was to examine the relationship between prosocial behavior and conduct problems, especially aggression, in early childhood. In Phase 1 of the study, teachers reported on 93 3-5-year-old children's prosocial behavior and psychological problems, using a screening instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In Phase 2, 65…
Brandone, Amanda C.; Gelman, Susan A.
The goal of the present study was to explore domain differences in young children's expectations about the structure of animal and artifact categories. We examined 5-year-olds' and adults' use of category-referring generic noun phrases (e.g., "Birds fly") about novel animals and artifacts. The same stimuli served as both animals and artifacts;…
Zhao, Jing; Dixon, L. Quentin; Quiroz, Blanca; Chen, Si
In this study, we investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between vocabulary and word reading across Spanish and English. One hundred and seventeen 4- to 5-year-old Spanish-English bilingual children attending Head Start programs in the United States were tested for their Spanish and English word reading twice, 5 months apart.…
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation of environmental enteropathy, as measured by the dual sugar absorption test, to linear growth faltering in 2- to 5-year-old Malawian children. Dietary quality, food insecurity, anthropometry, and site-specific sugar testing were measured i...
Zebian, Samar; Rochat, Philippe
Children's sense and reasoning about territory and land ownership may develop differently in contexts of poverty and where narratives of dispossession are a part of daily life and are of political and historical significance, as is the case in the Palestinian refugee context in Lebanon. In this study we looked at how 3- and 5-year-old refugee…
Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi; Banerji, Uma
The present study found that preschool education as given by a public agency with limitations of space, play equipment, and inadequate funds positively affected a group of underprivileged children entering primary school (252 5-year-olds). The School Readiness Scale tested reading and number readiness. (JH)
Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas; Razza, Rachel Peters
This study examined relations among cortisol reactivity and measures of cognitive function and social behavior in 4- to 5-year-old children (N=169) attending Head Start. Saliva samples for the assay of cortisol were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of an approximately 45-min testing session. Moderate increase in cortisol followed by…
Park, Jeongeon; Lee, Jeonghwa
Research Findings: This study examined the learning effects of collaborative group work under heterogeneous group composition among 5-year-old children, especially in terms of their social skills. To this end, the study utilized an experimental research design wherein 3 groups of differently composed dyads and a group of students who worked alone…
Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel
The role of grandparents and other close relatives in caring for the children of working mothers has been diminishing in modern societies everywhere including Jordan. Concurrently, the dependence on housemaids to care for the children of working mothers has been on the rise. The impact of housemaids on young Jordanian children (4-5 years old) was…
Hardin, Belinda J.; Jones, M. Gail; Figueras, Olimpia
The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate timekeeping constructs of 4- and 5-year-old children in Campeche, Mexico, and North Carolina, United States, as well as the sociocultural conditions that shaped changes in their ideas about timekeeping (methods to mark and measure time) before, during, and after their kindergarten year.…
Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Huston, Aletha C.; Imes, Amy E.; Gennetian, Lisa
We use observations from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and, Youth Development (SECCYD) to compare structural and process characteristics of child care centers, family child care homes (nonrelative care in a home setting) and care by relatives for 2-, 3- and 4.5-year-old children. Type of care differences in structural and caregiver…
Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane
This study examined the effect of incorporating a visuo-haptic and haptic (tactual-kinaesthetic) exploration of letters in a training designed to develop phonemic awareness, knowledge of letters and letter/sound correspondences, on 5-year-old children's understanding and use of the alphabetic principle. Three interventions, which differed in the…
Cassia, Viola Macchi; Picozzi, Marta; Kuefner, Dana; Bricolo, Emanuela; Turati, Chiara
The current study compared the development of holistic processing for faces and non-face visual objects by testing for the composite effect for faces and frontal images of cars in 3- to 5-year-old children and adults in a series of four experiments using a two-alternative forced-choice recognition task. Results showed that a composite effect for…
Määttä, Suvi; Ray, Carola; Roos, Gun; Roos, Eva
This study explored parents' and preschool personnel's opinions on factors influencing 3-5-year-old children's sedentary behaviors by applying the socioecological model. Four focus group interviews with preschool personnel (N = 14) and six interviews with parents (N = 17) were conducted in autumn 2014. Two researchers independently analyzed the…
Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Piazza, Caterina; Villa, Laura; Molteni, Massimo
The study was aimed at better clarifying whether action execution impairment in autism depends mainly on disruptions either in feedforward mechanisms or in feedback-based control processes supporting motor execution. To this purpose, we analyzed prehension movement kinematics in 4- and 5-year-old children with autism and in peers with typical…
Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung
This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in May-June and October-November. The focus in this article is on three key aspects of classroom teaching: instructional tasks, the use of representations, and discourse, including the mathematics register. Results from selected pre- and post-assessment tasks within a diagnostic interview showed that there were improvements in addition and subtraction as well as multiplication and division, even though the teaching had used multiplication and division problems. Students made progress on all four operational domains, with effect sizes ranging from approximately two thirds of a standard deviation to 2 standard deviations. Most of the improvement in students' number strategies was in moving from `counting all' to `counting on' and `skip counting'. The findings challenge the idea that learning experiences in addition and subtraction should precede those in multiplication and division as suggested in some curriculum documents.
Mascaro, Olivier; Sperber, Dan
Vigilance towards deception is investigated in 3- to-5-year-old children: (i) In Study 1, children as young as 3 years of age prefer the testimony of a benevolent rather than of a malevolent communicator. (ii) In Study 2, only at the age of four do children show understanding of the falsity of a lie uttered by a communicator described as a liar.…
Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine
The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…
This book presents a study of cognitive-affective interdependence as shown in children's fantasy behavior. The systems of Piaget and Freud are the foundation of analysis. The study data consist of approximately one hundred verbatim recordings of the dramatic play of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (in groups or alone) collected by trained teachers in a…
Nguyen, Huong Thi Thien
The two objectives of this single-subject study were to assess how an FM system use impacts parent-child interaction in a noisy listening environment, and how a parent/caregiver training affect the interaction between parent/caregiver and child. Two 5-year-old children with hearing loss and their parent/caregiver participated. Experiment 1 was…
Choi, Youngon; Trueswell, John C.
An eye-tracking study explored Korean-speaking adults' and 4- and 5-year-olds' ability to recover from misinterpretations of temporarily ambiguous phrases during spoken language comprehension. Eye movement and action data indicated that children, but not adults, had difficulty in recovering from these misinterpretations despite strong…
Pappas, Christine C.
This study investigated young children's development of understanding of two written genre registers, story and information books, by analyzing 5-year-olds' repeated pretend readings of a typical text of each genre. Ten female and 10 male kindergarten students were read 3 books in each genre during their kindergarten year. At each child's reading…
Bache, William; Nauta, Marrit J.
This paper provides a summary of a Home Start Followup Study (HSFS) which was initiated in 1976. An attempt was made to examine the durability of gains made as the result of families' (parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children) participation in the program. In addition, the study was designed to determine whether program duration (one versus two…
Rapp, Diotima J; Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael
The current study explored how freedom of choice affects preschoolers' prosocial motivation. Children (3- and 5-year-olds) participated in either a choice condition (where they could decide for themselves whether to help or not) or a no-choice condition (where they were instructed to help). Prosocial motivation was subsequently assessed by measuring the amount children helped an absent peer in the face of an attractive alternative game. The 5-year-olds provided with choice helped more than the children not provided with choice, and this effect was stronger for girls than for boys. There was no difference between conditions for the 3-year-olds. These results highlight the importance of choice in young children's prosocial development.
Gunnar, Megan R.; Donzella, Bonny
Tympanic membrane (TM) temperature asymmetry has been proposed as a phenotypic marker of vulnerability to negative emotionality in children. Little is known about the stability of TM temperatures or how readily one can obtain a reliable index of the phenotype. TM temperatures were collected from 3- to 5-year-old children (N=73) over 5 months…
Gautam, Shalini; Bulley, Adam; von Hippel, William; Suddendorf, Thomas
Adults are capable of predicting their emotional reactions to possible future events. Nevertheless, they systematically overestimate the intensity of their future emotional reactions relative to how they feel when these events actually occur. The developmental origin of this "intensity bias" has not yet been examined. Two studies were conducted to test the intensity bias in preschool children. In the first study, 5-year-olds (N=30) predicted how they would feel if they won or lost various games. Comparisons with subsequent self-reported feelings indicated that participants overestimated how sad they would feel to lose the games but did not overestimate their happiness from winning. The second study replicated this effect in another sample of 5-year-olds (n=34) and also found evidence of an intensity bias in 4-year-olds (n=30). These findings provide the first evidence of a negative intensity bias in affective forecasting among young children.
Kim, So Jung
This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…
The purpose of this study is to compare father involvement among fathers with children in pre-school in terms of their status of having only one or more than one child. The study sample consisted of fathers of 3-5 year-old children who were enrolled in pre-schools in the district of Altieylül, Balikesir. Data pertaining to the involvement of…
In this study, the author aimed at measuring how much limited working memory capacity constrains early numerical development before any formal mathematics instruction. To that end, 4- and 5-year-old children were tested for their memory skills in the phonological loop (PL), visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSSP), and central executive (CE); they also…
Burdett, Emily R R; Barrett, Justin L
Do children attribute mortality and other life-cycle traits to all minded beings? The present study examined whether culture influences young children's ability to conceptualize and differentiate human beings from supernatural beings (such as God) in terms of life-cycle traits. Three-to-5-year-old Israeli and British children were questioned whether their mother, a friend, and God would be subject to various life-cycle processes: Birth, death, ageing, existence/longevity, and parentage. Children did not anthropomorphize but differentiated among human and supernatural beings, attributing life-cycle traits to humans, but not to God. Although 3-year-olds differentiated significantly among agents, 5-year-olds attributed correct life-cycle traits more consistently than younger children. The results also indicated some cross-cultural variation in these attributions. Implications for biological conceptual development are discussed.
Reimer, A M; Cox, R F A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N
In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement ABC), before and after receiving a 12-sessions training within a 6-weeks period. The training was designed to practice the use of a stand magnifier, as part of a larger research project on low-vision aids. In this study, fifteen children trained with a magnifier; seven without. Sixteen children had nystagmus. In this group head orientation (ocular torticollis) was monitored. Results showed an age-related progress in children's fine-motor skills after the training, irrespective of magnifier condition: performance speed of the ManuVis items went from 333.4s to 273.6s on average. Accuracy in the writing tasks also increased. Finally, for the children with nystagmus, an increase of ocular torticollis was found. These results suggest a careful reconsideration of which intervention is most effective for enhancing perceptuomotor performance in visually impaired children: specific 'fine-motor' training or 'non-specific' visual-attention training with a magnifier.
Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun
When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif,…
Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…
Zhang, Lan; Yin, Li; Treiman, Rebecca
Much research on literacy development has focused on learners of alphabetic writing systems. Researchers have hypothesized that children learn about the formal characteristics of writing before they learn about the relations between units of writing and units of speech. We tested this hypothesis by examining young Chinese children's understanding of writing. Mandarin-speaking 2- to 5-year-olds completed a graphic task, which tapped their knowledge about the formal characteristics of writing, and a phonological task, which tapped their knowledge about the correspondence between Chinese characters and syllables. The 3- to 5-year-olds performed better on the graphic task than the phonological task, indicating that learning how writing appears visually begins earlier than learning that writing corresponds to linguistic units, even in a writing system in which written units correspond to syllables. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Learning about writing's visual form, how it looks, is an important part of emergent literacy. Knowledge of how writing symbolizes linguistic units may emerge later. What does this study add? We test the hypothesis that Chinese children learn about writing's visual form earlier than its symbolic nature. Chinese 3- to 5- year-olds know more about visual features than character-syllable links. Results show learning of the visual appearance of a notation system is developmentally precocious.
Peskin, Joan; Comay, Julie; Chen, Xi; Prusky, Carly
A critical skill in emergent writing is the developing ability to take the perspective of different readers; however, the precursors of this skill have not yet been identified. In this longitudinal study, 105 children (90 after attrition) were tested at 3 time points: pre-kindergarten (3-4 years old, n = 105), kindergarten (5 years old, n = 97),…
Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Marks, David J.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Chacko, Anil; Curchack, Jocelyn T.; Yoon, Carol A.; Healey, Dione M.
Objective: To examine whether cognitive enhancement can be delivered through play to preschoolers with ADHD and whether it would affect severity of ADHD symptoms. Method: Twenty-nine 4- and 5-year-old children and their parents participated in separate group sessions (3-5 children/group). Child groups were introduced games designed to enhance…
Goodman, G S; Aman, C
The use of anatomically detailed dolls in child sexual abuse investigations has raised several controversial issues related to important theoretical questions in developmental psychology. The present study was designed to examine some of these issues in a methodologically sound experiment. 80 3- and 5-year-old children experienced a social interaction with a male confederate and were later tested under 1 of 4 recall conditions: reenactment with anatomically detailed dolls, reenactment with regular dolls, free recall with visual cues, or free recall without visual cues. The children were also asked a variety of specific and misleading questions, some of them dealing with acts associated with abuse ("He took your clothes off, didn't he?"). Both anatomically detailed and regular dolls along with other props aided 5-year-olds more than 3-year-olds in recounting the event. To use increased rather than decreased age differences. Anatomically detailed dolls did not foster false reports of abuse. Overall, 3-year-olds were more suggestible than 5-year-olds. The findings have implications for children's testimony in child abuse cases and for psychological theories concerning the effects of stimulus support on children's memory.
Hsin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Hsin-Kai
The purposes of this study are to examine young children's explanations of floating and sinking and to investigate how scaffolding strategies provided by a tutor could promote their scientific understandings. Fifteen 4-year-olds and fifteen 5-year-olds from a public kindergarten in northern Taiwan participated in this study. The children were interviewed before and after an instructional intervention to examine their understandings about how the weight, volume, and material of an object are related to sinking and floating. During the intervention, children manipulated objects made of different materials and were assigned to one of the three groups: scaffolding-material (provided with teaching scaffolding and allowed to see the materials of the objects), scaffolding (teaching scaffolding only), and material groups (seeing the materials only). In the first two groups, 16 teaching strategies based on six scaffolding principles were employed. Analyses of interviews showed that before the intervention, the 4-year-olds seemed to have a variety of explanations for sinking and floating and a majority of the 5-year-olds used weight as an explanation for floatation. After the intervention, both 4- and 5-year-olds in the scaffolding-material and scaffolding groups improved their understandings of floating and sinking. Particularly, three out of five 5-years-olds in the scaffolding-material group related the material of an object to its buoyancy and generalized their explanations to the objects made of the same material. The findings suggest that manipulative experiences alone might not be enough for children to further their understandings about floatation and that combining teaching scaffolding with children's perceiving of the materials of objects is more effective. This study provides insight into how to support young children to learn science through effective teaching strategies.
Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Engemann, Denis A.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael
This study investigates how children negotiate social norms with peers. In Study 1, 48 pairs of 3- and 5-year-olds (N = 96) and in Study 2, 48 pairs of 5- and 7-year-olds (N = 96) were presented with sorting tasks with conflicting instructions (one child by color, the other by shape) or identical instructions. Three-year-olds differed from older…
Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.
Gerstadt, Hong, and Diamond (1994) investigated the development of inhibitory control in children aged 3 1/2 - 7 years using the day-night task. In two studies we build on Gerstadt et al.'s findings with a measure of inhibitory control that can be used throughout childhood. In Study 1 (twenty-four 3 1/2-year-olds and sixteen 5-year-olds) we…
Ali, Amanat; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Essa, Musthafa M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Deth, Richard C
High serum homocysteine (Hcy) level is regarded as an indicator for impairment of folate-dependent methionine cycle and is associated with oxidative stress. In a case control study, we evaluated eighty 3-5 years old Omani children (40 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder and 40 their age and gender matched controls) for their fasting serum homocysteine levels as a biomarker of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Serum folate and vitamin B(12) status were also evaluated. The serum homocysteine was measured using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique whereas folate and vitamin B(12) were measured using an automated random access immune-assay system. The results indicated that mean serum Hcy levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in autistic children (20.1 ± 3.3 µmol/L) as compared to controls (9.64 ± 2.1 µmol/L). Significantly (P < 0.05) lower serum folate (1.8 ± 0.4 µg/L) and vitamin B(12) (191.1 ± 0.9 pg/mL) levels were observed in autistic children as compared to controls (6.1 ± 0.6 µg/L and 288.9 ± 1.3 pg/mL, respectively). The levels of homocysteine in autistic children were also much higher as compared to normal reference values (5-15 µmol/L). The results suggest that high fasting serum homocysteine and low folate and vitamin B(12) levels could be used as clinical biomarkers for an early diagnosis and management of ASD.
Hartfield, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of conceptual and perceptual properties of words on the speed and accuracy of lexical retrieval of children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during a picture-naming task. Participants consisted of 13 3-5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS. All participants had speech, language,…
Drake, David; Dawson, Deborah; Kramer, Katherine; Schumacher, Amy; Warren, John; Marshall, Teresa; Starr, Delores; Phipps, Kathy
Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is a terribly aggressive and devastating disease that is all too common in lower socio-economic children, but none more so that what is encountered in American Indian Tribes. Nationwide, approximately 27% of 2–5 year olds have decay while 62% percent of American Indian/Alaska Native children in the same age group have a history of decay (IHS 2010, NHANES 1999–2002). We have conducted a study of children from birth to 36 months of age on Pine Reservation to gain a better understanding of the variables that come into play in the development of this disease, from transmission and acquisition of Streptococcus mutans genotypes from mother to child to multiple dietary and behavioral components. This article describes how we established a direct partnership with the Tribe and the many opportunities and challenges we faced in performing this 5-year field study. PMID:27668133
Askins, Billy E.; And Others
An intervention program for 3, 4, and 5-year-old "high risk" (of low birth weight and with various handicaps) Spanish American children, REPSAC aims at providing successful experiences using the concept of responsive environment in English and Spanish language development and in improving cognitive and affective development. During…
Herrmann, Esther; Keupp, Stefanie; Hare, Brian; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael
Humans make decisions about when and with whom to cooperate based on their reputations. People either learn about others by direct interaction or by observing third-party interactions or gossip. An important question is whether other animal species, especially our closest living relatives, the nonhuman great apes, also form reputations of others. In Study 1, chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and 2.5-year-old human children experienced a nice experimenter who tried to give food/toys to the subject and a mean experimenter who interrupted the food/toy giving. In studies 2 and 3, nonhuman great apes and human children could only passively observe a similar interaction, in which a nice experimenter and a mean experimenter interacted with a third party. Orangutans and 2.5-year-old human children preferred to approach the nice experimenter rather than the mean one after having directly experienced their respective behaviors. Orangutans, chimpanzees, and 2.5-year-old human children also took into account experimenter actions toward third parties in forming reputations. These studies show that the human ability to form direct and indirect reputation judgment is already present in young children and shared with at least some of the other great apes.
Cuenca-Pardo, Jesús; de Jesús Alvarez-Díaz, Carlos; Comprés-Pichardo, Tadeo Antonio
We carried out a study of 1025 children. The most frequent cause of burns was hot liquids (77.7%). About 95.13% of the cases happened in the patients' homes. The cases of death and the most severe burns were due to accidents that happened in the kitchen and in the bathroom. About 74.8% of the patients were less than 5 years old; the riskiest factor was age: the younger the child, the greater the risk. The average burns extension was 11.9% with a minimum of 1% and maximum of 90%. Mortality was 0.87%; the patients who died were less than 3 years old. DL-50 was of 75.6%. Complications were presented in 10% and the most frequent was local infection in 71 cases. The most severe injuries were those that had taken place by immersion in hot liquids and fire.
The Role of Early Language Experience in the Development of Speech Perception and Phonological Processing Abilities: Evidence from 5-Year-Olds with Histories of Otitis Media with Effusion and Low Socioeconomic Status
Nittrouer, Susan; Burton, Lisa Thuente
This study tested the hypothesis that early language experience facilitates the development of language-specific perceptual weighting strategies believed to be critical for accessing phonetic structure. In turn, that structure allows for efficient storage and retrieval of words in verbal working memory, which is necessary for sentence…
Nieto Guevara, Javier; Daza, Carlos
This study quantifies the impact of Heptavalent-Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) in Panama on indigenous children younger than 5 years old, based on clinical pneumonia cases. This study demonstrates a significant 41.2% reduction in hospitalizations and 38.6% reduction in referrals for pneumonia following the introduction of PCV7. Burden of disease from pneumonia appears reduced in the ≤12-month- and 13-to-24-month-old groups. PMID:23762081
Dickinson, Félix O; Pérez, Antonio E
Background Bacterial meningitis is a group of life threatening infections that mostly affect children and adolescents, and may be the cause of severe neurological sequelae. Cuba has implemented massive vaccination programmes against both Neisseria meningitidis (serogroup C in 1979 and B in 1987), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (1999), two of the main causal pathogens. We described and discussed some epidemiological aspects of the current status of bacterial meningitis to learn from the Cuban experience. Methods A nationwide observational study on children and adolescents from 1 to 18 years old was carried out from 1998 to 2003, estimating the incidence and case-fatality rate by age group and causal pathogens, as well as the seasonality and frequency of overcrowded dormitories. The association between disease and attendance to day care centres or boarding schools was estimated by using relative risk (Chi-squared test and Fisher Exact Test). Results The overall number of cases was 1023; the incidence ranged from 3.4 to 8.5 per 100 000 population, with the higher figures in children 1–5 years old (16.8 per 100 000 population). Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B were the main identified agents. The average case-fatality rate was 10.5% and the most lethal agents were Streptococcus pneumoniae (27%) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (10.7%). Overall percentage of cases who slept in overcrowded dormitories was 15%, reaching 30.6% in adolescents. Seasonality was only evident among meningococcal meningitis cases between September–October. The attendance to boarding high school showed an association with disease only in 1998 and 1999 (RR = 2.1; p > 0.05). Conclusion The highest incidence of bacterial meningitis was observed among children from 1–5 years old. Pneumococcus was both the leading causal and the most lethal agent. Sleeping in overcrowded dormitories was more frequent among adolescents. No strong
Engelmann, Jan M; Over, Harriet; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael
Human cooperation depends on individuals caring about their reputation, and so they sometimes attempt to manage them strategically. Here we show that even 5-year-old children strategically manage their reputation. In an experimental setting, children shared significantly more resources with an anonymous recipient when (1) the child watching them could reciprocate later, and (2) the child watching them was an ingroup rather than an outgroup member (as established by minimal group markers). This study is not only the first to show that young children selectively invest in their reputation with specific individuals, but also the first to show that we care more about our reputation with ingroup than with outgroup members.
Imai, Mutsumi; Saalbach, Henrik; Stern, Elsbeth
This paper explores the effect of classifiers on young children's conceptual structures. For this purpose we studied Mandarin Chinese- and German-speaking 3- and 5-year-olds on non-lexical classification, novel-noun label extension, and inductive inference of novel properties. Some effect of the classifier system was found in Chinese children, but this effect was observed only in a non-lexical categorization task. In the label extension and property generalization tasks, children of the two language groups show strikingly similar behavior. The implications of the results for theories of the relation between language and thought as well as cultural influence on thought are discussed.
Rebok, G; Riley, A; Forrest, C; Starfield, B; Green, B; Robertson, J; Tambor, E
There are no standard methods for assessing the quality of young children's perceptions of their health and well-being and their ability to comprehend the tasks involved in reporting their health. This research involved three cross-sectional studies using cognitive interviews of 5-11-year-old children (N = 114) to determine their ability to respond to various presentations of pictorially illustrated questions about their health. The samples had a predominance of children in the 5-7-year-old range and families of lower and middle socio-economic status. The research questions in Study 1 involved children's ability to convert their health experiences into scaled responses and relate them to illustrated items (n = 35); Study 2 focused on the type of response format most effectively used by children (n = 19); and Study 3 involved testing children's understanding of health-related terms and use of a specific recall period (n = 60). The results of Study 1 showed that children identified with the cartoon drawing of a child depicted in the illustrated items, typically responding that the child was at or near their own age and of the same gender, with no differences related to race. Study 2 results indicated that children responded effectively to circles of graduated sizes to indicate their response and preferred them to same-size circles or a visual analogue scale. Tests of three-, four-, and five-point response formats demonstrated that children could use them all without confusion. In Study 3, expected age-related differences in understanding were obtained. In fact, the 5-year-old children were unable to understand a sufficient number of items to adequately describe their health. Virtually all children 8 years of age and older were able to fully understand the key terms and presentation of items, used the full five-point range of response options, and accurately used a 4-week recall period. Six- and seven-year-olds were more likely than older children to use only the
... Feeling confident about his or her abilities builds self-esteem, and staying fit decreases the risk of serious ... throughout their lives. And staying fit can improve self-esteem , prevent obesity, and decrease the risk of serious ...
... varicella) vaccine The flu vaccine , given before flu season each year, also is recommended. Other vaccines might ... disturbances , such as nightmares . Kids also might have growing pains in their calves at night. Your doctor ...
Zhang, Dingmei; Chen, Yan; Chen, Xiashi; He, Zhenjian; Zhu, Xun; Hao, Yuantao
A hand-foot-mouth disease outbreak occurred in 2014 around Guangdong. The purpose of this study was investigating the status and susceptibility of infectious neutralizing antibodies to enterovirus 71 among children so as to provide scientific evidence for the population immunity level of hand-foot-mouth disease and prepare for enterovirus 71 vaccination implementation. Serum specimens were collected from children in communities from January 2014 to March 2015 in Guangzhou. A total of 197 serum samples from children 1–5 years old were collected for this cross-sectional study via non-probabilistic sampling from the database of Chinese National Science and Technique Major Project. Neutralization activity was measured via micro neutralization test in vitro. The positive rate of enterovirus 71 neutralizing antibodies was 59.4%, whereas the geometric mean titre was 1:12.7. A statistically significant difference in true positive rates was found between different age groups but not between different genders. Being the most susceptible population of hand–foot–mouth disease, children under 3 years of age are more likely to be infected with enterovirus 71, and the immunity of children increases with increasing age. Further cohort studies should be conducted, and measures for prevention and vaccination should be taken. PMID:28335535
Sigmundsson, H; Ingvaldsen, R P; Whiting, H T
This study set out to explore the suggestion that the problems experienced by 8-year-old children diagnosed as clumsy in the area of hand-eye coordination (HECP) might be attributed to a developmental lag. The performances of this group of HECP children were compared with those of groups of 5-year-old and 8-year-old controls without such deficits, when required to carry out a task involving pointing, without vision, to targets located, visually, visually/proprioceptively, or proprioceptively, the dependent variable being the distance error score from the centre of the target. The performances of the HECP children, when vision or vision/proprioception was used to locate the targets, were shown to be inferior to those of the two control groups of children thereby supporting a visual deficit hypothesis. When the targets had to be located proprioceptively, the performance of the HECP children was shown to be similar to that of the 5-year-olds, while both groups were inferior to the 8-year-olds, thereby supporting a developmental lag hypothesis in proprioceptive terms. However, when the scores for the preferred and non-preferred hands were analysed separately a marked deterioration in the performances of both the 5-year-old controls and the HECP children was observed while the 8-year-old controls were unaffected. While this finding supports a developmental lag explanation of the inferior performances of the HECP children, it was necessary to qualify such an explanation when the within-group performances using the preferred and non-preferred hands were compared. Only the HECP children, under the visual/proprioceptive or proprioceptive conditions, showed significant performance differences, in favour of the preferred hand. This finding was taken as a suggestion that the developmental lag exhibited by the HECP children might have pathological overtones possibly related to the development of the corpus callosum.
Morales, Julia; Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen
Two studies are reported comparing the performance of monolingual and bilingual children on tasks requiring different levels of working memory. In the first study, 56 children who were 5-years old performed a Simon-type task that manipulated working memory demands by comparing conditions based on 2-rules and 4-rules and manipulated conflict resolution demands by comparing conditions that included conflict with those that did not. Bilingual children outperformed monolinguals at both levels of conflict resolution and bilinguals were more accurate than monolinguals in responding to incongruent trials, confirming an advantage in aspects of executive functioning. In the second study, 125 children who were 5-years old or 7-years old performed a visuospatial span task that manipulated other executive function components through simultaneous or sequential presentation of items. Bilinguals outperformed monolinguals overall, but again there were larger language group effects in conditions that included more demanding executive function requirements. Together, the studies show an advantage for bilingual children in working memory that is especially evident when the task contains additional executive function demands. PMID:23059128
Atagi, Natsuki; Goldenberg, Elizabeth R; Sandhofer, Catherine M
Children prefer to learn from people who are like themselves. However, who is considered "like themselves" is complex for bilingual children. Thus, the current study examined whether children's language experiences affect who they prefer to imitate. A sample of 3- to 5-year-old monolingual English-speaking children (n=16), Japanese-English bilingual children (n=16), and children bilingual in English and a non-Japanese language (n=16) watched videos of a monolingual English speaker and a Japanese-English bilingual speaker playing with novel toys and were asked to play with the same novel toys. Although all children--regardless of language background--imitated the monolingual speaker at similar rates, the two bilingual groups imitated the bilingual speaker more often than did the monolingual children. Such results suggest that experience in speaking two languages affects children's imitation behaviors.
Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir
Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.
Celano, Marianne; Hartmann, E. Eugenie; DuBois, Lindreth G.; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn
Aim To assess motor functioning in 4.5 year olds enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, and to determine contributions of visual acuity and stereopsis to measured motor skills. Method Children with unilateral aphakia randomized to intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens (CL) treatment were evaluated at 4.5 years for monocular recognition visual acuity, motor skills, and stereopsis by a traveling examiner masked to treatment condition. Motor skills were assessed with the Movement ABC-2. Visual acuity was operationalized as logMAR value for treated eye, best logMAR value for either eye, and intraocular logMAR difference. Results T-tests showed no significant differences in MABC-2 scores between the IOL and CL groups. The mean total score was low (6.43; 18th percentile) compared to the normative reference group. Motor functioning was not related to visual acuity in the treated eye or to intraocular logMAR difference, but was predicted in a regression model by the better visual acuity of either eye (usually the fellow eye), even after accounting for the influence of age at surgery, examiner, orthotropic ocular alignment, and stereopsis. Interpretation Children with unilateral congenital cataract may have delayed motor functioning at 4.5 years, which may adversely affect their social and academic functioning. PMID:26084944
The Mecklenburg County Department of Social Services in Charlotte, North Carolina, operates nine child development day care centers and 5 day homes which provide care for 257 Black and Anglo children, 2- to 5-years-old, primarily from low-income homes. The centers are located in churches, schools, and facilities in low income housing projects. The…
Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen
This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response inhibition (go/no-go task). On the go/no-go task, ERPs showed larger P3 amplitudes and shorter N2 and P3 latencies for bilingual children than for monolinguals. These latency and amplitude data were associated with better behavioral performance and better discrimination between stimuli for bilingual children but not for monolingual children. These results clarify the conditions that lead to advantages for bilingual children in executive control and provide the first evidence linking those performance differences to electrophysiological brain differences in children.
Maa, Tensing; Yeates, Keith Owen; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; O'Brien, Nicole F
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to assess carbon dioxide reactivity (CO2R) in children following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS This prospective observational study enrolled children younger than 18 years old following moderate and severe TBI. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated children had daily CO2R testing performed by measuring changes in their bilateral middle cerebral artery flow velocities using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) after a transient increase in minute ventilation. The cohort was divided into 3 age groups: younger than 2 years (n = 12); 2 to 5 years old (n = 9); and older than 5 years (n = 17). RESULTS Children younger than 2 years old had a lower mean CO2R over time. The 2-5-year-old age group had higher mean CO2R than younger patients (p = 0.01), and the highest CO2R values compared with either of the other age groups (vs > 5 years old, p = 0.046; vs < 2 years old, p = 0.002). Having a lower minimum CO2R had a statistically significant negative effect on outcome at discharge (p = 0.0413). Impaired CO2R beyond Postinjury Day 4 trended toward having an effect on outcome at discharge (p = 0.0855). CONCLUSIONS Abnormal CO2R is prevalent in children following TBI, and the degree of impairment varies by age. No clinical or laboratory parameters were identified as risk factors for impaired CO2R. Lower minimum CO2R values are associated with worse outcome at discharge.
Piper, Francesca M.
The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress management techniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…
The National Children's Study (NCS) will be the largest long-term study of children's health and development ever conducted in the United States. The NCS will examine a broad range of environmental influences on children's health and development. It will follow approximately 10...
Prakasha Shrutha, Santhebachalli; Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Giri, Kolli Yada; Alam, Sarwar
Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3-5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3-5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur district, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A pretested questionnaire with 9 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Chi-square test (χ (2)) and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 48% with mean dmft of 2.03 ± 2.99. Boys (57%) were affected more than girls (43%) which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Caries prevalence was high and statistically significant (P < 0.05) among those who were breast fed for longer duration, during nighttime, those falling asleep with bottle, and those fed with additional sugar in milk. Conclusion. Determining the role of feeding practices on early childhood caries can help in the development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies.
McEwen, Fiona S; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise
Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (≥2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR=3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background.
Ewing, Louise; Caulfield, Frances; Read, Ainsley; Rhodes, Gillian
Facial appearances can powerfully influence adults' trust behaviour, despite limited evidence that these cues constitute honest signals of trustworthiness. It is not clear, however, whether the same is also true for children. The current study investigated whether, like adults, 5-year-olds and 10-year-olds are more likely to place their trust in partners that look trustworthy than those that look untrustworthy. A second, closely related question was whether children also explicitly value the information from face cues when making trust decisions. We investigated these questions using Token Quest: an economic trust game that gave participants the opportunity to make investments with a series of partners who might (or might not) repay their trust with large returns. These interactions occurred under different conditions, including one in which participants were shown the face of each partner and another in which they could 'purchase' access to faces with a portion of their investment capital. Results indicated that, like adults, 10-year-old children selectively placed their trust in those partners they perceived as looking trustworthy and many were willing to 'pay' to purchase access to these face cues during the trust game. We observed a similar profile of trust behaviour in 5-year-olds, with no significant group difference in the impact of face cues on behaviour across the three age groups. Together, these findings indicate that the influence of face cues on trust behaviour emerges early, and highlight a capacity for sophisticated social cognition in young children.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008
Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…
Rizzo, Michael T; Elenbaas, Laura; Cooley, Shelby; Killen, Melanie
The present study investigated age-related changes regarding children's (N = 136) conceptions of fairness and others' welfare in a merit-based resource allocation paradigm. To test whether children at 3- to 5-years-old and 6- to 8-years-old took others' welfare into account when dividing resources, in addition to merit and equality concerns, children were asked to allocate, judge, and reason about allocations of necessary (needed to avoid harm) and luxury (enjoyable to have) resources to a hardworking and a lazy character. While 3- to 5-year-olds did not differentiate between distributing luxury and necessary resources, 6- to 8-year-olds allocated luxury resources more meritoriously than necessary resources. Further, children based their allocations of necessary resources on concerns for others' welfare, rather than merit, even when one character was described as working harder. The findings revealed that, with age, children incorporated the concerns for others' welfare and merit into their conceptions of fairness in a resource allocation context, and prioritized these concerns differently depending on whether they were allocating luxury or necessary resources. Further, with age, children weighed multiple moral concerns including equality, merit, and others' welfare, when determining the fair allocation of resources. (PsycINFO Database Record
Noiray, Aude; Ménard, Lucie; Iskarous, Khalil
The present study focuses on differences in lingual coarticulation between French children and adults. The specific question pursued is whether 4-5 year old children have already acquired a synergy observed in adults in which the tongue back helps the tip in the formation of alveolar consonants. Locus equations, estimated from acoustic and ultrasound imaging data were used to compare coarticulation degree between adults and children and further investigate differences in motor synergy between the front and back parts of the tongue. Results show similar slope and intercept patterns for adults and children in both the acoustic and articulatory domains, with an effect of place of articulation in both groups between alveolar and non-alveolar consonants. These results suggest that 4-5 year old children (1) have learned the motor synergy investigated and (2) have developed a pattern of coarticulatory resistance depending on a consonant place of articulation. Also, results show that acoustic locus equations can be used to gauge the presence of motor synergies in children.
Seed, Amanda M; Call, Josep
By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the properties of the wall) remains unclear because spatial information would suffice (the location of the wall in relation to the ball). We confronted 2- to 6-year-old children with a ball resting on a shelf inside a clear plastic-fronted box. To retrieve the ball, children had to roll it away from a trap or barrier using their fingers. Crucially, a single object acted as a barrier or supporting surface in different conditions, thus requiring a flexible response. Preschoolers solved the task and the critical transfers from 2.5 years of age (Study 1). Interestingly, 2.5-year-olds required to use a tool to displace the ball performed significantly worse than those who could use their fingers (Study 2). In contrast, 2.5- to 4.5-year-olds failed a covered trap box that provided only 2-dimensional predictive cues without any visible physical information, and even 6.5-year-olds performed significantly worse on the covered task compared to the uncovered one (Studies 3 and 4). Our results suggest that children from around 2.5 years of age integrate spatial and physical information when solving problems like the trap box task, rather than simply exploit spatial relationships between features.
Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D; Latham, Jonathan R; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ud-Din, Abu I M S; Azmi, Ishrat J; Talukder, Kaisar A; Faruque, Abu S G
Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, malnutrition (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.53 [1.22, 1.92]), age of the child (24-59 months; 1.67 [1.28, 2.19]), fever (1.65 [1.28, 2.12]), abdominal pain (1.87 [1.48, 2.37]), straining (5.93 [4.80, 7.33]), and infection with Shigella (3.26 [2.38, 4.46]) and Vibrio cholerae (2.21 [1.07, 4.58]) were shown to be significantly associated with MSD. Factors significantly associated with malnutrition were disease severity (1.56 [1.24, 1.95]), age (24-59 months; 1.75 [1.38, 2.22]), mother's schooling (1.54 [1.16, 2.04]), and monthly household income (1.71 [1.42, 2.07]). Childhood malnutrition was associated with dysentery and dehydrating diarrhea.
von Staa, Betina; Reis, Loureni; Scandola, Matilde Conceição Lescano
Here we present the results of the pilot-project undertaken in ten Pre-Schools with third stage (5 year-old) children who used ALFABETO Multi-sensory Program. The study shows that the project rendered meaningful results as to the development of writing hypotheses among the children who had access to the program. We also observed the opinions of the teachers involved in the project, who mentioned that ALFABETO motivated students to develop their reading, writing and oral skills, and promoted socialization and interaction among students.
Andrews, Glenda; Moussaumai, Jennifer
Affective decision making was examined in 108 children (3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) using the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). Children completed the CGT and then responded to awareness questions. Children in the binary_experience and binary_experience+awareness (not control) conditions first completed two simpler versions. Children in the binary_experience+awareness condition also responded to questions about relational components of the simpler versions. Experience with simpler versions facilitated decision making in 4- and 5-year-olds, but 3-year-olds' advantageous choices declined across trial blocks in the binary_experience and control conditions. Responding to questions about relational components further benefited the 4- and 5-year-olds. The 3-year-olds' advantageous choices on the final block were at chance level in the binary_experience+awareness condition but were below chance level in the other conditions. Awareness following the CGT was strongly correlated with advantageous choices and with age. Awareness was demonstrated by 5-year-olds (all conditions) and 4-year-olds (binary_experience and binary_experience+awareness) but not by 3-year-olds. The findings demonstrate the importance of complexity and conscious awareness in cognitive development.
Barthomeuf, Laetitia; Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Rousset, Sylvie
The aim of this study was to determine whether or not pleasure, neutrality, and disgust expressed by eaters in photographs could affect the desire to eat food products to a greater extent in children than in adults. Children of 5 and 8 years of age, as well as adults, were presented with photographs of liked and disliked foods. These foods were presented either alone or with an eater who expressed three different emotions: pleasure, neutrality, or disgust. Results showed that, compared with food presented alone, food presented with a pleasant face increased the desire to eat disliked foods, particularly in children, and increased the desire to eat liked foods only in the 5-year-old children. In contrast, with a disgusted face, the desire to eat the liked foods decreased in all participants, although to a greater extent in children, while it had no effect on the desire to eat the disliked foods. Finally, food presented with a neutral face also increased and decreased the desire to eat disliked and liked foods, respectively, and in each case more for the 5-year-olds than for the older participants. In sum, the facial expressions of others influence the desire to eat liked and disliked foods and, to a greater extent, in younger children.
Misch, Antonia; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda
Group loyalty is highly valued. However, little is known about young children's loyal behavior. This study tested whether 4- and 5-year-olds (N=96) remain loyal to their group even when betraying it would be materially advantageous. Children and four puppets were allocated to novel groups. Two of these puppets (either in-group or out-group members) then told children a group secret and urged them not to disclose the secret. Another puppet (not assigned to either group) then bribed children with stickers to tell the secret. Across ages, children were significantly less likely to reveal the secret in the in-group condition than in the out-group condition. Thus, even young children are willing to pay a cost to be loyal to their group.
Danovitch, Judith H.; Alzahabi, Reem
Although children are often exposed to technological devices early in life, little is known about how they evaluate these novel sources of information. In two experiments, children aged 3, 4, and 5 years old ("n" = 92) were presented with accurate and inaccurate computer informants, and they subsequently relied on information provided by…
Bernstein, Daniel M.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
We introduce computer-based methodologies for investigating object identification in 3- to 5-year-old children. In two experiments, preschool children and adults indicated when they could identify degraded pictures of common objects as those pictures either gradually improved or degraded in clarity. Clarity transformations were implemented in four…
Adi-Japha, Esther; Berberich-Artzi, Jennie; Libnawi, Afaf
A. Karmiloff-Smith's (1990) task of drawing a nonexistent object is considered to be a measure of cognitive flexibility. The notion of earlier emergence of cognitive flexibility in bilingual children motivated the current researchers to request 4- and 5-year-old English-Hebrew and Arabic-Hebrew bilingual children and their monolingual peers to…
Niccols, Alison; Milligan, Karen; Chisholm, Vivienne; Atkinson, Leslie
Children with genetic syndromes offer a unique opportunity to combine genetic and environmental approaches to the study of aggression. Children with genetic syndromes associated with developmental delay are at increased risk for behavior problems, but little is known about risk and resilience factors. In this study, we examined maternal sensitivity of mothers of children with Down syndrome using home observations when their children were 2, 3, and 5 years old, and relations with maternal reports and observations of overt aggression at school at age 5. Maternal sensitivity at ages 2 and 3 years did not significantly predict child aggression at age 5, but low maternal sensitivity at age 5 was significantly related to overt aggression at both home and school. By replicating and extending earlier work, this study informs developmental theory and identifies an important maternal variable related to aggression in children with Down syndrome.
Treiman, Rebecca; Hompluem, Lana; Gordon, Jessica; Decker, Kristina; Markson, Lori
Two experiments with one hundred and fourteen 3- to 5-year-old children examined whether children understand that a printed word represents a specific spoken word and that it differs in this way from a drawing. When an experimenter read a word to children and then a puppet used a different but related label for it, such as "dog" for the…
Murakami, Taro; Hashiya, Kazuhide
The referent of a deictic embedded in a particular utterance or sentence is often ambiguous. Reference assignment is a pragmatic process that enables the disambiguation of such a referent. Previous studies have demonstrated that receivers use social-pragmatic information during referent assignment; however, it is still unclear which aspects of cognitive development affect the development of referential processing in children. The present study directly assessed the relationship between performance on a reference assignment task (Murakami and Hashiya, in preparation) and the dimensional change card sort task (DCCS) in 3- and 5-years-old children. The results indicated that the 3-years-old children who passed DCCS showed performance above chance level in the event which required an explicit (cognitive) shift, while the performance of the children who failed DCCS remained in the range of chance level; however, such a tendency was not observed in the 5-years-old, possibly due to a ceiling effect. The results indicated that, though the development of skills that mediate cognitive shifting might adequately explain the explicit shift of attention in conversation, the pragmatic processes underlying the implicit shift, which requires reference assignment, might follow a different developmental course.
Atance, Cristina M.; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
We examined 240 children's (3.5-, 4.5-, and 5.5-year-olds) latency to respond to questions on a battery of false-belief tasks. Response latencies exhibited a significant cross-over interaction as a function of age and response type (correct vs. incorrect). 3.5-year-olds' "in"correct latencies were faster than their correct latencies, whereas the…
Blake, Peter R.; Harris, Paul L.
An understanding of ownership entails the recognition that ownership can be transferred permanently and the ability to differentiate legitimate from illegitimate transfers. Two experiments explored the development of this understanding in 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year olds, using stories about gift-giving and stealing. The possibility that children use…
Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R
Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds.
Szu, Shousun Chen; Ahmed, Amina
Pediatric immunization has been the most effective measure to prevent and reduce the burden of infectious diseases in children. The recent inclusion of pneumococcal and meningococcal polysaccharide conjugates in infant immunization further reinforces their importance. Currently there is no human vaccine against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. This review focuses on the human EHEC vaccine that has been studied clinically, in particular, the polysaccharide conjugate against E. coli O157. The surface polysaccharide antigen, O-specific polysaccharide, was linked to rEPA, recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In adults and children 2 to 5 years old, O157-rEPA conjugates, shown to be safe, induced high levels of antilipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G with bactericidal activities against E. coli O157, a functional bioassay that mimics the killing of inoculum in vivo. A similar construct using the B subunit of Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 as the carrier protein elicited both bactericidal and toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice. So far there is no clinical study of Stx-based human vaccine. Passive immunization of Stx-specific antibodies with humanized, chimeric, or human monoclonal antibodies, produced in transgenic mice, showed promising data in animal models and offered high prospects. Demonstrations of their safety and effectiveness in treating hemolytic-uremic syndrome or patients with EHEC infections are under way, and results are much anticipated. For future development, other virulence factors such as the nontoxic Stx B subunit or intimin should be included, either as carrier protein in conjugates or as independent components. The additional antigens from O157 may provide broader coverage to non-O157 Stx-producing E. coli and facilitate both preventive and therapeutic treatment.
Bernard, Stéphane; Harris, Paul; Terrier, Nathalie; Clément, Fabrice
The aim of this study was to evaluate how 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 150) identify an object when they are confronted with conflicting evidence, notably when the available perceptual evidence is contradicted by the testimony of either a lone informant or a three-informant consensus. Results showed that (a) 5-year-olds were more likely than 3- or 4-year-olds to rely on the perceptual evidence, ignoring claims made by the informants; (b) the three-informant consensus had more impact than a single informant for all age groups; and (c) children were more likely to make a perception-based response if the stimulus was perceptually unambiguous rather than equivocal with respect to its identity. Moreover, when children's task was to identify equivocal stimuli, they endorsed the three-informant consensus more than the lone informant. In contrast, when they needed to identify unambiguous stimuli, the number of informants did not influence children's responses. Taken together, the results show that the tendency to resist testimony on the basis of perceptual evidence increases with age. Moreover, preschoolers monitor both the characteristics of their informants and the relative ambiguity of the perceptual stimuli when they need to weigh verbal testimony against perceptual evidence.
Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Pei; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Su
Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word form information from environmental prints. To exclude the phonological-cue confound, this study tested children's knowledge of Chinese words embedded in familiar logos. The four environmental logos were employed and transformed into four versions with the contextual cues (i.e., something apart from the presentation of the words themselves in logo format like the color, logo and font type cues) gradually minimized. Children aged from 3 to 5 were tested. We observed that children of different ages all performed better when words were presented in highly familiar logos compared to when they were presented in a plain fashion, devoid of context. This advantage for familiar logos was also present when the contextual information was only partial. However, the role of various cues in learning words changed with age. The color and logo cues had a larger effect in 3- and 4- year-olds than in 5-year-olds, while the font type cue played a greater role in 5-year-olds than in the other two groups. Our findings demonstrated that young children did not easily learn words by extracting their visual form information even from familiar environmental prints. However, children aged 5 begin to pay more attention to the visual form information of words in highly familiar logos than those aged 3 and 4.
Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik
One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, p<0.001), father educational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, p<0.001) and mother educational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, p<0.001) as well as MES (Wald=13.95, p<0.001) were strong predictors of stunting among girls. Similarly BO (Wald=13.71, p<0.001) was a strong predictor of stunting among girls. Girls with >or=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with
Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol
This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school…
Chaman, Reza; Alami, Ali; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Ahmadnezhad, Elham; Entezarmahdi, Rasool; Shati, Mohsen; Shariati, Mohammad
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk factors of children mortality between 1-59 months of age. Methods: This nested case-control study was conducted among children born from June 1999 to March 2009 in rural areas of Shahroud, located in the central region of Iran using health care visit reports and follow-up data available in household health records. Results: Mortality was significantly associated with breastfeeding duration (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.81-0.93), total health care visits (OR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.98) and low birth weight (LBW) (OR: 7.38, 95% CI: 1.37-39.67). Conclusion: In our study, a longer breastfeeding period and more frequent health care visits were two important protective factors, while LBW was an important risk factor for 1-59 month child mortality. It seems, that complex and multiple factors may be involved in mortality of under 5-year-old children, so combined efforts would be necessary to improve child health indicators. PMID:23272287
Carrick, Nathalie; Quas, Jodi A
This study examined 3- to 5-year-olds' (N = 128; 54% girls) ability to discriminate emotional fantasy and reality. Children viewed images depicting fantastic or real events that elicited several emotions, reported whether each event could occur, and rated their emotional reaction to the image. Children were also administered the Play Behavior Questionnaire and Pretend Action Tasks to assess play behaviors. Findings revealed age-related improvements in performance and biases in judgment based on the emotion depicted. Children reported that happy fantastic events could occur significantly more often than frightening and angry fantastic events and that happy real events could occur significantly more often than frightening and angry real events. Children's emotional reactions to the images but not play behaviors were significantly related to their fantasy-reality distinctions. Implications for the relation between emotions and children's fantasy-reality distinctions are discussed.
Baruch, G K; Barnett, R C
The relation between fathers' participation in family work (child care and home chores) and children's sex-role attitudes was examined in an interview study of 160 Caucasian middle-class families. Children were stratified by age level (5-year-olds and 10-year-olds), sex, and maternal employment status. 5 types of paternal participation were assessed--for example, total interaction time, performance of traditionally feminine home chores--using joint estimates by fathers and mothers. Children's attitudes were measured by questionnaire; their occupational aspirations were also assessed. Data are provided on the extent of fathers' participation for each of the 5 types assessed. The direct effects of paternal participation per se on children's attitudes were weak. Among fourth graders, mother's attitude toward the male role was the strongest predictor of stereotyping; children with nontraditional mothers were significantly less stereotyped.
When and how does one learn to associate emotion with music? This study attempted to address this issue by examining whether preschool children use tempo as a cue in determining whether a song is happy or sad. Instrumental versions of children's songs were played at different tempos to adults and children ages 3 to 5 years. Familiar and unfamiliar songs were used to examine whether familiarity affected children's identification of emotion in music. The results indicated that adults, 4 year olds and 5 year olds rated fast songs as significantly happier than slow songs. However, 3 year olds failed to rate fast songs differently than slow songs at above-chance levels. Familiarity did not significantly affect children's identification of happiness and sadness in music.
McElwain, Nancy L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Volling, Brenda L
Mother- and father-reported reactions to children's negative emotions were examined as correlates of emotional understanding (Study 1, N = 55, 5- to 6-year-olds) and friendship quality (Study 2, N = 49, 3- to 5-year-olds). Mothers' and fathers' supportive reactions together contributed to greater child-friend coordinated play during a sharing task. Further, when one parent reported low support, greater support by the other parent was related to better understanding of emotions and less intense conflict with friends (for boys only). When one parent reported high support, however, greater support by the other parent was associated with less optimal functioning on these outcomes. Results partially support the notion that children benefit when parents differ in their reactions to children's emotions.
Flynn, Emma; Turner, Cameron; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain
Culture evolution requires both modification and faithful replication of behaviour, thus it is essential to understand how individuals choose between social and asocial learning. In a quasi-experimental design, 3- and 5-year-olds (176), and adults (52) were presented individually with two novel artificial fruits, and told of the apparatus' relative difficulty (easy versus hard). Participants were asked if they wanted to attempt the task themselves or watch an experimenter attempt it first; and then had their preference either met or violated. A significant proportion of children and adults (74%) chose to learn socially. For children, this request was efficient, as observing a demonstration made them significantly quicker at the task than learning asocially. However, for 5-year-olds, children who selected asocial learning were also found to be highly efficient at the task, showing that by 5 years children are selective in choosing a learning strategy that is effective for them. Adults further evidenced this trend, and also showed selectivity based on task difficulty. This is the first study to examine the rates, performance outcomes and developmental trajectory of preferences in asocial and social learning, ultimately informing our understanding of innovation.
Steelandt, Sophie; Dufour, Valérie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Thierry, Bernard
To investigate the rise of economic abilities during development we studied children aged between 3 and 10 in an exchange situation requiring them to calculate their investment based on different offers. One experimenter gave back a reward twice the amount given by the children, and a second always gave back the same quantity regardless of the amount received. To maximize pay-offs children had to invest a maximal amount with the first, and a minimal amount with the second. About one third of the 5-year-olds and most 7- and 10-year-olds were able to adjust their investment according to the partner, while all 3-year-olds failed. Such performances should be related to the rise of cognitive and social skills after 4 years. PMID:22413006
Frick, Andrea; Daum, Moritz M; Wilson, Margaret; Wilkening, Friedrich
The aim of this study was to investigate whether and which aspects of a concurrent motor activity can facilitate children's and adults' performance in a dynamic imagery task. Children (5-, 7-, and 9-year-olds) and adults were asked to tilt empty glasses, filled with varied amounts of imaginary water, so that the imagined water would reach the rim. Results showed that in a manual tilting task where glasses could be tilted actively with visual feedback, even 5-year-olds performed well. However, in a blind tilting task and in a static judgment task, all age groups showed markedly lower performance. This implies that visual movement information facilitates imagery. In a task where the tilting movement was visible but regulated by means of an on-and-off remote control, a clear age trend was found, indicating that active motor control and motor feedback are particularly important in imagery performance of younger children.
Sheppard, Daniel Patrick; Kretschmer, Anett; Knispel, Elisa; Vollert, Bianka; Altgassen, Mareike
The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task). The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two conditions (low- or high-association) for all participants, whilst half of the participants were promised a reward for good prospective memory performance. Results showed a main effect of age, with the 7-year-olds outperforming the 5-year-olds. Furthermore, there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not. No effect was found for cue-association, with the participants of both age groups performing equally well in both association conditions. No significant interactions were found between any of the variables. The potentially important role of reward in young children's everyday prospective memory tasks, and possible reasons for the lack of a reflexive-associative effect, are discussed.
Dawson-Hahn, Elizabeth E.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Hoopes, Andrea J.; Matheson, Jasmine
Introduction The extent that the dual burden of undernutrition and overnutrition affects refugee children before resettlement in the US is not well described. Objective To describe the prevalence of wasting, stunting, overweight, and obesity among refugee children ages 0–10 years at their overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in Washington State (WA), and to compare the nutritional status of refugee children with that of low-income children in WA. Methods We analyzed anthropometric measurements of 1047 refugee children ages 0–10 years old to assess their nutritional status at the overseas medical screening examination prior to resettlement in WA from July 2012—June 2014. The prevalence estimates of the nutritional status categories were compared by country of origin. In addition, the nutritional status of refugee children age 0–5 years old were compared to that of low-income children in WA from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Results A total of 982 children were eligible for the study, with the majority (65%) from Somalia, Iraq and Burma. Overall, nearly one-half of all refugee children had at least one form of malnutrition (44.9%). Refugee children ages 0–10 years were affected by wasting (17.3%), stunting (20.1%), overweight (7.6%) and obesity (5.9%). Among children 0–5 years old, refugee children had a significantly higher prevalence of wasting (14.3% versus 1.9%, p<0.001) and stunting (21.3% versus 5.5%, p<0.001), and a lower prevalence of obesity (6.2% versus 12.9%, p<0.001) than low-income children in WA. Conclusion The dual burden of under- and over-nutrition among incoming refugee children as well as their overall difference in prevalence of nutritional status categories compared to low-income children in WA provides evidence for the importance of tailored interventions to address the nutritional needs of refugee children. PMID:26808275
Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa
A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific daily experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's daily involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have daily social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals.
Sheng, Li; Lu, Ying; Kan, Pui Fong
Two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (3-5-year-olds, 6-8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification task and a picture naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in English, but not Mandarin vocabulary. Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but…
Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen
Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…
Hustad, Katherine C.; Oakes, Ashley; Allison, Kristen
Purpose: We examined variability of speech intelligibility scores and how well intelligibility scores predicted group membership among 5-year-old children with speech motor impairment (SMI) secondary to cerebral palsy and an age-matched group of typically developing (TD) children. Method: Speech samples varying in length from 1-4 words were…
Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Phelps, Fiona G.; Calderwood, Lesley
Looking away from an interlocutor's face during demanding cognitive activity can help adults and children answer challenging mental arithmetic and verbal-reasoning questions (Glenberg, Schroeder, & Robertson, 1998; Phelps, Doherty-Sneddon, & Warnock, 2006). While such "gaze aversion" (GA) is used far less by 5-year-old school children, its use…
Gambino, Agatha; Davis, Julie; Rowntree, Noeleen
Field experiences for young children are an ideal medium for environmental education/education for sustainability because of opportunities for direct experience in nature, integrated learning, and high community involvement. This research documented the development--in 4-5 year old Prep children--of knowledge, attitudes and actions/advocacy in…
Waters, Gillian M.; Beck, Sarah R.
In two experiments, we investigated whether 4- to 5-year-old children's ability to demonstrate their understanding of aspectuality was influenced by how the test question was phrased. In Experiment 1, 60 children chose whether to look or feel to gain information about a hidden object (identifiable by sight or touch). Test questions referred either…
Burns, Patrick; Russell, James
We investigated the development and cognitive correlates of envisioning future experiences in 3.5- to 6.5-year old children across 2 experiments, both of which involved toy trains traveling along a track. In the first, children were asked to predict the direction of train travel and color of train side, as it would be seen through an arch.…
Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.
The purpose of the study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field based settings. The development of the CHAMPS (Children’s Activity and Movement in Preschool Study) Motor Skills Protocol (CMSP) included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large epidemiological studies. Following pilot work, 297 children (3-5 years old) from 22 preschools were tested using the final version of the CMSP and the TGMD-2. Reliability of the CMSP and interobserver reliability were determined using intraclass correlation procedures (ICC; ANOVA). Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients to compare the CMSP to the original Test of Gross Motor Development (2nd Edition) (TGMD-2). Results indicated that test reliability, interobserver reliability and validity coefficients were all high, generally above R/r = 0.90. Significant age differences were found. Outcomes indicate that the CMSP is an appropriate tool for assessing motor development of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in field-based settings that are consistent with large-scale trials. PMID:21532999
Kendrick, April; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Hudson, Carmen; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Horton, Charlotte
Preschool-age children (range: 2.5-5 years old) were videotaped while in the sandbox and the climbing apparatus areas of a preschool playground prior to (i.e. baseline) and after a teacher "zone defence" training. The zone defence involved teachers being assigned to specific playground areas to monitor safety and facilitate the children's play and…
Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne
To examine European American parents' racial socialization, mothers (n = 84) were videotaped while reading 2 race-themed books to their 4- to 5-year-old children and completed surveys concerning their racial attitudes and behaviors. Children completed measures of their racial attitudes and both groups (mothers and preschoolers) predicted the…
Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera
This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…
Cutcher, Alexandra; Boyd, Wendy
Picasso once famously said "All children are artists. The problem is how to remain an artist once he grows up." This visual inquiry is engaged through a community of creative practice in two rural children's centers where the researchers along with 4- and 5-year-old children collaborated to create a large-scale canvas and several smaller…
Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Blaye, Agnes; Poulin-Dubois, Diane
The effect of bilingualism on the cognitive skills of young children was investigated by comparing performance of 162 children who belonged to one of two age groups (approximately 3- and 4.5-year-olds) and one of three language groups on a series of tasks examining executive control and word mapping. The children were monolingual English speakers,…
Flohr, John W.; Miller, Daniel C.; deBeus, Roger
Describes how electroencephalogram (EEG) data are collected and how brain function is measured. Discusses studies on the effects of music experiences with adult subjects and studies focusing on the effects of music training on EEG activity of children and adolescents. Considers the implications of the studies and the future directions of this…
Imai, Mutsumi; Li, Lianjing; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Shigematsu, Jun
When can children speaking Japanese, English, or Chinese map and extend novel nouns and verbs? Across 6 studies, 3- and 5-year-old children in all 3 languages map and extend novel nouns more readily than novel verbs. This finding prevails even in languages like Chinese and Japanese that are assumed to be verb-friendly languages (e.g., T. Tardif, 1996). The results also suggest that the input language uniquely shapes verb learning such that English-speaking children require grammatical support to learn verbs, whereas Chinese children require pragmatic as well as grammatical support. This research bears on how universally shared cognitive factors and language-specific linguistic factors interact in lexical development.
Moriguchi, Yusuke; Sakata, Yoko; Ishibashi, Mikako; Ishikawa, Yusuke
Intervention of executive function during early childhood is an important research topic. This study examined the effect of a child-friendly intervention program, where children interacted with a doll or a puppet. Children were presented with cognitive shifting tasks before and after an intervention. In the intervention, children interacted with a doll or a puppet, and taught rules of the cognitive shifting tasks to the object. As the results, 3- to 5-year-old children significantly improved the performances and strengthened activations in the lateral prefrontal regions as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. The results suggest that interaction with a doll or a puppet may have a significant impact on the development of executive function. PMID:26175706
Manousaki, D.; Rauch, F.; Chabot, G.; Dubois, J.; Fiscaletti, M.; Alos, N.
Objectives: Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. Subjects and methods: We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years. Lumbar bone mineral content (BMC) and areal BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry using a Lunar Prodigy absorptiometer. Volumetric BMD was calculated using the Kroeger and Carter methods. Results: BMC and areal BMD increased from birth to 5 years (p<0.001). Volumetric BMD did not change with age. BMD and BMC correlated with age, weight and height (R2≥0.85 for all), with a maximum gain between the ages of 1 and 4 years, which did not follow the same pattern as height velocity. We did not find significant sex difference for any of the three measured parameters. Conclusion: This study provides normative data for lumbar spine densitometry of infants and young children using the Lunar Prodigy DXA system. PMID:27609039
Goulème, Nathalie; Seassau, Magali; Bucci, Maria Pia
The objective was to explore how face exploration affects postural control in healthy children. The novelty here is that eye movements and posture were simultaneously recorded. Three groups of children participated in the study: 12 children of 7.8±0.5 years old, 13 children of 10.4±0.5 years old and 12 children of 15.7±0.9 years old. Eye movements were recorded by video-oculography and postural stability was recorded by a platform. Children were invited to explore five emotional faces (neutral, happy, sad fear and angry). Analysis of eye movements was done on saccadic latency, percentage of exploration time spent and number of saccades for each specific region of interest (ROI): eyes, nose and mouth. Analysis of posture was made on surface area, sway length and mean velocity of the center of pressures (CoP). Results showed that visual strategies, exploration and postural control develop during childhood and adolescence. Indeed, after nine years-old, children started to look the eyes ROI firstly, then the nose ROI and finally the mouth ROI. The number of saccades decreased with the age of children. The percentage of exploration time spent in eyes ROI was longer than the others ROIs and greater for unpleasant faces (sad, fear and angry) with respect to pleasant emotional face (happy). We found that in front of sad and happy faces the surface area of the CoP was significantly larger compared to other faces (neutral and angry). These results suggest that visual strategies and postural control change during children's development and can be influenced by the emotional face.
Examined processes by which 4- and 5-year-olds initiate, organize, and maintain language play interactions. Found that as children voice incongruities of greater proportion, the emotional climate of play is heightened and ingenious verbal representations are provoked. Identified developmental features of hyperbolic language play. Contextualized…
Gatt, Suzanne; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Borg, Kurtsten; Lautier, Katya
Fifty Maltese children, 25 in the second year of pre-school (4 years olds) and 25 in the first year of compulsory education (5 years old), were interviewed about their knowledge of plants. Analysis showed that they had a restricted understanding of the term, meaning something small, with a thin stalk, leaves and a flower. Trees, cacti and nettles…
Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
Human social interaction depends on individuals identifying the common ground they have with others, based both on personally shared experiences and on cultural common ground that all members of the group share. We introduced 3- and 5-year-old children to a culturally well-known object and a novel object. An experimenter then entered and asked,…
Houston, Derek M.; Carter, Allyson K.; Pisoni, David B.; Kirk, Karen Iler; Ying, Elizabeth A.
An experimental procedure was developed to investigate word-learning skills of children who use cochlear implants (CIs). Using interactive play scenarios, 2- to 5-year olds were presented with sets of objects (Beanie Baby stuffed animals) and words for their names that corresponded to salient perceptual attributes (e.g., "horns" for a goat). Their…
Costa, Beatriz; Morais, Andreia; Santos, Ana Sofia; Tavares, Delfin; Seves, Graça; Gouveia, Catarina
We report 2 cases of chronic Q fever osteomyelitis in 10- and 5-year-old girls who presented with distal right femoral and left parasternal granulomatous osteomyelitis, respectively. Both were treated with ciprofloxacin and rifampin with good response. Q fever osteomyelitis is a challenging diagnosis in children, and the choice of antimicrobial treatment is difficult because of limited available data.
Phelps, Fiona G.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Warnock, Hannah
Looking away from an interlocutor's face during demanding cognitive activity can help adults answer challenging arithmetic and verbal-reasoning questions (Glenberg, Schroeder, & Robertson, 1998). However, such "gaze aversion" (GA) is poorly applied by 5-year-old school children (Doherty-Sneddon, Bruce, Bonner, Longbotham, & Doyle, 2002). In…
Children's literature and the social studies need to be integrated so that holism is involved in pupil learning. A variety of kinds of reading materials should be available to learners so that each social studies unit might be meaningful and interesting. Individual differences among pupils' abilities and achievements must be adequately provided…
Skogerbø, Åshild; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Denny, Clark H.; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Wimberley, Theresa; Landrø, Nils Inge; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at age five years. Design Follow-up study Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008 Population Prospective cohort study of 1,628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) Parent and Teacher versions were completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. The full statistical model included the following potential confounders: Maternal binge drinking or low-moderate alcohol consumption, respectively, parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child’s age at testing, the child’s gender, maternal age, parity, maternal marital status, family-home environment, postnatal parental smoking, pre-pregnancy maternal BMI, and the child’s health status. Main outcome measures Behaviour among children assessed by the SDQ parent and teacher forms. Results Adjusted for all potential confounders, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal low to moderate average weekly alcohol consumption and SDQ behavioural scores (OR 1.1, CI 0.5–2.3 and OR 1.1., CI 0.6–2.1 for the total difficulties scores) or between binge drinking and SDQ behavioural scores (OR 1.2, CI 0.8–1.7 and OR 0.8, CI 0.6–1.2). Conclusion This study observed no consistent effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption or binge drinking in early pregnancy on offspring behaviour at age 5 years. PMID:23837773
Mascia, Maria Lidia; Agus, Mirian; Fastame, Maria Chiara; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Sale, Eliana; Pessa, Eliano
The development of numerical abilities was examined in three groups of 5 year-olds: one including 13 children accomplishing a numerical training in pencil-and-paper format (EG1); another group including 21 children accomplished a homologous training in computerized format; the remaining 24 children were assigned to the control group (CG). The…
DeGangi, Georgia; Larsen, Lawrence A.
A measurement device, Assessment of Sensorimotor Integration in Preschool Children, was developed to assess postural control, reflex integration and bilateral motor integration in developmentally delayed children (3 to 5 years old). The test was administered to 113 normal children and results were compared with data collected on 23 developmentally…
Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L
This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. One hundred and sixty-two children (Mean age = 4.64 ± 0.58 years; 53.1% boys) were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between groups for total fundamental movement skill, object-control skill or locomotor skill scores, indicating a need for program modification to facilitate greater skill improvements.
Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S; Frick, Andrea
Spatial scaling is an important prerequisite for many spatial tasks and involves an understanding of how distances in different-sized spaces correspond. Previous studies have found evidence for such an understanding in preschoolers; however, the mental processes involved remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether children and adults use mental transformations to scale distances in space. Adults and 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 60) were asked to use maps to locate target objects in a larger referent space on a touch screen. The size of the referent space was held constant, but the sizes of the maps were varied systematically, resulting in 7 scaling factors. A linear increase in response times and errors with increasing scaling factor suggested that participants of every age group mentally transformed the size of the map to compare it to the referent, providing evidence for an analog imagery strategy in children's and adults' spatial scaling.
Sloutsky, Vladimir M; Fisher, Anna V
Inductive inference is crucial for learning: If one learns that a cat has a particular biological property, one could expand this knowledge to other cats. We argue that young children perform induction on the basis of similarity of compared entities, whereas adults may induce on the basis of category information. If different processes underlie induction at different points in development, young children and adults would form different memory traces during induction, and would subsequently have different memory accuracy. Experiment 1 demonstrates that after performing an induction task, 5-year-olds exhibit more accurate memory than adults. Experiment 2 indicates that after 5-year-olds are trained to perform induction in an adultlike manner, their memory accuracy drops to the level of adults. These results, indicating that sometimes 5-year-olds exhibit better memory than adults, support the claim that, unlike adults, young children perform similarity-based rather than category-based induction.
Lombard, Robert H, Ed.; And Others
Maintains that the role of technology and its civic implications can be explored through children's literature. Provides a bibliographical essay of 19 books that address how things work, how technology affects everyday life, and how society shapes its technological future. (CFR)
Jinadu, M K; Olusi, S O; Agun, J I; Fabiyi, A K
This population-based study was conducted to determine the prevalence, mortality, and socio-environmental determinants of diarrhoeal diseases in children less than 5-years of age in a rural area of Akoko North, Ondo State, Nigeria. A total of 856 households with children less than 5-years old were randomly selected for the questionnaire and observational investigations. A two-week prevalence rate of the diseases among the children was 8.1%. The rate was highest among children 0-11 months old and slightly higher among the boys than girls. The infant mortality rate was 102/1000 and the mortality rate in less than 5-year old children was 62.1/1000 in the area. The majority of these deaths took place in the homes and health centres and were never reported. Social and environmental factors including dirty feeding bottles and utensils, inadequate disposal of faeces and household refuse, and poor storage of drinking water were found to be significantly related to the high incidence of the diseases. Educational interventions recommended for the control of the disease focused on these factors.
Shutts, Kristin; Brey, Elizabeth L.; Dornbusch, Leah A.; Slywotzky, Nina; Olson, Kristina R.
Wealth differences between individuals are ubiquitous in modern society, and often serve as the basis for biased social evaluations among adults. The present research probed whether children use cues that are commonly associated with wealth differences in society to guide their consideration of others. In Study 1, 4–5-year-old participants from diverse racial backgrounds expressed preferences for children who were paired with high-wealth cues; White children in Study 1 also matched high-wealth stimuli with White faces. Study 2 conceptually replicated the preference effect from Study 1, and showed that young children (4–6 years) also use material wealth indicators to guide their inferences about people’s relative standing in other domains (i.e., competence and popularity). Study 3 revealed that children (5–9 years) use a broad range of wealth cues to guide their evaluations of, and actions toward, unfamiliar people. Further, biased responses were not attenuated among children whose families were lower in socioeconomic status. Often overlooked by those who study children’s attitudes and stereotypes, social class markers appear to influence evaluations, inferences, and behavior early in development. PMID:26933887
Background Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequently encountered bacterial infections in children aged < 5 years; Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are historically identified as primary AOM causes. Nevertheless, recent data on bacterial pathogens causing AOM in Latin America are limited. This prospective study aimed to identify and characterize bacterial etiology and serotypes of AOM cases including antimicrobial susceptibility in < 5 year old Colombian children. Methods From February 2008 to January 2009, children ≥3 months and < 5 years of age presenting with AOM and for whom a middle ear fluid (MEF) sample was available were enrolled in two medical centers in Cali, Colombia. MEF samples were collected either by tympanocentesis procedure or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling. Bacteria were identified using standard laboratory methods, and antimicrobial resistance testing was performed based on the 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. Most of the cases included in the study were sporadic in nature. Results Of the 106 enrolled children, 99 were included in the analysis. Bacteria were cultured from 62/99 (63%) of samples with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. pyogenes. The most commonly isolated bacteria were H. influenzae in 31/99 (31%) and S. pneumoniae in 30/99 (30%) of samples. The majority of H. influenzae episodes were NTHi (27/31; 87%). 19F was the most frequently isolated pneumococcal serotype (10/30; 33%). Of the 30 S. pneumoniae positive samples, 8/30 (27%) were resistant to tetracycline, 5/30 (17%) to erythromycin and 8/30 (27%) had intermediate resistance to penicillin. All H. influenzae isolates tested were negative to beta-lactamase. Conclusions NTHi and S. pneumoniae are the leading causes of AOM in Colombian children. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that prevents both pathogens could be useful in maximizing protection against AOM. PMID:21208431
Akins, CDR Roger Scott; Krakowiak, Paula; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.
Objective This study compared the utilization of conventional treatments to utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Methods Participants were 578 children who were part of an ongoing population-based, case-control study of 2 to 5 year-olds with ASD, DD, and the general population. Parents completed an interview on past and current services. Results Four hundred fifty-three children with ASD and 125 DD children were included. ASD families received more hours of conventional services compared to DD (17.8 vs. 11; p<0.001). The use of psychotropic medications was low in both groups (~3%). CAM use overall was not significantly different in ASD (39%) versus DD (30%). Hispanic families in both groups used CAM less often than non-Hispanics. Variables such as level of function, immunization status, and presence of an identified neurogenetic disorder were not predictive of CAM use. A higher level of parental education was associated with increased CAM use in ASD and DD. Families who utilized >20 hours per week of conventional services were more likely to use CAM, including potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Under-immunized children were marginally more likely to use CAM, but not more likely to have received potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Conclusion CAM use is common in families of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders and is predicted by higher parental education and non-Hispanic ethnicity but not developmental characteristics. Further research should address how healthcare providers can support families in making decisions about CAM use. PMID:24399100
Bersh, D; Osorio, M M
This paper studies the association between fluctuations in rates of diarrhoea among children less than 5 years old in Armenia (Quindio) and variations in the application of chlorine in the aqueduct of the city. The study shows that to a great extent diarrhoea morbidity can be explained by the application of chlorine which does not reach useful levels of concentration during the required time. The article concluded by recommending the improvement of existing treatment plants and investing the necessary resources in new plants to insure the quality of water.
... Clinical Studies Children have often had to accept medicines and treatments based on what is known to ... children's health with the goal to develop treatments, drugs, and devices specific to children. Resources for a ...
Katz, L F; Gottman, J M
Examined several protective mechanisms that may reduce deleterious correlates of marital conflict and marital dissolution in young children. One set of potential buffers focused on parent-child interaction: parental warmth, parental scaffolding/praise, and inhibition of parental rejection. As a second set of potential buffers, each parent was interviewed about their "meta-emotion philosophy"--that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and their attitudes and responses to their children's anger and sadness. The third set of potential buffers concerned intraindividual characteristics of the child, including the child's intelligence and regulatory physiology (basal vagal tone and vagal suppression). Fifty-six families with a preschool child were studied at two time points: when the children were 5 years old (Time 1) and again when the children were 8 years old (Time 2). At Time 1, naturalistic observations of marital and parent-child interaction were conducted and assessment of child regulatory physiology was obtained through measures of basal vagal tone and suppression of vagal tone. Parents were also interviewed individually about their feelings about their own and their children's emotions, and children's intelligence was assessed. At Time 2, assessment of child outcomes were obtained, including observations of peer interaction, mother ratings of behavior problems and mother and teacher ratings of peer aggression, mother ratings of child physical illness, and measures of achievement. Results indicated that all Time 1 buffering factors protected children in face of marital conflict and dissolution.
Engelmann, Jan M.; Over, Harriet; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael
Human cooperation depends on individuals caring about their reputation, and so they sometimes attempt to manage them strategically. Here we show that even 5-year-old children strategically manage their reputation. In an experimental setting, children shared significantly more resources with an anonymous recipient when (1) the child watching them…
Egger, Helen Link; Angold, Adrian
We review recent research on the presentation, nosology and epidemiology of behavioral and emotional psychiatric disorders in preschool children (children ages 2 through 5 years old), focusing on the five most common groups of childhood psychiatric disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders,…
Holliday, Jeffrey J.; Reidy, Patrick F.; Beckman, Mary E.; Edwards, Jan
Purpose: Four measures of children's developing robustness of phonological contrast were compared to see how they correlated with age, vocabulary size, and adult listeners' correctness ratings. Method: Word-initial sibilant fricative productions from eighty-one 2- to 5-year-old children and 20 adults were phonetically transcribed and acoustically…
Wagner, Laura; Dunfield, Kristen A.; Rohrbeck, Kristin L.
In a series of two experiments, we examined 5-year-old children's motivations for learning new conventional actions. Children watched two teachers open a novel container; the teachers differed in the nonfunctional, conventional actions they used in the process. In Experiment 1, one teacher spoke with a native accent and the other spoke with a…
Hribar, Alenka; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep
We investigated 4- and 5-year-old children's mapping strategies in a spatial task. Children were required to find a picture in an array of three identical cups after observing another picture being hidden in another array of three cups. The arrays were either aligned one behind the other in two rows or placed side by side forming one line.…
Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars
Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…
Skouteris, Helen; Spataro, Josie; Lazaridis, Mary
The experiments reported here were concerned with the development of delayed self-recognition. Children were videotaped playing a game and were marked covertly with a sticker on their forehead while doing so. The findings, of both a cross-sectional sample and a prospective longitudinal one, revealed that 3- but not 2.5-year-old children reached to…
Fletcher, Grace E.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael
We compared the performance of 3- and 5-year-old children with that of chimpanzees in two tasks requiring collaboration via complementary roles. In both tasks, children and chimpanzees were able to coordinate two complementary roles with peers and solve the problem cooperatively. This is the first experimental demonstration of the coordination of…
Anobile, Giovanni; Castaldi, Elisa; Turi, Marco; Tinelli, Francesca; Burr, David C.
Considerable recent work suggests that mathematical abilities in children correlate with the ability to estimate numerosity. Does math correlate only with numerosity estimation, or also with other similar tasks? We measured discrimination thresholds of school-age (6- to 12.5-years-old) children in 3 tasks: numerosity of patterns of relatively…
Friedman, Ori; Petrashek, Adam R.
Two experiments tested whether 4- and 5-year-olds follow the rule "ignorance means you get it wrong." Following this rule should lead children to infer that a character who is ignorant about some situation will also have a false belief about it. This rule should sometimes lead children into error because ignorance does not imply false belief. In…
Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Boyer-Pennington, Michelle
We examined developmental changes in children's inductive inferences about biological concepts as a function of knowledge of properties and concepts. Specifically, 4- to 5-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds were taught either familiar or unfamiliar internal, external, or functional properties about known and unknown target animals. Children were…
White, Rachel E.; Carlson, Stephanie M.
This experimental research assessed the influence of graded levels of self-distancing--psychological distancing from one's egocentric perspective--on executive function (EF) in young children. Three- (n = 48) and 5-year-old (n = 48) children were randomly assigned to one of four manipulations of distance from the self (from proximal to distal:…
Lee, Kyung Suk; Yum, Hye Yung; Sheen, Youn Ho; Park, Yong Mean; Lee, Yong Ju; Choi, Bong Seok; Jee, Hye Mi; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee; Park, Yang; Kim, Hyo-Bin
Purpose Rhinitis is a nasal inflammatory disease in children and adolescents. However, little is known about the phenotypes and characteristics of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Korean children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the symptoms and comorbidities of rhinitis, to compare AR to non-allergic rhinitis (NAR), and to reveal the phenotypes and features of AR in a Korean pediatric population. Methods Patients under 18 years of age with rhinitis symptoms were recruited from January 2013 to January 2015 by pediatric allergists. We analyzed symptoms, phenotypes, comorbidities, and allergen sensitization in this cross-sectional, multicenter study. Results Medical records were collected from 11 hospitals. The AR group has 641 (68.3%) patients, with 63.2% of boys and 7.5 (±3.4) years of mean age. The NAR group has 136 (14.5%) patients, with 55.1% of boys and 5.5 (±2.9) years of mean age. Moderate-severe persistent AR affected 41.2% of AR patients. Nasal obstruction was more common in NAR patients (P<0.050), whereas AR patients sneezed more (P<0.050) and more commonly had conjunctivitis, asthma, and otitis media (P<0.050). Sinusitis was the most common comorbidity in both groups. Allergen sensitization was caused by house dust mites (HDMs) (90.2%), pollen (38.7%), and animal dander (24.8%) in AR patients. Pollen and animal dander sensitization significantly increased age-dependently (P<0.050), but 91.9% of AR patients were already sensitized to HDMs before 5 years old. Conclusions Our study revealed that AR was more prevalent than NAR and that 41.2% of AR presented with moderate-severe disease in Korean pediatric populations. Sinusitis was the most common comorbidity, and sleep disturbance was associated with the severity of rhinitis. The majority of AR patients were sensitized to HDMs in preschool ages. Further studies, including nationwide and longitudinal data, will help understand the relationship between these diseases. PMID:27826964
DeMuth, Karen A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M
Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. Delay in administration of epinephrine is a known risk factor for food allergy reaction-related mortality; however, individuals with food allergy may not have epinephrine readily available. This study was designed to determine the percent of food-allergic children that have an epinephrine autoinjector readily available and factors associated with epinephrine autoinjector carriage rates. Parents completed a questionnaire on food allergy and food allergy preparedness. Staff recorded whether an epinephrine autoinjector and medical alert bracelet was immediately available in clinic. Parental responses from 63 food-allergic children were included. Fifty-nine percent (37/63) had an epinephrine autoinjector present in the clinic, and 79% (50/63) reported receiving training in epinephrine autoinjector use. There was no correlation between epinephrine autoinjector presence in the clinic and parental report of having an epinephrine autoinjector available at all times (phi = 0.21). Epinephrine autoinjector training was associated with increased odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector immediately available (adjusted odds ratio, 8.74 [1.69, 45.04]). Fewer school aged children (≥5 years old) reportedly had their epinephrine autoinjector with them when eating lunch (25% [8/32] versus 42% [13/31]; p = 0.002) or snacks (28% [9/32] versus 37% [13/31]; p = 0.005) when compared with those <5 years old. Many children do not have their epinephrine autoinjectors readily available despite parental report. Epinephrine autoinjector training improved the odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector readily available. Continued patient education on the importance of having an epinephrine autoinjector easily accessible, especially when eating, is important.
Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.; Evans, E. Margaret
Three- to 5-year-old (N = 61) religiously schooled preschoolers received theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks about the mental states of ordinary humans and agents with exceptional perceptual or mental capacities. Consistent with an anthropomorphism hypothesis, children beginning to appreciate limitations of human minds (e.g., ignorance) attributed those…
Alegre, Maria A.; Gordon, Peter
Examined processing of noun-noun compounds in which the internal noun is pluralized (such as "new books shelf"), contrary to normal constraints prohibiting such constructions. Tested 36 3- to 5-year olds on their interpretations of compounds fronted by an adjective. Results suggest that children's word formation processes allow complex…
Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying
The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…
During the first week of a Head Start program in September, Jamal, almost 5 years old, punched another child in the stomach. An assistant looked after the hurt child. Charlane, the teacher, approached Jamal, saying, "There is no hurting children in this class." She marched him to a time-out chair where Jamal sat with his head down. The following…
Goslin, Jeremy; Floccia, Caroline
The influence of development and literacy upon syllabification in French was evaluated by comparing the segmental behavior of 4- to 5-year-old preliterate children and adults using a pause insertion task. Participants were required to repeat bisyllabic words such as "fourmi" ("ant") by inserting a pause between its two syllabic components…
Verhallen, Maria J. A. J.; Bus, Adriana G.; de Jong, Maria T.
This research focuses on the ability of book-based animated stories, when well designed and produced, to have positive effects on young viewers' narrative comprehension and language skills. Sixty 5-year-olds, learning Dutch as a 2nd language, were randomly assigned to 4 experimental and 2 control conditions. The children profited to some extent…
Cuneo, Diane O.
Four- and 5-year-olds' understanding of basic turtle graphics commands was examined before and after a hands-on, interactive problem-solving experience. Children (n=32) saw display screen events consisting of an initial turtle state, a command transformation, and the resulting turtle state. They were asked to give the command executed in each…
Weisner, Thomas S.; And Others
Parents in 102 families of 3- to 5-year-old children with developmental delays were interviewed concerning religion. Although direct measures of peace of mind and emotional adjustment did not differ between religious and nonreligious families, religious parents more often emphasized parental nurturance and described their child as an opportunity…
Kim, Sunae; Kalish, Charles W.
Ownership is not a "natural" property of objects, but is determined by human intentions. Facts about who owns what may be altered by appropriate decisions. However, young children often deny the efficacy of transfer decisions, asserting that original owners retain rights to their property. In Experiment 1, 4-5-year-old and 7-8-year-old children…
Nurmsoo, Erika; Robinson, Elizabeth J.
In three experiments (N = 123; 148; 28), children observed a video in which two speakers offered alternative labels for unfamiliar objects. In Experiment 1, 3- to 5-year-olds endorsed the label given by a speaker who had previously labeled familiar objects accurately, rather than that given by a speaker with a history of inaccurate labeling, even…
Marion, Carole; Martin, Garry L.; Yu, C. T.; Buhler, Charissa; Kerr, Danni
A modified multiple-baseline design across participants was used to evaluate a procedure for teaching the mand "Where?" to 3 children with autism. The participants were 3 and 5 years old and were participating in an intensive applied behavior analysis program. The participants were able to mand for items they wanted when the items were not in…
Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3-5 years: 1500 children; Age 6-12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3-5 years of age (all p < 0.05). Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3-5 years old (p < 0.05). Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05). In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.
In this study, the author examined the relationship between theory-of-mind understanding and preschool-aged children's peer-related social competence. One hundred eleven 3- to 5-year-old children (48 boys, 63 girls) participated in 2 theory-of-mind tasks designed to assess their understanding of false belief. Teachers rated children's peer-related social behavior in terms of prosocial behavior, aggressive or disruptive behavior, and shy or withdrawn behavior. Results indicated that, after controlling for age, theory-of-mind understanding significantly predicted aggressive or disruptive behavior for boys and prosocial behavior for girls. Theory-of-mind understanding also was related to lower scores of shy or withdrawn behavior for boys. Results are discussed in terms of the gender differences in the factors contributing to early peer competence.
Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquière, Pol
This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school children at high-family risk for dyslexia, compared to a group of well-matched low-risk control children. Based on family risk status and first grade literacy achievement children were categorized in groups and pre-school data were retrospectively reanalyzed. On average, children showing both increased family risk and literacy-impairment at the end of first grade, presented significant pre-school deficits in phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, speech-in-noise perception and frequency modulation detection. The concurrent presence of these deficits before receiving any formal reading instruction, might suggest a causal relation with problematic literacy development. However, a closer inspection of the individual data indicates that the core of the literacy problem is situated at the level of higher-order phonological processing. Although auditory and speech perception problems are relatively over-represented in literacy-impaired subjects and might possibly aggravate the phonological and literacy problem, it is unlikely that they would be at the basis of these problems. At a neurobiological level, results are interpreted as evidence for dysfunctional processing along the auditory-to-articulation stream that is implied in phonological processing, in combination with a relatively intact or inconsistently impaired functioning of the auditory-to-meaning stream that subserves auditory processing and speech perception.
Qu, Li; Ong, Jing Y
Reminding children to think about alternatives is a strategy adults often use to promote children's cognitive flexibility, as well as children's engagement in and enjoyment of the task. The current study investigated whether the impacts of reminders on kindergarten children's cognitive flexibility, intrinsic motivation, and mood are moderated by who provides the reminders. Eighty-three healthy 5-year-old kindergarten children were randomly assigned to 2 (Reminder: no reminders vs. Reminders) × 2 (Agent: Tester vs. Partner) conditions. Children's cognitive flexibility was measured via the Block Sorting Task (Garton and Pratt, 2001; Fawcett and Garton, 2005). Children reported their motivation and mood before Block Sorting, after practicing for Block Sorting, and after the actual Block Sorting. Children's intrinsic motivation was measured by evaluating children's choices during a period of free play after Block Sorting. The results revealed that, depending on who provides the reminders, reminding children of alternatives can influence kindergarten children's performance on Block Sorting, children's intrinsic motivation, and children's self-reported mood.
Compared 5-year-olds' understanding of and fascination with a public service and a commercial television program; also compared parents' and children's perspectives. Found that children were particularly fascinated by sequences containing conflicts and aggression. Sixteen of 20 children chose the commercial channel program. Parents showed insight…
Lucas, Simone Dutra; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Mendonça, Lisette Lobato
The aim of this ecological study was to analyze to what extent World Health Organization goals were met in relation to dental caries in 2000 in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, identifying factors associated with variation in DMFT and the occurrence of DMFT < or = 3 among 12-year-old children and in the percentage of caries-free 5-year-olds. Secondary data from different sources were used. Linear regression and multiple logistic regression techniques were applied to the analysis of the numerical and dichotomous dependent variables. Socioeconomic and dental services supply/utilization indicators were used as potential explanatory variables. The goals expressed by DMFT < or = 3 at 12 years and a minimum of 50% caries-free 5-year-olds were met by 37% and 9% of the State's municipalities, respectively. In general the dependent variables were associated with socioeconomic level, and no associations were identified with dental care. The results should not be generalized, but they do suggest inequities in oral health and the role played by socioeconomic factors and water fluoridation.
Arientova, Simona; Schramlova, Jana; Ambrozova, Helena; Maresova, Vilma; Holub, Michal
Our study has been aimed at demonstrating the main role of viruses in the aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years old and at pointing out the diagnostic potential of electron microscopy in the diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis. A prospective study was conducted to analyse the aetiology of diarrhoeal diseases in children less than 5 years of age admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases between September 2006 and December 2008. All children were tested by faecal culture, latex agglutination and electron microscopy. A total of 832 children were included in the study. An aetiological agent was detected in 788 children (94.6 %). A bacterial aetiology was found in 22 (2.6 %) children and bacterial-viral co-infection was found in 146 (17.6 %) patients. The most frequent causative agents of gastroenteritis in children were viruses, which were detected in 620 (74.5 %) patients. The main causes of viral gastroenteritis were rotaviruses (detected in 410 children), followed by caliciviruses (42), coronaviruses (28), adenoviruses (19) and astroviruses (14). Dual viral infections were detected in 107 children, with rotavirus-calicivirus co-infection being the most common. Electron microscopy proved to be a more sensitive method in comparison with the latex agglutination test for the diagnosis of rotaviruses and adenoviruses. The major role of viruses in diarrhoeal diseases among children under 5 years of age in the Czech Republic has been confirmed. The diagnostic potential of electron microscopy, particularly in small outbreaks of gastroenteritis, was clearly shown.
Resistant starch (RS) decreases intestinal inflammation in some settings. We tested the hypothesis that gut inflammation will be reduced with dietary supplementation with RS in rural Malawian children. Eighteen stunted 3-5-year-old children were supplemented with 8.5 g/day of RS type 2 for 4 weeks. ...
Twenty-eight 4- and 5-year-old children were interviewed in the ninth and tenth days of the 1973 Israeli war to determine their factual knowledge about the war and their interpretation of the war. The factual questions focused on the children's knowledge of people, places, and objects most frequently reported in the news. Questions on the…
Molina, Michele; Tijus, Charles; Jouen, Francois
A total of 80 children (40 5-year-olds and 40 7-year-olds) took part in an experiment to evaluate their capacity to mentally evoke a motor image of their own displacement. Using a chronometry paradigm, movement duration was compared in a task where children were asked to move in order to take a puppet back to its home (actual) and to think about…
Smith, Craig E; Warneken, Felix
Research on distributive justice indicates that preschool-age children take issues of equity and merit into account when distributing desirable items, but that they often prefer to see desirable items allocated equally in third-party tasks. By contrast, less is known about the development of retributive justice. In a study with 4- to 10-year-old children (n = 123) and adults (n = 93), we directly compared the development of reasoning about distributive and retributive justice. We measured the amount of rewards or punishments that participants allocated to recipients who differed in the amount of good or bad things they had done. We also measured judgments about collective rewards and punishments. We found that the developmental trajectory of thinking about retributive justice parallels that of distributive justice. The 4- to 5-year-olds were the most likely to prefer equal distributions of both rewarding and aversive consequences; older children and adults preferred deservingness-based allocations. The 4- to 5-year-olds were also most likely to judge collective rewards and punishments as fair; this tendency declined with increasing age. Our results also highlight the extent to which the notion of desert influences thinking about distributive and retributive justice; desert was considered equally when participants allocated reward and punishments, but in judgments about collective discipline, participants focused more on desert in cases of punishment compared with reward. We discuss our results in relation to theories about preferences for equality versus equity, theories about how desert is differentially weighed across distributive and retributive justice, and the literature on moral development and fairness.
Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Harrist, Ronald B; Staskel, Deanna M; Almansour, Fawaz D
Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are important sources of nutrients for healthy growth and development of young children. Recent evidence suggests that sack lunches packed by parents for children to consume at child-care centers do not regularly meet the goal of one serving of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. Lunch Is In The Bag is a child-care center-based nutrition education program targeted at parents of preschool-aged children to increase the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches sent from home that was pilot tested in fall 2008. In a quasiexperimental design, six child-care centers were paired by size before being randomly assigned to intervention (n=3) and comparison (n=3) groups. The parents of caregivers with primary responsibility for preparing the sack lunches of the 3- to 5-year-old children attending the centers were enrolled as parent-child dyads. The intervention included parent handouts, classroom activities, education stations, and teacher training. The contents of the lunch sacks for both the intervention group and comparison group were recorded for 3 nonconsecutive days before and immediately after the intervention period to measure the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. A total of 132 parent-child dyads completed the study, 81 in the intervention group and 51 in the comparison group. Direct observation of children's lunches from the intervention group showed an increase in predicted mean number of servings of vegetables, from 0.41 to 0.65 (P<0.001) and whole grains, from 0.54 to 1.06 (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the mean number of servings of fruit. Lunch Is In The Bag, which is designed to fit in the child-care environment and targets parents of 3- to 5-year-old children, is a feasible intervention for improving the nutritional quality of sack lunches.
Smith, P. F.; Grabau, J. C.; Werzberger, A.; Gunn, R. A.; Rolka, H. R.; Kondracki, S. F.; Gallo, R. J.; Morse, D. L.
An Hasidic Jewish community has experienced recurrent hepatitis A outbreaks since 1980. To assess risk factors for illness during a 1985-6 outbreak, the authors reviewed case records and randomly selected 93 households for an interview and serologic survey. In the outbreak, 117 cases of hepatitis A were identified, with the highest attack rate (4.2%) among 3-5 year olds. Among the survey households, the presence of 3-5 year olds was the only risk factor that increased a household's risk of hepatitis A (indeterminant relative risk, P = 0.02). Furthermore, case households from the outbreak were more likely to have 3-5 years olds than were control households from the survey (odds ratio = 16.4, P < 0.001). Children 3-5 years old were more likely to have hepatitis A and may have been the most frequent transmitters of hepatitis A in this community. Hepatitis A vaccination of 3-5 year olds can protect this age group and might prevent future outbreaks in the community. PMID:9207735
Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji
We investigated whether children's response tendency toward yes-no questions concerning objects is a common phenomenon regardless of languages and cultures. Vietnamese and Japanese 2- to 5-year-old (N = 108) were investigated. We also examined whether familiarity with the questioning issue has any effect on Asian children's yes bias. As the result, Asian children showed a yes bias to yes-no questions. The children's response tendency changes dramatically with their age: Vietnamese and Japanese 2- and 3-year-olds showed a yes bias, but 5-year-olds did not. However, Asian 4-year-olds also showed a yes bias only in the familiar condition. Also, Asian children showed a stronger yes bias in the familiar condition than the unfamiliar condition. These two findings in Asian children were different from the previous finding investigated North American children (Fritzley & Lee, 2003). Moreover, there was a within-Asian cross-cultural difference. Japanese children showed different response tendencies, which were rarely observed in Vietnamese children. Japanese 2-year-olds and some 3-year-olds showed a "no answer" response: they tended not to respond to an interviewer's questions. Japanese 4- and 5-year-olds also showed an "I don't know" response when they were asked about unfamiliar objects. Japanese children tended to avoid a binary decision. We discussed the cross-cultural differences.
Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert
Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.
Belacchi, Carmen; Cubelli, Roberto
The study aimed at investigating the role of nominal gender in animal categorization in preschoolers. Given the regularities characterizing gender system, at both syntactical and morphological level, Italian language is suitable to address this issue. In three experiments, participants were asked to classify pictures of animals as male or female. Half stimuli had names of feminine gender and half of masculine gender. In Experiment 1, Italian speaking adults and preschoolers classified animals according to the nominal gender. This effect was not found with English speaking participants (Experiment 2) but confirmed with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old Italian-speaking children (Experiment 3). These results showed an implicit knowledge of grammatical gender in preschoolers, suggesting that semantic processing may be modulated by linguistic information.
Kizilyildiz, Baran Serdar; Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar
Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health.
Sönmez, Bülent; Karaman, Kamuran; Beger, Burhan; Mercen, Adnan; Alioglu, Süleyman; Cesur, Yasar
Malnutrition in childhood is a dramatic indicator of poor socio-economical status worldwide. To recognize and reveal the socio-demographic features is crucial, especially for developing countries. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and association with sociodemographic variables of malnutrition in 0-5 years old children in Van, Turkey. A total of 702 children are included in this cross-sectional study. Demographic features of subject including age, gender, family characteristics and other data were obtained. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometric indices including weight-for-age, height-for-age, weight-for-height, head circumference and body mass index-for-age. Multivariate logistic regressions were carried out to assess malnutrition-associated factors. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting were 19.7, 17.7 and 16.2%, respectively. Socio-demographic variables that statistical significantly in association with malnutrition were low monthly family income, educational level and employment status of father, parental consanguinity, number of pregnancies, regular intake of vitamin D and history of prematurity. The prevalence of children with head circumference-z score ≤2SD and body mass index-for-age ≤2SD were 9.8 and 16.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis detected following risk factors for these indices; low monthly family income, history of prematurity, unemployed father and the period between pregnancies (1-2 years). We found that prevalence of malnutrition in the city of Van, was still higher than more developed regions of Turkey. The associated risk factors of malnutrition should be specifically interpreted by health professionals and also by government authorities that are responsible for making practical politics of public health. PMID:28058102
The National Children's Study (NCS) is a study to examine the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from before birth until age 21. The goal of the study is to understand the factor...
Golombok, Susan; Perry, Beth; Burston, Amanda; Murray, Clare; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean
Existing research on children with lesbian parents is limited by reliance on volunteer or convenience samples. The present study examined the quality of parent-child relationships and the socioemotional and gender development of a community sample of 7-year-old children with lesbian parents. Families were recruited through the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a geographic population study of 14,000 mothers and their children. Thirty-nine lesbian-mother families, 74 two-parent heterosexual families, and 60 families headed by single heterosexual mothers were compared on standardized interview and questionnaire measures administered to mothers, co-mothers/fathers, children, and teachers. Findings are in line with those of earlier investigations showing positive mother-child relationships and well-adjusted children.
Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia
When children are asked to draw the Earth they often produce intriguing pictures in which, for example, people seem to be standing on a flat disc or inside a hollow sphere. These drawings, and children's answers to questions, have been interpreted as indicating that children construct naïve, theory-like mental models of the Earth (e.g. Vosniadou & Brewer, 1992). However, recent studies using different methods have found little or no evidence of these mental models, and report that many young children have some scientific knowledge of the Earth. To examine the reasons for these contrasting findings, adults (N=350) were given the drawing task previously given to 5-year-old children. Fewer than half of the adults' pictures were scientific, and 15% were identical to children's 'naïve' drawings. Up to half of the answers to questions (e.g. 'Where do people live?') were non-scientific. Open-ended questions and follow-up interviews revealed that non-scientific responses were given because adults found the apparently simple task confusing and challenging. Since children very probably find it even more difficult, these findings indicate that children's non-scientific responses, like adults', often result from methodological problems with the task. These results therefore explain the discrepant findings of previous research, and support the studies which indicate that children do not have naïve mental models of the Earth.
Fenning, Rachel M; Baker, Jason K; Baker, Bruce L; Crnic, Keith A
A previous study suggested that mothers of 5-year-old children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed lower positive engagement with their children as compared with both mothers of typically developing children and mothers of children with significant developmental delays (Fenning, Baker, Baker, & Crnic, 2007). The current study integrated father data and followed these families over the subsequent 1-year period. Parent and child behavior were coded from naturalistic home observations at both waves. Results revealed that mothers of children with borderline intellectual functioning displayed a greater increase in negative-controlling parenting from child age 5 to 6 than did other mothers; fathers displayed more negative-controlling behavior in comparison to fathers of typically developing children. In addition, children with borderline intellectual functioning themselves exhibited a more significant escalation in difficult behavior than did typically developing children. Cross-lagged analyses for the sample as a whole indicated that maternal negative-controlling behavior predicted subsequent child difficulties, whereas negative paternal behavior was predicted by earlier child behavior. In conjunction with evidence from Fenning et al. (2007), these findings suggest a complex, dynamic, and systemic developmental pattern in the emotional behavior of families of children with borderline intellectual functioning. Implications and areas in need of additional research are discussed.
Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S.; Friederici, Angela D.
Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network. PMID:27812160
Xiao, Yaqiong; Brauer, Jens; Lauckner, Mark; Zhai, Hongchang; Jia, Fucang; Margulies, Daniel S; Friederici, Angela D
Resting state studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level dependent signal have shown great potential in mapping the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human brain underlying cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the developmental changes in functional networks of the developing human brain exemplified with the language network in typically developing preschool children. To this end, resting-sate fMRI data were obtained from native Chinese children at ages of 3 and 5 years, 15 in each age group. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) was analyzed for four regions of interest; these are the left and right anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), and left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The comparison of these RSFC maps between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed that RSFC decreases in the right aSTG and increases in the left hemisphere between aSTG seed and IFG, between pSTG seed and IFG, as well as between IFG seed and posterior superior temporal sulcus. In a subsequent analysis, functional asymmetry of the language network seeding in aSTG, pSTG and IFG was further investigated. The results showed an increase of left lateralization in both RSFC of pSTG and of IFG from ages 3 to 5 years. The IFG showed a leftward lateralized trend in 3-year-olds, while pSTG demonstrated rightward asymmetry in 5-year-olds. These findings suggest clear developmental trajectories of the language network between 3- and 5-year-olds revealed as a function of age, characterized by increasing long-range connections and dynamic hemispheric lateralization with age. Our study provides new insights into the developmental changes of a well-established functional network in young children and also offers a basis for future cross-culture and cross-age studies of the resting-state language network.
Pass, Laura; Arteche, Adriane; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Murray, Lynne
Child social anxiety is common, and predicts later emotional and academic impairment. Offspring of socially anxious mothers are at increased risk. It is important to establish whether individual vulnerability to disorder can be identified in young children. The responses of 4.5 year-old children of mothers with social phobia (N = 62) and…
Garadat, Soha N.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.
This study introduces a new test (CRISP-Jr.) for measuring speech intelligibility and spatial release from masking (SRM) in young children ages 2.5–4 years. Study 1 examined whether thresholds, masking, and SRM obtained with a test designed for older children (CRISP) and CRISP-Jr. are comparable in 4 to 5-year-old children. Thresholds were measured for target speech in front, in quiet, and with a different-sex masker either in front or on the right. CRISP-Jr. yielded higher speech reception thresholds (SRTs) than CRISP, but the amount of masking and SRM did not differ across the tests. In study 2, CRISP-Jr. was extended to a group of 3-year-old children. Results showed that while SRTs were higher in the younger group, there were no age differences in masking and SRM. These findings indicate that children as young as 3 years old are able to use spatial cues in sound source segregation, which suggests that some of the auditory mechanisms that mediate this ability develop early in life. In addition, the findings suggest that measures of SRM in young children are not limited to a particular set of stimuli. These tests have potentially useful applications in clinical settings, where bilateral fittings of amplification devices are evaluated. PMID:17348527
Koralek, Derry, Ed.; Mindes, Gayle, Ed.
When engaged in social studies, with guidance and encouragement from adults, children develop awareness of self and family and become active participants in the larger community. The knowledge and skills learned through social studies prepare children to become informed and engaged citizens of their country and the world. In this collection of…
Epidemiology, Seasonality and Factors Associated with Rotavirus Infection among Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2008–2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)
Omore, Richard; Tate, Jacqueline E.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Ayers, Tracy; Williamson, John; Moke, Feny; Schilling, Katie A.; Awuor, Alex O.; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, John B.; Oundo, Joseph; Parashar, Umesh D.; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl C.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James P.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Laserson, Kayla F.; Nuorti, J. Pekka; Mintz, Eric D.; Breiman, Robert F.
Objective To evaluate factors associated with rotavirus diarrhea and to describe severity of illness among children <5 years old with non-dysenteric, moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in rural western Kenya. Methods We analyzed data from children <5 years old with non-dysenteric MSD enrolled as cases in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in Kenya. A non-dysenteric MSD case was defined as a child with ≥3 loose stools in 24 hrs. and one or more of the following: sunken eyes, skin tenting, intravenous rehydration, or hospitalization, who sought care at a sentinel health center within 7 days of illness onset. Rotavirus antigens in stool samples were detected by ELISA. Demographic and clinical information was collected at enrollment and during a single follow-up home visit at approximately 60 days. We analyzed diarrhea severity using a GEMS 17 point numerical scoring system adapted from the Vesikari score. We used logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with rotavirus infection. Results From January 31, 2008 to September 30, 2012, among 1,637 (92%) non-dysenteric MSD cases, rotavirus was detected in stools of 245 (15.0%). Rotavirus-positive compared with negative cases were: younger (median age, 8 vs. 13 months; p<0.0001), had more severe illness (median severity score, 9 vs 8; p<0.0001) and had to be hospitalized more frequently (37/245 [15.1%] vs. 134/1,392 [9.6%]), p <0.013). Independent factors associated with rotavirus infection included age 0–11 months old (aOR = 5.29, 95% CI 3.14–8.89) and presenting with vomiting ≥3 times/24hrs (aOR = 2.58, 95% CI [1.91–3.48]). Rotavirus was detected more commonly in warm and dry months than in the cool and rainy months (142/691 [20%] vs 70/673 [10%]) p<0.0001). Conclusions Diarrhea caused by rotavirus is associated with severe symptoms leading to hospitalization. Consistent with other settings, infants had the greatest burden of disease. PMID:27494517
Goulart, Maria Inês Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of being predetermined and controlled by the latter. We draw on a cultural-historical approach and on the theory of structure and agency to analyze the events showing the complexity of the activity inside a classroom of very young children by science education standards. Data were collected in the context of a science unit in an early-childhood education program in Belo Horizonte. Our study suggests that (a) throughout the movement of agency|passivity || schema|resources one can observe participative thinking, a form of collective consciousness that arises in and from lived experience; (b) learning is a process in which a group is invested in searching for solutions while they create schemas and rearrange resources to evolve a new structure; and (c) the emergent curriculum is a powerful form of praxis that develops children's participation from early childhood on.
Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Piazza, Caterina; Villa, Laura; Molteni, Massimo
The study was aimed at better clarifying whether action execution impairment in autism depends mainly on disruptions either in feedforward mechanisms or in feedback-based control processes supporting motor execution. To this purpose, we analyzed prehension movement kinematics in 4- and 5-year-old children with autism and in peers with typical development. Statistical analysis showed that the kinematics of the grasp component was spared in autism, whereas early kinematics of the reach component was atypical. We discussed this evidence as suggesting impairment in the feedforward processes involved in action execution, whereas impairment in feedback-based control processes remained unclear. We proposed that certain motor abilities are available in autism, and children may use them differently as a function of motor context complexity.
Verrastro, Anna Paula; Stefani, Fabiane Miron; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla
The aim of this study was to evaluate occlusal and orofacial myofunctional characteristics in children with primary dentition and anterior open bite, before and after removal of pacifier sucking habit. A dentist checked anterior open bite, overjet and upper intercanine distance and a speech therapist evaluated posture and tonus of lips and tongue, cheek tonus, swallowing, breathing and speech of twenty-seven 3-5 year-old children at baseline and 3 months later. Habit removal propitiated a mean reduction of 1.97 mm on anterior open bite (P < .001), promoted improvement of lip posture (P = .03), favored nasal breathing (P =. 008) and reduced the occurrence of tongue interposition during swallowing (P = .008). Lack of proper tongue rest posture was capable of preventing spontaneous correction of anterior open bite (odds ratio 17.50).
Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang
This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…