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Sample records for 5-year-old children study

  1. Parenting style, the home environment, and screen time of 5-year-old children; the 'be active, eat right' study.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the 'Be active, eat right' study. Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room.

  2. Malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal; Mustafa, Jamsiah; Aljunid, Syed; Isa, Zaleha; Abdalqader, Mohammed A

    2013-09-01

    The unstable geopolitical situation in Iraq since 2003 still affects the health of people, especially children. Several factors may indirectly affect a child's nutritional status. The main aim of this study was to identify factors contributing to malnutrition among 3 to 5 years old children in Baghdad city, Iraq. Two hundred twenty children aged 3 to 5 years were chosen randomly from four kindergartens in Baghdad city according to the cross-sectional design. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using a weight-for-age z-score based on the World Health Organization 2007 cutoff points, in which any child with a z-score of <-2 is considered to be malnourished. The overall prevalence rate of underweight children was 18.2%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence rate between males and females (p=0.797). However, the percentage of underweight children was slightly higher among females (18.9%) compared to males (17.6%). There was no association between parents' educational level or employment status and childhood malnutrition. There was no association between a family's movement from their house and childhood malnutrition (p=0.322). Living in an unsafe neighbourhood and having a family member killed during the past five years were significantly associated with childhood malnutrition (p=0.016 and 0.018 respectively). Childhood malnutrition is still a public-health concern in Baghdad city, especially after the war of 2003. Malnutrition is significantly associated with living in unsafe neighbourhoods and at least one family member having been killed during the past five years.

  3. Developmental neuropsychological assessment of 4- to 5-year-old children born following Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD): A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Gilat Chaya; Altarescu, Gheona; Guedalia, Judith; Varshaver, Irit; Gilboa, Tal; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate developmental neuropsychological profiles of 4- to 5-year-old children born after Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Twenty-seven participants received a neurological examination and a battery of neuropsychological assessments including Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI-III; cognitive development), Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4; language development), Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (visual motor abilities), Childhood Autism Rating Scales II (a screening test for autistic spectrum disorders), and the Miles ABC Test (ocular dominance). Parental questionnaires included the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; executive function), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Carey Temperament Scales Behavioral Style Questionnaire (socioemotional development and temperament), and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Interview Edition, Second Edition (general adaptive behavior). Subjects' tests results were compared to each test's norms. Children born after PGD demonstrated scores within the normal or above-normal ranges for all developmental outcomes (mean ± SD): WPPSI-III-VIQ 107.4 ± 14.4 (p = .013), PLS-4-Total 113.2 ± 12.4, p < .001), CBCL-Total 41.1 ± 8.6 (p < .001), BRIEF-P-Global Executive Composite 44.8 ± 9.5 (p = .009). Twelve (44%) of the PGD children had a significant difference between their VIQ and PIQ scores (compared to 27% in the general population). One subject was found to show possible signs of autistic spectrum disorder, although a family history of autism was noted. In conclusion, in this pilot study, children assessed at age 4-5 years and conceived after PGD displayed developmental neuropsychological outcomes within normal limits as compared to their chronologic peers. A larger study is needed to evaluate and follow the neuropsychological development of children born after PGD.

  4. Selective auditory attention in 3- to 5-year-old children: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lisa D; Stevens, Courtney; Coch, Donna; Neville, Helen J

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence suggests that the development of selective attention extends over the first two decades of life. However, much of this research may underestimate the attention abilities of young children. By providing strong, redundant attention cues, we show that sustained endogenous selective attention has similar effects on ERP indices of auditory processing in adults and children as young as 3 years old. All participants were cued to selectively attend to one of two simultaneously presented stories that differed in location (left/right), voice (male/female), and content. The morphology of the ERP waveforms elicited by probes embedded in the stories was very different for adults, who showed a typical positive-negative-positive pattern in the 300 ms after probe onset, and children, who showed a single broad positivity during this epoch. However, for 3- to 5-year-olds, 6- to 8-year-olds, and adults, probes in the attended story elicited larger amplitude ERPs beginning around 100 ms after probe onset. This attentional modulation of exogenously driven components was longer in duration for the youngest children. In addition, attended linguistic probes elicited a larger negativity 300-500 ms for all groups, indicative of additional attentional processing. These data show that with adequate cues, even children as young as 3 years old can selectively attend to one auditory stream while ignoring another and that doing so alters auditory sensory processing at an early stage. Furthermore, they suggest that the neural mechanisms by which selective attention affects auditory processing are remarkably adult-like by this age.

  5. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in 5-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bliddal, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Støvring, Henrik; Eriksen, Hanne-Lise F.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Nøhr, Ellen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background An association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) has repeatedly been found but it is unknown if this association is causal or due to confounding caused by genetic or social factors. Methods We used a cohort of 1,783 mothers and their 5-year-old children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children participated between 2003 and 2008 in a neuropsychological assessment of cognitive ability including IQ tests taken by both the mother and the child. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between parental BMI and child IQ adjusted for a comprehensive set of potential confounders. Child IQ was assessed with the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence – Revised (WPPSI-R). Results The crude association between maternal BMI and child IQ showed that BMI was adversely associated with child IQ with a reduction in IQ of −0.40 point for each one unit increase in BMI. This association was attenuated after adjustment for social factors and maternal IQ to a value of −0.27 (−0.50 to −0.03). After mutual adjustment for the father's BMI and all other factors except maternal IQ, the association between paternal BMI and child IQ yielded a regression coefficient of −0.26 (−0.59 to 0.07), which was comparable to that seen for maternal BMI (−0.20 (−0.44 to 0.04)). Conclusion Although maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely associated with the IQ of her child, the similar association with paternal BMI suggests that it is not a specific pregnancy related adiposity effect. PMID:24727836

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Cognitive Development of 3-5 Year Old Rural Children in the State of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, Violet

    This study is part of a longitudinal research project which investigated the cognitive and social development of rural children (ages 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11 years) in eight states of the U.S.A. This paper, however, reports only the cognitive development of 3- to 5-year-old subjects in rural Nebraska from 1976-1978. The longitudinal sample plus control…

  7. Parenting Style, the Home Environment, and Screen Time of 5-Year-Old Children; The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Lydian; van Grieken, Amy; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The global increase in childhood overweight and obesity has been ascribed partly to increases in children's screen time. Parents have a large influence on their children's screen time. Studies investigating parenting and early childhood screen time are limited. In this study, we investigated associations of parenting style and the social and physical home environment on watching TV and using computers or game consoles among 5-year-old children. Methods This study uses baseline data concerning 5-year-old children (n = 3067) collected for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results Children of parents with a higher score on the parenting style dimension involvement, were more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Overall, families with an authoritative or authoritarian parenting style had lower percentages of children's screen time compared to families with an indulgent or neglectful style, but no significant difference in OR was found. In families with rules about screen time, children were less likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day and more likely to spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. The number of TVs and computers or game consoles in the household was positively associated with screen time, and children with a TV or computer or game console in their bedroom were more likely to watch TV>2 hrs/day or spend >30 min/day on computers or game consoles. Conclusion The magnitude of the association between parenting style and screen time of 5-year-olds was found to be relatively modest. The associations found between the social and physical environment and children's screen time are independent of parenting style. Interventions to reduce children's screen time might be most effective when they support parents specifically with introducing family rules related to screen time and prevent the presence of a TV or computer or game console in the child's room. PMID:24533092

  8. Neuropsychological assessment and perinatal risk: A study amongst very premature born 4- and 5-year old children.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Joya, Mª Del Mar; Sanchez-Labraca, Nuria; Roldan-Tapia, Mª Dolores; Moral Rodríguez, Teresa; Ramos Lizana, Julio; Roman, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    Prematurity and its consequences are serious problems that can result in numerous neurosensory disabilities and cerebral cognitive dysfunctions. The Perinatal Risk Index (PERI) might provide a predictive measure of these problems. This study compared the cognitive development of prematurely born children at 4 and 5 years of age with age-matched peers born at term. The secondary objective was to determine whether a correlation exists between perinatal risk and performance on neuropsychological tests among premature children. A total of 54 children between four and five years of age were evaluated; 27 were born very premature (premature group; PG), and 27 were born at term (term group; TG). Executive function, attention, memory, language, visual perception, and spatial structuring were evaluated. Subtests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, the Rey Complex Figure Test, the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Test A, Trails A and B, the spatial structuring questionnaire from the Child Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were used. A PERI score was also obtained for the PG. The PG showed significantly lower scores than the TG in all the studied cognitive domains. Visual-perceptive scores were significantly and negatively correlated with the PERI scores of the PG. The PG showed neurocognitive deficits compared with the TG. The PERI can be used to predict the development of visual-perceptive abilities in children between four and five years of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water source and diarrhoeal disease risk in children under 5 years old in Cambodia: a prospective diary based study.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Paul R; Risebro, Helen; Yen, Marie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Lo, Chay; Hartemann, Philippe; Longuet, Christophe; Jaquenoud, François

    2013-12-09

    Despite claims that the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets on access to safe drinking water have been met, many 100 s of millions of people still have no access. The challenge remains how to provide these people and especially young children with safe drinking water. We report a longitudinal study designed to assess the effectiveness of an intervention based on provided treated drinking water in containers on self-reported diarrhoea in children. The intervention was "1001 fontaines pour demain" (1001 F) is a non-governmental not for profit organization (created in 2004 and based in Caluire, France) that helps local entrepreneurs treat package, and sell safe drinking water. Cases and controls were chosen at village and household level by propensity score matching Participants were visited twice a month over six months and asked to complete a diarrhoea health diary. In total 4275 follow-up visits were completed on 376 participants from 309 homes. Diarrhoea was reported in 20.4% of children on each visit, equating to an incidence rate estimate of 5.32 episodes per child per year (95% confidence interval = 4.97 to 5.69). Compared to those drinking 1001 F water, children drinking surface water were 33% (95% CI -1 to 17%), those drinking protected ground water were 62% (95% CI 19 to 120%) and those drinking other bottled water 57% (95% CI 15 to 114%) more likely to report diarrhoea. Children drinking harvested rainwater had similar rates of diarrhoea to Children drinking 1001 F water. Our study suggests that 1001 F water provides a safer alternative to groundwater or surface water. Furthermore, our study raises serious concerns about the validity of assuming protected groundwater to be safe water for the purposes of assessing the MDG targets. By contrast our study provides addition evidence of the relative safety of rainwater harvesting.

  10. A Handling Study to Assess Use of the Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler in Children Under 5 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion; Kattenbeck, Sabine; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Wachtel, Herbert; Zielen, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) is a hand-held device that generates an aerosol with a high, fine-particle fraction, enabling efficient lung deposition. The study objective was to assess inhalation success among children using Respimat SMI, and the requirement for assistance by the parent/caregiver and/or a valved holding chamber (VHC). Methods: This open-label study enrolled patients aged <5 years with respiratory disease and history of coughing and/or recurrent wheezing. Patients inhaled from the Respimat SMI (air only; no aerosol) using a stepwise configuration: “1” (dose released by child); “2” (dose released by parent/caregiver), and “3” (Respimat SMI with VHC, facemask, and parent/caregiver help). Co-primary endpoints included the ability to perform successful inhalation as assessed by the investigators using a standardized handling questionnaire and evaluation of the reasons for success. Inhalation profile in the successful handling configuration was verified with a pneumotachograph. Patient satisfaction and preferences were investigated in a questionnaire. Results: Of the children aged 4 to <5 years (n=27) and 3 to <4 years (n=30), 55.6% and 30.0%, respectively, achieved success without a VHC or help; with assistance, another 29.6% and 10.0%, respectively, achieved success, and the remaining children were successful with VHC. All children aged 2 to <3 years (n=20) achieved success with the Respimat SMI and VHC. Of those aged <2 years (n=22), 95.5% had successful handling of the Respimat SMI with VHC and parent/caregiver help. Inhalation flow profiles generally confirmed the outcome of the handling assessment by the investigators. Most parent/caregiver and/or child respondents were satisfied with operation, instructions for use, handling, and ease of holding the Respimat SMI with or without a VHC. Conclusions: The Respimat SMI is suitable for children aged <5 years; however, children aged <5 years are advised to add a

  11. Severity of Pneumonia in Under 5-Year-Old Children from Developing Countries: A Multicenter, Prospective, Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Bénet, Thomas; Picot, Valentina Sanchez; Awasthi, Shally; Pandey, Nitin; Bavdekar, Ashish; Kawade, Anand; Robinson, Annick; Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mala; Sylla, Maryam; Diallo, Souleymane; Russomando, Graciela; Basualdo, Wilma; Komurian-Pradel, Florence; Endtz, Hubert; Vanhems, Philippe; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; For The Gabriel Network

    2017-07-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children. The objectives were to evaluate the microbiological agents linked with hypoxemia in hospitalized children with pneumonia from developing countries, to identify predictors of hypoxemia, and to characterize factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A multicenter, observational study was conducted in five hospitals, from India (Lucknow, Vadu), Madagascar (Antananarivo), Mali (Bamako), and Paraguay (San Lorenzo). Children aged 2-60 months with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were enrolled prospectively. Respiratory and whole blood specimens were collected, identifying viruses and bacteria by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Microbiological agents linked with hypoxemia at admission (oxygen saturation < 90%) were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression, and factors associated with 14-day in-hospital mortality were assessed by bivariate Cox regression. Overall, 405 pneumonia cases (3,338 hospitalization days) were analyzed; 13 patients died within 14 days of hospitalization. Hypoxemia prevalence was 17.3%. Detection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in respiratory samples was independently associated with increased risk of hypoxemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.0-5.8 and aOR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1-5.3, respectively). Lower chest indrawing and cyanosis were predictive of hypoxemia (positive likelihood ratios = 2.3 and 2.4, respectively). Predictors of death were Streptococcus pneumoniae detection by blood PCR (crude hazard ratio [cHR] = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.5-14.0), procalcitonin ≥ 50 ng/mL (cHR = 22.4, 95% CI = 7.3-68.5) and hypoxemia (cHR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.6-14.4). These findings were consistent on bivariate analysis. hMPV and RSV in respiratory samples were linked with hypoxemia, and S. pneumoniae in blood was associated with increased risk of death among hospitalized children with pneumonia in developing countries.

  12. Risk factors of Non-fatal Unintentional Home Injuries among Children under 5 Years Old; a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedigheh; R. Niakan Kalhori, Sharareh; Saki, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In addition to the annual mortality rate, unintentional home injury may result in temporary or permanent disability and requires medical attention and continuous care in millions of children. This study aimed to explore features and risk factors of these injuries. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, demographic variables and epidemiologic pattern of home injuries among children under 5 years of age were collected via a population-based survey in seven main cities of Khuzestan province, southwest Iran, during September 2011 to December 2012. Developing a risk stratification model, independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were determined and put to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Result: 2693 children with the mean age of 27.36 ± 15.55 months (1 to 60) were evaluated (50.9% boy). 827 (30.7%) cases had a history of at least one home injury occurrence since birth to study time. The most common injury mechanisms were burning with 291 (38.4%) cases, falling with 214 (28.3%) and poisoning with 66 (8.7%) cases, respectively. The independent risk factors of unintentional home injury were age ≥ 24 month (p<0.001), residency in Ahvaz city (p<0.001), mother’s illiteracy (p<0.014), ethnicity (p<0.001), private housing (p=0.01), birth weight (p<0.001), and being the first child (p=0. 01). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve of the model designed by multivariate analysis were 53.5%, 84.8%, and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.73- 0.77; P < 0.001, figure 1), respectively. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, 30.7% of the studied children were injured at least once since birth. Burning, falling, poisoning, swallowing objects, choking, and biting were the main home injury mechanisms. Age ≥ 24 months, being the first child, living in a private house, being a resident of Ahvaz city, and having an illiterate mother were found to be risk factors of home injury. PMID:28286813

  13. Cardio-metabolic risk in 5-year-old children prenatally exposed to maternal psychosocial stress: the ABCD study.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Aimée E; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2010-05-14

    Recent evidence, both animal and human, suggests that modifiable factors during fetal and infant development predispose for cardiovascular disease in adult life and that they may become possible future targets for prevention. One of these factors is maternal psychosocial stress, but so far, few prospective studies have been able to investigate the longer-term effects of stress in detail, i.e. effects in childhood. Therefore, our general aim is to study whether prenatal maternal psychosocial stress is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile in the child at age five. Data are available from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands. Between 2003-2004, 8,266 pregnant women filled out a questionnaire including instruments to determine anxiety (STAI), pregnancy related anxiety (PRAQ), depressive symptoms (CES-D), parenting stress (PDH scale) and work stress (Job Content Questionnaire). Outcome measures in the offspring (age 5-7) are currently collected. These include lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, body composition (body mass index, waist circumference and bioelectrical impedance analysis), autonomic nervous system activity (parasympathetic and sympathetic measures) and blood pressure. Potential mediators are maternal serum cortisol, gestational age and birth weight for gestational age (intrauterine growth restriction). Possible gender differences in programming are also studied. Main strengths of the proposed study are the longitudinal measurements during three important periods (pregnancy, infancy and childhood), the extensive measurement of maternal psychosocial stress with validated questionnaires and the thorough measurement of the children's cardio-metabolic profile. The availability of several confounding factors will give us the opportunity to quantify the independent contribution of maternal stress during pregnancy to the cardio-metabolic risk profile of her

  14. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: a qualitative study using nominal group technique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Methods Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Results Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Conclusions Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study

  15. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: a qualitative study using nominal group technique.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Hughes, Sheryl O; Robles, Jessica; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom; Lee, Rebecca E; Nicklas, Theresa; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2013-08-06

    Hispanic preschoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on preschooler physical activity (PA) (Niños Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hispanic 3-5 year old children to inform the development of a new PA parenting practice instrument and future interventions to increase PA among Hispanic youth. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured multi-step group procedure, was used to elicit and prioritize responses from 10 groups of Hispanic parents regarding what parents do to encourage (5 groups) or discourage (5 groups) preschool aged children to be active. Five groups consisted of parents with low education (less than high school) and 5 with high education (high school or greater) distributed between the two NGT questions. Ten NGT groups (n = 74, range 4-11/group) generated 20-46 and 42-69 responses/group for practices that encourage or discourage PA respectively. Eight to 18 responses/group were elected as the most likely to encourage or discourage PA. Parental engagement in child activities, modeling PA, and feeding the child well were identified as parenting practices that encourage child PA. Allowing TV and videogame use, psychological control, physical or emotional abuse, and lack of parental engagement emerged as parenting practices that discourage children from being active. There were few differences in the pattern of responses by education level. Parents identified ways they encourage and discourage 3-5 year-olds from PA, suggesting both are important targets for interventions. These will inform the development of a new PA parenting practice scale to be further evaluated. Further research should explore the role parents play in discouraging child PA, especially in using psychological control or submitting children to abuse, which were new findings in this study.

  16. Intakes and adequacy of potentially important nutrients for cognitive development among 5-year-old children in the Seychelles Child Development and Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Alison J; Mulhern, Maria S; McSorley, Emeir M; Wallace, Julie M W; Bonham, Maxine P; Faure, Jude; Romain, Sarah; Esther, Christina; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Watson, Gene E; Myers, Gary J; Clarkson, Thomas W; Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J

    2012-09-01

    To assess the nutritional adequacy of Seychellois children in relation to nutrients reported to be important for cognitive development. Dietary intakes were assessed by 4 d weighed food diaries and analysed using dietary analysis software (WISP version 3·0; Tinuviel Software, UK). Individual nutrient intakes were adjusted to usual intakes and, in order to investigate adequacy, were compared with the UK Estimated Average Requirements for children aged 4-6 years. Children 5 years old were followed up as part of the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study (SCDNS), located in the high-fish-consuming population of Mahé, Republic of Seychelles. Analysis was carried out on a sample of 229 children (118 boys, 111 girls). Children consumed a diet of which fortified cereal and milk products contributed the most to nutrient intakes. The majority (≥80 %) of children met requirements for several nutrients important for child development including Fe, folate and Se. Adjusted dietary intakes of Cu, Zn, iodine, niacin and vitamin A were below the Estimated Average Requirement or Recommended Nutrient Intake. Mean adjusted energy intakes (boys 4769 kJ/d (1139·84 kcal/d), girls 4759 kJ/d (1137·43 kcal/d)) were lower than the estimated energy requirement (boys 5104 kJ/d (1220 kcal/d), girls 5042 kJ/d (1205 kcal/d)) for 88 % of boys and 86 % of girls. Nutrition was adequate for most children within the SCDNS cohort. Low intakes of some nutrients (including Zn, niacin and vitamin A) could reflect nutritional database inaccuracies, but may require further investigation. The study provides valuable information on the adequacy of intakes of nutrients which could affect the growth and development of Seychellois children.

  17. Gestational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Reciprocal Social, Repetitive, and Stereotypic Behaviors in 4- and 5-Year-Old Children: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Just, Allan C.; Yolton, Kimberly; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Glenys M.; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be involved in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, but identifying relevant chemicals within mixtures of EDCs is difficult. Objective: Our goal was to identify gestational EDC exposures associated with autistic behaviors. Methods: We measured the concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, 25 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 organochlorine pesticides, 8 brominated flame retardants, and 4 perfluoroalkyl substances in blood or urine samples from 175 pregnant women in the HOME (Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment) Study (Cincinnati, OH). When children were 4 and 5 years old, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic behaviors. We examined confounder-adjusted associations between 52 EDCs and SRS scores using a two-stage hierarchical analysis to account for repeated measures and confounding by correlated EDCs. Results: Most of the EDCs were associated with negligible absolute differences in SRS scores (≤ 1.5). Each 2-SD increase in serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether-28 (PBDE-28) (β = 2.5; 95% CI: –0.6, 5.6) or trans-nonachlor (β = 4.1; 95% CI: 0.8–7.3) was associated with more autistic behaviors. In contrast, fewer autistic behaviors were observed among children born to women with detectable versus nondetectable concentrations of PCB-178 (β = –3.0; 95% CI: –6.3, 0.2), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β = –3.3; 95% CI: –6.1, –0.5), or PBDE-85 (β = –3.2; 95% CI: –5.9, –0.5). Increasing perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) concentrations were also associated with fewer autistic behaviors (β = –2.0; 95% CI: –4.4, 0.4). Conclusions: Some EDCs were associated with autistic behaviors in this cohort, but our modest sample size precludes us from dismissing chemicals with null associations. PFOA, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB-178, PBDE-28, PBDE-85, and trans-nonachlor deserve additional scrutiny as factors that may be

  18. Risk Factors for Death among Children Less than 5 Years Old Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya, 2005–2007: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, Benjamin; Nyaguara, Amek; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parsons, Michele B.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Williams, Kara A.; Vinjé, Jan; Blanton, Elizabeth; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Vulule, John; Laserson, Kayla F.; Breiman, Robert F.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Mintz, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. Methods and Findings We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours) at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9%) children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118), Campylobacter in 5% (57), and Shigella in 4% (42) of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196) of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1–14·9), and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2–14·0) identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2–0·8). Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1–8·7); having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4–3·8); having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2–3·8); and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5–4·1). A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen

  19. Risk factors for death among children less than 5 years old hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2005-2007: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Ciara E; Jaron, Peter; Ochieng, Benjamin; Nyaguara, Amek; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parsons, Michele B; Bopp, Cheryl A; Williams, Kara A; Vinjé, Jan; Blanton, Elizabeth; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A; Vulule, John; Laserson, Kayla F; Breiman, Robert F; Feikin, Daniel R; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Mintz, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on risk factors for mortality are limited. We conducted hospital-based surveillance to characterize the etiology of diarrhea and identify risk factors for death among children hospitalized with diarrhea in rural western Kenya. We enrolled all children <5 years old, hospitalized with diarrhea (≥3 loose stools in 24 hours) at two district hospitals in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. Clinical and demographic information was collected. Stool specimens were tested for bacterial and viral pathogens. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for death. From May 23, 2005 to May 22, 2007, 1,146 children <5 years old were enrolled; 107 (9%) children died during hospitalization. Nontyphoidal Salmonella were identified in 10% (118), Campylobacter in 5% (57), and Shigella in 4% (42) of 1,137 stool samples; rotavirus was detected in 19% (196) of 1,021 stool samples. Among stools from children who died, nontyphoidal Salmonella were detected in 22%, Shigella in 11%, rotavirus in 9%, Campylobacter in 5%, and S. Typhi in <1%. In multivariable analysis, infants who died were more likely to have nontyphoidal Salmonella (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6·8; 95% CI 3·1-14·9), and children <5 years to have Shigella (aOR = 5·5; 95% CI 2·2-14·0) identified than children who survived. Children who died were less likely to be infected with rotavirus (OR = 0·4; 95% CI 0·2-0·8). Further risk factors for death included being malnourished (aOR = 4·2; 95% CI 2·1-8·7); having oral thrush on physical exam (aOR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·4-3·8); having previously sought care at a hospital for the illness (aOR = 2·2; 95% CI 1·2-3·8); and being dehydrated as diagnosed at discharge/death (aOR = 2·5; 95% CI 1·5-4·1). A clinical diagnosis of malaria, and malaria parasites seen on blood smear, were not associated with

  20. Facial shape and asymmetry in 5-year-old children with repaired unilateral cleft lip and/or palate: an exploratory study using laser scanning.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Lewis, Bethan M; Donaghy, Claire E; Zhurov, Alexei I; Knox, Jeremy; Hunter, Lindsay; Richmond, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility of facial laser scanning in pre-school children and to demonstrate landmark-independent three-dimensional (3D) analyses for assessment of facial deformity in 5-year-old children with repaired non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate (UCL/P). Faces of twelve 5-year-old children with UCL/P (recruited from university hospitals in Cardiff and Swansea, UK) and 35 age-matched healthy children (recruited from a primary school in Cardiff) were laser scanned. Cleft deformity was assessed by comparing individual faces against the age and gender-matched average face of healthy children. Facial asymmetry was quantified by comparing original faces with their mirror images. All facial scans had good quality. In a group of six children with isolated cleft palate coincidence with the average norm ranged from 18.8 to 26.4 per cent. There was no statistically significant difference in facial asymmetry when compared with healthy children (P > 0.05). In a group of six children with UCL with or without cleft palate coincidence with the average norm ranged from 14.8 to 29.8 per cent. Forehead, midface and mandibular deficiencies were a consistent finding, ranging from 4 to 10mm. The amount of 3D facial asymmetry was higher in this group (P < 0.05). Facial laser scanning can be a suitable method for 3D assessment of facial morphology in pre-school children, provided children are well prepared. Landmark-independent methods of 3D analyses can contribute to understanding and quantification of facial soft tissue cleft deformity and be useful in clinical practice. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. THE SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES OF 5-YEAR-OLD CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OSSER, HARRY

    THIS STUDY WAS MADE IN AN ATTEMPT TO DISCOVER HOW MUCH ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULATION IS NECESSARY FOR NORMAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN. THROUGH ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMER, THE SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES OF TWENTY 5-YEAR-OLD CULTURALLY DEPRIVED NEGRO CHILDREN IN BALTIMORE WERE COMPARED TO THOSE OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS WHITE NURSERY SCHOOL…

  2. Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

  3. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle among 5-year-old overweight children: health behavior outcomes of the 'Be active, eat right’ study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the effects of an intervention performed by youth health care professionals on child health behaviors. The intervention consisted of offering healthy lifestyle counseling to parents of overweight (not obese) 5-year-old children. Effects of the intervention on the child having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages, watching television and playing outside were evaluated. Methods Data were collected with the 'Be active, eat right’ study, a cluster randomized controlled trial among nine youth health care centers in the Netherlands. Parents of overweight children received lifestyle counseling according to the intervention protocol in the intervention condition (n = 349) and usual care in the control condition (n = 288). Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, health behaviors and the home environment at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Cluster adjusted regression models were applied; interaction terms were explored. Results The population for analysis consisted of 38.1% boys; mean age 5.8 [sd 0.4] years; mean BMI SDS 1.9 [sd 0.4]. There were no significant differences in the number of minutes of outside play or television viewing a day between children in the intervention and the control condition. Also, the odds ratio for having breakfast daily or drinking two or less glasses of sweet beverages a day showed no significant differences between the two conditions. Additional analyses showed that the odds ratio for drinking less than two glasses of sweet beverages at follow-up compared with baseline was significantly higher for children in both the intervention (p < 0.001) and the control condition (p = 0.029). Conclusions Comparison of the children in the two conditions showed that the intervention does not contribute to a change in health behaviors. Further studies are needed to investigate opportunities to adjust the intervention protocol, such as integration of elements in the regular well

  4. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  5. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  6. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait. PMID:27331243

  7. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.

  8. Modeling diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Hinde, John Philip; Nobre, Flávio Fonseca

    2004-07-01

    Identification of the temporal pattern of diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years of age in Rio de Janeiro City (1995-1998) to provide support for decisions about prevention and control of the disease. The weekly counts of hospitalizations and deaths due to diarrhea disease were analyzed separately. An initial generalized linear model (GLM) was derived using variables related to weather and month. Displays of fitted generalized additive models (GAM) including a spline smoothed function of time suggested additional predictors that were used to obtain new models. The initial models did not properly account for the observed cyclical pattern of the data. Graphical displays of the GAM model show a nonhomogeneous decline and annual cycles. Stepwise fitting of GLMs with two factors (cycle and season), and a time trend, showed that the full three-way interaction model was required. Plots of the residuals from the death model suggested a mixture of distributions while the residuals from the hospitalization model were approximately normal. The same general pattern for both time series was found by graphical inspection and fitting of appropriate GLMs. This study provides some additional evidence that severe cases of diarrhea disease may be attributed to rotavirus.

  9. Children's rights and a sample study on accidents in children groups aged 0-5 years old in the light of parents' responsibility in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elcioglu, Omur; Aksoy, Sahin; Gunduz, Tarik

    2004-04-01

    Most frequent reasons for the accidents seen in children under 5 years of age who have a right to be cared and protected are negligence and carelessness. In this study, judicial cases were compiled from children between the age of 0 to 5, who had been injured due to severe family negligence. Files of cases were obtained from archives with file numbers, indicating cases obtained from the records of the hospital and police were studied retrospectively. The gender, age, and type of application of patients, the type of interference, and the results obtained from the procedure were studied. This study encompasses the results of cases at Osmangazi University Training, Practice and Research Hospital, Eskisehir, Turkey, between September 1999 and March 2001. Forty of 113 cases (35.4%) were due to poisoning from drugs. The main reasons were unawareness of children regarding the harm of drugs, putting drugs in reach of children and easy access to drugs from pharmacies without prescription. On the other hand, the recognition of international measures by the Turkish government is a guarantee for the children's rights. Our study implies that, as suggested by other researchers, the investigation of measures to prevent injuries due to negligence and the application of these measures will certainly improve the welfare of society.

  10. Gait in 5-year-old children with idiopathic clubfoot: A cohort study of 59 children, focusing on foot involvement and the contralateral foot.

    PubMed

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Broström, Eva W

    2016-10-01

    Background and purpose - Idiopathic clubfoot can be bilateral or unilateral; however, most studies of gait have assessed clubfoot cases as one uniform group. The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot has shown deviations in pedobarographic measurements, but it is seldom included in studies of gait. We evaluated gait in children with idiopathic clubfoot, concentrating on foot involvement. Patients and methods - Three-dimensional gait analyses of 59 children, mean age 5.4 years, with bilateral (n = 30) or unilateral (n = 29) idiopathic clubfoot were stratified into groups of bilateral, unilateral, or contralateral feet. Age-matched controls (n = 28) were evaluated for comparison. Gait assessment included: (1) discrete kinematic and kinetic parameters, and (2) gait deviation index for kinematics (GDI) and kinetics (GDI-k). Results - No differences in gait were found between bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot, but both groups deviated when compared to controls. Compared to control feet, contralateral feet showed no deviations in discrete gait parameters, but discrepancies were evident in relation to unilateral clubfoot, causing gait asymmetries in children with unilateral involvement. However, all groups deviated significantly from control feet according to GDI and GDI-k. Interpretation - Bilateral and unilateral idiopathic clubfoot cases show the same persistent deviations in gait, mainly regarding reduced plantarflexion. Nevertheless, knowledge of foot involvement is important as children with unilateral clubfoot show gait asymmetries, which might give an impression of poorer deviations. The results of GDI/GDI-k indicate global gait adaptations of the contralateral foot, so the foot should preferably not be used as a reference for gait.

  11. Dental caries analysis in 3- 5-years-old children: a spatial modelling.

    PubMed

    Afroughi, Solaiman; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Khaledi, Majid Jafari; Motlagh, Mehdi Ghandehari

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of this study was modelling experienced caries of deciduous teeth in 3- 5-years-old children treated in Children's Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, using the spatial autologistic regression. The other objective was identifying a risk pattern of decayed dents of these children. The study group consisted of 400 children (3- 5-years-old). Two groups of postgraduate and under graduate dentistry students under consideration and approval of the professors of dentistry from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences diagnosed and categorised the caries statuses of deciduous dents of the children. The caries statuses were considered as spatially correlated binary data. The appropriate model was autologistic regression. The fitted autologistic model showed that caries in the three nearest neighbours of a tooth, which includes the two adjacent and the one vertically opponent teeth, had significant effect on its caries. The computed risks based on the fitted model revealed a definite-spatial pattern of caries events. Every decayed deciduous tooth in the mouth of a preschool child threatens the three nearest teeth. The risk pattern of caries in each quarter of the teeth lattice of children from incisors to molars has an ascending rate. The dents in maxilla and posterior locations have higher risks of caries than in mandible and anterior locations. These findings are valuable in preventive health care and therapeutic approaches in dentistry of children. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The understanding and experience of mixed emotions in 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Glass, Daniel J; Fireman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The term mixed emotions refers to the presence of two opposite-valence emotions toward a single target. Identifying when children begin to report experiencing and understanding mixed emotions is critical in identifying how skills such as adaptive functioning, coping strategies, environmental understanding, and socioemotional competence emerge. Prior research has shown that children as young as 5 years old can understand and experience mixed emotion, but perhaps appropriately sensitive methodologies can reveal these abilities in younger children. The present study evaluated 57 children between 3 and 5 years old for mixed emotion experience and understanding using an animated video clip in which a character experiences a mixed emotional episode. Ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the relation of gender, attention, and understanding of content to experience and understanding of mixed emotion. While only 12% of children reported experiencing mixed emotion while watching the clip, 49% of children-some as young as 3 years old-were able to recognize the mixed emotional experience of the character. Thus, mixed emotion understanding emerges earlier than previously identified and the expression of understanding may develop independently of the ability to report mixed emotion experience. These findings are discussed in relation to cognitive and developmental considerations.

  13. Maternal self-efficacy and 1-5-year-old children's brushing habits.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Tracy L; Siefert, Kristine; Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung

    2007-08-01

    This study investigates the relationships between maternal cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial factors and brushing practices in low-income African-American preschool children. Data are from a population-based sample of 1021 African-American families with at least one child <6 years of age and living in the 39 low-income Census tracts in Detroit, Michigan. Analyses were limited to 1-5-year-old children and their mothers (n = 719). Mothers were surveyed about oral health-related self-efficacy (OHSE), knowledge about appropriate bottle use (KBU), knowledge about children's oral hygiene (KCOH), oral health fatalism (OHF), their own toothbrushing behavior, depressive symptoms (CES-D), parenting stress, practical social support, and their child's dental history. Children's 1-week reported brushing frequency was the main outcome measure. Analyses were conducted in SUDAAN to account for the complex sampling design. Children's 1-week brushing frequency (range 0-40) averaged 8.50 times per week among 1-3-year olds and 9.75 among the 4-5-year olds. Maternal OHSE was a strong and significant predictor of children's brushing frequency; for each unit increase in OHSE, 1-3-year olds were expected to brush 18% more frequently on average during 1 week [incidence density ratios (IDR) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.28; P < 0.001], and 4-5-year olds were expected to brush 9% more often (IDR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19; P < 0.10). Mothers' KCOH score was also significantly positively associated with brushing frequency; for each unit increase on the KCOH scale, 1-3-year olds were expected to brush 22% more frequently (IDR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10-1.35; P < 0.001) and 4-5-year olds were expected to brush 13% more frequently (IDR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26; P < 0.05). If a mother brushed her own teeth at bedtime during the week, her 1-3-year old child's brushing frequency was expected to increase by one-third (IDR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.60; P < 0.01) and among the 4-5-year olds

  14. Lateralization of tongue movements during eating in children 2 to 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Gisel, E G; Schwaab, L; Lange-Stemmler, L; Niman, C W; Schwartz, J L

    1986-04-01

    Normative data on skills of the tongue used in eating are presented. Normal children 2 to 5 years old were studied regarding their preference of placing food either on the right or left side when eating, and they were compared with age-matched Down's syndrome children. In addition, the ability to move food from the right to the left side of the mouth was studied. Normal children underwent a transition from predominantly placing food on the right side at 2 years of age to predominantly placing it on the left side at 4 years of age. Among Down's syndrome children females preferred the right side, and males preferred the left side. The ability to move food from right to left (lateralizing) undergoes a developmental progression from tilting the head to rolling, followed by slow and eventually by smooth movement from one side to the other. Only 15% of the 5-year-olds were able to move food smoothly from side to side. These data provide a baseline against which children with eating problems can be compared.

  15. Children's Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates the Relations between Family Adversity and Sleep Problems in Latino 5-Year Olds in the CHAMACOS Study.

    PubMed

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W Thomas; Neilands, Torsten B; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems are common for young children especially if they live in adverse home environments. Some studies investigate if young children may also be at a higher risk of sleep problems if they have a specific biological sensitivity to adversity. This paper addresses the research question, does the relations between children's exposure to family adversities and their sleep problems differ depending on their autonomic nervous system's sensitivity to challenges? As part of a larger cohort study of Latino, low-income families, we assessed the cross-sectional relations among family demographics (education, marital status), adversities [routines, major life events (MLE)], and biological sensitivity as measured by autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity associated with parent-rated sleep problems when the children were 5 years old. Mothers were interviewed in English or Spanish and completed demographic, family, and child measures. The children completed a 15-min standardized protocol while continuous cardiac measures of the ANS [respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), preejection period (PEP)] were collected during resting and four challenge conditions. Reactivity was defined as the mean of the responses to the four challenge conditions minus the first resting condition. Four ANS profiles, co-activation, co-inhibition, reciprocal low RSA and PEP reactivity, and reciprocal high RSA and PEP reactivity, were created by dichotomizing the reactivity scores as high or low reactivity. Logistic regression models showed there were significant main effects for children living in families with fewer daily routines having more sleep problems than for children living in families with daily routines. There were significant interactions for children with low PEP reactivity and for children with the reciprocal, low reactivity profiles who experienced major family life events in predicting children's sleep problems. Children who had a reciprocal, low reactivity ANS profile had more

  16. Visual Function of Moderately Hyperopic 4- and 5-Year-Old Children in the Vision in Preschoolers - Hyperopia in Preschoolers Study.

    PubMed

    Ciner, Elise B; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Maguire, Maureen G; Pistilli, Maxwell; Candy, T Rowan; Moore, Bruce; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Quinn, Graham; Orlansky, Gale; Cyert, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    To compare visual performance between emmetropic and uncorrected moderately hyperopic preschool-age children without strabismus or amblyopia. Cross-sectional study. setting: Multicenter, institutional. patient or study population: Children aged 4 or 5 years. intervention or observation procedures: Visual functions were classified as normal or reduced for each child based on the 95% confidence interval for emmetropic individuals. Hyperopic (≥3.0 diopters [D] to ≤6.0 D in the most hyperopic meridian; astigmatism ≤1.50 D; anisometropia ≤1.0 D) and emmetropic status were determined by cycloplegic autorefraction. Uncorrected monocular distance and binocular near visual acuity (VA); accommodative response; and near random dot stereoacuity. Mean (± standard deviation) logMAR distance visual acuity (VA) among 248 emmetropic children was better than among 244 hyperopic children for the better (0.05 ± 0.10 vs 0.14 ± 0.11, P < .001) and worse eyes (0.10 ± 0.11 vs 0.19 ± 0.10, P < .001). Mean binocular logMAR near VA was better in emmetropic than in hyperopic children (0.13 ± 0.11 vs 0.21 ± 0.11, P < .001). Mean accommodative response for emmetropic children was lower than for hyperopic subjects for both Monocular Estimation Method (1.03 ± 0.51 D vs 2.03 ± 1.03 D, P < .001) and Grand Seiko (0.46 ± 0.45 D vs 0.99 ± 1.0 D, P < .001). Median near stereoacuity was better in emmetropic than in than hyperopic children (40 sec arc vs 120 sec arc, P < .001). The average number of reduced visual functions was lower in emmetropic than in hyperopic children (0.19 vs 1.0, P < .001). VA, accommodative response, and stereoacuity were significantly reduced in moderate uncorrected hyperopic preschool children compared to emmetropic subjects. Those with higher hyperopia (≥4 D to ≤6 D) were at greatest risk, although more than half of children with lower magnitudes (≥3 D to <4 D) demonstrated 1 or more reductions in function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Skipping breakfast in early childhood and its associations with maternal and child BMI: a study of 2-5-year-old Australian children.

    PubMed

    Alsharairi, N A; Somerset, S M

    2016-04-01

    Evidence supporting the association between skipping breakfast and children's body mass index (BMI) has been widely reported, and some consideration has been given to children aged 2-5 years. However, no evidence has considered an association between children skipping breakfast and mother's BMI. This study therefore investigated associations between skipping breakfast, child's BMI and mother's BMI in a large cohort of Australian children. Data were drawn from wave 2 (2-3 years, n=4601) and wave 3 (4-5 years, n=4381) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. The primary outcome was skipping breakfast. Child's and mother's BMI was assessed by trained professionals. Girls at 4-5 years were significantly more likely to skip breakfast compared with boys (56.9% versus 43.1%; P=0.031). In cross-sectional data analysis, obese boys at 2-3 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.38; P=0.039) and at 4-5 years (OR 2.32; P=0.046), and also obese girls at 4-5 years (OR 2.26; P=0.018), were more likely to skip breakfast. Skipping breakfast was positively associated with boys at 2-3 years (OR 2.04; P=0.042) whose mothers were overweight and with girls at 4-5 years (OR 2.60; P=0.001) whose mothers were obese. In longitudinal cross-lagged analysis, boys at 2-3 years whose mothers were obese were more likely to skip breakfast 2 years later at age 4-5 years (OR 2.36; P=0.045). Skipping breakfast was associated with higher BMI in children and mothers. Future interventions should target obese mothers to promote breakfast intake among children. The interventions may involve changes to dietary and lifestyle habits and provision of education on the benefits of breakfast intake.

  18. The relationship between anxiety and dental treatment experience in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Milsom, K M; Tickle, M; Humphris, G M; Blinkhorn, A S

    2003-05-10

    To examine the relationship between dental anxiety, dental attendance and past treatment history in 5-year-old children after taking into account confounding influences. A cross sectional study of all 5-year-old children living in Ellesmere Port and Chester. All children were clinically examined and dmft and its components were recorded. A postal questionnaire was sent to parents of participating children to identify whether children attended the dentist on a regular asymptomatic basis or only when experiencing problems. Additionally parents were asked to judge whether they and their child were anxious about dental treatment. The socio-economic status of the family was measured using the Townsend Material Deprivation Index of the electoral ward in which they resided. The bivariate relationships between anxiety and reported attendance experience, past extraction and restoration history were using chi-square and t-tests. Multiple logistic regression analyses identify predictors for dental anxiety. A total of 1,745 children received both a clinical examination and a questionnaire and 1,437 parents responded, a response rate of 82.3%. One in ten parents (10.8b) judged their child to be dentally anxious. Anxious children had significantly (p<0.001] more caries experience (dmft 2.58 vs 1.12). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed that anxious children were more likely to be irregular attenders (OR 3.33, 95% Cl 2.22, 5.00), have anxious parents (OR 1.60,95% Cl 1.09, 2.36), and to have undergone dental extraction in the past[OR 3.50, 95% CI 2.10, 5.85), after controlling for gender and socio-economic status. A past history of restoration was not a significant predictor of anxiety after controlling for other factors. Dental anxiety is a fairly common condition in 5-year-old children in the North West of England. It is closely associated with asymptomatic, irregular attendance pattern, a history of extraction and having a dentally anxious parent. The cause and

  19. Influence of Maternal and Child Lifestyle-Related Characteristics on the Socioeconomic Inequality in Overweight and Obesity among 5-year-old Children; The “Be Active, Eat Right” Study

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M.; HiraSing, Remy A.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the “Be active, eat right” study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57–2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32–7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health. PMID:23743794

  20. Influence of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics on the socioeconomic inequality in overweight and obesity among 5-year-old children; the "Be Active, Eat Right" Study.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Vogel, Ineke; van Rossem, Lenie; Renders, Carry M; Hirasing, Remy A; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-06-06

    It is unclear whether the socioeconomic inequality in prevalence of overweight and obesity is already present among very young children. This study investigates the association between overweight and socioeconomic status (SES, with maternal educational level as an indicator of SES) among 5-year-old children. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds of Dutch ethnicity (n = 5,582) and their mothers collected for the "Be active, eat right" study. Compared to children of mothers with the highest educational level, for children of mothers with the lowest educational level the odds ratio (adjusted for demographic characteristics) for having overweight was 2.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.57-2.82), and for having obesity was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.32-7.55). Addition of maternal and child lifestyle-related characteristics decreased the odds ratios for overweight and obesity by 26.4% and 42.1%, respectively. The results show that an inverse SES-overweight/obesity association is already present at elementary school entry, and that watching TV by mother and child, the child consuming breakfast and, especially maternal weight status, are contributing factors in this association. These results should be taken into account when developing policies to reduce inequalities in (childhood) health.

  1. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children <5 years old, beneficiaries of two FAP: Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  2. Caries and background factors in Norwegian and immigrant 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the caries status of 5-year-olds in a low caries area, and study associations between dental caries and parent-related factors: parents' education, national origin, oral health behaviours and attitudes. The material consisted of 523 children and was a stratified random sample. Clinical and radiographic examination was performed in 2007. Enamel and dentine caries were recorded at surface level. Parents filled in questionnaires regarding socioeconomic status, their own oral health behaviours and attitudes. Most participants (66%) had no caries experience and 16% had enamel caries only. Dentine caries experience was present in 18% of the children, and 5% had dentine caries experience in five or more teeth. Surfaces with enamel caries constituted half of all surfaces with caries experience. In multiple logistic regression, statistically significant risk indicators for the child having dentine caries experience at the age of five were: having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR = 4.8), both parents (OR = 3.0) or one parent (OR = 2.1) with low education, parental laxness about the child's tooth brushing (OR = 2.8), parents' brushing their own teeth less than twice a day (OR = 2.2) and having parents with frequent sugar intakes (OR = 1.8). Caries prevalence in 5-year-olds was strongly associated with parent-related factors signifying that information on parents' socioeconomic status, dental behaviours and attitudes should be considered when planning dental services for young children. Our results suggest that the real high risk group is non-western children whose parents have low education.

  3. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  4. Ensemble Perception of Size in 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-01-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the "gist" of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use…

  5. Early Sentence Productions of 5-Year-Old Children Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binger, Cathy; Kent-Walsh, Jennifer; King, Marika; Webb, Eliza; Buenviaje, Elijia

    2017-01-01

    Four 5-year-old children with receptive language within normal limits and who required augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) received instruction in producing six different semantic--syntactic structures (three treatment and three generalization targets). Participants accessed single-meaning graphic symbols using an AAC app on an iPad…

  6. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  7. Cognitive vulnerability to depression in 5-year-old children of depressed mothers.

    PubMed

    Murray, L; Woolgar, M; Cooper, P; Hipwell, A

    2001-10-01

    Studies of cognitive vulnerability to depression in young children have, in the main, relied on self-report questionnaires (e.g. of self-esteem, attributional style). They have failed to produce convincing evidence of a cognitive vulnerability to depression in children under 8 years. In the current study latent depressive cognitions were investigated in the 5-year-old children (N = 94) of depressed and well mothers in a situation of mild stress, that is, the threat of losing a card deal in a modified version of the competitive children's card game "Snap"'. In the context of "losing", but not "winning", deals, children who had been exposed to maternal depression, either in the previous 12 months or at any other time during their lifetime, were more likely than nonexposed children to express depressive cognitions (hopelessness, pessimism, and low self-worth). The association between depressive cognitions and recent exposure to maternal depression was in part accounted for by current maternal hostility to the child. The results of this study stand in contrast to those of studies which have used questionnaire methods to assess vulnerability to depressive cognitions in this age group. They suggest that it might be important to employ ecologically realistic situations to access latent self-cognitions in young children; and they underscore the importance. increasingly evident in research with adults and older children, of employing methods that involve the induction of low mood in order to elicit cognitions relevant to depression.

  8. Metamemory prediction accuracy for simple prospective and retrospective memory tasks in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kvavilashvili, Lia; Ford, Ruth M

    2014-11-01

    It is well documented that young children greatly overestimate their performance on tests of retrospective memory (RM), but the current investigation is the first to examine children's prediction accuracy for prospective memory (PM). Three studies were conducted, each testing a different group of 5-year-olds. In Study 1 (N=46), participants were asked to predict their success in a simple event-based PM task (remembering to convey a message to a toy mole if they encountered a particular picture during a picture-naming activity). Before naming the pictures, children listened to either a reminder story or a neutral story. Results showed that children were highly accurate in their PM predictions (78% accuracy) and that the reminder story appeared to benefit PM only in children who predicted they would remember the PM response. In Study 2 (N=80), children showed high PM prediction accuracy (69%) regardless of whether the cue was specific or general and despite typical overoptimism regarding their performance on a 10-item RM task using item-by-item prediction. Study 3 (N=35) showed that children were prone to overestimate RM even when asked about their ability to recall a single item-the mole's unusual name. In light of these findings, we consider possible reasons for children's impressive PM prediction accuracy, including the potential involvement of future thinking in performance predictions and PM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The dental caries experience of 5-year-old children in Great Britain (2005/6). Surveys co-ordinated by the British Association for the study of community dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B; Boyles, J; Nugent, Z J; Thomas, N; Pine, C M

    2007-03-01

    This paper reports the results of standardized clinical caries examinations of 5-year-old children from across England, Wales and Scotland in 2005/6. These co-ordinated surveys are the latest in a series which seek to monitor the dental health of children and to assess the delivery of dental services. The criteria and conventions of the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry were used. Representative samples were drawn from participating strategic health authorities (SHAs), primary care trusts (PCTs) and health boards (HBs). Caries was diagnosed at the caries into dentine threshold using a visual method without radiography or fibre-optic transillumination. 239,389 five and six year-old children from across England, Wales, Scotland and the Isle of Man were examined in 2005/2006. The results again demonstrated a wide variation in disease prevalence and care strategies across Great Britain. Mean d3mft across England was 1.47 (d3t = 1.10, mt = 0.20, ft = 0.16), across Wales the corresponding values were 2.38 (d3t = 1.70, mt = 0.43, ft = 0.25) and in Scotland 2.16 (d3t = 1.45, mt = 0.51, ft = 0.20). Overall, 39.4% of children in Great Britain had evidence of caries experience in dentine (d3mft > 0, including visual dentine caries). The distribution of caries was highly skewed. Thus the mean caries experience for those with dentinal decay was 3.99, as opposed to the overall mean of 1.57. Trends over time demonstrate a small change in mean d3mft since 2003/4 when the mean was 1.62, although the mean value for those with dentine decay experience remained constant (4.00 vs 3.99). The care index has also fallen marginally from 12% to 11%. The BASCD co-ordinated NHS Epidemiology Programme will evolve in coming years as differing priorities in the frequency of inspecting particular age groups is being seen as well as a desire to measure other aspects of oral health in addition. Overall, there has been only a small overall improvement in the dental health of 5

  10. Category-specific face prototypes are emerging, but not yet mature, in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Lee, Kang; Fu, Genyue; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2014-10-01

    Adults' expertise in face recognition has been attributed to norm-based coding. Moreover, adults possess separable norms for a variety of face categories (e.g., race, sex, age) that appear to enhance recognition by reducing redundancy in the information shared by faces and ensuring that only relevant dimensions are used to encode faces from a given category. Although 5-year-old children process own-race faces using norm-based coding, little is known about the organization and refinement of their face space. The current study investigated whether 5-year-olds rely on category-specific norms and whether experience facilitates the development of dissociable face prototypes. In Experiment 1, we examined whether Chinese 5-year-olds show race-contingent opposing aftereffects and the extent to which aftereffects transfer across face race among Caucasian and Chinese 5-year-olds. Both participant races showed partial transfer of aftereffects across face race; however, there was no evidence for race-contingent opposing aftereffects. To examine whether experience facilitates the development of category-specific prototypes, we investigated whether race-contingent aftereffects are present among Caucasian 5-year-olds with abundant exposure to Chinese faces (Experiment 2) and then tested separate groups of 5-year-olds with two other categories with which they have considerable experience: sex (male/female faces) and age (adult/child faces) (Experiment 3). Across all three categories, 5-year-olds showed no category-contingent opposing aftereffects. These results demonstrate that 5 years of age is a stage characterized by minimal separation in the norms and associated coding dimensions used for faces from different categories and suggest that refinement of the mechanisms that underlie expert face processing occurs throughout childhood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. What Hispanic parents do to encourage and discourage 3-5 year old children to be active: A qualitative study using nominal group technique

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hispanic pre-schoolers are less active than their non-Hispanic peers. As part of a feasibility study to assess environmental and parenting influences on pre-schooler physical activity (PA) (Ninos Activos), the aim of this study was to identify what parents do to encourage or discourage PA among Hisp...

  12. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one's own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children's abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology.

  13. [Dental decay in 5-year-old children: sociodemographic factors, monitoring points and parental attitudes].

    PubMed

    Nunes, Vinícius Humberto; Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen

    2017-01-01

    Dental decay affects many children, especially those from the lower socioeconomic classes. In this cross-sectional study designed to investigate the role played by sociodemographic factors, parental attitudes, and monitoring points, which are an indicator of personal perception of what controls individual health, on the prevalence of tooth decay among 5-year-old pre-school children living in a midsized city in São Paulo, Brazil. The ceo-d index of 426 children was assessed; the parents reported sociodemographic characteristics and completed two questionnaires concerning monitoring points and parental attitudes. The results show that 52.35% of the children had decay; higher levels of severe decay were observed among lower E-F socioeconomic classes. Higher socioeconomic status and low externality appear to be protective factors. Low parental internality emerged as a risk factor for decay in primary teeth, possibly because the mother expects or delegates the action to others, delaying care. Parental perceptions of control over a child's health seem to impact preventive care and, consequently, the level of tooth decay among children.

  14. The Role of Feature Type and Causal Status in 4-5-Year-Old Children's Biological Categorizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Benjamin; Cordier, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of the causal status of features and feature type in biological categorizations by young children. Study 1 showed that 5-year-olds are more strongly influenced by causal features than effect features; 4-year-olds exhibit no such tendency. There therefore appears to be a conceptual change between the ages of…

  15. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  16. Procedural Metacognition and False Belief Understanding in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Stéphane; Proust, Joëlle; Clément, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Some studies, so far limited in number, suggest the existence of procedural metacognition in young children, that is, the practical capacity to monitor and control one’s own cognitive activity in a given task. The link between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding is currently under theoretical discussion. If data with primates seem to indicate that procedural metacognition and false belief understanding are not related, no study in developmental psychology has investigated this relation in young children. The present paper aims, first, to supplement the findings concerning young children’s abilities to monitor and control their uncertainty (procedural metacognition) and, second, to explore the relation between procedural metacognition and false belief understanding. To examine this, 82 3- to 5-year-old children were presented with an opt-out task and with 3 false belief tasks. Results show that children can rely on procedural metacognition to evaluate their perceptual access to information, and that success in false belief tasks does not seem related to success in the task we used to evaluate procedural metacognition. These results are coherent with a procedural view of metacognition, and are discussed in the light of recent data from primatology and developmental psychology. PMID:26517260

  17. Beat gestures improve word recall in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Igualada, Alfonso; Esteve-Gibert, Núria; Prieto, Pilar

    2017-04-01

    Although research has shown that adults can benefit from the presence of beat gestures in word recall tasks, studies have failed to conclusively generalize these findings to preschool children. This study investigated whether the presence of beat gestures helps children to recall information when these gestures have the function of singling out a linguistic element in its discourse context. A total of 106 3- to 5-year-old children were asked to recall a list of words within a pragmatically child-relevant context (i.e., a storytelling activity) in which the target word was or was not accompanied by a beat gesture. Results showed that children recalled the target word significantly better when it was accompanied by a beat gesture than when it was not, indicating a local recall effect. Moreover, the recall of adjacent non-target words did not differ depending on the condition, revealing that beat gestures seem to have a strictly local highlighting function (i.e., no global recall effect). These results demonstrate that preschoolers benefit from the pragmatic contribution offered by beat gestures when they function as multimodal markers of prominence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Figure Drawing as a Representative Medium of Perceptual Motor Development among 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Pirkko; And Others

    This study examined characteristics of human figures representing the self as drawn by 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds and the presence of age or gender differences. A total of 150 children who were selected randomly from day care centers drew themselves on paper with crayons. There were equal numbers of boys and girls in each age group. Human figure…

  19. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  20. Spanish-English Articulation and Phonology of 4- and 5-Year-Old Preschool Children: An Initial Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, Alejandro E.; Carson, Cecyle K.; O'Brien, Jennifer Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this study, it was postulated that typically developing (i.e., normally developing without incidence of a speech or language delay or disorder) Spanish/Englishspeaking children ages 4 to 5 years old would show different articulation productions and phonological patterns in both languages. Sixteen participants from Florida were tested with…

  1. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  2. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  3. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  4. Prevalence of Malocclusion in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinhua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Li; Liu, Yuehua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusions in preschool children in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2335 children aged 3–5 years from kindergartens. Several occlusal parameters were clinically assessed, including second deciduous molar terminal plane, canine relationship, degree of overjet and overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, and the presence or absence of physiologic spaces and crowding. All parents of subjects were asked to fill in the oral health knowledge questionnaires. The prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in Shanghai was 83.9%, and no significant differences were found in genders. Data showed that the prevalence of deep overbite (63.7%) was the highest in children with malocclusion, followed by deep overjet (33.9%), midline deviation (26.6%), anterior crossbite (8.0%) and anterior crowding (6.5%). The results revealed a high prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in children aged 3–5 years old of Shanghai, especially in vertical anomalies. The need for preventive orthodontic therapy is extremely desired and oral health education about malocclusion should be strengthened. PMID:28327525

  5. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Random Dot E Stereotest: Testability and Reliability in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the proportion of preschoolers testable with the Random Dot E (RDE) stereotest and the between-tester reliability. Methods Subjects were 1257 3- to 5-year-olds who were participants in Head Start programs in 5 communities. The sample was over-weighted with children who failed the routine Head Start vision screening (58% failures; 42% non-failures). Each child had stereotesting attempted by two licensed eye care professionals using the RDE test, first in a screening setting and later in a comprehensive eye examination. Pretesting was performed at 50 cm. Children who discriminated between the non-stereo E and blank cards on 4 of 4 or 4 of 5 presentations were considered testable. Stereotesting was conducted at 50 cm, 100 cm, and 150 cm corresponding to 504, 252, and 168 arc sec disparity). Extent of agreement beyond chance between the screening and examination test results was assessed using the Kappa (Κ) and weighted Kappa (Κw) statistics. Results Testability increased with age at both the first (86% of 3-, 89% of 4-, and 93% of 5-year-olds; p = 0.02) and second (90% of 3-, 94% of 4-, and 98% of 5-year- olds; p = 0.0001) sessions. Overall, stereopsis was better at the second session. Agreement between sessions was moderate (Κw=0.43; 59% identical scores). While identical scores increased with age (53% of 3-, 59% of 4-, and 63% of 5-year-olds), Κw statistics did not differ with age (p = 0.49). Conclusions Child testability on the RDE stereotest was significantly better for older than younger preschool-age children. Overall, test-retest agreement was moderate and did not differ according to age. Testability rates of 98% and higher have been achieved in the same population with other screening tests including another random dot stereotest. PMID:17189143

  7. Dimensionality and Reliability of Letter Writing in 3- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality and reliability of letter writing skills in preschool children with the aim of determining whether a sequence existed in how children learn to write the letters of the alphabet. Additionally, we examined gender differences in the development of letter writing skills. 471 children aged 3 to 5 years old completed a letter writing task. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter writing represented a unidimensional skill. Similar to research findings that the development of letter-names and letter-sound knowledge varies in acquisition, our findings indicate that the ability to write some letters is acquired earlier than the ability to write other letters. Although there appears to be an approximate sequence for the easiest and most difficult letters, there appears to be a less clear sequence for letters in the middle stages of development. Overall, girls had higher letter writing scores compared to boys. Gender differences regarding difficulty writing specific letters was less conclusive; however, results indicated that when controlling for ability level, girls had a higher probability of writing a letter correctly than boys. Implications of these findings for the assessment and instruction of letter writing are discussed.

  8. Dimensionality and Reliability of Letter Writing in 3- to 5-Year-Old Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality and reliability of letter writing skills in preschool children with the aim of determining whether a sequence existed in how children learn to write the letters of the alphabet. Additionally, we examined gender differences in the development of letter writing skills. 471 children aged 3 to 5 years old completed a letter writing task. Results from factor analyses indicated that letter writing represented a unidimensional skill. Similar to research findings that the development of letter-names and letter-sound knowledge varies in acquisition, our findings indicate that the ability to write some letters is acquired earlier than the ability to write other letters. Although there appears to be an approximate sequence for the easiest and most difficult letters, there appears to be a less clear sequence for letters in the middle stages of development. Overall, girls had higher letter writing scores compared to boys. Gender differences regarding difficulty writing specific letters was less conclusive; however, results indicated that when controlling for ability level, girls had a higher probability of writing a letter correctly than boys. Implications of these findings for the assessment and instruction of letter writing are discussed. PMID:26346443

  9. Moderate agreement between body mass index and measures of waist circumference in the identification of overweight among 5-year-old children; the ‘Be active, eat right’ study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) is a common indirect method to assess weight status among children. There is evidence that BMI data alone can underestimate overweight-related health risk and that waist circumference (WC) should also be measured. In this study we investigated the agreement between BMI and WC and BMI and the waist-height ratio (WHtR) when used to identify overweight among children. Methods This cross-sectional population-based study uses baseline data from 5-year-olds (n = 7703) collected by healthcare professionals for the ‘Be active, eat right’ study. Results According to age-specific and sex-specific cut-off points for BMI (IOTF, 2000) and WC (Fredriks et al., 2005), the prevalence of overweight (obesity included) was 7.0% and 7.1% among boys, and 11.6% and 10.1% among girls, respectively. For the WHtR the 90th percentile was used as the cut-off point. Among boys, observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WC classification was 0.95, Cohen’s kappa 0.58 (95% CI; 0.53-0.63), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.61 and 0.97, respectively. Observed proportion of agreement between BMI and WHtR classification was 0.92, Cohen’s kappa 0.46 (95% CI; 0.41-0.51), and proportions of positive and negative agreement were 0.51 and 0.95. Children identified as overweight according to WC were relatively tall, and children classified as overweight according to the WHtR only were relatively short (comparable results for girls). Conclusions There is moderate agreement between BMI and measures of WC on the presence of overweight among 5-year-olds. If BMI data and cut-offs continue to be used, then part of the group of children identified as overweight according to WC and the WHtR will be omitted. Follow-up of the children classified as overweight according to BMI only, WC only, and WHtR only, will give indications whether WC should be measured in addition to BMI or whether WC should only be measured in certain subgroups (e

  10. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4-5 year old children.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Lucy; Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane

    2006-07-06

    Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. One hundred and nine parents of 4-5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.

  11. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4–5 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Lucy; Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. Methods One hundred and nine parents of 4–5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Results Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. Conclusion These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response. PMID:16824218

  12. Urban-rural differences in dental caries of 5-year old children in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Davies, Carolyn A; Douglas, Gail V A; Pitts, Nigel B

    2010-12-01

    Previous research suggests there are significant differences between urban and rural areas in Scotland for health outcomes including heart disease, cancer and self reported health. The aim of this study was to describe the contemporary urban/rural variation in obvious decay experience amongst 5-year-olds in Scotland. Scotland was split into 6 geographies, ranging from 'The 4 Cities' (Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen) to 'Remote Rural' areas. Data derived from the 2007/08 National Dental Inspection Programme, representative of the whole of Scotland, were modelled using Bayesian multilevel zero-inflated Negative Binomial and multilevel Poisson modelling, adjusting for age, sex and deprivation. The outcome variables modelled were d(3)mft (carious, extracted or filled deciduous teeth), d(3)t (carious teeth), mt (missing teeth, extracted due to caries) and ft (filled teeth). The proportion of 5-year old children in Scotland with d(3)mft = 0 was 58% in 2008. Adjusting for age and sex, the odds of a child in a Remote Rural area having d(3)mft>0 was 0.52 that of a city dweller. However, when deprivation was included in the model, the odds of having d(3)mft >0 rose to 0.74. The odds of d(3)mft>0 in 'Accessible Rural' areas also remained significantly lower than in the 4 Cities after adjustment for deprivation. For those with d(3)mft>0, the relative risk of additional d(3)mft was also significantly lower in Remote Rural areas, however this was explained by deprivation, while in Accessible Rural areas this remained significant even after adjustment for deprivation. The odds of having any extractions was lower in Rural areas, even after adjustment for deprivation, while the Care Index (ft/d(3)mft) was higher in Remote Towns. Deprivation, therefore, accounted for much but not all of the geographical difference in d(3)mft which exist in Scotland. Children in Remote and Rural areas appear to have better dental health and a higher proportion of filled teeth when compared

  13. Separable sustained and selective attention factors are apparent in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Mortensen, Erik L; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-Ch(J)) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-Ch(J) selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-Ch(J) factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest.

  14. Separable Sustained and Selective Attention Factors Are Apparent in 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Underbjerg, Mette; George, Melanie S.; Thorsen, Poul; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Manly, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In adults and older children, evidence consistent with relative separation between selective and sustained attention, superimposed upon generally positive inter-test correlations, has been reported. Here we examine whether this pattern is detectable in 5-year-old children from the healthy population. A new test battery (TEA-ChJ) was adapted from measures previously used with adults and older children and administered to 172 5-year-olds. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 60 children. Ninety-eight percent of the children managed to complete all measures. Discrimination of visual and auditory stimuli were good. In a factor analysis, the two TEA-ChJ selective attention tasks (one visual, one auditory) loaded onto a common factor and diverged from the two sustained attention tasks (one auditory, one motor), which shared a common loading on the second factor. This pattern, which suggests that the tests are indeed sensitive to underlying attentional capacities, was supported by the relationships between the TEA-ChJ factors and Test of Everyday Attention for Children subtests in the older children in the sample. It is possible to gain convincing performance-based estimates of attention at the age of 5 with the results reflecting a similar factor structure to that obtained in older children and adults. The results are discussed in light of contemporary models of attention function. Given the potential advantages of early intervention for attention difficulties, the findings are of clinical as well as theoretical interest. PMID:24376591

  15. The dental caries experience of 5-year-old children in England and Wales (2003/4) and in Scotland (2002/3). Surveys co-ordinated by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pitts, N B; Boyles, J; Nugent, Z J; Thomas, N; Pine, C M

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports the results of standardized clinical caries examinations of 5 year old children from across England and Wales in 2003/4 and Scotland in 2002/3. These co-ordinated surveys are the latest in a series which seek to monitor the dental health of children and to assess the delivery of dental services. The criteria and conventions of the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry were used. Representative samples were drawn from participating strategic health authorities (SHAs), primary care trusts (PCTs) and health boards (HBs). Caries was diagnosed at the caries into dentine threshold using a visual method without radiography or fibre-optic transillumination. Data for Jersey and the Isle of Man are also included. The results again demonstrated a wide variation in disease prevalence and care strategies across Great Britain. Mean values for d3mft within the current English Strategic Health Authorities ranged from 0.47 in Maidstone Weald (South) to 3.69 in North Kirklees (North); in Wales mean values ranged from 1.48 in Flintshire (NW) to 3.73 in Merthyr (SE); while in Scotland they ranged from 1.29 in Borders to 3.67 in Argyll & Clyde. Mean d3mft across England was 1.49 (d3t = 1.12, mt = 0.19, ft = 0.18), across Wales it was 2.42 (d3t = 1.70, mt = 0.43, ft = 0.29) and across Scotland values were 2.76 (d3t = 1.87, mt = 0.65, ft = 0.24). Overall, 39.6% of children in England & Wales and 55.4% of children inspected in Scotland had evidence of caries experience in dentine (d3mft > 0, including visual dentine caries). The distribution of caries was highly skewed. Thus the mean caries experience for those with dentinal decay in England and Wales was 3.90, as opposed to the overall mean of 1.55; in Scotland the corresponding values were 4.98 and 2.76. Trends over time demonstrate virtually no change in the overall mean d3mft for England and Wales since 2001/2, although the mean value for those with dentine decay experience increased marginally

  16. Respiratory and Polysomnographic Values in 3- to 5-Year-Old Normal Children at Higher Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Casey J.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Mettler, Pamela; Gozal, David; Halbower, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine polysomnographic parameter differences in children living at higher altitude to children living near sea level. Design and Setting: Prospective study of non-snoring, normal children recruited from various communities around Denver, CO. In-lab, overnight polysomnograms were performed at a tertiary care children's hospital. All children required residence for greater than one year at an elevation around 1,600 meters. Participants: 45 children (62% female), aged 3-5 years, 88.9% non-Hispanic white with average BMI percentile for age of 47.8% ± 30.7%. Measurements and Results: Standard sleep indices were obtained and compared to previously published normative values in a similar population living near sea level (SLG). In the altitude group (AG), the apnea-hypopnea index was 1.8 ± 1.2 and the central apnea-hypopnea index was 1.7 ± 1.1, as compared to 0.9 ± 0.8 and 0.8 ± 0.7, respectively, (P ≤ 0.005) in SLG. Mean end-tidal CO2 level in AG was 42.3 ± 3.0 mm Hg and 40.6 ± 4.6 mm Hg in SLG (P = 0.049). The ≥ 4% desaturation index was 3.9 ± 2.0 in AG compared to 0.3 ± 0.4 in SLG (P < 0.001). Mean periodic limb movement in series index was 10.1 ± 12.3 in AG and 3.6 ± 5.4 in SLG (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Comparison of altitude and sea level sleep studies in healthy children reveals significant differences in central apnea, apneahypopnea, desaturation, and periodic limb movement in series indices. Clinical providers should be aware of these differences when interpreting sleep studies and incorporate altitude-adjusted normative values in therapeutic-decision making algorithms. Citation: Burg CJ; Montgomery-Downs HE; Mettler P; Gozal D; Halbower AC. Respiratory and polysomnographic values in 3- to 5-year-old normal children at higher altitude. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1707-1714. PMID:24179305

  17. Risk indicators of gingivitis in 5-year-old Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Pereira, Stela Márcia; Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira de Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Zanin, Luciane; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Hebling, Eduardo; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To identify the risk indicators of gingivitis among socioeconomic, clinical and gender variables in 5-year-old children attending preschools in Piracicaba, Brazil, in 2005. The sample consisted of 728 subjects attending 22 public (n = 428) and 18 private (n = 300) preschools. A previously calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination in an outdoor setting, under natural light, using a dental mirror, Community Periodontal Index probe and air-drying. Gingival status was measured using the gingival alteration index for 5-year-olds according to the national survey carried out in 2002 in Brazil (Health Ministry of Brazil, 2004). Socioeconomic variables (monthly family income, number of people living in the household, parents' educational level, home ownership and car ownership) were collected by means of a parental semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of gingivitis was 16.6%. Monthly family income (p < 0.0001), father's education (p < 0.0007), mother's education (p = 0.0004), type of school (p < 0.0001), car ownership (p = 0.0854), gender (p = 0.0087), initial lesion (p < 0.0001), dental caries (p = 0.0008), crowding (p = 0.0054) and spacing (p = 0.0019) were associated with gingival bleeding at p < 0.15 and were selected for the regression analysis. By means of multiple logistic regression analyses, monthly family income of up to 4 Brazilian minimum wages, presence of initial lesion, presence of crowding and male gender were found to be risk indicators of gingivitis. The prevalence of gingivitis in 5-year-old preschool children in Piracicaba was 16.6%. Also, family income of up to 4 minimum wages, male gender, the presence of initial caries lesion and crowding were risk indicators of gingivitis.

  18. A cross-sectional survey of 5-year-old children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: the Cleft Care UK study. Part 1: background and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Persson, M; Sandy, J R; Waylen, A; Wills, A K; Al-Ghatam, R; Ireland, A J; Hall, A J; Hollingworth, W; Jones, T; Peters, T J; Preston, R; Sell, D; Smallridge, J; Worthington, H; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives We describe the methodology for a major study investigating the impact of reconfigured cleft care in the United Kingdom (UK) 15 years after an initial survey, detailed in the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report in 1998, had informed government recommendations on centralization. Setting and Sample Population This is a UK multicentre cross-sectional study of 5-year-olds born with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. Children born between 1 April 2005 and 31 March 2007 were seen in cleft centre audit clinics. Materials and Methods Consent was obtained for the collection of routine clinical measures (speech recordings, hearing, photographs, models, oral health, psychosocial factors) and anthropometric measures (height, weight, head circumference). The methodology for each clinical measure followed those of the earlier survey as closely as possible. Results We identified 359 eligible children and recruited 268 (74.7%) to the study. Eleven separate records for each child were collected at the audit clinics. In total, 2666 (90.4%) were collected from a potential 2948 records. The response rates for the self-reported questionnaires, completed at home, were 52.6% for the Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire and 52.2% for the Satisfaction with Service Questionnaire. Conclusions Response rates and measures were similar to those achieved in the previous survey. There are practical, administrative and methodological challenges in repeating cross-sectional surveys 15 years apart and producing comparable data. PMID:26567851

  19. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  20. Intelligence and Visual Motor Integration in 5-Year-Old Children with 22q11-Deletion Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to…

  1. A cluster randomised trial of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in their 3- to 5-year-old children: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Wyse, Rebecca J; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Brennan, Leah; Campbell, Karen J; Fletcher, Amanda; Bowman, Jenny; Heard, Todd R; Wiggers, John

    2010-04-28

    Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption in childhood increases the risk of developing chronic disease. Despite this, a substantial proportion of children in developed nations, including Australia, do not consume sufficient quantities of fruits and vegetables. Parents are influential in the development of dietary habits of young children but often lack the necessary knowledge and skills to promote healthy eating in their children. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a telephone-based intervention for parents to increase the fruit and vegetable consumption of their 3- to 5-year-old children. The study, conducted in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia, employs a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Two hundred parents from 15 randomly selected preschools will be randomised to receive the intervention, which consists of print resources and four weekly 30-minute telephone support calls delivered by trained telephone interviewers. The calls will assist parents to increase the availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables in the home, create supportive family eating routines and role-model fruit and vegetable consumption. A further two hundred parents will be randomly allocated to the control group and will receive printed nutrition information only. The primary outcome of the trial will be the change in the child's consumption of fruit and vegetables as measured by the fruit and vegetable subscale of the Children's Dietary Questionnaire. Pre-intervention and post-intervention parent surveys will be administered over the telephone. Baseline surveys will occur one to two weeks prior to intervention delivery, with follow-up data collection calls occurring two, six, 12 and 18 months following baseline data collection. If effective, this telephone-based intervention may represent a promising public health strategy to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in childhood and reduce the risk of subsequent chronic disease.

  2. Ensemble perception of size in 4-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Timothy D; Wurnitsch, Nicole; Gopnik, Alison; Whitney, David

    2015-07-01

    Groups of objects are nearly everywhere we look. Adults can perceive and understand the 'gist' of multiple objects at once, engaging ensemble-coding mechanisms that summarize a group's overall appearance. Are these group-perception mechanisms in place early in childhood? Here, we provide the first evidence that 4-5-year-old children use ensemble coding to perceive the average size of a group of objects. Children viewed a pair of trees, with each containing a group of differently sized oranges. We found that, in order to determine which tree had the larger oranges overall, children integrated the sizes of multiple oranges into ensemble representations. This pooling occurred rapidly, and it occurred despite conflicting information from numerosity, continuous extent, density, and contrast. An ideal observer analysis showed that although children's integration mechanisms are sensitive, they are not yet as efficient as adults'. Overall, our results provide a new insight into the way children see and understand the environment, and they illustrate the fundamental nature of ensemble coding in visual perception.

  3. Analysis of maximum mouth opening and its related factors in 3- to 5-year-old Taiwanese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Sen; Yang, Pei-Ling; Lee, Chen-Yi; Chen, Ker-Kong; Lee, Kun-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    Maximum mouth opening (MMO) can reflect the function of the dentofacial musculature and joint system, and routine oral examinations should include its assessment. To diagnose abnormalities using MMO measurements, it is necessary to establish the normal range of MMO; however, few studies have investigated this subject in Taiwan. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the normal MMO range in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children and to investigate the factors correlated with MMO. We examined the interincisal distance, defined as the distance between the edges of the upper and lower incisors, in 518 preschool children (age range 3-5 years; 271 boys and 247 girls) with a plastic sliding caliper. The MMO on both sides of the mouth and mouth width (MW) was measured 3 times. No differences in MMO were found between the genders. The interincisal distance was 37.47 (±4.11) mm for boys and 36.93 (±3.85) mm for girls, whereas the mean MMO was 37.21 (±3.99) mm. The MMO increased with the increasing age of the children, and the mean value of MMO in children aged 3, 4, and 5 was 35.31 (±4.03), 36.61 (±3.79), and 38.31 (±3.88) mm, respectively. Furthermore, MMO was found to correlate with weight and MW. MMO increased by 0.19 mm per increased weight and 0.37 mm per increased MW. The mean value of MMO in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children was 37.21 (±3.99) mm. MMO in 3- to 5-year-old preschool children increased with age and was correlated with weight and MW.

  4. Temporally selective attention supports speech processing in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Astheimer, Lori B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2012-01-01

    Recent event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that adults employ temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech. Doing so is an effective listening strategy since word-initial segments are highly informative. Although the development of this process remains unexplored, directing attention to word onsets may be important for speech processing in young children who would otherwise be overwhelmed by the rapidly changing acoustic signals that constitute speech. We examined the use of temporally selective attention in 3- to 5-year-old children listening to stories by comparing ERPs elicited by attention probes presented at four acoustically matched times relative to word onsets: concurrently with a word onset, 100 ms before, 100 ms after, and at random control times. By 80 ms, probes presented at and after word onsets elicited a larger negativity than probes presented before word onsets or at control times. The latency and distribution of this effect is similar to temporally and spatially selective attention effects measured in adults and, despite differences in polarity, spatially selective attention effects measured in children. These results indicate that, like adults, preschool aged children modulate temporally selective attention to preferentially process the initial portions of words in continuous speech.

  5. [Impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence of consolidated pneumonia in children younger than 5 years old in Pilar, Buenos Aires: A population-based study].

    PubMed

    Gentile, Ángela; Bakir, Julia; Bialorus, Laura; Caruso, Laura; Mirra, Diego; Santander, Celina; Terluk, Mabel; Zurdo, Pablo; Gentile, Fernando; Fermndez, María I

    2015-12-01

    In January 2012, Argentina introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in its immunization schedule for children younger than 2 years old. Coverage in Pilar in 2012 reached>90% for the first two doses and 60% for the third dose. To measure the effectiveness of PCV13 to reduce the incidence of consolidated pneumonia (CP)in the two-year period following its introduction in the immunization schedule. Prospective, population-based study conducted in Pilar. All children younger than 5 year sold with clinical signs of pneumonia assisted at the reference hospitals (both inpatients and outpatients) in the first two years since the vaccine introduction (2012-2013) were included. The annual incidence of CP was compared to the 2003-2005 baseline period. Clinical and radiological assessments were done as per the World Health Organization's criteria. Six hundred and sixty-six patients with clinical suspicion of pneumonia were included. CP was diagnosed in 309 patients; 52.1% were girls, 70.2% were younger than 2 years old, and 56.4% had been immunized with the PCV13; 4.5% (14/309) had bacteriological confirmation (S. pneumoniae: 4; N. meningitidis: 4; S. aureus: 2; others: 4). A significant reduction in the incidence of CP (per 100 000 children younger than 5 years old) was observed between the pre- and postimmunization periods, from 750 (204/27209) to 561 (171/30 475) in 2012 and to 453 (138/30 475) in 2013; effectiveness accounted for 25.2% and 39.6%, respectively. Reduction in infants younger than 1 year old: 33.9% in 2012 and 44.6% in 2013; and in children aged 12-23 months old: 57.9% in 2013. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of CP at an older age. Following the introduction of PCV13 in Argentina's immunization schedule, a fast and significant reduction in the incidence of CP was observed, mainly in infants younger than 1 year old in 2012 and in children younger than 2 years old in 2013.

  6. Dental caries and their treatment needs in 3-5 year old preschool children in a rural district of India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers.

  7. Examining spatial variations in the prevalence of mental health problems among 5-year-old children in Canada.

    PubMed

    Raos, Robert; Janus, Magdalena

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine spatial variations in the prevalence rates of the three most common behaviour problems among 5-year-old children in Canada, to establish the data's suitability for potential spatial analyses of factors contributing to the prevalence of such problems. Data on kindergarten children's outcomes are routinely collected for populations of children in Canada using the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a population-level, teacher completed questionnaire. These data have been previously used to estimate prevalence rates of aggression, anxiety, and hyperactivity. The current study geographically analyzed these estimates to examine their consistency in relation to gender differences at larger provincial geographies and smaller Census Subdivision (CSD) geographies. Multilevel analyses were completed to examine the variation in prevalence at both levels of geography. Data for over 150,000 5-year-olds in three Canadian provinces and 410 Census Subdivisions were available for analyses. Prevalence rates of behaviour problems estimated with the EDI showed consistent gender relationships at both levels of aggregation. Controlling for individuals' age and sex, there was significant variation at the CSD level in risk of behavioural problems, and for anxiety and aggression, this was not explained by the distribution of CSDs in different provinces. This suggests local variation in these aspects of children's behaviour, within provinces. These findings open up the opportunity to further explore the utility and variability of EDI-based spatial variation in children's mental health.

  8. Assessing causal effects of early life-course factors on early childhood caries in 5-year-old Ugandan children using directed acyclic graphs (DAGs): A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Okullo, Isaac; Lie, Stein A; Tumwine, James K; Åstrøm, Anne N

    2017-06-20

    To estimate the effect of distal and proximal early life-course factors on early childhood caries (ECC) in 5-year-old Ugandan children, particularly focusing on the causal effect of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) on ECC using directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) for confounder selection. This study had a nested prospective cohort design, focusing on 5 years of follow-ups of caregiver-children pairs from the PROMISE-EBF trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150) conducted in 2011 in Eastern Uganda. Data were from recruitment interviews, 24-week, 2-year and 5-year follow-ups of a cohort of 417 mother-children pairs. Trained research assistants performed interviews with caregivers in the local language and ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization's (WHO) decayed missing or filled teeth (dmft) index. Early life-course factors in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, EBF and other feeding habits were assessed at the various follow-ups. The outcome (ECC; dmft>0) was assessed at the 5-year follow-up. Causal diagrams as DAGs were constructed to guide the selection of confounding and collider variables to be included in or excluded from the final multivariable analysis. Negative binomial regression analyses were performed based on two comparative DAGs representing different causal models. Model 1 based on DAG 1, showed EBF to be a protective factor against ECC, with an IRR and 95% CI of 0.62 (0.43-0.91). According to Model 2 based on DAG 2, EBF and having both parents living together had protective effects: the corresponding IRRs and 95% CI were 0.60 (0.41-0.88) and 0.48 (0.25-0.90), respectively. Both plausible models indicated that being exclusively breastfed for 24 weeks had a protective causal effect against ECC. Further research, examining the unmeasured variables included in the DAGs is necessary to strengthen the present finding and allow stronger causal claims. © 2017 The Authors. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology

  9. Influence of respiratory viruses on the evaluation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness in children under 5 years old: A time-series study for the 2001-2013 period.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Ángela; Juarez, María del Valle; Luciön, María Florencia; Romanin, Viviana Sandra; Giglio, Norberto; Bakin, Julia

    2015-08-01

    S treptococcus pneumoniae is the main agent in bacterial consolidated pneumonias. In 2012, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in the Argentine national immunization schedule for immunocompetent children as of two months old with a two-dose schedule plus a booster. To analyze the influence of respiratory viruses on the evaluation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness in relation to the number of hospitalizations for radiologically-confirmed consolidated pneumonias (RCCP). Observational, analytical, time-series study. All children hospitalized with a diagnosis of RCCP as per the World Health Organization's criteria between March and November throughout the2001-2013period were included. Viral diagnosis (respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, influenza and parainfluenza) was performed by indirect immunofluorescence using nasopharyngeal aspirates or by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Time-series were developed to compare preimmunization 2001-2011 and post-immunization 2012-2013 periods. Out of a total of 11,306 children under 5 years old with acute lower respiratory tract infections, 4974 with RCCP were included. Annual average number of hospitalizations for RCCP: 394.8 pre-immunization, 315.5 post-immunization (reduction of 20.1%, 95% confidence interval |-CI-|: 13.13-26.49%, p < 0.001). Annual average number of hospitalizations for non-viral RCCP: 255.5 pre-immunization, 183 post-immunization (reduction of 28.4%, 95% CI: 20.5-35.78%, p < 0.001). Annual average number of hospitalizations for viral RCCP: 139.2 pre-immunization, 132 post-immunization (reduction of 4.8%, 95% CI: 8.38-16.49%, p= 0.4758). The proportion of RCCP with positive viral diagnosis was 35.3 % pre-immunization and 42% post-immunization (p= 0.001). An overall significant reduction in the number of hospitalizations for RCCP was observed following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, especially in the case

  10. Health allowance for improving the nutritional status and development of 3-5-year-old left-behind children in poor rural areas of China: study protocol for a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qian; Adab, Peymané; Hemming, Karla; Yang, Lina; Qin, Hong; Li, Mingzhi; Deng, Jing; Shi, Jingcheng; Chen, Jihua

    2015-08-18

    Left-behind children (LBC) are recognised as a new social group in China. LBC are young children who are abandoned in rural villages whilst their parents travel to distant urban centres for employment (a new generation of migrant workers). Following the rapid growth in the number of migrant workers, the LBC population is also rapidly increasing. These children are usually left to be raised by elderly grandparents, a single parent, or sometimes distant relatives or neighbours who have limited resources, tend to have a poor education and sometimes are in frail health. Over 40 % of the 61 million LBC in China who are under 5 years old are undernourished, which affects their long-term health and abilities. An intervention that combines a conditional cash transfer (CCT) with nutrition education offers a potential solution. A cluster randomised controlled trial design will be used to allocate 40 villages to the intervention arm (20 villages) or control arm (20 villages). The caregivers and all of the 3-5-year-old LBC will be the target population. Caregivers in the intervention arm will receive a cash allowance conditional on attending nutrition education sessions, ensuring that the LBC will use basic public health services over a 12-month period. At the baseline, midterm (month 6) and end (month 12) of the intervention period, evaluations will be conducted in all 40 villages. Multilevel generalised linear models will be used to analyse the impact of the intervention on nutrition status and other outcomes, adjusting for baseline levels using an analysis of covariance approach. The cost of the intervention will also be estimated. If found to be cost-effective, the findings will inform the development of a sustainable model to improve nutrition status among LBC in rural areas of China. Chinese Trial Register (ChiCTR) identifier: CTXY-140003-2 . Registered on 19 Aug 2014.

  11. The left perceptual bias for adult and infant faces in adults and 5-year-old children: face age matters.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pavone, Sarah; Ricciardelli, Paola; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2015-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that adults rely more heavily on information conveyed by the left side of the face in judging emotional state, gender and identity. This phenomenon, called left perceptual bias (LPB), suggests a right hemisphere lateralization of face processing mechanisms. Although specialization of neural mechanisms for processing over-experienced face categories begins during the first year of life, little is known about the developmental trajectory of the LPB and whether or when the bias becomes selective for specific face categories as a result of experience. To address these questions we tested adults (Experiment 1) and 5-year-old children (Experiment 2) with null or limited experience with infants in an identity matching-to-sample task with chimeric adult and infant faces, for which both adults and children have been shown to manifest differential processing abilities. Results showed that 5-year-olds manifest a leftward bias selective for adult faces, and the magnitude of the bias is larger for adult compared to infant faces in adults. This evidence is in line with earlier demonstrations of a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in adults and children and points to the role of experience in shaping neurocognitive specialization for face processing.

  12. Guidelines for Health Assessment and Intervention Techniques for 3, 4, and 5 Year Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Judy K.

    These guidelines were developed to help registered nurses identify preschoolers with potential handicaps in the course of health assessments. Contents include guidelines on 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Contents are organized within age levels in terms of functioning levels and anticipatory guidance. Functional areas covered include physical,…

  13. Oral Pressure and Nasal Flow on /m/ and /p/ in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Without Cleft Palate.

    PubMed

    Searl, Jeff; Knollhoff, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : (1) To compare oral pressure and nasal airflow in 3- to 5-year-olds versus older children and adults; (2) to describe stability of these measures in 3- to 5-year-olds at two recording times; and (3) to report participation rates of 3- to 5-year-olds for the aerodynamic protocol. Design : Prospective, nonrandomized, convenience samples in four age groups. Setting : University clinic. Participants : A total of 105 individuals without cleft palate and with normal speech for their age who were 3 to 5 (n  =  45), 7 to 9 (n  =  20), 11 to 13 (n  =  20), or 20 to 30 years old (n  =  20). All had normal nasal resonance and absence of nasally obstructive conditions on the testing day. Main Outcome Measures : Oral pressure and nasal airflow on /p/ and /m/ in syllable series and the word "hamper." Results : Oral pressure was significantly higher on /p/ for 3- to 5-year-olds versus the two oldest groups. Nasal airflow on /p/ occurred infrequently across groups. Oral pressure on /m/ was significantly higher for 3- to 5-year-olds versus adults. Nasal airflow on /m/ increased significantly with age. Oral pressure and nasal flow did not differ at two measurement times for the 3- to 5-year-olds. Of the 3- to 5-year-olds, 88% completed the protocol. Conclusions : Oral pressure decreased on /p/ and nasal airflow increased on /m/ from early childhood into adulthood. Nasal air escape on /p/ occurred rarely for speakers of any age; when it did occur, the magnitude was limited. Most preschool-aged children should be able to complete a velopharyngeal aerodynamic protocol, and measures are stable even for these young speakers.

  14. Dental Caries and Their Treatment Needs in 3-5 Year Old Preschool Children in a Rural District of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Momin, Rizwan K; Mathur, Ayush; Srinivas, Kavuri Teja; Jain, Ankita; Dommaraju, Neelima; Dalai, Deepak Ranjan; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental problems in the preschool children are neglected by their parents as the deciduous teeth are going to shed off, and hence considered to be of no importance and more of economic burden if attended to them. Aims: This study was to determine the caries prevalence in preschool children (3-5-year-old) of rural Moradabad district, to analyze the specific pattern of dental caries experience in this population and to assess the treatment needs among them. Material and Methods: Children within the age group of 3-5 years attending Anganwadi centers of rural Moradabad district were included in the study. Caries diagnosis was based on decayed, extracted, filled surface (defs) and the treatment needs were recorded using World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form 1997. Results: Out of 1,500 children examined, 48.7% males and 52.6% females did not require any treatment. The mean decayed, extracted, filled teeth (deft) value was found to be significantly high in 5-year-old participants when compared to 3-year-old participants (P < 0.01). Majority of the children required one surface filling followed by two surface fillings, caries arresting sealant care, extraction, crown bridge element, pulp care, and space maintainer. Conclusion: The most common pattern was pit and fissure, then maxillary anterior pattern, posterior proximal pattern, and posterior buccal lingual smooth surface pattern. The mean deft value was higher in males as compared to females. There is a greater need for oral health education among parents and teachers. PMID:25973401

  15. Deficits in Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Abilities in 6.5-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    PubMed

    Libertus, Melissa E; Forsman, Lea; Adén, Ulrika; Hellgren, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Preterm children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement, especially in math. In the present study, we examined whether preterm children differ from term-born children in their intuitive sense of number that relies on an unlearned, approximate number system (ANS) and whether there is a link between preterm children's ANS acuity and their math abilities. To this end, 6.5-year-old extremely preterm (i.e., <27 weeks gestation, n = 82) and term-born children (n = 89) completed a non-symbolic number comparison (ANS acuity) task and a standardized math test. We found that extremely preterm children had significantly lower ANS acuity than term-born children and that these differences could not be fully explained by differences in verbal IQ, perceptual reasoning skills, working memory, or attention. Differences in ANS acuity persisted even when demands on visuo-spatial skills and attention were reduced in the ANS task. Finally, we found that ANS acuity and math ability are linked in extremely preterm children, similar to previous results from term-born children. These results suggest that deficits in the ANS may be at least partly responsible for the deficits in math abilities often observed in extremely preterm children.

  16. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus colonization and caries experience in 3- and 5-year-old Thai children

    PubMed Central

    Saraithong, P.; Pattanaporn, K.; Chen, Z.; Khongkhunthian, S.; Laohapensang, P.; Chhun, N.; Pattanaporn, W.; Gaw, H. Y.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the colonization of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in supra-gingival plaque samples and to determine their correlation with the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in Thai children. Materials and methods A total of 344 Thai children, ages 3 and 5 years, were invited to participate in this study. Caries status of the children was examined. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to evaluate DNA levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Results Eighty-five percent of the children were colonized by S. mutans and 50.9 % of them were colonized by S. sobrinus. The prevalence of ECC was 43.8 % and 56.2 % among 3- and 5-year-old children, respectively, and was significantly associated with the presence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The severity of ECC was significantly correlated with increased DNA levels of the two bacteria. Children who were positive for S. mutans and S. sobrinus (Sm+/Sb+) were 8 times or 44 times more likely to experience ECC than children who were Sm−/Sb+or were Sm−/Sb−. Conclusions The study evidence further suggest that children colonized by both S. mutans and S. sobrinus are at the higher risk for ECC. Clinical relevance Molecular-based qPCR can be used to detect and quantify S. mutans and S. sobrinus colonization for epidemiological and clinical studies for ECC risk assessment. PMID:25753978

  17. Deficits in Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Abilities in 6.5-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Forsman, Lea; Adén, Ulrika; Hellgren, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Preterm children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement, especially in math. In the present study, we examined whether preterm children differ from term-born children in their intuitive sense of number that relies on an unlearned, approximate number system (ANS) and whether there is a link between preterm children’s ANS acuity and their math abilities. To this end, 6.5-year-old extremely preterm (i.e., <27 weeks gestation, n = 82) and term-born children (n = 89) completed a non-symbolic number comparison (ANS acuity) task and a standardized math test. We found that extremely preterm children had significantly lower ANS acuity than term-born children and that these differences could not be fully explained by differences in verbal IQ, perceptual reasoning skills, working memory, or attention. Differences in ANS acuity persisted even when demands on visuo-spatial skills and attention were reduced in the ANS task. Finally, we found that ANS acuity and math ability are linked in extremely preterm children, similar to previous results from term-born children. These results suggest that deficits in the ANS may be at least partly responsible for the deficits in math abilities often observed in extremely preterm children. PMID:28744252

  18. Intelligence and visual motor integration in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duijff, Sasja; Klaassen, Petra; Beemer, Frits; Swanenburg de Veye, Henriette; Vorstman, Jacob; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intelligence and visual motor integration skills in 5-year-old children with 22q11-deletion syndrome (22q11DS) (N = 65, 43 females, 22 males; mean age 5.6 years (SD 0.2), range 5.23-5.99 years). Sufficient VMI skills seem a prerequisite for IQ testing. Since problems related to these skills are reported in children with 22q11DS, weak VMI skills may contribute to the lower than average IQ scores commonly reported. To investigate if the correlation of VMI and IQ score was mainly influenced by problems with visual perception skills (VP), motor coordination skills (MC) or difficulties with the integration of both skills (VMI), a subgroup (n = 28) was also administered the Beery VMI supplemental developmental tests. Due to the narrow age range of this study, we were also able to provide an insight into the neurocognitive phenotype of 5-year olds with 22q11DS and the influence of gender, heart disease and origin of deletion on this phenotype. Results show a mean full scale IQ (FSIQ) = 73.0 (SD 10.4) and mean VMI = 86.2 (SD 8.4). A significant correlation between FSIQ and VMI was found (r = .45, p = .000), with most variation (26%) explained in the performance IQ score ((PIQ), r = .51, p = .000). VP correlated significantly with FSIQ (r = .44, p = .01) and PIQ (r = .49, p = .004). MC was not significantly correlated with IQ (FSIQ, r = .21, p = .15; PIQ, r = .28, p = .07), suggesting that problems with motor coordination do not influence results on IQ-tests in a significant way at this age. Girls scored significantly higher on FSIQ and PIQ than boys; cardiac anomalies were not predictive of FSIQ or VMI scores. The results of this study suggest a characteristic neurocognitive phenotype for 5-year olds with 22q11DS. Deficiencies in visual perception and/or processing are negatively correlated with IQ scores, whereas deficiencies in motor skills do not have a relevant negative impact at this age. These findings

  19. The prevalence of dental caries in primary dentition in 4- to 5-year-old preschool children in northern palestine.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine the prevalence of dental caries among a representative sample of preschool children (4-5 years old) who were accompanied by their parents to the dental centre of the Arab American University in Jenin whether they come seeking dental treatment or as visitors with adult patients. Materials and Methods. 1376 children of both sexes were investigated by three calibrated and trained examiners for dental caries using the dmft index according to the WHO method. Results. 76% of the studied children have already experienced dental caries at the age of 4-5 years (1046 children). The mean dmft score was found to be 2.46 while the other 24% of children were caries-free. There was no significant difference in caries prevalence between boys and girls (77.2% versus 74.6%). Children of highly educated and college graduated mothers were found to have more fillings (restored teeth) in comparison to those who belong to mothers who did not finish their secondary (high school) education. Conclusion. The number of caries-free children in northern Palestine is still far from numbers found in developed countries. There is a real need to make improvements at the level of parents dental health education, application of preventive measures, and dietary habits among preschool children.

  20. Factors influencing speech perception in noise for 5-year-old children using hearing aids or cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Yc; Zhang, Vicky W; Flynn, Christopher; Burns, Lauren; Button, Laura; Hou, Sanna; McGhie, Karen; Van Buynder, Patricia

    2017-07-07

    We investigated the factors influencing speech perception in babble for 5-year-old children with hearing loss who were using hearing aids (HAs) or cochlear implants (CIs). Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for 50% correct identification were measured in two conditions - speech collocated with babble, and speech with spatially separated babble. The difference in SRTs between the two conditions give a measure of binaural unmasking, commonly known as spatial release from masking (SRM). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of a range of demographic factors on outcomes. Participants were 252 children enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. Children using HAs or CIs required a better signal-to-noise ratio to achieve the same level of performance as their normal-hearing peers but demonstrated SRM of a similar magnitude. For children using HAs, speech perception was significantly influenced by cognitive and language abilities. For children using CIs, age at CI activation and language ability were significant predictors of speech perception outcomes. Speech perception in children with hearing loss can be enhanced by improving their language abilities. Early age at cochlear implantation was also associated with better outcomes.

  1. Narrative Comprehension Skills in 5-Year-Old Children: Correlational Analysis and Comprehender Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether a variety of cognitive and linguistic factors theoretically considered to be predictive of reading comprehension skills in elementary school children were also predictive of listening comprehension skills in 131 five-year-old children. The results showed that the predictors of young children's listening…

  2. [Analysis on the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-guo; Zhang, Bing; Du, Wen-wen; Su, Chang; Liu, Ai-dong; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Yu-xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009. The study subjects involved 2091 children from a program - 'Appropriate measurements in improving children under-nutrition in poor rural areas'. In 2009, prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old from the poor rural areas of 6 western Chinese provinces was 20.2%, with boys as 20.6% and girls as 19.7%. Prevalence rates of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in the highest and lowest areas were seen in Gansu (25.5%) and Guangxi (12.2%) provinces, respectively. The peak of vitamin A deficiency prevalence fell in the 6 - 11 months age group. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency declined along with the increase of age. from this study demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old appeared to be a serious public health problem in the poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces. Education on reasonable ways of feeding and provision of complementary nutrients to children with vitamin A deficiency, should be the key points in the prevention and control programs on this problem.

  3. [Comparing Argentinian reference with WHO standards for the anthropometric evaluation of children less than 5 year-old].

    PubMed

    Anigstein, Carlos; Kerai, Viviana; Acosta, Amelia; Moranelli de Zárate, Angela; Martinolich, Andrés; Cabrera, Diana; Portela, Jorge; Lerner, Mario; Corfield, Liliana; Frutos, Mario; Delmagro, Julia; Roa, Santiago; Esparapan, Inés; Odriozola, Norma; Schneider, Viviana

    2008-12-01

    The new WHO growth standards, were the result of a multicenter growth reference study, performed on a sample of children with rigorous criteria of health, with families that had complied with the health recommendations that are made in the field of breastfeeding and not smoking. To compare the argentine references with the WHO standard for the anthropometric evaluation of a population of children under 5 years. 474 children younger than 5 years old who attended the Municipal Health Centers during October 2004. Children were weighed and measured with instruments and techniques standardized by SAP. The study design was observational, cross-sectional, descriptive. We used EPI6/ ANTCONV for Argentine reference and ANTRHRO 2005 for WHO standard T test for two samples, P (T < t) two tails, and Chi 2. Total 474, 231 boys and 243 girls. Height/ age minor - 2 DS: Argentine reference= 39 (8.2%) and WHO= 58 (12.2%), not significant. Weight/age minor -2DS: Argentine reference= 24 (5.1%) and WHO= 10 (Chi 2 p = 0.014). WHO standards, from 12 months on, selected the largest number of children with short stature, and, regarding weight, it happened the opposite, they selected less children with low weight/age.

  4. Psychosocial Development in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Using Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cara L; Ching, Teresa Y C; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the psychosocial development and factors influencing outcomes of 5-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). It further examines differences between children with CIs and HAs with similar levels of hearing loss. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study-a prospective, population-based study. Parents/caregivers of children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( n = 333), the Social Skills subscale from the Child Development Inventory ( n = 317), and questionnaires on functional auditory behavior (Parents' Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children), and demographics. Children completed assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability (Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability) and language (Preschool Language Scale - fourth edition). On average, parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores on emotional or behavioral difficulties were within 1 SD of the normative mean; however, Child Development Inventory scores on social skills were more than 1 SD below the norm. Children with severe-to-profound hearing losses using HAs had significantly more behavioral problems than children with CIs. Regression analyses showed that non-verbal cognitive ability, language, and functional auditory behavior were significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes for children with HAs, whereas outcomes for children with CIs were associated with functional auditory behavior and the presence of additional disabilities. Age at hearing intervention, severity of hearing loss, and communication mode were not associated with outcomes. The results suggest that even children who develop good language ability with the help of a HA or CI may have psychosocial problems if they exhibit difficulties with listening and communicating in everyday environments. The findings have implications for developing interventions for young children with hearing

  5. Composite index of anthropometric failure and geographic altitude in children from Jujuy (1 to 5 years old).

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Ignacio Felipe; Carrillo, Angel Rafael; Dipierri, José Edgardo; Román, Estela María; Abdo, Guadalupe

    2014-12-01

    The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) is made up of typical anthropometric indicators and their combination into seven categories, and proposes an additional measure to study malnutrition as an alternative to the evaluation of stunting, wasting and underweight as separate measures. To assess the CIAF in the child population settled at different altitudinal zones in Jujuy. Weight and height were obtained from healthy 1 to 5 year-old control children, measured at primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) in Jujuy between 2005 and 2007. Nutritional status indicators such as underweight, stunting and wasting were determined as per the World Health Organization 2007 child growth standards. The CIAF and its seven categories were estimated by grouping data by gender, age and altitudinal zone (highlands: >2500 MASL; lowlands: <2500 MASL). The CIAF percentage differences for height, gender and age were verified using a chi-square test. A total of 8059 children were included. The CIAF for highland children (6.1%) doubled that for lowland children (3.4%) (p < 0.05), and underweight prevalence (group Y) was significantly higher in the highlands (p < 0.05). The CIAF value and stunting (group F) increased with age, but such increase was more significant in the highlands. A significantly higher CIAF was observed in highland children, at the expense of stunting. However, the index of anthropometric failure was not more than 10% at both the highlands and the lowlands, and this accounts for a scarcely significant malnutrition health status in the studied child population of Jujuy.

  6. Distribution of plaque and gingivitis and associated factors in 3- to 5-year-old Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Feldens, Eliane Gerson; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Simone Helena

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the distribution of plaque and gingivitis and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and orthodontic variables (spacing in anterior teeth, anterior open bite, and crossbite), and visible plaque level (low, medium, high) in Brazilian preschoolers. The sample comprised 490 3- to 5-year-old children from nursery schools in Canoas, a city in southern Brazil. One single, trained observer examined children's oral cavities and determined visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI). Results showed that 99% of the children had visible plaque and 77% had gingivitis (GBI>0). A positive (r(s)=0.32) and significant correlation was found between VPI and GBI. VPI and GBI were significantly higher in posterior teeth and buccal and lingual surfaces. VPI was significantly higher in boys, children of low-income families, and without spacing in maxillary anterior teeth. Gingivitis was associated with absence of spacing in maxillary anterior teeth and plaque level. The most prevalent areas of plaque and gingivitis identified in this study should be taken in consideration during oral hygiene instructions, which should be given to children and mothers-particularly those with a low socioeconomic status--to motivate self-care and prevent gingivitis.

  7. Psychosocial Development in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Using Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the psychosocial development and factors influencing outcomes of 5-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). It further examines differences between children with CIs and HAs with similar levels of hearing loss. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study—a prospective, population-based study. Parents/caregivers of children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 333), the Social Skills subscale from the Child Development Inventory (n = 317), and questionnaires on functional auditory behavior (Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children), and demographics. Children completed assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability (Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability) and language (Preschool Language Scale - fourth edition). On average, parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores on emotional or behavioral difficulties were within 1 SD of the normative mean; however, Child Development Inventory scores on social skills were more than 1 SD below the norm. Children with severe-to-profound hearing losses using HAs had significantly more behavioral problems than children with CIs. Regression analyses showed that non-verbal cognitive ability, language, and functional auditory behavior were significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes for children with HAs, whereas outcomes for children with CIs were associated with functional auditory behavior and the presence of additional disabilities. Age at hearing intervention, severity of hearing loss, and communication mode were not associated with outcomes. The results suggest that even children who develop good language ability with the help of a HA or CI may have psychosocial problems if they exhibit difficulties with listening and communicating in everyday environments. The findings have implications for developing interventions for young children with hearing

  8. Experiments with a Musical Machine: Musical Style Replication in 3 to 5 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Pachet, François

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between new technology and learning is gaining increasing relevance in the field of music education (Webster, 2002; Folkestad et al., 1998). However, only a few studies have considered the nature of the interaction between children and musical machines. This article describes an observation study of children aged 3-5 years…

  9. Experiments with a Musical Machine: Musical Style Replication in 3 to 5 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addessi, Anna Rita; Pachet, François

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between new technology and learning is gaining increasing relevance in the field of music education (Webster, 2002; Folkestad et al., 1998). However, only a few studies have considered the nature of the interaction between children and musical machines. This article describes an observation study of children aged 3-5 years…

  10. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  11. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  12. Predictors of paternal and maternal controlling feeding practices with 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and female children aged 2 to 5 years. Parents' child feeding practices, eating psychopathology, general mental health symptomology, and their children's eating behaviors and temperament. Preliminary correlations; stepwise regressions. Maternal controlling feeding was predicted by children's eating behaviors (emotional over- and undereating), child temperament (sociability), and maternal general mental health symptoms. Paternal reports of children's eating behaviors (slow eating and emotional undereating) were the only significant predictors of fathers' controlling feeding practices. Mothers' and fathers' feeding practices seem to be better linked to child characteristics than to the presence of eating psychopathology symptoms. Children's emotional eating predicted all 3 controlling feeding practices in mothers and warrants further study to elucidate the causal nature of this relationship. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emotional faces capture spatial attention in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Elam, Kit K; Carlson, Joshua M; Dilalla, Lisabeth F; Reinke, Karen S

    2010-12-09

    Emotional facial expressions are important social cues that convey salient affective information. Infants, younger children, and adults all appear to orient spatial attention to emotional faces with a particularly strong bias to fearful faces. Yet in young children it is unclear whether or not both happy and fearful faces extract attention. Given that the processing of emotional faces is believed by some to serve an evolutionarily adaptive purpose, attentional biases to both fearful and happy expressions would be expected in younger children. However, the extent to which this ability is present in young children and whether or not this ability is genetically mediated is untested. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to assess the spatial-attentional properties of emotional faces in young children, with a preliminary test of whether this effect was influenced by genetics. Five-year-old twin pairs performed a dot-probe task. The results suggest that children preferentially direct spatial attention to emotional faces, particularly right visual field faces. The results provide support for the notion that the direction of spatial attention to emotional faces serves an evolutionarily adaptive function and may be mediated by genetic mechanisms.

  14. Lateralized theta wave connectivity and language performance in 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Ueno, Sanae; Remijn, Gerard B; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Munesue, Toshio; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Oi, Manabu; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2011-10-19

    Recent neuroimaging studies support the view that a left-lateralized brain network is crucial for language development in children. However, no previous studies have demonstrated a clear link between lateralized brain functional network and language performance in preschool children. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive brain imaging technique and is a practical neuroimaging method for use in young children. MEG produces a reference-free signal, and is therefore an ideal tool to compute coherence between two distant cortical rhythms. In the present study, using a custom child-sized MEG system, we investigated brain networks while 78 right-handed preschool human children (32-64 months; 96% were 3-4 years old) listened to stories with moving images. The results indicated that left dominance of parietotemporal coherence in theta band activity (6-8 Hz) was specifically correlated with higher performance of language-related tasks, whereas this laterality was not correlated with nonverbal cognitive performance, chronological age, or head circumference. Power analyses did not reveal any specific frequencies that contributed to higher language performance. Our results suggest that it is not the left dominance in theta oscillation per se, but the left-dominant phase-locked connectivity via theta oscillation that contributes to the development of language ability in young children.

  15. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in 5-year-old children: a prospective cohort study on 1628 children.

    PubMed

    Skogerbø, Å; Kesmodel, U S; Denny, C H; Kjaersgaard, M I S; Wimberley, T; Landrø, N I; Mortensen, E L

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on behaviour in children at the age of 5 years. Prospective cohort study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities, 2003-2008. A total of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years of age the parent and teacher versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher, respectively. The full statistical model included the following potential confounding factors: maternal binge drinking or low to moderate alcohol consumption, respectively; parental education; maternal IQ; prenatal maternal smoking; the child's age at testing; the child's gender; maternal age; parity; maternal marital status; family home environment; postnatal parental smoking; prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI); and the child's health status. Behaviour among children assessed by the SDQ parent and teacher forms. Adjusted for all potential confounding factors, no statistically significant associations were observed between maternal low to moderate average weekly alcohol consumption and SDQ behavioural scores (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.5-2.3; OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.1 for the total difficulties scores) or between binge drinking and SDQ behavioural scores (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.2). This study observed no consistent effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption or binge drinking in early pregnancy on offspring behaviour at the age of 5 years. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  16. The relationship between water fluoridation and socioeconomic deprivation on tooth decay in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Jones, C M; Worthington, H

    1999-04-24

    To examine the relationship between water fluoridation, socioeconomic deprivation and tooth decay in 5-year-olds. 10,004 children: 1,051 in naturally fluoridated Hartlepool in 1991/92, 3,816 in fluoridated Newcastle & North Tyneside and 5,137 in non-fluoridated Salford & Trafford in 1993/94. Correlations between mean electoral ward dmft and ward Townsend Scores from the 1991 census. Regardless of the level of water fluoridation significant correlations were found between deprivation and tooth decay. Multiple linear regression models for dmft showed a statistically significant interaction between ward Townsend score, and both types of water fluoridation, confirming the more deprived the area the greater the reduction in tooth decay. At a Townsend score of zero (the English average) there was a predicted 43% reduction in decay in 5-year-olds in fluoridated areas. Tooth decay is strongly associated with social deprivation. The findings confirm that the implementation of water fluoridation has halved tooth decay in 5-year-old children and that the dental caries divide between rich and poor is reduced.

  17. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  18. Young Children's Musical Worlds: Musical Engagement in 3.5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    This study explores preschoolers' real life engagement with music in everyday life, examining the choices that they have over music listening and the engagement that they show in relation to music in different contexts. A total of 32 children from the United Kingdom aged 3.2-3.9 years participated with their families, nursery teachers and other…

  19. Predictors of Paternal and Maternal Controlling Feeding Practices with 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to identify predictors of controlling feeding practices in both mothers and fathers of young children. Design: Cross-sectional, questionnaire design. Setting: Nursery schools within the United Kingdom recruited participants. Participants: Ninety-six mothers and fathers comprising 48 mother-father pairs of male and…

  20. Iodine and Mental Development of Children 5 Years Old and Under: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bougma, Karim; Aboud, Frances E.; Harding, Kimberly B.; Marquis, Grace S.

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have examined the effects of iodine on mental development. None focused on young children, so they were incomplete in summarizing the effects on this important age group. The current systematic review therefore examined the relationship between iodine and mental development of children 5 years old and under. A systematic review of articles using Medline (1980–November 2011) was carried out. We organized studies according to four designs: (1) randomized controlled trial with iodine supplementation of mothers; (2) non-randomized trial with iodine supplementation of mothers and/or infants; (3) prospective cohort study stratified by pregnant women’s iodine status; (4) prospective cohort study stratified by newborn iodine status. Average effect sizes for these four designs were 0.68 (2 RCT studies), 0.46 (8 non-RCT studies), 0.52 (9 cohort stratified by mothers’ iodine status), and 0.54 (4 cohort stratified by infants’ iodine status). This translates into 6.9 to 10.2 IQ points lower in iodine deficient children compared with iodine replete children. Thus, regardless of study design, iodine deficiency had a substantial impact on mental development. Methodological concerns included weak study designs, the omission of important confounders, small sample sizes, the lack of cluster analyses, and the lack of separate analyses of verbal and non-verbal subtests. Quantifying more precisely the contribution of iodine deficiency to delayed mental development in young children requires more well-designed randomized controlled trials, including ones on the role of iodized salt. PMID:23609774

  1. Urinary L-FABP as a mortality predictor in <5-year-old children with sepsis in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Sugaya, Takeshi; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Islam, M Munirul; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Kamoda, Tomohiro; Fukushima, Takashi; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Sumazaki, Ryo; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2016-03-01

    Although sepsis is often associated with high mortality in severely malnourished children, data are very limited on appropriate diagnostic tools to predict mortality. We examined the role of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) in children <5 years old with sepsis who died. This prospective observational study was conducted at the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Children aged 6-59 months admitted with sepsis from April 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled. Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics was made between children who survived (n = 83) and those who did not survive (n = 22). On multiple Poisson regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders such as mid-upper arm circumference < 115 mm, plasma albumin < 2.5 g/dL, potassium > 5.0 mmol/L, and blood urea nitrogen > 20 mg/dL on admission, first urine L-FABP ≥ 370 ng/mL (relative risk [RR], 2.76; 95%CI: 1.22-6.25), weight-for-length/height z score < -3 (RR, 2.54; 95%CI: 1.26-5.09), capillary refilling time > 2.0 s (RR, 5.16; 95%CI: 1.46-18.3), and sodium > 160 mmol/L (RR, 2.72; 95%CI: 1.07-6.90) were identified as significant risk factors of mortality in children with sepsis. Diagnostic performance of first urine L-FABP was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curve, and the area under the curve was 0.647 (95%CI: 0.500-0.795). Urinary L-FABP may be a useful predictor of mortality in septic children. Urinary examination is non-invasive and easy to apply at the bedside. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Changes in tonsil B cell phenotypes and EBV receptor expression in children under 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Wohlford, Eric M; Baresel, Paul C; Wilmore, Joel R; Mortelliti, Anthony J; Coleman, Carrie B; Rochford, Rosemary

    2017-09-08

    Palatine tonsils are principally B cell organs that are the initial line of defense against many oral pathogens, as well as the site of infection for others. While the size of palatine tonsils changes greatly in the first five years of life, the cellular changes during this period are not well studied. Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a common orally transmitted virus that infects tonsillar B cells. Naïve B cells are thought to be the target of primary infection with EBV in vivo, suggesting that they are targeted by the virus. EBV enters B cells through CD21, but studies of older children and adults have not shown differences in surface CD21 between naïve B cells and other tonsil B cell populations. In this study we used an 11-color flow cytometry panel to detail the changes in B cell subpopulations in human tonsils over the first five years of life from 33 healthy US children. We provide reference ranges for tonsil B cell subpopulations over this age range. We show that the frequency of naïve tonsil B cells decreases over the early years of life, and that naïve B cells expressed higher surface levels of CD21 relative to other tonsil B cell populations. We show that young children have a higher frequency of naïve tonsil B cells, and importantly that these cells express increased surface EBV receptor, suggesting that young children have a larger pool of cells that can be infected by the virus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. Dental caries prevalence in 5-year-old children in Mallow (a non-fluoridated area), Cork, Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mageean, J F; Holland, T J; Gleeson, P

    1979-04-01

    295 5-year-old children were examined in Mallow, a non-fluoridated town in North Cork to ascertain the dental status of children commencing first level education. The results were compared with those found in Baja, Hungary and in Barnsley, England. The def in Mallow was found to be 5.15 and the Met Need Index 14%. The authors suggest that the programmes of dental care should be re-examined in the light of these findings and more emphasis placed on the prevention and treatment of caries at an earlier age.

  4. Malnutrition among children younger than 5 years-old in conflict zones of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-02-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions.

  5. Malnutrition Among Children Younger Than 5 Years-Old in Conflict Zones of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ríos-González, Adriana; Arana-Cedeño, Marcos; Navarro, Albert; Ford, Douglas; Micek, Mark A.; Brentlinger, Paula

    2007-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional, community-based survey, supplemented by interviews with community leaders in Chiapas, Mexico, to examine the prevalence and predictors of child malnutrition in regions affected by the Zapatista conflict. The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 54.1%, 2.9%, and 20.3%, respectively, in 2666 children aged younger than 5 years. Stunting was associated with indigenous ethnicity, poverty, region of residence, and intracommunity division. The results indicate that malnutrition is a serious public health problem in the studied regions. PMID:17194868

  6. [Analysis of mortality rate and causes of death among children under 5 years old in Beijing from 2003 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shujuan; Zhu, Xuena

    2014-06-01

    To understand the age-specific and cause-specific mortality rate among children under 5 years old in Beijing from 2003 to 2012. Death surveillance data of children under the age of 5 were obtained from Beijing children mortality surveillance network from 2003 to 2012. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR), infant mortality rate (IMR), under 5-year old children mortality rate (U5MR) and the leading cause of death for under 5-year old children in urban, suburbs, and outer suburbs in Beijing were analyzed. The NMR, IMR and U5MR in Beijing were 2.08 (253/121 747), 3.11 (379/121 747) and 3.57 (435/121 747) per 1000 live births in 2012, respectively, which declined 54.88%, 50.24% and 54.75% compared with the level in 2003 respectively. The children mortality rates showed a decreasing trend in urban, suburb, and outer suburbs during 2003 and 2012 (NMR was decreased from 0.53%, 0.42%, and 0.48% in 2003 to 0.20%, 0.19%, and 0.23% in 2012; IMR was decreased from 0.73%, 0.58%, and 0.63% in 2003 to 0.30%, 0.29%, and 0.35% in 2012; U5MR was decreased from 0.90%, 0.72%, and 0.82% to 0.33%, 0.34%, and 0.39% in 2012, P < 0.01). There was a steady decline in the U5MR due to congenital heart disease, birth asphyxia, premature birth or low birth weight and traffic accident in Beijing from 2003 to 2012. The mortality rate of congenital heart disease declined from 140.63 to 41.89 per 100 000 live births, birth asphyxia declined from 109.38 to 59.96 per 100 000 live births, premature birth or low birth weight declined from 85.94 to 52.57 per 100 000 live births, traffic accident declined from 26.04 to 6.57 per 100 000 live births (P < 0.01). The mortality rate of congenital heart disease declined remarkably from 216.56 to 52.47, from 119.75 to 23.50, and from 134.58 to 63.11 per 100 000 live births in urban, suburb, and outer suburbs(P < 0.01). Six of the top 8 leading causes of death among children under 5 years old declined remarkably in rural areas. They were congenital heart disease, birth

  7. Haemophilus type B meningitis in Saudi children under 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y; Al-Jeffri, Mohamed H; Al-Haggar, Sami H; Musa, Elgeili K; Mohamed, Omer M; Abdalla, Mohamed N

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the magnitude of bacterial meningitis in general and Hib meningitis in particular among children below the age of 5 years. A population-based, prospective descriptive and analytical study was conducted in five regions, one each in northern, southern, eastern, western, and central parts of Saudi Arabia. Active surveillance for cases of bacterial meningitis among the study population, which comprised 171,818 children under 5 years of age, was implemented. A total of 208 cases of meningitis were identified, of which 141 (67.8 per cent) were identified with a definite causative organism. The remaining 67 cases (32 per cent) were labeled as aseptic meningitis. The overall incidence of meningitis was 60.53/10(5) in under-fives with a disease spectrum similar to that reported in studies conducted in other countries. The three leading causes of meningitis were Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), MCM (Neisseria menigitides) and SPN (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Hib meningitis constituted 28 per cent of cases with an incidence rate of 16.88/10(5) children. There was a marked regional variation in Hib incidence. MCM was the second leading cause (18 per cent) of meningitis with an incidence of 10.77/10(5) while SPN comprised 11 per cent of cases and its incidence was 9.69/10(5). Almost all MCM cases were related to meningitis outbreaks that occurred in Saudi Arabia during two successive Hajj seasons (2000-2001). Hib cases showed a bimodal seasonality, one peak during March-May, the other during September-November. The fact that this study is the first national base-line data on meningitis in general and Hib incidence in particular, has augmented further justification for introducing Hib vaccine within the national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Based on the experience gained during this study regarding surveillance of meningitis disease, optimal methods to strengthen meningitis surveillance were identified. A model of Meningitis

  8. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Mark D; Scharf, Rebecca J; Demmer, Ryan T

    2013-09-01

    Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother's BMI, and television viewing. Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P < .05) and 5 (P < .001) but not yet at 2 years. Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10-1.85, P < .01). In prospective analysis, children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P < .05). Similar to what is seen among older children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children.

  9. Prenatal Lead Exposure and Weight of 0- to 5-Year-Old Children in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Karen E.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Cantonwine, David; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Schnaas, Lourdes; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cumulative prenatal lead exposure, as measured by maternal bone lead burden, has been associated with smaller weight of offspring at birth and 1 month of age, but no study has examined whether this effect persists into early childhood. Objective: We investigated the association of perinatal maternal bone lead, a biomarker of cumulative prenatal lead exposure, with children’s attained weight over time from birth to 5 years of age. Methods: Children were weighed at birth and at several intervals up until 60 months. Maternal tibia and patella lead were measured at 1 month postpartum using in vivo K-shell X-ray fluorescence. We used varying coefficient models with random effects to assess the association of maternal bone lead with weight trajectories of 522 boys and 477 girls born between 1994 and 2005 in Mexico City. Results: After controlling for breast-feeding duration, maternal anthropometry, and sociodemographic characteristics, a 1-SD increase in maternal patella lead (micrograms per gram) was associated with a 130.9-g decrease in weight [95% confidence interval (CI), –227.4 to –34.4 g] among females and a 13.0-g nonsignificant increase in weight among males (95% CI, –73.7 to 99.9 g) at 5 years of age. These associations were similar after controlling for concurrent blood lead levels between birth and 5 years. Conclusions: Maternal bone lead was associated with lower weight over time among female but not male children up to 5 years of age. Given that the association was evident for patellar but not tibial lead levels, and was limited to females, results need to be confirmed in other studies. PMID:21715242

  10. Temperament, Stress and Family Factors in Behavioral Adjustment of 3-5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrios, Michael; Prior, Margot

    1990-01-01

    Temperamental characteristics, especially low reactivity-high manageability, appeared to curtail the influence of adverse family factors on children's adjustment. Strength of relationships between temperament and children's behavioral adjustment differed as a function of time, temperamental characteristics, and the source of behavioral ratings.…

  11. Behavioral Profiles in 4-5 Year-Old Children: Normal and Pathological Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Bergman, Lars R.; Earls, Felton; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2004-01-01

    Normal and psychopathological patterns of behavior symptoms in preschool children were described by a classification approach using cluster analysis. The behavior of 406 children, average age 4 years 9 months, from the general population was evaluated at home visits. Seven clusters were identified based on empirically defined dimensions:…

  12. Temperament, Stress and Family Factors in Behavioral Adjustment of 3-5-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrios, Michael; Prior, Margot

    1990-01-01

    Temperamental characteristics, especially low reactivity-high manageability, appeared to curtail the influence of adverse family factors on children's adjustment. Strength of relationships between temperament and children's behavioral adjustment differed as a function of time, temperamental characteristics, and the source of behavioral ratings.…

  13. The varicella vaccination pattern among children under 5 years old in selected areas in China.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chenyan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yamin; Liu, Yan; Cao, Linsheng; Zhu, Xu; Martin, Kathryn; Wang, Huaqing; An, Zhijie

    2017-07-11

    Vaccine is the most effective way to protect susceptible children from varicella. Few published literature or reports on varicella vaccination of Chinese children exist. Thus, in order to obtain specific information on varicella vaccination of this population, we conducted this survey. We first used purposive sampling methods to select 6 provinces 10 counties from eastern, middle and western parts of China with high quality of Immunization Information Management System (IIMS), and then randomly select children from population in the IIMS, then we checked vaccination certificate on-site. Based on the varicella vaccination information collected from 481 children's vaccination certificates from all ten selected counties in China, overall coverage of the first dose of varicella vaccine was 73.6%. There is a positive linear correlation between per capita GDP and vaccine coverage at county level (r=0.929, P < 0.01). The cumulative vaccine coverage among children at 1 year, 2 years and ≥3 years old were 67.6%, 71.9% and 73.6% respectively (X2=4.53, P =0.10). The age of vaccination was mainly concentrated in 12-17 months. The coverage rate of the first dose of varicella vaccine in selected areas was lower than that recommended by WHO position paper. The coverage rate was relatively low in areas of low social-economic status. The cumulative coverage had no significant statistical difference among different age group. Most children received varicella vaccine before 3 years old. We suggest introducing the varicella vaccine into routine immunization program, to ensure universal high coverage among children in China. We also suggest that varicella vaccination information should be checked before entering school, in order to control and prevent varicella outbreaks in schools.

  14. Childcare use and overweight in Finland: cross-sectional and retrospective associations among 3- and 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lehto, R; Mäki, P; Ray, C; Laatikainen, T; Roos, E

    2016-04-01

    Different types of non-parental childcare have been found to associate with childhood overweight in several, but not all studies. Studies on the matter are mainly North American. The objective of our study was to examine associations between childcare use and overweight in Finland. The cross-sectional and partly retrospective data consists of 1683 3- and 5-year-old children participating in the Child Health Monitoring Development project (LATE-project) conducted in 2007-2009 in Finland. Children were measured at health check-ups and information on child's age when entering childcare, the number of childcare places the child has had, current type of childcare (parental, informal, [group] family childcare, childcare centre) and the current amount of childcare (hours) were gathered. Parents' body mass indices, family educational level, family structure, maternal smoking during pregnancy and child's birth weight were treated as covariates. Beginning childcare before age 1 (adjusted model: odds ratio [OR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.52) and, for girls only, number of childcare places (adjusted model: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), were associated with an increased risk of overweight. The current type of childcare or the time currently spent in childcare was not associated with overweight. Beginning childcare before age 1, which is quite rare in Finland, and having attended several childcare places were associated with overweight even when adjusting for family socioeconomic status and other family background variables. The significance of these findings needs to be further studied. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. English Speech Acquisition in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children Learning Russian and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildersleeve-Neumann, Christina E.; Wright, Kira L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: English speech acquisition in Russian-English (RE) bilingual children was investigated, exploring the effects of Russian phonetic and phonological properties on English single-word productions. Russian has more complex consonants and clusters and a smaller vowel inventory than English. Method: One hundred thirty-seven single-word samples…

  16. Physical activity in light of affordances in outdoor environments: qualitative observation studies of 3-5 years olds in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Bjørgen, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the characteristic of affordances of different outdoor environments, related to the influences of children's physical activity levels. Qualitative observation studies in a Norwegian kindergarten were conducted of 3- to 5-year-olds into the natural environment and in the kindergarten's outdoor area. An ecological approach was important from both an analytical and theoretical point of view, using concepts from Gibson's (The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin Company, Bosten, 1979) theory of affordances. The concepts of affordances in an environment can explain children's movement behaviour. The findings reveal that situations with high physical activity levels among the children are more often created in natural environments than in the kindergarten's outdoor environment. Natural environments offer potential qualities that are a catalyst for physical activity. The study shows that certain characteristic of the physical outdoor environment are important for children's opportunities and inspiration for physical active play. The findings also show that social possibilities and opportunities, human interactions, in the environment have the greatest influence on the duration and intensity of physically active play. The need for knowledge on physical and social opportunities in outdoor environments, educational practice and the content of outdoor time in kindergartens should be given greater attention.

  17. [Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) regarding vitamin A in children aged less than 5 years-old in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Quitian, Hoover; Castaño, Natalia; Granados, Claudia; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the relative cost-effectiveness of using vitamin A in children aged less than 5-years-old regarding the reduction of events involving diarrhoea, malaria and mortality from the Colombian health-related social security system (CHSSS). A decision tree was constructed, using deaths averted as outcome. Probabilities were taken from the pertinent literature and costs from official sources. The cost-effectiveness threshold was three times greater than the per capita Colombian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were made and cost effectiveness acceptability curves were drawn. Providing a cohort of 100,000 children with vitamin A (as opposed to not doing so) would represent a saving regarding medical attention costs of $ 340,306,917 due to the number of events involving diarrhea (4,268) and malaria (76), having become reduced, as well as cases requiring hospitalization. A saving for the CHSSS was consistently obtained in sensitivity analysis. Providing vitamin supplements for children aged less than 5 years-old would seem to be the least costly and most effective (dominant) strategy for the CHSSS, i.e. compared to not doing so).

  18. Centre-level variation of treatment and outcome in 5-year-old children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate: The Cleft Care UK study. Part 1: Methodology and results for dento-facial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wills, A K; Mahmoud, O; Hall, A; Sell, D; Smallridge, J; Southby, L; Toms, S; Waylen, A; Wren, Y; Ness, A R; Sandy, J R

    2017-06-01

    Outline methods used to describe centre-level variation in treatment and outcome in children in the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) study. Report centre-level variation in dento-facial outcomes. Two hundred and sixty-eight five-year-old British children with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Between January 2011 and December 2012, data were collected on a comprehensive range of outcomes. Child facial appearance and symmetry were assessed using photographic pictures. Dental arch relationships were assessed from standardized dental study models. Hierarchical statistical models were used to predict overall means and the variance partition coefficient (VPC)-a measure of amount of variation in treatment or outcome explained by the centre. Data on dento-alveolar arch relationships and facial appearance were available on 197 and 252 children, respectively. The median age of the children was 5.5 years, and 68% were boys. Variation was described across 13 centres. There was no evidence of centre-level variation in good or poor dento-alveolar arch relationships with a VPC of 4% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, there was no evidence of centre-level variation in good or poor facial appearance with a VPC of 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of centre-level variation for dento-facial outcomes although this study only had the power to detect large variation between sites. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments (3-5 years old children).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments, and assesses the respective risks for 3-5-years old children. Eighteen gaseous and particulate (PM1 and PM2.5) PAHs were collected indoors and outdoors during 63 days at preschools in Portugal. Gaseous PAHs accounted for 94-98% of total concentration (ΣPAHs). PAHs with 5-6 rings were predominantly found in PM1 (54-74% particulate ΣPAHs). Lighter PAHs originated mainly from indoor sources whereas congeners with 4-6 rings resulted mostly from outdoor emissions penetration (motor vehicle, fuel burning). Total cancer risks of children were negligible according to USEPA, but exceeded (8-13 times) WHO health-based guideline. Carcinogenic risks due to indoor exposure were higher than for outdoors (4-18 times). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fat preferences and fat consumption of 3- to 5-year-old children are related to parental adiposity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J O; Birch, L L

    1995-07-01

    To examine differences in preferences for high-fat foods, dietary fat intake, anthropometric measurements, and parental body mass index (BMI) among 3- to 5-year-old children. Children's fat intake was measured using 30-hour weighed food intake data from a standard menu. Children's fat preferences were assessed using a subset of foods from the standard menu. We obtained parents' BMI scores and children's anthropometric measurements including weight-for-stature, triceps, and subscapular skinfolds. Participants were children 3 to 5 years of age (n = 18, 10 girls and 8 boys; mean [+/- standard deviation] age = 52 +/- 1.9 months) who were without food allergies, food sensitivities, or chronic illness, and the children's parents (18 mothers and 16 fathers). Correlational analyses and maximum likelihood contingency tables were used to examine children's fat preferences and fat intake, children's anthropometric measurements, and BMI scores of parents. Although all children were offered the same daily menu, children's dietary fat intakes ranged from 25% to 42%. Children indicating strong preferences for high-fat foods had high total fat intakes (r = .54, P < .05; chi 2 = 3.96, df = 1, P < .05). Children's fat preferences were also related to their triceps skinfold measurements (r = .61; P < .01). Finally, those children with the strongest preferences for high-fat foods (r = .75, P < .01; chi 2 = 10.68, df = 1, P < .05) and the highest total fat intakes (r = .67, P < .01; chi 2 = 5.28, df = 1, P < .05) had heavier parents than did children with low scores. Offering children a nutritionally adequate diet is necessary but may not be sufficient to ensure dietary quality; children's food preferences are influential determinants of macronutrient intake. The association of children's fat preferences and intake with parental adiposity suggests that dietary influences may mediate familial patterns of adiposity.

  1. Responsiveness to change for the Brazilian Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The responsiveness of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments has become relevant, given the increasing tendency to use OHRQoL measures as outcomes in clinical trials and evaluations studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the responsiveness of the Brazilian Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for 5-year-old children (SOHO-5) to dental treatment. Methods One hundred and fifty-four children and their parents completed the child self- and parental’ reports of the SOHO-5 prior to treatment and 7 to 14 days after the completion of treatment. The post-treatment questionnaire also included a global transition judgment that assessed subject’s perceptions of change in their oral health following treatment. Change scores were calculated by subtracting post-treatment SOHO-5 scores from pre-treatment scores. Longitudinal construct validity was assessed by using one-way analysis of variance to examine the association between change scores and the global transition judgments. Measures of responsiveness included standardized effect sizes (ES) and standardized response mean (SRM). Results The improvement of children’s oral health after treatment are reflected in mean pre- and post-treatment SOHO-5 scores that declined from 2.67 to 0.61 (p < 0.001) for the child-self reports, and 4.04 to 0.71 (p < 0.001) for the parental reports. Mean change scores showed a gradient in the expected direction across categories of the global transition judgment, and there were significant differences in the pre- and post-treatment scores of those who reported improving a little (p < 0.05) and those who reported improving a lot (p < 0.001). For both versions, the ES and SRM based on change scores mean for total scores and for categories of global transitions judgments were moderate to large. Conclusions The Brazilian SOHO-5 is responsive to change and can be used as an outcome indicator in future clinical trials. Both the parental and the child

  2. Reaching around barriers: the performance of the great apes and 3-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vlamings, Petra H J M; Hare, Brian; Call, Josep

    2010-03-01

    Inhibitory control has been suggested as a key predictive measure of problem-solving skills in human and nonhuman animals. However, there has yet to be a direct comparison of the inhibitory skills of the nonhuman apes and their development in human children. We compared the inhibitory skills of all great ape species, including 3-5-year-old children in a detour-reaching task, which required subjects to avoid reaching directly for food and instead use an indirect reaching method to successfully obtain the food. We tested 22 chimpanzees, 18 bonobos, 18 orangutans, 6 gorillas and 42 children. Our sample included chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans housed in zoos (N = 27) and others housed in sanctuaries in their native habitats (N = 37). Overall, orangutans were the most skilful apes, including human children. As expected older children outperformed younger children. Sanctuary chimpanzees and bonobos outperformed their zoo counterparts whereas there was no difference between the two orangutan samples. Most zoo chimpanzees and bonobos failed to solve the original task, but improved their performance with additional training, although the training method determined to a considerable extent the level of success that the apes achieved in a transfer phase. In general, the performance of the older children was far from perfect and comparable to some of the nonhuman apes tested.

  3. A cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under 5 years old in rural Malawi (the Cooking and Pneumonia Study): a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Kevin; Ndamala, Chifundo B; Naunje, Andrew W; Malava, Jullita; Katundu, Cynthia; Weston, William; Havens, Deborah; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel G; Nyirenda, Moffat; Wang, Duolao; Crampin, Amelia; Grigg, Jonathan; Balmes, John; Gordon, Stephen B

    2017-01-14

    WHO estimates exposure to air pollution from cooking with solid fuels is associated with over 4 million premature deaths worldwide every year including half a million children under the age of 5 years from pneumonia. We hypothesised that replacing open fires with cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves would reduce pneumonia incidence in young children. We did a community-level open cluster randomised controlled trial to compare the effects of a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove intervention to continuation of open fire cooking on pneumonia in children living in two rural districts, Chikhwawa and Karonga, of Malawi. Clusters were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups using a computer-generated randomisation schedule with stratification by site, distance from health centre, and size of cluster. Within clusters, households with a child under the age of 4·5 years were eligible. Intervention households received two biomass-fuelled cookstoves and a solar panel. The primary outcome was WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI)-defined pneumonia episodes in children under 5 years of age. Efficacy and safety analyses were by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN59448623. We enrolled 10 750 children from 8626 households across 150 clusters between Dec 9, 2013, and Feb 28, 2016. 10 543 children from 8470 households contributed 15 991 child-years of follow-up data to the intention-to-treat analysis. The IMCI pneumonia incidence rate in the intervention group was 15·76 (95% CI 14·89-16·63) per 100 child-years and in the control group 15·58 (95% CI 14·72-16·45) per 100 child-years, with an intervention versus control incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1·01 (95% CI 0·91-1·13; p=0·80). Cooking-related serious adverse events (burns) were seen in 19 children; nine in the intervention and ten (one death) in the control group (IRR 0·91 [95% CI 0·37-2·23]; p=0·83). We found no evidence that an

  4. [Allergic sensitization profile in 0-5 year old children with wheezing and/or atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Carvajal Urueña, I; Díaz Vázquez, C; Cano Garcinuño, A; García Merino, A; Morell Bernabé, J J; Pascual Pérez, J M; Jiménez Cortés, A; Blanco González, J; Montón Alvarez, J L; Pérez Porcuna, X; Torregrosa Bertet, M J; Callén Blecua, M

    2010-01-01

    Although allergic diseases are frequent in childhood, few studies have characterised the IgE sensitization profile among young children with allergic-like symptoms. To determine the prevalence and the type of allergic sensitization, as well as the demographic and environmental factors related to both characteristics, among 0-5 year old children presenting with wheezing and/or atopic dermatitis. Collaborative cross-over study developed in the paediatric setting of 20 Spanish Primary Health Care Centres. An allergology evaluation including blood determination of specific IgE antibodies to common inhalant and food allergens was performed on 468 children who presented with wheezing and/or atopic dermatitis. Allergic sensitization was detected in 32.4% of the children with wheezing (95% confidence interval, 95%CI, 26.3-38.6%), in 54.8% of the children who had atopic dermatitis (95%CI, 42.1-67.6%) and in 39.2% of the children with both processes (95%CI, 32.0-46.4%). The risk of allergic sensitization was sex related (male versus female adjusted odds ratio, OR(A), 1.91, 95%CI, 1.24-2.95), and also related to the age (3-5 versus 0-2 year old OR(A) 1.96, 95%CI, 1.27-3.0), type of early feeding (maternal milk versus infant formula OR(A) 0.51, 95%CI, 0.31-0.84) and geoclimatic area (OR(A) Continental versus Atlantic 2.26, 95%CI, 1.30-3.93). Compared to the Atlantic area, the Continental area the sensitization was lower to mites (OR(A) 0.16, 95%CI, 0.07-0.36) and higher to grass (OR(A) 4.65, 95%CI 1.99-10.86), cow milk (OR(A) 5.17, 95%CI, 1.71-15.62) and egg (OR(A) 5.26, 95%CI, 2.04-13.62), whereas in the Mediterranean area the sensitization was lower to mites (OR(A) 0.29, 95%CI, 0.13-0.64) and higher to cow milk (OR(A) 3.81, 95%CI, 1.20-12.14) and egg (OR(A) 5.24, 95%CI, 1.94-14.20). A significant proportion of small children treated at the paediatric primary health care centres due to wheezing and/or atopic dermatitis had allergic sensitization. There appears to be a

  5. Associations between sociocultural home environmental factors and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year olds: BRA-study.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Anne Lene; Bjelland, Mona; Himberg-Sundet, Anne; Lien, Nanna; Frost Andersen, Lene

    2017-10-01

    The home environment is the first environment to shape childhood dietary habits and food preferences, hence greater understanding of home environmental factors associated with vegetable consumption among young children is needed. The objective has been to examine questionnaire items developed to measure the sociocultural home environment of children focusing on vegetables and to assess the psychometric properties of the resulting factors. Further, to explore associations between the environmental factors and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5 year olds. Parents (n 633) were invited to participate and filled in a questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing this, along with a 24-h recall of their child's fruit and vegetable intake. Children's fruit and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten were observed by researchers. Principal components analysis was used to examine items assessing the sociocultural home environment. Encouragement items resulted in factors labelled "reactive encouragement", "child involvement" and "reward". Modelling items resulted in the factors labelled "active role model" and "practical role model". Items assessing negative parental attitudes resulted in the factor labelled "negative parental attitudes" and items assessing family pressure/demand resulted in the factor labelled "family demand". The psychometric properties of the factors were for most satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed, as expected, generally positive associations with "child involvement", "practical role model" and "family demand", and negative associations with "negative parental attitudes" and "reward". Unexpectedly, "reactive encouragement" was negatively associated with vegetable consumption. In conclusion, associations between sociocultural home environmental factors and children's vegetable consumption showed both expected and

  6. Decreased prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia and stabilisation of obesity trends in 5-year-old children: possible effects of changed public health policies.

    PubMed

    Sedej, Katarina; Kotnik, Primož; Avbelj Stefanija, Magdalena; Grošelj, Urh; Širca Čampa, Andreja; Lusa, Lara; Battelino, Tadej; Bratina, Nataša

    2014-02-01

    Overweight/obesity in children is a worldwide public health problem. Together with hypercholesterolaemia they are associated with early atherosclerotic complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anthropometric characteristics and total cholesterol (TC) levels in a population of 5-year-old children, to determine trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypercholesterolaemia in 5-year-old children over a period of 8 years (2001-2009) and to assess the impact of modified national nutritional guidelines for kindergartens implemented in 2005. Cross-sectional studies of overweight/obesity prevalence in the years 2001, 2003-2005 and 2009, and hypercholesterolaemia in years 2001 and 2009, in 5-year-old children. Altogether, 12 832 (6308 girls/6524 boys) children were included. Overweight/obesity was defined by IOTF criteria. Hypercholesterolaemia was defined by TC level >5 mmol/l. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI VALUES AND TC LEVELS WAS FOUND. OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY PREVALENCE WERE STABILISED FROM 2001 TO 2009 (ODDS RATIO (OR) (95% CI): 1.13 (0.99-1.3) and 1.13 (0.89-1.42) respectively). Girls were more frequently overweight/obese than boys (OR (95% CI): 0.71 (0.65-0.79) and 0.75 (0.64-0.89) respectively). Prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 (OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.41-0.55)). It was less frequent in boys than in girls (OR (95% CI): O.7 (0.61-0.8)). This is the first study to describe a negative trend in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia in pre-pubertal children. In addition, the prevalence of overweight/obesity in these children has been stabilised. Nationwide changes in public health policies could have influenced these observations.

  7. Increased caries prevalence in 2.5-year-old children with cleft lip and/or palate.

    PubMed

    Bokhout, B; Hofman, F X; van Limbeek, J; Kramer, G J; Prahl-Andersen, B

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries was determined clinically in 2.5-year-old Dutch cleft lip and/or palate children (n = 76) and in children without congenital malformation (n = 75). The parents were given a structured questionnaire regarding the child's dietary habits, oral hygiene, fluoride exposure and social economic background. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in children with oral cleft than in children without oral cleft. Initial caries (white spots) was diagnosed in 17.1% of the subjects with oral cleft compared with 4.0% of the control subjects. Manifest caries (cavities) was found in 26.3% of the children with oral cleft compared with 5.3% of the controls. The dft score (manifest caries) was significantly higher for the oral cleft group (0.59 +/- 1.35) than for the control group (0.11 +/- 0.54). 52% of the total number of initial and manifest lesions were localized to the maxillary incisors. A multivariate analysis yielded initial caries, oral hygiene and treatment with preoperative infant orthopaedics as the variables significantly associated with manifest caries.

  8. Fertility treatment and child intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bay, B; Mortensen, E L; Kesmodel, U S

    2014-12-01

    To assess the association of fertility treatment and subfertility with offspring intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons. Follow-up study. Denmark 2003-2008. A cohort of 1782 children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The children were tested with a neuropsychological battery at age five. In addition to tests of intelligence, attention and executive functions, the follow up included extensive information on important covariates. The analyses were conducted using multiple linear regression and adjusted for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children at Five, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions scores. A consistent pattern of nonsignificantly lower scores were only observed for intelligence and executive functions in children born after fertility treatment or by subfertile parents when the results were unadjusted for maternal intelligence and parental educational level. When adjusted for these and other covariates, there were no significant mean differences in intelligence (mean difference -2.8, 95% CI -7.8, 2.2), overall attention (-0.1, 95% CI -0.6, 0.3), or parent-rated executive functions (-0.1, 95% CI -3.0, 2.9) between children born after spontaneous conception and children born to parents conceiving after fertility treatment. Similarly, there were no significant mean differences in intelligence (mean difference 0.6, 95% CI -2.2, 3.4), overall attention (0.1, 95% CI -0.2, 0.4), or parent-rated executive functions (1.0, 95% CI -1.8, 3.7) between children born after spontaneous conception and children born to subfertile parents waiting more than 12 months before conceiving naturally. This study suggests that parental subfertility and fertility treatment are

  9. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language.

    PubMed

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words' initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children's early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age.

  10. Caste-ethnic disparity in vaccine use among 0- to 5-year-old children in Nepal: a decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Satis; Butler, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    To examine what factors, if any, could account for caste/ethnic disparities in vaccine utilization between upper caste and indigenous, and upper caste and low caste (Dalit) groups in Nepal. Using the Institute of Medicine (IOM) approach to calculate disparity, we estimate the disparity between upper caste and indigenous, and between upper caste and Dalit 0- to 5-year-old children in Nepal. Then we use Fairlie's non-linear regression-based decomposition technique to account for those disparities in immunization. Using nationally representative data (the Nepal Living Standard Survey II and III), we construct a pooled cross-sectional series and calculate the disparity between upper caste and indigenous (8.047 %), and between upper caste and Dalit (7.215 %). Both of these comparisons are significant at less than 1 % significance level. Decomposition results show that a major portion of the disparity can be attributed to the difference in access to immunization services, followed by differences in household income and parental education. Nepal's national vaccine programs should increase focus on reaching geographically distant populations, and continue to develop vaccination-related education efforts.

  11. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 5-year-old children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily using spoken language. All participants were fitted with hearing aids (n = 71) or cochlear implants (n = 30). They completed standardized assessments of PA, receptive vocabulary, letter knowledge, word and non-word reading, passage comprehension, math reasoning, and nonverbal cognitive ability. Multiple regressions revealed that PA (assessed using judgments of similarity based on words’ initial or final sounds) made a significant, independent contribution to children’s early reading ability (for both letters and words/non-words) after controlling for variation in receptive vocabulary, nonverbal cognitive ability, and a range of demographic variables (including gender, degree of hearing loss, communication mode, type of sensory device, age at fitting of sensory devices, and level of maternal education). Importantly, the relationship between PA and reading was specific to reading and did not generalize to another academic ability, math reasoning. Additional multiple regressions showed that letter knowledge (names or sounds) was superior in children whose mothers had undertaken post-secondary education, and that better receptive vocabulary was associated with less severe hearing loss, use of a cochlear implant, and earlier age at implant switch-on. Earlier fitting of hearing aids or cochlear implants was not, however, significantly associated with better PA or reading outcomes in this cohort of children, most of whom were fitted with sensory devices before 3 years of age. PMID:24563553

  12. Treatment outcome after neonatal cleft lip repair in 5-year-old children with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Košková, Olga; Vokurková, Jitka; Vokurka, Jan; Bryšova, Alena; Šenovský, Pavel; Čefelínová, Julie; Lukášová, Darina; Dorociaková, Petra; Abelovský, Juraj

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess speech outcomes and dental arch relationship of 5-year-old Czech patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) who have undergone neonatal cleft lip repair and one-stage palatal closure. Twenty-three patients with UCLP, born between 2009 and 2010, were included in the study. Three universal speech parameters (hypernasality, articulation and speech intelligibility) have been devised for speech recordings evaluation. Outcomes of dental arch relationship were evaluated by applying the GOSLON Yardstick and subsequently compared with the GOSLON outcome of other cleft centers. Moderate hypernasality was present in most cases, the mean value for articulation and speech intelligibility was 2.07 and 1.93, respectively. The Kappa values for inter-examiner agreement for all the three speech outcomes ranged from 0.786 to 0.808. Sixty-three percent of patients were scored GOSLON 1 and 2, 26% GOSLON 3, and 10% GOSLON 4. GOSLON mean score was 2.35. Interrater agreement was very good, represented by kappa value of 0.867. The treatment protocol, involving neonatal cleft lip repair and one-stage palatal repair performed up to the first year of UCLP patient's life, has shown good speech outcomes and produced very good treatment results in regard to maxillary growth, comparable with other cleft centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cultural Difference in Conflict Management Strategies of Children and Its Development: Comparing 3- and 5-Year-Olds Across China, Japan, and Korea

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which strategy children would prefer to use in 2 hypothetical conflict situations. Results indicated that, first, for disagreement, 3-year-olds in the 3 countries equally preferred the dominating strategy. For competition for resources, 3-year-olds differed in their strategy preference across all cultures. Second, the observed strategy preference of 3- to 5-year-old children in this study was more or less different from that of older schoolchildren, regardless of culture. Practice or Policy: These findings suggest the significance of the context, the complexity of the phenomenon of the development of cultural differences, and the significance of cohort sampling. PMID:26430351

  14. Primary care physicians' knowledge of and confidence in their referrals for special education services in 3- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Elizabeth A; Lumeng, Julie C; Clark, Sarah J

    2014-02-01

    Children 3 to 5 years old with developmental delays are eligible for special education services. To assess primary care physicians' (PCPs) knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their referrals to the special education system on behalf of children 3 to 5 years old. Mail survey of 400 office-based general pediatricians and 414 family physicians in Michigan, fielded in fall 2012 and winter 2013, with a response rate of 44%. The 4-page survey included knowledge questions about special education eligibility, PCPs' role in accessing school-based services, and self-confidence in ability to help patients access these services. PCPs neither fully understood requirements for special education services nor were they very confident in identifying 3- to 5-year-old children eligible for special education services. PCPs recognize interacting with special education as a relative weakness, and they may be accepting of interventions to improve their knowledge and skills.

  15. Relations between Mother-Child Talk and 3- to 5-Year-Old Children's Understanding of Belief: Beyond Mental State Terms to Talk about the Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, William; Carpendale, Jeremy I. M.; Racine, Timothy P.

    2008-01-01

    In relating parent-child conversation to children's social cognitive development, we examined how mother-child dyads talked about the psychological world. Seventy mothers and their 3- to 5-year-old children made up a story about a series of pictures depicting a sequence of events involving a false belief. Mother-child talk was coded for the use of…

  16. [Investigation of norovirus infection incidence among 0-5 years old children with acute gastroenteritis admitted to two different hospitals in ankara, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altay, Aylin; Bozdayı, Gülendam; Meral, Melda; Dallar Bilge, Yıldız; Dalgıç, Buket; Ozkan, Seçil; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2013-01-01

    Norovirus causes severe gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization especially in children less than five years of age both in developed and developing countries. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence of norovirus (NoV) in 0-5 years old children with acute gastroenteritis in two large hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Stool samples were obtained from 1000 (413 female, 587 male) children between 0-5 years old with acute gastroenteritis who attended to the Department of Paediatrics, Ministry of Health Ankara Training and Education Hospital and affiliated hospital of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine between October 2004 and June 2011. Antigens of norovirus GI and GII genogroups in the stool specimens were detected by ELISA (RIDASCREEN® Norovirus (C1401) 3rd Generation, R-Biopharm, Germany). Norovirus GI and GII antigens were determined in a total of 141 (14.1%) samples, of them 62 (15%) were female and 79 (13.5%) were male, yielding no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05). The highest NoV positivity was detected in children between 12-23 months (17.1%), however there was no statistically significant difference between ELISA positivity and age (p> 0.05). NoV detection rate was highest in 2007 (18.4%) and in 2009 (18%), and the difference regarding ELISA positivity among the study years was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). The prevalences of norovirus infection in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 13.8%, 17.7%, 14.7% and 11.2%, respectively. Therefore no seasonal variation was found in the incidence of norovirus infection. However when the monthly prevalence was analyzed, a statistically significant difference was found (p< 0.05) between the rate of norovirus infection in july (24.2%) and december (4.1%). When evaluating the clinical symptoms, all of 141 patients (100%) had diarrhoea, while 72 (51.1%) had vomiting. Stool samples were also evaluated for the presence of parasitic and bacterial agents. Coinfection rate with parasites was

  17. The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Head Start, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a revision of the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework (2000), renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old. The Framework outlines the essential areas of development and learning that are to be used by Head Start programs…

  18. [Status of malnutrition and its influencing factors in children under 5 years old in Guangnan District of Yunnan Province in 2009 - 2010].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Chen, Shengwen; Wan, Rong; Lu, Tao; Wang, Zhu; Zheng, Keqin

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the status of malnutrition and its influencing factors in children under 5 years old in Guangnan District of Yunnan Province in 2009 - 2010. By the random cluster sampling and stratified sampling methods, 1002 children within 5 years old in rural areas were selected from poverty-stricken counties in Yunnan Province. The questionnaire survey including questionnaire, anthropometric measurement and dietary survey such as height and weight were used respectively for the survey. Z score was used for evaluating the nutritional status. The prevalence of malnutrition was calculated by statistics software. Multiple factors analysis was finished by non condition Logistic regression in software. During 2009 - 2010, of all children under the age of 5 years old, the underweight rate is 18.8%, stunted growth rate is 34.3% and emaciation rate is 3.1% in impoverished rural area of Yunnan Province. Removing other variables, the result indicated: (1) Comparing with these children under 2 years old who are provided with breastfeeding, the children under 2 years old who are not given breastfeeding are more possible to get malnutrition. (2) The children under 2 years old who were added more vegetable and fruit supplement are less possible to get malnutrition than those children who were added less vegetable and fruit supplement during the past 7 days. (3) The children under 2 years old with good conditions are less possible to get malnutrition than the children with normal conditions or bad conditions. Malnutrition in children under 5 years old in pour rural areas of Yunnan province should not be ignored. The main influencing factors of children malnutrition include feeding ways, increasing supplementary food, and the conditions compared with other children under 2 years old.

  19. Challenges of Transarticular Screw Fixation in Young Children: Report of Surgical Treatment of a 5-Year-Old Patient's Unstable Os-Odontoideum

    PubMed Central

    Hirabayashi, Hiroki; Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Komatsu, Masatoshi; Inaba, Yuji; Kosho, Tomoki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Surgical procedures for atlantoaxial (C1–C2) fusion in young children are relatively uncommon. The purpose of this study was to report on a surgical treatment for a case of atlantoaxial instability caused by os-odontoideum in association with quadriparesis and respiratory paralysis in a 5-year-old girl. We present the patient's history, physical examination, and radiographic findings, describe the surgical treatment and a five year follow-up, and provide a literature review. The instability was treated by halo immobilization, followed by C1–C2 transarticular screw fixation using a computed tomography-based navigation system. At the five year follow-up, the patient had made a complete recovery with solid union. The authors conclude that C1–2 transarticular screw fixation is technically possible as in a case of atlantoaxial instability in a five-year-old child. PMID:27790327

  20. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  1. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  2. [Prevalence of hepatitis B infection in children under 5 years old on indigenous communities of the Peruvian Amazonia after immunization interventions].

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Sánchez, César; Trujillo-Villarroel, Omar; Zavaleta-Cortijo, Carol; Culqui-Lévano, Dante; Suarez-Jara, Magna; Cueva-Maza, Neptalí; Monzon, Shirley

    2014-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HVB) infection and seroprotection in indigenous children living in three draining basins of the Peruvian Amazon. A cross sectional study was conducted in three draining basins (Pastaza, Morona and Lower Urubamba rivers), home to six indigenous populations: shapra, candoshi, machiguenga, yine, ashaninka and nanti. Children under 5 years were included. A survey and review of the vaccination card was applied, and a serum sample was processed with ELISA for HBsAg, total anti-HBc and anti-HBs was obtained, defining "seroprotected children" if they were reactive to anti-HBs and non-reactive to anti-HBc. A total of 742 children under 5 years old residents in six indigenous communities were included in the study. 380 (51.2%) were male and 169 (22.9%) one year old or younger. Regarding recorded HVB vaccination on the card, only 434 (58.5%) had received three doses; 208 (38.8%) received the first dose within 24 hours. No cases were detected with HBsAg. 88.8% of children had seroconverted, varying between 67-100% across the populations. No cases of chronic HBV infection were detected. The vaccination coverage by card revision is low, contrasting with high seroconversion rates.

  3. Emotional, physical, and social needs among 0-5-year-old children displaced by the 2010 Chilean earthquake: associated characteristics and exposures.

    PubMed

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Murray, Kara A; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Arriet, Felipe; Moraga, Cecilia; Vega, Miguel Angel Cordero

    2017-04-01

    An 8.8-magnitude earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010, displacing nearly 2,000 children aged less than five years to emergency housing camps. Nine months later, this study assessed the needs of 140 displaced 0-5-year-old children in six domains: caregiver stability and protection; health; housing; nutrition; psychosocial situation; and stimulation. Multivariate regression was applied to examine the degree to which emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with baseline characteristics and exposure to the earthquake, to stressful events, and to ongoing risks in the proximal post-earthquake context. In each domain, 20 per cent or fewer children had unmet needs. Of all children in the sample, 20 per cent had unmet needs in multiple domains. Children's emotional, physical, and social needs were associated with ongoing exposures amenable to intervention, more than with baseline characteristics or epicentre proximity. Relief efforts should address multiple interrelated domains of child well-being and ongoing risks in post-disaster settings.

  4. Prevalence of dental caries in 5-year-old Greek children and the use of dental services: evaluation of socioeconomic, behavioural factors and living conditions.

    PubMed

    Mantonanaki, Magdalini; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Papaioannou, William

    2013-04-01

    To assess dental caries and use of dental services experience in 5-year-old children attending public kindergartens in Attica, Greece and to examine the influence of certain socioeconomic factors and living conditions as well as dental behaviours and attitudes. In this cross-sectional study, a random and stratified sample of 605 Greek children was examined using decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces and simplified debris indices. The use of dental services was measured by children's dental visits (any dental visit up to the age of 5 years). Care Index was also calculated. Risk indicators were assessed by a questionnaire. Zero-inflated Poisson and Logistic Regression Analysis were generated to test statistical significant associations. The prevalence of dental caries was 16.5%. Care Index was 32% and dental visits were reported for the 84% of the children. Medium Socio-Economic Level (SEL) was associated with no detectable caries. High SEL was related to decreased decayed, missing, filled teeth values, while female gender and rented houses had the opposite effect. The age of the mother (35-39 years) and the higher SEL were related to higher levels of dental services use. It is suggested that there are differences in the experience of dental caries and use of dental services among preschool children in Attica, which are related to demographic, socioeconomic factors and living conditions. Dental public polices should focus on groups with specific characteristics in order to improve oral health levels of disease-susceptible populations. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Risk of Overweight among 3-to 5-Year-Old Chicago Children, 2002-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Maryann; Meleedy-Rey, Patricia; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Longjohn, Matt; Garcia, Myrna P.; Ashlaw, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the first estimates of overweight prevalence in Chicago children entering school (aged 3-5 years). Chicago data are compared with those from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). Data were from 2 separate convenience samples of children aged 3-5 years…

  6. The Acquisition of Speech Rhythm by Bilingual Spanish- and English-Speaking 4- and 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Ingram, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated speech rhythm acquisition by bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, comparing their performance with functionally monolingual peers in both languages and to monolingual and bilingual adults. Method: Participants included younger children (3;9 [years;months] to 4;5.15 [years;months.days]),…

  7. Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries Among 2- to 5-year-old Preschoolers in Kindergartens of Weifang City, China: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying-Ying

    To assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in 2- to 5-year-old preschool children in Weifang City, China, and to investigate the factors related to this condition. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 2829 children (2-5 years old, including 1601 boys and 1228 girls) in twenty kindergartens in Weifang City, China, in 2014. These children were selected via cluster sampling. First, the percentages of ECC and severe ECC (S-ECC) as well as the mean dmft were compared between different genders and ages, and the tooth distribution pattern of ECC was analysed. Meanwhile, the information regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices was collected by a questionnaire with 14 questions to evaluate their relationships with the percentages of ECC and S-ECC as well as the mean dmft. The chi-squared test, t-test and one-way ANOVA were conducted to evaluate the significant differences. The ECC prevalence of the preschoolers was 53.3%, and the mean dmft was 2.12 ± 2.56. 71.4% of the 1509 children with ECC were identified as S-ECC. Not only the percentages of ECC and S-ECC but also the mean dmft differed statistically significantly according to gender and age (p < 0.05). Furthermore, caries was most common in primary maxillary central incisors. Feeding and oral hygiene practices were shown to be the significant determining factors for caries. The oral health status of children living in Weifang is very poor. Appropriate strategies must be implemented to promote oral health early on by improving feeding and oral hygiene practices.

  8. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Struijk, Mirjam K; Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Renders, Carry M; Bulk-Bunschoten, Anneke Mw; Hirasing, Remy A; Raat, Hein

    2009-06-08

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised within 9 Municipal Health Services. The teams are randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The teams measure the weight and height of all children. When a child in the intervention group is detected with overweight according to the international age and gender specific cut-off points of BMI, the prevention protocol is applied. According to this protocol parents of overweight children are invited for up to three counselling sessions during which they receive personal advice about a healthy lifestyle, and are motivated for and assisted in behavioural change.The primary outcome measures are Body Mass Index and waist circumference of the children. Parents will complete questionnaires to assess secondary outcome measures: levels of overweight inducing/reducing behaviours (i.e. being physically active, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages and watching television/playing computer games), parenting styles, parenting practices, and attitudes of parents regarding these behaviours, health-related quality of life of the children, and possible negative side effects of the prevention protocol. Data will be collected at baseline (when the children are aged 5 years), and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Additionally, a process and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. In this study called 'Be active, eat right' we evaluate an overweight prevention protocol for use in the setting of Youth Health Care. It is hypothesized that the use of this protocol will result in a healthier lifestyle of the

  9. Development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for sapovirus in children under 5-years-old in Regina Margherita Hospital of Turin, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Brusin, Martina Rosa; Finotti, Serena; Paderi, Giulia; Gabiano, Clara

    2017-04-01

    Gastroenteritis is a common disease in children. It is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. Sapovirus (SaV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis, but it causes milder illness than do rotavirus and norovirus. There is high variability in the analytical performance of quantitative PCR-based assays among clinical laboratories. This study developed a reverse transcription real-time PCR method to detect SaV in fecal specimens collected from children under 5-years-old with acute gastroenteritis. Of 137 episodes of acute gastroenteritis, 15 (10.9%) were associated with SaV genomic detection, with a median viral load of 6.6(log10) ± 7.1(log10) genomes/mg fecal specimens. There was a significant difference in detection rate between males and females (9.48% (13/15) vs. 1.46% (2/15), p = 0.0232). Among the 15 SaV-positive cases, 6 were also positive for rotavirus. Viral RNA recovery rate ranged from 46% to 77% in the manual RNAzol protocol and from 31% to 90% in the automated Maxwell protocol. We also studied whether human genomic DNA influences the sensitivity of the assay: its presence caused a decrease in PCR sensitivity. The development of a laboratory-designed real-time PCR TaqMan assay for quantitative detection of SaV and the optimization and standardization of this assay, using stools of children with acute gastroenteritis, are described.

  10. Associations between sport and screen-entertainment with mental health problems in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the benefits of regular physical activity, and risks of sedentary behaviour, in young children. This study investigated associations between participation in sports and screen-entertainment (as components of physical activity and sedentary behaviour), and emotional and behavioural problems in this population. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from 13470 children (50.9% boys) participating in the nationally representative UK Millennium Cohort Study. Time spent participating in sports clubs outside of school, and using screen-entertainment, was reported by the child's mother at child age 5 years, when mental health was also measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results 45% of children did not participate in sport clubs and 61% used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day. Children who participated in sport had fewer total difficulties; emotional, conduct, hyperactivity-inattention and peer relationship problems; and more prosocial behaviours. These relationships were similar in boys and girls. Boys and girls who used screen-entertainment for any duration, and participated in sport, had fewer emotional and behavioural problems, and more prosocial behaviours, than children who used screen-entertainment for ≥ 2 hours per day and did not participate in sport. Conclusions Longer durations of screen-entertainment usage are not associated with mental health problems in young children. However, our findings suggest an association between sport and better mental health. Further research based on longitudinal data is required to examine causal pathways in these associations and to determine the potential role of this and other forms of physical activity in preventing mental health disorders. PMID:20409310

  11. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children's construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Sandra R; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children's reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children's reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds' reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children's books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children's books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children's attention to a biological model.

  12. The Influence of Parental Socioeconomic Background and Gender on Self-Regulation among 5-Year-Old Children in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Størksen, Ingunn; Ellingsen, Ingunn T.; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Self-regulation in young children predicts later social adjustment and academic success across cultural contexts. Therefore, it is crucial to identify factors that promote or inhibit behavioral self-regulation skills. In this study, we focus on gender and socioeconomic status (SES; parental education and income) as possible…

  13. The Influence of Parental Socioeconomic Background and Gender on Self-Regulation among 5-Year-Old Children in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Størksen, Ingunn; Ellingsen, Ingunn T.; Wanless, Shannon B.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Self-regulation in young children predicts later social adjustment and academic success across cultural contexts. Therefore, it is crucial to identify factors that promote or inhibit behavioral self-regulation skills. In this study, we focus on gender and socioeconomic status (SES; parental education and income) as possible…

  14. The relationship between motor performance and parent-rated executive functioning in 3- to 5-year-old children: What is the role of confounding variables?

    PubMed

    Houwen, Suzanne; van der Veer, Gerda; Visser, Jan; Cantell, Marja

    2017-01-30

    It is generally agreed that motor performance and executive functioning (EF) are intertwined. As the literature on this issue concerning preschool children is scarce, we examined the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children with different levels of motor skill proficiency, while controlling for age, gender, socio-economic status (SES), and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. EF was reported by parents of 153 children (mean age 4years 1months, SD 8months; 75 male) by means of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Parent-reported ADHD symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity-Inattention subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire3-4. In addition, the children performed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2). Several weak to moderate relationships were found between the MABC-2 Total Score and the EF subscales. Once other variables such as age, gender, SES, and ADHD symptomatology were taken into account, the only BRIEF-P subscale that was associated with the MABC-2 Total Score was the Working Memory subscale. Compared to their typically developing peers, children who are at risk for motor coordination difficulties (⩽the 16th percentile on the MABC-2) performed poorly on the Working Memory subscale, which confirms the results of the regression analyses. The at risk group also performed significantly worse on the Planning/Organize subscale, however. This is one of the first studies investigating the relationship between motor performance and parent-rated EF in such a young age group. It shows that the relationship between motor performance and EF in young children is complex and may be influenced by the presence of confounding variables such as ADHD symptomatology.

  15. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Falgreen Eriksen, H-L; Mortensen, E L; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, U S

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Prospective follow-up study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child's age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. The WPPSI-R. No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2-18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4-24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  16. Early risk predictors for impaired numerical skills in 5-year-old children born before 32 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Ralser, Elisabeth; Pupp Peglow, Ulrike; Pehboeck-Walser, Nicola; Fussenegger, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To unravel risk predictors for impaired numerical skills at 5 years of age in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Between January 2003 and August 2006, we prospectively enrolled all infants born in Tyrol with <32 weeks of gestation. A total of 161 of 223 preterm infants (participation rate 72.2%) had a detailed examination at 5 years of age including cognitive assessment (Hannover-Wechsler Intelligence Test for preschool children, third edition (HAWIVA-III) or Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test (SON-R)). In 135 children, numerical abilities were assessed with the dyscalculia test TEDI-MATH. The association between pre- and postnatal factors and impaired numerical skills was analyzed by means of logistic regression analysis. Dyscalculia test showed delayed numerical skills (TEDI-MATH Sum T-score <40) in 27 of 135 children tested (20.0%). In half of the children tested, delayed numerical abilities were related to lower IQ scores. Smoking in pregnancy, intracerebral haemorrhage and chronic lung disease were predictive of delayed numerical skills at 5 years of age in the multivariate analysis. This study identified risk predictors for impaired numerical skills in preterm infants. Our data support the role of both pre- and perinatal factors in the evolution of mathematical deficits. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  17. Which adaptive maternal eating behaviors predict child feeding practices? An examination with mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Eneli, Ihuoma U; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have started to explore the detrimental impact of maladaptive maternal eating behaviors on child feeding practices. However, identifying which adaptive maternal eating behaviors contribute to lower use of negative and higher use of positive child feeding practices remains unexamined. The present study explored this link with 180 mothers of 2- to 5-year-old children. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for recruitment venue and maternal demographic characteristics, i.e., age, education, ethnicity, and body mass index) examined mothers' intuitive eating and eating competence as predictors of four feeding practices (restriction, monitoring, pressure to eat, and dividing feeding responsibilities with their child). Mothers who gave themselves unconditional permission to eat were less likely to restrict their child's food intake. Mothers who ate for physical (rather than emotional) reasons and had eating-related contextual skills (e.g., mindfulness when eating, planning regular and nutritious eating opportunities for themselves) were more likely to monitor their child's food intake. Mothers who had eating-related contextual skills were more likely to divide feeding responsibilities with their child. No maternal eating behavior predicted pressure to eat. Interventions to help mothers develop their eating-related contextual skills and eat intuitively, in particular, may translate into a more positive feeding environment for their young children.

  18. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  19. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Guxens, Mònica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T; Huss, Anke

    2013-05-01

    A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed the association between maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and teacher-reported and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 5. The study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a population-based birth cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2003-2004). Teachers and mothers reported child behaviour problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 5. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy was asked when children were 7 years old. A total of 2618 children were included. As compared to non-users, those exposed to prenatal cell phone use showed an increased but non-significant association of having teacher-reported overall behaviour problems, although without dose-response relationship with the number of calls (OR=2.12 (95% CI 0.95 to 4.74) for <1 call/day, OR=1.58 (95% CI 0.69 to 3.60) for 1-4 calls/day and OR=2.04 (95% CI 0.86 to 4.80) for ≥5 calls/day). ORs for having teacher-reported overall behaviour problems across categories of cordless phone use were below 1 or close to unity. Associations of maternal cell phone and cordless phone use with maternal-reported overall behaviour problems remained non-significant. Non-significant associations were found for the specific behaviour problem subscales. Our results do not suggest that maternal cell phone or cordless phone use during pregnancy increases the odds of behaviour problems in their children.

  20. Prenatal exposure to air toxics and risk of Wilms’ tumor in 0-5 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Anshu; Ritz, Beate; Wilhelm, Michelle; Qiu, Jiaheng; Cockburn, Myles; Heck, Julia E

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study prenatal air toxics exposure and Wilms’ tumor in children. Methods We identified 337 Wilms’ tumor cases among children <6 years (1988-2008) from the California Cancer Registry, randomly selected 96,514 controls from California birth rolls in 20:1 ratio matched to all cancer cases, then linked birth addresses to air monitors within 15 miles to assess exposures. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to estimate effects. Results Children prenatally exposed to formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perchloroethylene, or acetaldehyde in the third trimester had an increased odds of Wilms’ tumor per interquartile increase in concentration (OR [95%CI]: 1.28 [1.12, 1.45], 1.10 [0.99, 1.22], 1.09 [1.00, 1.18], 1.25 [1.07, 1.45] respectively). Conclusions We found positive associations for four air toxics. This is the first study of this kind. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24854250

  1. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2–5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p < 0.01) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p < 0.001). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics. PMID:26199741

  2. Targeting Feeding and Eating Behaviors: Development of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention for Caregivers of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Hummel, Jessica; Ritter, Jan; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    Targeting feeding dynamics, a concept centered on the roles and interaction of the caregiver and child in a feeding relationship, may have significant potential for obesity intervention. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3-phase development of the Feeding Dynamics Intervention (FDI), an acceptability and feasibility study on implementing the feeding dynamic roles (Study 1), development of the FDI content (Study 2), and a pilot study on use of the 6-lesson FDI to promote behaviors consistent with a feeding dynamic approach (Study 3). Sample population was mothers with young children, 2-5 years old. An effect size (Hedges' g) greater than 0.20 was seen in more than half (57%) of maternal feeding behaviors, with the largest effect sizes (Hedges' g ≥ 0.8) occurring with behaviors that represent the mother adopting her roles of determining what food is served, not using food as a reward, and not controlling her child's intake. There was a significant decline in Pressure to Eat behaviors (2.9 versus 2.2, p < 0.01) and Monitoring (4.1 versus 3.5, p < 0.001). The FDI emerged as an acceptable and implementable intervention. Future studies need to investigate effects of the FDI on the child's eating behaviors, self-regulation of energy intake, and anthropometrics.

  3. Behaviour of 4- to 5-year-old nondisabled ELBW children: Outcomes following group-based physiotherapy intervention.

    PubMed

    Brown, L; Burns, Y R; Watter, P; Gray, P H; Gibbons, K S

    2017-07-28

    Extreme prematurity or extremely low birth weight (ELBW) can adversely affect behaviour. Nondisabled ELBW children are at risk of behavioural problems, which may become a particular concern after commencement of formal education. This study explored the frequency of behavioural and emotional problems amongst nondisabled ELBW children at 4 to 5 years of age and whether intervention had a positive influence on behaviour. The relationship between behaviour, gender, and other areas of performance at 5 years was explored. Fifty 4-year-old children (born <28 weeks gestation or birth weight <1,000 g) with minimal/mild motor impairment were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 24) or standard care (n = 26). Intervention was 6 group-based physiotherapy weekly sessions and home programme. Standard care was best practice advice. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for preschool children was completed at baseline and at 1-year post-baseline. Other measures at follow-up included Movement Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition, Beery Visual-Motor Integration Test 5th Edition, and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 4th Edition. The whole cohort improved on CBCL total problems score between baseline (mean 50.0, SD 11.1) and 1-year follow-up (mean 45.2, SD 10.3), p = .004. There were no significant differences between groups over time on CBCL internalizing, externalizing, or total problems scores. The intervention group showed a mean difference in total problems score of -3.8 (CI [1.5, 9.1]) between times, with standard care group values being -4.4 (CI [1.6, 7.1]). Males had higher total problems scores than females (p = .026), although still performed within the "normal" range. CBCL scores did not correlate with other scores. The behaviour of nondisabled ELBW children was within the "normal" range at 4 to 5 years, and both intervention and standard care may have contributed to improved behavioural outcomes. Behaviour was not related to performance in other

  4. Longitudinal evaluation of 100% fruit juice consumption on BMI status in 2-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Shefferly, A; Scharf, R J; DeBoer, M D

    2016-06-01

    Obesity in childhood is related to multiple lifestyle factors. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between consumption of 100% fruit juice and weight status over time among pre-school children. We used linear and logistic multivariable regression to evaluate body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obese status as a function of 100% fruit juice intake for 8950 children examined at ages 2, 4 and 5 years as part of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a representative sample of the United States. Cross-sectional analysis at ages 4 and 5 years showed no difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity between consistent juice drinkers and inconsistent/non-drinkers. Longitudinal analysis found that children who drank 100% juice consistently at age 2 years had greater increases in BMI z-score by age 4 years than infrequent/non-drinkers (P < 0.0001), a difference driven by lesser increases in height z-score (P = 0.0003) and slightly greater increases in weight z-score (P = 0.0550) among consistent juice drinkers over the 2 to 4 year time period. Additionally, consistent juice drinkers at age 2 had higher odds of becoming overweight by age 4 (adjusted odds ratio 1.30; CI 1.06-1.60). These differences in growth parameters were not noted between ages 4 and 5 years. Drinking 100% fruit juice regularly at age 2 is associated with higher odds of becoming overweight between 2 and 4 years. Paediatricians and parents can discourage excessive fruit juice consumption as part of a larger effort to avoid unhealthy gain in BMI in young children. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Creating Child-Centered Classrooms: 3-5 Year Olds. Step By Step: A Program for Children and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Pamela A.; Hansen, Kristen A.; Heller, Dinah; Kaufmann, Roxane K.; Stolberg, Judith Rothschild; Walsh, Kate Burke

    In child-centered education programs, children construct their own knowledge from their experiences and interactions with the world around them, and teachers foster children's growth and development by building on children's interests, needs, and strengths within a safe and caring environment. The Step by Step educational program developed a…

  6. Impact of sentence length and phonetic complexity on intelligibility of 5 year old children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Kristen; Hustad, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced speech intelligibility is a barrier to effective communication for many children with cerebral palsy (CP). Many variables may impact intelligibility, yet little research attention has sought to quantify these variables. Aims We examined the influence of sentence characteristics on intelligibility in two groups of children with CP (those with and without dysarthria) and typically-developing children. Questions addressed effects of sentence length on transcription intelligibility among groups; effects of phonetic complexity on intelligibility; and differences in the relationship between sentence characteristics and intelligibility across individual children with dysarthria. Method & Procedures Speech samples varying in length from 2–7 words were elicited from 16 children with CP (mean age 59.6 months) and 8 typically developing children (mean age 59.8 months). 119 naïve listeners made orthographic transcriptions of the children’s sentence productions. Outcomes & Results Sentence length and phonetic complexity affected intelligibility for all groups of children, but had a greater impact on intelligibility for children with dysarthria than those without speech motor impairment. Variable relationships between sentence characteristics and intelligibility were found across individual children with dysarthria. Conclusions & Implications Results suggest that reducing both the length and phonetic complexity of utterances may enhance intelligibility for children with dysarthria. However, there may be important individual differences in the impact of one or both types of sentence characteristics. This highlights the importance of considering individual speech motor profiles when deciding on treatment strategies. PMID:24476542

  7. Gender inequality in food intake and nutritional status of children under 5 years old in rural Eastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ndiku, M; Jaceldo-Siegl, K; Singh, P; Sabaté, J

    2011-01-01

    Although gender inequality in nutritional status has been consistently reported in several parts of South Asia, in sub-Sahara Africa there is a paucity of data and conflicting conclusions. We conducted a study to assess if gender inequality in food intake and nutritional status is present in rural Eastern Kenya. This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted in the Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani region in Eastern Kenya, two rural districts where grains are the main contributor of energy intake. There were 629 children aged <60 months, randomly selected for participation in the study. Boys consistently had higher energy intakes than girls (P = 0.005). More girls were stunted, underweight and wasted 51.7%, (49.9-53.5), 32.1%, (30.4-33.7), 4.6%, (3.9-5.4) than boys 35.9% (34.2-37.7), 14.6% (13.4-15.9) and 1.2% (0.8-1.6), respectively, P < 0.001. Of the total, 24.6% (23.1-26.2) of the girls were severely stunted compared with boys 16.3% (15.0-17.7). Boys had higher Z-score indices (height-for-age (HAZ) = -1.33 ± 1.86, weight-for-age (WAZ) = -0.60 ± 1.53 and weight-for-height (WHZ) = 0.25 ± 1.23) than girls (HAZ = -2.02 ± 1.94, WAZ = -1.37 ± 1.27 and WHZ = -0.10 ± 1.49), all P < 0.001. The prevalence of malnutrition among children in rural Eastern Kenya is sizable. However, girls were more stunted, underweight and wasted than boys at all age categories due to their consistent lower food intake. Further research is needed to expose the social and cultural determinants underlying gender discrimination in intra-household allocation of food.

  8. Cultural Difference in Conflict Management Strategies of Children and Its Development: Comparing 3- and 5-Year-Olds across China, Japan, and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which…

  9. Cultural Difference in Conflict Management Strategies of Children and Its Development: Comparing 3- and 5-Year-Olds across China, Japan, and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Hiroki; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Takai, Jiro; Takahama, Yuko; Sakagami, Hiroko; Shibayama, Makoto; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Ninomiya, Katsumi; Hyang Ah, Park; Feng, Xiaoxia; Takatsuji, Chie; Hirose, Miwa; Kudo, Rei; Shima, Yoshihiro; Nakayama, Rumiko; Hamaie, Noriko; Zhang, Feng; Moriizumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the development of conflict management strategies, focusing on 3- and 5-year-olds, through a comparison of 3 neighboring Asian cultures, those of China (n = 114), Japan (n = 98), and Korea (n = 90). The dual concern model of conflict management was adopted to probe which…

  10. [Types of responses in 4-5-year-old children in conservation, classification, and theory of mind tasks].

    PubMed

    Sáiz Manzanares, María Consuelo; Carbonero-Martín, Miguel Ángel; Flores Lucas, Valle

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzes the type of responses that children between 4 and 5 years of age give to different tasks: conservation, classification and tasks of the theory of mind (ToM). Types of responses were observed with the Observation of Cognitive and Meta-cognitive Skills Inventory, which identifies: attention, receptive and expressive language, planning processes, and meta-cognitive processes. Significant differences were found according to the variable age in: (a) the use of attentional strategies in performance of ToM tasks, (b) the use of receptive and expressive language in the performance of all tasks, (c) the use of planning processes in the performance of conservation tasks; and (d) the use of meta-cognitive processes to solve ToM tasks.

  11. Examining anticipatory turn signaling in typically developing 4- and 5-year-old children for applications in active orthotic devices.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Leia; Weatherly, Jake

    2013-03-01

    To develop active pediatric orthotics, it is important to accurately predict alterations to a straight path, such as turns. In this study we examine anticipatory signals prior to a pre-defined turn in seven healthy children. Subjects walked along a predefined 4.25m straight path and then made either a 40-degree turn left or right, or continued straight based on a pre-set color panel at the endpoint. The forward center of mass (COM) velocity for the stride prior to the turn region was 1.16±0.22m/s (no significant difference was seen with respect to turn direction, p>0.05). In the stride prior to landing in the turn region, subjects showed a significant difference in the mediolateral COM velocity with respect to the turn direction (p=0.003 for 30% and p<0.0005 for 40-100% of the gait cycle). No significant differences were observed in the sagittal plane kinematics of the hip, knee, or ankle during the preparatory stride with respect to turn direction (p>0.05) when compared at 10% gait increments. However, significant differences were observed in pelvic rotation for 10-30% (p<0.05) and 70-100% (p<0.0005) of the gait cycle. The subjects were inconsistent in strategy used to perform a turn. In trials to the left and right, 66% and 56% of the trials were step turns, respectively. The varying turn strategy may be a function of limited instructions provided to the child, or ongoing development in the children's COM control. Yet even with the varying strategies, there exist anticipatory signals that can be used to design real-time controllers for assistive devices with readily available sensor systems.

  12. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

  13. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…

  14. Estimated Risk of Developing Selected DSM-IV Disorders among 5-Year-Old Children with Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Connie E.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Manjunath, Sudha; Culbertson, Jan L.; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated childhood risk of developing selected DSM-IV Disorders, including Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD), in children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Children were enrolled prospectively at birth (n = 476) with prenatal drug exposures documented…

  15. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

  16. Odontogenic keratocyst in a 5-year-old child: a rare cause of maxillary swelling in children.

    PubMed

    Smith, I M; Harvey, N; Logan, R M; David, D J; Anderson, P J

    2008-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts in children are uncommon. They are cysts of the jaws that have a tendency for recurrence and are usually seen in adults. We report an exceptionally rare case in a young child and discuss its management.

  17. 'Be active, eat right', evaluation of an overweight prevention protocol among 5-year-old children: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Lydian; Struijk, Mirjam K; Kroeze, Willemieke; Oenema, Anke; Renders, Carry M; Bulk-Bunschoten, Anneke MW; HiraSing, Remy A; Raat, Hein

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has at least doubled in the past 25 years with a major impact on health. In 2005 a prevention protocol was developed applicable within Youth Health Care. This study aims to assess the effects of this protocol on prevalence of overweight and health behaviour among children. Methods and design A cluster randomised controlled trial is conducted among 5-year-old children included by 44 Youth Health Care teams randomised within 9 Municipal Health Services. The teams are randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The teams measure the weight and height of all children. When a child in the intervention group is detected with overweight according to the international age and gender specific cut-off points of BMI, the prevention protocol is applied. According to this protocol parents of overweight children are invited for up to three counselling sessions during which they receive personal advice about a healthy lifestyle, and are motivated for and assisted in behavioural change. The primary outcome measures are Body Mass Index and waist circumference of the children. Parents will complete questionnaires to assess secondary outcome measures: levels of overweight inducing/reducing behaviours (i.e. being physically active, having breakfast, drinking sweet beverages and watching television/playing computer games), parenting styles, parenting practices, and attitudes of parents regarding these behaviours, health-related quality of life of the children, and possible negative side effects of the prevention protocol. Data will be collected at baseline (when the children are aged 5 years), and after 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Additionally, a process and a cost-effectiveness evaluation will be conducted. Discussion In this study called 'Be active, eat right' we evaluate an overweight prevention protocol for use in the setting of Youth Health Care. It is hypothesized that the use of this protocol will

  18. Examining nutrition among a sample of 3- to 5-year-old children living in rural Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Cory, Allison; Boyle, Kathryn; McClain, Natalie; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    The period of early childhood, defined as three to five years of age, is an important and distinct stage in childhood development. Changes in dietary patterns and composition of diets are exposing children in developing countries to over-nutrition as well as under-nutrition. To describe the nutritional status, dietary patterns, and socio-economic conditions of three to five-year-old children living in rural Jamaica. A convenience sample of 142 children was recruited over a three-year period. Height and weight measurements were collected. Household dietary patterns and socio-economic indicators were available from a small group (n = 6) of parents. Children experiencing both under-nutrition and over-nutrition were identified. Nine percent (n = 13) could be classified as moderately to severely under-nourished, and 6.9% (n = 10) classified as overweight. Frying was a common cooking method, and fruits and vegetables were eaten often. Economic and political changes may place children in developing countries at risk for over-nutrition as well as under-nutrition. The school setting may be an important place to address nutritional issues. This analysis describes the nutritional status of a sample of three to five-year-old children living in rural Jamaica and provides suggestions for future research.

  19. Health transitions in sub-Saharan Africa: overview of mortality trends in children under 5 years old (1950-2000).

    PubMed Central

    Garenne, Michel; Gakusi, Enéas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reconstruct and analyse mortality trends in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa between 1950 and 2000. METHODS: We selected 66 Demographic and Health Surveys and World Fertility Surveys from 32 African countries for analysis. Death rates were calculated by yearly periods for each survey. When several surveys were available for the same country, overlapping years were combined. Country-specific time series were analysed to identify periods of monotonic trends, whether declining, steady or increasing. We tested changes in trends using a linear logistic model. FINDINGS: A quarter of the countries studied had monotonic declining mortality trends: i.e. a smooth health transition. Another quarter had long-term declines with some minor rises over short periods of time. Eight countries had periods of major increases in mortality due to political or economic crises, and in seven countries mortality stopped declining for several years. In eight other countries mortality has risen in recent years as a result of paediatric AIDS. Reconstructed levels and trends were compared with other estimates made by international organizations, usually based on indirect methods. CONCLUSION: Overall, major progress in child survival was achieved in sub-Saharan Africa during the second half of the twentieth century. However, transition has occurred more slowly than expected, with an average decline of 1.8% per year. Additionally, transition was chaotic in many countries. The main causes of mortality increase were political instability, serious economic downturns, and emerging diseases. PMID:16799731

  20. A Case Study: Emergent Biliteracy in English and Chinese of a 5-Year-Old Chinese Child with Wordless Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ran; Commeyras, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the development of a 5-year-old child's language and literacy development in English and Chinese within a 10-week tutoring context where the primary materials were wordless picture books. Storytelling in English and Chinese were the primary activities in each session. Extended activities included labeling,…

  1. Evaluation of an oral health promotion program at the time of birth on dental caries in 5-year-old children in Vorarlberg, Austria.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Y; Greiner, S; Heinrich-Weltzien, R

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an early oral health promotion program (OHPP) on oral health of 5-year-old children in Austria by providing new mothers with dental health counseling. Qualified dental health educators visited all mothers at time after birth in regional hospitals in Vorarlberg and counseled them regarding the oral health of their children as a one-off intervention. Mothers were given comprehensive oral hygiene instructions for their children and themselves (daily use of fluoride toothpaste, restoration of own caries lesions), which included practical tooth brush training and dietary counseling by the use of brief motivational interviewing and anticipatory guidance approaches. After 5 years, a case-cohort study was conducted to evaluate the program with annual dental check-ups of 471 children and a parent survey. Dental caries was scored using WHO diagnostic criteria at dentine level without radiography. To compare oral health parameters (dmfs/dmft, care index), children were allocated to intervention and control group and matched on basis of age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status (SES) and analyzed statistically. Children whose mothers participated in the OHPP showed significantly lower caries prevalence and experience (33.2%; 3.2 ± 7.4 d3-4 mfs/1.5 ± 2.5 d3-4 mft) than children whose mothers did not participate (42.6%; 5.2 ± 6.4 d3-4 mfs/2.4 ± 4.1 d3-4 mft). Bivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, SES, age at which toothbrushing started, supervision of toothbrushing, use of fluoride salt, and use of fluoride toothpaste were significantly related to d3-4 mft. The OHPP was an effective community-based preventive approach for improving oral health in preschool children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

  3. Cryptosporidiosis Risk in New Zealand Children Under 5 Years Old is Greatest in Areas with High Dairy Cattle Densities.

    PubMed

    Lal, Aparna; Dobbins, Timothy; Bagheri, Nasser; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P; Hales, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The public health risks associated with dairy farming intensification are an emerging concern. We examine the association between dairy cattle density and cryptosporidiosis risk in children <5 years old in New Zealand from 1997 to 2008, a period of rapid intensification of the dairy industry. Multi-level Poisson regression was used to model reported cryptosporidiosis (N = 3869 cases) incidence in relation to dairy cattle densities across urban and rural areas separately, after controlling for microbiological quality of public drinking water supplies and neighbourhood socio-economic factors using the Census Area Unit of residence. Within urban areas, the risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old was significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density IRR 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. Within rural areas, the incidence risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old were significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density: IRR 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.3) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.5, 2.8) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. These results have public health implications for children living on and in proximity to intensively stocked dairy cattle farms.

  4. Predictors of Early Reading Skill in 5-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss Who Use Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the concurrent association between early reading skills and phonological awareness (PA), print knowledge, language, cognitive, and demographic variables in 101 five-Year-Old Children with prelingual hearing losses ranging from mild to profound who communicated primarily via spoken language. All participants were fitted…

  5. Identifying acceptability and price points for purchasing micronutrient powders for children 2 to 5 years old in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Gunnala, Rajni; Perrine, Cria G; Subedi, Giriraj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about purchasing micronutrient powders (MNP) for children 2-5 years. We describe acceptability for purchasing and price points for MNP for children 2-5 years among caregivers living in districts where free MNP are distributed for children 6-23 months. Crosssectional surveys conducted 3 months after MNP program implementation in 2 districts; 15 months after implementation in 2 different districts. Chi square tests and logistic regression describe associations among sociodemographics and program exposure factors and acceptability of purchasing MNP among 1,261 mothers of children 6-23 months who had heard of MNP. Overall, 77.5% and 86.1% of mothers reported acceptability for purchasing MNP in the 3 and 15 month surveys, respectively. Positive pricing attitude (PPA) about paying 150 Nepali rupees for 60 sachets of MNP was reported by 66.3% and 73.4% of mothers. Acceptability for purchasing MNP in both time periods increased with higher wealth quintile and higher maternal education; PPA increased with higher maternal education. Controlling for socio-demographics, program exposure factors associated with acceptability for purchasing MNP included: lack of perceived barriers to MNP intake and health worker counselling (3 month surveys); knowledge of benefits of MNP intake and lack of perceived barriers to MNP intake (15 month surveys). Mothers reported acceptability for purchasing MNP and PPA for older children in Nepal. Differences in acceptability were found across socio-demographics and program exposures. Use of these results and further exploration into actual purchasing behaviour can inform future MNP distribution methods in Nepal.

  6. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors in 5-year-old children: lifestyle patterns and their longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Stafleu, Annette; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; de Vries, Nanne K; Thijs, Carel

    2012-06-21

    This study identified lifestyle patterns by examining the clustering of eating routines (e.g. eating together as a family, having the television on during meals, duration of meals) and various activity-related behaviors (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary screen-based behavior) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association of these patterns with weight status (BMI and overweight) development up to age 8. Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (N = 2074 at age 5). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify lifestyle patterns. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the association of lifestyle patterns with parent and child background characteristics, as well as the longitudinal associations between the patterns and weight status development. Four lifestyle patterns emerged from the PCA: a 'Television-Snacking' pattern, a 'Sports-Computer' pattern, a 'Traditional Family' pattern, and a "Fast' Food' pattern. Child gender and parental educational level, working hours and body mass index were significantly associated with the scores for the patterns. The Television-Snacking pattern was positively associated with BMI (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.05; p < 0.05), and children with this pattern showed a positive tendency toward being overweight at age 8 (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, p = 0.06). In addition, the Sports-Computer pattern was significantly positively associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight at age 7 (OR = 1.28, p < 0.05). The current study showed the added value of including eating routines in cross-behavioral clustering analyses. The findings indicate that future interventions to prevent childhood overweight should address eating routines and activity/inactivity simultaneously, using the synergy between clustered behaviors (e.g. between television viewing and snacking).

  7. The effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on executive function in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Skogerbø, Å; Kesmodel, US; Wimberley, T; Støvring, H; Bertrand, J; Landrø, NI; Mortensen, EL

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy on children’s executive functions at the age of 5 years. Design Follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol drinking patterns during early pregnancy. When the children were 5 years old, the parent and teacher forms of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) were completed by the mothers and a preschool teacher. Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child’s age at testing, and the child’s gender were considered core confounding factors. The full model also included maternal binge drinking or low to moderate alcohol consumption, maternal age, parity, maternal marital status, family home environment, postnatal parental smoking, pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), and the health status of the child. Main outcome measures The BRIEF parent and teacher forms. Results Adjusted for all potential confounding factors, no statistically significant associations between maternal low to moderate average weekly consumption and BRIEF index scores were observed. In adjusted analyses, binge drinking in gestational week 9 or later was significantly associated with elevated Behavioural Regulation Index parent scores (OR 2.04, 95% CI 0.33–3.76), and with the risk of high scores on the Metacognitive Index assessed by the teacher (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.01–4.23). Conclusions This study did not observe significant effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on executive functioning at the age of 5 years. Furthermore, only weak and no consistent associations between maternal binge drinking and executive functions were observed. PMID:22712874

  8. Longitudinal Evaluation of 100% Fruit Juice Consumption on BMI Status in 2–5 Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Shefferly, Ann; Scharf, Rebecca J.; DeBoer, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity in childhood is related to multiple lifestyle factors. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between consumption of 100% fruit juice and weight status over time among preschool children. Methods We used linear and logistic multivariable regression to evaluate body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obese status as a function of 100% fruit juice intake for 8,950 children examined at ages 2, 4, and 5 years as part of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort, a representative sample of the United States. Results Cross-sectional analysis at ages 2, 4, and 5 years showed no difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity between consistent juice drinkers and inconsistent/non-drinkers. Longitudinal analysis found that children who drank 100% juice consistently at age 2 years had greater increases in BMI z-score by age 4 years than infrequent/non-drinkers (p<0.0001), a difference driven by lesser increases in height z-score (p=0.0003) and slightly greater increases in weight z-score (p=0.0550) among consistent juice drinkers over the 2 to 4 year time period. Additionally, consistent juice drinkers at age 2 had higher odds of becoming overweight by age 4 (adjusted odds ratio 1.30; CI 1.06–1.60). These differences in growth parameters were not noted between ages 4 and 5 years. Conclusions Drinking 100% fruit juice regularly at age 2 is associated with higher odds of becoming overweight between 2 and 4 years. Pediatricians and parents can discourage excessive fruit juice consumption as part of a larger effort to avoid unhealthy gain in BMI in young children. PMID:26110996

  9. Mass is more: The conceiving of (un)countability and its encoding into language in 5-year-old-children.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Chiara; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Lorusso, Riccardina; Franzon, Francesca

    2016-11-03

    Is the mass-count distinction merely a linguistic issue, or is it coded in representations other than language? We hypothesized that a difference between mass and count properties should be observed even in absence of linguistic distinctions driven by the morphosyntactic context. We tested 5-6-year-old children's ability to judge sentences with mass nouns (sand), count nouns (ring), and neutral nouns (i.e., those that appear in mass and count contexts with similar frequency; cake). Children refused neutral nouns embedded in uncountable morphosyntactic contexts, showing a preference for a count interpretation. This suggests that linguistic features alone are not sufficient to define the mass-count distinction. Additional analyses showed that children's performance with mass-but not count-morphosyntax correlated with their performance in tasks concerning logical and conservation operations. Altogether, these results suggest that the processing of mass features is not more demanding than count features from a linguistic point of view; rather, mass features entail additional abstraction abilities.

  10. The heterophoria of 3-5 year old children as a function of viewing distance and target type.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Mary E; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Peper, T J; Candy, T Rowan

    2017-01-01

    Heterophoria is the misalignment of the eyes in monocular viewing and represents the accuracy of vergence driven by all classical cues except disparity. It is challenging to assess restless children using clinical cover tests, and phoria in early childhood is poorly understood. Here we used eye tracking to assess phoria as a function of viewing distance and target in adults and young children, with comparison to clinical cover tests. Purkinje image tracking (MCS PowerRefractor) was used to record eye alignment in adults (19-28 years, N = 24) and typically developing children (3-5 years, N = 24). Objective unilateral and alternating cover tests were performed using an infrared filter while participants viewed a pseudo-randomised sequence of Lea symbols (0.18 logMAR; Snellen: 20/30 or 6/9) and animated cartoon movies at distances of 40 cm, 1 m, and 6 m. For the unilateral cover test, a 10 s binocular period preceded and followed 30 s of occlusion of the right eye. For the alternating cover test, a 10 s binocular period preceded and followed alternate covering of right and left eyes for 3-s each. Phoria was derived from the difference in weighted average binocular and monocular alignment. A masked prism-neutralised clinical cover test was performed for each of the conditions for comparison. Closer viewing distance resulted in greater exophoria for both children and adults (p < 0.001). Phorias were similar for adults and children for each viewing distance and target, with mean differences of less than 2 prism dioptres (pd). Overall, the average PowerRefractor phorias (pooled across protocols) for adults were 1.3, 2.3 and 3.8 pd exophoria and for children were 0.1 pd esophoria, 0.94 and 3.8 pd exophoria for the 6 m, 1 m and 40 cm distances respectively. The corresponding clinical cover test values were 0.7, 1.9, and 4.1 pd exophoria for adults and 0, 1.5 and 3.3 pd exophoria for the children. Refractive states were also similar (≤0.5 D difference) for viewing the Lea

  11. Energy balance-related behavioural patterns in 5-year-old children and the longitudinal association with weight status development in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Stafleu, Annette; Thijs, Carel

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined clustering of dietary intake and activity behaviours (i.e. physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour) in 5-year-old children, as well as the longitudinal association with BMI and overweight development. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify behavioural patterns. Backward regression analyses were used to examine the association of behavioural patterns with parent and child background characteristics, as well as the association of the patterns with BMI Z-score and overweight development up to ages 7 and 8 years. The Netherlands. Data originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study (n 2074 at age 5 years). Four patterns emerged: a 'sedentary-snacking' pattern (including television viewing and snack consumption), a 'healthy intake' pattern (including healthy items such as fruit, vegetables and fish), a 'sandwich' pattern (including bread and sandwich fillings) and a 'sporty-traditional meal' pattern (including sports, meat and potatoes). The patterns were related to child gender, general appetite and various parental characteristics. The sedentary-snacking pattern was positively associated with longitudinal BMI development. Cross-behavioural energy balance-related behavioural patterns exist at age 5 years. Different activity types (e.g. sports, television viewing) clustered differently with the behavioural patterns, indicating the need to incorporate these different types instead of one general PA measure in energy balance-related pattern analyses. The clustering and potential synergy between activity behaviours and dietary intake, as well as the associations with weight status development, stress the importance of an integrated approach to PA and healthy nutrition promotion in preventing childhood overweight.

  12. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children's prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called "game" where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception-no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children's social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors.

  13. An Embodiment Perspective on Number-Space Mapping in 3.5-year-old Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordende, Jaccoline E.; Volman, M(Chiel). J. M.; Leseman, Paul P. M.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that block adding, subtracting and counting direction are early forms of number-space mapping. In this study, an embodiment perspective on these skills was taken. Embodiment theory assumes that cognition emerges through sensory-motor interaction with the environment. In line with this assumption, it was investigated if…

  14. Cognitive and Emotional Control and Perspective Taking and Their Relations to Empathy in 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The experience of empathy has been described as involving both emotional and cognitive components. The primary hypothesis tested in this study is that cognition and emotion are integrated within 2 distinct types of abilities--control and perspective taking--and that interactions between emotional and cognitive control and between affective and…

  15. Cognitive and Emotional Control and Perspective Taking and Their Relations to Empathy in 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; O'Brien, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The experience of empathy has been described as involving both emotional and cognitive components. The primary hypothesis tested in this study is that cognition and emotion are integrated within 2 distinct types of abilities--control and perspective taking--and that interactions between emotional and cognitive control and between affective and…

  16. Malaria Parasitaemia and the use of insecticide-treated nets (INTs) for malaria control amongst under-5 year old children in Calabar, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwuafor, Anthony Achizie; Egwuatu, Chukwudi Charles; Nnachi, Agwu Ulu; Ita, Ita Okokon; Ogban, Godwin Ibitham; Akujobi, Comfort Nneka; Egwuatu, Tenny Obiageli

    2016-04-14

    Malaria remains a major cause of febrile illness in Nigeria and interventions to reduce malaria burden in Nigeria focus on the use of insecticide-treated nets. This study determined the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for the control of malaria amongst under-five year old children in Calabar, Nigeria. A total of 270 under-5 year old children were recruited and structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on the background characteristics of the respondents from their caregivers. Capillary blood samples were collected from each of the patients through finger-pricking and tested for malaria parasites by Rapid Diagnostic Test and microscopy. An overall parasitaemia prevalence of 32.2% (by Rapid diagnostic test kit [RDT]) and 40.1% (by microscopy) were obtained in this study. Forty-six (45.5%) of the febrile patients had malaria parasitaemia (by RDT) or 41 (59.4%) by microscopy. One hundred and fifty (55.6%) of the caregivers acknowledged the use of nets on doors and windows for malaria prevention and control. One hundred and thirty-nine (51.5%) mentioned sleeping under mosquito net while 138 (51.1%) acknowledged the use of insecticide sprays. Although 191 (71.5%) of the households possessed at least one mosquito net, only 25.4% of the under-5 children slept under any net the night before the survey. No statistically significant reduction in malaria parasitaemia was observed with the use of mosquito nets among the under-5 children. Almost all the respondents (97.8%) identified mosquito bite as the cause of malaria. Fever was identified by the majority of the respondents (92.2%) as the most common symptom of malaria. The findings of the study showed high prevalence of parasitaemia and that fever was significantly associated with malaria parasitaemia. Mosquito net utilization among the under-fives was low despite high net ownership rate by households. Therefore, for effective control of malaria, public health

  17. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5–3.5 year-olds with 5.5–6.5 year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children’s prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5–3.5 years of age and 5.5–6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called “game” where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception—no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5–3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5–6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children’s social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors. PMID:25729357

  18. Short duration of breast-feeding as a risk-factor for beta-cell autoantibodies in 5-year-old children from the general population.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Hanna; Wahlberg, Jeanette; Vaarala, Outi; Ludvigsson, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Breast-feeding has been suggested to have a protective effect against the development of type 1 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the relation between duration of breast-feeding and beta-cell autoantibodies in 5-year-old non-diabetic children who participated in a prospective population-based follow-up study (the All Babies in Southeast Sweden study). Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and the protein tryosine phosphatase-like IA-2 (IA-2A) were measured by radiobinding assays. A short duration of total breast-feeding was associated with an increased risk of GADA and/or IAA above the ninety-fifth percentile at 5 years of age (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.45, 3.02; P<0.000) as well as with an increased risk of IAA above the ninety-fifth percentile at this age (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.81, 4.62, P<0.000). A short duration of exclusive breast-feeding was associated with an increased risk of GADA, IAA and/or IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.08, 3.73; P=0.028) as well as with an increased risk of IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.38, 8.92, P=0.009) at 5 years of age. An early introduction of formula was associated with an increased risk of GADA, IAA and/or IA-2A above the ninety-ninth percentile (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.01, 3.37; P=0.047) at 5 years of age. The positive association between a short duration of both total and exclusive breast-feeding, as well as an early introduction of formula, and positivity for beta-cell autoantibodies in children from the general population suggest that breast-feeding modifies the risk of beta-cell autoimmunity, even years after finishing breast-feeding.

  19. Caries prevalence and patterns and their relationship to social class, infant feeding and oral hygiene in 4-5-year-old children in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, A; Dini, E L; Holt, R D; Bedi, R

    2002-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between social class, infant feeding, oral hygiene, and prevalence and patterns of caries in 4-5-year-old Jordanian children. Two-stage random sampling procedure was used to select children enrolled in kindergartens in Amman, Jordan. Clinical examinations were carried out by one examiner. Mothers completed questionnaires relating to social class, infant feeding and the oral hygiene habits of the children. Sixty-seven per cent of the children had caries; 30% had the more extensive pattern involving molars and incisors. When the significant variables were taken into account, age, social class, sleeping with the mother, use of comforter and confectionery at bed/night time were shown to be independent risk factors for caries experience. Bottle-feeding at nap/bed/night time was associated with caries in incisors and caries in incisors and/or canines. Never being breast-fed, being breast-fed for more than 18 months, being breast-fed at nap/bed/night time showed a negative association with caries confined to molars although this showed a positive association with the more extensive pattern of the disease. Education for mothers about appropriate breast and bottle-feeding practices should be considered in health promotion strategies.

  20. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  1. Viral etiology of respiratory infections in children under 5 years old living in tropical rural areas of Senegal: The EVIRA project.

    PubMed

    Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye; Diop, Ousmane M; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Goudiaby, Deborah; Malou-Sompy, Hubert; Ndiaye, Kader; Vabret, Astrid; Baril, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    Acute respiratory infection is one of the leading causes of child morbidity, especially in developing countries. Viruses are recognized as the predominant causative agents of acute respiratory infections. In Senegal, few data concerning the causes of respiratory infections are available, and those known relate mainly to classical influenza infections. Clinical and virological surveillance of acute respiratory infections was carried out in a rural community in children less than 5 years old. A standardized questionnaire was used and a nasopharyngeal swab sample was collected from each patient. These samples were tested for the detection of 20 respiratory viruses by multiplex RT-PCR or by viral culture. A total of 82 acute respiratory episodes were included, and 48 (58.5%) were found to be positive, with a total of 55 viral detections; several samples were positive for two (n = 5) or 3 (n = 1) viruses. Ten different viruses were identified: influenza viruses A, B, and C (n = 25), human respiratory syncytial virus type A (n = 13), rhinoviruses (n = 8), human coronaviruses type 229E and NL63 (n = 6), parainfluenza viruses 3 and 4 (n = 2), and bocavirus (n = 1). These results provide evidence on the importance and the diversity of viruses as causative agents of acute respiratory infections in children living in a rural community in Senegal. The establishment of sentinel surveillance sites could help estimate the burden of acute respiratory infection in the pediatric population and should help prepare the health care systems to identify and respond to new viral respiratory emergencies.

  2. International collaborative study of intracytoplasmic sperm injection-conceived, in vitro fertilization-conceived, and naturally conceived 5-year-old child outcomes: cognitive and motor assessments.

    PubMed

    Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I; Bonduelle, M; Barnes, J; Nekkebroeck, J; Loft, A; Wennerholm, U-B; Tarlatzis, B C; Peters, C; Hagberg, B S; Berner, A; Sutcliffe, A G

    2005-03-01

    To date, very few studies have been conducted on the neurodevelopmental well-being of children conceived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The limitations of these studies often include a lack of comparison with a demographically matched, naturally conceived (NC) group and the investigation of only very young children, with relatively small samples sizes. One study showed that there were no differences in IQ scores among ICSI-conceived, in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived, and NC children at 5 years of age. Unfortunately, psychomotor development was not assessed in that study. Because findings regarding these children's cognitive and motor development are inconclusive, the aim of this study was to shed more light on the cognitive and motor development of 5-year-old ICSI-conceived children. A total of 511 ICSI-conceived children were compared with 424 IVF-conceived children and 488 NC controls. Children were recruited in 5 European countries, ie, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Participation rates ranged from 45% to 96% in the ICSI and IVF groups and from 34% to 78% in the NC group. Cognitive and motor development was assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) Motor Scale, respectively. The WPPSI-R consists of 2 major scales, ie, Verbal and Performance, each including 6 subtests. The 6 Performance Scale subtests are object assembly, geometric design, block design, mazes, picture completion, and animal pegs. The 6 Verbal Scale subtests are information, comprehension, arithmetic, vocabulary, similarities, and sentences. Scores on the Performance and Verbal Scale subtests are summed to yield the performance IQ (PIQ) and verbal IQ (VIQ), respectively. Scores on both the Performance Scale and the Verbal Scale yield the full-scale IQ (FSIQ). IQ scales have a mean score of 100 and a SD of 15. Each subtest has a mean score of 10 and a

  3. Global motion perception is independent from contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination and visual acuity in 4.5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arijit; Anstice, Nicola S.; Jacobs, Robert J.; Paudel, Nabin; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Wouldes, Trecia A.; Harding, Jane E.; Thompson, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Global motion processing depends on a network of brain regions that includes extrastriate area V5 in the dorsal visual stream. For this reason, psychophysical measures of global motion perception have been used to provide a behavioural measure of dorsal stream function. This approach assumes that global motion is relatively independent of visual functions that arise earlier in the visual processing hierarchy such as contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested this assumption by assessing the relationships between global motion perception, contrast sensitivity for coherent motion direction discrimination (henceforth referred to as contrast sensitivity) and habitual visual acuity in a large group of 4.5-year-old children (n = 117). The children were born at risk of abnormal neurodevelopment because of prenatal drug exposure or risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia. Motion coherence thresholds, a measure of global motion perception, were assessed using random dot kinematograms. The contrast of the stimuli was fixed at 100% and coherence was varied. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the same stimuli by fixing motion coherence at 100% and varying dot contrast. Stereoacuity was also measured. Motion coherence thresholds were not correlated with contrast sensitivity or visual acuity. However, lower (better) motion coherence thresholds were correlated with finer stereoacuity (rho=0.38, p=0.004). Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were also correlated (rho= −0.26, p=0.004) with each other. These results indicate that global motion perception for high contrast stimuli is independent of contrast sensitivity and visual acuity and can be used to assess motion integration mechanisms in children. PMID:26318529

  4. Effect of probiotic supplementation on total lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and short chain fatty acids in 2–5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Hemalatha, R.; Ouwehand, A. C.; Saarinen, M. T.; Prasad, U. V.; Swetha, K.; Bhaskar, V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ​Background: Consumption of Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37 or Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 by 2–5-year-old children was found to reduce risk for diarrhoea and fever during the rainy season. Objective: Can changes in faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) explain the observed positive influence of probiotics and their role on nutritional status and diarrhoea risk? Design: Faecal samples were analysed for SCFAs and BCFAs and correlated to Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus levels; both at the start and after nine months’ consumption of either of the two probiotic strains, or placebo. Results: No differences in SCFAs, BCFAs, Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium levels were found between boys and girls. Severely underweight children were observed to have the highest Lactobacillus levels. Probiotic intervention was found to be associated with higher levels of selected SCFAs and BCFAs in subjects who had experienced diarrhoea. Treatment with either of the probiotics led to changes in SCFAs and BCFAs. SCFAs, acetate, propionate and butyrate, were found to correlate with each other. Likewise, BCFAs isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate correlated with each other. After the intervention, L. paracasei Lpc-37 correlated positively with total Bifidobacterium counts and isovalerate levels. B. lactis HN019 counts were found to correlate positively with total bacterial counts and negatively with propionate levels. Conclusions: ​Nutritional status was associated with higher levels of faecal lactobacilli; the meaning of this requires further investigation. The intervention with the two probiotics was observed to influence the levels of faecal SCFAs and BCFAs and there is a differential response in those who developed diarrhoea and those who did not. It is, however, not clear to what extent this is a mechanism that explains the earlier observed effect the strains had on diarrhoea risk. PMID:28572751

  5. Associations between parenting styles and nutrition knowledge and 2-5-year-old children's fruit, vegetable and non-core food consumption.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jacqueline; Dollman, James; Petkov, John; Parletta, Natalie

    2013-11-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on children’s diets and developing food choices. We investigated parenting styles as predictors of 2–5-year-old children’s diets and whether general nutrition knowledge (GNK) mediated these influences. Cross-sectional research. Questionnaires measured demographic and lifestyle variables, family environment, parenting styles and feeding practices, child diet and GNK. Regression models tested GNK as a mediator of relationships between parenting variables and child diet (fruit/vegetable and non-core food consumption), controlling for confounders and family environment. Questionnaires were completed by main caregivers at home. Parents of children aged 2–5 years (n 269). Higher child fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower overreactive parenting and restriction, higher authoritative parenting and dining together as a family; with lax parenting approaching statistical significance (P50?083) and 19% of variance explained by the model. GNK was not a significant predictor. Conversely, non-core food consumption was associated with higher over-reactive and lax parenting as well as child age, increased takeaway food consumption and higher television viewing; GNK had a small effect (P = 0.043) and 28% of variance was explained by the model. GNK was a significant mediator only for authoritative parenting on non-core food (effect = -0.005). These findings highlight that young children’s diets may be improved by interventions targeting a range of positive and supportive parenting practices in conjunction with nutrition knowledge education for parents of young children. Further insights will come from closer attention to the nature and role of restrictive feeding practices v. laxness and longitudinal research.

  6. Effect of probiotic supplementation on total lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and short chain fatty acids in 2-5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Hemalatha, R; Ouwehand, A C; Saarinen, M T; Prasad, U V; Swetha, K; Bhaskar, V

    2017-01-01

    ​Background: Consumption of Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37 or Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 by 2-5-year-old children was found to reduce risk for diarrhoea and fever during the rainy season. Objective: Can changes in faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) or branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) explain the observed positive influence of probiotics and their role on nutritional status and diarrhoea risk? Design: Faecal samples were analysed for SCFAs and BCFAs and correlated to Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus levels; both at the start and after nine months' consumption of either of the two probiotic strains, or placebo. Results: No differences in SCFAs, BCFAs, Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium levels were found between boys and girls. Severely underweight children were observed to have the highest Lactobacillus levels. Probiotic intervention was found to be associated with higher levels of selected SCFAs and BCFAs in subjects who had experienced diarrhoea. Treatment with either of the probiotics led to changes in SCFAs and BCFAs. SCFAs, acetate, propionate and butyrate, were found to correlate with each other. Likewise, BCFAs isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate correlated with each other. After the intervention, L. paracasei Lpc-37 correlated positively with total Bifidobacterium counts and isovalerate levels. B. lactis HN019 counts were found to correlate positively with total bacterial counts and negatively with propionate levels. Conclusions: ​Nutritional status was associated with higher levels of faecal lactobacilli; the meaning of this requires further investigation. The intervention with the two probiotics was observed to influence the levels of faecal SCFAs and BCFAs and there is a differential response in those who developed diarrhoea and those who did not. It is, however, not clear to what extent this is a mechanism that explains the earlier observed effect the strains had on diarrhoea risk.

  7. Over and undernutrition in the children of Australian immigrants: Assessing the influence of birthplace of primary carer and English language use at home on the nutritional status of 4-5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, A M N; Oldroyd, J; Burns, C; Waters, E; Riggs, E; Renzaho, C

    2009-01-01

    To document the relationship between childhood nutrition status and ethnicity (defined as the birthplace of primary carer and English language use at home) using a nationally representative sample of 4- to 5-year-old children. Cross-sectional population survey of 4 983 4- to 5-year-old children (2 537 boys and 2 446 girls) as part of Wave 1 (2004) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Overweight/obesity and thinness using the newly published body mass index cut-off points of Cole (2007). In total, 20.6% (95%CI 19.5, 21.7) of children aged 4 to 5 years were estimated to be overweight or obese, while 1.0% (95%CI 0.8, 1.3) was thin. Unadjusted analyses showed a significant relationship between childhood overweight/obesity and primary carer's country of birth (chi2=15.9, p<0.01), but the significance became minimal after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic factors. The adjusted model suggests that boys of primary carer's born in Europe (excluding UK and Ireland) were less likely to be overweight/obese than boys whose primary carers were born in Australia, but the overall effect size was negligible. No difference was found for girls. In addition, boys who mainly spoke English at home were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR=0.49; 95%CI 0.27, 0.88; p=0.017) and thin (OR=0.27; 95%CI 0.12, 0.62; p=0.002) than boys who spoke a language other than English at home. No difference was found for girls. There is a relationship between main language spoken at home and nutritional status in 4-5-year-old boys but not girls. The use of English language at home may be a protective factor for normal weight in young boys. After adjustment for socio-economic and demographics characteristics, there was a negligible relationship between overweight/obesity in children and their primary carer's country of birth.

  8. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Speech and Language Impairment in a Nationally Representative Sample of 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine risk and protective factors for speech and language impairment in early childhood. Method: Data are presented for a nationally representative sample of 4,983 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (described in McLeod & Harrison, 2009). Thirty-one child, parent, family, and community…

  9. Time Use Differences in Activity Participation among Children 4-5 Years Old with and without the Risk of Developing Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Mong-Lin; Ziviani, Jenny; Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood are associated with the way in which children engage in daily activities. Research, to date, on conduct problems in relation to time use has primarily focused on school aged children and their participation in discrete activities such as watching TV and sport. The purpose of the present study is to determine if…

  10. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Speech and Language Impairment in a Nationally Representative Sample of 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine risk and protective factors for speech and language impairment in early childhood. Method: Data are presented for a nationally representative sample of 4,983 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (described in McLeod & Harrison, 2009). Thirty-one child, parent, family, and community…

  11. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 5: Children Together. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on children as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…

  12. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 5: Children Together. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on children as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…

  13. Representations of eating and of a nutrition program among female caregivers of children under 5 years old in Tizimin, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Uicab-Pool, Gloria de Los Angeles; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Gomes, Romeu; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out between January and April 2008 with 14 caregivers of children younger than 5 years residing in Tizimín city, Mexico. It aimed to understand the social representations of eating and the Programa Oportunidades [Opportunity Program] held by caregivers taking into account their social and cultural context. This qualitative investigation with an ethnographic approach was based on participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Two empirical categories emerged: 1) feeding and 2) an aid. The first refers to the caregivers' representation of eating patterns of children younger than 5 years and the second reveals that the program is considered an aid, which favors and helps caregivers to meet part of their needs. The study achieved the proposed objectives since it enabled us to understand caregivers in the complex task of feeding these children and also to propose strategies in several spheres to improve infant nutrition.

  14. Low intake of calcium and vitamin D, but not zinc, iron or vitamin A, is associated with stunting in 2- to 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    van Stuijvenberg, Martha E; Nel, Jana; Schoeman, Serina E; Lombard, Carl J; du Plessis, Lisanne M; Dhansay, Muhammad A

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nutritional factors associated with the high levels of stunting in 2- to 5-y-old children in an impoverished South African setting where liver is frequently eaten and vitamin A deficiency known to be absent. Children's dietary intake was assessed by a single 24-h recall. Heights and weights were measured and information was obtained on breast-feeding history, the child's habitual milk intake, as well as substance use by the mother during pregnancy (n = 150). The overall prevalence of stunting was 36.9% (CI 29.2, 44.6) and increased with age, being 49% in the 4- to 5-y-old age category. Birth weight correlated significantly with height-for-age z-scores (HAZ; r = 0.250, P = 0.003), and was lower in children whose mothers smoked and used alcohol during pregnancy than in children whose mothers abstained (P < 0.0001). Median intake of energy, carbohydrate and protein was adequate. Median intake for all micronutrients was at least 90% of the estimated average requirement, except for calcium, vitamin D and vitamin E, which was 21%, 15%, and 32%, respectively. Intake of fat, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 (nutrients that typically occur in milk) was significantly lower in stunted than in non-stunted children (P < 0.05). When excluding children with low birth weight, intake of calcium, vitamin D, and riboflavin were still significantly lower (P < 0.05). HAZ was higher in children who habitually drank milk compared to those who did not (P = 0.003). Inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake, presumably because of low intake of milk after weaning, may have contributed to stunting in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental Strategies and Trajectories of Peer Victimization in 4 to 5 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Marielle; Goossens, Frits A.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine how parental strategies contribute to explaining trajectories of peer victimization in young children. A total of 73 4 and 5 year old children identified as victims of peer aggression in the fall semester and their parents were recruited from 46 classrooms in 18 schools in the Netherlands. All children were…

  16. Food and drink consumption among 1-5-year-old Los Angeles County children from households receiving dual SNAP and WIC v. only WIC benefits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jane; Kuo, Tony; Jiang, Lu; Robles, Brenda; Whaley, Shannon E

    2017-10-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are two of the more well-known food assistance programmes in the USA. The current study describes food consumption patterns of children aged 1-5 years living in households dually enrolled in these two programmes v. households enrolled only in WIC. Food consumption and SNAP participation were assessed using data from the 2014 Survey of Los Angeles County (LAC) WIC Participants and the Follow-Up Survey of the same households that were also SNAP beneficiaries. Telephone interviews were conducted with WIC parents regarding each child's (i.e. beneficiary's) food consumption patterns. Follow-up interviews were conducted with those who reported receiving SNAP. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between food and beverage consumption and dual v. single food assistance programme participation. LAC, California. Children of WIC-enrolled households in LAC during 2014 (n 3248). This included a sub-sample of dual WIC- and SNAP-enrolled households (n 1295). Survey participants were the beneficiaries' parents. Children from dually enrolled households consumed 1·03 (P<0·05) and 1·04 (P<0·01) more servings of fruits and vegetables daily respectively, 1·07 more sugar-sweetened beverages daily (P<0·001) and ate sweets/sweetened foods 1·04 more times daily (P<0·001) than children from households participating only in WIC. Results suggest that SNAP+WIC enrolment is associated with increased consumption of both healthy foods and foods containing minimal nutritional value. Complementary nutrition education efforts across the two programmes may help beneficiaries maximize healthful food purchases with SNAP dollars.

  17. Fluoride Exposure, Caregiver Education, and Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (dmft) in 2-5 year-old English or Spanish Speaking Children.

    PubMed

    Uceda, Paola R; Sanzone, Lauren A; Phillips, Ceib L; Roberts, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that includes behavioral and cultural components. The study's purpose was to determine the caries experienced (as measured by dmft) in a group of 2-5 y/o children, assess their family and home environment including consumption of fluoridated drinking water, use of a fluoride containing dentifrice, and level of caregiver formal education. Parents of children referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia and who either spoke and read English or Spanish were recruited and consent obtained. Selected information on the family home, parental education and selected fluoride contact data was obtained. An oral clinical examination of the child assisted by intraoral radiographs was completed and the number of decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) recorded for each child. Bitewings were obtained if posterior or anterior teeth contacts were closed but only periapical radiographs were obtained if contacts were open. Children of English speaking caregivers had statistically more dmft after controlling for the effect of the child's age and years of parental education (p=0.04). English speaking families had lived in their current home longer and the parent had more formal education than did the Spanish speaking parent. When available, the English children drank municipal tap water more often than did the Spanish children. Spanish speaking parents often chose bottled drinking water. No difference between the two groups was found in the use of tap water for cooking or the use of fluoridated dentifrice. In conclusion, increased parent education, language spoken by the parents and time living in the current home were not associated with lower dmft. Drinking fluoridated drinking water did not affect the dmft. However, using fluoridated water when available to cook and using fluoride containing dentifrice by both groups may have been mutually beneficial.

  18. Optimal time for initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected, treatment-naive children aged 2 to 5 years old

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Davies, Mary-Ann; Penazzato, Martina; Muhe, Lulu M; Egger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) comprising three antiretroviral medications from at least two classes of drugs is the current standard treatment for HIV infection in adults and children. Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for antiretroviral therapy recommend early treatment regardless of immunologic thresholds or the clinical condition for all infants (less than one years of age) and children under the age of two years. For children aged two to five years current WHO guidelines recommend (based on low quality evidence) that clinical and immunological thresholds be used to identify those who need to start cART (advanced clinical stage or CD4 counts ≤ 750 cells/mm3 or per cent CD4 ≤ 25%). This Cochrane review will inform the current available evidence regarding the optimal time for treatment initiation in children aged two to five years with the goal of informing the revision of WHO 2013 recommendations on when to initiate cART in children. Objectives To assess the evidence for the optimal time to initiate cART in treatment-naive, HIV-infected children aged 2 to 5 years. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the AEGIS conference database, specific relevant conferences, www.clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform and reference lists of articles. The date of the most recent search was 30 September 2012. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared immediate with deferred initiation of cART, and prospective cohort studies which followed children from enrolment to start of cART and on cART. Data collection and analysis Two review authors considered studies for inclusion in the review, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data on the primary outcome of death from all causes and several secondary outcomes, including incidence of CDC category C and B clinical events and

  19. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2-5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ting; Chang, Chen; Li, Yun; Qian, Lu; Xiao, Chao Yong; Xiao, Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Yun Hua; Chu, Kang Kang; Lewis, Mark H; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2-3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD) at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  20. Viral and Atypical Bacterial Etiology of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children under 5 Years Old Living in a Rural Tropical Area of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Jonathan; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Randriamarotia, Martin; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Najjar, Josette; Vernet, Guy; Contamin, Bénédicte; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia

    2012-01-01

    Background In Madagascar, very little is known about the etiology and prevalence of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a rural tropical area. Recent data are needed to determine the viral and atypical bacterial etiologies in children with defined clinical manifestations of ARIs. Methods During one year, we conducted a prospective study on ARIs in children between 2 to 59 months in the community hospital of Ampasimanjeva, located in the south-east of Madagascar. Respiratory samples were analyzed by multiplex real-time RT-PCR, including 18 viruses and 2 atypical bacteria. The various episodes of ARI were grouped into four clinical manifestations with well-documented diagnosis: “Community Acquired Pneumonia”(CAP, group I), “Other acute lower respiratory infections (Other ALRIs, group II)”, “Upper respiratory tract infections with cough (URTIs with cough, group III)”and “Upper respiratory tract infections without cough (URTIs without cough, group IV)”. Results 295 children were included in the study between February 2010 and February 2011. Viruses and/or atypical bacteria respiratory pathogens were detected in 74.6% of samples, the rate of co-infection was 27.3%. Human rhinovirus (HRV; 20.5%), metapneumovirus (HMPV A/B, 13.8%), coronaviruses (HCoV, 12.5%), parainfluenza virus (HPIV, 11.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus A and B (RSV A/B, 11.8%) were the most detected. HRV was predominantly single detected (23.8%) in all the clinical groups while HMPV A/B (23.9%) was mainly related to CAP (group I), HPIV (17.3%) to the “Other ALRIs” (group II), RSV A/B (19.5%) predominated in the group “URTIs with cough” (group III) and Adenovirus (HAdV, 17.8%) was mainly detected in the “without cough” (group IV). Interpretation This study describes for the first time the etiology of respiratory infections in febrile children under 5 years in a malaria rural area of Madagascar and highlights the role of respiratory viruses in a well clinically defined

  1. Seasonal availability and dietary intake of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit of 2-year-old to 5-year-old children in a rural South African setting growing these crops at household level.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Laubscher, Ria

    2008-02-01

    This study determined the seasonal availability and dietary intake of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit in a rural South African community growing these crops at household level. Monitoring year-round availability of vegetables and fruit in five local shops during 2004 showed that beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit were seldom available in the shops. The dietary intake of 2-year-old to 5-year-old children was determined during February, May, August and November in 2004 and 2005 using an unquantified food frequency questionnaire and 5-day repeated 24-h recall (2005 only). Consumption of beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit showed seasonal variation. Inadequate dietary vitamin A intake ranged from 6% in November to 21% in February and August. beta-Carotene-rich vegetables and fruit contributed 49-74% of the total vitamin A intake. It is concluded that beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit contribute a major part of the dietary vitamin A intake. Consumption of individual beta-carotene-rich vegetables and fruit fluctuated according to the season; nonetheless, an adequate dietary vitamin A intake was maintained throughout the year for the majority of the study population.

  2. Assessment of air quality in preschool environments (3-5 years old children) with emphasis on elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated concentrations of main air pollutants in a Portuguese preschool (indoors/outdoors) environment, with emphasis on elemental characterization of different PM fractions, and estimated risks for the pupils (aged 3-5 years). With exception to total volatile organic compounds, levels of PM10, PM2.5, CO, CO2, and formaldehyde were below legislative guidelines. Calcium, sodium, aluminium, and potassium were the most abundant elements in indoor PM (82-84% of the analysed content) resulting mainly from crustal sources. Carcinogenic elements (1-2% of the indoor analysed content) were mostly PM2.5-bound (83-91%). Indoor-to-outdoor ratios of individual elements indicated contributions of indoor origin and from penetration of outdoor emissions indoors; trace metals were associated with ambient anthropogenic emissions (namely traffic). Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from overall preschool exposure were acceptable for children; for adults carcinogenic risks exceeded (4-11 times) the USEPA recommend value of 10(-6), being 8-40 times higher than for children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Understanding in Israeli-Jewish, Israeli-Palestinian, Palestinian, and Jordanian 5-year-old Children: Moral Judgments and Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Fox, Nathan; Leavitt, Lewis; Raviv, Amiram; Masalha, Shafiq; Murra, Farid; Smadi, Yahia

    2015-01-01

    An empirical investigation was conducted of young Palestinian, Jordanian, Israeli-Palestinian, and Israeli-Jewish children’s (N = 433; M = 5.7 years of age) cultural stereotypes and their evaluations of peer intergroup exclusion based upon a number of different factors, including being from a different country and speaking a different language. Children in this study live in a geographical region that has a history of cultural and religious tension, violence, and extreme intergroup conflict. Our findings revealed that the negative consequences of living with intergroup tension are related to the use of stereotypes. At the same time, the results for moral judgments and evaluations about excluding peers provided positive results about the young children’s inclusive views regarding peer interactions. PMID:25741172

  4. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  5. Lexical and Acoustic Features of Maternal Utterances Addressing Preverbal Infants in Picture Book Reading Link to 5-Year-Old Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: I examined the long-term association between the lexical and acoustic features of maternal utterances during book reading and the language skills of infants and children. Maternal utterances were collected from 22 mother-child dyads in picture book-reading episodes when children were ages 6-12 months and 5 years. Two aspects of…

  6. Episodic future thinking in 3- to 5-year-old children: the ability to think of what will be needed from a different point of view.

    PubMed

    Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format (Clayton & Russell, 2009; Hassabis & Maguire, 2007). Accordingly, we asked children of 3, 4, and 5 to chose items they would need to play a game (blow football) from the opposite side of the table on which they had never before played. The crucial item was the box that was needed by children to reach the table from the other side. Over four experiments, we demonstrated that, while children of 3 perform poorly on future questions and children of 5 generally perform quite well, children of 4 years find a question about what they themselves will need to play in the future harder to answer than a similar question posed about another child. We suggest that this result is due to the 'growth error' of over-applying newly-developed Level 2 perspective-taking skills (Flavell et al., 1981), which encourages the selection of non-functional items. The data are discussed in terms of perspective-taking abilities in children and of the neural correlates of episodic cognition, navigation, and theory of mind.

  7. Effect of early and current Helicobacter pylori infection on the risk of anaemia in 6.5-year-old Ethiopian children.

    PubMed

    Taye, Bineyam; Enquselassie, Fikre; Tsegaye, Aster; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Medhin, Girmay; Fogarty, Andrew; Robinson, Karen; Davey, Gail

    2015-07-14

    Epidemiological and clinical studies in high income countries have suggested that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may cause anaemia, but evidence is lacking from low income countries.We examined associations between H. pylori infection in early childhood and anaemia at the age of 6.5 years in an Ethiopian birth cohort. In 2011/12, 856 children (85.1 % of the 1006 original singletons in a population-based birth cohort) were followed up at age six and half. An interviewer-led questionnaire administered to mothers provided information on demographic and lifestyle variables. Haemoglobin level and red cell indices were examined using an automated haematological analyzer (Cell Dyn 1800, Abbott, USA), and stool samples analyzed for H. pylori antigen. The independent effects of H. pylori infection (measured at age 3.5 and 6.5 years) on anaemia, haemoglobin level, and red cell indices (measured at age 6.5 years) were determined using multiple logistic and linear regression. The prevalence of anemia was 34.8 % (257/739), and the mean (SD) haemoglobin concentration was 11.8 (1.1) gm/dl. Current H. pylori infection at age 6.5 years was positively, though not significantly related to prevalence of anaemia (adjusted OR, 95 % CI, 1.15; 0.69, 1.93, p = 0.59). Any H. pylori infection up to age 6.5 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of anaemia at age 6.5 (adjusted OR, 95 % CI, 1.68; 1.22, 2.32, p = 0.01). A significant reduction in haemoglobin concentration and red cell indices was also observed among children who had any H. pylori infection up to age 6.5 (Hb adjusted β = -0.19, 95 % CI, -0.35 to -0.03, p = 0.01; MCV adjusted β = -2.22, 95 % CI, -3.43 to -1.01, p = 0.01; MCH adjusted β = -0.63, 95 % CI, -1.15 to - 0.12, p = 0.01; and MCHC adjusted β = -0.67, 95 % CI, -1.21 to -0.14, p = 0.01), respectively. This study provides further evidence from a low income country that any H. pylori infection up to age 6.5 is associated with higher prevalence

  8. [Molecular epideiological and clinical feature of human calicivirus and adenovirus among children with diarrhea less than 5 years old from 2010 to 2011 in Lanzhou, Gansu province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Xia; Li, Dan-Di; Jin, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hong; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Li, Yu-Ning; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the clinical and molecular epidemiology characteristics of calicivirus and adenovirus in children for viral diarrhea in Lanzhou. Stool samples were collected from 295 children with diarrhea at the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Gansu Province,China, between July 2010 and June 2011. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or PCR were used to detected calicivirus and adenovirus. The adenovirus positive samples were typed by nested PCR and multiple PCR. Of the 295 specimens, 13.2% (39/295) were positive for calicivirus, and 5.1% (15/295) were adenovirus. Typing and Phylogenetic analysis revealed that novirus GII-3 and adenovirus 41 were the dominant strains. Both calicivirus and adenovirus predominately affect children under the age of 2. In seasonal distribution, there was no obvious peak. Human calicivirus and adenovirus are important pathogens of viral diarrhea,it is important to develop long-term systematic surveillance.

  9. Effect of Breastfeeding Promotion on Early Childhood Caries and Breastfeeding Duration among 5 Year Old Children in Eastern Uganda: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Birungi, Nancy; Fadnes, Lars T.; Okullo, Isaac; Kasangaki, Arabat; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Ndeezi, Grace; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Lie, Stein Atle; Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug

    2015-01-01

    Background Although several studies have shown short term health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), its long term consequences have not been studied extensively in low-income contexts. This study assessed the impact of an EBF promotion initiative for 6 months on early childhood caries (ECC) and breastfeeding duration in children aged 5 years in Mbale, Eastern Uganda. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ugandan site of the PROMISE- EBF cluster randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00397150). A total of 765 pregnant women from 24 clusters were included in the ratio 1:1 to receive peer counselled promotion of EBF as the intervention or standard of care. At the 5 year follow-up, ECC was recorded under field conditions using the World Health Organization’s decayed missing filled tooth (dmft) index. Adjusted negative binomial and linear regression were used in the analysis. Results Mean breastfeeding duration in the intervention and control groups (n=417) were 21.8 (CI 20.7–22.9) and 21.3(CI 20.7–21.9) months, respectively. The mean dmft was 1.5 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9) and 1.7 (SD 2.9) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Corresponding prevalence estimates of ECC were 38% and 41%. Negative binomial regression analysis adjusted for cluster effects and loss-to-follow-up by inverse probability weights (IPW) showed an incidence-rate ratio (IRR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.65–1.2). Comparing the effect of the trial arm on breastfeeding duration showed a difference in months of 0.48 (-0.72 to 1.7). Conclusion PROMISE EBF trial did not impact on early childhood caries or breastfeeding duration at 5 years of age. This study contributes to the body of evidence that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding does not raise oral health concerns. However, the high burden of caries calls for efforts to improve the oral health condition in this setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00397150 PMID:25938681

  10. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 3: Portraits Are Images of People. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on portraits as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…

  11. Non-Bayesian Noun Generalization in 3-to 5-Year-Old Children: Probing the Role of Prior Knowledge in the Suspicious Coincidence Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as "Labrador," "dog," and "animal." Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and…

  12. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 1: Shapes, Colors, and Stories. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on the theme: shapes, colors, and stories. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trip, and…

  13. Non-Bayesian noun generalization in 3- to 5-year-old children: Probing the role of prior knowledge in the suspicious coincidence effect

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as “Labrador,” “dog,” and “animal.” Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and adults. Here, we report data testing a developmental prediction of the Bayesian model—that more knowledge should lead to narrower category inferences when presented with multiple subordinate examples. Two experiments did not support this prediction. Children with more category knowledge showed broader generalization when presented with multiple subordinate examples, compared to less knowledgeable children and adults. This implies a U-shaped developmental trend. The Bayesian model was not able to account for these data, even with inputs that reflected the similarity judgments of children. We discuss implications for the Bayesian model including a combined Bayesian/morphological knowledge account that could explain the demonstrated U-shaped trend. PMID:24961497

  14. Episodic Future Thinking in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: The Ability to Think of What Will Be Needed from a Different Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format ([Clayton and Russell, 2009]…

  15. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 4: Animals in the Wild. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on animals as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…

  16. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 1: Shapes, Colors, and Stories. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on the theme: shapes, colors, and stories. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trip, and…

  17. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 4: Animals in the Wild. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on animals as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…

  18. Phonemic Awareness Development in 2.5- and 3.5-Year-Old Children: An Examination of Emergent, Receptive, Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Brandi Biscoe; Terry, Nicole Patton; Friehling, Arielle H.; Namy, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health has deemed illiteracy a national health crisis based on reading proficiency rates among American children. In 2002, the National Early Literacy Panel identified six pre-reading skills that are most crucial precursors to reading mastery and predict future reading outcomes. Of those skills, phonological awareness,…

  19. Art Image Preschool: Introducing 3-to-5-Year-Old Children to Art and Artists. [Packet] 2: Pets Are Part of Our Lives. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Christine

    This teacher's guide accompanies a packet of five art reproductions based on pets as a theme. The guide offers suggestions for engaging children's attention and curiosity about art and artists, and encourages exploration of the issues these works present through art activities, discussions, learning centers, field trips, and other experiences…

  20. Non-Bayesian noun generalization in 3- to 5-year-old children: probing the role of prior knowledge in the suspicious coincidence effect.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gavin W; Samuelson, Larissa K; Smith, Jodi R; Spencer, John P

    2015-03-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as "Labrador," "dog," and "animal." Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and adults. Here, we report data testing a developmental prediction of the Bayesian model-that more knowledge should lead to narrower category inferences when presented with multiple subordinate exemplars. Two experiments did not support this prediction. Children with more category knowledge showed broader generalization when presented with multiple subordinate exemplars, compared to less knowledgeable children and adults. This implies a U-shaped developmental trend. The Bayesian model was not able to account for these data, even with inputs that reflected the similarity judgments of children. We discuss implications for the Bayesian model, including a combined Bayesian/morphological knowledge account that could explain the demonstrated U-shaped trend. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Non-Bayesian Noun Generalization in 3-to 5-Year-Old Children: Probing the Role of Prior Knowledge in the Suspicious Coincidence Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Gavin W.; Samuelson, Larissa K.; Smith, Jodi R.; Spencer, John P.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how children learn labels for multiple overlapping categories such as "Labrador," "dog," and "animal." Xu and Tenenbaum (2007a) suggested that learners infer correct meanings with the help of Bayesian inference. They instantiated these claims in a Bayesian model, which they tested with preschoolers and…

  2. Episodic Future Thinking in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: The Ability to Think of What Will Be Needed from a Different Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, James; Alexis, Dean; Clayton, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Assessing children's episodic future thinking by having them select items for future use may be assessing their functional reasoning about the future rather than their future episodic thinking. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, we capitalised on the fact that episodic cognition necessarily has a spatial format ([Clayton and Russell, 2009]…

  3. Fluoride Exposure, Caregiver Education, and Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (dmft) in 2-5 year-old English or Spanish Speaking Children

    PubMed Central

    Uceda, Paola R.; Sanzone, Lauren A.; Phillips, Ceib L.; Roberts, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that includes behavioral and cultural components. The study’s purpose was to determine the caries experienced (as measured by dmft) in a group of 2-5 y/o children, assess their family and home environment including consumption of fluoridated drinking water, use of a fluoride containing dentifrice, and level of caregiver formal education. Parents of children referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia and who either spoke and read English or Spanish were recruited and consent obtained. Selected information on the family home, parental education and selected fluoride contact data was obtained. An oral clinical examination of the child assisted by intraoral radiographs was completed and the number of decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) recorded for each child. Bitewings were obtained if posterior or anterior teeth contacts were closed but only periapical radiographs were obtained if contacts were open. Children of English speaking caregivers had statistically more dmft after controlling for the effect of the child’s age and years of parental education (p=0.04). English speaking families had lived in their current home longer and the parent had more formal education than did the Spanish speaking parent. When available, the English children drank municipal tap water more often than did the Spanish children. Spanish speaking parents often chose bottled drinking water. No difference between the two groups was found in the use of tap water for cooking or the use of fluoridated dentifrice. In conclusion, increased parent education, language spoken by the parents and time living in the current home were not associated with lower dmft. Drinking fluoridated drinking water did not affect the dmft. However, using fluoridated water when available to cook and using fluoride containing dentifrice by both groups may have been mutually beneficial. PMID:24379894

  4. The caries experience of 5-year-old children in Scotland, Wales and England in 2011-2012: reports of cross-sectional surveys using BASCD criteria.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, N; Davies, G M; Jones, C M; Neville, J S; Pitts, N B

    2014-06-01

    This paper collates differences in methods and trends in caries prevalence in surveys of the oral health of young children undertaken in Scotland, Wales and England in 2011-12. For Wales and England this was the second survey carried out since changes were required in consent arrangements. In compliance with BASCD criteria representative samples were drawn within the geographies of primary care organisations across the UK, and within Local Authorities across England and Wales. Consent was sought in two ways; via opt-in parental consent in England and Wales and opt-out parental consent in Scotland. Children aged five were examined in England and those aged 5 to 6 were examined in Wales and Scotland. Examinations were conducted in schools by trained and calibrated examiners and caries was diagnosed at the dentinal threshold using visual criteria. In Scotland there is a continuing decline in caries prevalence in young school children. Comparison with the previous survey using positive consent in England and Wales shows a decline in caries in both England and Wales although decay levels remain higher in more deprived areas. International comparisons assist in interpreting data and trends even if there are some differences in approach. A trend line is more useful than a single data point for monitoring of oral health. This second survey using positive parental consent in England and Wales has enabled trend analysis for the first time since the consent arrangements changed.

  5. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  6. How Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Questions? Differences in Languages across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Andelkovic, Darinka; Argus, Reili; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Arosio, Fabrizio; Avram, Larisa; Costa, João; Dabašinskiene, Ineta; de López, Kristine; Gatt, Daniela; Grech, Helen; Haman, Ewa; van Hout, Angeliek; Hrzica, Gordana; Kainhofer, Judith; Kamandulyte-Merfeldiene, Laura; Kunnari, Sari; Kovacevic, Melita; Kuvac Kraljevic, Jelena; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mejias, Sandrine; Popovic, Maša; Ruzaite, Jurate; Savic, Maja; Sevcenco, Anca; Varlokosta, Spyridoula; Varnava, Marina; Yatsushiro, Kazuko

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically developing children across 19 European countries, 18…

  7. Suitability of the "'Little DCDQ" for the Identification of DCD in a Selected Group of 3-5-Year-Old South African Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Amné; Pienaar, Anita E.; Coetzee, Dané

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) as soon as possible, we need validated screening instruments that can be used for the early identification of motor coordination delays. The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (Little DCDQ) for…

  8. [Apical petrositis, osteomyelitis of the base of the skull bones and of the first cervical vertebra in a 5 year-old children following chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Zelikovich, E I; Soldatsky, Yu L; Burova, O V

    2016-01-01

    This publication was designed to describe a rare case of development of apicalpetrositis in a child presenting with acute otitis mediafollowing chicken pox experienced in the preceding period. We carried out the study with the use of computed tomography (CT) that demonstrated destruction of the temporal bone, bones of the base of the skull and of the first cervical vertebra. The treatment strategy chosen for the management of this condition that included antibiotic therapy and expectant observation proved justified and can be recommended as an algorithm of choice taking into consideration the difficulty of surgical approach to the apex of the petrous pyramid. However, this approach is associated with the high risk of disability arising from the potential injury to the craniocerebral nerves.

  9. Massachusetts Capacity Study Research Brief: Characteristics of the Current Early Education and Care Workforce Serving 3-5 Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy L.; Dennehy, Julie; Johnson-Staub, Christine; Robeson, Wendy Wagner

    2005-01-01

    This research brief outlines the characteristics of the current workforce serving children ages 3-5 years, and begins the discussion of the needs of the field to implement universal preschool in Massachusetts. Specifically, this brief addresses two questions about the workforce: (1) What are the characteristics, including educational…

  10. Scandcleft randomised trials of primary surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate: 8. Assessing naso-labial appearance in 5-year-olds - a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mølsted, Kirsten; Humerinta, Kirsti; Küseler, Annelise; Skaare, Pål; Bellardie, Haydn; Shaw, William; Karsten, Agneta; Kåre Sæle, Paul; Rizell, Sara; Marcusson, Agneta; Eyres, Philip; Semb, Gunvor

    2017-02-01

    Facial appearance is one of the most relevant measures of success in cleft lip and palate treatment. The aim was to assess nasolabial appearance at 5 years of age in all children in the project. In this part of the project the local protocol for lip closure continued to be used because the primary lip and nose operations were not part of the randomisation. The great majority of the surgeons used Millard's technique together with McComb's technique for the nose. One center used Tennison-Randalls technique and in one center the centers own technique as well as nose plugs were used. Three hundred and fifty-nine children participated in this part of the project. Standardised photos according to a specific protocol developed for the Scandcleft project were taken. Only the nasolabial area was shown, the surrounding facial features were masked. Three components were scored using a 5-point ordinal scale. A new developed Scandcleft Yardstick was used. The reliability of the method was tested using the weighted kappa statistics. Both the interrater and intrarater reliability scores were good to very good. There were statistically significant differences between the three trials. The Millard procedure combined with McComb technique had been used in the majority of the cases in all three trials. There were statistically significant differences between the three trials concerning upper lip, nasal form, and cleft side profile. ISRCTN29932826.

  11. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Scale of Oral Health-Related Outcomes for 5-Year-Old-Children with a Low-Income Sample from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Placeres, Ninoska; Garrido, Luis Eduardo; Féliz-Matos, Leandro Edgardo

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a thorough psychometric assessment and validation of a Spanish-adapted version of the Scale of Oral Health-Related Outcomes for 5-Year-Old-Children (SOHO-5). The sample consisted of 69 children aged 6 and 7 years attending a public school from a low-income community in the Dominican Republic. Outcomes consisted of SOHO-5 test scores and caries lesion severity scores, with the latter measured according to the International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria. The IBM SPSS Statistics 20 and Mplus 7.4 programs were used for the statistical analyses. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an excellent fit for the theoretical one-factor structure of the SOHO-5, with all the items having high loadings on this latent factor. In addition, the SOHO-5 was able to significantly explain a large amount of variance (37%) in caries lesion severity (P < 0.001), while its scale scores had good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha [α] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.90). Further, the SOHO-5 could identify children with moderate and extensive caries lesions (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.94, P < 0.001). The current findings highlight the good psychometric properties and criterion-related validity of the Spanish-adapted SOHO-5 for young children who come from impoverished backgrounds.

  12. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. Results: In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18–0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16–0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19–0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion. PMID:27095899

  13. The prevalence of dental erosion in 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, affected by dental erosion and to assess the predictors. A total of 403 5-year-old children were examined of which 48.14% (n = 194) were boys and 51.86% (n = 209) were girls; 31.27% (n = 126) were Emirati and 68.73% (n = 277) were non-Emirati Arabs. Examination of dental erosion was confined to palatal surfaces of maxillary incisors using the erosion index described in the UK National Survey of Children's Dental Health, 1993. Dental caries was charted using the World Health Organization 1997 criteria. In the sample of 403 5-year-old preschoolers examined, dental erosion was apparent in 237 (58.80%) children, with 55.09% showing the dissolution of enamel and 3.72% exhibiting exposed dentin. Predictors of dental erosion as determined by logistic regression concluded that compared to Emirati citizens other Arab nationalities have 0.27 times the odds (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.18-0.42) of having tooth erosion (P < 0.05). Children with caries experience have 0.28 times the odds (95% CI = 0.16-0.51) of having tooth erosion compared to children with no caries experience (P < 0.05). Children who drink sugary or carbonated beverages have 0.30 times the odds (95% CI = 0.19-0.41) of having dental erosion compared to children who drink water (P < 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that 58.80% of 5-year-old preschoolers in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, were affected by dental erosion. Caries experience and consumption of acidic drinks were associated with dental erosion.

  14. Smith-Magenis syndrome with West syndrome in a 5-year-old girl: a long-term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Nakayama, Tojo; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Kure, Shigeo; Kamada, Fumiaki; Abe, Yu; Arai, Natsuko; Togashi, Noriko; Onuma, Akira; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation caused by the heterozygous deletion of chromosomal region 17p11.2. We present a long-term follow-up study of a girl with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome. West syndrome became apparent at 7 months of age. Since then, mental retardation, particularly in terms of language development, became increasingly more obvious. The patient's spasms and hypsarrhythmia disappeared after a course of adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy, but focal seizures reappeared at the age of 3 years and 3 months. Her craniofacial dysmorphia and mental retardation became increasingly evident compared to her condition at the onset of West syndrome. Chromosome analysis detected the characteristic 17p deletion, which was then confirmed via fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. This is the second report of a patient with Smith-Magenis syndrome and West syndrome; taken together, these results suggest that Smith-Magenis syndrome may be a further cause of West syndrome.

  15. The caries experience of 5 year-old children in Scotland in 2013-2014, and in England and Wales in 2014-2015. Reports of cross-sectional dental surveys using BASCD criteria.

    PubMed

    Jones, C M; Davies, G M; Monaghan, N; Morgan, M Z; Neville, J S; Pitts, N B

    2017-09-01

    We report the findings from and comment on the surveys of the oral health of 5-year-old children undertaken in Scotland (2013-14), Wales (2014-15) and England (2014-15). This was the fourteenth survey in Scotland since 1988. In England and Wales it is the third survey since 2007 when changes were required in consent arrangements. Representative samples were drawn within Health Boards across Scotland and local authorities across England and Wales. Consent was sought via opt-out parental consent in Scotland and opt-in parental consent in England and Wales. Children examined were those aged five in England and those in Primary 1 (school year aged 5 to 6) in Scotland and Wales. Examinations were conducted in schools by trained and calibrated examiners. Caries was visually diagnosed at the dentinal threshold. There is a continuing decline in d₃mft in all three countries. d₃mft was 1.27 (opt-out consent) for Scotland, 0.84 for England (opt-in consent) and 1.29 for Wales (opt-in consent). Tooth decay levels remain higher in more deprived areas across Great Britain, with clear inequalities gradients demonstrated across all geographies. Attempts to measure changes in dental health inequalities across the three countries show no conclusive trends. Inter-country comparisons provide further oral health intelligence despite differences in approach and timing. The third surveys in England and Wales using the new consent arrangements have enabled trend analysis. Dental health inequalities gradients were shown across all geographies and all of the indicators of inequality. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  16. Use of a Cumulative Exposure Index to Estimate the Impact of Tap Water Lead Concentration on Blood Lead Levels in 1- to 5-Year-Old Children (Montréal, Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Ngueta, Gerard; Abdous, Belkacem; Tardif, Robert; St-Laurent, Julie; Levallois, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Drinking water is recognized as a source of lead (Pb) exposure. However, questions remain about the impact of chronic exposure to lead-contaminated water on internal dose. Objective Our goal was to estimate the relation between a cumulative water Pb exposure index (CWLEI) and blood Pb levels (BPb) in children 1–5 years of ages. Methods Between 10 September 2009 and 27 March 2010, individual characteristics and water consumption data were obtained from 298 children. Venous blood samples were collected (one per child) and a total of five 1-L samples of water per home were drawn from the kitchen tap. A second round of water collection was performed between 22 June 2011 and 6 September 2011 on a subsample of houses. Pb analyses used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between CWLEI and BPb. Results Each 1-unit increase in CWLEI multiplies the expected value of BPb by 1.10 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.15) after adjustment for confounders. Mean BPb was significantly higher in children in the upper third and fourth quartiles of CWLEI (0.7–1.9 and ≥ 1.9 μg/kg of body weight) compared with the first (< 0.2 μg/kg) after adjusting for confounders (19%; 95% CI: 0, 42% and 39%; 95% CI: 15, 67%, respectively). The trends analysis yielded a p-value < 0.0001 after adjusting for confounders suggesting a dose–response relationship between percentiles of CWLEI and BPb. Conclusions In children 1–5 years of age, BPb was significantly associated with water lead concentration with an increase starting at a cumulative lead exposure of ≥ 0.7 μg Pb/kg of body weight. In this age group, an increase of 1 μg/L in water lead would result in an increase of 35% of BPb after 150 days of exposure. Citation Ngueta G, Abdous B, Tardif R, St-Laurent J, Levallois P. 2016. Use of a cumulative exposure index to estimate the impact of tap water lead concentration on blood lead levels in 1- to 5-year-old children

  17. The Influence of Two Cognitive-Linguistic Variables on Incidental Word Learning in 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Alyson D.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables--phonological memory and phonological awareness--is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word…

  18. Medical Care and Your 4- to 5-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... cooperatively with other kids understand the concept of gender identify colors Developmental milestones for 5-year-olds ...

  19. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  20. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  1. Parental blood pressure is related to vascular properties of their 5-year-old offspring.

    PubMed

    Evelein, Annemieke M V; Geerts, Caroline C; Bots, Michiel L; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent offspring of hypertensive parents have increased carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and arterial stiffness compared with offspring of normotensives. We assessed whether systolic blood pressure (SBP) of both parents is associated with the vasculature of their offspring as early as in childhood. In the first 306 5-year-old children of the Wheezing-Illnesses-Study-Leidsche-Rijn birth cohort, CIMT, distensibility, and elastic modulus (EM) were obtained ultrasonographically. In 204 of 306 (67%) children, complete data on both maternal and paternal SBP were obtained from the linked database of the Utrecht Health Project. CIMT of the children was 0.58 µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14, 1.0) greater with every 1-mm Hg higher maternal SBP. Maternal SBP and children's distensibility and EM were more strongly associated, negative and positive respectively, with increasing paternal SBP and vice versa (P value-for-interaction: 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). CIMT of children of whom both parents were in the highest SBP tertile was 17.9 µm (95% CI: 4.0, 31.9) greater compared with the CIMT of children of whom neither one of the parents had a SBP in the highest tertile. For EM and distensibility, these estimates were 20.1 kPa (95% CI: 1.1, 39.2) and -11.6 1/Mpa (95%-CI: -22.9, -0.31), respectively. Higher maternal SBP is related to thicker arterial walls in their 5-year-old offspring. If both parents have higher SBP, the arterial wall of their offspring is thicker and stiffer.

  2. Rhinoscleroma in a 5-year-old Portuguese Child.

    PubMed

    Simão, Inês; Gaspar, Iuri; Faustino, Rosário; Brito, Maria João Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Rhinoscleroma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is rare in Western Europe. We report the case of a 5-year-old Portuguese boy diagnosed with rhinoscleroma in the context of recurrent epistaxis. He had a 6-month course of antibiotic (amoxicillin plus clavulanate) therapy with full recovery.

  3. Overweight and obesity in 4-5-year-old children in New Zealand: results from the first 4 years (2009-2012) of the B4School Check programme.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Nitin; Tuohy, Pat; Mishra, Suryaprakash; Smith, Ash; Taylor, Barry

    2015-03-01

    We describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in four-year-old children in New Zealand, variations with ethnicity and socio-economic status, and changes over the study duration using body mass index (BMI) measurements collected as part of the B4School Check programme. Demographic and BMI data were extracted for all children measured between 2009 and 2012. Overweight and obesity rates were estimated using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2012 standards and the 85th (overweight) and 95th (obese) percentiles for BMI-for-age of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 and UK 1990 reference standards. A total of 168,744 BMI measurements were included in the analysis with a coverage rate of 66.5%. Mean BMI was 16.30 kg/m(2) in girls and 16.44 kg/m(2) in boys. Mean BMI z-score (WHO 2006 standards) was 0.601 in girls and 0.785 in boys. Using WHO 2006 standards, 16.9% of girls and 19.6% of boys were overweight and 13.8% of girls and 18.7% of boys were obese. Using IOTF standards, 18.3% of girls and 16.2% of boys were overweight and 5.7% of girls and 4.7% of boys were found obese. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in Pacific and Maori children and those living in more socio-economically deprived areas than other children. No definite time-trends were observed over the study duration. The study reaffirms the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in pre-school children in New Zealand, and demonstrates the variations in prevalence when using different reference standards. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. A description of an 'obesogenic' eating style that promotes higher energy intake and is associated with greater adiposity in 4.5year-old children: Results from the GUSTO cohort.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-02-14

    Recent findings confirm that faster eating rates support higher energy intakes within a meal and are associated with increased body weight and adiposity in children. The current study sought to identify the eating behaviours that underpin faster eating rates and energy intake in children, and to investigate their variations by weight status and other individual differences. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort took part in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5years of age to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min) and measures of eating microstructure: eating rate (g/min), total oral exposure (min), average bite size (g/bite), chews per gram, oral exposure per bite (s), total bites and proportion of active to total mealtime. Children's BMIs were calculated and a subset of children underwent MRI scanning to establish abdominal adiposity. Children were grouped into faster and slower eaters, and into healthy and overweight groups to compare their eating behaviours. Results demonstrate that faster eating rates were correlated with larger average bite size (r=0.55, p<0.001), fewer chews per gram (r=-0.71, p<0.001) and shorter oral exposure time per bite (r=-0.25, p<0.001), and with higher energy intakes (r=0.61, p<0.001). Children with overweight and higher adiposity had faster eating rates (p<0.01) and higher energy intakes (p<0.01), driven by larger bite sizes (p<0.05). Eating behaviours varied by sex, ethnicity and early feeding regimes, partially attributable to BMI. We propose that these behaviours describe an 'obesogenic eating style' that is characterised by faster eating rates, achieved through larger bites, reduced chewing and shorter oral exposure time. This obesogenic eating style supports acute energy intake within a meal and is more prevalent among, though not exclusive to, children with overweight

  5. Development of a standardized method for comparing fluoride ingested from toothpaste by 1.5-3.5-year-old children in seven European countries. Part 2: Ingestion results.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Judith A; Ketley, Clare E; Duckworth, Ralph M; van Loveren, Cor; Holbrook, W Peter; Seppä, Liisa; Sanches, Leonor; Polychronopoulou, Argy; O'Mullane, Denis M

    2004-04-01

    To develop a standardized method for measuring the variables affecting fluoride ingestion from toothpaste in young children between the ages of 1.5 and 3.5 years, and to use the method at seven European sites. Random samples of children were invited to take part in the study. Parents who gave consent were visited at home. The children brushed their teeth using the toothpaste brand and toothbrush type currently in use. The difference between the fluoride dispensed onto the toothbrush and the fluoride recovered after accounting for losses was deemed to be the fluoride ingested. Details of other oral health-care habits were collected by questionnaire. For each child, the fluoride concentration of the toothpaste used was measured in the laboratory, from which an estimate of total daily fluoride ingestion was made. There was considerable variation between countries in the types of toothpaste used and in the amounts of toothpaste applied and ingested. The amount of fluoride ingested ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 mg fluoride per kg of body weight per day. The amount of fluoride ingested that is likely to be a risk factor for the development of dental fluorosis during tooth formation is equivocal and was found to vary widely between European countries. There appears to be a need for clearer health messages regarding the use of fluoridated toothpaste by young children.

  6. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Head, trunk and arm posture amplitude and variation, muscle activity, sedentariness and physical activity of 3 to 5 year-old children during tablet computer use compared to television watching and toy play.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; Coenen, Pieter; Campbell, Amity C; Ranelli, Sonia; Straker, Leon M

    2017-11-01

    Young children (ages 3 to 5) are using mobile touchscreen technology, including tablet computers, yet little is known on the potential musculoskeletal and physical activity implications of its use. This within-subject laboratory study (n = 10) examined head, trunk and arm postures, upper trapezius muscle activity, and total body and upper limb physical activity during playing with tablets compared to during TV watching and playing with non-screen toys. Overall, this study found that during tablet play children had greater mean head, trunk and upper arm angles compared to both TV watching and toy play. Conversely, compared to toy play, children playing with tablets had lesser trunk, upper arm and elbow postural variation, lesser trapezius activity, more time sitting and lesser physical activity. Thus, to minimize potential musculoskeletal and sedentary risks, non-screen toy play should be encouraged and education and guidelines provided for parents and caretakers to support wise use of tablets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  9. Learning through Play: A Guide for Parents of 3-, 4-, or 5-Year-Olds. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Phyllis

    This activity guidebook for parents, which updates a 1983 version, presents numerous games and activities that parents and their 3- to 5-year-old children can enjoy together. Each activity is intended to facilitate acquisition of one of 18 kindergarten skills, including: (1) coordinating arms, legs, and eyes; (2) coordinating hands, fingers, and…

  10. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  11. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  12. Story Contexts Increase Susceptibility to the DRM Illusion in 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Pursglove, Rhian C.; Lewis, Charlie

    2007-01-01

    False recognition in children aged 5, 8, and 11 years was investigated using the standard version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure and an alternative version in which the DRM stimuli were embedded in stories designed to emphasize their overall theme. Relative to the 8- and 11-year-olds, the 5-year-olds falsely recognized fewer…

  13. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  14. Ready, Set, Grow! Health Education for 3-5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paula J.

    Intended for use in family day care, preschool centers, professional preparation institutions, and in homes, this comprehensive health education curriculum for 3- through 5-year-old children contains units designed to sequentially teach concepts about physical health, mental health, family living, and safety. Contents include the following…

  15. Finding Meaning in a Noisy World: Exploring the Effects of Referential Ambiguity and Competition on 2-5-Year-Olds' Cross-Situational Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, John P.; Scott, Rose M.

    2017-01-01

    While recent studies suggest children can use cross-situational information to learn words, these studies involved minimal referential ambiguity, and the cross-situational evidence overwhelmingly favored a single referent for each word. Here we asked whether 2-5-year-olds could identify a noun's referent when the scene and cross-situational…

  16. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, P<0·001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children's BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75 % more energy content than slower eating children (Δ548 kJ (Δ131 kcal); 95 % CI 107·6, 154·4, P<0·001), and had higher whole-body (P<0·05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118·3 cc; 95 % CI 24·0, 212·7, P=0·014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  17. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an Ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4.5 year old children – Results from the GUSTO cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R.; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S. Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle Valerie; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P.; Meaney, Michael J.; Broekman, Birit F.P.; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; Forde, Ciarán Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but less is known about the relationship between children’s eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesized that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (N=386) from the Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4.5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). Body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n=153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r=0.61, p<0.001) and a positive linear relationship between eating rate and children’s BMI status. Faster eaters consumed 75% more calories than slower eating children (Δ131 kcal, 95%CI [107.6, 154.4], p<0.001), and had higher whole-body (p<0.05) and subcutaneous abdominal adiposity (Δ118.3 cc; 95%CI [24.0, 212.7], p=0.014). Mediation analysis showed that eating rate mediates the link between child weight and energy intake during a meal (b=13.59, 95% CI [7.48, 21.83]). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMIz and adiposity. PMID:28462734

  18. Effect of calcium and vitamin D on growth, rickets and Kashin-Beck disease in 0- to 5-year-old children in a rural area of central Tibet.

    PubMed

    Rooze, Shancy; Mathieu, Françoise; Claus, William; Yangzom, Tashi; Yangzom, Dikki; Goyens, Philippe; de Maertelaer, Viviane

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of calcium (15 mmol/day) and vitamin D (625 μg/month), as single supplement or in combination, vs. no supplement on growth, clinical signs of rickets and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) and dental health. Prospective controlled trial involving children aged 0-5 years living in four groups of villages in a KBD-endemic rural area of central Tibet who received either calcium and/or vitamin D or no supplement. The cohort was followed over 3 years. Primary outcome was the impact of the different supplementation regimes on KBD, rickets and growth; secondary outcomes were impact on urinary levels of calcium and phosphorus, biomarkers of bone and cartilage turnover, and dental health. No difference was observed between the four groups with regard to anthropometric data, rickets, KBD, urinary levels of CrossLaps(®) and CartiLaps(®) . Weight for height or age, mid-upper arm circumference and skinfold thickness decreased in the four groups. Height for age increased and the prevalence of KBD fell in the four groups. Dental health was better in the group receiving calcium and vitamin D. Urinary calcium levels increased after 3 years of follow-up in all groups; the group receiving vitamin D had a higher increase (P-value: 0.044). The same global increase was observed for urinary phosphorus levels; the group receiving calcium had a higher increase (P-value: 0.01). Calcium and vitamin D failed to improve growth and bone metabolism of children living in a KBD-endemic rural area. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation improved dental health. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pyomyositis in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Romeo, S; Sunshine, S

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain.

  20. Early onset of overweight and obesity among low-income 1- to 5-year olds in New York City.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, Matilde; Glassman, Melissa E; Chen, Shaofu; Findley, Sally E

    2008-07-01

    Early-childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, particularly among low-income, minority, urban children. Understanding the progression of obesity prevalence rates from infancy through early childhood can inform public health efforts to combat this epidemic and create developmentally appropriate strategies. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban 1- to 5-year olds and estimated risk by age and gender. We surveyed the medical records of a random sample of 1,713 children seen at a New York City primary-care network. Outcome measures were weight-for-length for <2-year olds and body mass index for 2- to 5-year olds. Overweight was defined as percentiles >or=85% to <95%, obesity >or=95%. Analysis utilized chi-square, logistic regression, and z tests. Between 1 and 5 years of age, overweight increased 3.7% to 20.8% and obesity 7.5% to 29.8% (p < 0.01). Risk increased with age: compared with 1-year olds, 5-year olds were 8.2 times as likely (95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.5-12.21) to be overweight or obese. Boys were more likely to be obese than girls (adjusted odds ratio = 1.3; 95% CI = 1-1.64). Significant increases in overweight and obesity occurred between ages 1 and 3 years (overweight, 3.7% to 16%, p < 0.01; obesity, 7.5% to 30.2%, p < 0.01). Among urban children, more than half were overweight or obese by age 5. Overweight and obesity rates increased dramatically between the ages of 1 and 3 years. Interventions aimed at this age period may have the greatest impact at preventing childhood obesity.

  1. Verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-olds with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and its possible relationship with articulation/phonology at 3 and 5 years of age. A total of 49 children, 29 with UCLP treated according to three different procedures for primary palatal surgery and a comparison group of 20 children (COMP), were included. Longitudinally recorded audio files were used for analysis. At ages 3 and 5, the children were presented with a single-word test of word naming and at age 5 also the Bus Story Test (BST). The BST was assessed according to a test manual. The single-word test was phonetically transcribed and the percentage of consonants correct adjusted for age (PCC-A) was calculated. Differences regarding the BST results within the UCLP group were analysed. The results were compared with the results of the COMP group, and also with norm values. In addition, the relationship between the results of the BST and the PCC-A scores at ages 3 and 5 years was analysed. No significant group differences or correlations were found. However, 65.5% of the children in the UCLP group had an information score below 1 standard deviation from the norm value compared with 30% in the COMP group. A larger proportion of children in the UCLP group than in the COMP group displayed problems with retelling but the differences between the two groups were not significant. There was no association between the BST results in the children with UCLP and previous or present articulatory/phonological competence. Since group size was small in both groups, the findings need to be verified in a larger study. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Conflict resolution in 5-year-old boys: does postconflict affiliative behaviour have a reconciliatory role?

    PubMed

    Ljungberg; Westlund; Lindqvist Forsberg AJ

    1999-11-01

    In nonhuman primates, affiliative behaviours, such as social grooming and various forms of body contact, become more frequent after an aggressive interaction. Since such behaviours lead to a decrease in postconflict aggressive behaviour and displacement activities and to increased social tolerance, they have been labelled reconciliatory. We videofilmed sessions of free play in daycare centres in Stockholm and investigated whether affiliative behaviours used by 5-year-old boys in the postconflict period had a similar reconciliatory function. For 219 conflicts in 21 h 40 min of observation we recorded postconflict affiliative/prosocial, aggressive and displacement behaviours. When affiliative behaviours were shown and accepted by the opponent, aggressive and displacement behaviours decreased and play was promoted. These behaviours thus serve a function similar to reconciliatory behaviour in nonhuman primates and we think it is applicable to call accepted affiliative behaviours in postconflict periods of preschool children reconciliatory. However, conflicts were often polyadic and nonconflict periods consisted of intense play with a rich exchange of affiliative behaviours. These factors were limitations to the postconflict/matched-control method traditionally used in primatological research to document reconciliatory behaviour. We suggest that for preschool children, video recordings and an analysis and description of postconflict affiliative, aggressive and displacement behaviours can be used instead. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811

  4. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  5. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  6. 2.5-year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rose M.; Fisher, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only a fraction of the vocabulary children acquire, and arguably represent the simplest case of word learning based on observations of world scenes. Here we extended the study of cross-situational word learning to a new segment of the vocabulary, action verbs, to permit a stronger test of the role of statistical information in word learning. In two experiments, on each trial 2.5-year-olds encountered two novel intransitive (e.g., “She’s pimming!”; Experiment 1) or transitive verbs (e.g., “She’s pimming her toy!”; Experiment 2) while viewing two action events. The consistency with which each verb accompanied each action provided the only source of information about the intended referent of each verb. The 2.5-year-olds used cross-situational consistency in verb learning, but also showed significant limits on their ability to do so as the sentences and scenes became slightly more complex. These findings help to define the role of cross-situational observation in word learning. PMID:22104489

  7. The Influence of Two Cognitive-Linguistic Variables on Incidental Word Learning in 5-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Schuele, C. Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The relation between incidental word learning and two cognitive-linguistic variables—phonological memory and phonological awareness—is not fully understood. Thirty-five typically developing, 5-year-old, preschool children participated in a study examining the association between phonological memory, phonological awareness, and incidental word learning. Children were exposed to target words in a read-aloud story that accompanied a wordless picture book. Target word comprehension was assessed before and after two readings of the story. Phonological awareness predicted incidental word learning but phonological memory did not. The influence of phonological awareness and phonological memory on word learning may be dependent on the demands of the word learning task. PMID:23979141

  8. Imitation of Hierarchical Structure versus Component Details of Complex Actions by 3- and 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emma; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We investigated developmental changes in the level of information children incorporate into their imitation when a model executes complex, hierarchically organized actions. A total of 57 3-year-olds and 60 5-year-olds participated, watching video demonstrations of an "artificial fruit" box being opened through a complex series of nine different…

  9. Imitation of Hierarchical Structure versus Component Details of Complex Actions by 3- and 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emma; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We investigated developmental changes in the level of information children incorporate into their imitation when a model executes complex, hierarchically organized actions. A total of 57 3-year-olds and 60 5-year-olds participated, watching video demonstrations of an "artificial fruit" box being opened through a complex series of nine different…

  10. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT’IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body weight, body height and sitting height/stature ratio (SSR), determined from reference databases, thus enabling the creation of 125 5-year-old habitus-dependent male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile body morphometries. We evaluated the absorbed fractions and the mean absorbed dose to the target region per unit cumulative activity in the source region (S-values) of F-18 in 46 source regions for the generated 125 anthropomorphic 5-year-old hybrid male phantoms using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code and calculated the absorbed dose and effective dose of five 18F-labelled radiotracers for children of various habitus. For most organs, the S-value of F-18 presents stronger statistical correlations with body weight, standing height and sitting height than BMI and SSR. The self-absorbed fraction and self-absorbed S-values of F-18 and the absorbed dose and effective dose of 18F-labelled radiotracers present with the strongest statistical correlations with body weight. For 18F-Amino acids, 18F-Brain receptor substances, 18F-FDG, 18F-L-DOPA and 18F-FBPA, the mean absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Total body

  11. Salter-Harris type-IV displaced distal radius fracture in a 5-year-old.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Samuel R; Summers, Spencer H; Stricker, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    Displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fractures are rare in young children and can result in articular incongruity or premature physeal arrest. We describe a 5-year-old boy who sustained a displaced left distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture. The patient had normal wrist function and physeal growth at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. Our patient is by far the youngest reported child with a displaced Salter-Harris type-IV fracture of the distal radius. Prompt anatomic reduction and fixation of a displaced distal radial Salter-Harris type-IV fracture can result in excellent short-term wrist motion with maintenance of physeal function.

  12. Management of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear in a 5 Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Masaracchio, Michael; Comet, Sheryl; Godwin, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case report was to describe clinical decision making during the examination and treatment of a 5-year-old boy with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. A paucity of research exists for the management of ACL tears in children. A combination of manual therapy interventions initially, followed by a unique and comprehensive therapeutic exercise program, was implemented during the course of a 3-month treatment period. Improvements in range of motion, quadriceps strength, single-leg stance time, and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score were noted. At discharge, the patient safely returned to unrestricted home and school activities. This case demonstrates successful management of a child after an ACL injury. Clinicians are encouraged to implement sound clinical reasoning in the absence of well-established evidence when treating similar patients in their clinical practice.

  13. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) in 5-year-old girl with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kabicek, Pavel; Sulek, Stepan; Seidl, Zdenek; Vaneckova, Manuela; Kabickova, Edita; Vobruba, Vaclav; Wenchich, Laszlo; Zeman, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome in children. This clinical condition is caused by localized brain angioedema mostly in parieto-occipital region and results in dramatic and acute features as sudden loss of consciousness, epileptic paroxysms, strong headache or visual disturbances. Uncontrolled hypertension often participates in PRES development. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl treated for relapse of nephrotic syndrome. At the time of edema regression and weight reduction, a sudden loss of consciousness and worsening of hypertension occurred. Brain MRI demonstrated extended multifocal changes strongly suspicious of encephalitis. After exclusion of herpetic encephalitis, the clinical picture was classified as PRES. Successful antihypertensive treatment led to general improvement of the girl's health within 48 hours and resolution of MRI brain hyperintensities occurred within the next three months. The aim of our case report is to us remind of possible development of PRES at the time of edema regression in nephrotic syndrome.

  14. Effects of phonotactic and orthotactic probabilities during fast mapping on 5-year-olds' learning to spell.

    PubMed

    Apel, Kenn; Wolter, Julie A; Masterson, Julie J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the orthographic-processing skills of typically developing 5-year-old preschool children. Of interest was whether phonotactic probabilities and/or orthotactic probabilities affected their ability to quickly learn the orthographic forms of 12 novel words. Orthographic processing was measured by the children's ability to spell and identify spellings of the novel words. Specifically, we were interested in whether (a) children quickly stored or "fast mapped" orthographic information after minimal exposure to novel words during storybook readings, (b) phonotactic and orthotactic probabilities affected orthographic fast-mapping skills, and (c) orthographic processing explained unique variance on a measure of the children's early spelling abilities. The results of this study indicated that young children quickly fast mapped orthographic information after minimal exposure to novel words, and their spelling (generation or reproduction but not recognition) was influenced by phonotactic and orthotactic probabilities. The significance of this work is that it demonstrates that preschoolers can fast map orthographic words they see onto spoken words they hear while listening to storybooks read to them and that the spelling of preschoolers is influenced uniquely by both phonological and orthographic information (probability of frequent letter and sound sequences in English words).

  15. Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3-5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C; Weng, Mengxing; Fu, Genyue; Heyman, Gail D; Lee, Kang

    2017-01-16

    Young children learn multiple cognitive skills concurrently (e.g., language and music). Evidence is limited as to whether and how learning in one domain affects that in another during early development. Here we assessed whether exposure to a tone language benefits musical pitch processing among 3-5-year-old children. More specifically, we compared the pitch perception of Chinese children who spoke a tone language (i.e., Mandarin) with English-speaking American children. We found that Mandarin-speaking children were more advanced at pitch processing than English-speaking children but both groups performed similarly on a control music task (timbre discrimination). The findings support the Pitch Generalization Hypothesis that tone languages drive attention to pitch in nonlinguistic contexts, and suggest that language learning benefits aspects of music perception in early development. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/UY0kpGpPNA0. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Acquiring Complex Focus-Marking: Finnish 4- to 5-Year-Olds Use Prosody and Word Order in Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Arnhold, Anja; Chen, Aoju; Järvikivi, Juhani

    2016-01-01

    Using a language game to elicit short sentences in various information structural conditions, we found that Finnish 4- to 5-year-olds already exhibit a characteristic interaction between prosody and word order in marking information structure. Providing insights into the acquisition of this complex system of interactions, the production data showed interesting parallels to adult speakers of Finnish on the one hand and to children acquiring other languages on the other hand. Analyzing a total of 571 sentences produced by 16 children, we found that children rarely adjusted input word order, but did systematically avoid marked OVS order in contrastive object focus condition. Focus condition also significantly affected four prosodic parameters, f0, duration, pauses and voice quality. Differing slightly from effects displayed in adult Finnish speech, the children produced larger f0 ranges for words in contrastive focus and smaller ones for unfocused words, varied only the duration of object constituents to be longer in focus and shorter in unfocused condition, inserted more pauses before and after focused constituents and systematically modified their use of non-modal voice quality only in utterances with narrow focus. Crucially, these effects were modulated by word order. In contrast to comparable data from children acquiring Germanic languages, the present findings reflect the more central role of word order and of interactions between word order and prosody in marking information structure in Finnish. Thus, the study highlights the role of the target language in determining linguistic development. PMID:27990130

  17. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  18. The Effect of Inversion on 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Recognition of Face and Nonface Visual Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picozzi, Marta; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Turati, Chiara; Vescovo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effect of stimulus inversion on 3- to 5-year-olds' recognition of faces and two nonface object categories matched with faces for a number of attributes: shoes (Experiment 1) and frontal images of cars (Experiments 2 and 3). The inversion effect was present for faces but not shoes at 3 years of age (Experiment 1). Analogous…

  19. Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome in a 5-year-old Iranian boy

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzipour, K.; Zavvar, N.; Behnam, B.; Ahmadi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome (IGS) is a rare syndrome characterized by clinical symptoms and signs of Vitamin B12 deficiency and proteinuria. Our patient was a 5-year-old boy with pallor, lack of appetite, and low weight gain. Laboratory studies showed severe macrocytic anemia, normal reticulocyte count, negative direct coombs test, normal osmotic fragility, and autohemolysis test. He has had intermittent proteinuria since 3 years ago despite normal creatinine level and absence of hematuria or hypertension. Finally, based on low level of serum B12 vitamin and normal folate level accompanied by asymptomatic proteinuria, the diagnosis of IGS was made. Furthermore, his sister has had laboratory abnormalities without any symptoms. IGS responded to B12 replacement therapy dramatically but intermittent proteinuria persisted even after appropriate therapy. PMID:27942180

  20. Discourse prominence effects on 2.5-year-old children’s interpretation of pronouns

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-joo; Fisher, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments examined 2.5-year-olds’ sensitivity to discourse structure in pronoun interpretation. Children heard simple two-character stories illustrated by pictures on two video screens. In Experiments 1 and 2, one character in each story was established as more prominent than the other in several context sentences because it was mentioned first, appeared in subject position, was mentioned more often, and was pronominalized once. In Experiment 3, one character was singled out as more prominent only by being mentioned first and placed in subject position. In all three experiments, after hearing a pronoun subject in the final (test) sentence of each story, children looked longer at the character established as more prominent in the preceding sentences. These experiments show that 2.5-year-olds, like older children and adults, interpret pronouns relative to a discourse representation in which referents are ranked in prominence, and that the prominence of discourse referents is influenced by some of the same factors that guide pronoun interpretation in adulthood. PMID:18978930

  1. Finding meaning in a noisy world: exploring the effects of referential ambiguity and competition on 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational word learning.

    PubMed

    Bunce, John P; Scott, Rose M

    2016-04-07

    While recent studies suggest children can use cross-situational information to learn words, these studies involved minimal referential ambiguity, and the cross-situational evidence overwhelmingly favored a single referent for each word. Here we asked whether 2·5-year-olds could identify a noun's referent when the scene and cross-situational evidence were more ambiguous. Children saw four trials in which a novel word occurred with four novel objects; only one object consistently co-occurred with the word across trials. The frequency of distracter objects varied across conditions. When all distracter referents occurred only once (no-competition), children successfully identified the noun's referent. When a high-probability competitor referent occurred on three trials, children identified the target referent if the competitor was absent on the third trial (short-competition) but not if it was present until the fourth trial (long-competition). This suggests that although 2·5-year-olds' cross-situational learning scales up to more ambiguous scenes, it is disrupted by high-probability competitor referents.

  2. Snoring, sleep disturbance, and behaviour in 4-5 year olds.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, N J; Pitson, D J; Stradling, J R

    1993-01-01

    Parents of 996 children aged 4-5 years identified consecutively from the Oxford health visitor register were asked to complete a questionnaire about breathing disorders during sleep. A total of 782 (78.5%) was returned. Ninety five (12.1%) children were reported to snore on most nights. Habitual snoring was significantly associated with daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, and hyperactivity. The questionnaire responses were used to select two subgroups, one at high risk of a sleep and breathing disorder and a control group. These children (132 in total) were monitored at home with overnight video recording and oximetry, and had formal behavioural assessment using the Conners scale. Seven (7/66) children from the high risk group and none from the control group had obvious sleep disturbance consequent on snoring and upper airway obstruction. Thus our estimate of the prevalence of sleep and breathing disorders in this age group is 7/996 or 0.7%. The high risk group had significantly higher nocturnal movement, oxygen saturation dip rates, and overnight pulse rates than the controls. Maternal but not paternal smoking was associated with the high risk group. Parents and teachers thought those in the high risk group were more hyperactive and inattentive than the controls, but only their parents thought them more aggressive. Significant sleep and breathing disorders occur in about 0.7% of 4-5 year olds. Children whose parents report snoring and sleep disturbance have objective evidence of sleep disruption and show more behaviour problems than controls. PMID:8280201

  3. Graves' disease in 2.5 years old girl - 6-years-long observation.

    PubMed

    Jonak, Olimpia; Połubok, Joanna; Barg, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric Graves' disease is rare in young children, more frequent in children with other autoimmune diseases or with family history of autoimmune thyroid disease. The 2.5 year old girl was admitted to the hospital with tachycardia and subfebrile temperature. The girl presented symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Child's mother was diagnosed with Hashimoto disease two months after the child's diagnosis. In physical examination of the child, enlarged thyroid was found. At the admission, the laboratory tests revealed decreased TSH (0.001 uIU/ml), increased both FT3 (>30 pg/ml) and FT4 (3.43 ng/dl), but normal levels of anti-thyreoglobulin antibodies (ATG - 0.64 IU/ml) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (ATPO - 0 IU/ml); thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) were not identified. The Graves' disease was diagnosed. The girl started treatment with methimazole (2x5mg) and propranolol (due to tachycardia, 2x5mg). The thyroid function (TSH, FT4 and FT3) normalized 1 year after diagnosis and hormone levels remained within normal reference values, but she received methimazole for 18 months. At presen, the patient is 8 years old. She is not receiving any treatment and her thyroid function is correct. The girl still presents symptoms of atopy. In case of symptoms of tachycardia in children, the hyperthyroidism should be taken into consideration. Numerous methods of treatment provide a therapy appropriate to the age and condition of patients. Long remission after treatment with antithyroid drugs could also be achieved in younger (prepubertal) children. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  4. Serious anaphylactic shock induced by hemocoagulase agkistrodon during anesthesia in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying-Yi; Li, Bi-Lian; Jin, Yu-Lin; Wang, Zi-Xin; Song, Xing-Rong; Ni, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of serious anaphylactic shock in a 5-year-old child undergoing scheduled surgery blank space of a right femoral intramedullary nail removal. The boy had undergone right femoral elastic intramedullary nail fixation surgery 14 months prior, but had no history of allergies. Within 5 minutes of intravenous bonus injection of hemocoagulase agkistrodon (HCA) 1 unit, a widespread transient diffuse erythema was seen on the front of his chest. After 20 minutes, sudden, profound cardiovascular collapse occurred. The child was treated effectively and sent to a ward 5 hours later. In this period, he received intravenously infused 200 ml hydroxyethyl starch solution and epinephrine at a rate of 0.05-0.01 μg kg(-1) min(-1). Total amount of dexamethasone sodium phosphate 14 mg was used. To the best of our knowledge, few case reports of HCA-induced anaphylactic shock in children exist. Our report will, therefore, increase awareness of the allergic potential of HCA among pediatric anesthesiologists.

  5. [An indolent and fluctuating subcutaneous mass of the skull in a 5-year-old patient: Diagnostic approach and difficulties].

    PubMed

    Beck, J; Pluchart, C; Durlach, A; Durez, O; Abely, M; Pietrement, C

    2017-02-20

    A subcutaneous mass of the skull in children can have many different causes (infectious, tumoral, and inflammatory). We report on the case of a 5-year-old patient with a subcutaneous mass of the skull evolving over several months. The first pathological analysis concluded in Kimura disease. The progression and scarcity of this entity in children led to a second pathological analysis that showed lymphoblastic lymphoma B (LLB). This case reminds us that when there are discrepancies between pathological conclusions and clinical progression of a tumoral process, repeated analysis and immunochemistry are necessary.

  6. Dynamic growth and deposition of hygroscopic aerosols in the nasal airway of a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Won; Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A

    2013-01-01

    Hygroscopic growth within the human respiratory tract can be significant, which may notably alter the behavior and fate of the inhaled aerosols. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hygroscopic effects upon the transport and deposition of nasally inhaled fine-regime aerosols in children. A physiologically realistic nasal-laryngeal airway model was developed based on magnetic resonance imaging of a 5-year-old boy. Temperature and relative humidity field were simulated using the low Reynolds number k - ε turbulence model and chemical specie transport model under a spectrum of four thermo-humidity conditions. Particle growth and transport were simulated using a well validated Lagrangian tracking model coupled with a user-defined hygroscopic growth module. The subsequent aerosol depositions for the four inhalation scenarios were evaluated on a multiscale basis such as total, subregional, and cellular-level depositions. Results of this study show that a supersaturated humid environment is possible in the nasal turbinate region and can lead to significant condensation growth (d / d(0)  > 10) of nasally inhaled aerosols. Depositions in the nasal airway can also be greatly enhanced by condensation growth with appropriate inhalation temperature and humidity. For subsaturated and mild inhalation conditions, the hygroscopic effects were found to be nonsignificant for total depositions, while exerting a large impact upon localized depositions.

  7. Fulminate Hepatic Failure in a 5 Year Old Female after Inappropriate Acetaminophen Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kasmi, Irena; Sallabanda, Sashenka; Kasmi, Gentian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen is a drug widely used in children because of its safety and efficacy. Although the risk of its toxicity is lower in children such reactions occur in pediatric patients from intentional overdoses and less frequently attributable to unintended inappropriate dosing. The aim of reporting this case is to attract the attention to the risk of the acetaminophen toxicity when administered in high doses. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here a 5 year old girl who developed fulminate liver failure with renal impairment and acute pancreatitis, as a result of acetaminophen toxicity caused from unintentional repeated supratherapeutic ingestion, with a total administered dose of 4800 mg in three consecutive days, 1600 mg/day, approximately 90 mg/kg/day. The blood level of acetaminophen after 10 hours of the last administered dose was 32 mg/l. The patient presented with high fever, jaundice, lethargic, agitating with abdominal pain accompanied by encephalopathy. The liver function test revealed with high level of alanine aminotransferase 5794 UI/l and aspartate aminotransferase 6000 UI/l. Early initiation of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) after biochemical evidence of liver toxicity was beneficial with rapid improvement of liver enzymes, hepatic function and encephalopathy. During the course of the illness the child developed acute pancreatitis with hyperamylasemia 255 UI/L and hyperlypasemia 514 UI/L. Patient totally recovered within 29 days. CONCLUSION: Healthcare providers should considered probable acetaminophen toxicity in any child who has received the drug and presented with liver failure. When there is a high index of suspicion of acetaminophen toxicity NAC should be initiated and continued until there are no signs of hepatic dysfunction. PMID:27275268

  8. A case of primary spinal atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Tandon, Vivek; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Rajeshwari, Madhu; Sharma, Mehar Chand

    2016-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare central nervous system neoplasm affecting children, and isolated primary spinal involvement is extremely rare. Authors describe a case of spinal AT/RT in a 5-year-old male child presenting with rapidly progressing quadriparesis diagnosed and managed surgically and medically. Biopsy revealed large, rhabdoid cells with prominent nucleoli in nest and immunohistochemistry further showed loss of integrase integrator 1 expression considered to be gold standard for diagnosis. AT/RT has extremely poor prognosis with median survival being 6 months. PMID:27606020

  9. [Auto-injection with epinephrine in the finger of a 5-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Janssen, R L H; Roeleveld-Versteegh, A B C; Wessels-Basten, S J W; Hendriks, T

    2008-04-26

    A 5-year-old boy with food allergies complicated by anaphylactic reactions with dyspnoea and angioedema had been prescribed an autoinjector with epinephrine (0.15 mg) so that his parents could treat him at home if necessary. The patient accidentally injected himself in a finger, which likely makes him the youngest patient to receive an epinephrine auto-injection reported to date. Treatment consisted of phentolamine (0.15 mg in 0.5 ml normal saline) injected subcutaneously at the site of accidental injection; the dose and volume were not adapted according to the age and body weight of the patient as only a local effect was intended. Finger circulation was restored within 20 minutes. Headache, nausea and vomiting were observed after 30 minutes and were most likely a systemic side effect of phentolamine. No other complications occurred. The patient recovered fully and was discharged the following morning. Intramuscular epinephrine autoinjection is standard therapy for severe anaphylactic reactions. The epinephrine autoinjector was introduced in 1980. As allergy and anaphylaxis become more common, increasing numbers of autoinjectors are prescribed, and it is likely that the number of accidental digital autoinjections will also increase. These digits are then at risk of ischaemic necrosis. There is no consensus on therapeutic strategies in such cases. Phentolamine administration appears to be an effective intervention. However, several recent studies have shown that epinephrine may be used safely in hand surgery, which suggests that accidental digital epinephrine autoinjection may not always require immediate treatment.

  10. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  11. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  12. Trauma Revisited: A 5-Year-Old's Journey from Experiences, to Thoughts, to Words, towards Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I describe the first 2 years of intensive psychotherapy of a multiply traumatized 5-year-old girl. I explore some of the ways in which violent and traumatic experiences were re-lived in the therapy and how they impacted on both patient and therapist. Within the discussion and illustrated by clinical vignettes, I consider the…

  13. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  14. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  15. Trauma Revisited: A 5-Year-Old's Journey from Experiences, to Thoughts, to Words, towards Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I describe the first 2 years of intensive psychotherapy of a multiply traumatized 5-year-old girl. I explore some of the ways in which violent and traumatic experiences were re-lived in the therapy and how they impacted on both patient and therapist. Within the discussion and illustrated by clinical vignettes, I consider the…

  16. Treatment of Sleep Problems in a 5-Year-Old Boy with Autism Using Behavioural Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiskop, Sophie; Matthews, Jan; Richdale, Amanda

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the successful treatment of sleep problems in a 5-year-old boy with autism. The intervention was based on behavioral principles and involved the parents attending an individually run parent training program. The parents learned how to use a bedtime routine, reinforcement, effective instructions, partner support strategies,…

  17. Comparison of sensitivity to first- and second-order local motion in 5-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Ellemberg, Dave; Lewis, Terri L; Meghji, Karim S; Maurer, Daphne; Guillemot, Jean-Paul; Lepore, Franco

    2003-01-01

    We compared sensitivity to first- versus second-order motion in 5-year-olds and adults tested with stimuli moving at slower (1.5 degrees s(-1)) and faster (6 degrees s(-1)) velocities. Amplitude modulation thresholds were measured for the discrimination of the direction of motion (up vs. down) for luminance-modulated (first-order) and contrast-modulated (second-order) horizontal sine-wave gratings. At the slower velocity (1.5 degrees s(-1)), the differences in threshold between 5-year-olds and adults were small but significant for both first- and second-order stimuli (0.02 and 0.05 log units worse than adults' thresholds, respectively). However, at the faster velocity (6 degrees s(-1)), the differences in threshold between the children and adults were 8 times greater for second-order motion than for first-order motion. Specifically, children's thresholds were 0.16 log units worse than those of adults for second-order motion compared to only 0.02 log units worse for first-order motion. The different pattern of results for first-order and second-order motion at the faster velocity (6 degrees s(-1)) is consistent with models positing different mechanisms for the two types of motion and suggests that those mechanisms mature at different rates.

  18. Severe vaginal laceration in a 5-year-old girl caused by sudden hydro-distention.

    PubMed

    Berkenbaum, C; Balu, L; Sauvat, F; Montbrun, A; Harper, L

    2013-12-01

    Severe vaginal trauma in young girls is uncommon. We describe a 5-year-old girl who presented a vaginal laceration following sudden hydro-distention. A 5-year-old girl was transferred to our institution for vaginal trauma with severe bleeding. Her brother had directed the nozzle of a functioning garden hose against her vulva. She presented pain and persistent vaginal bleeding without external genital lesions. Surgical exploration revealed a laceration of the right vaginal wall. The vagina was sutured and the bleeding stopped. This case illustrates a rare mechanism of severe vaginal laceration, in a young girl, by hydro-distention. Though there are often no external lesions the internal lesions can be severe causing significant bleeding. Certainly in these cases aggressive diagnostic evaluation is necessary. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Design Study to Develop Young Children's Understanding of Multiplication and Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicknell, Brenda; Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Nguyen, Nhung

    2016-01-01

    This design study investigated the use of multiplication and division problems to help 5-year-old children develop an early understanding of multiplication and division. One teacher and her class of 15 5-year-old children were involved in a collaborative partnership with the researchers. The design study was conducted over two 4-week periods in…

  20. Relief of membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, A; Di Donato, R; Dessanti, A; Caccia, G; Zaltron, D; Alberti, D; Callea, F; Marcelletti, C

    1986-12-01

    Membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava is a rare congenital anomaly that may present clinical features of Budd-Chiari syndrome caused by chronic obstruction of the hepatic drainage. We report membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava in a 5-year-old boy. Surgical repair was prompted by signs and symptoms of hepatic venous obstruction. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient successfully operated on for this anomaly.

  1. The 5-year-olds' Index: determining the optimal format for rating dental arch relationships in unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Chawla, O; Deacon, S A; Atack, N E; Ireland, A J; Sandy, J R

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the optimal format for presenting the 5-year-olds' Index reference models for the assessment of dental arch relationships in unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). The 5-year-olds' Index reference models were presented in four different formats: plaster models, coloured acrylic models, and two digital formats, which included three-dimensional digital models (3D), and black and white photographs. These formats were used to rate 45 plaster models of patients born with UCLP by a total of seven examiners comprising experienced and inexperienced examiners. Scoring was undertaken 1 week apart for each format with the patient models reassigned on each occasion to reduce the effect of memory bias. For intra-examiner agreement, the patient models were scored 3 weeks later under similar conditions by the same examiners. The reliability of using the different formats was determined using the plaster reference models as the 'gold' standard for comparison. Analysis of the results using weighted kappa (k) statistics showed the magnitude of agreement for all the formats of the 5-year-olds' Index were good to very good between examiners. The more experienced examiners were consistently more reliable in their scoring using the different formats. This study clearly demonstrated that 3D digital models of the 5-year-olds' Index could prove to be a promising alternative to physical models of the 5-year-olds' Index.

  2. [Acute cerebellar ataxia in a 5-year-old boy. Clinical warnings].

    PubMed

    Mrozińska, M; Horwath, A; Ostoja-Chrzastowski, W

    1998-01-01

    A case of acute cerebellar ataxia caused by ECHO virus 30.5-year-old boy admitted to the Clinic of Gastroenterology and Nutrition in Warsaw, in September, 1996, complaining of headache, dizziness, weakness, somnolence, dysarthria and an unsteady walk. On neurological examination he had imparied coordination, rombergism, generalized hypotonia. There was no history of exposure to contagious diseases, ear discharge, convulsions, trauma. Parents suggested that the child could have swallowed an unidentified pill--toxicological tests ruled out poisoning. The diagnosis is based on the clinical examination and amplification ECHO virus from CSF.

  3. Infantile fibrosarcoma of ethmoid sinus, misdiagnosed as an adenoid in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Khademi, Bijan; Karimi, Mehran; Shekarkhar, Golsa

    2015-01-01

    Infantile fibrosarcoma of head and neck is rare and the presence of this tumor in ethmoid sinus is even more uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, <5 cases have been reported in the last 20 years in the English literature, so far, only one of which has been infantile type in a 15 months old girl. In this case report, we will explain our experience with a rare case of infantile fibrosarcoma originating from ethmoid sinus in a 5-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea and epistaxis. After biopsy, it was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma of sinus origin. PMID:26604519

  4. Complex venous anomalies: magnetic resonance imaging findings in a 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hazirolan, Tuncay; Ozkan, Efe; Haliloglu, Mithat; Celiker, Alpay; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-10-01

    We report magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a very unusual venous anomaly case. A 5-year-old boy who had surgical repair of coarctation of the thoracic aorta was referred to our department for evaluation of an enlarged venous structure anterior to the aorta, which had been noted during the surgery. Contrast enhanced dynamic MRI revealed partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the left azygos vein, double inferior and superior vena cava with the left azygos continuation of the left superior vena cava. The recognition of venous anomalies allows correct planning of surgical and interventional procedures. MRI is a valuable imaging tool providing detailed anatomical information.

  5. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Savant, Hemant V.; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed. PMID:26167224

  6. Giant parietal lobe infantile gliosarcoma in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Savant, Hemant V; Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Mahajan, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The relative frequency of pediatric gliosarcoma (GSM) is 1.9% among glioblastomas and 0.5% among pediatric central nervous system tumors. A 5-year-old female child came to us with history of fever and loss of appetite since 2 weeks and right sided weakness since 4 days. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large heterogeneously enhancing space occupying lesion in the left parieto-occipital region. A parieto-occipital craniotomy with radical excision of tumor was performed. The patient was given adjuvant therapy following surgery and survived until 9 months following surgery. The etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities and prognosis of GSM is discussed.

  7. Water fluoridation, tooth decay in 5 year olds, and social deprivation measured by the Jarman score: analysis of data from British dental surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C. M.; Taylor, G. O.; Whittle, J. G.; Evans, D.; Trotter, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of water fluoridation, both artificial and natural, on dental decay, after socioeconomic deprivation was controlled for. DESIGN: Ecological study based on results from the NHS dental surveys in 5 year olds in 1991-2 and 1993-4 and Jarman underprivileged area scores from the 1991 census. SETTING: Electoral wards in three areas: Hartlepool (naturally fluoridated), Newcastle and North Tyneside (fluoridated), and Salford and Trafford (non-fluoridated). SUBJECTS: 5 year old children (n = 10,004). INTERVENTION: Water fluoridation (artificial and occurring naturally). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ward tooth decay score (score on the "decayed, missing, and filled tooth index" for each electoral ward). RESULTS: Multiple linear regression showed a significant interaction between Jarman score for ward, mean number of teeth affected by decay, and both types of water fluoridation. This confirms that the more deprived an area, the greater benefit derived from fluoridation, whether natural or artificial (R2 = 0.84, P < 0.001). At a Jarman score of zero (national mean score) there was a predicted 44% reduction in decay in fluoridated areas, increasing to a 54% reduction in wards with a Jarman score of 40 (very deprived). The area with natural fluoridation (at a level of 1.2 parts per million-higher than levels in artificially fluoridated areas) had a 66% reduction in decay, with a 74% reduction in wards with a Jarman score of 40. CONCLUSION: Tooth decay is confirmed as a disease associated with social deprivation, and the more socially deprived areas benefit more from fluoridation. Widespread water fluoridation is urgently needed to reduce the "dental health divide" by improving the dental health of the poorer people in Britain. PMID:9329305

  8. Investigating the Influences of Language Delay and/or Familial Risk for Dyslexia on Brain Structure in 5-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Becker, Bryce Larkin Chessell; Smith, Sara; Fehlbaum, Lynn Valérie; Wang, Yingying; Gaab, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Early language delay has often been associated with atypical language/literacy development. Neuroimaging studies further indicate functional disruptions during language and print processing in school-age children with a retrospective report of early language delay. Behavioral data of 114 5-year-olds with a retrospective report of early language delay in infancy (N = 34) and those without (N = 80) and with a familial risk for dyslexia and those without are presented. Behaviorally, children with a retrospective report of early language delay exhibited reduced performance in language/reading-related measures. A voxel-based morphometry analysis in a subset (N = 46) demonstrated an association between reduced gray matter volume and early language delay in left-hemispheric middle temporal, occipital, and frontal regions. Alterations in middle temporal cortex in children with a retrospective report of early language delay were observed regardless of familial risk for dyslexia. Additionally, while children with isolated familial risk for dyslexia showed gray matter reductions in temporoparietal and occipitotemporal regions, these effects were most profound in children with both risk factors. An interaction effect of early language delay and familial risk was revealed in temporoparietal, occipital, and frontal cortex. Our findings support a cumulative effect of early behavioral and genetic risk factors on brain development and may ultimately inform diagnosis/treatment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The treatment of 4-5 year-old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate in Tawanchai Center: follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Pongpagatip, Sumalee; Prathanee, Benjamas; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Ratanaanekchai, Teeraporn; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2012-11-01

    The highest incidence of cleft lip and cleft palate in Thailand occurs in the Northeast Region. Tawanchai Center was set up 10 years ago to be a specialized medical care center where an interdisciplinary team provides care for cleft lip and cleft palate patients. There has never previously been a study about 4-5 year old patients treated and followed-up by the multidisciplinary team. To study the 4-5 year old patient's with cleft lip and cleft palate who received treatment and follow-up in Tawanchai Center, Srinagarind Hospital. This retrospective study was conducted using data from every 4-5 years old cleft lip and cleft palate patients' medical record of the patients who had the continuous multidisciplinary treatment care at Tawanchai Center, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University. The 123 case samples were collected during the 3 months of April-June 2012. The research instrument was a form for general data record and follow-up data record and then the data were analyzed by statistic and percentage. From the 123 cases of the 4-5 years old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate who received treatment at Tawanchai Center Srinagarind Hospital, it was found that 120 cases or 97.56 percent had an operation, 20 cases (16.26 percent) were found where patients came from Khon Kaen Province, 10 cases of each male and female. For this treatment, the majority (108 cases) used government insurance cards. The patients with cleft lip and cleft palate were most common and found to be 74 cases consisted of 44 male and 30 female. The diagnosis and follow-up of cleft lip and cleft palate patients were classified into 18 age ranges, with a total of 2,269 follow-up visits. The most common follow-up was for the 2-3 year old patients, which consisted of 410 times or 18.07 percent which consisted of 220 male and 190 female. Regarding the age range of the patients for the first diagnosis, the highest amount was 38 cases or 30.89 percent

  10. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation as a cause of torticollis in a 5-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Bagouri, Elmunzar; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Lakshmanan, Palaniappan

    2014-05-15

    Many patients present to the emergency department complaining of a sore or stiff neck and lateral flexion of the neck with contralateral rotation. Under the pressure of the breaching time and busy shifts some of the patients are discharged to the care of their general practitioners without adequate investigations. While most of the cases are due to benign causes, torticollis can be due to many congenital and acquired pathologies, some of which may need further investigation and urgent management. Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), tumours of the base of the skull and infections are among these causes. Delayed diagnosis may lead to worsening neurology and complicate the management. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who presented to our fracture clinic with a fractured clavicle and torticollis; her subsequent investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AAS. Our patient responded to non-operative treatment and improved with no neurological complications.

  11. Large laryngeal vascular malformation in a 5-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Danstrup, Christian Sander; Madsen, Mette Hjørringgaard; Bille, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy was admitted with stridor, which was initially interpreted as subglottic laryngitis. He had a history of prolonged hoarseness and his voice was deep for his age. The stridor persisted despite treatment with epinephrine inhalations and intravenous glucocorticoids. A direct laryngoscopy and blood work up did not support the suspected diagnosis. A MRI was then carried out, followed by angiography. The latter revealed an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) involving the lingual and superior thyroid arteries bilaterally. Owing to the rareness and extent of such an AVM, the patient was referred to Paris for further treatment. This case presents the difficulties in diagnostics and emphasises the importance of diagnostics and multidisciplinary approaches with regard to treatment of AVMs. PMID:25795744

  12. Renal stone associated with the ketogenic diet in a 5-year old girl with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Na; Song, Ji Eun; Shin, Jae Il; Kim, Heung Dong; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Jae Seung

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we report on a 5-year-old girl who developed a renal stone while following the ketogenic diet to treat refractory seizure disorder. Three months after initiating the ketogenic diet, she developed severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The spot urine calcium-to-creatinine (Ca/Cr) ratio and 24-hour urine evaluation showed hypercalciuria. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a stone in the right ureteropelvic junction, resulting in hydronephrosis of the right kidney. The renal stone disappeared 5 days after conservative treatment; the patient's microscopic hematuria resolved concurrently. In light of this case report, we recommend regularly monitoring the urine Ca/Cr ratio with ultrasonography for further development of renal stones in patients following the ketogenic diet. If these patients exhibit evidence of symptomatic hypercalciuria or cyristalluria, liberalization of fluid restriction and urine alkalization using oral potassium citrate should be considered.

  13. [Anomic aphasia in a 5-year-old child following herpetic encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Sangermani, R; Adami, A; Nedbal, M; Paulin, M; Vaglia, P

    1999-01-01

    Aphasia is a rare neurologic disorder in childhood. Nevertheless some authors believe that some subtle aphasic syndromes as anomic aphasia are not always identified and the real prevalence of aphasia in childhood is higher. We observed a case of aphasia during the acute period of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in a 5 years old, right handed, boy with a good level of fluent speech. Six weeks after his initial assessment language was spontaneous, fluent, with normal prosodhy and articulation, but reduced, without content words, with frequent circunlocutory speech, semantic paraphasias, anomic latencies, real anomias, "pass partout" words. This picture was suggestive for anomic aphasia in a normally fluent context. Anomic aphasia can be produced by the disconnection between cortical and subcortical systems. Documented cases of anomic aphasia in childhood are rare. Our case present great similarities with adult cases in terms of localisation and denomination difficulties.

  14. Teaching 3.5-Year-Olds to Revise Their Beliefs Given Ambiguous Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Fischer, Adina; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that 3-year-olds fail to learn from statistical data when their prior beliefs conflict with evidence. Are children's beliefs entrenched in their folk theories, or can preschoolers rationally update their beliefs? Motivated by a Bayesian account, we conducted a training study to investigate this question. Children (45…

  15. 2.5-year-olds succeed at a verbal anticipatory-looking false-belief task.

    PubMed

    He, Zijing; Bolz, Matthias; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-03-01

    Recent research suggests that infants and toddlers succeed at a wide range of non-elicited-response false-belief tasks (i.e., tasks that do not require children to answer a direct question about a mistaken agent's likely behaviour). However, one exception to this generalization comes from verbal anticipatory-looking tasks, which have produced inconsistent findings with toddlers. One possible explanation for these findings is that toddlers succeed when they correctly interpret the prompt as a self-addressed utterance (making the task a non-elicited-response task), but fail when they mistakenly interpret the prompt as a direct question (making the task an elicited-response task). Here, 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested in a verbal anticipatory-looking task that was designed to help them interpret the anticipatory prompt as a self-addressed utterance: the experimenter looked at the ceiling, chin in hand, during and after the prompt. Children gave evidence of false-belief understanding in this task, but failed when the experimenter looked at the child during and after the prompt. These results reinforce claims of robust continuity in early false-belief reasoning and provide additional support for the distinction between non-elicited- and elicited-response false-belief tasks. Three accounts of the discrepant results obtained with these tasks - and of early false-belief understanding more generally - are discussed.

  16. False-belief understanding in 2.5-year-olds: evidence from two novel verbal spontaneous-response tasks.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rose M; He, Zijing; Baillargeon, Renée; Cummins, Denise

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that toddlers and infants succeed at various non-verbal spontaneous-response false-belief tasks; here we asked whether toddlers would also succeed at verbal spontaneous-response false-belief tasks that imposed significant linguistic demands. We tested 2.5-year-olds using two novel tasks: a preferential-looking task in which children listened to a false-belief story while looking at a picture book (with matching and non-matching pictures), and a violation-of-expectation task in which children watched an adult 'Subject' answer (correctly or incorrectly) a standard false-belief question. Positive results were obtained with both tasks, despite their linguistic demands. These results (1) support the distinction between spontaneous- and elicited-response tasks by showing that toddlers succeed at verbal false-belief tasks that do not require them to answer direct questions about agents' false beliefs, (2) reinforce claims of robust continuity in early false-belief understanding as assessed by spontaneous-response tasks, and (3) provide researchers with new experimental tasks for exploring early false-belief understanding in neurotypical and autistic populations.

  17. Performance tests of 4-5 year old lithium sulphur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C. R.; Williams, R. L.

    1983-09-01

    Tests of a new acoustic system in the spring of 1982, using radio frequency transmission of the data, required the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) to reconsider the use of lithium battery technology. A request was made to the Navy Safety Office, Naval Sea Systems Command Code 06H, for permission to utilize lithium batteries in the R&D project and for permission to use existing lithium sulphur dioxide cells, which had been purchased in previous years. The safety office tentatively approved the intended useage but subject to a performance test and evaluation of a representative sample of the existing cells. In response to the NAVSEA direction, 32 cells were randomly chosen and subjected to forming and discharge tests. The cells, as a group, performed beyond expectations and provided energy in excess of the manufacturer's original specifications for these cells. All tests were performed without safety problems or any incidents. Similar cells from the same lot were subsequently used at sea in the R&D project and performed equally as well as those tested in the laboratory. This report documents the testing procedures used to evaluate 4 to 5 year old Li/SO2 cells and the test results achieved.

  18. Microdeletion 19p13.2 in an almost 5-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Edda; Spreiz, Ana; Sigl, Sara Baumgartner; Janetschek, Carolin; Röthlisberger, Benno; Zotter, Sibylle; Rostasy, Kevin; Zschocke, Johannes; Kotzot, Dieter

    2012-05-01

    Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 19 are rarely found by conventional cytogenetic techniques. This region has a high gene density and this is likely the reason why deletions in this region are associated with a severe phenotype. Since the implementation of modern high-resolution SNP- and CGH-array techniques more cases have been reported. Here, we present an almost 5-year-old boy with intellectual disability, minor dysmorphisms, febrile seizures, and a de novo deletion of 834.2 kb on 19p13.2 encompassing 32 genes. The deletion was found by the Illumina Infinium HD Human1M-Duo v1 BeadChip SNP-array and confirmed by the NimbleGen Human CGH 2.1M Whole Genome Tiling v2.0D oligonucleotide array. PCR amplification of the junction fragment and subsequent sequencing defined the breakpoints and indicated that formation was mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). The phenotype of our patient shows that microrearrangements even at gene-dense chromosomes may result in mild clinical consequences.

  19. Is there an association between the nutritional status of the mother and that of her 2-year-old to 5-year-old child?

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Swanevelder, Sonja; Benadé, A J Spinnler

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between the nutritional status of the mother and that of her 2-year-old to 5-year-old child in a rural village in South Africa where there is a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition (in particular, deficiencies of vitamin A and iron) and of maternal obesity. A blood sample and anthropometric measurements were obtained for 118 child-mother pairs. There was a positive mother-child correlation for serum ferritin (R=0.2304, P<0.05) and haemoglobin (R=0.2664, P<0.01) concentrations, respectively. The child of an anaemic mother had a relative risk of 1.632 of also being anaemic. There was no mother-child association for either serum retinol concentration or anthropometric measurements. Serum retinol concentrations showed a positive correlation with both serum ferritin (mothers only; R=0.2161, P<0.01) and haemoglobin (R=0.2807, P<0.01 for mothers; and R=0.2710, P < 0.01 for children) concentrations. The mother-child association for iron status is probably because of an inadequate dietary intake and low bioavailability of dietary iron, which are major causes of iron deficiency. The lack of mother-child association for serum retinol concentration could probably be ascribed to the fact that children are more susceptible to vitamin A deficiency than adults because of childhood diseases.

  20. Differentiating technical skill and motor abilities in selected and non-selected 3-5 year old team-sports players.

    PubMed

    Archer, David T; Drysdale, Kristian; Bradley, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the difference in 22 3-5year old boys selected to an advanced or non-advanced group on an English community-based professional club training program. Time to complete 15m linear sprint and 15m zig-zag agility tests, with and without a ball, were used to assess the children's technical skill and motor ability. Age and body mass of both groups were the same, whereas height was greater and BMI was lower in the selected group (p<0.01). Linear sprint times without and with the ball were 3.98±0.35 and 4.44±0.36s, respectively for the selected and corresponding times were 4.64±1.04 and 11.2±5.37s for the non-selected (p<0.01, ES 0.8, 1.8). Similar results were found when a change of movement was included, both with and without the ball. A model of selection indicated that performance in an agility test with the ball and height had the greatest discriminatory power and explained 95.5% of between group variance. Selected players performed significantly better in tests when ball control was required. These findings suggest that technical proficiency and physical differences may influence team selection in three to five year old children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Needs Assessment of Parents of Typical Children Ages 4 to 5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Deon LaMount

    2010-01-01

    Parent education programs have been very successful in meeting the pre-established goals and expectations of their program without the input of parent participants prior to program implementation. Although programs continue to improve, it is important that programs begin to consider the specific needs of their target population. One parent…

  2. Intrauterine Adiposity and BMI in 4- to 5-Year-Old Offspring from Diabetic Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Nurah M.; de Valk, Harold W.; Biesma, Douwe H.; Visser, Gerhard H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnancies complicated by maternal diabetes are associated with disproportionate intrauterine growth that subsequently may lead to pediatric adiposity. Objectives We investigated whether disproportionate intrauterine growth leads to differences in BMI in 4- to 5-year-old offspring from pregnancies complicated by type 1 (ODM1), type 2 (ODM2), or gestational diabetes (OGDM). Methods Ultrasound data of fetal head-to-abdominal circumference (HC/AC) ratio obtained between 32 and 36 weeks of gestational age were related to offspring anthropometrics that were retrieved from infant welfare centers. Results Data from 27 ODM1, 22 ODM2, and 24 OGDM were obtained. Ultrasound measurements for the HC/AC ratio were performed at a mean of 33-34 weeks, with a mean Z-score of the HC/AC ratio of -0.801, -0.879, and 0.017 in ODM1, ODM2, and OGDM. Mean BMI SDS was highest in ODM2 as compared to ODM1 and OGDM. In ODM1 there was a negative correlation between HC/AC ratio and BMI SDS at the ages of 4 and 5 years, but not in ODM2 or OGDM. The birth weight Z-score was positively correlated to BMI SDS in ODM2 and OGDM. Conclusion Disproportionate intrauterine growth, expressed as the HC/AC ratio, was inversely related with BMI SDS in ODM1 at the ages of 4-5 years, but not in ODM2 or OGDM. Weight and maybe obesity in ODM1 offspring are likely to be related to intrauterine adiposity, whereas overweight in ODM2 and OGDM offspring seems more related to other factors such as birth weight centile, maternal obesity, and altered lifestyle factors during childhood. PMID:27788515

  3. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  4. The shadow of the future: 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, adjust their sharing in anticipation of reciprocation.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation can be maintained if individuals reciprocate favors over repeated interactions. However, it is not known when during development the psychological capacities to engage in contingent reciprocation emerge. Therefore, we tested when children begin to differentiate between reciprocal and nonreciprocal interactions in their resource sharing. We compared the sharing behavior of 3- and 5-year-olds in two situations. In an experimental condition, the child and a puppet partner alternated the roles of donor and recipient. In a control condition, the puppet had no opportunity to reciprocate. Results showed that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, increased their sharing toward a potential reciprocator. In addition, we found that children's ability to delay gratification was positively related to their tendency to share in both conditions. These findings show that reciprocity in anticipation of repeated interactions emerges during middle childhood. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of the ability to delay gratification as a prerequisite for children's sharing. We discuss how children's emerging cognitive abilities enable reciprocal sharing in situations where a child must react to or anticipate a partner's behavior.

  5. Soft Drinks Consumption is Associated with Behavior Problems in 5-Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira F; Solnick, Sara; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine soda consumption and aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and withdrawn behavior among five-year-old children. Study design The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a prospective birth cohort study that follows a sample of mother-child pairs from 20 large cities in the US. Mothers reported children’s behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 and were asked to report how many servings of soda the child drinks on a typical day. Results In the sample of 2929 children, 52% were boys, 51% were African-American 43% consumed at least one serving of soda per day and 4% consumed 4 or more servings per day. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, consuming one (Beta 0.7 95% CI 0.1,1.4), two (Beta 1.8 95%CI 0.8,2.7), three (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.6,3.4) or four or more (Beta 4.7 95%CI 3.2,6.2) servings was associated with a higher aggressive behavior score compared with consuming no soda. Furthermore, those who consumed four or more (Beta 1.7 95%CI 1.0,2.4) soda servings had higher scores on the attention problems subscale. Higher withdrawn behavior scores were noted among those consuming two (Beta 1.0 95%CI 0.3,1.8), or four or more (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.8,3.1) soda servings compared with those who consumed no soda. Conclusion We note an association between soda consumption and negative behavior among very young children; future studies should explore potential mechanisms that could explain this association. PMID:23968739

  6. Nasal Septal Agenesis and Attenuated Lower and Upper Lateral Cartilages in a 5-Year-Old Child: A Sporadic Finding

    PubMed Central

    Aldaghri, Faris; Mrad, Mohamed Amir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cartilaginous nasal septal agenesis is a rare finding. In fact, just one case has been reported to have congenital agenesis of all nasal cartilages in a 6-year-old child by Bakhshaee et al. The literature review shows another case that was reported by Ozek et al in Turkey, where they reported a case of total nasal agenesis that was associated with Tessier no. 30. We could not find a similar case in the literature where only agenesis of the nasal cartilaginous septum was present. Methods/Case Report: This is a case report of a 5-year-old child presenting to our clinic with agenesis of his nasal septum and attenuation of the upper and lower lateral cartilages. His parents were seeking a corrective procedure to improve the shape of his nose. He was a male child with a right unilateral cleft lip and palate that were corrected surgically in 2009 (lip repair) and 2010 (palate repair), respectively. Results: On postoperative week 3, the patient's mother brought him to the emergency department with a history of falling on his face while playing at home. Examination revealed swelling of the nose but no breathing difficulties. He still had an acceptable augmented nose but with sings of deviation and collapse. Discussion: We report this case to find an answer to how such cases can be approached in the future in terms of the surgical intervention required and to study the options of redoing such cases. PMID:28101289

  7. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  8. Pranlukast reduces asthma exacerbations during autumn especially in 1- to 5-year-old boys

    PubMed Central

    Campos Alberto, Eduardo; Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Yoshinori; Hoshioka, Akira; Abe, Hiroki; Saito, Kimiyuki; Tsubaki, Toshikazu; Haraki, Mana; Sawa, Akiko; Nakayama, Yoshio; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shigeta, Midori; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Background Leukotriene receptor antagonists have been used to prevent virus-induced asthma exacerbations in autumn. Its efficacy, however, might differ with age and sex. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether pranlukast added to usual asthma therapy in Japanese children during autumn, season associated with the peak of asthma, reduces asthma exacerbations. It was also evaluated the effect of age and sex on pranlukast's efficacy. Methods A total of 121 asthmatic children aged 1 to 14 years were randomly assigned to receive regular pranlukast or not according to sex, and were divided in 2 age groups, 1–5 years and 6–14 years. The primary outcome was total asthma score calculated during 8 weeks by using a sticker calendar related to the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms. This open study lasted 60 days from September 15 to November 14, 2007. Results Significant differences in pranlukast efficacy were observed between sex and age groups. Boys aged 1 to 5 years had the lower total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.002), and experienced fewer cold episodes (p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between pranlukast and control group in total asthma score at 8 weeks (p = 0.35), and in the days in which a child experienced a worsening of asthma symptoms (p = 0.67). Conclusion There was a substantial benefit of adding pranlukast to usual therapy in asthmatic children, especially in boys aged 1 to 5 years, during autumn season. PMID:28154801

  9. Behavioral Treatment of Acute Onset School Refusal in a 5-year Old Girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosschalk, Philip O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the behavioral treatment of acute onset school refusal in a 5-year old girl with Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD). A functional classification was used to select a treatment approach that involved the parent and teacher using shaping, positive reinforcement and extinction. Results showed that by the end of the fifth week of…

  10. False-Belief Understanding in 2.5-Year-Olds: Evidence from Two Novel Verbal Spontaneous-Response Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rose M.; He, Zijing; Baillargeon, Renee; Cummins, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Recent research indicates that toddlers and infants succeed at various "non-verbal" spontaneous-response false-belief tasks; here we asked whether toddlers would also succeed at verbal spontaneous-response false-belief tasks that imposed significant linguistic demands. We tested 2.5-year-olds using two novel tasks: a "preferential-looking" task in…

  11. Using a Tactile Map with a 5-Year-Old Child in a Large-Scale Outdoor Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Rebecca L.; Zimmerman, George J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors constructed an 11 x 17 in. tactile map to teach routes in an outdoor play environment to a 5-year-old blind child. After learning the routes on the tactile map, the child independently navigated them in the outdoor play environment. With practice, the child reduced the time necessary to learn and navigate the routes. The authors…

  12. False-positive "halo" sign on testicular scintigraphy in a 5-year-old boy with epididymitis and hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Guha, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bawa, Monika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2011-07-01

    Scintigraphic differentiation between acute torsion, hydrocele and testicular or scrotal abscess can be difficult. Doppler sonography may provide useful complimentary information toward diagnosis. The authors describe a 5-year-old child where epididymitis with hydrocele was misdiagnosed as testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy.

  13. Prenatal exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants is associated with high insulin levels in 5-year-old girls

    PubMed Central

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett L.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Jensen, Tina K.; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Madsbad, Sten; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál; Nielsen, Flemming; Andersen, Helle R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Several persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) possess endocrine disrupting abilities, thereby potentially leading to an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, especially if the exposure occurs during prenatal life. We have previously found associations between prenatal POP exposures and increased BMI, waist circumference and change in BMI from 5 to 7 years of age, though only among girls with overweight mothers. Objectives In the same birth cohort, we investigated whether prenatal POP exposure was associated with serum concentrations of insulin and leptin among 5-year-old children, thus possibly mediating the association with overweight and obesity at 7 years of age. Methods The analyses were based on a prospective Faroese Birth Cohort (n=656), recruited between 1997 and 2000. Major POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in maternal pregnancy serum and breast milk. Children were followed-up at the age of 5 years where a non-fasting blood sample was drawn; 520 children (273 boys and 247 girls) had adequate serum amounts available for biomarker analyses by Luminex® technology. Insulin and leptin concentrations were transformed from continuous to binary variables, using the 75th percentile as a cut-off point. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between prenatal POP exposures and non-fasting serum concentrations of insulin and leptin at age 5 while taking into account confounders. Results Girls with highest prenatal POP exposure were more likely to have high non-fasting insulin levels (PCBs 4th quartile: OR=3.71; 95% CI: 1.36, 10.01. DDE 4th quartile: OR=2.75; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.90. HCB 4th quartile: OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.69) compared to girls in the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed with leptin, or among boys. A mediating effect of insulin or leptin on later obesity was not observed. Conclusion

  14. The Role of Family Dynamics in Career Development of 5-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined whether, how, and to what extent young children's (N= 24) perceptions of themselves and their families related to their career development, career awareness, and work and family aspirations. Results suggest that young children cannot be clearly differentiated between those who are family-oriented and those who are career-oriented. (ABL)

  15. Validation of calculation algorithms for organ doses in CT by measurements on a 5 year old paediatric phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabin, Jérémie; Mencarelli, Alessandra; McMillan, Dayton; Romanyukha, Anna; Struelens, Lara; Lee, Choonsik

    2016-06-01

    Many organ dose calculation tools for computed tomography (CT) scans rely on the assumptions: (1) organ doses estimated for one CT scanner can be converted into organ doses for another CT scanner using the ratio of the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) between two CT scanners; and (2) helical scans can be approximated as the summation of axial slices covering the same scan range. The current study aims to validate experimentally these two assumptions. We performed organ dose measurements in a 5 year-old physical anthropomorphic phantom for five different CT scanners from four manufacturers. Absorbed doses to 22 organs were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters for head-to-torso scans. We then compared the measured organ doses with the values calculated from the National Cancer Institute dosimetry system for CT (NCICT) computer program, developed at the National Cancer Institute. Whereas the measured organ doses showed significant variability (coefficient of variation (CoV) up to 53% at 80 kV) across different scanner models, the CoV of organ doses normalised to CTDIvol substantially decreased (12% CoV on average at 80 kV). For most organs, the difference between measured and simulated organ doses was within  ±20% except for the bone marrow, breasts and ovaries. The discrepancies were further explained by additional Monte Carlo calculations of organ doses using a voxel phantom developed from CT images of the physical phantom. The results demonstrate that organ doses calculated for one CT scanner can be used to assess organ doses from other CT scanners with 20% uncertainty (k  =  1), for the scan settings considered in the study.

  16. Multiple Determinants of Externalizing Behavior in 5-Year-Olds: A Longitudinal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J. A.

    2007-01-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis…

  17. Classroom Bird Feeding: Giving Flight to the Imaginations of 4- and 5-Year-Olds!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how placing a plastic, gazebo-style bird feeder outside the classroom windows one cold autumn morning had been a catalyst for capturing and inspiring the children's imaginations. This empowered them to explore self-directed activities that resulted in meaningful, collaborative learning for most of the school…

  18. Working with Visually Impaired Young Students: A Curriculum Guide for 3 to 5 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trief, Ellen

    This guide provides a curriculum model for preschool programs specifically designed for preschool children (ages 3-5) with visual impairments. The book provides an extensive review of the literature with measurable behavioral objectives for each developmental level. Chapter 1, "Psychological Evaluation for the Preschool Visually Impaired Child"…

  19. Classroom Bird Feeding: Giving Flight to the Imaginations of 4- and 5-Year-Olds!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLennan, Deanna Pecaski

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how placing a plastic, gazebo-style bird feeder outside the classroom windows one cold autumn morning had been a catalyst for capturing and inspiring the children's imaginations. This empowered them to explore self-directed activities that resulted in meaningful, collaborative learning for most of the school…

  20. Multiple determinants of externalizing behavior in 5-year-olds: a longitudinal model.

    PubMed

    Smeekens, Sanny; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; van Bakel, Hedwig J A

    2007-06-01

    In a community sample of 116 children, assessments of parent-child interaction, parent-child attachment, and various parental, child, and contextual characteristics at 15 and 28 months and at age 5 were used to predict externalizing behavior at age 5, as rated by parents and teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis and path analysis yielded a significant longitudinal model for the prediction of age 5 externalizing behavior, with independent contributions from the following predictors: child sex, partner support reported by the caregiver, disorganized infant-parent attachment at 15 months, child anger proneness at 28 months, and one of the two parent-child interaction factors observed at 28 months, namely negative parent-child interactions. The other, i.e., a lack of effective guidance, predicted externalizing problems only in highly anger-prone children. Furthermore, mediated pathways of influence were found for the parent-child interaction at 15 months (via disorganized attachment) and parental ego-resiliency (via negative parent-child interaction at 28 months).

  1. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children’s construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children’s reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children’s reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds’ reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children’s books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children’s books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children’s attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493

  2. Renal infarction secondary to invasive aspergillosis in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hyun; Im, Soo Ah; Cho, Bin

    2014-07-01

    Aspergillus species have angioinvasive properties and can involve extrapulmonary organs by hematogenous spread from the lungs. However, renal involvement by Aspergillus is uncommon and is usually associated with the formation of abscesses. We report an unusual case of invasive renal aspergillosis presenting with extensive renal infarction in a 5-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This case emphasizes the fact that renal aspergillosis initially presents with only renal infarction, and metastatic-embolism by invasive aspergillosis should be considered in differential diagnosis for any focal lesion of kidney in a patient with leukemia.

  3. Reference range of blood biomarkers for oxidative stress in Thoroughbred racehorses (2–5 years old)

    PubMed Central

    KUSANO, Kanichi; YAMAZAKI, Masahiko; KIUCHI, Masataka; KANEKO, Kouki; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium is known to play an important role in equine medicine and equine exercise physiology. There are abundant findings in this field; however, not many studies have been conducted for reference ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers in horses. This study was conducted to determine the reference values of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) using blood samples from 372 (191 males, 181 females) Thoroughbred racehorse aged 2 to 5 (3.43 ± 1.10 (mean ± SD)) years old. There were obvious gender differences in oxidative biomarkers, and growth/age-related changes were observed especially in females. Gender and age must be considered when interpreting obtained oxidative stress biomarkers for diagnosis of disease or fitness alterations in Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:27703408

  4. A 5-year longitudinal analysis of modifiable predictors for outdoor play and screen-time of 2- to 5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Hardy, Louise L; Rissel, Chris

    2016-08-26

    Early childhood is a critical time for establishing physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Identifying modifiable predictors of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in the early life stages can inform the development of early intervention programs. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable predictors of outdoor play (a proxy of physical activity) and screen-time in 2- to 5-year-olds. A longitudinal data analysis was conducted using 5-year follow-up data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia from 2007 to 2013. A total of 667 pregnant women were recruited for the study. Information on mothers' demographics, physical activity, screen-time, knowledge of child development, and awareness of childhood obesity during pregnancy (at baseline); children's tummy time (a colloquial term describing the time when a baby is placed on his or her stomach while awake and supervised) at 6 months old and screen-time at 1 year old was collected via interviews with participating mothers as potential modifiable predictors. Main outcomes were children's outdoor playtime and screen-time at ages 2, 3.5, and 5 years. Mixed linear and logistic regression models were built to determine these modifiable predictors. Mothers' screen-time during pregnancy (β = 2.1, 95 % CI 0.17-4.12; P = 0.030) and children's daily screen-time at age 1 year (β = 15.2, 95 % CI 7.28-23.11; P < 0.0001) predicted children's daily screen-time across ages 2 to 5 years after controlling for confounding factors. Practising tummy time daily (β = 13.4, 95 % CI 1.26-25.52; P = 0.030), mother's physical activity level (β = 3.9, 95 % CI 0.46-7.28; P = 0.026), and having been informed about playing with child at baseline (β = 11.6, 95 % CI 1.56-21.54; P = 0.023) predicted children's outdoor playtime across ages 2 to 5 years. Mothers played an important role in their children's outdoor play and screen-time in the first years of

  5. Microcomputers and Young Children: An Exploratory Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sydney

    1985-01-01

    An exploratory study of what 5- and 6-year-old children can and will do when provided with certain kinds of computer experiences is described. The purpose of the study was to determine whether tutee programs can engage and sustain the learning energy of 5-year-olds. A total of 22 kindergarten children attended 8 or 12 90-minute sessions at a…

  6. Brief Report: Circumscribed Attention in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children and adolescents with autism demonstrate circumscribed attentional patterns to nonsocial aspects of complex visual arrays (Sasson et al. "2008"). The current study downward extended these findings to a sample of 2-5 year-olds with autism and 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Eye-tracking was used to quantify discrete…

  7. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the" Emotional Regulation Checklist" in 4- and 5-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danisman, Sahin; Iman, Esra Dereli; Demircan, Zeynep Akin; Yaya, Dilara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional Regulation Checklist is frequently used to determine emotional developments of children by teacher and parents of children. The purpose of this study was to examining the Psychometric Properties of "Emotional Regulation Check List" for 4-5 years age in preschool children. Method: The sample of the research was…

  8. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the" Emotional Regulation Checklist" in 4- and 5-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danisman, Sahin; Iman, Esra Dereli; Demircan, Zeynep Akin; Yaya, Dilara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Emotional Regulation Checklist is frequently used to determine emotional developments of children by teacher and parents of children. The purpose of this study was to examining the Psychometric Properties of "Emotional Regulation Check List" for 4-5 years age in preschool children. Method: The sample of the research was…

  9. Microsporum canis infection in a 5-year-old boy: transmission from the interior of a second-hand car.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Korting, H C; Strassl, W; Ruzicka, T

    1994-01-01

    Microsporum canis is one of the most common zoophilic dermatophytes. If transmitted to humans, inflammatory lesions may develop, e.g. on the scalp. M. canis was isolated from a 5-year-old boy living in a suburban area who suffered from a long-standing, mildly inflammatory lesion on the scalp that had been treated for several months with anti-eczematous regimens. There had been no contact with animals, e.g. cats or dogs, in the previous months, but the lesions had developed a few weeks after the family had bought a used car from a dog owner. Indeed, M. canis could be grown on contact plates from the car's interior. This case illustrates that attention should be paid to the often neglected diagnosis of M. canis-induced tinea capitis and to unusual routes of infection.

  10. Congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype with neuromuscular spindles excess in a 5-year-old girl caused by HRAS mutation.

    PubMed

    Bolocan, Anamaria; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Seferian, Andreea M; Baumann, Clarisse; Allamand, Valérie; Richard, Pascale; Estournet, Brigitte; Carlier, Robert; Cavé, Hélène; Gartioux, Corine; Blin, Nathalie; Le Moing, Anne-Gaëlle; Gidaro, Teresa; Germain, Dominique P; Fardeau, Michel; Voit, Thomas; Servais, Laurent; Romero, Norma Beatriz

    2014-11-01

    We report on a 5-year-old girl who presented with an association of symptoms reminiscent of an Ullrich-like congenital muscular dystrophy including congenital hypotonia, proximal joint contractures, hyperlaxity of distal joints, normal cognitive development, and kyphoscoliosis. There was an excess of neuromuscular spindles on the skeletal muscle biopsy. This very peculiar feature on muscle biopsy has been reported only in patients with mutations in the HRAS gene. Sequence analysis of the subject's HRAS gene from blood leukocytes and skeletal muscle revealed a previously described heterozygous missense mutation (c.187G>A, p. Glu63Lys). The present report thus extends the differential diagnosis of congenital muscular dystrophy with major "retractile" phenotypes and adds congenital muscular dystrophy to the clinical spectrum of HRAS-related disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of Fine Motor Skills in Children with Visual Impairment: An Explorative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…

  12. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  13. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  14. [Short term effect of weather patterns on the incidence of hand foot and mouth disease aged ≤5 years old in Jinan city].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqing; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Xiaoxue; Wang, Weiru; Zhang, Ji

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Jinan. HFMD confirmed cases aged ≤5 years old for the period of 2012-2014 were collected from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data, including daily average temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, rainfall and duration of sunshine were obtained from the website of Jinan meteorological bureau. A negative binomial multivariable regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and HFMD. During the study period, a total of 40 405 HFMD cases aged ≤5 years old were reported. The incident peak occurred from May to July, a total of 22 254 cases were reported during this period, which accounted for 55.08% of whole cases. After adjusting by "year", each 1 °C rise of weekly average temperature corresponded to an increase of 6.70% (95%CI:6.35% to 7.06%) in the weekly number of HFMD cases, while a 1 kPa rise of weekly average atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 44.77% (95%CI: -46.23% to -41.91%). Likewise, a one percent rise in weekly average relative humidity corresponded to an increase of 1.96% (95%CI: 1.84% to 2.09%), a 1 m/h rise in weekly average wind velocity corresponded to an increase of 16.63% (95% CI:14.08% to 19.25%), a hour add in weekly duration of sunshine corresponded to a decrease of 0.82% (95% CI : -0.93% to -0.72%), in the weekly number of HFMD cases. Weather factors including temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, wind velocity, and duration of sunshine had a significant influence on occurrence and transmission of HFMD in Jinan city.

  15. "Land of Volcanoes" workshop: a first step in Earth Sciences for "L'Alzina" Public School primary students (4-5 years old)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, Jordi; Geyer, Adelina; Díaz, Mabel

    2017-04-01

    "Land of Volcanoes" is a scientific outreach workshop devised by Adelina Geyer, researcher of the Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera, ICTJA-CSIC. The workshop proposes an approximation to the world of volcanology through the explanation of different concepts related to these geological phenomena: its origin and its characteristics, magma eruptions and their associated hazards, etc. Over the last years, Geyer has developed the workshop in the context of different outreach activities for an audience formed, not only but mainly, by secondary school students. At the beginning of 2016, as a result of different informal contacts between ICTJA-CSIC Communication Unit and Mabel Díaz, teacher of the "L'Alzina" public school (Molins de Rei), arose the idea of developing Geyer's workshop in front of 26 students aged 4-5 years old, primary students. Díaz explains that it is "in the age ranged between 0 and 6 years when observation and hands-on activities are important elements of the learning process", although she adds that " primary students are usually not seen as potential audiences of this type of outreach activities and workshops". Díaz says that "Science is simple: it is about observing, asking questions and finding answers, the same that children, even the smallest, do constantly." Adelina Geyer accepted the challenge of conducting the "Land of Volcanoes" workshop in front of 4-5 year old children, although it was necessary to adapt its format and content to the new audience. Meanwhile, students prepared the session following the same process used in the project work system employed at the school and that started from two questions: "What do we know about volcanoes? What we want to know about them?" On June 3rd 2016, Adelina Geyer conducted "Land of Volcanoes" workshop at l'Alzina public school in front of a classroom of 4-5 years old students. The activity was divided in two parts with a total duration of 45 minutes: 1) Brief introductory talk: this part

  16. Cutting Balloon Angioplasty of Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis Due to Takayasu Arteritis in a 5-Year-Old Child with Midterm Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Gumus, Burcak Cevik, Halime; Vuran, Can; Omay, Oguz; Kocyigit, Ozgen Ilgaz; Turkoz, Riza

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this report is to demonstrate the successful endovascular treatment of bilateral renal artery stenosis due to Takayasu arteritis by cutting balloon angioplasty in a 5-year-old child with mid-term follow-up.

  17. Not by the Red on My Chinny Chin Chin: A Case of Mandibular Osteomyelitis in a 5-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Dina; Kienstra, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Osteomyelitis is not an uncommon emergency department diagnosis in pediatric patients, and most cases are in the lower extremities. Children can present with acute, subacute, or chronic erythema, pain, swelling, or decreased use of the extremity; some patients will also have fever or elevated serum inflammatory markers, or both. We present the case of a healthy 5-year-old girl who presented to the emergency department with 3 weeks of painless chin swelling and 2 days of erythema and pain. While laboratory testing was normal, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated osteomyelitis of the mandible, later confirmed by biopsy. After 4 weeks of intravenous antibiotics and an additional 2 weeks of oral antibiotics, the patient recovered completely without any residual findings. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This case demonstrates that osteomyelitis can develop in previously healthy, fully vaccinated children with competent immune systems. Systemic findings (ie, fever and elevated serum inflammatory markers) may be absent, and osteomyelitis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for a child presenting with subacute to chronic cutaneous findings without other clear explanation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Case of 5 year-old boy with anaphylaxis due to erythritol with negative prick test and positive intradermal test].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Unno, Atsushi; Hatano, Michihiro

    2013-11-01

    A 5 year-old boy experienced anaphylaxis after eating a jelly product for diet supplement containing erythritol as a major component. Prick test with the jelly product was negative, but the second oral ingestion of the jelly product at home caused another allergic reaction. Prick test with erythritol was negative even at 300 mg/ml, which was almost the solubility limit. Intradermal test was marginally positive at 0.1 mg/ml, and clearly positive at 1 mg/ml or higher concentration. We found subtle dose-response reaction utilizing basophil activation test, examined with 24 hour incubation at the concentration of 40-4000 μg/ml. At the oral challenge test in the hospital, 3 g of erythritol induced remarkable coughing, urticaria, edema, wheezing and hypoxemia. Erythritol is a natural sugar alcohol, with the molecular weight of 122.12, which is recently being widely used for diet supplements, beverages, or drug medicines due to its properties of calorie-free and good-tasting, with easy-to-use physical characteristics. We now have to recognize erythritol as a candidate for food allergen, and to be careful about negative result of prick test.

  19. Effects of soil temperature on shoot and root growth and nutrient uptake of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lahti, M; Aphalo, P J; Finér, L; Ryyppö, A; Lehto, T; Mannerkoski, H

    2005-01-01

    Soil temperature is a main factor limiting root growth in the boreal forest. To simulate the possible soil-warming effect of future climate change, 5-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment rooms. The seedlings were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C during the first (GS I) and third growing seasons (GS III), but were assigned to random soil-temperature treatments of 9, 13, 18 and 21 degrees C during the second growing season (GS II). In GS II, shoot diameter growth was lowest in the 21 degrees C treatment and root growth was lowest in the 9 degrees C treatment. In GS III, shoot height and root length growth improved in seedlings that had been kept at 9 degrees C during GS II, indicating compensatory growth in response to increased soil temperature. The temporary decrease in soil temperature had no long-lasting significant effect on seedling biomass or total nutrient uptake. At the end of GS III, fine roots of seedlings exposed to a soil temperature of 21 degrees C in GS II were distributed more evenly between the organic and mineral soil layers than roots of seedlings in the other treatments. During GS II and GS III, root growth started earlier than shoot growth, decreased during the rapid shoot elongation phase and increased again as shoot growth decreased.

  20. Visual Realism in Children's Drawings: The Effect of Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Martyn; And Others

    Recent studies have revealed that 5-year-old children can be induced to produce visually realistic drawings, either by manipulating the nature of the model which is being drawn, or by turning the drawing task into a communicative game. However, it has also been found that 5-year-olds cannot be induced to produce visually realistic drawings merely…

  1. Mapping Novel Nouns and Verbs Onto Dynamic Action Events: Are Verb Meanings Easier to Learn Than Noun Meanings for Japanese Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Haryu, Etsuko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The present research examined how 3- and 5-year-old Japanese children map novel nouns and verbs onto dynamic action events and generalize them to new instances. Studies 1 to 3 demonstrated that although both 3- and 5-year-olds were able to map novel nouns onto novel objects, only 5-year-olds could generalize verbs solely on the basis of the…

  2. Jurisdictional, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in child health and development: analysis of a national census of 5-year-olds in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Sally A; Gialamas, Angela; Rahman, Azizur; Mittinty, Murthy N; Gregory, Tess A; Silburn, Sven; Goldfeld, Sharon; Zubrick, Stephen R; Carr, Vaughan; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde; Lynch, John W

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Early child development may have important consequences for inequalities in health and well-being. This paper explores population level patterns of child development across Australian jurisdictions, considering socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Design Census of child development across Australia. Setting and participants Teachers complete a developmental checklist, the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI), for all children in their first year of full-time schooling. Between May and July 2009, the AEDI was collected by 14 628 teachers in primary schools (government and non-government) across Australia, providing information on 261 147 children (approximately 97.5% of the estimated 5-year-old population). Outcome measures Level of developmental vulnerability in Australian children for five developmental domains: physical well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, language and cognitive skills and communication skills and general knowledge. Results The results show demographic and socioeconomic inequalities in child development as well as within and between jurisdiction inequalities. The magnitude of the overall level of inequality in child development and the impact of covariates varies considerably both between and within jurisdiction by sex. For example, the difference in overall developmental vulnerability between the best-performing and worst-performing jurisdiction is 12.5% for males and 7.1% for females. Levels of absolute social inequality within jurisdictions range from 8.2% for females to 12.7% for males. Conclusions The different mix of universal and targeted services provided within jurisdictions from pregnancy to age 5 may contribute to inequality across the country. These results illustrate the potential utility of a developmental census to shed light on the impact of differences in universal and targeted services to support child development by school entry. PMID:22952161

  3. Sustained Transmission of Pertussis in Vaccinated, 1–5-Year-Old Children in a Preschool, Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, P. Scott; Martin, Stacey W.; Dusek, Cristina; Cathey, Erika; D’Alessio, Rebecca; Kirsch, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    In September 2013, local county health officials in Tallahassee, Florida, USA, were notified of a laboratory-confirmed pertussis case in a 1-year-old preschool attendee. During a 5-month period, 26 (22%) students 1–5 years of age, 2 staff from the same preschool, and 11 family members met the national case definition for pertussis. Four persons during this outbreak were hospitalized for clinical management of pertussis symptoms. Only 5 students, including 2 students with pertussis, had not received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis. Attack rates in 1 classroom for all students who received the complete series of vaccinations for pertussis approached 50%. This outbreak raises concerns about vaccine effectiveness in this preschool age group and reinforces the idea that recent pertussis vaccination should not dissuade physicians from diagnosing, testing, or treating persons with compatible illness for pertussis. PMID:26814429

  4. Assessing selective sustained attention in 3- to 5-year-old children: Evidence from a new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John

    2012-01-01

    Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher-order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development – due, largely, to the paucity of developmentally-appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed to investigate SSA in preschoolers. The findings indicate that this task (1) has good psychometric and parametric properties, and (2) allows investigation of exogenous and endogenous factors within the same task, making it possible to attribute changes in performance to different mechanisms of attentional control rather than to differences in engagement in different tasks. PMID:23022318

  5. Assessing Selective Sustained Attention in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: Evidence from a New Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John

    2013-01-01

    Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development, due largely to the paucity of developmentally appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed…

  6. Assessing Selective Sustained Attention in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children: Evidence from a New Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Anna; Thiessen, Erik; Godwin, Karrie; Kloos, Heidi; Dickerson, John

    2013-01-01

    Selective sustained attention (SSA) is crucial for higher order cognition. Factors promoting SSA are described as exogenous or endogenous. However, there is little research specifying how these factors interact during development, due largely to the paucity of developmentally appropriate paradigms. We report findings from a novel paradigm designed…

  7. Adaptation of Western Measures of Cognition for Assessing 5-Year-Old Semi-Urban Ugandan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nampijja, M.; Apule, B.; Lule, S.; Akurut, H.; Muhangi, L.; Elliott, A. M.; Alcock, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The majority of available psychometric tests originates from the Western World and was designed to suit the culture, language, and socio-economic status of the respective populations. Few tests have been validated in the developing world despite the growing interest in examining effects of biological and environmental factors on…

  8. Phonological Similarity and Mutual Exclusivity: On-Line Recognition of Atypical Pronunciations in 3-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has considered the phonological specificity of children's word representations, but few studies have examined the flexibility of those representations. Tolerating acoustic-phonetic deviations has been viewed as a negative in terms of discriminating minimally different word forms, but may be a positive in an increasingly…

  9. Phonological Similarity and Mutual Exclusivity: On-Line Recognition of Atypical Pronunciations in 3-5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has considered the phonological specificity of children's word representations, but few studies have examined the flexibility of those representations. Tolerating acoustic-phonetic deviations has been viewed as a negative in terms of discriminating minimally different word forms, but may be a positive in an increasingly…

  10. An Examination of the Associations among Multiple Memory Systems, Past Tense, and Vocabulary in Typically Developing 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…

  11. An Examination of the Associations among Multiple Memory Systems, Past Tense, and Vocabulary in Typically Developing 5-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Kidd, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable research has investigated the role of verbal working memory in language development in children with and without language problems. Much less is currently known about the relationship between language and the declarative and procedural memory systems. This study examined whether these 2 memory systems were related to…

  12. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  13. Influence of Stuttering Variation on Talker Group Classification in Preschool Children: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Karrass, Jan; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variations in disfluencies of young children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) significantly change their talker group classification or diagnosis from stutterer to nonstutterer, and vice versa. Participants consisted of seventeen 3- to 5-year-old CWS and nine 3- to 5-year-old CWNS, with no…

  14. A 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome and a submicroscopic deletion of chromosome 15q11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.G.; Christian, S.L.; Kubota, T.; Ledbetter, D.H.

    1996-10-16

    We report on a 5-year-old white girl with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and a submicroscopic deletion of 15q11q13 of approximately 100-200 kb in size. High resolution chromosome analysis was normal but fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), Southern hybridization, and microsatellite data from the 15q11q13 region demonstrated that the deletion was paternal in origin and included the SNRPN, PAR-5, and PAR-7 genes from the proximal to distal boundaries of the deletion segment. SNRPN and PW71B methylation studies showed an abnormal pattern consistent with the diagnosis of PWS and supported the presence of a paternal deletion of 15q11q13 or an imprinting mutation. Biparental (normal) inheritance of PW71B (D15S63 locus) and a deletion of the SNRPN gene were observed by microsatellite, quantitative Southern hybridization, and/or FISH analyses. Our patient met the diagnostic criteria for PWS, but has no reported behavior problems, hyperphagia, or hypopigmentation. Our patient further supports SNRPN and possibly other genomic sequences which are deleted as the cause of the phenotype recognized in PWS patients. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Developing number-space associations: SNARC effects using a color discrimination task in 5-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Danielle; Hornung, Caroline; Martin, Romain; Schiltz, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Human adults' numerical representation is spatially oriented; consequently, participants are faster to respond to small/large numerals with their left/right hand, respectively, when doing a binary classification judgment on numbers, known as the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect. Studies on the emergence and development of the SNARC effect remain scarce. The current study introduces an innovative new paradigm based on a simple color judgment of Arabic digits. Using this task, we found a SNARC effect in children as young as 5.5 years. In contrast, when preschool children needed to perform a magnitude judgment task necessitating exact number knowledge, the SNARC effect started to emerge only at 5.8 years. Moreover, the emergence of a magnitude SNARC but not a color SNARC was linked to proficiency with Arabic digits. Our results suggest that access to a spatially oriented approximate magnitude representation from symbolic digits emerges early in ontogenetic development. Exact magnitude judgments, on the other hand, rely on experience with Arabic digits and, thus, necessitate formal or informal schooling to give access to a spatially oriented numerical representation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic Influences in Different Aspects of Language Development: The Etiology of Language Skills in 4.5-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Yulia; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Oliver, Bonamy; Dale, Philip S.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The genetic and environmental etiologies of diverse aspects of language ability and disability, including articulation, phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and verbal memory, were investigated in a U.K. sample of 787 pairs of 4.5-year-old same-sex and opposite-sex twins. Moderate genetic influence was found for all aspects of language in the normal…

  17. Vegetation control effects on untreated wood, crude cellulose and holocellulose 𗉝C of early and latewood in 3- to 5-year-old rings of Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Adrian Ares; Constance A Harrington; Thomas A. Terry; Joseph M. Kraft

    2009-01-01

    The stable carbon (C) composition of tree rings expressed as 13C, is a measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency and can indicate the occurrence of past water shortages for tree growth. We examined 13C in 3- to 5-year-old rings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees...

  18. Semantic meaning and pragmatic interpretation in 5-year-olds: evidence from real-time spoken language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2009-11-01

    Recent research on children's inferencing has found that although adults typically adopt the pragmatic interpretation of some (implying not all), 5- to 9-year-olds often prefer the semantic interpretation of the quantifier (meaning possibly all). Do these failures reflect a breakdown of pragmatic competence or the metalinguistic demands of prior tasks? In 3 experiments, the authors used the visual-world eye-tracking paradigm to elicit an implicit measure of adults' and children's abilities to generate scalar implicatures. Although adults' eye-movements indicated that adults had interpreted some with the pragmatic inference, children's looks suggested that children persistently interpreted some as compatible with all (Experiment 1). Nevertheless, both adults and children were able to quickly reject competitors that were inconsistent with the semantics of some; this confirmed the sensitivity of the paradigm (Experiment 2). Finally, adults, but not children, successfully distinguished between situations that violated the scalar implicature and those that did not (Experiment 3). These data demonstrate that children interpret quantifiers on the basis of their semantic content and fail to generate scalar implicatures during online language comprehension.

  19. An EMG screening method (dysphagia limit) for evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in childhood above 5 years old.

    PubMed

    Ozdemirkiran, T; Secil, Y; Tarlaci, S; Ertekin, C

    2007-03-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is not rare in older children before the adult age, especially the patients with cerebral palsy. Non-invasive simple tests are needed for the evaluation of children with neurogenic dysphagia including the patients with cerebral palsy. So we aimed to evaluate non-invasive ways to screen for dysphagia in children and the usefulness of this almost new electrophysiologic method for the detection of dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy. Twenty-eight healthy children and 12 patients with cerebral palsy were investigated for the applicability of this method. The movement of the larynx was monitored using a simple piezoelectric wafer sensor and submental surface EMG activity was recorded by bipolar silver-chloride electrodes taped under the chin over the submental muscle complex. The onset and duration of pharyngeal swallowing was recorded from submental-suprahyoid muscles such as the mylohyoid-genitohyoid-anterior digastric complex. By this method, the maximal water volume capacity was measured in single swallows with progressively increasing water volumes, this was called 'dysphagia limit'. The healthy control children revealed to swallow the bolus at once maximally 11.2+/-0.4 and 2.5 ml in average. Dysphagia limit varied from 7 to above 20 ml water volume from age 5-16 years old. Patients with cerebral palsy had the dysphagia limit of 7.7+/-1.8 and 6.4 ml in average. The dysphagia limit was significantly reduced in patients with cerebral palsy (p<0.05). Dysphagia limit seemed to be less sensitive in demonstrating the oropharyngeal swallowing disorders in childhood period (90% in the adult dysphagic patients). But the majority of patients with cerebral palsy (58%) showed abnormality. This electrophysiologic method is completely non-invasive, devoid from any hazard and applicable to children above 5 years. It may be candidate as a screening test before selection of dysphagic children.

  20. [Urinary tract infections: review of the case records of the 5-year-old population of Novara].

    PubMed

    Alloni, V; Aitink, O; Cadario, F; Chirio, F; Quaglia, P; Bona, G

    2004-10-01

    A feverish high temperature is the symptom that most frequently leads families to take their children to a Pediatric First Aid unit. In the differential diagnosis of the causes of hyperpyrexia the presence of infections of the genito-urinary tract have to be excluded. Infections of the urinary ways are often the cause of high temperatures in infancy, particularly during the 1st year of life; early identification at the moment of examination at the Paediatric First Aid clinic of patients with infections of the urinary ways makes it possible to prevent the onset of renal complications. We carried out a retrospective study with the purpose of evaluating the incidence of infections of the urinary ways and their complications in paediatric patients who had come to the First Aid unit for hyperpirexia and were later hospitalised after examination of the urine revealed and infection of the urinary ways. The study was carried out by consulting the registers listing arrivals at the First Aid unit and the subsequent discharge diagnosis. We then consulted the clinical records of patients who required admission to our Paediatrics Clinic arter the first aid examination. Re-reading the registers of examination carried out and the clinica records of hospitalised patients there emerged an increase in the observation of this pathology, diagnosed at the moment of the First Aid examination by means of rapid tests and thereafter assessed by haematochemical and radiological tests. In our opinion this increase could be attributed to the greater attention paid to diagnosing the causes of fever of apparently unknown origin.

  1. [Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) as cause of isolated gamma GT rise in a 5-year old boy with hepatomegaly].

    PubMed

    Wössmann, W; Wiemann, J; Körber, F; Gortner, L

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of HFI is easily missed during childhood. It should be suspected in children presenting with hepatomegaly and an isolated increase in GGT. A carefully taken nutritional history forms the basis of the diagnosis of HFI which can be confirmed by molecular analysis with a sensitivity of > 95%. I.v. fructose tolerance tests and liver biopsies often can be omitted.

  2. 2.5-Year-Olds Succeed at a Verbal Anticipatory-Looking False-Belief Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Zijing; Bolz, Matthias; Baillargeon, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that infants and toddlers succeed at a wide range of non-elicited-response false-belief tasks (i.e., tasks that do not require children to answer a direct question about a mistaken agent's likely behaviour). However, one exception to this generalization comes from verbal anticipatory-looking tasks, which have produced…

  3. Semantic Meaning and Pragmatic Interpretation in 5-Year-Olds: Evidence from Real-Time Spoken Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yi Ting; Snedeker, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on children's inferencing has found that although adults typically adopt the pragmatic interpretation of "some" (implying "not all"), 5- to 9-year-olds often prefer the semantic interpretation of the quantifier (meaning possibly "all"). Do these failures reflect a breakdown of pragmatic competence or the metalinguistic demands of…

  4. Cognitive Based Programming for the 3, 4, and 5 Year Old and Application to Later Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Dale G.; And Others

    Parents and teachers are encouraged in this paper to provide home and school cognitive science activities to help their preschool-age children develop prereading skills. Many of the activities mentioned could be introduced prior to the age of 3 years and all by the age of 5 years. In general, activities that develop cognitive skills should precede…

  5. Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Individual Differences in the Appropriation Bias among 4- and 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Ruth M.; Lobao, Sheila N.; Macaulay, Catrin; Herdman, Lynsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence that young children often claim ownership of their partner's contributions to an earlier collaborative activity, the "appropriation bias", has been attributed to shared intentionality ("Cognitive Development" (1998) 13, 91-108). The current investigation explored this notion by examining individual differences in the bias among 4- and…

  6. Empathy, Theory of Mind, and Individual Differences in the Appropriation Bias among 4- and 5-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Ruth M.; Lobao, Sheila N.; Macaulay, Catrin; Herdman, Lynsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence that young children often claim ownership of their partner's contributions to an earlier collaborative activity, the "appropriation bias", has been attributed to shared intentionality ("Cognitive Development" (1998) 13, 91-108). The current investigation explored this notion by examining individual differences in the bias among 4- and…

  7. Seizures and Methemoglobinemia After Topical Application of Eutectic Mixture of Lidocaine and Prilocaine on a 3.5-Year-Old Child with Molluscum Contagiosum and Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Se; Chung, Bo Young; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Hye One

    2016-09-01

    A eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) is used topically to provide local anesthesia for a variety of painful superficial procedures. Although the side effects of EMLA are usually mild and transient local reactions, potentially life-threatening complications can occur. We report a case of generalized seizures and methemoglobinemia after topical application of EMLA for curettage of molluscum contagiosum lesions in a 3.5-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis.

  8. [Latent coeliac disease in a 4.5-year-old girl with type 1 diabetes mellitus--case report].

    PubMed

    Szaflarska-Popławska, Anna

    2006-02-01

    Four and half year-old girl with type I diabetes mellitus and latent coeliac disease was presented. The typical serological screening at type I diabetes mellitus onset was negative. Three years later serological screening was performed again because of recurrent diarrhoea. At the time serum IgA antiendomysial antibody was positive. The intestinal biopsy showed subtotal villous atrophy with intraepithelial lymphocyte infiltration and elongated crypts. It seems that diabetic children should be periodically checked by screening tests for coeliac disease.

  9. Project HITE (health individualization and teacher education): a health curriculum for 3-, 4- and 5-year olds.

    PubMed

    Davis, A P

    1983-09-01

    South Carolina has been a national leader in such health problems as cardiovascular disease, syphillis and gonorrhea. Since many of the problems could be attributed to poor health habits, education of the state's residents seemed in order. The education/re-education of inaccessible adults with firmly established health habits--poor or otherwise--was not feasible, but the education of impressionable, readily accessible three-, four- and five-year olds was possible. Through a grant from the federal government, an individualized health curriculum that could accommodate the differences of the learners and include vital health content was developed. This project of developing and distributing the health curriculum to teachers of young children was called Project HITE (Health Individualization and Teacher Education).

  10. Effect of a low-intensity parent-focused nutrition intervention on dietary intake of 2- to 5-year olds.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy; Collins, Clare

    2013-12-01

    Community-based nutrition interventions aimed at influencing child dietary intake are rarely evaluated. We hypothesised that providing self-directed nutrition and parenting resources to parents living in rural northern New South Wales, Australia, would positively affect the dietary patterns of children ages 2 to 5 years. A total of 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, ages 2.0-5.9 years) were randomly assigned to either a 12-month parent-centred intervention involving self-directed education provided in CD and DVD formats, or a participant-blinded control group who received generic nutrition and physical activity information. Data were collected at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Total reported energy from nutrient-dense food groups and percentage energy from energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were high at baseline relative to estimated total energy expenditure for child age. Using random effects modelling, there were significant group-by-time effects for a reduction in mean (standard deviation) total energy intake (EI) at 12 months (-461 kJ/day (196); P = 0.04). An intervention group-by-time effect on carbohydrate intake (-17.4 g/day (10.6); P < 0.05) was largely attributable to decreased consumption of breads and cereals (-180 g/day (80); P = 0.007). Decreases in energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were not statistically significant. The proportion of total EI from noncore foods in children in rural New South Wales is high and did not improve in response to a low-intensity nutrition intervention. Parents reported small changes in consumption frequency for core and noncore food intakes, leading to a reduction in total EI. Strategies to increase resource use such as prompting via e-mail are required to further explore the effectiveness of nutrition resource dissemination at a population level.

  11. Children's Recency Tendency: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Persian, Kurdish and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrani, Mehdi B.; Peterson, Carole

    2017-01-01

    In the present cross-linguistic study two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of age and linguistic background on response tendencies of preschoolers toward forced-choice questions. A total of 163 2- to 5-year-old children, including 63 Persian speakers, 57 Kurdish speakers and 43 English speakers, were asked a set of…

  12. The Use of Reported Speech in Children's Narratives: A Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…

  13. The Use of Reported Speech in Children's Narratives: A Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serratrice, Ludovica; Hesketh, Anne; Ashworth, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of structural priming on children's use of indirect speech clauses in a narrative context. Forty-two monolingual English-speaking 5-year-olds in two primary classrooms took part in a story-retelling task including reported speech. Testing took place in three individual sessions (pre-test, post-test 1,…

  14. Mathematical Skills in 3- and 5-Year-Olds with Spina Bifida and Their Typically Developing Peers: A Longitudinal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marcia A.; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M.; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual–spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual–spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual–spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:21418718

  15. Mathematical skills in 3- and 5-year-olds with spina bifida and their typically developing peers: a longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia A; Stubbs, Allison; Raghubar, Kimberly P; Agostino, Alba; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan; Fletcher, Jack M; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2011-05-01

    Preschoolers with spina bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing (TD) children on tasks tapping mathematical knowledge at 36 months (n = 102) and 60 months of age (n = 98). The group with SB had difficulty compared to TD peers on all mathematical tasks except for transformation on quantities in the subitizable range. At 36 months, vocabulary knowledge, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities predicted achievement on a measure of informal math knowledge in both groups. At 60 months of age, phonological awareness, visual-spatial ability, and fine motor skill were uniquely and differentially related to counting knowledge, oral counting, object-based arithmetic skills, and quantitative concepts. Importantly, the patterns of association between these predictors and mathematical performance were similar across the groups. A novel finding is that fine motor skill uniquely predicted object-based arithmetic abilities in both groups, suggesting developmental continuity in the neurocognitive correlates of early object-based and later symbolic arithmetic problem solving. Models combining 36-month mathematical ability and these language-based, visual-spatial, and fine motor abilities at 60 months accounted for considerable variance on 60-month informal mathematical outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical development and early identification of risk in preschoolers with neurodevelopmental disorder.

  16. Bivariate Genetic Analyses of Stuttering and Nonfluency in a Large Sample of 5-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beijsterveldt, Catharina Eugenie Maria; Felsenfeld, Susan; Boomsma, Dorret Irene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral genetic studies of speech fluency have focused on participants who present with clinical stuttering. Knowledge about genetic influences on the development and regulation of normal speech fluency is limited. The primary aims of this study were to identify the heritability of stuttering and high nonfluency and to assess the…

  17. Safety and Tolerability of Methylphenidate in Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Tim; Greenhill, Laurence; Chuang, Shirley; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Skrobala, Anne; Swanson, James; Wigal, Sharon; Abikoff, Howard; Kollins, Scott; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Davies, Mark; Thorp, Ben; Stehli, Annamarie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To report on the safety and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) 3- to 5-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during 1 year of treatment. Method: Exactly 183 children (3-5 years old) entered a treatment study of MPH, consisting of a 1-week open-label lead-in (n = 183); a 5-week placebo-controlled,…

  18. Caries prevalence of kindergarten children in Salzgitter and Oslo.

    PubMed

    Sönju Clasen, A B; von der Fehr, F R; Kant van Daal, J M

    1992-01-01

    In a comparable epidemiological study of kindergarten children, 455 4- and 5-year-olds in Salzgitter (FRG) and 171 4- and 5-year-olds in Oslo (Norway) were examined. Caries was scored at the cavitation level according to WHO criteria. The percentage of caries-free children was higher and the dmfs scores were lower in Oslo than in Salzgitter. It is postulated that this was the result of different levels of fluoride exposure, nutritional habits and dental treatment provision.

  19. Safety and Tolerability of Methylphenidate in Preschool Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Tim; Greenhill, Laurence; Chuang, Shirley; McGough, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Skrobala, Anne; Swanson, James; Wigal, Sharon; Abikoff, Howard; Kollins, Scott; McCracken, James; Riddle, Mark; Posner, Kelly; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Davies, Mark; Thorp, Ben; Stehli, Annamarie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To report on the safety and tolerability of methylphenidate (MPH) 3- to 5-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during 1 year of treatment. Method: Exactly 183 children (3-5 years old) entered a treatment study of MPH, consisting of a 1-week open-label lead-in (n = 183); a 5-week placebo-controlled,…

  20. Headband sign on magnetic resonance imaging: An unusual finding of scurvy in a 5-year-old child described first time

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Umesh I.; Gohil, Jayendra R.; Parekh, Alpa N.; Chauhan, Hardik R.

    2016-01-01

    Scurvy usually presents with tender and painful limbs, swelling of joints, gum bleeding, poor wound healing, and muscle weakness. Here, we report a case of 5-year-old child with global developmental delay who presented with soft swelling of the head over scalp and protrusion of the left eye with extremely irritability. Neuroimaging was suggestive of diffuse extensive soft-tissue swelling involving the entire scalp with large necrotic collections with mild proptosis of the left orbit. It is not mentioned elsewhere, so we are giving name to this magnetic resonance imaging finding as “headband” sign or “turban” sign. PMID:28217165

  1. A 5-year-old boy with unicentric Castleman disease affecting the mesentery: utility of serum IL-6 level and (18)F-FDG PET for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Toita, Nariaki; Kawamura, Nobuaki; Hatano, Norikazu; Takezaki, Syun-ichiro; Ohkura, Yuka; Yamada, Masafumi; Okano, Motohiko; Okada, Tadao; Sasaki, Fumiaki; Kubota, Kanako C; Itoh, Tomoo; Ariga, Tadashi

    2009-09-01

    Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. It is quite difficult to diagnose CD without typical localized signs or symptoms. We present a 5-year-old boy with unicentric plasma cell CD in the mesentery, which was too small to be detected by any conventional imaging. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography image and a serum cytokine profile prompted us to perform a curative surgical excision, confirming his diagnosis. Our case also supported an important role of interleukin-6 in the pathophysiology of plasma cell CD.

  2. Initiation of movement and energy expenditure in children with developmental delay: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiao-Nan Joyce; Hwang, Ai-Wen; Lin, Shang-Ying; Lin, Yu-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Lower levels of physical activity in children with developmental delay (DD) usually are attributed to higher energy costs. However, there is no evidence that children with DD spend more energy on daily physical activities, such as walking. The aim of this study was to compare energy costs during walking and movement initiation times in children with DD and children with typical development (TD) and matched for age. This was a case-control study. Children who were 3 and 5 years old and had DD (n=12) or TD (n=12) participated in the study. Measurements included ranges of motion in the lower extremities, physiological costs of walking, and movement initiation times. A task designed to evaluate the initiation of movement (the "go play with the toy" task) was used to examine the reaction times for children's goal-directed walking. The physiological costs of walking were similar in the 2 groups; however, children with DD walked at a lower speed than children with TD. Importantly, children with DD took more time to initiate goal-directed walking. The nature of the study design limited causal inference from the results. Children who were 3 to 5 years old and had DD had delays in goal-directed movement that may not have been attributable to motor impairments. The findings suggest that therapists should evaluate the movement initiation ability of 3- to 5-year-old children with DD as part of the design of an overall intervention plan. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  3. Treatment of 4-5 year old patients with cleft lip and cleft palate in Tawanchai center.

    PubMed

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Volrathongchai, Kanittha; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2013-09-01

    The occurrence of Cleft Lip/Palate condition in Thailand reaches a rate of 2.49% of child births, with estimates of 800 new cases per year in the Northeastern region. The healthcare process emphasizes interdisciplinary teamwork at each stage of the planning of treatment and services with the primary goal of achieving patient satisfaction and ability to live normally in society. The first 5 years are particularly important, with a focus on quality of care and ability to adapt to the environment before entering school. To study the treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate in Tawanchai center in the 4-5 year age range. A retrospective study of the clinical records was led, concerning the 123 cleft lip and cleft palate patients aged 4-5 years under treatment in Tawanchai center, Srinagarind Hospital. Data was collected during three months from October to December 2011, using the admission records of the interdisciplinary team. Percentages and mean values were calculated from these data. 120 of the 123 patients were operated, giving a ratio of 97.56%. 108 cases were under government universal health coverage regime, corresponding to 87.80% of cases. 74 cases (60.16%) presented both cleft lip and palate condition, and an average of 5-night stay in hospital per person. Medical services by the interdisciplinary team were provided as follows: (1) of 30 patients with cleft lip aged 3-4 months, 30 (100%) received pre and post-surgery care counseling, 29 (96.67%) received surgery; (2) of 19 patients with cleft palate aged 10-18 months, 17 (89.47%) received treatment information, pre and postsurgery counseling and were operated according to the protocols; (3) of 74 patients with cleft lip and palate, 53 (71.62%) received counseling for pre and post-surgery care for lip repair at the age of 3-4 months, 52 (70.27%) were operated following the protocols, while at the age of 10-18 months 63 patients (85.14%) received treatment information, pre and postsurgery care counseling

  4. Dietary restraint of 5-year-old girls: Associations with internalization of the thin ideal and maternal, media, and peer influences.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; McLean, Siân A; Gregg, Karen J

    2015-12-01

    Understanding socio-cultural factors associated with the development of dieting tendencies is important for preventing future disordered eating. We explored individual and socio-cultural factors associated with weight-focussed dietary restraint tendencies (described as dietary restraint) in 5-year-old girls. Participants were 111 5-year-old girls and 109 of their mothers. Girls were interviewed about their dietary restraint, body image, appearance ideals, positive weight bias (attributing positive characteristics to thinner figures), and peer conversations. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires assessing dietary restraint and appearance ideals, as well as measures reporting on their daughter's media exposure and peer appearance interest. Thirty-four percent of girls reported at least a moderate level of dietary restraint. While most girls were satisfied with their body size, half showed some internalization of the thin ideal. Girls' dietary restraint was correlated with weight bias favoring thinner bodies, and greater internalization of the thin ideal, media exposure, and appearance conversations with peers. Media exposure and appearance conversations were the strongest predictors of dietary restraint. These cross-sectional findings suggest that the socio-cultural environment of young girls may be important in the very early development of unhealthy dieting tendencies. Longitudinal research is necessary to identify whether these are prospective risk factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of displacement on sensitivity to first- and second-order global motion in 5-year-olds and adults.

    PubMed

    Ellemberg, D; Lewis, T L; Maurer, D; Lee, B; Ledgeway, T; Guilemot, J P; Lepore, F

    2010-01-01

    We compared the development of sensitivity to first- versus second-order global motion in 5-year-olds (n=24) and adults (n=24) tested at three displacements (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 degrees). Sensitivity was measured with Random-Gabor Kinematograms (RGKs) formed with luminance-modulated (first-order) or contrast-modulated (second-order) concentric Gabor patterns. Five-year-olds were less sensitive than adults to the direction of both first- and second-order global motion at every displacement tested. In addition, the immaturity was smallest at the smallest displacement, which required the least spatial integration, and smaller for first-order than for second-order global motion at the middle displacement. The findings suggest that the development of sensitivity to global motion is limited by the development of spatial integration and by different rates of development of sensitivity to first- versus second-order signals.

  6. Teaching Children about the Inverse Relation between Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Hallett, Darcy; Bell, Daniel; Evans, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Two intervention studies are described. Both were designed to study the effects of teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. The interventions were successful with 8-year-old children in Study 1 and to a limited extent with 5-year-old children in Study 2. In Study 1 teaching children about inversion increased…

  7. Teaching Children about the Inverse Relation between Addition and Subtraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Hallett, Darcy; Bell, Daniel; Evans, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Two intervention studies are described. Both were designed to study the effects of teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. The interventions were successful with 8-year-old children in Study 1 and to a limited extent with 5-year-old children in Study 2. In Study 1 teaching children about inversion increased…

  8. What leads children to adopt new strategies? A microgenetic/cross-sectional study of class inclusion.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Svetina, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Learning of class inclusion by 5-year-olds in response to empirical and logical explanations of an adult's answers was examined. Contrary to the view that young children possess an empirical bias, 5-year-olds learned more, and continued learning for longer, when given logical explanations of correct answers than when given empirical explanations. Once children discovered how to solve the problems, they showed few regressions. Many children in the microgenetic experiment followed the path of change anticipated from previous cross-sectional studies, but children in the cross-sectional part of the study seemed to follow a different path. Reasons for the superior effectiveness of the logical explanations were discussed.

  9. Children's Recognition of Cartoon Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Melanie J.; Rollins, Pamela R.; Jerger, Susan

    2002-01-01

    A study examined developmental changes in talker recognition skills by assessing 72 children's (ages 3-5) recognition of 20 cartoon characters' voices. Four- and 5-year-old children recognized more of the voices than did 3-year-olds. All children were more accurate at recognizing more familiar characters than less familiar characters. (Contains…

  10. Phonology in Swedish-speaking 5-year-olds born with unilateral cleft lip and palate and the relationship with consonant production at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2016-04-01

    At ∼3 years of age ∼50% of the children born with cleft palate present with phonological/articulatory difficulties. Differences between children with and without cleft palate have been reported to decline with age; however, the phonology in children with cleft palate at pre-school age/early school age has rarely been explored. The purpose of this study was to assess phonology in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) at age 5 and its relationship with performances at 3 years of age. The study included 29 children with UCLP and 20 without UCLP. Percentage correct consonants adjusted for age (PCC-A) and number of consistent phonological simplification processes were assessed from phonetic transcriptions. In addition, a descriptive analysis of phonological/articulatory processes was performed. The children with UCLP displayed significantly lower PCC-A and more phonological processes at age 5 years than peers without UCLP. The correlations between the outcomes at 3 and 5 years of age were significant. Still at 5 years of age many children with cleft palate have phonological problems and it is possible to identify children at risk for impaired phonology at earlier age.

  11. Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…

  12. Young Children's Color Preferences in the Interior Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…

  13. [Recurrent idiopathic cerebral infarction in a 5-year-old boy, with emphasis on the importance of platelet aggregation analysis for appropriate selection of anti-platelet drugs].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Nobuyoshi; Matsuda, Shin-ichi; Shimizu, Mie; Obara, Saori; Ikegami, Mariko; Yokoyama, Jyun-ichi; Miyashita, Yoshihiro; Takizawa, Shyunya; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2009-01-01

    We present a 5-year-old boy with recurrent idiopathic cerebral infarction in which analysis of platelet hyperaggregability was useful in choosing appropriate anti-platelet drugs. The patient presented with gait disturbance at the age of 5 years and 1 month. Brain MRI demonstrated multiple infarctions in the right thalamus and left cerebellum. There were no apparent underlying diseases including hematological, cardiac and vascular abnormalities. He was diagnosed as idiopathic cerebral infarction. First, we administered ticlopidine and he remained stable with persistent mild intention tremor in the left upper extremity for 4 months. Then he developed the second stroke at the age of 5 years and 5 months, and multiple infarctions in the right celebellum and cerebellar vermis were demonstrated. On platelet aggregation analysis, adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation was inhibited, probably due to ticlopidine administration. Collagen- and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation showed hyperaggregation, so we started to administer cilostazol, which inhibits only epinephrine-induced hyperaggregation. We also added aspirin, which inhibits collagen-induced hyperaggregation. The combination of anti-platelet drugs inhibited epinephrine-, collagen- and ADP-induced hyperaggregation in this patient. He has been stable on the triple combination of anti-platelet drugs without further episodes of cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack for 4 years to date. Appropriate selection of anti-platelet therapy was achieved by the simple and repeatable platelet aggregation analyses, which must be considered even in pediatric patients with cerebral infarction.

  14. False-belief understanding in 2.5-year-olds: evidence from violation-of-expectation change-of-location and unexpected-contents tasks

    PubMed Central

    He, Zijing; Bolz, Matthias; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, it was generally assumed that the ability to attribute false beliefs did not emerge until about 4 years of age. However, recent reports using spontaneous- as opposed to elicited-response tasks have suggested that this ability may be present much earlier. To date, researchers have employed two kinds of spontaneous-response false-belief tasks: violation-of-expectation tasks have been used with infants in the second year of life, and anticipatory-looking tasks have been used with toddlers in the third year of life. In the present research, 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested in violation-of-expectation tasks involving a change-of-location situation (Experiment 1) and an unexpected-contents situation (Experiment 2). Results were positive in both situations, providing the first demonstrations of false-belief understanding in toddlers using violation-of-expectation tasks and, as such, pointing to a consistent and continuous picture of early false-belief understanding. PMID:22213902

  15. Children's and adults' use of verbal information to visually anticipate others' actions: A study on explicit and implicit social-cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; Schuwerk, Tobias; Sodian, Beate; Ganglmayer, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    According to recent theories, social cognition is based on two different types of information-processing; an implicit or action-based one and an explicit or verbal one. The present study examined whether implicit and explicit social-cognitive information processing interact with each other by investigating young children's and adults' use of verbal (i.e., explicit) information to predict others' actions. Employing eye-tracking to measure anticipatory eye-movements as a measure of implicit processing, Experiment 1 presented 1.5-, 2.5-, and 3.5-year-old children as well as adults with agents who announced to move to either of two possible targets. The results show that only the 3.5-year-old children and adults, but not the 1.5- and 2.5-year-old children were able to use verbal information to correctly anticipate others' actions. Yet, Experiments 2 and 3 showed that 2.5-year-old children were able to use explicit information to give a correct explicit answer (Experiment 2) and that they were able to use statistical information to anticipate the other's actions (Experiment 3). Overall, the study is in line with theoretical claims that two types of information-processing underlie human social cognition. It shows that these two inform each other by 3years of age.

  16. Language learning and brain reorganization in a 3.5-year-old child with left perinatal stroke revealed using structural and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    François, Clément; Ripollés, Pablo; Bosch, Laura; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Muchart, Jordi; Sierpowska, Joanna; Fons, Carme; Solé, Jorgina; Rebollo, Monica; Gaitán, Helena; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Brain imaging methods have contributed to shed light on the possible mechanisms of recovery and cortical reorganization after early brain insult. The idea that a functional left hemisphere is crucial for achieving a normalized pattern of language development after left perinatal stroke is still under debate. We report the case of a 3.5-year-old boy born at term with a perinatal ischemic stroke of the left middle cerebral artery, affecting mainly the supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal and insular cortex extending to the precentral and postcentral gyri. Neurocognitive development was assessed at 25 and 42 months of age. Language outcomes were more extensively evaluated at the latter age with measures on receptive vocabulary, phonological whole-word production and linguistic complexity in spontaneous speech. Word learning abilities were assessed using a fast-mapping task to assess immediate and delayed recall of newly mapped words. Functional and structural imaging data as well as a measure of intrinsic connectivity were also acquired. While cognitive, motor and language levels from the Bayley Scales fell within the average range at 25 months, language scores were below at 42 months. Receptive vocabulary fell within normal limits but whole word production was delayed and the child had limited spontaneous speech. Critically, the child showed clear difficulties in both the immediate and delayed recall of the novel words, significantly differing from an age-matched control group. Neuroimaging data revealed spared classical cortical language areas but an affected left dorsal white-matter pathway together with right lateralized functional activations. In the framework of the model for Social Communication and Language Development, these data confirm the important role of the left arcuate fasciculus in understanding and producing morpho-syntactic elements in sentences beyond two word combinations and, most importantly, in learning novel word-referent associations, a

  17. Young Children's Language of Togetherness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Dorian; Singer, Elly

    2001-01-01

    Discusses verbal strategies used by young children to express and construct a sense of togetherness. Presents the case study of one child, 3-5 years old, in his interactions with other children and teachers. Describes three general mechanisms for expressing togetherness: expression of common ground, of cooperation, and of care. (JPB)

  18. A study of dietary practices of pre-school children attending anganwadies in urban slum of Patiala (Punjab).

    PubMed

    Sidhu, B K; Kaur, B; Bagga, V; Cheema, S S; Sidhu, A S

    1993-01-01

    In India, interviews with mothers of 3-5 year old children living in the Badungarh slum of Patiala City in the Punjab were conducted at 4 anganwadies of the Integrated Child Development Services. The aim of the study was to determine the children's nutritional status. Anganwadies provided the same food supplement daily to 3-5 years old children. The amount provided was less than the recommended amount, however. 75% of the children were not vegetarians. Many children did not like pumpkin brinjal, spinach, and other leafy vegetables. Children's intake of cereals, pulses, green leafy vegetables, milk and milk products, meat, fish and eggs, sugar and jaggery, and fats and oils was lower than recommended allowances. The low intake of meat, fish, and eggs was likely due to the families low income. Consumption of cereals and pulses together resulted in adequate protein intake, but the low intake of leafy vegetables, milk, egg, meat, fish, and fruits resulted in insufficient intake of calcium and bete-carotene. Caloric intake was lower among the 4-5 year olds than among the 3-4 year olds (831.7 vs. 858.9 Kcal). Mothers tended to take the food supplements home to share with all the children in the households. These findings led the researchers to recommend that children eat different and more tastier types of food supplements at the anganwadies. Other recommendations include more frequent checks of food supplement stocks and better supervision.

  19. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  20. Gender Differences in Early Reading Strategies: A Comparison of Synthetic Phonics Only with a Mixed Approach to Teaching Reading to 4-5 Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price-Mohr, Ruth; Price, Colin

    2017-01-01

    A survey of primary schools in England found that girls outperform boys in English across all phases (Ofsted in Moving English forward. Ofsted, Manchester, 2012). The gender gap remains an on-going issue in England, especially for reading attainment. This paper presents evidence of gender differences in learning to read that emerged during the…

  1. Analysis of Artistic Behavior in Young Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, W. Lambert

    This a report of several studies of children's artistic behavior carried out at Cornell University with 3- to 5-year-old nursery school children. The studies involved: (1) taping comments children made while painting at nursery school; (2) determining if there was a difference in difficulty between two- and three-dimensional representations; (3)…

  2. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H; Birrell, J; Van Wilpe, E

    2005-09-01

    Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, which may be primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined. Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as loosely-arranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the broad ligament and

  3. Bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation for dyskinetic cerebral palsy supports success of cochlear implantation in a 5-year old ex-24 week preterm twin with absent cerebellar hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jean-Pierre; Kaminska, Margaret; Perides, Sarah; Gimeno, Hortensia; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Britz, Anzell; Driver, Sandra; Fitzgerald-O'Connor, Alec; Selway, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Early onset dystonia (dyskinesia) and deafness in childhood pose significant challenges for children and carers and are the cause of multiple disability. It is particularly tragic when the child cannot make use of early cochlear implantation (CI) technology to relieve deafness and improve language and communication, because severe cervical and truncal dystonia brushes off the magnetic amplifier behind the ears. Bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) neuromodulation can reduce dyskinesia, thus supporting CI neuromodulation success. We describe the importance of the order of dual neuromodulation surgery for dystonia and deafness. First with bilateral GPi DBS using a rechargeable ACTIVA-RC neurostimulator followed 5 months later by unilateral CI with a Harmony (BTE) Advanced Bionics Hi Res 90 K cochlear device. This double neuromodulation was performed in series in a 12.5 kg 5 year-old ex-24 week gestation-born twin without a cerebellum. Relief of dyskinesia enabled continuous use of the CI amplifier. Language understanding and communication improved. Dystonic storms abated. Tolerance of sitting increased with emergence of manual function. Status dystonicus ensued 10 days after ACTIVA-RC removal for infection-erosion at 3 years and 10 months. He required intensive care and DBS re-implantation 3 weeks later together with 8 months of hospital care. Today he is virtually back to the level of functioning before the DBS removal in 2012 and background medication continues to be slowly weaned. This case illustrates that early neuromodulation with DBS for dystonic cerebral palsy followed by CI for deafness is beneficial. Both should be considered early i.e. under the age of five years. The DBS should precede the CI to maximise dystonia reduction and thus benefits from CI. This requires close working between the paediatric DBS and CI services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

    2011-01-01

    Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

  5. Neighborhood Poverty and Maternal Fears of Children's Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Schachter, Ariela

    2011-01-01

    Investigating children's outdoor play unites scholarship on neighborhoods, parental perceptions of safety, and children's health. Utilizing the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study (N = 3,448), we examine mothers' fear of their 5-year-old children playing outdoors, testing associations with neighborhood social characteristics, city-level…

  6. School Readiness and Children's Developmental Status. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zill, Nicholas; And Others

    In order to provide data to help schools respond to the diversity in the backgrounds and educational needs of children entering school, a U.S. Department of Education study asked parents of 3- to 5-year-old children who had not yet started kindergarten about their children's accomplishments that indicated emerging literacy and numeracy skills and…

  7. Young Children Can Tell Strategic Lies after Committing a Transgression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Evans, Angela D.; Xu, Fen; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether young children make strategic decisions about whether to lie to conceal a transgression based on the lie recipient's knowledge. In Experiment 1, 168 3- to 5-year-olds were asked not to peek at the toy in the experimenter's absence, and the majority of children peeked. Children were questioned about their…

  8. Behavior Modification of Retarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kaoru

    1977-01-01

    In a study of behavior modification two Down's syndrome preschool children, the first a 5-year-old boy with autistic behavior patterns and the second a 4-year-old girl whose behavior problem was to reject other children, were examined. The first S was engaged in ball catching activities with a teacher with positive reinforcement (playing the S's…

  9. Engaging Young Children in Collective Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Maria Ines Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of…

  10. Engaging Young Children in Collective Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Maria Ines Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of…

  11. Right and Righteous: Children's Incipient Understanding and Evaluation of True and False Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.; Carrick, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined young children's early understanding and evaluation of truth telling and lying and the role that factuality plays in their judgments. Study 1 (one hundred four 2- to 5-year-olds) found that even the youngest children reliably accepted true statements and rejected false statements and that older children's ability to…

  12. External Representation and the Architecture of Music: Children Inventing and Speaking about Notations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pramling, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    This study concerns children's representational knowledge, more specifically, their "invented notations" of music. A small-scale empirical study of four 5-year-old children and their teachers working on the representation of music is reported. The challenges posed by the teachers and how the children respond to these challenges are analysed. The…

  13. Right and Righteous: Children's Incipient Understanding and Evaluation of True and False Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.; Carrick, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined young children's early understanding and evaluation of truth telling and lying and the role that factuality plays in their judgments. Study 1 (one hundred four 2- to 5-year-olds) found that even the youngest children reliably accepted true statements and rejected false statements and that older children's ability to…

  14. "Bempen" or "Bemben": Differences between Children At-Risk of Dyslexia and Children with SLI on a Morpho-Phonological Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bree, Elise; Kerkhoff, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses morpho-phonological alternation in plural formation by 5-year-old Dutch children with a familial risk of dyslexia, children with specific language impairment (SLI), and typically developing children. The morpho-phonological process investigated is the voicing alternation in Dutch singular-plural pairs such as bed [t]…

  15. Working Memory Limitations in Children with Severe Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an extensive battery of tests. Working memory was…

  16. Parental Attitudes toward Sex Education for Young Children in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Weichen V.

    This study investigates Taiwanese parents' opinions on sex education for young children. Participants in the study included 97 randomly selected Taiwanese parents of 3 through 5-year old children at three different preschools in northern Taiwan. Results indicate that subjects' age and education influenced parental views toward sexual issues:…

  17. Narrative Development in Monolingual Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castilla-Earls, Anny; Petersen, Douglas; Spencer, Trina; Hammer, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the narratives produced by 3-, 4-, and 5- year old Spanish-speaking (SS) children. Narrative productions of 104 typically developing children were collected using a story-retelling task and coded using the Index of Narrative Complexity. The results of this study indicate…

  18. Working Memory Limitations in Children with Severe Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an extensive battery of tests. Working memory was…

  19. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  20. Mothers' Autobiographical Memory and Book Narratives with Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role that mothers' scaffolding plays in the autobiographical memory (AM) and storybook narratives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Seven 4-5-year-old children and their mothers co-constructed narratives in both contexts. We also compared children's narratives with mothers to their narratives with an…

  1. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  2. Reductions in entree energy density increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of an entrée influences children's energy intake (EI), but the effect of simultaneously changing both ED and portion size of an entrée on preschool children's EI is unknown. In this within-subject crossover study, 3- to 5-year-old children (30 boys, 31 girls) in a day...

  3. The Use of Pedometry To Evaluate the Physical Activity Levels among Preschool Children in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louie, Lobo; Chan, Lily

    2003-01-01

    This study used pedometry and the Children Activity Rating Scale (CARS) to investigate physical activity among 3- to 5-year-olds in Hong Kong preschools. Findings indicated that older children were more active than younger ones; boys were more active than girls. Older children in the rural school with larger outdoor play space were more active…

  4. Secret Keepers: Children's Theory of Mind and Their Conception of Secrecy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Corson, Kimberly; Sastry, Anuradha; Wright, Holly

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?21) in a university-sponsored preschool programme and children completed a theory of mind (ToM) task. After grouping children into pass/no pass groups for the ToM tasks, analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children explain…

  5. Children's Social Category-Based Giving and Its Correlates: Expectations and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renno, Maggie P.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Do young children use information about gender and race to guide their prosocial gestures, and to what extent is children's selective prosociality related to other intergroup phenomena? Two studies tested 3- to 5-year-old children's allocation of resources to, social preferences for, and expectations about the behaviors of unfamiliar people who…

  6. Secret Keepers: Children's Theory of Mind and Their Conception of Secrecy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Malinda J.; Corson, Kimberly; Sastry, Anuradha; Wright, Holly

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 3-5-year-olds (n?=?21) in a university-sponsored preschool programme and children completed a theory of mind (ToM) task. After grouping children into pass/no pass groups for the ToM tasks, analyses using interpretive phenomenology indicated that preschool children explain…

  7. Children's Social Category-Based Giving and Its Correlates: Expectations and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renno, Maggie P.; Shutts, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Do young children use information about gender and race to guide their prosocial gestures, and to what extent is children's selective prosociality related to other intergroup phenomena? Two studies tested 3- to 5-year-old children's allocation of resources to, social preferences for, and expectations about the behaviors of unfamiliar people who…

  8. Mothers' Autobiographical Memory and Book Narratives with Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role that mothers' scaffolding plays in the autobiographical memory (AM) and storybook narratives of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Seven 4-5-year-old children and their mothers co-constructed narratives in both contexts. We also compared children's narratives with mothers to their narratives with an…

  9. Visiting Doctors' Offices: A Comparison of Korean and Taiwanese Preschool Children's Narrative Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Lee, Young-Ja; Lee, Jeehyun

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study aimed to explain age and cultural differences in the narrative development of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old Korean and Taiwanese children. The participants comprised 140 children of middle-class, two-parent families, half from each cultural group. Children were individually interviewed about their experience of visiting…

  10. "Because We Like To": Young Children's Experiences Hiding in Their Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carie

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study of 3-to-5-year-old children's hiding places and experiences is framed around the importance of recognizing children as active agents in creating their own culture and places in the world. Through the use of interactive data collection strategies collected at school and in children's homes, including book discussions,…

  11. "Because We Like To": Young Children's Experiences Hiding in Their Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carie

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study of 3-to-5-year-old children's hiding places and experiences is framed around the importance of recognizing children as active agents in creating their own culture and places in the world. Through the use of interactive data collection strategies collected at school and in children's homes, including book discussions,…

  12. Young Children's Knowledge of the Representational Function of Pictorial Symbols: Development across the Preschool Years in Three Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Tara C.; Rochat, Philippe; Corbit, John

    2012-01-01

    Three- to 5-year-old children's knowledge that pictures have a representational function for others was investigated using a pictorial false-belief task. In Study 1, children passed the task at around 4 years old, and performance was correlated with standard false-belief and pictorial symbol tasks. In Study 2, the performance of children from two…

  13. Young Children's Knowledge of the Representational Function of Pictorial Symbols: Development across the Preschool Years in Three Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Tara C.; Rochat, Philippe; Corbit, John

    2012-01-01

    Three- to 5-year-old children's knowledge that pictures have a representational function for others was investigated using a pictorial false-belief task. In Study 1, children passed the task at around 4 years old, and performance was correlated with standard false-belief and pictorial symbol tasks. In Study 2, the performance of children from two…

  14. A Follow-Up Study of Sex Stereotyping in Child-Selected Play Activities of Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Ann; Beeson, Betty Spillers

    A follow-up study was conducted to determine if changes would occur in the sex stereotyping of child- selected play activities over a 6-month period. Subjects were fifty 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children enrolled in nursery school programs at a midwestern university during the 1979-80 school year. For one 6-week period in the fall and one in the…

  15. Sugerencias para la Evolucion del Desarrollo: 0-5 Anos (Stages for the Development of Discovery [Learning in] 0-5 Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    Some points that may serve as a foundation of experience and reference in the stimulation of mentally retarded children during the years of one through five are presented. Points of development are given for the following breakdowns of time: three months, six months, nine months, 12 months, 18 months, two years, three years, four years, and five…

  16. Children's Comprehension of Two Types of Syntactic Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Elly Jane

    2017-01-01

    This study asks whether children accept both interpretations of ambiguous sentences with contexts supporting each option. Twenty-six 3- to 5-year-old English-speaking children and a control group of 30 English-speaking adults participated in a truth value judgment task. As a step towards evaluating the complexity of syntactic ambiguity, the…

  17. Young Children's Discourse Strategies during Block Play: A Bakhtinian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the application of Bakhtin's theories of dialogism to nineteen 5-year-old preschool children's communication strategies and the ways children appropriate meaning in block play. The observed frequency of communication strategies used in three different naturally emerging social relationships--1) individuals, 2) dyads, and 3)…

  18. Multisensory Information Boosts Numerical Matching Abilities in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Baker, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the first evidence that preschool children perform more accurately in a numerical matching task when given multisensory rather than unisensory information about number. Three- to 5-year-old children learned to play a numerical matching game on a touchscreen computer, which asked them to match a sample numerosity with a…

  19. Delayed Motor Skill Acquisition in Kindergarten Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24 h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance…

  20. Children's Comprehension of Two Types of Syntactic Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Elly Jane

    2017-01-01

    This study asks whether children accept both interpretations of ambiguous sentences with contexts supporting each option. Twenty-six 3- to 5-year-old English-speaking children and a control group of 30 English-speaking adults participated in a truth value judgment task. As a step towards evaluating the complexity of syntactic ambiguity, the…