Science.gov

Sample records for 50-100 km wide

  1. 41 CFR 128-50.100 - Storage and care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Storage and care. 128-50.100 Section 128-50.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 50-SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY 50.1-Storage and Care of Seized Personal Property § 128-50.100 Storage...

  2. 41 CFR 128-50.100 - Storage and care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage and care. 128-50.100 Section 128-50.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 50-SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY 50.1-Storage and Care of Seized Personal Property § 128-50.100 Storage...

  3. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD.

    PubMed

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, M; Connelly, J N; Skovhus Thomsen, J; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. We found that nearly all teeth had large carious cavities extending into the pulp. The distribution and size of the caries lesions were similar to those found in contemporary adult populations in Africa and China living without access to dental care. Most lesions had a hypermineralized zone in the dentin at the advancing front of the carious cavities as revealed by micro-computed tomography. This biological dentin reaction combined with the morphology of the cavities might indicate that some temporary topical pain relief and intervention treatment slowed down the rate of lesion progression. This is indirectly supported by examination of cavities of similar size and depth from a contemporary population without access to dental health care. In contrast to the lesions in the Roman teeth, these lesions did not exhibit a hypermineralized dentin reaction. We investigated whether the Pb isotopic composition of enamel and/or dentin of a single tooth matched that of a sample of an ancient Forum water lead pipe. The Pb isotopic composition of the tooth did not match that of the tube, suggesting that the subjects were exposed to different Pb sources during their lifetime other than the lead tubes. PMID:22796661

  4. A study of improved MHR 50/100 toward a higher level of inherent safety

    SciTech Connect

    Minatsuki, I.; Otani, T.; Shimizu, K.; Oyama, S.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kunitomi, K.

    2012-07-01

    A new concept of the Mitsubishi small-sized High temperature gas-cooled modular Reactors (MHR-50/100) had been developed and published in papers. The study results of the first design concept show that the MHR-50/100 can achieve the inherent safety level set as a design target in case of water ingress during steam generator tube rupture accident. And more specifically, the reactor was shown to remain stable during long-term station black out (SBO) with protection of only passive devices during a depressurization accident and with additional motion of steam dump system during a water ingress accident. Recently greater requirements for safety of future nuclear plants including the MHR-50/100 have been expected. This study has thus made a key design improvement for the MHR-50/100 in order to secure the inherent safety aspect without reliance on active steam dump system in case of a water ingress accident. The innovative technologies listed below have been created and investigated to achieve the improved MHR-50/100 design; (1) Design improvement of steam generator, (2) Heat balance optimization of steam cycle, (3) Control system design of differential pressure between primary helium gas and water/steam, (4) Study on operation procedure during a water ingress accident. (authors)

  5. Identification and numerical modelling of hydrocarbon leakage in the Lower Congo Basin: Implications on the genesis of km-wide seafloor mounded structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anka, Zahie; Ondrak, Robert; Kowitz, Astrid; Schødt, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We present a combined approach of interpretation of 2D seismic-reflection data and numerical modelling of hydrocarbon generation and migration across the southern slope of the Lower Congo Basin, in order to investigate the factors controlling timing and distribution of hydrocarbon leakage in this area. We identified three main families of past and present-day leakage features: (1) Mid-Upper Miocene seismic chimneys concentrated basinwards and ending up on buried pockmarks, (2) Plio-Pleistocene chimneys, rather clustered to the east of the study area and ending up in seafloor pockmarks, and (3) fewer scattered chimneys identified within the Miocene sequences ending up in shallow enhanced reflectors ("Flat spots"). Stratigraphic and structural elements seem to control the distribution of these features. At least two major events of leakage occurred during the Middle-Late Miocene and intermittently during the Pliocene-Present. External factors as sediment supply are associated to the Miocene leakage event, whilst internal structural elements probably triggered the Pliocene to present-day leakage. A major seabed morphological feature, represented by a margin-paralleled belt of more than 1-km-wide mounds, was identified above growth faults to the east of the study area. Data-constrained 2D HC generation and migration modelling suggests a genetic link between these structures and vertical migration/leakage of thermogenic methane sourced from either currently mature Oligo-Miocene source rocks or secondary cracking and further expulsion from over-mature Upper-Cretaceous source rocks. Hence, the mounds are likely to represent a lineation of methane-derived carbonate build-ups. Despite the natural limitations of a 2D migration model, when combined and calibrated with observations from seismic data, it can be used as a valid tool to assess petroleum migration routes in sedimentary basins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first integrated approach combining both

  6. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  7. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  8. A 50-100 kWe gas-cooled reactor for use on Mars.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Curtis D.

    2006-04-01

    In the space exploration field there is a general consensus that nuclear reactor powered systems will be extremely desirable for future missions to the outer solar system. Solar systems suffer from the decreasing intensity of solar radiation and relatively low power density. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators are limited to generating a few kilowatts electric (kWe). Chemical systems are short-lived due to prodigious fuel use. A well designed 50-100 kWe nuclear reactor power system would provide sufficient power for a variety of long term missions. This thesis will present basic work done on a 50-100 kWe reactor power system that has a reasonable lifespan and would function in an extraterrestrial environment. The system will use a Gas-Cooled Reactor that is directly coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle (GCR-CBC) power system. Also included will be some variations on the primary design and their effects on the characteristics of the primary design. This thesis also presents a variety of neutronics related calculations, an examination of the reactor's thermal characteristics, feasibility for use in an extraterrestrial environment, and the reactor's safety characteristics in several accident scenarios. While there has been past work for space reactors, the challenges introduced by thin atmospheres like those on Mars have rarely been considered.

  9. Commissioning a 50-100 kV X-ray unit for skin cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Ren-Dih; Powers, Allison; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This study provides the authors' experience along with dosimetric data from the commissioning of two Sensus SRT-100 50-100 kV X-ray units. Data collected during the commissioning process included: a) HVL, b) output (dose rate), c) applicator cone factors, and d) percentage depth dose. A Farmer-type chamber (PTW-N23333), and a thin-window parallel plate ion chamber (PTW-N23342) were used for dose rate measurements and dose profiles were measured with EBT3 GafChromic film. The average HVL values for 50, 70, and 100 kV of the two treatment units were found to be 0.52, 1.15, and 2.20 mm Al, respectively. The HVL's were 5%-9% lower when measured with the Farmer chamber, as compared to measurements with the parallel plate chamber, for energies of 70 and 100 kV. Dose rates were also measured to be 3%-4% lower with the Farmer chamber. The dose rate variation between the two units was found to be 2%-9% for 50, 70, and 100 kV. The dose uniformity over a circle of 2 cm diameter was within 4% in four cardinal directions; however, the dose profiles for the 5 cm applicator were nonuniform, especially in the cathode-anode direction. Measurements indicated as much as 15% lower dose for the 50 kV beam at field edge on the anode side, when normalized to the center. The crossline profile was relatively more symmetric, with a maximum deviation of 10% at the field edge. All ion chamber readings agreed with film measurements within 3%. The nonuniform profile produced by these units may introduce uncertainty in dose rate measurements, especially for larger applicators. Since there is no intrinsic tool (crosshair or field light) for alignment with the beam axis, the user should take care when positioning the chamber for output measurements. The data obtained with a Farmer-type chamber should be used cautiously and as a reference only for the SRT-100 X-ray treatment unit. PMID:26103186

  10. Reviving the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: a mitochondrial lineage ranging more than 6,000 km wide.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  11. Reviving the African Wolf Canis lupus lupaster in North and West Africa: A Mitochondrial Lineage Ranging More than 6,000 km Wide

    PubMed Central

    Gaubert, Philippe; Bloch, Cécile; Benyacoub, Slim; Abdelhamid, Adnan; Pagani, Paolo; Djagoun, Chabi Adéyèmi Marc Sylvestre; Couloux, Arnaud; Dufour, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery of a lineage of gray wolf in North-East Africa suggests the presence of a cryptic canid on the continent, the African wolf Canis lupus lupaster. We analyzed the mtDNA diversity (cytochrome b and control region) of a series of African Canis including wolf-like animals from North and West Africa. Our objectives were to assess the actual range of C. l. lupaster, to further estimate the genetic characteristics and demographic history of its lineage, and to question its taxonomic delineation from the golden jackal C. aureus, with which it has been considered synonymous. We confirmed the existence of four distinct lineages within the gray wolf, including C. lupus/familiaris (Holarctic wolves and dogs), C. l. pallipes, C. l. chanco and C. l. lupaster. Taxonomic assignment procedures identified wolf-like individuals from Algeria, Mali and Senegal, as belonging to C. l. lupaster, expanding its known distribution c. 6,000 km to the west. We estimated that the African wolf lineage (i) had the highest level of genetic diversity within C. lupus, (ii) coalesced during the Late Pleistocene, contemporaneously with Holarctic wolves and dogs, and (iii) had an effective population size of c. 80,000 females. Our results suggest that the African wolf is a relatively ancient gray wolf lineage with a fairly large, past effective population size, as also suggested by the Pleistocene fossil record. Unique field observations in Senegal allowed us to provide a morphological and behavioral diagnosis of the African wolf that clearly distinguished it from the sympatric golden jackal. However, the detection of C. l. lupaster mtDNA haplotypes in C. aureus from Senegal brings the delineation between the African wolf and the golden jackal into question. In terms of conservation, it appears urgent to further characterize the status of the African wolf with regard to the African golden jackal. PMID:22900047

  12. Conceptual Design of a 50--100 MW Electron Beam Accelerator System for the National Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Program

    SciTech Connect

    SCHNEIDER,LARRY X.

    2000-06-01

    The National Hypersonic Wind Tunnel program requires an unprecedented electron beam source capable of 1--2 MeV at a beam power level of 50--100 MW. Direct-current electron accelerator technology can readily generate high average power beams to approximately 5 MeV at output efficiencies greater than 90%. However, due to the nature of research and industrial applications, there has never been a requirement for a single module with an output power exceeding approximately 500 kW. Although a 50--100 MW module is a two-order extrapolation from demonstrated power levels, the scaling of accelerator components appears reasonable. This paper presents an evaluation of component and system issues involved in the design of a 50--100 MW electron beam accelerator system with precision beam transport into a high pressure flowing air environment.

  13. Snow accumulation rate on Qomolangma (Mount Everest), Himalaya: synchroneity with sites across the Tibetan Plateau on 50-100 year timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspari, Susan; Hooke, Roger Leb.; Mayewski, Paul Andrew; Kang, Shichang; Hou, Shugui; Qin, Dahe

    Annual-layer thickness data, spanning AD 1534-2001, from an ice core from East Rongbuk Col on Qomolangma (Mount Everest, Himalaya) yield an age-depth profile that deviates systematically from a constant accumulation-rate analytical model. The profile clearly shows that the mean accumulation rate has changed every 50-100 years. A numerical model was developed to determine the magnitude of these multi-decadal-scale rates. The model was used to obtain a time series of annual accumulation. The mean annual accumulation rate decreased from ˜0.8 m ice equivalent in the 1500s to ˜0.3 m in the mid-1800s. From ˜1880 to ˜1970 the rate increased. However, it has decreased since ˜1970. Comparison with six other records from the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau shows that the changes in accumulation in East Rongbuk Col are broadly consistent with a regional pattern over much of the Plateau. This suggests that there may be an overarching mechanism controlling precipitation and mass balance over this area. However, a record from Dasuopu, only 125 km northwest of Qomolangma and 700 m higher than East Rongbuk Col, shows a maximum in accumulation during the 1800s, a time during which the East Rongbuk Col and Tibetan Plateau ice-core and tree-ring records show a minimum. This asynchroneity may be due to altitudinal or seasonal differences in monsoon versus westerly moisture sources or complex mountain meteorology.

  14. Imaging Resolution of the 410-km and 660-km Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Structure of seismic discontinuities at depths of about 410 km and 660 km provides important constraints on mantle convection as the associated phase transformations in the transition zone are sensitive to thermal perturbations. Teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions have been widely used to map the depths of the two discontinuities. In this study, we investigate the resolution of receiver functions in imaging topographic variations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities based on wave propagation simulations using the Spectral Element Method (SEM). We investigate finite-frequency effects of direct P waves as well as P-to-S converted waves by varying the length scale of discontinuity topography in the transition zone. We show that wavefront healing effects are significant in broadband receiver functions. For example, at a period of 10 to 20 seconds, the arrival anomaly in P-to-S converted waves is about 50% of what predicted by ray theory when the topography length scale is in the order of 400 km. The observed arrival anomaly further reduces to 10-20% when the topography length scale reduces to about 200 km. We calculate 2-D boundary sensitivity kernels for direct P waves as well as receiver functions based on surface wave mode summation and confirm that finite frequency-effects can be properly accounted for. Three-dimensional wavespeed structure beneath seismic stations can also introduce significant artifacts in transition zone discontinuity topography if time corrections are not applied, and, the effects are dependent on frequency.

  15. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  16. REE Sorption Study of Seived -50 +100 Mesh Fraction of Media #1 in Brine #1 at Different Concentrations of REE at 70C

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-06-29

    This dataset shows the sorption capacities of smaller grain size (-50 +100 mesh) of media #1 in brine #1 at different starting concentrations of REE's at elevated temperature of 70C. The experimental conditions are 2g of -50 +100 mesh media #1 to 150mL of REE solution at concentartions of .2ppm each, 2ppm each, and 20ppm each. The pH of the solution is 5.5, and the temperature was at 70C.

  17. REE Sorption Study of Sieved -50 +100 mesh Media #1 in Brine #1 with Different Starting pH's at 70C

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-07-21

    This dataset described shaker table experiments ran with sieved -50 +100 mesh media #1 in brine #1 that have 2ppm each of the 7 REE metals at different starting pH's of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. The experimental conditions are 2g media to 150mL of REE solution, at 70C.

  18. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  19. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  20. Origins of the 520-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The 520-km discontinuity is often explained by the phase transition from wadsleyite to ringwoodite, although the theoretical impedance of this transition is so small that the related converted and reflected seismic phases could hardly be seen in the seismograms. At the same time there are numerous reports on observations of a large discontinuity at this depth, especially in the data on SS precursors and P-wave wide-angle reflections. Revenaugh and Jordan (1991) argued that this discontinuity is related to the garnet/post-garnet transformation. Gu et al. (1998) preferred very deep continental roots extending into the transition zone. Deuss and Woodhouse proposed splitting of the 520-km discontinuity into two discontinuities, whilst Bock (1994) denied evidence of the 520-km discontinuity in the SS precursors. Our approach to this problem is based on the analysis of S and P receiver functions. Most of our data are related to hot-spots in and around the Atlantic where the appropriate converted phases are often comparable in amplitude with P410s and S410p. Both S and P receiver functions provide strong evidence of a low S velocity in a depth range from 450 km to 510 km at some locations. The 520-km discontinuity appears to be the base of this low-velocity layer. Our observations of the low S velocity in the upper transition zone are very consistent with the indications of a drop in the solidus temperature of carbonated peridotite in the same pressure range (Keshav et al. 2011), and this phenomenon provides a viable alternative to the other explanations of the 520-km discontinuity.

  1. Knob manager (KM) operators guide

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-08

    KM, Knob Manager, is a tool which enables the user to use the SUNDIALS knob box to adjust the settings of the control system. The followings are some features of KM: dynamic knob assignments with the user friendly interface; user-defined gain for individual knob; graphical displays for operating range and status of each process variable is assigned; backup and restore one or multiple process variable; save current settings to a file and recall the settings from that file in future.

  2. The crustal structure of the north-eastern Gulf of Aden continental margin: insights from wide-angle seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watremez, L.; Leroy, S.; Rouzo, S.; D'Acremont, E.; Unternehr, P.; Ebinger, C.; Lucazeau, F.; Al-Lazki, A.

    2011-02-01

    The wide-angle seismic (WAS) and gravity data of the Encens survey allow us to determine the deep crustal structure of the north-eastern Gulf of Aden non-volcanic passive margin. The Gulf of Aden is a young oceanic basin that began to open at least 17.6 Ma ago. Its current geometry shows first- and second-order segmentation: our study focusses on the Ashawq-Salalah second-order segment, between Alula-Fartak and Socotra-Hadbeen fracture zones. Modelling of the WAS and gravity data (three profiles across and three along the margin) gives insights into the first- and second-order structures. (1) Continental thinning is abrupt (15-20 km thinning across 50-100 km distance). It is accommodated by several tilted blocks. (2) The ocean-continent transition (OCT) is narrow (15 km wide). The velocity modelling provides indications on its geometry: oceanic-type upper-crust (4.5 km s-1) and continental-type lower crust (>6.5 km s-1). (3) The thickness of the oceanic crust decreases from West (10 km) to the East (5.5 km). This pattern is probably linked to a variation of magma supply along the nascent slow-spreading ridge axis. (4) A 5 km thick intermediate velocity body (7.6 to 7.8 km s-1) exists at the crust-mantle interface below the thinned margin, the OCT and the oceanic crust. We interpret it as an underplated mafic body, or partly intruded mafic material emplaced during a `post-rift' event, according to the presence of a young volcano evidenced by heat-flow measurement (Encens-Flux survey) and multichannel seismic reflection (Encens survey). We propose that the non-volcanic passive margin is affected by post-rift volcanism suggesting that post-rift melting anomalies may influence the late evolution of non-volcanic passive margins.

  3. 4-km body(ies?) embedded in Saturn's Huygens Ringlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, Joseph N.; Hahn, Joseph M.; Tamayo, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Saturn's 20-km-wide Huygens ringlet, located ~250 km exterior to the B ring, displays unusual kinematics, as evidenced by a time variable width-relation. The cause of this behavior is not clear, but may be related to the presence of large embedded bodies (Spitale and Hahn 2016). The largest such bodies produce half-propeller-shaped disturbances originating at the inner edge of the ringlet, whose radial widths imply a size of ~4 km, based on simple scaling from A-ring propellers. Here, we show that a numerical N-body model of the ringlet with a 4-km body embedded near the inner edge produces features that are consistent with the observed half propellers.

  4. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  5. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  6. Focusing of relative plate motion at a continental transform fault: Cenozoic dextral displacement >700 km on New Zealand's Alpine Fault, reversing >225 km of Late Cretaceous sinistral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon; Mortimer, Nick; Smith, Euan; Turner, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    The widely accepted ˜450 km Cenozoic dextral strike-slip displacement on New Zealand's Alpine Fault is large for continental strike-slip faults, but it is still less than 60% of the Cenozoic relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates through Zealandia, with the remaining motion assumed to be taken up by rotation and displacement on other faults in a zone up to 300 km wide. We show here that the 450 km total displacement across the Alpine Fault is an artifact of assumptions about the geometry of New Zealand's basement terranes in the Eocene, and the actual Cenozoic dextral displacement across the active trace is greater than 665 km, with more than 700 km (and <785 km since 25 Ma) occurring in a narrow zone less than 10 km wide. This way, the Alpine Fault has accommodated almost all (>94%) of the relative plate motion in the last 25 Ma at an average rate in excess of 28 mm/yr. It reverses more than 225 km (and <300 km) of sinistral shear through Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous, when Zealandia lay on the margin of Gondwana, providing a direct constraint on the kinematics of extension between East and West Antarctica at this time.

  7. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  8. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 KM Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L. L.; Rodriguez, E.

    2006-07-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolu tion approaching 1 km . The measurement w ill have wide ranging applications in oceanography , hydrology , and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic application s, the in strument must be flown in an orbit w ith proper samp ling of ocean tides.

  9. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

  10. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  11. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  12. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  13. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  14. High frequencies are a critical component of aftershock triggering at <100-150 km (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Triggered earthquakes at large distances from the mainshock have been observed to closely follow the arrival of ~0.03-0.6 Hz surface waves (Hill, 2008). Triggering by body waves at these distances is generally not observed. At distances closer than 50-100 km, however, surface waves are not well developed and have minimal amplitude. Thus triggering at these distances is presumably accomplished by static stress change and/or by body waves via a mechanism that does not work at further distances. Pollitz (2006) demonstrated that slow slip events on the San Andreas fault do not trigger many aftershocks, suggesting that static stresses alone are not effective triggers, while Felzer and Brodsky (2006) demonstrated that dynamic stresses alone do appear to trigger aftershocks at least in the 10--50 km range. Yet Parsons and Velasco (2009) found that underground nuclear tests, which are essentially dynamic-only sources, do not produce aftershocks at regional distances. Here we demonstrate that Southern California quarry blasts also fail to produce aftershocks. Both nuclear tests and quarry blasts are depleted in high frequency energy in comparison to tectonic earthquakes (Su et al. 1991; Allman et al. 2008). Therefore the observation that both slow slip events and blasts fail to trigger many aftershocks suggests that the missing ingredient of high frequency body wave energy plays a critical role in the triggering process. Quarry blast spectra data and scaling considerations allow the critical triggering frequency to be constrained to > 20-60 Hz. Energy in this frequency band may be expected to persist at depth at least out to 100 km (Leary, 1995). Huc and Main (2003) found that aftershock triggering by global earthquakes follows a continuous decay curve out to ~150 km, suggesting that triggering by high frequency body waves might extend this far. At much further distances the high frequencies are likely attenuated, explaining why only low frequency surface wave triggering

  15. Global modeling with GEOS-5 from 50-km to 1-km with a single unified GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, William; Suarez, Max; Molod, Andrea; Barahona, Donifan

    2015-04-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is uniquely designed to adapt to increasing resolution. This supports application of GEOS-5 for decadal scale climate simulation and reanalysis with a horizontal resolution of 50-kilometers (km), high-resolution numerical weather prediction at 25- to 14-km, and global mesoscale modeling at resolutions of 7- to 1.5-km. Resolution-aware parameterizations and dynamics support this diverse portfolio of applications within a single unified GEOS-5 GCM code-base. We will discuss the adaptation of physics parameterizations with increasing resolution. This includes the role of deep convective parameterization, the move to an improved two-moment microphysics scheme, the need for shallow convective parameterization, and the role of non-hydrostatic dynamics and implicit/explicit damping. Parameterization and dynamics evaluation are explored not only in global integrations with GEOS-5 but with radiative convective equilibrium tests that permit the rapid exploration of high-resolution simulations in a smaller doubly periodic Cartesian domain. Simulation results will highlight intercomparisons of model biases in cloud forcing and precipitation from the 30-year 50-km MERRA-2 reanalysis, 50- to 25-km free-running AMIP simulations, a 2-year 7-km global mesoscale simulation, and monthly global simulations at 3.5-km. A global 1.5-km simulation with GEOS-5 highlights our pursuit of truly convection permitting global simulations with GEOS-5. The tuning evaluation for this simulation using doubly periodic radiative convective equilibrium experiments will be discussed.

  16. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  17. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  18. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-11-17

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel. PMID:26578764

  19. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-01-01

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel. PMID:26578764

  20. EVLA/NMA: Within and Beyond the 21-km Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Steve; Romney, Jonathan D.

    NRAO's Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project is being implemented in two phases. Each involves extremely wide- bandwidth data transmission over optical fibers, but the two phases necessarily involve quite different approaches to the required fiber infrastructure, which make for an interesting contrast. Phase 1, formally called the "Ultrasensitive Array", involves replacing almost all of the existing electronics, leaving only the mechanical and track infrastructure of the VLA. The data transmission system being implemented for Phase 1 uses dedicated optical fibers, currently being buried at the VLA site. Twelve standard single-mode fibers will run from each of 72 antenna pads to the central building. One of these fibers will support the wideband data transmission system, using a dense wavelength division multiplexing technique to carry a bandwidth of 96 Gbps (120 Gbps formatted) per antenna. Fibers from the 27 active antenna pads will carry a total bandwidth of 2.6 Tbps. The longest of these fibers will extend the full 21- km length of each arm. Phase 2 will add the "New Mexico Array". Eight new stations will be built, and the electronics of the VLBA Pie Town and Los Alamos stations will be upgraded, to create a medium-resolution array, with sensitivity even higher than Phase 1. All ten NMA stations will lie within the State of New Mexico. The new antennas will range as far as 265 km from the VLA site, and will be located so as to facilitate access to existing fiber trunks installed, primarily, by rural telephone companies. These trunks include numerous unused fibers which, it is anticipated, can be leased economically. The longest fiber run from the VLA is 480 km. The same 96-Gbps total bandwidth per station will be supported, with the same underlying sub-band structure. Signals from up to three NMA stations will be multiplexed onto a single fiber in the existing trunks. This will limit the total length of fiber which must be leased or acquired to about 1240 km.

  1. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  2. SWOT: A high-resolution wide-swath altimetry mission for oceanography and hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriguez, Ernesto

    2013-04-01

    A new satellite mission called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) has been developed jointly by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Based on the success of nadir-looking altimetry missions in the past, SWOT will use the technique of radar interferometry to make wide-swath altimetric measurements of the elevation of surface water on land and the ocean's surface topography. The new measurements will provide information on the changing ocean currents that are key to the prediction of climate change, as well as the shifting fresh water resources resulting from climate change. Conventional satellite altimetry has revolutionized oceanography by providing nearly two decades' worth of global measurements of ocean surface topography. However, the noise level of radar altimeters limits the along-track spatial resolution to 50-100 km over the oceans. The large spacing between the satellite ground tracks limits the resolution of 2D gridded data to 200 km. Yet most of the kinetic energy of ocean circulation takes place at the scales unresolved by conventional altimetry. About 50% of the vertical transfer of heat and chemical properties of the ocean (e.g., dissolved CO2 and nutrients) is also accomplished by processes at these scales. SWOT observations will provide the critical new information at these scales for developing and testing ocean models that are designed for predicting future climate change. SWOT measurements will be in Ka band (~35 GHZ), chosen for the radar to achieve high precision with a much shorter inteferometry baseline of 10 m. Small look angles (~ 4 degrees) are required to minimize elevation errors, which limits the swath width to 120 km. An orbit with inclination of 78 degrees and 22 day repeat period was chosen for gapless coverage and good tidal aliasing properties. With this configuration, SWOT is expected to achieve 1 cm precision at 1 km x 1 km pixels over the ocean and 10 cm

  3. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  4. Synchronized ps fiber lasers with pulse durations (25, 50, 100-2000ps) and repetition rates (100kHz-150Mhz) continuously tunable over three orders of magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Alexandre; Burgoyne, Bryan; Pena, Guido; Archambault, André; Lemieux, Dominic; Solomonean, Vasile; Duong, Maxime; Villeneuve, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Ultrafast lasers are enabling precision machining of a wide variety of materials. However, the optimal laser parameters for proper material processing can differ greatly from one material to another. In order to cut high aspect-ratio features at high processing speeds the laser parameters such as pulse energy, repetition rate, and cutting speed need to be optimized. In particular, a shorter pulse duration plays an important role in reducing the thermal damage in the Heat-Affected Zones. In this paper we present a novel ps fiber laser whose electronically tunable parameters aim to facilitate the search for optimal processing parameters. The 20W 1064nm Yb fiber laser is based on a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) architecture with a repetition rate that can be tuned continuously from 120kHz to 120MHz. More importantly, the integration of three different pulse generators enables the pulse duration to be switched from 25ps to 50ps, or to any value within the 55ps to 2000ps range. By reducing the pulse duration from the ns-regime down to 25ps, the laser approaches the transition from the thermal processing regime to the ablation regime of most materials. Moreover, in this paper we demonstrate the synchronization of the pulses from two such MOPA lasers. This enables more elaborate multipulse processing schemes where the pulses of each laser can be set to different parameter values, such as an initial etching pulse followed by a thermal annealing pulse. It should be noted that all the laser parameters are controlled electronically with no moving parts, including the synchronization.

  5. Microphysical Model of the Venus clouds between 40km and 80km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I am continuing to adapt the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to successfully simulate the multi-layered clouds of Venus. The present version of the one-dimensional model now includes a simple parameterization of the photochemicial production of sulfuric acid around altitudes of 62km, and its thermochemical destruction below cloud base. Photochemical production in the model is limited by the availability of water vapor and insolation. Upper cloud particles are introduced into the model via binary homogeneous nucleation, while the lower and middle cloud particles are created via activation of involatile cloud condensation nuclei. Growth by condensation and coagulation and coalescence are also treated. Mass loadings and particle sizes compare favorably with the in situ observations by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Particle Size Spectrometer, and mixing ratios of volatiles compare favorably with remotely sensed observations of water vapor and sulfuric acid vapor. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, grant number NNX11AD79G.

  6. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  7. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  8. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  9. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  10. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  11. Exploring KM Features of High-Performance Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Wen

    2007-12-01

    For reacting to an increasingly rival business environment, many companies emphasize the importance of knowledge management (KM). It is a favorable way to explore and learn KM features of high-performance companies. However, finding out the critical KM features of high-performance companies is a qualitative analysis problem. To handle this kind of problem, the rough set approach is suitable because it is based on data-mining techniques to discover knowledge without rigorous statistical assumptions. Thus, this paper explored KM features of high-performance companies by using the rough set approach. The results show that high-performance companies stress the importance on both tacit and explicit knowledge, and consider that incentives and evaluations are the essentials to implementing KM.

  12. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1994-10-01

    of differentiated oceanic lithosphere, with discrete lithological domains of former oceanic crust, former harzburgite and former lherzolite. However, in the upper mantle, these lithologies have been homogenized via convective mixing and partial melting to form a uniform pyrolite composition. Seismic velocity gradients in the heterogeneous mixture of lithologies of the transition zone are higher than they would be in homogeneous pyrolite, because of the survival of clinopyroxene to a depth of about 500 km. This may contribute towards high seismic velocity gradients observed in the transition zone. The behavior during partial melting of heterogeneous lithologies from the transition zone is also quite different from the partial melting of homogeneous pyrolite. The transition zone provides the principal source region for alkaline intraplate basalts world-wide (including ocean island basalts) whereas the homogeneous pyrolite source region of the upper mantle yields mid-ocean ridge basalt magmas.

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  14. The temperature gradient between 100 and 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Carignan, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    Oxygen density profiles inferred from Ogo 6 green nightglow emission vary too sharply between 100 and 120 km to be consistent with temperature gradients in standard model atmospheres, and the eddy diffusion coefficient K determined from these observations reaches its maximum below 115 km. For three atomic oxygen profiles obtained at geographic latitudes of -27.69, +48.89, and +59.10 the temperature profiles required to create a downward flux that varies with altitude as the integrated photolytic production rate above that altitude are calculated, assuming K to be invariant with altitude and latitude. The oxygen distribution can be reconciled with a constant eddy coefficient above 100 km if the temperature gradient reaches a value between 10 and 20 deg K/km for low values of the eddy coefficient (about 500,000 sq cm/sec) or between 30 and 50 deg K/km for a higher eddy coefficient (about 1.6 million sq cm/sec). The maximum gradient for the Jacchia (1971) model is about 10 deg K/km. These temperature profiles predict Ar/N ratios consistent with those measured by sounding rockets. The low K profiles are large enough to remove a large part of the solar energy deposited below 120 km by thermal conduction.

  15. The KM phase in semi-realistic heterotic orbifold models

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel

    2000-07-05

    In string-inspired semi-realistic heterotic orbifolds models with an anomalous U(1){sub X},a nonzero Kobayashi-Masakawa (KM) phase is shown to arise generically from the expectation values of complex scalar fields, which appear in nonrenormalizable quark mass couplings. Modular covariant nonrenormalizable superpotential couplings are constructed. A toy Z{sub 3} orbifold model is analyzed in some detail. Modular symmetries and orbifold selection rules are taken into account and do not lead to a cancellation of the KM phase. We also discuss attempts to obtain the KM phase solely from renormalizable interactions.

  16. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  17. Akeno 20 km (2) air shower array (Akeno Branch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Ohoka, H.; Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.

    1985-01-01

    As the first stage of the future huge array, the Akeno air shower array was expanded to about 20 sq. km. by adding 19 scintillation detectors of 2.25 sq m area outside the present 1 sq. km. Akeno array with a new data collection system. These detectors are spaced about 1km from each other and connected by two optical fiber cables. This array has been in partial operation from 8th, Sep. 1984 and full operation from 20th, Dec. 1984. 20 sq m muon stations are planned to be set with 2km separation and one of them is now under construction. The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is studied.

  18. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running. PMID:25029009

  19. Status of the KM3NeT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, A.

    2014-04-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed.

  20. Detection of the structure near the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities in Japan subduction zone from the waveform triplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Slab subduction plays an important role in the mantle material circulation [Stern, 2002], and can also affect the feature of the 410 km and 660 km seismic discontinuities (410 and 660) [Lebedev et al., 2002]. Japan subduction zone is a natural laboratory for studying the mantle composition and velocity structure associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific plate. In this study, triplicated waveforms of an intermediate-depth earthquake at the Hokkaido of Japan (2011/10/21, 08:02:37.62, 142.5315°E, 43.8729°N, Mb6.0, relocated depth: 188 km) are retrieved from the dense Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). P and S waveforms are filtered with the band of 0.05-1.0 Hz and 0.02-0.5 Hz, respectively, and then integrated into the displacement data. The relative traveltime and synthetic waveform fitting is applied to mapping the deep structure. The best fitting models are obtained through the trial and error tests. We find a 15 km uplift of the 410 and a 25 km depression of the 660, indicating the cold environment caused by the subduction slab; both the 410 and 660 show the sharp discontinuity, but a smaller velocity contrast than the IASP91 model [Kennett and Engdahl, 1991]. Atop the 410 and 660, there are high-velocity layers associated with the subduction (or stagnant) slab. We also find a low-velocity anomaly with the thickness of ~65 km below the 660, which may relate to the slab dehydration or the hot upwelling at the top of the lower mantle. The seismic velocity ratio (VP/VS) shows a lower zone at the depth of ~210-395 km, showing the consistency with the low Poisson's ratio signature of the oceanic plate; a higher zone at the depth of ~560-685 km, implying the hydrous mantle transition zone.

  1. Local fluctuations of ozone from 16 km to 45 km deduced from in situ vertical ozone profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, G.; Robert, C.

    1994-01-01

    A vertical ozone profile obtained by an in situ ozone sonde from 16 km to 45 km, has allowed to observe local ozone concentration variations. These variations can be observed, thanks to a fast measurement system based on a UV absorption KrF excimer laser beam in a multipass cell. Ozone standard deviation versus altitude calculated from the mean is derived. Ozone variations or fluctuations are correlated with the different dynamic zones of the stratosphere.

  2. Similarities and Differences in Pacing Patterns in a 161-km and 101-km Ultra-Distance Road Race.

    PubMed

    Tan, Philip L S; Tan, Frankie H Y; Bosch, Andrew N

    2016-08-01

    Tan, PLS, Tan, FHY, and Bosch, AN. Similarities and differences in pacing patterns in a 161-km and 101-km ultra-distance road race. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2145-2155, 2016-The purpose of this study was to establish and compare the pacing patterns of fast and slow finishers in a tropical ultra-marathon. Data were collected from the Craze Ultra-marathon held on the 22nd and 21st of September in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Finishers of the 161-km (N = 47) and 101-km (N = 120) categories of the race were divided into thirds (groups A-C) by merit of finishing time. Altogether, 17 and 11 split times were recorded for the 161-km and 101-km finishers, respectively, and used to calculate the mean running speed for each distance segment. Running speed for the first segment was normalized to 100, with all subsequent splits adjusted accordingly. Running speed during the last 5 km was calculated against the mean race pace to establish the existence of an end spurt. A reverse J-shaped pacing profile was demonstrated in all groups for both distance categories and only 38% of the finishers executed an end spurt. In the 101-km category, in comparison with groups B and C, group A maintained a significantly more even pace (p = 0.013 and 0.001, respectively) and completed the race at a significantly higher percent of initial starting speed (p = 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Descriptive data also revealed that the top 5 finishers displayed a "herd-behavior" by staying close to the lead runner in the initial portion of the race. These findings demonstrate that to achieve a more even pace, recreational ultra-runners should adopt a patient sustainable starting speed, with less competitive runners setting realistic performance goals whereas competitive runners with a specific time goal to consider running in packs of similar pace. PMID:26808845

  3. Ubiquitous Low-Velocity Layer Atop the 410-km Discontinuity in the Northern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasbinsek, J. J.; Dueker, K. G.

    2006-12-01

    velocity drops of 4-6% reported by other researchers. Physical explanations for the origin of this 410-LVL suggest that temperature and/or compositional effects are unlikely causes. The positive Claypeyron slope associated with the 410 km discontinuity is expected to enhance thermal convection; thus, no thermal boundary layer nor ponding of thermal heterogeneity is expected (as opposed to the 660). While a layer of oceanic crust could produce a low velocity anomaly, again the 410 km discontinuity is not expected to trap chemical heterogeneity: thus, ascribing the 410-LVL to subducted slab would be serendipitous. Dipping layers or anisotropic velocity contrasts cannot cause the NPA and furthermore the tangential QS are quiet with respect to the radial components. Thus, via a process of elimination, we are drawn to the "water-filter" model [Bercovici and Karato, 2003] which predicts a layer of partial melt atop the 410 as a result of melting of hydrous wadsleyite as it upwells across the 410. A simple global water-filter model calculation that assumes a 1 mm/yr upwelling rate suggests that the melt layer would have 0.1%-1.5% melt porosity and a thickness of 2-20 km. We note that for plausible cm/yr scale up-flow across the phase transition, much thicker melt layers could develop. We interpret our findings of a 26 km wide 410-LVL with an 8.3% shear wave velocity drop (corresponding to a 3.8% melt porosity using the melt-velocity scaling of Kreutzmann et al., 2004) as consistent with the "water-filter" model.

  4. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  5. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  6. The -145 km/S Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieira, G.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A.; Johansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R-118,000) , we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 W s , are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities. The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000/cm, well above the 2000/cm noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes.

  7. Whipple bumper shield tests at over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. ); Hill, S.A. . George C. Marshall Space Flight Center)

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a thin Whipple bumper shield at impact velocities up to 10.5 km/s by orbital space debris. Upon impact by an 0.67gm (0.87 mm thick) flier plate the thin aluminum bumper shield completely disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities in excess of 14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris cloud penetrates the substructure completely. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, T.; Herold, B.; Shanidze, R.

    2013-10-01

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of 40K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  9. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  10. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  11. Extension of photomultiplier tube dynamic range for the LHAASO-KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hongkui; Sheng, Xiangdong; He, Huihai; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Zhongquan; Hou, Chao; Zhao, Jing

    2015-05-01

    In the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), the 1 km2 array (KM2A) requires linear measurement of optical intensity with a wide dynamic range. Over 5000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are employed in this experiment and developed as "two outputs" device (anode and dynode) to meet the relevant requirements. In this study, the linearity of the anode and the eighth dynode (DY8), which is limited by space charge effects and mainly related to the relative dynode voltage ratios of the PMT divider, is examined. A voltage divider for the Hamamatsu R11102 PMT is designed and a dramatically enhanced linearity is demonstrated. Test results show that this design can cover a wide dynamic range from 20 to 2×105 photoelectrons and achieve a peak anode current of 380 mA at a PMT gain of 105, which satisfies the requirements of KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors. The circuit design has been successfully simulated using the simulation software Multisim. The details of PMT performance tests and simulations are described.

  12. Bent Mantle Plumes and Channel Flow Under the 660 Km Discontinuity in Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, D. A.; Tosi, N.

    2011-12-01

    Recent high-resolution seismic imaging by multiply-reflected S waves of the transition zone topography beneath the Hawaiian archipelago gives strong evidence for a 1000 to 2000 km wide hot thermal anomaly ponding beneath the 660 km boundary west of Hawaii islands (Cao et al., Science ,2011). This scenario suggests that Hawaiian volcanism may not be caused by a stationary narrow plume rising from the core-mantle boundary but by hot plume material first held back beneath the 660 km discontinuity and then entrained under the transition zone before coming up to the surface. Using a cylindrical convection model with multiple phase transitions, we investigate the particular dynamical conditions needed for obtaining this peculiar plume morphology. Focusing on the role exerted by pressure-dependent thermodynamic and transport parameters, we show that a strong reduction of the coefficient of thermal expansion in the lower mantle and a viscosity hill at a depth of around 1800 km are needed for plumes to have enough focused buoyancy to reach and pass through the 660 km phase boundary. The lateral spreading of plumes near the top of the lower mantle manifests itself as a channel flow whose length is controlled by the viscosity contrast due to temperature variations . For small amounts of viscosity contrast , broad and highly viscous plumes are generated which tend to pass through the transition zone relatively unscathed. For higher values , between 100 and 1000 ,we obtain horizontal channel flows beneath the 660 km boundary as long as 1500 km within a timescale that resembles that of Hawaiian hotspot history. This finding may account for the origin of the broad hot anomaly observed west of Hawaii. For a normal thermal anomaly of 450 K associated with a lower mantle plume, we obtain activation energies of about 400 kJ/mol and 600 kJ/mol for viscosity contrasts of 100 and 1000, respectively, in good agreement with values based on lower mantle mineral physics. If an increase of

  13. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  14. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2010-11-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure to be constructed in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope with a volume of at least one cubic kilometre. The scientific case for a neutrino telescope of a cubic kilometre scale is overwhelming. The infrastructure it requires will be shared by a host of other sciences, making continuous and long-term measurements in the fields of oceanography, geophysics, and marine biological sciences possible. The feasibility of neutrino astronomy with a detector in the deep sea was proven by the successful deployment and operation of the ANTARES prototype detector. The potential of the detection technique, based on the reconstruction of the tracks of muons, the possible reaction products of the sought after neutrinos, has been demonstrated. With two other pilot projects, NEMO and NESTOR, different detector configurations and techniques were explored. The three projects have provided a wealth of information on the technologies required for a large deep-sea neutrino telescope. KM3NeT will reap the benefits. It is planned to make KM3NeT a CO2-neutral facility, using wind or solar energy to supply the required power for the underwater system as well as the shore station. The proposed infrastructure will be built by a European consortium (KM3NeT). The total cost is estimated at 220-250 M€.

  15. The -145 km/s Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, G. L.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A. C.; Johansson, S.

    2002-12-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R 118,000), we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 km/s, are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities (See adjacent posters by T. Gull and A. Danks). The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000 cm-1, well above the 2000 cm-1 noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes. Observations were accomplished through STScI under proposal 9242 (Danks, P.I.). Funding is through the STIS GTO resources.

  16. Models of earth's atmosphere (90 to 2500 km)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This monograph replaces a monograph on the upper atmosphere which was a computerized version of Jacchia's model. The current model has a range from 90 to 2500 km. In addition to the computerized model, a quick-look prediction method is given that may be used to estimate the density for any time and spatial location without using a computer.

  17. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  18. Discovery of a 450 km diameter, multi-ring basin on Mars through analysis of MOLA topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Herbert; Sakimoto, Susan E. H.; Roark, James H.

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data have revealed a previously unknown, 450 km wide, 2 km deep basin centered at 30N, 312W near the Phison Rupes. This basin, as large as and deeper than the obvious Cassini impact basin located 1000 km to the SW, is not apparent in the existing but good quality Viking imagery. Gridded MOLA data show the feature as a closed depression. Based on analysis of slope breaks readily visible in two MOLA profiles, we suggest this Phison Rupes Basin has three topographic rings with diameters approximately 350, 455 and 670 km. These rings outline a region of lower impact crater density and smoother inter-crater plains. Similar previously unknown features may exist elsewhere on Mars, and MOLA topographic data may be able to locate them.

  19. Neutral winds above 200 km at high latitudes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Electrically neutral, luminous clouds are a by-product of chemical releases conducted to create barium ion clouds for the measurement of electric fields. Wind measurements provided by the motions of these clouds are particularly valuable in that the motions can be directly compared with convective ion drift motions to test the importance of ion drag forces. Motion from multiple releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from four high-latitude locations is analyzed in this paper. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic latitudes above 65 deg strongly suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. In the morning sector, it is evident that neutral wind observations cannot be directly interpreted in terms of ion drag; other factors must be considered.

  20. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  1. Remote (250 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  2. Real Km-synthesis via generalized Popov multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, R. Y.; Safonov, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    The authors refine their H-infinity control designs presented at the 1990 and 1991 American Control Conference by introducing a new real Km-synthesis technique involving the use of generalized Popov multipliers. This multiplier technique substantially reduces, and in some cases may even eliminate altogether, the conservativeness associated with traditional Km-synthesis solutions in which all uncertainties are treated as complex, even when they arise from real parameters such as the masses and spring constants in the benchmark problem. The design results demonstrate how this approach permits a very precise analysis of the intrinsic tradeoffs between robustness, performance, and control energy requirements. Also included is an open-loop H-infinity prefilter design that makes it possible to address the command response shaping issue. The design concept has been applied to the benchmark problem no. 4 and successfully removes the initial undesired transient and cuts down the percent overshoot.

  3. Quantum Cryptography Over 24 km of Underground Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard; Luther, Gabriel; Morgan, George; Peterson, Charles; Simmons, Charles

    1997-04-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as ''key'' material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We are performing quantum cryptography over 24-km of underground optical fiber using non-orthogonal single-photon interference states. Key material is built up by transmitting a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. Our experiment demonstrates that secure, real-time key generation over "open" multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is feasible.

  4. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  5. Organizations, Paradigms, and People: The Challenge of KM Interventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Teresa; Burton, Yvette

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Knowledge Management (KM) and how these interventions are put into practice by organizations and society. The topics include: 1) The Multiple Paradigm Tool; 2) Four Paradigms: tool for the Analyzing Organizations; 3) Assumptions About the Nature of Social Science; 4) Assumptions About the Nature of Society; 5) Schools of Sociological and Organizational Theory; 6) Meaning and Metaphors in the Four Paradigms; and 7) Possibilities and Conclusions.

  6. Kinematic characteristics of elite men's 50 km race walking.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios; Drake, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Race walking is an endurance event which also requires great technical ability, particularly with respect to its two distinguishing rules. The 50 km race walk is the longest event in the athletics programme at the Olympic Games. The aims of this observational study were to identify the important kinematic variables in elite men's 50 km race walking, and to measure variation in those variables at different distances. Thirty men were analysed from video data recorded during a World Race Walking Cup competition. Video data were also recorded at four distances during the European Cup Race Walking and 12 men analysed from these data. Two camcorders (50 Hz) recorded at each race for 3D analysis. The results of this study showed that walking speed was associated with both step length (r=0.54,P=0.002) and cadence (r=0.58,P=0.001). While placing the foot further ahead of the body at heel strike was associated with greater step lengths (r=0.45,P=0.013), it was also negatively associated with cadence (r= -0.62,P<0.001). In the World Cup, knee angles ranged between 175 and 186° at initial contact and between 180 and 195° at midstance. During the European Cup, walking speed decreased significantly (F=9.35,P=0.002), mostly due to a decrease in step length between 38.5 and 48.5 km (t=8.59,P=0.014). From this study, it would appear that the key areas a 50 km race walker must develop and coordinate are step length and cadence, although it is also important to ensure legal walking technique is maintained with the onset of fatigue. PMID:23679143

  7. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  8. Depressed mantle discontinuities beneath Iceland: Evidence of a garnet controlled 660 km discontinuity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J.; Cottaar, S.; White, R. S.; Deuss, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a mantle plume beneath Iceland has long been hypothesised to explain its high volumes of crustal volcanism. Practical constraints in seismic tomography mean that thin, slow velocity anomalies representative of a mantle plume signature are difficult to image. However it is possible to infer the presence of temperature anomalies at depth from the effect they have on phase transitions in surrounding mantle material. Phase changes in the olivine component of mantle rocks are thought to be responsible for global mantle seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth, though exact depths are dependent on surrounding temperature conditions. This study uses P to S seismic wave conversions at mantle discontinuities to investigate variation in topography allowing inference of temperature anomalies within the transition zone. We employ a large data set from a wide range of seismic stations across the North Atlantic region and a dense network in Iceland, including over 100 stations run by the University of Cambridge. Data are used to create over 6000 receiver functions. These are converted from time to depth including 3D corrections for variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocity heterogeneities, and then stacked based on common conversion points. We find that both the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are depressed under Iceland compared to normal depths in the surrounding region. The depression of 30 km observed on the 410 km discontinuity could be artificially deepened by un-modelled slow anomalies in the correcting velocity model. Adding a slow velocity conduit of -1.44% reduces the depression to 18 km; in this scenario both the velocity reduction and discontinuity topography reflect a temperature anomaly of 210 K. We find that much larger velocity reductions would be required to remove all depression on the 660 km discontinuity, and therefore correlated discontinuity depressions appear to be a robust feature of the data. While it is not possible

  9. Calcium accumulation during sporulation of Bacillus megaterium KM.

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, C; Ellar, D J

    1978-01-01

    Accumulation of Ca2+ in Bacilli occurs during stages IV to VI of sporulation. Ca2+ uptake into the sporangium was investigated in Bacillus megaterium KM in protoplasts prepared in stage III of sporulation and cultured to continue sporulation. These protoplasts and whole cells exhibit essentially identical Ca2+ uptake, which is compared with that of forespores isolated in stage V of sporulation. Ca2+, uptake into both sporangial protoplasts and isolated forespores occurs by Ca2+-specific carrier-mediated processes. However, protoplasts exhibit a Km value of 31 micrometer, and forespores have a Km value of 2.1 mM. Sporangial protoplasts accumulate Ca2+ against a concentration gradient. In contrast, Ca2+ uptake into isolated forespores is consistent with downhill transfer in which both rate and extent of uptake are affected by the external Ca2+ concontration. Dipicolinic acid has no effect on Ca2+ uptake by isolated forespores, apart from decreasing the external Ca2+ concentration by chelation. A model for sporulation-specific Ca2+ accumulation is proposed, in which Ca2+ is transported into the sporangium, resulting in a concentration of 3--9 mM in the mother-cell cytoplasm. This high concentration of Ca2+ enables carrier-mediated transfer down a concentration gradient into the forespore compartment, where a low free Ca2+ concentration is maintained by complexing with dipicolinic acid. PMID:103543

  10. Observations of magnetoconvection in Sunspots with 100 km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Scharmer, G.; Title, A. M.

    2003-05-01

    We present new observations from the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma with ˜0.1 arcsecond ( ˜100 km) resolution: the highest resolution yet achieved in solar observations. We focus on sunspot and active region magnetoconvective phenomena using G-band 4305 Å, 4877 Å continuum, 7507 Å TiO bandhead, and Ca II 3968 Å H-line filtergram movies. The G-band data are post-processed using Joint Phase Diverse Speckle wavefront restoration to create a full diffraction limited time series. Sunspot light-bridges are shown to have dark lanes less than 300 km in width that are coherent along the entire length of the bridge. Similarly, we find elongated dark ``canals'' in plage regions, particularly near pores, that appear to be highly modified intergranular downflow lanes. The canals are less than 200 km in width and are much more coherent than intergranular lanes in non-magnetic regions, often retaining their basic structure for more than one granular turn-over time. Both the light-bridge central lane and the canals appear to be the result of highly constrained flow structure in strong magnetic field regions -- an aspect of solar magnetoconvection that has not previously been observed. This reseach was supported by funding from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, a SOHO Guest Investigator subcontract to California State University Northridge, and the NASA TRACE contract NAS5-38099 at Lockheed Martin.

  11. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  12. Mesoscale (50-km) Boundary Layer Eddies in CASES-97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMone, M. A.; Grossman, R. L.; Yates, D.; Chen, F.; Ikeda, K.

    2001-05-01

    Boundery-layer eddies 50 km across are documented for the morning of 10 May 1997 during the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97). CASES-97 was held from 21 April to 21 May 1997, in the lower Walnut River Watershed in south central Kansas, to study the role of the heterogeneous surface in boundary-layer evolution. The eddies appear to be tied to terrain, with warm, upwelling air over the relatively high terrain that forms the eastern edge of the watershed, and downwelling air over the watershed. The winds on this day were 5 m/s out of the south, and there were strong horizontal contrasts in vegetation and surface fluxes, suggesting that surfact fluxes could also play a role. For comparison, we examine two other days for the presence of mesoscale eddies, 29 April (characterized by high horizontal heterogeneity of vegetation and 10 m/s southerlies), and 20 May (characterized by a uniformly green and moist surface with winds ENE at 7 m/s). 29 April had significant but rapidly-changing horizontal variability at scales greater than 10 km, but variability on 20 May was on scales less than 5 km. Estimates of the sensible heat budgets for the three days revealed a large residual for 10 May, the day with the mesoscale eddies. Calculation of the expected errors and reasonable corrections for bias errors and radiative heating did not account for the residual, leading to the hypothesis that the residual is associated with the mesoscale eddies.

  13. Demonstration of Femtosecond-Phase Stabilization in 2 km OpticalFiber

    SciTech Connect

    Staples, J.W.; Wilcox, R.; Byrd, J.M.

    2007-06-01

    Long-term phase drifts of less than a femtosecond per hour have been demonstrated in a 2 km length of single-mode optical fiber, stabilized interferometrically at 1530 nm. Recent improvements include a wide-band phase detector that reduces the possibility of fringe jumping due to fast external perturbations of the fiber and locking of the master CW laser wavelength to an atomic absorption line. Mode-locked lasers may be synchronized using two wavelengths of the comb, multiplexed over one fiber, each wavelength individually interferometrically stabilized.

  14. Comparison of broadband mode arrivals at ranges of 3515 km and 5171 km in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wage, Kathleen E.

    2003-04-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) provided an opportunity to observe signals propagating in the low-order modes of the ocean waveguide. Understanding the fluctuations of these mode signals is an important prerequisite to using them for tomography or other applications. In previous work, we characterized the cross-mode coherence and temporal variability of the low-order mode arrivals at 3515 km range [Wage et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (in press)]. This study compares the mode arrivals for two different ranges : 3515 km and 5171 km, using data from the ATOC vertical line arrays at Hawaii and Kiritimati. We discuss the mode intensity and coherence statistics for each of the arrays and examine mean arrival time trends over the year-long deployment. Experimental results are compared to PE simulations of propagation through a realistic background environment perturbed by internal waves of varying strengths. The dependence of mode statistics on the path-dependent changes in the background sound speed and the parameters of the internal wave field is explored. [Work supported by an ONR Ocean Acoustics Young Faculty Award.] a)A. B. Baggeroer, T. G. Birdsall, C. Clark, J. A. Colosi, B. D. Cornuelle, D. Costa, B. D. Dushaw, M. A. Dzieciuch, A. M. G. Forbes, B. M. Howe, D. Menemenlis, J. A. Mercer, K. Metzger, W. H. Munk, R. C. Spindel, P. F. Worcester, and C. Wunsch.

  15. Efficient production and secretion of pyruvate from Halomonas sp. KM-1 under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshikazu; Nishimura, Taku; Matsushita, Isao; Tsubota, Jun

    2016-03-01

    The alkaliphilic, halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. KM-1 can utilize both hexose and pentose sugars for the intracellular storage of bioplastic poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) under aerobic conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium nitrate concentration on PHB accumulation in the KM-1 strain. Unexpectedly, we observed the secretion of pyruvate, a central intermediate in carbon- and energy-metabolism processes in all organisms; therefore, pyruvate is widely used as a starting material in the industrial biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals and is employed for the production of crop-protection agents, polymers, cosmetics, and food additives. We then further analyzed pyruvate productivity following changes in culture temperature and the buffer concentration. In 48-h batch-cultivation experiments, we found that wild-type Halomonas sp. KM-1 secreted 63.3 g/L pyruvate at a rate of 1.32 g/(L·h), comparable to the results of former studies using mutant and recombinant microorganisms. Thus, these data provided important insights into the production of pyruvate using this novel strain. PMID:26989057

  16. Exhumation of an unusually large, ~3000 km3 coherent block of oceanic crust from >40 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Wendy; Metcalf, Rodney; Fairhurst, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The Central Metamorphic terrane (CMt) is an unusually large (~3000 km3) coherent block of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) metabasites; the first one of this scale reported with eclogite facies relicts, decompression assemblages, and thermobarometry indicating exhumation of the entire block from >40 km depth. The CMt is exposed in the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California and is dominantly an amphibolite facies metabasite which represents remnant oceanic crust subducted in a mid-Paleozoic Pacific-type margin. Thermochronology indicates that the CMt was subsequently exhumed along the Trinity fault during an early Permian extensional event. Newly discovered relict textures with new thermobarometry results suggest the CMt metabasites record the retrograde segment of the P-T-deformation-time path during exhumation from hornblende eclogite facies P-T conditions. A decompression and cooling sequence consisting of rutile cores within ilmenite crystals mantled by titanite is observed in CMt amphibolite samples. Zr-in-rutile thermometry combined with experimental data for rutile stability in metabasites suggests that relict rutile crystals preserve early P-T conditions of ~600° C and >1.3 GPa. Transition from eclogite facies is further supported by ilmenite-plagioclase-amphibole symplectites suggesting replacement of garnet or omphacite during decompression. The dominant mineral assemblages and metamorphic fabrics indicate dynamic recrystallization of metabasites during declining P-T conditions through amphibolite - epidote amphibolite facies. Exhumation via extension along the Trinity fault is suggested by the coplanar relationship between metabasite decompression-related deformation fabrics and the Trinity fault. We propose that subducted oceanic crust (CMt) was subsequently exhumed as a large coherent block from depths >40 km. This is significant because the conversion of mafic oceanic crust to eclogite produces the negative buoyancy (relative to mantle peridotite) that

  17. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  18. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  19. Microorganisms cultured from stratospheric air samples obtained at 41 km.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, M; Wickramasinghe, N C; Narlikar, J V; Rajaratnam, P

    2003-01-21

    Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41 km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these, together with any other organisms, present in these samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium album (Limber) de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Although the possibility of contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, we are confident that the organisms originated from the stratosphere. Possible mechanisms by which these organisms could have attained such a height are discussed. PMID:12583913

  20. A Proposed International Tropical Reference Atmosphere up to 80 Km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananthasayanam, M. R.; Narasimha, R.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon previous standard reference atmosphere, which are usually inspired by temperature regions, a proposal is made for an International Tropical Reference Atmosphere (ITRA). It is a modification of the Indian Standard Tropical Atmosphere (ISIA). The data at the available longitudinal stations in the tropics was considered in formulating the present proposal. Balloonsonde, rocketsonde, and grenade and falling sphere data was used in developing the temperature data bse fromt he stratosphere, troposphere and mesosphere. Temperature distribution and mean sea level pressures up to 80 km altitudes is discussed.

  1. PMT characterisation for the KM3NeT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, B.; Kalekin, O.; Reubelt, J.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-05-01

    The KM3NeT project aims to design and to construct at least a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main task is to instrument this deep-sea water volume with optical modules, each housing one or several photomultiplier tubes. Three-, 8- and 10-in. PMTs from ET Enterprises, Hamamatsu and MELZ-FEU have been investigated as candidates for the telescope's optical modules. Various parameters of these photomultiplier tubes have been measured in a test bench at the Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics. These results are presented.

  2. The 10 km/s, 10 kg railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.A. ); Barber, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the system design for a railgun powered by capacitor-based energy stores distributed along its length is presented. It is assumed that it is required to accelerate a mass of 10kg to a velocity of 10 km/s. Parameters for the railgun and its energy stores are derived and the performance of the system is computed with particular attention being paid to the efficiency with which store energy is converted to launch package kinetic energy. It is shown that efficiencies of 90 percent can be expected from a properly designed system.

  3. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  4. 157km BOTDA with pulse coding and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xianyang; Wang, Zinan; Wang, Song; Xue, Naitian; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2016-05-01

    A repeater-less Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) with 157.68km sensing range is demonstrated, using the combination of random fiber laser Raman pumping and low-noise laser-diode-Raman pumping. With optical pulse coding (OPC) and Non Local Means (NLM) image processing, temperature sensing with +/-0.70°C uncertainty and 8m spatial resolution is experimentally demonstrated. The image processing approach has been proved to be compatible with OPC, and it further increases the figure-of-merit (FoM) of the system by 57%.

  5. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. Methods The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. Results For the annual fastest, swimming speed remained stable for men and women in 5 km (5.50 ± 0.21 and 5.08 ± 0.19 km/h, respectively), in 10 km (5.38 ± 0.21 and 5.05 ± 0.26 km/h, respectively) and in 25 km (5.03 ± 0.32 and 4.58 ± 0.27 km/h, respectively). In the annual ten fastest, swimming speed remained constant in 5 km in women (5.02 ± 0.19 km/h) but decreased significantly and linearly in men from 5.42 ± 0.03 km/h to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h. In 10 km, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly in women from 4.75 ± 0.01 km/h to 5.74 ± 0.01 km/h but remained stable in men at 5.36 ± 0.21 km/h. In 25 km, swimming speed decreased significantly and linearly in women from 4.60 ± 0.06 km/h to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h but remained unchanged at 4.93 ± 0.34 km/h in men. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in swimming speed remained unchanged in 5 km (7.6 ± 3.0%), 10 km (6.1 ± 2.5%) and 25 km (9.0 ± 3.7%). For the annual ten fastest, the sex difference remained stable in 5 km at 7.6 ± 0.6%, decreased significantly and linearly in 10 km from 7.7 ± 0.7% to 1.2 ± 0.3% and increased significantly and linearly from 4.7 ± 1.4% to 9.6 ± 1.5% in 25 km. Conclusions To summarize, elite female open-water ultra-distance swimmers improved in 10 km but impaired in 25 km leading to a linear decrease in sex difference in 10 km and a linear increase in sex difference in 25 km. The linear changes in sex differences

  6. Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber.

    PubMed

    Terra, O; Grosche, G; Schnatz, H

    2010-07-19

    We describe the use of fiber Brillouin amplification (FBA) for the coherent transmission of optical frequencies over a 480 km long optical fiber link. FBA uses the transmission fiber itself for efficient, bi-directional coherent amplification of weak signals with pump powers around 30 mW. In a test setup we measured the gain and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FBA and compared it to that of the widely used uni-directional Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) and to our recently built bi-directional EDFA. We measured also the phase noise introduced by the FBA and used a new and simple technique to stabilize the frequency of the FBA pump laser. We then transferred a stabilized laser frequency over a wide area network with a total fiber length of 480 km using only one intermediate FBA station. After compensating the noise induced by the fiber, the frequency is delivered to the user end with an uncertainty below 2 x 10(-18) and an instability sigma y(tau) = 2 x 10(-14) /(tau/s). PMID:20720995

  7. Infrared emission from the atmosphere above 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared radiation over the range from 4 to 1000 microns from atoms and molecules in the earth's atmosphere, between 200 and 400 km, was calculated. Only zenith lines of sight were considered. The excitation of the atoms and molecules is due to collisions with other molecules and to absorption of radiation from the earth and sun. In some cases, the abundances of the molecules had to be estimated. The most important lines are the forbidden lines from atomic oxygen at 63.1 and 147 micron, and the vibration-rotation band of nitric oxide at 5.3 micron. These lines can have intensities as high as a few times 0.001 ergs/sq cm/sec/steradian at 200 km altitude. In addition, the vibration-rotation bands of NO(+) at 4.3 micron and CO at 4.7 micron and the pure rotation lines of NO and NO(+) could be detected by infrared telescopes in space.

  8. Km typing with PCR: application to population screening.

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, J H; Bowcock, A M; Erlich, H A; Nevo, S; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1991-01-01

    The immunoglobulin kappa light chain (IgK) locus may play a significant role in the pathology of both infectious and autoimmune diseases. Most of the work on IgK genetics has been conducted using immunological techniques for allelic typing and sequence analysis. This is restricted by availability of reagents and can be both expensive and time-consuming. PCR primers were designed to amplify the kappa constant gene (Ck), and four allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASOs) were used to distinguish the alleles in the amplified PCR products. Direct sequencing of PCR products was performed to confirm that the primers specifically amplified the Ck region and the ASOs differentiated the Km alleles. Sequencing of an average of 209 nucleotides of DNA from 50 individuals revealed no variation except at codon 191, which is known to be involved in a frequent polymorphism. An analysis of 347 different individual DNAs from 10 human populations was conducted to determine Km allelic frequencies within these populations and to apply this type of data collection to population studies. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1900145

  9. KM3NeT/ORCA status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtleben, Dorothea F. E.

    2016-04-01

    Neutrinos created in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere can serve as a powerful tool to unveil the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH). At low energies, around a few GeV, matter effects from the transition through the Earth are expected to imprint a distinct but also subtle signature on the oscillation pattern, specific to the ordering of the neutrino masses. KM3NeT/ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss), a densely instrumented building block of the upcoming KM3NeT neutrino telescope, will be designated to measuring this signature in the Mediterranean Sea. Using detailed simulations the sensitivity towards this signature has been evaluated. The multi-PMT detectors allow in the water for an accurate reconstruction of GeV neutrino event signatures and distinction of neutrino flavours. For the determination of the mass hierarchy a median significance of 2-6σ has been estimated for three years of data taking, depending on the actual hierarchy and the oscillation parameters. At the same time the values of several oscillation parameters like θ23 will be determined to unprecedented precision.

  10. Quantum crytography over 14km of installed optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Simmons, C.

    1995-09-01

    We have made the first demonstration that low error rate quantum cryptography over long distances (14km) of installed optical fiber in a real-world environment, subject to uncontrolled temperature and mechanical influences, representing an important new step towards incorporation of quantum cryptography into existing information security systems. We also point out that the high visibility single-photon interference in our experiment allows us to infer a test of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics: a photon reaching the detector has traveled over 14km of optical fiber in a wavepacket comprising a coherent superposition of two components that are spatially separated by about 2m. In principle, there are decoherence processes (or even possible modifications of quantum mechanics) that could cause the photon`s wavefunction to collapse into one component or the other during propagation, leading to a reduction in visibility. However, our results are consistent with no such loss of quantum coherence during the 67-{mu}s propagation time.

  11. Castro ring zone: a 4,500-km2 fossil hydrothermal system in the Challis volcanic field, central Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Ekren, E.B.; Hardyman, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The largest fossil hydrothermal system occupying a 4500 km2 area in central Idaho is revealed by delta 18O studies. The remains of this meteoric-hydrothermal system are preserved within a sharply bounded, 15 km wide, 70-km-diameter annulus of low delta 18O rock (+2.0 to -8.8per mille) termed the Castro ring zone. The zone is centred on a less depleted (+4.5) core zone consisting of granitic rocks of the Castro pluton. This 700-km2 Eocene subvolcanic batholith has intruded, domed, and hydrothermally metamorphosed a thick sequence of Challis Volcanics, the stratigraphically low rocks in the 2000-km2 Van Horn Peak and the 1000-km2 Thunder Mountain cauldron complexes being most strongly altered. Less extreme 18O depletions occur in the youngest major ash-flow sheets of these complexes, indicating a vertical 18O gradient. Water/rock ratios of geothermal systems are surprisingly insensitive to the circulation scale.-L.-di H.

  12. Hybrid fine scale climatology and microphysics of in-cloud icing: From 32 km reanalysis to 5 km mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamraoui, Fayçal; Benoit, Robert; Perron, Jean; Fortin, Guy; Masson, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In-cloud icing can impose safety concerns and economic challenges for various industries. Icing climate representations proved beneficial for optimal designs and careful planning. The current study investigates in-cloud icing, its related cloud microphysics and introduces a 15-year time period climatology of icing events. The model was initially driven by reanalysis data from North American Regional Reanalysis and downscaled through a two-level nesting of 10 km and 5 km, using a limited-area version of the Global Environment Multiscale Model of the Canadian Meteorological Center. In addition, a hybrid approach is used to reduce time consuming calculations. The simulation realized exclusively on significant icing days, was combined with non-significant icing days as represented by data from NARR. A proof of concept is presented here for a 1000 km area around Gaspé during January for those 15 years. An increase in the number and intensity of icing events has been identified during the last 15 years. From GEM-LAM simulations and within the atmospheric layer between 10 m and 200 m AGL, supercooled liquid water contents indicated a maximum of 0.4 g m- 3, and 50% of the values are less than 0.05 g m- 3. All values of median volume diameters (MVD) are approximately capped by 70 μm and the typical values are around 15 μm. Supercooled Large Droplets represent approximately 5%. The vertical profile of icing climatology demonstrates a steady duration of icing events until the level of 60 m. The altitudes of 60 m and 100 m indicate substantial icing intensification toward higher elevations. GEM-LAM demonstrated a substantial improvement in the calculation of in-cloud icing, reducing significantly the challenge posed by complex terrains.

  13. An Instrument Suite for the Vertical Characterization of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System from 100 km to 700km Altitude.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, F.; Nicholas, A.

    2008-05-01

    We describe an instrument suite that includes WTS (the Wind-Temperature Spectrometer developed for the ANDE mission of the Naval Research Laboratory), a new Ion-Drift-Temperature Spectrometer (IDTS) and one each of our new Neutral (NMS) and Ion (IMS) Mass Spectrometers. The WTS and IDTS both implement Small- Deflection Energy Analyzers (SDEAs) developed at NASA Goddard; thus, they are capable of measuring the differential energy and angular distributions of neutrals and ions with the capability of detecting and characterizing non-Maxwellian ion and neutral distributions in the upper atmosphere. The mass spectrometers have a mass resolution of approximately 1/60. The suite is designed for sounding rocket investigations to obtain the vertical distribution of the neutral wind, ion drift, respective temperatures, and relative densities of the major species, e.g., O/N2; in addition it will provide ion and neutral composition, to include metals. The sensitivity of each instrument is sufficient to provide data over altitudes ranging from about 100 to about 700 km. The vertical spatial resolution in the neutral wind/temperature gradually increases from a few meters between 100 and 150 km to 100's of meters above 400 km. The ion drift measurements will have spatial resolution less than 1 m at the peak of the F- region and larger above and below. The wind and ion-drift measurements require large vehicle velocity in the sampled region. We will discuss this and other performance requirements. The capability offered in this instrument suite will make it possible to add new data in our pursuit of two long standing questions: a) the transition from Maxwellian to non-Maxwellian as the thermosphere becomes the exosphere and b) the true O/O2 and O/N2 ratio without instrument contamination due to O recombination in the ion source.

  14. The ion population between 1300 km and 230000 km in the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, W. -H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the encounter of the spacecraft Giotto with Comet Halley the two sensors of the ion mass spectrometer (IMS), high energy range spectrometer (HERS) and high intensity spectrometer (HIS), measured the mass and the three-dimensional velocity distributions of cometary ions. HIS looked mainly at the cold, slow part of the distribution close to the nucleus, HERS at the more energetic pick-up ions further out. After a thorough recalibration of the HIS flight spare unit and an extensive data analysis we present here continuous ion density-, composition-, velocity-, and temperature profiles for the water group ion (mass range 16-19 amu/e) along Giotto's inbound trajectory from 230,000 to 1300 km from the comet nucleus. The two sensors are in very good agreement in the region where their measurements overlap thus giving an excellent data base for the discussion of theoretical comet models. The most prominent feature where models and observations disagree is the so called pile up region between 8000 and 15,000 km from the nucleus.

  15. 2540 km: bimagic baseline for neutrino oscillation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Amol; Goswami, Srubabati; Ray, Shamayita

    2010-12-31

    We show that a source-to-detector distance of 2540 km, motivated recently [S. K. Raut, R. S. Singh, and S. U. Sankar, arXiv:0908.3741] for a narrow band superbeam, offers multiple advantages for a low energy neutrino factory with a detector that can identify muon charge. At this baseline, for any neutrino hierarchy, the wrong-sign muon signal is almost independent of CP violation and θ(13) in certain energy ranges. This allows the identification of the hierarchy in a clean way. In addition, part of the muon spectrum is also sensitive to the CP violating phase and θ(13), so that the same setup can be used to probe these parameters as well. PMID:21231644

  16. Transport System for Delivery Tourists At Altitude 140 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The author offers a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means for the launch of a payload into outer space, to keep the fixed space stations at high altitudes (up to 200 km). The method may also be useful for landing to space bodies, for launching of the space ships (crafts), and for moving and accelerating other artificial apparatuses. The offered installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body (i.e. stones) for acceleration and change of the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may be also used as a high capacity energy accumulator.

  17. Readout and data acquisition for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belias, Anastasios; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-05-01

    In the KM3NeT neutrino telescope design the readout concept is based on a point-to-point network connecting tenthousands of optical modules in the deep sea through a photonic network with the shore station. The time-over-threshold data from each Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) of each optical module will be send to shore over fibres using dedicated wavelengths. Nanosecond timing accuracy will be schieved using a clock signal embedded in the data stream and measuring the roundtrip time from the shore to each optical module individually. The DAQ software architecture based on the Internet Communications Engine (ICE) will provide a common and uniform software framework for the control of each optical module and the data acquisition of the whole neutrino telescope.

  18. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    PubMed

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter. PMID:12748865

  19. Calibration methods and tools for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovskiy, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT detectors, ARCA and ORCA, composed of several thousands digital optical modules, are in the process of their realization in the Mediterranean Sea. Each optical module contains 31 3-inch photomultipliers. Readout of the optical modules and other detector components is synchronized at the level of sub-nanoseconds. The position of the module is measured by acoustic piezo detectors inside the module and external acoustic emitters installed on the bottom of the sea. The orientation of the module is obtained with an internal attitude and heading reference system chip. Detector calibration, i.e. timing, positioning and sea-water properties, is overviewed in this talk and discussed in detail in this conference. Results of the procedure applied to the first detector unit ready for installation in the deep sea will be shown.

  20. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  1. Constraining density and velocity jumps across the 410 km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Cobden, Laura; Abreu, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the velocity and density structure of the olivine-to-wadsleyite transition using polarities of precursor arrivals to PP seismic waves that reflect off the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Northern Atlantic. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from Mw > 5.8 using array seismology methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. For each event the polarity of the PP phase is compared to polarity of the precursor signal and we find several events where the polarity of the precursors are opposite to that of PP. There does not seem to be any dependency of the observed polarities on the propagation direction of the seismic waves but interestingly there seems to be a dependency on the distance between source and receiver. The events with epicentral distances greater than 119 degrees mostly show opposite polarities, while for those with smaller epicentral distances the same polarity of the main phase and precursor signal is dominant. Using Zeoppritz equations, we analyzed more than 64 million combinations of density, compressional and shear wave velocities for both layers, above and below the 410 km discontinuity in order to find the best combination of those parameters that can explain the observations. The results are indicating combinations of density, P and S wave velocity exhibiting a smaller contrast compared to those from the pyrolite model (the density jump, however is still positive to provide physically meaningful results). The calculated reductions in both compressional and shear wave velocities go up to 13% but mostly fall within the range of less than 7- 8%. We interpret this reduction in elastic properties and seismic velocity of minerals as the effect of a higher than normal content of water of wadsleyite in this region, while we can exclude a reduction in iron.

  2. Changes in single skinfold thickness in 100 km ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumgartner, Sabrina; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Bescós, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in single skinfold thickness and body fat have been investigated in ultraswimmers and ultracyclists, but not in ultrarunners. The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon. Methods Firstly, we investigated associations between prerace preparation and prerace body composition and, secondly, changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon in 219 male ultramarathoners. Changes in fat mass and skeletal muscle were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results Kilometers run weekly prerace and running speed during training were negatively associated with all skinfold thicknesses (P < 0.05) except for the front thigh skinfold. During the race, skinfold thickness at the pectoral (−0.1%), suprailiac (−1.8%), and calf (−0.8%) sites decreased (P < 0.05). The subjects lost 1.9 ± 1.4 kg of body mass (P < 0.001), 0.7 ± 1.0 kg of estimated skeletal muscle mass (P < 0.001), and 0.2 ± 1.3 kg of estimated fat mass (P < 0.05). The decrease in body mass was positively related to the decrease in both estimated skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.21, P = 0.0017) and estimated fat mass (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Firstly, prerace fat mass and prerace skinfold thickness were associated with both volume and speed in running training. Secondly, during the ultramarathon, skinfold thickness decreased at the pectoral, suprailiac, and calf sites, but not at the thigh site. Percent decreases in skinfold thickness for ultrarunners was lower than the percent decreases in skinfold thickness reported for ultraswimmers and ultracyclists. PMID:24198597

  3. Subduction of European continental crust to 70 km depth imaged in the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Guillot, Stéphane; Solarino, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The first conclusive evidence in support of the burial (and exhumation) of continental crust to depths larger than 90 km was provided by the discovery of coesite-bearing metamorphic rocks in the Dora Maira massif of the Western Alps (Chopin, 1984). Since then, even though similar outcrops of exhumed HP/UHP rocks have been recognized in a number of collisional belts, direct seismic evidences for subduction of continental crust in the mantle of the upper plate remain rare. In the Western Alps, the greatest depth ever recorded for the European Moho is 55 km by wide-angle seismic reflection (ECORS-CROP DSS Group, 1989). In an effort to image the European Moho at greater depth, and unravel the very complex lithospheric structure of the W-Alps, we have installed the CIFALPS temporary seismic array across the Southwestern Alps for 14 months (2012-2013). The almost linear array runs from the Rhône valley (France) to the Po plain (Italy) across the Dora Maira massif where exhumed HP/UHP metamorphic rocks of continental origin were first discovered. We used the receiver function processing technique that enhances P-to-S converted waves at velocity boundaries beneath the array. The receiver function records were migrated to depth using 4 different 1-D velocity models to account for the strongest structural changes along the profile. They were then stacked using the classical common-conversion point technique. Beneath the Southeast basin and the external zones, the obtained seismic section displays a clear converted phase on the European Moho, dipping gently to the ENE from ~35 km at the western end of the profile, to ~40 km beneath the Frontal Penninic thrust (FPT). The Moho dip then noticeably increases beneath the internal zones, while the amplitude of the converted phase weakens. The weak European Moho signal may be traced to 70-75 km depth beneath the eastern Dora Maira massif and the westernmost Po plain. At shallower level (20-40 km), we observe a set of strong

  4. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

    2014-01-01

    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

  5. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Bosilovich, Michael; Buchard, Virginie; Chao, Winston; Coy, Lawrence; Cullather, Richard; da Silva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton; Koster, Randal; McCarty, Will; Schubert, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  6. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.

    2013-02-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ~ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( < 2 ns) and Time over Threshold. A PROM block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the control electronics via an I2C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  7. Nausea is associated with endotoxemia during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin J; Valentino, Taylor; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hecht, Frederick M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-09-01

    This study explored possible contributing factors to gastrointestinal distress, including endotoxemia, hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition, during a 161-km ultramarathon. Thirty runners participated in the study and 20 finished the race. At three checkpoints and the finish, runners were interviewed to assess the incidence and severity of 12 gastrointestinal symptoms and to determine dietary intake. Core temperature was measured at the same locations. Runners were weighed pre-race, at the three checkpoints and the finish to monitor hydration status. Blood markers for endotoxemia (sCD14) and inflammation (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) were measured pre- and post-race. Gastrointestinal symptoms were experienced by most runners (80%), with nausea being the most common complaint (60%). Runners with nausea experienced significantly greater (P = 0.02) endotoxemia than those without nausea (sCD14 mean increase 0.7 versus 0.5 µg · mL(-1)). There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.652, P = 0.005) between nausea severity and endotoxemia level. Inflammatory response, core temperature, hydration level and race diet were similar between runners with and without nausea. This study links endotoxemia to nausea in ultramarathon runners. Other possible contributing factors to nausea such as hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition did not appear to play a role in the symptomatic runners in this study. PMID:26707127

  8. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-01

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e+e-, pp, and μ+μ- collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e+e- colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e+e- collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p source, exploits high cross sections for pp production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  9. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  10. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  11. Widely spaced teeth

    MedlinePlus

    Teeth - widely spaced ... Acromegaly Ellis-van Creveld syndrome Injury Morquio syndrome Normal growth (temporary widening) Possible gum disease Sanfilippo syndrome Tooth shifting due to gum disease or missing teeth

  12. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived. PMID:26037965

  13. One-Hundred-km-Scale Basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an Active Ice Shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger (350 wide) and shallower (0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes (McKinnon and Barr 2007, Barr 2008); the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age (250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

  14. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental- to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  15. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the

  16. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  17. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  18. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature from 1-km AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-process DLRs 1km AVHRR data archive to different geophysical and descriptive parameters of the land surface and the atmosphere, a series of scientific data processors are being developed in the framework of the TIMELINE project. The archive of DLR ranges back to the 80ies. One of the data processors is SurfTemp, which processes L2 LST and emissivity datasets from AVHRR L1b data. The development of the data processor included the selection of statistical procedures suitable for time series processing, including four mono-window and six split window algorithms. For almost all of these algorithms, new constants were generated, which better account for different atmospheric and geometric acquisition situations. The selection of optimal algorithms for SurfTemp is based on a round robin approach, in which the selected mono-window and split window algorithms are tested on the basis of a large number of TOA radiance/LST pairs, which were generated using a radiative transfer model and the SeeBorV5 profile database. The original LSTs are thereby compared to the LSTs derived from the TOA radiances using the mono- and split window algorithms. The algorithm comparison includes measures of precision, as well as the sensitivity of a method to the accuracy of its input data. The results of the round robin are presented, as well as the implementation of selected algorithms into SurfTemp. Further, first cross-validation results between the AVHRR LST and MODIS LST are shown.

  19. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin Jean; Hoffman, Martin Dean

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incidence, severity, and timing of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in finishers and non-finishers of the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. A total of 272 runners (71.0% of starters) completed a post-race questionnaire that assessed the incidence and severity (none = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, very severe = 4) of 12 upper (reflux/heartburn, belching, stomach bloating, stomach cramps/pain, nausea, vomiting) and lower (intestinal cramps/pain, flatulence, side ache/stitch, urge to defecate, loose stool/diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding/bloody faeces) GI symptoms experienced during each of four race segments. GI symptoms were experienced by most runners (96.0%). Flatulence (65.9% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), belching (61.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), and nausea (60.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.7 severity) were the most common symptoms. Among race finishers, 43.9% reported that GI symptoms affected their race performance, with nausea being the most common symptom (86.0%). Among race non-finishers, 35.6% reported that GI symptoms were a reason for dropping out of the race, with nausea being the most common symptom (90.5%). For both finishers and non-finishers, nausea was greatest during the most challenging and hottest part of the race. GI symptoms are very common during ultramarathon running, and in particular, nausea is the most common complaint for finishers and non-finishers. PMID:25716739

  20. Processing techniques for global land 1-km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Wivell, Charles E.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Meyer, David

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in cooperation with several international science organizations has developed techniques for processing daily Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data of the entire global land surface. These techniques include orbital stitching, geometric rectification, radiometric calibration, and atmospheric correction. An orbital stitching algorithm was developed to combine consecutive observations acquired along an orbit by ground receiving stations into contiguous half-orbital segments. The geometric rectification process uses an AVHRR satellite model that contains modules for forward mapping, forward terrain correction, and inverse mapping with terrain correction. The correction is accomplished by using the hydrologic features coastlines and lakes from the Digital Chart of the World. These features are rasterized into the satellite projection and are matched to the AVHRR imagery using binary edge correlation techniques. The resulting coefficients are related to six attitude correction parameters: roll, roll rate, pitch, pitch rate, yaw, and altitude. The image can then be precision corrected to a variety of map projections and user-selected image frames. Because the AVHRR lacks onboard calibration for the optical wavelengths, a series of time-variant calibration coefficients derived from vicarious calibration methods and are used to model the degradation profile of the instruments. Reducing atmospheric effects on AVHRR data is important. A method has been develop that will remove the effects of molecular scattering and absorption from clear sky observations, using climatological measurements of ozone. Other methods to remove the effects of water vapor and aerosols are being investigated.

  1. Clouds in ECMWF's 30 KM Resolution Global Atmospheric Forecast Model (TL639)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Global models of the general circulation of the atmosphere resolve a wide range of length scales, and in particular cloud structures extend from planetary scales to the smallest scales resolvable, now down to 30 km in state-of-the-art models. Even the highest resolution models do not resolve small-scale cloud phenomena seen, for example, in Landsat and other high-resolution satellite images of clouds. Unresolved small-scale disturbances often grow into larger ones through non-linear processes that transfer energy upscale. Understanding upscale cascades is of crucial importance in predicting current weather, and in parameterizing cloud-radiative processes that control long term climate. Several movie animations provide examples of the temporal and spatial variation of cloud fields produced in 4-day runs of the forecast model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, England, at particular times and locations of simultaneous measurement field campaigns. model resolution is approximately 30 km horizontally (triangular truncation TL639) with 31 vertical levels from surface to stratosphere. Timestep of the model is about 10 minutes, but animation frames are 3 hours apart, at timesteps when the radiation is computed. The animations were prepared from an archive of several 4-day runs at the highest available model resolution, and archived at ECMWF. Cloud, wind and temperature fields in an approximately 1000 km X 1000 km box were retrieved from the archive, then approximately 60 Mb Vis5d files were prepared with the help of Graeme Kelly of ECMWF, and were compressed into MPEG files each less than 3 Mb. We discuss the interaction of clouds and radiation in the model, and compare the variability of cloud liquid as a function of scale to that seen in cloud observations made in intensive field campaigns. Comparison of high-resolution global runs to cloud-resolving models, and to lower resolution climate models is leading to better

  2. The isolated ˜680 km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Zhan, Zhongwen; Kanamori, Hiroo; Hao, Jin-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located in very high-pressure conditions 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only a few small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (680 km centroid depth) event with MW ≥ 7.8 in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and rapid steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. This event was exceptionally well-recorded by seismic stations around the world, allowing detailed constraints to be placed on the source process. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ˜40 km with a multi-stage expansion rate (˜ 5 + km /s down-dip initially, ˜3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s total rupture duration the radiated energy was ˜ 3.3 ×1016 J and the stress drop was ˜38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 deep earthquakes, indicating that source processes of very large deep earthquakes sample a wide range of behavior from dissipative, more viscous failure to very brittle failure. The isolated occurrence of the event, much deeper than the apparently thermally-bounded distribution of Bonin-slab seismicity above 600 km depth, suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab and proximity to the 660-km phase transition

  3. Measurement of the Vertical Gradient of the Semidiurnal Tidal Wind Phase in Winter at the 95 Km Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-01-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  4. Measurement of the vertical gradient of the semidiurnal tidal wind phase in winter at the 95 km level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schminder, R.; Kurschner, D.

    1984-05-01

    When supplemented by absolute reflection height measurements, low frequency wind measurements in the 90-100 km height range become truly competitive in comparison with the more widely used radar meteor wind observations. For example, height profiles of the wind parameters in the so-called meteor zone can be obtained due to the considerable interdiurnal variability of the average nighttime reflection heights controlled by geomagnetic activity. The phase of the semidiurnal tidal wind is particularly height-dependent. The measured vertical gradient of 1/4 h/km in winter corresponds to a vertical wavelength of about 50 km. Wind measurements in the upper atmosphere, at heights between 90 and 100 km, were carried out at the Collm Geophysical Observatory of Karl Marx University Leipzig for a number of years. These measurements use the closely-spaced receiver method and three measuring paths, on 179, 227, and 272 kHz. They take place every day between sunset and sunrise, i.e., nightly. A night in this sense may last as long as 18 hours in winter. Both the measurements and their evaluation are completely automatic, and the prevailing winds and tides are separated.

  5. Wide-Angle Imaging of the Mariana Subduction Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, B. C.; Klemperer, S.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 we collected wide-angle refraction data using 53 OBSIP ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in an effort to elucidate the structure of lower crust and upper mantle of the Mariana arc. The OBSs were deployed in 3 arc-parallel lines along the magmatic arc, frontal arc, and forearc. We used the R/V Ewing's 20-gun, 10,810 c.i. air-gun array to shoot 2603 km of arc-parallel and perpendicular lines with 200-m or 250-m shot spacings. We also concurrently recorded 15-fold or 12-fold, 240-channel seismic data, as well as magnetic, gravity, and swath bathymetry data. Twenty-five OBSs were deployed along the volcanic arc with a 10-km spacing, twenty OBSs along the frontal arc at 15-km spacing, and eight OBSs along the forearc (roughly halfway between the magmatic arc and the trench) at 20-km spacing. The lines were located between 14.5 and 18.5 degrees north. All 53 OBSs were successfully recovered, with all but two successfully recording every shot. Preliminary examination of the data shows refracted arrivals from shots in excess of 200 km from some OBSs. Major bathymetric variation (0.1 to 3 km) along the volcanic-arc line and the frontal-arc line makes preliminary estimates of crustal structure difficult. So far, mid-to-deep crustal reflections can not be consistently identified between adjacent OBSs, especially along the magmatic arc for which topographic variation is most dramatic. F-K and F-X filters are being tested to better identify reflected arrivals. Preliminary first-arrival analysis of the frontal-arc line suggests velocities of c. 6.4 km/s at 5-10 km depth, and c. 7.3 km/s at 15-25 km depth. These preliminary estimates of "continental-type" velocities in the upper crust, and very high velocities in the lower crust, are directly analogous to results from a Japanese study across the Izu arc at 32 degrees north, despite changes in tectonic style along the arc. Possible scattered Moho reflections are seen at 25-30 km depth beneath the northern end of the

  6. The Central Logic Board for the KM3NeT detector: Design and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musico, P.

    2016-07-01

    The KM3NeT deep sea neutrino observatory will include a very large number of multi-Photomultiplier (PMT) optical modules (DOM) to detect the Cherenkov light generated by secondary particles produced in neutrino interactions. The Central Logic Board (CLB) has been developed to acquire timing and amplitude information from the PMT signals, implementing time-to-digital conversion (TDC) with time over threshold (TOT) technique. The board is also used to configure all the DOM subsystems, to assist in the DOM position and orientation, calibration and to monitor temperature and humidity in the DOM itself. All the collected data are transmitted to shore using a wide-bandwidth optical network. Moreover, through the optical network, all the DOMs are kept synchronized in time within 1 ns precision using the White Rabbit (WR) Precision Time Protocol (PTP) over an Ethernet connection. A large Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) has been adopted to implement all the specifications witht the requested performances. The CLB will be also used in the base container of the detection unit (DU) to set-up and monitor all the requested functionalities: in this scenario a dedicated firmware and software will be deployed on board. The design has been started in early 2013 and several prototypes have been developed. After deep test carried on in different EU laboratories, the final mass production batch of 600 boards has been ordered and built: all the CLB are now ready for integration in the DOMs and base containers. The first two KM3NeT DU will be deployed in summer 2015 and all other units are in advanced stage of integration.

  7. Wide Angle Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This brief movie illustrates the passage of the Moon through the Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft's wide-angle camera field of view as the spacecraft passed by the Moon on the way to its closest approach with Earth on August 17, 1999. From beginning to end of the sequence, 25 wide-angle images (with a spatial image scale of about 14 miles per pixel (about 23 kilometers)were taken over the course of 7 and 1/2 minutes through a series of narrow and broadband spectral filters and polarizers, ranging from the violet to the near-infrared regions of the spectrum, to calibrate the spectral response of the wide-angle camera. The exposure times range from 5 milliseconds to 1.5 seconds. Two of the exposures were smeared and have been discarded and replaced with nearby images to make a smooth movie sequence. All images were scaled so that the brightness of Crisium basin, the dark circular region in the upper right, is approximately the same in every image. The imaging data were processed and released by the Cassini Imaging Central Laboratory for Operations (CICLOPS)at the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ.

    Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team/University of Arizona

    Cassini, launched in 1997, is a joint mission of NASA, the European Space Agency and Italian Space Agency. The mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  8. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  9. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  10. Transmission of three-polarization-multiplexed 25-Gb/s DPSK signals over 300-km fiber link.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Yan, Lianshan; Yi, Anlin; Chen, Zhiyu; Jiang, Lin; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xihua; Zhou, Xinyu; Feng, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Polarization is one of the key parameters to be utilized for large capacity and high spectral-efficient optical communication systems, especially the widely deployed polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM) scheme. To break the limitation of only two orthogonal polarization states that could be used for carrying data signals over the same wavelength, we experimentally demonstrate the first transmission of three-polarization-division-multiplexed DPSK signals at a rate up to 3×25  Gb/s over 300-km fiber link by using a single-carrier. PMID:27192302

  11. 120 Gbit/s injection-locked homodyne coherent transmission of polarization-multiplexed 64 QAM signals over 150 km.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixin; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2014-12-15

    We describe an injection-locked 64 QAM homodyne coherent transmission, which is the highest QAM multiplicity realized with an injection locking technique. The frequency locking range of the local oscillator (LO) was as wide as 1 GHz. The phase noise was only 0.2 deg, which is 1/3 of that obtained with our previous OVCO-based OPLL (0.6 deg.). As a result, a 120 Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed 64 QAM signal was successfully transmitted over 150 km with a simple receiver configuration and low DSP complexity. PMID:25607079

  12. The Crust and Mantle Relationships Beneath Central and Southern Iberian Peninsula constrained by a 550 km long multiseismic transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar; Carbonell, Ramon; Simancas, Jose Fernando; Martinez Poyatos, David; Azor, Antonio; Ayarza, Puy; Storti, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    A composite lithospheric cross section which is composed by data from controlled source multiseismic experiments strongly constrains the lithospheric structure of southwestern Iberia. The data includes coincident normal incidence and wide-angle profiles along an, approximately, 550 km long transect. This transect goes across, from North-to-South, the major tectonic zones that build up Southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula (the Central Iberian Zone -CIZ-, the Ossa-Morena Zone -OMZ- and the South Portuguese Zone -SPZ-). The knowledge provided by these datasets constitutes the base to develop multidisciplinary models of the lithosphere. The multichannel deep seismic high resolution (60-90 fold) profiles, IBERSEIS & ALCUDIA were acquired in summer 2001 and 2007 are about 300 and 250 km long respectively. The transects image 20 s (TWTT), about 70 km depth. To address the crust and upper mantle structural relationships a reassessment of the normal incidence seismic reflection transect ALCUDIA has been carried out. We revised the key processing steps and applied advance analysis on the ALCUDIA transect with the aim to improve the signal to noise ratio especially in the deep parts and to produce a depth migrated image. The velocity model generated through wide-angle seismic survey (2003) was used to convert IBERSEIS time migrated stack image into depth. The new data processing flow provide better structural constraints on the shallow and deep structures as the current images reveal indentation features which strongly suggest horizontal tectonics. The ALCUDIA transect shows slightly less reflective upper crust about 13 km thick decoupled from the comparatively reflective lower crust. The reflectivity of the lower crust is continuous, high amplitude, horizontal and parallel though evidences of deformation are present as flat-ramp-flat geometry on the northeastern portion and a "Crocodile structure" wedging into the upper mantle on the southwestern portion of the ALCUDIA

  13. Hypervelocity Impact Flash at 6, 11, and 25 KM/S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, R. J.

    2005-07-01

    Impact-flash phenomenology has been known for many years, and is now being considered for missile-defense applications, in particular, remote diagnostics for kill assessment and target typing. To technically establish this capability, we have conducted a series of experiments at impact velocities of ˜6, ˜11, and ˜25 km/s. Two- and three-stage light-gas guns were used for the lower two velocities, and magnetically-driven flyers on the Sandia Z machine achieved the higher velocity. Spectrally- and time-resolved flash output addressed data reproducibility, material identification, and target configuration analysis. Usable data were obtained in the visible and infrared regions of the spectrum. Data from the Z shots extended for nearly 0.5 μs, and from the gas-guns usable reading times lasted for ˜100 μs. Standard atomic spectral databases were used to identify strong lines from all the principle materials used in the study. The data were unique to the individual materials over the wide range of velocities and conditions examined. The time-varying nature of the signals enabled correlation of differing spectra with multi-layer targets containing different materials in the separate layers. Integrating the records over wavelength helped to clarify those time variations. (*)Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Hypervelocity Impact Flash at 6, 11, and 25 KM/S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, R. J.; Reinhart, W. D.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Thornhill, T. F.

    2006-07-01

    Impact-flash phenomenology has been known for decades, and is now being considered for missile-defense applications, in particular for remote engagement diagnostics. To technically establish this capability, we have conducted a series of experiments at impact velocities of ˜6, ˜11, and ˜25 km/s. Two- and three-stage light-gas guns were used for the lower two velocities, and magnetically-driven flyers on the Sandia Z machine achieved the higher velocity. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved flash output addressed data reproducibility, material identification, and target configuration analysis. Usable data were obtained at visible and infrared wavelengths. Standard atomic spectral databases were used to identify strong lines from all principal materials used in the study. The data were unique to the individual materials over the wide range of velocities and conditions examined. The time-varying nature of the signals offered the potential for correlation of the measurements with various aspects of the target configuration. Integrating the records over wavelength helped to clarify those time variations.

  15. Hypervelocity impact flash at 6, 11, and 25 km/s.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra

    2005-08-01

    Impact-flash phenomenology has been known for decades, and is now being considered for missile-defense applications, in particular for remote engagement diagnostics. To technically establish this capability, we have conducted a series of experiments at impact velocities of {approx}6, {approx}11, and {approx}25 km/s. Two- and three-stage light-gas guns were used for the lower two velocities, and magnetically-driven flyers on the Sandia Z machine achieved the higher velocity. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved flash output addressed data reproducibility, material identification, and target configuration analysis. Usable data were obtained at visible and infrared wavelengths. Standard atomic spectral databases were used to identify strong lines from all principal materials used in the study. The data were unique to the individual materials over the wide range of velocities and conditions examined. The time-varying nature of the signals offered the potential for correlation of the measurements with various aspects of the target configuration. Integrating the records over wavelength helped to clarify those time variations.

  16. The effect of music on 10-km cycle time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Jana; Foster, Carl; Rodríguez-Marroyo, Jose; de Koning, Jos J; Mikat, Richard P; Hendrix, Charles R; Porcari, John P

    2013-01-01

    Music is widely used as an ergogenic aid in sport, but there is little evidence of its effectiveness during closed-loop athletic events. In order to determine the effectiveness of music as an ergogenic aid, well-trained and task-habituated cyclists performed 10-km cycle time trials either while listening to self-selected motivational music or with auditory input blocked. There were no statistically significant differences in performance time or physiological or psychological markers related to music (time-trial duration17.75 ± 2.10 vs 17.81 ± 2.06 min, mean power output 222 ± 66 vs 220 ± 65 W, peak heart rate184 ± 9 vs 183 ± 8 beats/min, peak blood lactate12.1 ± 2.6 vs 11.9 ± 2.1 mmol/L, and final rating of perceived exertion 8.4 ± 1.5 vs 8.5 ± 1.6). It is concluded that during exercise at competitive intensity, there is no meaningful effect of music on either performance or physiology. PMID:22868289

  17. Long-range BOTDA sensor over 50 km distance employing pre-pumped Simplex coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiao; Tu, Xiaobo; Sun, Shilin; Meng, Zhou

    2016-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor based on the pre-pumped Simplex coding technique. This approach combines Simplex coding with the pulse pre-pump technique, which takes full advantage of the signal-to-noise ratio enhancement provided by optical pulse coding and achieves meter-scale spatial resolution with an unbroadened Brillouin gain spectrum by the use of pre-pumped short pump pulse. Compared to the widely used differential pulse-width pair technique, a comparable performance can be realized while the measurement time is reduced by half. The theoretical analysis of pre-pumped Simplex coding applied to BOTDA systems is presented and a proof-of-concept experiment is carried out along a ∼51 km single-mode fiber composed of two fiber segments with slightly different Brillouin frequency shift values. With the proposed technique, Brillouin frequency shifts of the two different fiber sections at the end of the sensing fiber are clearly distinguished, and the obtained spatial resolution and temperature/strain accuracy along the sensing fiber are respectively 1 m and {0.4}\\circ {{C}}/8μ \\varepsilon . According to the experimental results, we believe that the BOTDA employing pre-pumped Simplex coding is able to realize extra-long distance sensing without Raman amplification, while keeping a high spatial resolution and measurement accuracy.

  18. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  19. A 16-year time series of 1 km AVHRR satellite data of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eldenshink, J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a 16-year time series of vegetation condition information for the conterminous United States and, Alaska using 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The AVHRR data have been processed using consistent methods that account for radiometric variability due to calibration uncertainty, the effects of the atmosphere on surface radiometric measurements obtained from wide field-of-view observations, and the geometric registration accuracy. The conterminous United States and Alaska data sets have an atmospheric correction for water vapor, ozone, and Rayleigh scattering and include a cloud mask derived using the Clouds from AVHRR (CLAVR) algorithm. In comparison with other AVHRR time series data sets, the conterminous United States and Alaska data are processed using similar techniques. The primary difference is that the conterminous United States and Alaska data are at 1 km resolution, while others are at 8 km resolution. The time series consists of weekly and biweekly maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  20. Sub-km HIMU-type Enriched Mantle at a Mid-ocean Ridge Far From a Plume: Endeavour, JdFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, J. B.; Michael, P. J.; Dreyer, B. M.; Clague, D. A.; Ramos, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge is characterized by abundant enriched (E) MORB since the currently inflated axial ridge formed <105 years ago, and by the full range of depleted (D) to E-MORB during the last 2300 years in the km-wide axial graben. Two different styles of enrichment of moderately incompatible elements are present. The first characterized basalts across the ~5 km-wide ridge from >10,000 to ~4000 years ago, whereas the second characterizes more recent basalts erupted in the axial graben. We attribute the first to a higher proportion of pyroxenite to enriched peridotite in the mantle source during ridge inflation. The more recent style reflects the reduced role of pyroxenite after the axial graben formed. The enriched component for both styles is a HIMU-type because it has low 87Sr/86Sr and 176Hf/177Hf relative to 143Nd/144Nd, lower 3He/4He (~8.1 RA) than in the more depleted basalts, shallow slopes on Pb isotope diagrams, and high Nb/LREE ratios. It is regionally widespread and shared with the West Valley and Explorer segments to the north. At least 14 different samplings of mantle components occurred within <1 km of ridge length and width during a time when <1 km of upwelling occurred, indicating that the scale of mantle heterogeneity is <1 km in this setting that is far from a plume.

  1. Cratering and penetration experiments in Teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, Friedrich; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cintala, Mark J.; See, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) after the spacecraft had spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments in an effort to reproduce such features and to -- hopefully -- understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration-hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocity. Such relationships are needed to derive the size- and mass-frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-Earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres of 3.175 mm (1/8 inch) nominal diameter (Dp) into pure Teflon FEP targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness (T) was varied over more than three orders of magnitude from infinite halfspace targets (Dp/T less than 0.1) to very thin films (Dp/T greater than 100). Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration-hole diameter (Dh) can become larger than that of a standard crater (Dc) at relative target thicknesses of Dp/T = 0.6-0.9. The crater diameter is infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases -- at otherwise constant impact conditions -- with encounter velocity by a factor of V0.44. In contrast, the penetration-hole size is very thin foils (Dp/T greater than 50) is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is

  2. Cratering and penetration experiments in teflon targets at velocities from 1 to 7 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horz, Friedrich; Cintala, Mark; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Cardenas, Frank; Davidson, William; Haynes, Gerald; See, Thomas H.; Winkler, Jerry; Knight, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 20 sq m of protective thermal blankets, largely composed of Teflon, were retrieved from the Long Duration Exposure Facility after the spacecraft spent approximately 5.7 years in space. Examination of these blankets revealed that they contained thousands of hypervelocity impact features ranging from micron-sized craters to penetration holes several millimeters in diameter. We conducted impact experiments to reproduce such features and to understand the relationships between projectile size and the resulting crater or penetration hole diameter over a wide range of impact velocities. Such relationships are needed to derive the size and mass frequency distribution and flux of natural and man-made particles in low-earth orbit. Powder propellant and light-gas guns were used to launch soda-lime glass spheres into pure Teflon targets at velocities ranging from 1 to 7 km/s. Target thickness varied over more than three orders of magnitude from finite halfspace targets to very thin films. Cratering and penetration of massive Teflon targets is dominated by brittle failure and the development of extensive spall zones at the target's front and, if penetrated, the target's rear side. Mass removal by spallation at the back side of Teflon targets may be so severe that the absolute penetration hole diameter can become larger than that of a standard crater. The crater diameter in infinite halfspace Teflon targets increases, at otherwise constant impact conditions, with encounter velocity by a factor of V (exp 0.44). In contrast, the penetration hole size in very thin foils is essentially unaffected by impact velocity. Penetrations at target thicknesses intermediate to these extremes will scale with variable exponents of V. Our experimental matrix is sufficiently systematic and complete, up to 7 km/s, to make reasonable recommendations for velocity-scaling of Teflon craters and penetrations. We specifically suggest that cratering behavior and associated equations apply

  3. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  4. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  5. Quality assurance and risk assessment in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollima, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    KM3NeT is an undersea neutrino detector currently under design. This paper summarises the quality management system (QMS) and risk assessment (RA) thought into the KM3NeT project. QMS and RA are set up as an integrated system for the improvement and optimization of components of the KM3NeT neutrino detector as well as its production and operation.

  6. Nemo:. a Project for a KM3 Underwater Detector for Astrophysical Neutrinos in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, I.; Aiello, S.; Ambriola, M.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beverini, N.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brescia, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Cafagna, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Castorina, E.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Amico, A.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Rosa, G.; de Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Longo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Megna, R.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Musumeci, M. S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Osteria, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Valente, V.; Vicini, P.

    The status of the project is described: the activity on long term characterization of water optical and oceanographic parameters at the Capo Passero site candidate for the Mediterranean km3 neutrino telescope; the feasibility study; the physics performances and underwater technology for the km3; the activity on NEMO Phase 1, a technological demonstrator that has been deployed at 2000 m depth 25 km offshore Catania; the realization of an underwater infrastructure at 3500 m depth at the candidate site (NEMO Phase 2).

  7. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  8. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  9. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, M.S.

    2005-11-22

    With the increase in demand for more efficient, higher-power, and higher-temperature operation of power converters, design engineers face the challenge of increasing the efficiency and power density of converters [1, 2]. Development in power semiconductors is vital for achieving the design goals set by the industry. Silicon (Si) power devices have reached their theoretical limits in terms of higher-temperature and higher-power operation by virtue of the physical properties of the material. To overcome these limitations, research has focused on wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and diamond because of their superior material advantages such as large bandgap, high thermal conductivity, and high critical breakdown field strength. Diamond is the ultimate material for power devices because of its greater than tenfold improvement in electrical properties compared with silicon; however, it is more suited for higher-voltage (grid level) higher-power applications based on the intrinsic properties of the material [3]. GaN and SiC power devices have similar performance improvements over Si power devices. GaN performs only slightly better than SiC. Both SiC and GaN have processing issues that need to be resolved before they can seriously challenge Si power devices; however, SiC is at a more technically advanced stage than GaN. SiC is considered to be the best transition material for future power devices before high-power diamond device technology matures. Since SiC power devices have lower losses than Si devices, SiC-based power converters are more efficient. With the high-temperature operation capability of SiC, thermal management requirements are reduced; therefore, a smaller heat sink would be sufficient. In addition, since SiC power devices can be switched at higher frequencies, smaller passive components are required in power converters. Smaller heat sinks and passive components result in higher-power-density power converters

  10. Hayward Fault: A 50-km-long Locked Patch Regulates Its Large Earthquake Cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.; Simpson, R. W.; Williams, P. L.; McFarland, F. S.; Caskey, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    We have documented a chronology of 11 paleoearthquakes on the southern Hayward fault (HS) preceding the Mw6.8, 1868 earthquake. These large earthquakes were both regular and frequent, as indicated by a 0.40 coefficient of variation and mean recurrence interval (MRI) of 161 ± 65 yr (1σ of recurrence intervals). Furthermore, the Oxcal-modeled probability distribution for the average interval resembles a Gaussian rather than a more irregular Brownian passage time distribution. Our revised 3D-modeling of subsurface creep, using newly updated long-term creep rates, now suggests there is only one ~50-km-long locked patch (instead of two), confined laterally between two large patches of deep creep (≥9 km), with an extent consistent with evidence for the 1868 rupture. This locked patch and the fault’s lowest rates of surface creep are approximately centered on HS’s largest bend and a large gabbro body, particularly where the gabbro forms both east and west faces of the fault. We suggest that this locked patch serves as a mechanical capacitor, limiting earthquake size and frequency. The moment accumulation over 161 yr summed on all locked elements of the model reaches Mw6.79, but if half of the moment stored in the creeping elements were to fail dynamically, Mw could reach 6.91. The paleoearthquake histories for nearby faults of the San Francisco Bay region appear to indicate less regular and frequent earthquakes, possibly because most lack the high proportion (40-60%) of aseismic release found on the Hayward fault. The northernmost Hayward fault and Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) appear to rupture only half as frequently as the HS and are separated from the HS by a creep buffer and 5-km wide releasing bend respectively, both tending to limit through-going ruptures. The paleoseismic record allows multi-segment, Hayward fault-RCF ruptures, but does not require it. The 1868 HS rupture preceded the 1906 multi-segmented San Andreas fault (SAF) rupture, perhaps because the HS

  11. Wide Angle View of Arsia Mons Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Arsia Mons (above) is one of the largest volcanoes known. This shield volcano is part of an aligned trio known as the Tharsis Montes--the others are Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons. Arsia Mons is rivaled only by Olympus Mons in terms of its volume. The summit of Arsia Mons is more than 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) higher than the surrounding plains. The crater--or caldera--at the volcano summit is approximately 110 km (68 mi) across. This view of Arsia Mons was taken by the red and blue wide angle cameras of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) system. Bright water ice clouds (the whitish/bluish wisps) hang above the volcano--a common sight every martian afternoon in this region. Arsia Mons is located at 120o west longitude and 9o south latitude. Illumination is from the left.

  12. Optical design of wide swath hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yueming; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Jianyu

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a design concept for wide swath hyperspectral imager. The challenge is to meet the requirement of good image quality and high precision registration from 400nm to 2500nm. A new type spherical prism imaging spectrometer is presented in the paper. The swath of system can reach 60 kilometer from a 600km sun-synchronous orbit with 30 meter ground sample distance (GSD). The optical system consists of a TMA objective and 2 30mm-slit spherical prism spectrometer operating both VNIR and SWIR. Key features of the design include (1) high signal to noise ratio for high efficiency of F-silica prism; (2) high precision band registration for same spectrometer operating from 400nm to 2500nm.

  13. Acute prior heavy strength exercise bouts improve the 20-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato A S; Silva-Júnior, Fernando L; Pinheiro, Fabiano A; Souza, Patrícia F M; Boullosa, Daniel A; Pires, Flávio O

    2014-09-01

    This study verified if a prior 5 repetition maximum (5RM) strength exercise would improve the cycling performance during a 20-km cycling time trial (TT20km). After determination of the 5RM leg press exercise load, 11 trained cyclists performed a TT20km in a control condition and 10-minute after 4 sets of 5RM strength exercise bouts (potentiation condition). Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and power output data were recorded during the TT20km. Cycling economy index was assessed before the TT20km, and pacing strategy was analyzed assuming a "J-shaped" power output distribution profile. Results were a 6.1% reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in the time to complete the TT20km, a greater cycling economy (p < 0.01), and power output in the first 10% of the TT20km (i.e., trend; p = 0.06) in the potentiation condition. However, no differences were observed in pacing strategy, physiological parameters, and RPE between the conditions. These results suggest that 5RM strength exercise bouts improve the performance in a subsequent TT20km. PMID:24584047

  14. A Co-Creation Blended KM Model for Cultivating Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2012-01-01

    Both critical thinking (CT) and knowledge management (KM) skills are necessary elements for a university student's success. Therefore, this study developed a co-creation blended KM model to cultivate university students' CT skills and to explore the underlying mechanisms for achieving success. Thirty-one university students participated in this…

  15. Quality control considerations for the KM3NeT Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollima, C.

    2013-10-01

    Within the KM3NeT project a quality management system was proposed that included a qualification process and a database to store information on the design. This paper highlights quality control procedures applicable to KM3NeT and describes the database.

  16. New Marker Development for the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-km

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method of disease control. To facilitate the breeding process, we developed a Pi-km specific molecular marker. For this purp...

  17. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  18. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  19. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  20. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  1. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  2. Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an 82-km fiber link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chaoqun; Wu, Lifei; Jiang, Yanyi; Yu, Hongfu; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate optical coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light through fiber links by actively compensating random fiber phase noise induced by environmental perturbations. The relative linewidth of laser light after transferring through a 32-km urban fiber link is suppressed within 1 mHz (resolution bandwidth limited), and the absolute linewidth of the transferred laser light is less than 0.36 Hz. For an 82-km fiber link, a repeater station is constructed between a 32-km urban fiber and a 50-km spooled fiber to recover the spectral purity. A relative linewidth of 1 mHz is also demonstrated for light transferring through the 82-km cascaded fiber. Such an optical signal distribution network based on repeater stations allows optical coherence and synchronization available over spatially separated places.

  3. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Susmita

    This thesis provides a detailed survey and analysis of whistler mode (WM) echoes observed by IMAGE/RPI satellite during the years 2000-2005 below the altitude of 5000 km. Approximately 2500 WM echoes have been observed by IMAGE during this period. This includes mostly specularly reflected whistler mode (SRWM) echoes and ~400 magnetospherically reflected whistler mode (MRWM) echoes. Stanford 2D raytracing simulations and the diffusive equilibrium density model have been applied to 82 cases of MRWM echoes, observed during August-December of the year 2005 below 5000 km to determine electron and ion density measurements along Earth's magnetic field line. These are the first results of electron and ion density measurements from WM sounding covering L-shells ~1.6-4, a wide range of geomagnetic conditions (Kp 0+ to 7), and during solar minima (F10.2~70-120) in the altitude range 90 km to 4000 km. The electron and ion density profiles obtained from this analysis were compared with in situ measurements on IMAGE (passive recording; electron density (Ne)), DMSP (~850 km; Ne and ions), CHAMP (~350 km; Ne), Alouette (~500-2000 km; Ne and ions), ISIS-1, 2 (~600-3500 km; Ne, ions), AE (~130-2000 km; ions) satellites, bottom side sounding from nearby ionosonde stations (Ne), and those by GCPM (Global Core Plasma Model), IRI-2012 (International Reference Ionosphere). Based on this analysis it is found that: (1) Ne shows a decreasing trend from L-shell 1.6 to 4 on both the day and night sides of the plasmasphere up to altitude ~1000 km, which is also confirmed by the GCPM and IRI-2012 model. (2) Above ~2000 km altitude, GCPM underestimates Ne by ~30-90% relative to RPI passive measurements, WM sounding results. (3) Below 1500 km, the Ne is higher at day side than night side MLT (Magnetic Local Time). Above this altitude, significant MLT dependence of electron density is not seen. (4) Ion densities from WM sounding measurements are within 10-35% of those from the Alouette, AE, and

  4. Global investigation of the Mg atom and ion layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat observations between 70 km and 150 km altitude and WACCM-Mg model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowski, M.; von Savigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, D.; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82°. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm-3 and 2000 cm-3. Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40° and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm-3 to 6000 cm-3. The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However, there are the following

  5. Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However

  6. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  7. Compilation of known and suspected Quaternary faults within 100 km of Yucca Mountain, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Piety, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    Geologic data have been compiled for known and suspected Quaternary faults in southern Nevada and southeastern California within about 100 km of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain. The data set includes regional studies that attempt to identify and evaluate lineaments, scraps, and other possible tectonic landforms of possible Quaternary age, detailed studies that focus on a single fault, and geologic studies that were completed for purposes other than evaluation of Quaternary fault activity. Studies included in this compilation are those that were available as of December 1993. Faults that have known or suspected Quaternary activity are presented on a topographic base map at a scale of 1:250,000. Data for each fault that are pertinent to the assessment of future faulting and earthquake events are assembled on description sheets and summarized on tables. This compilation identifies ten faults within 50 km of the site but outside the site area and an additional fourteen faults between 50 km and 100 km of the site for which evidence for Holocene or late Pleistocene surface rupture has been reported in the literature. The longest and most continuous of these faults is the northwest-striking, 250-km-long Furnace Creek fault (including its possible extension into Fish Lake Valley), which is located about 50 km west of the site. In addition to identifying known or suspected Quaternary faults within about 100 km of the site, this compilation demonstrates the lack of information for most of these faults.

  8. Statistics of 150-km echoes over Jicamarca based on low-power VHF observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Kudeki, E.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we summarize the statistics of the so-called 150-km echoes obtained with a low-power VHF radar operation at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.97 S, 76.87 W, and 1.3 dip angle at 150-km altitude) in Peru. Our results are based on almost four years of observations between August 2001 and July 2005 (approximately 150 days per year). The majority of the observations have been conducted between 08:00 and 17:00 LT. We present the statistics of occurrence of the echoes for each of the four seasons as a function of time of day and altitude. The occurrence frequency of the echoes is ~75% around noon and start decreasing after 15:00 LT and disappear after 17:00 LT in all seasons. As shown in previous campaign observations, the 150-echoes appear at a higher altitude (>150 km) in narrow layers in the morning, reaching lower altitudes (~135 km) around noon, and disappear at higher altitudes (>150 km) after 17:00 LT. We show that although 150-km echoes are observed all year long, they exhibit a clear seasonal variability on altitudinal coverage and the percentage of occurrence around noon and early in the morning. We also show that there is a strong day-to-day variability, and no correlation with magnetic activity. Although our results do not solve the 150-km riddle, they should be taken into account when a reasonable theory is proposed.

  9. Hydrologic monitoring in 1-km2 headwater catchments in Sierra Nevada forests for predictive modeling of hydrologic response to forest treatments across 140-km2 firesheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Martin, S. E.; Rice, R.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project, an eight-year study designed to measure the impacts of forest treatments (thinning, mastication, controlled burns) on multiple forest attributes, four headwater catchments were established to provide data on hydrologic response to treatments. These 1-km2 study catchments are each sited within 40-100 km2 firesheds, which in this case largely follow watershed boundaries, and which are the larger study areas for informing adaptive management of approximately 3,000 km2 of mixed-conifer forest in California’s central and southern Sierra Nevada. The aim of the hydrologic design was to put in place a ground-based monitoring network that would measure hydrologic attributes at representative locations, and when combined with remotely sensed data, provide a basis for predictive modeling of the larger study area. The selected locations employ instrument clusters, or groupings of instruments in a compact arrangement, to maximize the number of measurements possible and accessibility to the monitoring sites. The two study firesheds , located in the Tahoe and Sierra National Forests, cover a total of about 140-km2. Within each fireshed, two meteorological stations were placed near 1650-m and 2150-m, spanning the precipitation gradient from lower-elevation rain-dominated to higher-elevation snow-dominated systems. Two headwater streams draining approximately 1-km2 are monitored for stage, discharge, electrical conductivity, and sediment movement. Additionally, instrument nodes to monitor temperature, snow depth and soil moisture are installed within 0.5-1 km of the outlet and meterological stations. These nodes were placed to monitor end members of aspect, slope, elevation and canopy cover, which set the boundaries for the model outputs. High-resolution LiDAR provides the topographic and distributed vegetation characteristics, which are combined with field surveys and standard soils information to define the modeling

  10. Extreme precipitation events in southestearn France in a high-resolution regional climate model : comparison of a 12 km and a 50 km hindcast with ALADIN-Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Sanchez Gomez, Emilia; Somot, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    We present a comparison of the modelling of intense precipitations over France in two regional climate simulations performed with the Limited Area Model (LAM) ALADIN-Climate, run at a 12 km and a 50 km resolution. In both experiments, the model is forced by the ERA40 re-analysis over the 1958-2000 period. We focus on the representation of the highest precipitation extremes occuring in southeastern France in Autumn. These events involve small-scale processes than can be explicitly resolved only with 2-1 km resolution non-hydrostatic models. However, previous studies have shown that regional climate models are able to simulate heavy rainfalls in this area, although the amounts of rain are much smaller than the ones that are actually observed. Here, we further explore the ability of ALADIN-Climate in reproducing these specific events and the possible added-value of a higher resolution regarding this matter. Indeed, driving the LAM with ERA40 allows the LAM to stick to the real chronology and therefore enables us to analyze its results not only from a statistical point of view but also through day-to-day diagnosis. First, we assess the performances of the model at the 12 km and 50 km resolutions by comparing the simulated daily precipitations with observations over the south east part of France. To do so, we use the high-resolution gridded SAFRAN analysis which provides series of hourly fields over the french territory at a 8 km resolution, from 1958 to 2008. We consider the differences in the upper quantiles of precipitations between the model and the data, as well as the time correlations of heavy rainfalls and the spatial rain patterns for given extreme events. Then we compare the performances of ALADIN-Climate in both simulations to the ones obtained with a statistical downscaling method we apply to the last twenty years of the ERA40 period. This method is based on a weather regime approach and uses the analog methodology (Boé and Terray, 2007) to reconstruct

  11. A hypervelocity launcher for simulated large fragment space debris impacts at 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullos, R. J.; Gray, W. M.; Mullin, S. A.; Cour-Palais, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    The background, design, and testing of two explosive launchers for simulating large fragment space debris impacts are presented. The objective was to develop a launcher capable of launching one gram aluminum fragments at velocities of 10 km/s. The two launchers developed are based on modified versions of an explosive shaped charge, common in many military weapons. One launcher design has yielded a stable fragment launch of approximately one gram of aluminum at 8.93 km/s velocity. The other design yielded velocities in excess of 10 km/s, but failed to produce a cohesive fragment launch. This work is ongoing, and future plans are given.

  12. Characterization of the KM3NeT photomultipliers in the Hellenic Open University

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlis, G.; Avgitas, T.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino research infrastructure will be a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope. The Physics Laboratory of the Hellenic Open University is involved in the characterization of the KM3NeT neutrino detector. The present work describes measurement techniques for the functional characteristics of the candidate KM3NeT photomultipliers. These characteristics include dark current, transit time spread, gain slope and single photoelectron characteristics, as well as delayed and after pulses.

  13. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  14. Heavy metal effects on the biodegradation of fluorene by Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 isolated from PAHs-contaminated mine soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I.; Chon, C.; Jung, K.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) are widely distributed in the environment and occur ubiquitously in fossil fuels as well as in products of incomplete combustion and are known to be strongly toxic, often with carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Fluorene is one of the 16 PAHs included in the list of priority pollutants of the Environmental Protection Agency. The fluorene-degrading bacterial strain Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil near an abandoned mine impacted area by selective enrichment techniques. Fluorene added to the Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 culture as sole carbon and energy source was 78.4% removed within 120 h. A fluorene degradation pathway is tentatively proposed based on mass spectrometric identification of the metabolic intermediates 9-fluorenone, 4-hydroxy-9-fluorenone, and 8-hydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin. Further the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 to bioremediate 100 mg/kg fluorene in mine soil was examined by composting under laboratory conditions. Treatment of microcosm soil with the strain KM-02 for 20 days resulted in a 65.6% reduction in total amounts. These results demonstrate that Sphingobacterium sp. KM-02 could potentially be used in the bioremediation of fluorene from contaminated soil. Mine impacted area comprises considerable amounts of heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and copper. Although some of these metals are necessary for biological life, excessive quantities often result in the inhibition of essential biological reactions via numerous pathways. A number of reports collectively show that various metals, such as Al, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg at a range of concentrations have adverse effects on the degradation of organic compounds. However, at present there is only limited information on the effect of individual heavy metals on the biological degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including fluorene. Moreover, heavy metal effects were not

  15. Photoelectron-induced waves: A likely source of 150 km radar echoes and enhanced electron modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Meers M.; Dimant, Yakov S.

    2016-04-01

    VHF radars near the geomagnetic equator receive coherent reflections from plasma density irregularities between 130 and 160 km in altitude during the daytime. Though researchers first discovered these 150 km echoes over 50 years ago and use them to monitor vertical plasma drifts, the underlying mechanism that creates them remains a mystery. This paper uses large-scale kinetic simulations to show that photoelectrons can drive electron waves, which then enhance ion density irregularities that radars could observe as 150 km echoes. This model explains why 150 km echoes exist only during the day and why they appear at their lowest altitudes near noon. It predicts the spectral structure observed by Chau (2004) and suggests observations that can further evaluate this mechanism. It also shows the types and strength of electron modes that photoelectron-wave interactions generate in a magnetized plasma.

  16. Making sense of KM through users: Information gaps and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Roberto de Miguel; Casado, Esther Monterroso

    2014-10-01

    Despite its lack of definition, in a general sense, knowledge management (KM) is consubstantial to contemporary innovation-driven social systems (IDSSs), allowing individuals, organizations, and entire societies, to cope with their intrinsic technical uncertainties more effectively. Before the advent of IDSSs, most of the results of KM were considered naturally inappropriable as well as fractions of the public domain. In such context, patents litigation was almost anecdotic. This paper summarizes various social scientific and humanistic approaches that nourish the emergence of a new KM model in which innovation will be anchored in the claim for universality. Patentability of ICT and services is also considered on the realm of a commons-based KM.

  17. Mapping Land Cover Types in Amazon Basin Using 1km JERS-1 Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce; Podest, Erika; Holt, John

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the 100 meter JERS-1 Amazon mosaic image was used in a new classifier to generate a I km resolution land cover map. The inputs to the classifier were 1 km resolution mean backscatter and seven first order texture measures derived from the 100 m data by using a 10 x 10 independent sampling window. The classification approach included two interdependent stages: 1) a supervised maximum a posteriori Bayesian approach to classify the mean backscatter image into 5 general land cover categories of forest, savannah, inundated, white sand, and anthropogenic vegetation classes, and 2) a texture measure decision rule approach to further discriminate subcategory classes based on taxonomic information and biomass levels. Fourteen classes were successfully separated at 1 km scale. The results were verified by examining the accuracy of the approach by comparison with the IBGE and the AVHRR 1 km resolution land cover maps.

  18. Direct solar radiation up to 30 km and stratification of attenuation components in the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Kondratiev, K Y; Nicolsky, G A; Badinov, I Y; Andreev, S D

    1967-02-01

    The balloon apparatus and some of the results of the direct solar radiation investigations up to 30 km in the middle belt of the Soviet Union in 1961-1965 are briefly described. Measurements of total direct solar radiation showed that the aerosol extinction properties in the free atmosphere are rather considerable, not only up to 30 km but also at the higher levels. The layered character of the stratospheric optical structure is demonstrated. The dynamics of layers and the possible influence of volcanic activity is discussed. Spectral investigations in the 0.35-13 micro region demonstrated that the stratospheric humidity is small, approximating 10(-6)-10(-5) g/g. The measurements in the visible spectrum confirmed that stratospheric aerosol component is essential, the stratospheric optical density being about 10(-4)-10(-3) km(-1). Comparison of the results of spectral and integral investigations indicates that the aerosol ext nction is also dominant above 30 km. PMID:20057727

  19. E-health versus KM-based health: a dilemma in researchers' minds.

    PubMed

    Metaxiotis, Kostas

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several years, there have been intensive discussions about the importance of Knowledge Management (KM) within our society. As we are moving into an era of "knowledge capitalism", the management of knowledge is promoted as an important and necessary factor for organisational survival and maintenance of competitive strength. During the last 15 years, KM has changed from one generation to the next through constant improvements and new perspectives. Many researchers have presented methodologies, frameworks, technologies and have discussed various KM theoretical and practical issues in several sectors, including healthcare. E-health and KM-based health are still in an early state of evolution, and it is only recently that researchers decided to intensify their efforts in these fields. In this context, this paper aims to review the current status quo, analyse key issues to which researchers should pay attention and contribute to researchers' dilemma solving about where future research should be focused. PMID:18048212

  20. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, C. A.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; Capone, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Masullo, R.; Mollo, C. M.; Orlando, A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy) at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

  1. 26 km of offset on the Lake Clark fault since late Eocene time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data over the Lake Clark Fault reveal a north-trending band of magnetic anomalies that are right-laterally offset about 26 km across the fault. The magnetic anomalies correlate spatially with a belt of dated 34-39-Ma granitic plutons. Thus, the Lake Clark Fault has had ~26 km of right-lateral offset in the past 34-39 Ma. The Castle Mountain Fault, which lies along the strike of the Lake Clark Fault to the east-northeast, must have had a similar or, possibly, greater amount of offset. We infer the presence of an additional right-lateral strike-slip fault about 35 km northwest of the Lake Clark Fault, herein named the 'Telequana Fault,' on the basis of 11 km of right-lateral offset of a north-trending band of magnetic anomalies.

  2. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders. PMID:12405657

  3. Wide aperture seismic recording in offshore west Sicily and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect

    Tilander, N.G.; Lattimore, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic operations using the Wide Aperture Recording (WAR) technique were carried out in offshore west Sicily (16.5 km offsets) and in the Sub-Andean Cordillera of Bolivia (9.0 km offsets) where conventional offset data have traditionally proved inadequate for imaging complex subsurface structures. In both cases, noise-free wide aperture events were visible at long offsets, and were successfully stacked using both hyperbolic and linear moveout. In the Sicily datasets, the resulting seismic images disagree with earlier structural interpretations, but the lack of reliable ``calibration`` data in terms of well control or usable conventional seismic data make final evaluation and interpretation of the Sicily wide aperture data ambiguous. In Bolivia good quality seismic data are present across a portion of the WAR survey; the results show that the wide aperture technique may produce a valid structural image, provided the subsurface geometries are sufficiently broad and shallow. For tight structures, the technique is unlikely to produce valid images. In general, the authors` studies show that considerable effort is required at the data processing and interpretation stage, including full waveform and ray-trace modeling, in order to identify event arrivals and to attempt to validate the wide aperture structural images. Reliable calibration data in the form of well control or conventional seismic data are needed in order to provide an understanding of the WAR results.

  4. Long-term monitoring of local stress changes in 67km installed OPGW cable using BOTDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L.; Sezerman, O.

    2015-09-01

    The initial results from continuing long-term monitoring of a 67 km of an aerial fiber optic cable installed on a 500 kV power line cable (total fiber length of 134km) using BOTDA are presented. The effects of thunderstorms and rime ice on the cable were identified by monitoring strain on OPGW fibers. Variations of strain between day and night on the OPGW cable were observed and can potentially be exploited.

  5. Hydraulic fracturing in situ stress measurements to 2.1 km depth at Cajon Pass, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Zoback, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Stress measurements to 2.1 km reveal stress changes with depth that cannot be explained by an elastic response to uniform crustal strain. The data at about 1 km depth suggest that the stress is limited by the frictional strength of rock and is perturbed at greater depths by faults which intersect the borehole. The stress data indicate that there is little or no right-lateral shear stress acting on planes parallel to the San Andreas Fault. -Authors

  6. UNUSUALLY WIDE BINARIES: ARE THEY WIDE OR UNUSUAL?

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. E-mail: lah@astro.caltech.ed

    2009-10-01

    We describe an astrometric and spectroscopic campaign to confirm the youth and association of a complete sample of candidate wide companions in Taurus and Upper Sco. Our survey found 15 new binary systems (three in Taurus and 12 in Upper Sco) with separations of 3''-30'' (500-5000 AU) among all of the known members with masses of 2.5-0.012 M {sub sun}. The total sample of 49 wide systems in these two regions conforms to only some expectations from field multiplicity surveys. Higher mass stars have a higher frequency of wide binary companions, and there is a marked paucity of wide binary systems near the substellar regime. However, the separation distribution appears to be log-flat, rather than declining as in the field, and the mass ratio distribution is more biased toward similar-mass companions than the initial mass function or the field G-dwarf distribution. The maximum separation also shows no evidence of a limit at approx<5000 AU until the abrupt cessation of any wide binary formation at system masses of approx0.3 M {sub sun}. We attribute this result to the post-natal dynamical sculpting that occurs for most field systems; our binary systems will escape to the field intact, but most field stars are formed in denser clusters and undergo significant dynamical evolution. In summary, only wide binary systems with total masses approx<0.3 M {sub sun} appear to be 'unusually wide'.

  7. 1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 600-km SSMF fiber with subwavelength bandwidth access.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiran; Yang, Qi; Tang, Yan; Chen, Simin; Shieh, William

    2009-05-25

    A 1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) signal consisting of continuous 4,104 spectrally-overlapped subcarriers is generated using a novel device of recirculating frequency shifter (RFS). The RFS produces 320.6-GHz wide spectrum using a single laser with superior flatness and tone-to-noise ratio (TNR). The 1-Tb/s CO-OFDM signal is comprised of 36 uncorrelated orthogonal bands achieved by adjusting the delay of the RFS to an integer number of OFDM symbol periods. The 1- Tb/s CO-OFDM signal with a spectral efficiency of 3.3 bit/s/Hz is successfully received after transmission over 600-km SSMF fiber without either Raman amplification or dispersion compensation. PMID:19466194

  8. Using Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite data to specify the radiation environment up to 1200 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. P.; Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Looper, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Data from the Deal dosimeter payload on the Rapid Pathfinder satellite provide daily maps of the radiation environment on a sphere at 1200 km altitude. Through the use of magnetic coordinates, these dosimeter maps can be projected down to lower altitudes, providing valuable information for satellite anomaly resolution for vehicles in low Earth orbit (LEO). Unfortunately, the Deal data are not widely available, and the mission has a limited lifetime. As an alternative, we present a method to estimate the Deal daily maps using belt index data from NOAA's Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) vehicles. The method addresses only trapped radiation but could readily be supplemented with POES's own measurements of solar particle radiation reaching LEO.

  9. Daytime zonal drifts in the ionospheric E and 150 km regions estimated using EAR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddapati, PavanChaitanya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Patra, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), located at Kototabang (0.2o S, 100.32o E, mag. lat. 10.36o S), Indonesia, is capable of detecting both E region and 150 km echoes during daytime. We have conducted multi-beam observations using the EAR during daytime covering all seasons to study seasonal variations of these echoes and their dynamics. Given the facts that drifts at the 150 km region are governed primarily by electric field, drifts at the E region are governed by both electric field and neutral wind, simultaneous observations of drifts in both E and 150 km regions would help understand their variations. In this paper we present local time and seasonal variations of zonal drifts in the E and 150 km regions estimated using multi-beam observations. Zonal drifts (positive eastward) in the E and 150 km regions are found to be in the range of -10 to -60 m/s and -40 to 80 m/s, respectively. In the E region, zonal drifts show height reversal and temporal variations having tidal signature and noticeable seasonal variations. Zonal drifts in the 150 km region also show noticeable height and seasonal variations. These results are compared with model drifts and evaluated in terms of electric field and neutral wind.

  10. Four Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves 5-km Run Performance.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; Feros, Simon A; OʼBrien, Brendan J

    2015-08-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) rapidly improves cardiorespiratory fitness but demands less training time and volume than traditional endurance training. Although the health and fitness benefits caused by SIT have received considerable research focus, the effect of short-term SIT on 5-km run performance is unknown. Thirty healthy untrained participants (aged 18-25 years) were allocated to a control (n = 10) or a SIT (n = 20) group. Sprint interval training involved 3-8 sprints at maximal intensity, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Sprints were progressed to 8 by the 12th session. All participants completed a 5-km time trial on a public running track and an incremental treadmill test in an exercise physiology laboratory to determine 5-km run performance and maximum oxygen uptake, respectively, before and after the 4-week intervention. Relative to the controls, sprint interval-trained participants improved 5-km run performance by 4.5% (p < 0.001), and this was accompanied by improvements in absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake (4.9%, p = 0.04 and 4.5%, p = 0.045, respectively). Therefore, short-term SIT significantly improves 5-km run performance in untrained young men. We believe that SIT is a time-efficient means of improving cardiorespiratory fitness and 5-km endurance performance. PMID:25647646

  11. Emissions from an International Airport Increase Particle Number Concentrations 4-fold at 10 km Downwind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km2 that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8–10 km (5–6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm3, more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280–790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  12. Mapping of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities beneath the Japanese islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tono, Yoko; Kunugi, Takashi; Fukao, Yoshio; Tsuboi, Seiji; Kanjo, Kenji; Kasahara, Keiji

    2005-03-01

    A family of core-reflected shear waves generated by the 28 June 2002 Vladivostok deep earthquake, including near vertical reflections from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities, were recorded by ˜500 tiltmeters of the Hi-net and ˜60 broadband seismometers of the F-net in Japan. The observed upper mantle reflections were cross-correlated with synthetics calculated on the basis of the spectral element method for a fully three-dimensional Earth model using the Earth Simulator supercomputer to accurately determine the depths of the reflection points. The mapped upper mantle discontinuities were compared with a high-resolution P wave tomographic image. The 660-km discontinuity is depressed at a constant level of ˜15 km along the bottom of the horizontally extending aseismic slab under southwestern Japan. The transition from the normal to the depressed level occurs within a lateral distance of less than ˜200 km. Observations suggest that the reflections from the 410-km discontinuity interfere with those from slab-related structures on top of this discontinuity, leading to a spuriously large elevation of the 410-km discontinuity in and near the subducted slab. Records at stations relatively free from such interference effects, however, still imply elevation of this discontinuity within the slab.

  13. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  14. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model. Part 1; Objective Verification at Three Selected Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutter, Paul A.; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an objective verification of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 29-km eta model from May 1996 through January 1998. The evaluation was designed to assess the model's surface and upper-air point forecast accuracy at three selected locations during separate warm (May - August) and cool (October - January) season periods. In order to enhance sample sizes available for statistical calculations, the objective verification includes two consecutive warm and cool season periods. Systematic model deficiencies comprise the larger portion of the total error in most of the surface forecast variables that were evaluated. The error characteristics for both surface and upper-air forecasts vary widely by parameter, season, and station location. At upper levels, a few characteristic biases are identified. Overall however, the upper-level errors are more nonsystematic in nature and could be explained partly by observational measurement uncertainty. With a few exceptions, the upper-air results also indicate that 24-h model error growth is not statistically significant. In February and August 1997, NCEP implemented upgrades to the eta model's physical parameterizations that were designed to change some of the model's error characteristics near the surface. The results shown in this paper indicate that these upgrades led to identifiable and statistically significant changes in forecast accuracy for selected surface parameters. While some of the changes were expected, others were not consistent with the intent of the model updates and further emphasize the need for ongoing sensitivity studies and localized statistical verification efforts. Objective verification of point forecasts is a stringent measure of model performance, but when used alone, is not enough to quantify the overall value that model guidance may add to the forecast process. Therefore, results from a subjective verification of the meso-eta model over the Florida peninsula are

  15. Evolution of the Proposed International Tropical Reference Atmosphere up to 2000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthasayanam, M.

    There is a compelling need in many aerospace, remote sensing, and other applications to propose a global reference atmosphere encompassing the whole of the tropics, due to the following reasons among others. The tropics cover a large area and the atmospheric conditions there are quite different from those in the midlatitudes represented by the International Standard Atmosphere. Though the dictionary definition of the tropics is between 230 28' N and 230 28' S, there can be no sharp dividing line between the tropics and extra tropics, and dynamical considerations suggest 30 0 N and 300 S as more appropriate approximate boundaries. (During summer tropical conditions prevail up to about 350 N). The early work of Ramanathan in 1929 pointed out that a break in the temperature distribution occurs around 16 km at low latitudes, whereas it occurs at much lower altitudes (around 11 km) in the temperate zone. He also showed that the coldest air over the earth (temperature about 1850 K) is in the form of a flat ring at a height of some 17 km over the equator; thus while mean temperatures are higher at sea level in the tropics, they are lower at altitudes around 15 km. Pisharoty suggested in 1959 two standard atmospheres one for the Asiatic tropics and another called Universal up to 20 km. The slight differences between these two turned out to be not valid from later measurements. Based on the presently available data showing weak longitudinal variations, it indeed turns out to be possible to provide an International Tropical Reference Atmosphere (ITRA) representative of the whole of the tropical region in both the northern and southern hemispheres (Ananthasayanam and Narasimha 1990). This proposal is also consistent with the mean monthly reference atmospheres for the northern hemisphere by Cole and Kantor (1978) and for the southern hemisphere by Koshelkov (1985) and also the Nimbus satellite data of Barnett and Corney (1985) from sea level up to 80 km. For ITRA, either the

  16. Wide range load controllable MCFC cycle with pressure swing operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshiba, Fumihiko; Izaki, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Takao

    Partial load efficiencies of a natural gas fuelled MCFC/GT system are calculated; the efficiencies of four systems are compared. A constant pressure air compressor is applied in system cases 1 and 2, whereas a pressure swing air compressor is provided in system cases 3 and 4. A gas cooler is integrated in the cathode gas recycling line of cases 2-4, and an anode recycling with sub-reformer is provided in case 4. The cathode pressure loss in the MCFC stack is kept below 3 kPa during the calculation procedure to avoid a leakage of cathode gas. The range of the power load is limited to 50-100% in the constant operating pressure system (cases 1 and 2), mainly because of the limited cathode gas pressure loss of 3 kPa. The range of the power load is enlarged to 20-100% in cases 3 and 4 by combining the pressure swing operation with gas cooling in the cathode recycling line. In system cases 3 and 4, the efficiency at the lowest load operation (approx. 20-30% load) remains over 35% HHV-CH 4, whereas the maximum efficiency is calculated to be 53% HHV-CH 4 in middle load operation; the efficiency of case 4 at 100% load is estimated to be 50% HHV-CH 4. The combination of the pressure swing operation and gas cooling in the cathode recycling line offers a high efficiency of the MCFC system in a wide range of loads.

  17. The isolated 678-km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Lay, T.; Zhan, Z.; Kanamori, H.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. Seismic radiation from deep events is essentially indistinguishable from that for shallow stick-slip frictional-sliding earthquakes, but the confining pressure and temperature are so high for deep-focus events that a distinct process is likely needed to account for their abrupt energy release. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only 2 small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (678 km) major (MW > 7) earthquake in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and progressive steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ~40 km with variable expansion rate (~5 km/s down-dip initially, ~3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s rupture duration the radiated energy was ~3.3 x 1016 J and the stress drop was ~38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 earthquakes, indicating a continuum of processes. The isolated occurrence of the event suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab likely played a role in generating this major earthquake.

  18. Estimation and Attribution of the Temperature Variances in Height Range 60~140 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zeyu

    The SABER/TIMED temperatures collected during 2002 2006 are used to estimate for height range 60 120 km the variances of temperature (Temp-VARs) that are contributed from nonstationary perturbations. The estimation results disclose that the height range 60 140 km can be separated into two regions that are characterized by significant differences of the attributions of the Temp-VARs. In the region below 100 km height, the Temp-VARs generally increase with height, the corresponding standard deviations of temperature (Temp-SDEVs) ranges from 4 K at 60 km and 18 K at 100 km. The regions exhibiting intense Temp-VARs appear at the equator and the extra-tropics of both hemispheres. Moreover, these non-stationary temperature disturbances can be accounted primarily by the tidal variances that are derived independently by using the same data-set, in particular by the migrating diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal tide. It is also found that the region above 100 km is characterized by surprisingly large Temp-VARs with the corresponding Temp-SDEVs greater than 30 K. In a height-latitude cross-section, a stagnant maximum of Temp-SDEVs embraced by the 30-K contour remains over the course of a year at the Equator in a narrow height range 110 125 km. At the same height in Southern hemisphere, the same kind maxima appears at latitudes from the extra-tropics to polar region except during the June solstice. In contrast, the maxima appearing in Northern hemisphere high latitudes exhibits intra-seasonal variations, there such maximum are seen during the course of a year. Further investigation results confirm that the large Temp-VARs have no relevance to the tidal variances, implying the control from other processes, e.g., non-stationary planetary waves. The details will be introduced in the presentation.

  19. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Carmelo; Chiarusi, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea that includes a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. The telescopes consist of vertical detection units carrying optical modules, whose separation is optimised according to the different ranges of neutrino energy that shall be explored. Two building blocks, each one made of 115 detection units, will be deployed at the KM3NeT-IT site, about 80 km from Capo Passero, Italy, to search for high-energy neutrino sources (ARCA); another building block will be installed at the KM3NeT-Fr site, about 40 km from Toulon, France, to study the hierarchy of neutrino masses (ORCA). The modular design of the KM3NeT allows for a progressive implementation and data taking even with an incomplete detector. The same scalable design is used for the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems (TriDAS). In order to reduce the complexity of the hardware inside the optical modules, the "all data to shore" concept is adopted. This implies that the throughput is dominated by the optical background due to the decay of 40K dissolved in the sea water and to the bursts of bioluminescence, about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the physics signal, ranging from 20 Gbps to several hundreds Gbps, according to the number of detection units. In addition, information from the acoustic positioning system of the detection units must be transmitted. As a consequence of the detector construction, the on-shore DAQ infrastructure must be expanded to handle an increasing data-rate and implement an efficient fast data filtering for both the optical and acoustic channels. In this contribution, the Trigger and Data Acquisition System designed for the Phase 1 of KM3NeT and its future expansion are presented. The network infrastructure, the shore computing resources and the developed applications for handling, filtering and monitoring the optical and acoustic data-streams are described.

  20. Effects of bicycle frame ergonomics on triathlon 10-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Garside, I; Doran, D A

    2000-10-01

    It is perceived that, during the triathlon or duathlon, cycling with a steep (> 76 degrees) rather than a shallow (< 76 degrees ) frame geometry might attenuate the fatigue associated with progression from the cycle to run disciplines and improve subsequent 10-km running performance. This is based on anecdotal testimony from athletes purporting to have experienced improved performance; no empirical evidence exists. To evaluate this view, eight male triathletes completed a counterbalanced, 40-km cycle ride at two frame geometries (73 degrees and 81 degrees) at approximately 70% VO2peak. Immediately after completion of each 40-km cycle, a self-paced 10-km treadmill time trial was undertaken, during which physiological, kinematic and performance variables were measured. The 10-km run performance (mean +/- s: 42:55 +/- 4:19 vs 46:15 +/- 4:52 min; P< 0.01) and combined cycle and run performance (1:45:49 +/- 5:45 vs 1:50:33 +/- 6:08; P< 0.001) were faster in the 81 degrees than the 73 degrees condition. Improvements in performance were most prominent during the first 5 km of the run (21:41 +/- 2:15 vs 24:15 +/- 2:31 min in the 81 degrees and 73 degrees conditions respectively). These improvements were not evident during the second 5 km of the run. No differences in physiological variables were noted, although heart rate, stride length and stride frequency were increased during the 81 degrees condition (P < 0.05). Modifying frame geometry from a seat tube angle of 73 degrees to 81 degrees improves 10-km running and combined cycle plus run performance. These improvements in performance might relate to alterations during the cycling phase, which minimizes the 'residual effect' of this (i.e. the adverse changes in substrate availability, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular and biomechanical factors felt immediately after transition from cycling to running) and attenuates negative changes in physiological and kinematic responses during the 10-km run. PMID:11055818

  1. System Wide Information Management (SWIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hritz, Mike; McGowan, Shirley; Ramos, Cal

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation lists questions regarding the implementation of System Wide Information Management (SWIM). Some of the questions concern policy issues and strategies, technology issues and strategies, or transition issues and strategies.

  2. Fluid replacement strategy during a 27-Km trail run in hot and humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Baillot, M; Le Bris, S; Hue, O

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of the fluid replacement strategy on core temperature, heart rate and urine osmolality during a 27-km trail run in tropical climate. 20 well-trained runners completed a 27-km trail race in tropical conditions. They were acclimatized to these conditions. Heart rate was monitored every 5 s, while core temperature and perceived thermal and comfort sensations were recorded before, at the 11(th) km, and just after the end of the race. Water intake, urine osmolality and body mass were measured before and after the race. Core temperature and the scores of perceived thermal and comfort sensations were significantly higher at the 11(th) km and at the end of the race compared to before the race, but not at the 11(th) km compared to the end of the race [corrected]. No participant exhibited dehydration as assessed by urine osmolality. The less the trail runners weighed, the greater the heat retention was. The less hot they felt at the end of the race, the more they lost water, and the better the performance was. The fastest runners were able to tolerate a greater variation in core temperature between the beginning and the end of the trail race with lower water intake. PMID:23868683

  3. M. tuberculosis ferritin (Rv3841): Potential involvement in Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) resistance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divakar; Lata, Manju; Faheem, Mohammad; Khan, Asad Ullah; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-09-16

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused by one of the most successful human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aminoglycosides, Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) are commonly used to treat drug resistant tuberculosis. They target the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with several steps of translation. Several explanations have been proposed to explain the mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance but still our information is inadequate. Iron storing/interacting proteins were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates. Iron assimilation and utilization in M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in growth, virulence and latency. To establish the relationship of ferritin with AK & KM resistance ferritin (Rv3841/bfrB) was cloned, expressed and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing (DST) was carried out. Rv3841/bfrB gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 using pQE2 expression vector. Etest results for DST against AK & KM showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ferritin recombinant cells was changed. Recombinants showed two fold changes in MIC with AK and three fold with KM E-strips. Overexpression of ferritin reflect the MIC shift which might be playing a critical role in the survival of mycobacteria by inhibiting/modulating the effects of AK & KM. String analysis also suggests that ferritin interacted with few proteins which are directly and indirectly involved in M. tuberculosis growth, Iron assimilation, virulence, resistance, stresses and latency. PMID:27521892

  4. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  5. The Effect of Boron on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Disk Alloy KM4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy; Gayda, John; Sweeney, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The durability of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys employed as compressor and turbine disks is often limited by low cycle fatigue (LCF) crack initiation and crack growth from highly stressed surface locations (corners, holes, etc.). Crack growth induced by dwells at high stresses during aerospace engine operation can be particularly severe. Supersolvus solution heat treatments can be used to produce coarse grain sizes approaching ASTM 6 for improved resistance to dwell fatigue crack growth. However, the coarse grain sizes reduce yield strength, which can lower LCF initiation life. These high temperature heat treatments also can encourage pores to form. In the advanced General Electric disk superalloy KM4, such pores can initiate fatigue cracks that limit LCF initiation life. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) during the supersolvus solution heat treatment has been shown to improve LCF initiation life in KM4, as the HIP pressure minimizes formation of the pores. Reduction of boron levels in KM4 has also been shown to increase LCF initiation life after a conventional supersolvus heat treatment, again possibly due to effects on the formation tendencies of these pores. However, the effects of reduced boron levels on microstructure, pore characteristics, and LCF failure modes in KM4 still need to be fully quantified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of boron level on the microstructure, porosity, LCF behavior, and failure modes of supersolvus heat treated KM4.

  6. Comparison of turbulence-induced scintillations for multi-wavelength laser beacons over tactical (7 km) and long (149 km) atmospheric propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, M.; Gudimetla, V.; Carhart, G.; Weyrauch, T.; Lachinova, S.; Polnau, E.; Reierson, J.; Beresnev, L.; Liu, J.; Riker, J.

    2011-09-01

    We report results of the experimental analysis of atmospheric effects on laser beam propagation over two distinctive propagation paths: a long-range (149 km) propagation path between Mauna Loa (Island of Hawaii) and Haleakala (Island of Maui) mountains, and a tactical-range (7 km) propagation path between the roof of the Dayton Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC) and the Intelligent Optics Laboratory (IOL/UD) located on the 5th floor of the University of Dayton College Park Center building. Both testbeds include three laser beacons operating at wavelengths 532 nm, 1064 nm, and 1550 nm and a set of identical optical receiver systems with fast-framing IR cameras for simultaneous measurements of pupil and focal plane intensity distributions. The results reported here are focused on analysis of intensity scintillations that were simultaneously measured at three wavelengths. Comparison of experimental results shows significant differences in the physics of atmospheric turbulence impact on laser beam propagation over the long- and tactical-range distances.

  7. Comparison of ocean physical and biogeochemical mean state and climate sensitivity across ocean model resolution from 100 km to 10 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    One of the representational aspirations driving current Earth System Model development is to capture the global ocean mesoscale (i.e. ocean weather) in coupled carbon-climate. The present study explores a the role of ocean model resolution (100 km to 10 km) on baseline physical and biogeochemical simulation characteristics and their response to climate change. We find the high resolution model to improve the representation of boundary currents and mesoscale phenomena, and to eliminate fictitious current structures that plague the coarse resolution models. Along with these expected improvements of smaller scales however, we also find a general lack of improvement in many of the large scale biases. With respect to sensitivity, we find the high resolution model to restrict ocean heat uptake towards the surface ocean and to exhibit somewhat less structure at the regional scale than the coarse resolution model. We find similarly more uniform patterns of carbon uptake and biogeochemicel response at high resolution consistent with a greater tendency in the high resolution model to accommodate change in the major current structures, and suggesting that some of the highly regional structure observed among CMIP5 models is due to their inability to represent the role of the mesoscale on the regional scale.

  8. Status of the PMT development for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Classen, L.; Kalekin, O.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2013-10-01

    KM3NeT is a future large volume (multi km3) neutrino telescope to be constructed at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The detection volume will be instrumented using multi-PMT optical modules, consisting of an array of small photomultipliers housed in a spheric glass vessel. Three companies are presently developing 3-in. PMTs as candidates for the construction of these modules. Main characteristics of the prototypes, such as quantum efficiency, single electron gain, dark current and transit time spread, are required to meet the specification established by the KM3NeT consortium. We report on the current stage of PMT development and recent results of tests performed at the Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics.

  9. Circulation of the atmosphere from the surface to 100 km. [for Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Limaye, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    A reference model of the atmospheric circulation on Venus based on available observations is presented. The reference atmosphere has the following main features: (1) the entire atmosphere below 85 km moves predominantly from east to west in the planet's reference system (in the same direction as the rotation of the solid planet itself) with the possible exception of the lowest 10 km where velocities are low, (2) a jet is present near the cloud-top level at 45 deg latitude in both hemispheres, with a magnitude of approximately 100 m/s, (3) a weak meridional (north-south component) flow directed towards either pole is superimposed on the zonal (east-west motion at cloud-top level (about 68 km) altitudes, and, (4) eddies or wave motions are present in the atmosphere, with amplitudes of less than 16/ms in the upper atmosphere.

  10. Equatorial composition in the 137- to 225-km region from the San Marco 3 mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, G. P.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Pelz, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    The neutral atmospheric composition experiment (Nace) carried by the San Marco 3 (SM 3) satellite measured the equatorial atmospheric composition during the reentry period of Nov. 21-28, 1971. The mass density and molecular nitrogen density measured by the Nace are in agreement with values measured by rocket experiments and inferred from satellite experiments. The average total oxygen content measured by Nace is 30% below the value suggested by von Zahn at 150-km altitude. When it is assumed that his value for the molecular oxygen density at 150 km represents averaged rocket results applicable to the equatorial thermosphere, the Nace total oxygen content results in an atomic oxygen concentration comparable to the mean value of Cira (1965). The Nace helium measurements interpreted in terms of an altitude profile have an altitude distribution similar to that of molecular nitrogen below 165 km.

  11. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Blanchard, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to about 90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above about 110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

  12. Status of the central logic board (CLB) of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, D.; Real, D.

    2015-12-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers, the acoustics sensor and the rest of the instrumentation. The electronics design includes a multiboot module which allows for the re-configuration of the nodes of the telescope remotely from the shore station. All the modules and subsystems are controlled by two embedded microprocessors, implemented on a Kintetx-7 FPGA, and complex embedded software.

  13. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

    DOE Data Explorer

    Saleska, Scott [University of Arizona

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

  14. Effects of radiant heat exposure on pacing pattern during a 15-km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos; Broekhuijzen, Iris; Zwaan, Tamara; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different durations of skin temperature manipulation on pacing patterns and performance during a 15-km cycling time trial. Nineteen well-trained men completed three 15-km cycling time trials in 18 °C and 50% relative humidity with 4.5-km (short-heat), 9.0-km (long-heat) or without (control) radiant heat exposure applied by infrared heaters after 1.5 km in the time trial. During the time trials, power output, mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. The radiant heat exposure resulted in higher mean skin temperature during the time trial for short-heat (35.0 ± 0.6 °C) and long-heat (35.3 ± 0.5 °C) than for control (32.5 ± 1.0 °C; P < 0.001), whereas rectal temperature was similar (P = 0.55). The mean power output was less for short-heat (273 ± 8 W; P = 0.001) and long-heat (271 ± 9 W; P = 0.02) than for control (287 ± 7 W), but pacing patterns did not differ (P = 0.55). Heart rate was greatest in control (177 ± 9 beats · min(-1); P < 0.001), whereas the rating of perceived exertion remained similar. We concluded that a radiant heat exposure and associated higher skin temperature reduced overall performance, but did not modify pacing pattern during a 15-km cycling time trial, regardless of the duration of the exposure. PMID:24405217

  15. On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

  16. The Relationship of Foot Strike Pattern, Shoe Type, and Performance in a 50-km Trail Race.

    PubMed

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2016-06-01

    Kasmer, ME, Liu, X-c, Roberts, KG, and Valadao, JM. Relationship of foot strike pattern, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1633-1637, 2016-Recent "in-race" studies have observed the foot strike patterns of runners in traditional road marathon races. However, similar studies have not been conducted for trail runners, which have been estimated to account for 11% of all runners. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence in a 50-km trail race and compare with traditional road marathon races; (b) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike and sex in a 50-km trail race; and (c) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. One hundred sixty-five runners were videotaped at the 8.1-km mark of the 2012 Ice Age Trail 50-km race. Foot strike analysis revealed RFS prevalence of 85.1%, less than previously reported in traditional road marathon races. There was no relationship found between sex and foot strike (p = 0.60). A significant effect of shoe type on foot strike (RFS was less common among runners in minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) and performance (faster runners were more likely to be wearing minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) was observed; however, no association between foot strike and performance was observed (p = 0.83). This study suggests that most trail runners, albeit less than road runners, prefer an RFS pattern, which is accompanied by biomechanical consequences unique from a non-RFS pattern and, therefore, likely carries a unique injury profile. In addition, the findings in this study suggest that minimalist shoes may represent a reasonable training modification to improve performance. PMID:23860289

  17. Glacial Lake Vitim, a 3000-km 3 outburst flood from Siberia to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Jansson, Krister N.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Jansen, John D.

    2011-11-01

    A prominent lake formed when glaciers descending from the Kodar Range blocked the River Vitim in central Transbaikalia, Siberia. Glacial Lake Vitim, evidenced by palaeoshorelines and deltas, covered 23,500 km 2 and held a volume of ~ 3000 km 3. We infer that a large canyon in the area of the postulated ice dam served as a spillway during an outburst flood that drained through the rivers Vitim and Lena into the Arctic Ocean. The inferred outburst flood, of a magnitude comparable to the largest known floods on Earth, possibly explains a freshwater spike at ~ 13 cal ka BP inferred from Arctic Ocean sediments.

  18. KM3NeT - ORCA: measuring the neutrino mass ordering in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy branch of KM3NeT, the underwater Cherenkov neutrino detector in the Mediterranean. Its primary goal is to resolve the long-standing unsolved question of the neutrino mass ordering by measuring matter oscillation effects in atmospheric neutrinos. To be deployed at the French KM3NeT site, ORCA’s multi-PMT optical modules will exploit the excellent optical properties of deep seawater to reconstruct cascade and track events with a few GeV of energy. This contribution reviews the methods and technology, and discusses the current expected performances.

  19. Appraising the reliability of converted wavefield imaging: application to USArray imaging of the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Pavlis, Gary L.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a generic method to appraise the reliability of wavefield imaging methods and use it to validate some novel observations on the 410-km discontinuity. The core concept of the error appraisal method is to produce a simulated data set that replicates the geometry of the real data. Here we implemented two simulation methods: (1) flat layer primary P to S conversions, and (2) a point source scattering model for P to S conversion data based on the Born approximation and ray theory propagators. We show how the approach can be extended for any simulation algorithm. We apply this new approach to appraise recent results using a 3-D, three-component P to S conversion imaging method applied to data collected by the USArray. Multiple metrics show that the amplitude of P to S converted energy scattered from the 410-km discontinuity varies by 18 dB with a systematically lower amplitude in an irregular band running from Idaho through northern Arizona. In addition, we observe strong lateral changes in the ratio of amplitudes recovered on the radial versus the transverse component. We compute point resolution functions and a checkerboard test to demonstrate we can reliably recover relative amplitudes with a lateral scale of the order of 200 km and a vertical scale of approximately 10 km. Irregular coverage locally distorts the amplitudes recovered in the checkerboard, but a 156 km scale checkerboard pattern is recovered. Flat layer simulations show we can recover relative amplitudes to within a range of 1 dB and the reconstructed transverse to radial amplitude is everywhere less than 0.1. A model with north-south oriented ridges with a 3° wavelength and 12.5 km amplitude shows of the order of ±6 dB amplitude variations and small, but clear correlation of the transverse/radial amplitude ratio topography in the model. Finally, we model the 410-km discontinuity as a rough surface characterized by variations in amplitude and depth derived from the USArray data. The rough

  20. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  1. Lunar thermal regime to 300 km. [in crust and upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keihm, S. J.; Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Coupling of the global heat flow, crustal heat source enrichment, thermal conductivity, and temperature in the crust and upper mantle of the moon is examined. A steady-state moon in which conductive heat transfer dominates is assumed. Heat-flow measurements from the Apollo 15 and 17 missions and gamma-ray mapping of thorium conducted by the Apollo 15 and 16 missions provide data for the study of the lunar thermal regime. Temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1600 K are found for the 300-km depth level. In the upper mantle, temperature gradients are in the range of 1.8 to 3.2 K/km.

  2. Wide-Field Plate Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, M. K.; Stavrev, K. Y.; Tsvetkova, K. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Mutatov, A. S.

    The Wide-Field Plate Database (WFPDB) and the possibilities for its application as a research tool in observational astronomy are presented. Currently the WFPDB comprises the descriptive data for 400 000 archival wide field photographic plates obtained with 77 instruments, from a total of 1 850 000 photographs stored in 269 astronomical archives all over the world since the end of last century. The WFPDB is already accessible for the astronomical community, now only in batch mode through user requests sent by e-mail. We are working on on-line interactive access to the data via INTERNET from Sofia and parallel from the Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg. (Initial information can be found on World Wide Web homepage URL http://www.wfpa.acad.bg.) The WFPDB may be useful in studies of a variety of astronomical objects and phenomena, andespecially for long-term investigations of variable objects and for multi-wavelength research. We have analysed the data in the WFPDB in order to derive the overall characteristics of the totality of wide-field observations, such as the sky coverage, the distributions by observation time and date, by spectral band, and by object type. We have also examined the totality of wide-field observations from point of view of their quality, availability and digitisation. The usefulness of the WFPDB is demonstrated by the results of identification and investigation of the photometrical behaviour of optical analogues of gamma-ray bursts.

  3. The modified dispersion relation for ionacoustic instabilities of ionospheric plasma at 80-200 km altitudes and its usage for interpretation of 150km equatorial radioecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Potekhin, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    Ionacoustic instabilities of the ionospheric plasma and corresponding small-scale irregularities of the electron density significantly affect to the HF and UHF radiowaves propagation. Due to this an investigation of their characteristics is the important task staying on the border of the radiowaves propagation theory, geophysics and plasmaphysics. The theory of these instabilities in the E-layer, that are qualitatively divided into the two-stream and gradient-drift ones, is under development for a long time. The most part of the linear theories replaces investigation of the irregularities by analysis of the dispersion relation for the plasma irregularities. This dispersion relation connects oscillation frequency of the irregularities with their wave vector and defines conditions for the growth of the irregularities and their spectral characteristics in terms of plane waves approximation. There are two traditional limitations of such theories, limiting their region of applicability: 1)Magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions requirement; 2)Low oscillation frequency of irregularities in comparison with ion-neutral and electron-neutral collision frequencies. In the paper within the approximation of the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and geometrooptical approximation the dispersion relation without noted limitations was obtained. The relation describes ionacoustic instabilities of the ionospheric plasma at 80-200km altitudes in three-dimensional weakly irregular ionosphere. The dispersion relation obtained has a form of the 6-th order polynomial for the oscillation frequency. Within limitations 1,2 the obtained relation has approximate solutions, close to the traditional ones for two-stream and gradient-drift instabilities. The difference between obtained and standard dispersion relation becomes significant at altitudes above 140 km. For this situation, in some special cases this new dispersion relation can be significantly simplified and some analytical solutions of

  4. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  5. Wide field of view telescope

    DOEpatents

    Ackermann, Mark R.; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.

    2008-01-15

    A wide field of view telescope having two concave and two convex reflective surfaces, each with an aspheric surface contour, has a flat focal plane array. Each of the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary reflective surfaces are rotationally symmetric about the optical axis. The combination of the reflective surfaces results in a wide field of view in the range of approximately 3.8.degree. to approximately 6.5.degree.. The length of the telescope along the optical axis is approximately equal to or less than the diameter of the largest of the reflective surfaces.

  6. Temperature minima in the average thermal structure of the middle mesosphere (70 - 80 km) from analysis of 40- to 92-km SME global temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.; Callan, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Global temperatures have been derived for the upper stratosphere and mesosphere from analysis of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) limb radiance profiles. The SME temperature represent fixed local time observations at 1400 - 1500 LT, with partial zonal coverage of 3 - 5 longitudes per day over the 1982-1986 period. These new SME temperatures are compared to the COSPAR International Ionosphere Reference Atmosphere 86 (CIRA 86) climatology (Fleming et al., 1990) as well as stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS); Barnett and Corney, 1984), National Meteorological Center (NMC); (Gelman et al., 1986), and individual lidar and rocket observations. Significant areas of disagreement between the SME and CIRA 86 mesospheric temperatures are 10 K warmer SME temperatures at altitudes above 80 km. The 1981-1982 SAMS temperatures are in much closer agreement with the SME temperatures between 40 and 75 km. Although much of the SME-CIRA 86 disagreement probably stems from the poor vertical resolution of the observations comprising the CIRA 86 modelm, some portion of the differences may reflect 5- to 10-year temporal variations in mesospheric temperatures. The CIRA 86 climatology is based on 1973-1978 measurements. Relatively large (1 K/yr) 5- to 10-year trends in temperatures as functions of longitude, latitude, and altitude have been observed for both the upper stratosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989a) and mesosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989b; Hauchecorne et al., 1991). The SME temperatures also exhibit enhanced amplitudes for the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of upper mesospheric temperatures at low latitudes, which are not evident in the CIRA 86 climatology. The so-called mesospheric `temperature inversions' at wintertime midlatitudes, which have been observed by ground-based lidar (Hauschecorne et al., 1987) and rocket in situ measurements (Schmidlin, 1976), are shown to be a climatological aspect of the mesosphere, based on the SME observations.

  7. Global 4 km resolution monthly gridded Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data set derived from FLUXNET2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Hargrove, William W.; Collier, Nathan

    2016-08-01

    This data set contain global gridded surfaces of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) at 2 arc minute (approximately 4 km) spatial resolution monthly for the period of 2000-2014 derived from FLUXNET2015 (released July 12, 2016) observations using a representativeness based upscaling approach.

  8. Magnetic Anomalies of the Fennoscandian Shield on a 2km resolution grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Juha V.; Aaro, Sven; Reidar Skilbrei, Jan; All, Tarmo

    2010-05-01

    Joint magnetic anomaly grid of the Fennoscandian Shield was released 2002, smoothed and used as data for the WDMAM2007. In comparison with MF5 this grid showed superior characteristics to other sets. The data will be released as a 2 km resolution grid for the WDMAM2011 with eventual updates of anomaly levels.

  9. Enabling Grid Computing resources within the KM3NeT computing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure hosting a new generation neutrino detectors that - located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea - will open a new window on the universe and answer fundamental questions both in particle physics and astrophysics. International collaborative scientific experiments, like KM3NeT, are generating datasets which are increasing exponentially in both complexity and volume, making their analysis, archival, and sharing one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. These experiments, in their majority, adopt computing models consisting of different Tiers with several computing centres and providing a specific set of services for the different steps of data processing such as detector calibration, simulation and data filtering, reconstruction and analysis. The computing requirements are extremely demanding and, usually, span from serial to multi-parallel or GPU-optimized jobs. The collaborative nature of these experiments demands very frequent WAN data transfers and data sharing among individuals and groups. In order to support the aforementioned demanding computing requirements we enabled Grid Computing resources, operated by EGI, within the KM3NeT computing model. In this study we describe our first advances in this field and the method for the KM3NeT users to utilize the EGI computing resources in a simulation-driven use-case.

  10. REGIONAL SCALE (1000 KM) MODEL OF PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION. PART 1. THEORETICAL FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A theoretical framework for a multi-day 1000 km scale simulation model of photochemical oxidant is developed. It is structured in a highly modular form so that eventually the model can be applied through straightforward modifications to simulations of particulates, visibility and...

  11. Time-resolved wave-profile measurements at impact velocities of 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    Development of well-controlled hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step to understand material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not available using conventional gun technology. In this paper, techniques used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light-gas gun to 10 km/s and their use to determine material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock loading and release characteristics of materials impacted by titanium and aluminum fliers launched by the only developed three-stage light-gas gun at 10 km/s. In particular, the Sandia three stage light gas gun, also referred to as the hypervelocity launcher, HVL, which is capable of launching 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm thick by 6 mm to 19 mm diameter plates to velocities approaching 16 km/s has been used to obtain the necessary impact velocities. The VISAR, interferometric particle-velocity techniques has been used to determine shock loading and release profiles in aluminum and titanium at impact velocities of 10 km/s.

  12. Knowledge Management (KM): A Revolution Waiting for IR. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, John H., Jr.

    This paper shares a vision of the future of institutional research (IR) for the 21st century, in which institutional researchers learn to see themselves as the critical knowledge workers in the higher education industry. To take on this role, IR needs to: (1) understand the concepts of knowledge management (KM); (2) use new tools to meet the…

  13. KM Critical Success Factors: A Comparison of Perceived Importance Versus Implementation in Malaysian ICT Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Siong Choy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research examines the level of perception and implementation of 11 identified knowledge management (KM) success factors and their differences among the information and communication technology (ICT) companies operating in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data was obtained from a study of 427 middle managers from 194…

  14. An optical MIMO transmission system over 80km of two-mode fiber using DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongling; Fang, Wuliang; Tang, Chanjuan; Chi, Nan

    2011-12-01

    Simulations confirm stable MIMO transport of two channels over a two-mode fiber. Successful reception is achieved over 80km two-mode fiber at a bit error rate of 10-6 - enabled by a new signal recovery algorithm we proposed.

  15. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance. PMID:27328725

  16. Responding to the Challenges of KM Education in the LIS Sector: Some Academic and Professional Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeri, Afsaneh; Martin, Bill

    2009-01-01

    As a newly emerging field of study, KM education is faced with significant challenges which continue to evolve. Informed by wider organisational perspectives, this paper presents the findings of recent research into this field. The first part of the research was in the form of an online survey canvassing the views of the wider LIS community on the…

  17. Saqqar Impact Structure: A Buried 34 km Crater in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Afifi, A. M.; Stewart, S. A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Cook, D. J.; Neville, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    We present evidence for an impact origin of a circular structure with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35’N, 38°42’E, which is partially buried under ~400 m of Cretaceous-Paleogene strata in the Nafud basin in NW Saudi Arabia.

  18. Densities inferred from ESA's Venus Express aerobraking campaign at 130 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, Sean; Marty, Jean-Charles; Svedhem, Håkan; Williams, Adam; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    In June-July 2014, ESA performed a planned aerobraking campaign with Venus Express to measure neutral densities above 130 km in Venus' atmosphere by means of the engineering accelerometers. To that purpose, the orbit perigee was lowered to approximately 130 km in order to enhance the atmospheric drag effect to the highest tolerable levels for the spacecraft; the accelerometer resolution and precision were not sufficient at higher altitudes. This campaign was requested as part of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE). A total of 18 orbits (i.e. days) were processed using the attitude quaternions to correctly orient the spacecraft bus and solar arrays in inertial space, which is necessary to accurately compute the exposed surface in the ram direction. The accelerometer data provide good measurements approximately from 130-140 km altitude; the length of the profiles is about 85 seconds, and they are on the early morning side (LST=4.5) at high northern latitude (70°N-82°N). The densities are a factor 2-3 larger than Hedin's VTS-3 thermosphere model, which is consistent with earlier results obtained via classical precise orbit determination at higher altitudes. Wavelike structures with amplitudes of 20% and more are detected, with wavelengths of about 100-500 km. We cannot entirely rule out that these waves are caused by the spacecraft or due to some unknown instrumental effect, but we estimate this probability to be very low.

  19. Molecular oxygen measurements at 200 km from AE-D near winter solstice, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing the fly-through mode, the open source neutral mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-D (AE-D) has measured O2 densities, as well as N2 densities and in situ neutral temperatures, at midmorning during winter solstice over the latitude range 90 degrees S to 90 degrees N. The expected seasonal variation in N2 was found at 200 km together with a more complex behavior in molecular oxygen than might be expected from a diffusive equilibrium model with constant lower boundary values. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions the equatorial 200 km value of O2 was about 1.7 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm. A local maximum in the 200 km O2 densities was found near 70 degrees N, where an average quiet time value was 2.5 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm, implying a 120 km density of 8.3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm. The in situ temperature measurements confirm the presence of higher temperatures near 70 degrees N latitude, even during geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  20. SMOS disaggregated soil moisture product at 1 km resolution: processor overview and first validation results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission provides surface soil moisture (SM) maps at a mean resolution of ~50 km. However, agricultural applications (irrigation, crop monitoring) and some hydrological applications (floods and modeling of small basins) require higher resolution SM...

  1. Multiplicity of the 660-km discontinuity beneath the Izu-Bonin area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan-Ze; Yu, Xiang-Wei; Yang, Hui; Zang, Shao-Xian

    2012-05-01

    The relatively simple subducting slab geometry in the Izu-Bonin region provides a valuable opportunity to study the multiplicity of the 660-km discontinuity and the related response of the subducting slab on the discontinuity. Vertical short-period recordings of deep events with simple direct P phases beneath the Izu-Bonin region were retrieved from two seismic networks in the western USA and were used to study the structure of the 660-km discontinuity. After careful selection and pre-processing, 23 events from the networks, forming 32 pairs of event-network records, were processed. Related vespagrams were produced using the N-th root slant stack method for detecting weak down-going SdP phases that were inverted to the related conversion points. From depth histograms and the spatial distribution of the conversion points, there were three clear interfaces at depths of 670, 710 and 730 km. These interfaces were depressed approximately 20-30 km in the northern region. In the southern region, only two layers were identified in the depth histograms, and no obvious layered structure could be observed from the distribution of the conversion points.

  2. Tomographic structure of East Asia: II. Stagnant slab above 660 km discontinuity and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongshun John; Pei, Shunping

    2010-12-01

    P-wave arrival times of both regional and teleseismic earthquakes were inverted to obtain mantle structures of East Asia. No fast (slab) velocity anomalies was not find beneath the 660-km discontinuity through tomography besides a stagnant slab within the transition zone. Slow P-wave velocity anomalies are present at depths of 100-250 km below the active volcanic arc and East Asia. The western end of the flat stagnant slab is about 1 500 km west to active trench and may also be correlated with prominent surface topographic break in eastern China. We suggested that active mantle convection might be operating within this horizontally expanded "mantle wedge" above both the active subducting slabs and the stagnant flat slabs beneath much of the North China plain. Both the widespread Cenozoic volcanism and associated extensional basins in East Asia could be the manifestation of this vigorous upper mantle convection. Cold or thermal anomalies associated with the stagnant slabs above the 660-km discontinuity have not only caused a broad depression of the boundary due to its negative Clapeyron slope but also effectively shielded the asthenosphere and continental lithosphere above from any possible influence of mantle plumes in the lower mantle.

  3. The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Cong, B; Ye, D

    2000-10-12

    Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km. PMID:11048717

  4. An upper limit to the product of NO and O densities from 105 to 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    From the Ogo 6 horizon-scanning-photometer data a useful upper limit can be set to the radiance of nightglow in the O-NO afterglow continuum above 105 km. The upper limit is a factor of about 5 less than the product of observed NO densities and Jacchia (1971) O model densities.

  5. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

  6. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italia towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT-Italia is an INFN project supported with Italian PON fundings for building the core of the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The detector, made of 700 10'' Optical Modules (OMs) lodged along 8 vertical structures called towers, will be deployed starting from fall 2015 at the KM3NeT-Italy site, about 80 km off Capo Passero, Italy, 3500 m deep. The all data to shore approach is used to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector, demanding for an on-line trigger integrated in the data acquisition system running in the shore station, called TriDAS. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the underwater detector can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the design and performances of the TriDAS and of the related network infrastructure. In this contribution the technology behind the implementation of the TriDAS infrastructure is reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the various components and their performances. The modular design of the TriDAS, which allows for its scalability up to a larger detector than the 8-tower configuration is also discussed.

  7. Equatorial 150 km echoes and daytime F region vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian longitude sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, F. S.; Shume, E. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Milla, M.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies showed that conventional coherent backscatter radar measurements of the Doppler velocity of the so-called 150 km echoes can provide an alternative way of estimating ionospheric vertical plasma drifts during daytime hours (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Chau and Woodman, 2004). Using observations made by a small, low-power 30 MHz coherent backscatter radar located in the equatorial site of São Luís (2.59° S, 44.21° W; -2.35° dip lat), we were able to detect and monitor the occurrence of 150 km echoes in the Brazilian sector. Using these measurements we estimated the local time variation of daytime vertical ionospheric drifts in the eastern American sector. Here, we present a few interesting cases of 150 km-echoes observations made by the São Luís radar and estimates of the diurnal variation of vertical drifts. These cases exemplify the variability of the vertical drifts in the Brazilian sector. Using same-day 150 km-echoes measurements made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru, we also demonstrate the variability of the equatorial vertical drifts across the American sector. In addition to first estimates of the absolute vertical plasma drifts in the eastern American (Brazilian) sector, we also present observations of abnormal drifts detected by the São Luís radar associated with the 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming event.

  8. MISR 17.6 KM Gridded Cloud Motion Vectors: Overview and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Kevin; Garay, Michael; Moroney, Catherine; Jovanovic, Veljko

    2012-01-01

    The MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on the Terra satellite has been retrieving cloud motion vectors (CMVs) globally and almost continuously since early in 2000. In February 2012 the new MISR Level 2 Cloud product was publicly released, providing cloud motion vectors at 17.6 km resolution with improved accuracy and roughly threefold increased coverage relative to the 70.4 km resolution vectors of the current MISR Level 2 Stereo product (which remains available). MISR retrieves both horizontal cloud motion and height from the apparent displacement due to parallax and movement of cloud features across three visible channel (670nm) camera views over a span of 200 seconds. The retrieval has comparable accuracy to operational atmospheric motion vectors from other current sensors, but holds the additional advantage of global coverage and finer precision height retrieval that is insensitive to radiometric calibration. The MISR mission is expected to continue operation for many more years, possibly until 2019, and Level 2 Cloud has the possibility of being produced with a sensing-to-availability lag of 5 hours. This report compares MISR CMV with collocated motion vectors from arctic rawinsonde sites, and from the GOES and MODISTerra instruments. CMV at heights below 3 km exhibit the smallest differences, as small as 3.3 m/s for MISR and GOES. Clouds above 3 km exhibit larger differences, as large as 8.9 m/s for MISR and MODIS. Typical differences are on the order of 6 m/s.

  9. Gm and Km immunoglobulin allotypes in Reindeer Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Sukernik, R I; Osipova, L P

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 403 Reindeer Chukchi of inland Chukotka, and 100 samples from Chaplin Eskimos of the Chukot Peninsula were tested for G 1 m (z,a,x,f), G2m (n), G3m (g,b0,b1,b3,b5,s,t), and Km (1) allotypic determinants. An apparent affinity between the Chukchi and the Eskimos could be inferred from similar frequencies of the two common haplotypes, Gmza;g and Gmza;bst, and from very similar frequencies of the Km1 allele. However, none of the Eskimos had Gmzax;g, though it occurred at a low or moderate frequency in the five Chukchi populations studied. It is assumed that Chukchi can be distinguished from adjoining Eskimos by the same G1m (x) outlier, that has been considered as a taxonomic marker useful in differentiating between Eskimos and American Indians. Comparison of North Asian and North American populations with respect to the array and frequencies of Gm haplotypes and the Km1 allele, supports the hypothesis of a nonrandom distribution of the Gmza;bst and Km1 on both sides of the Bering Strait. PMID:6957376

  10. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (<3 km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection

  11. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race.

    PubMed

    Santos, R V T; Bassit, R A; Caperuto, E C; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2004-09-01

    We have evaluated the effect of a creatine supplementation protocol upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers: creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostaglandin E2) (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after running 30km. Runners with previously experience in running marathons, with their personal best between 2.5-3h were supplemented for 5 days prior to the 30km race with 4 doses of 5g of creatine and 15g of maltodextrine per day while the control group received the same amount of maltodextrine. Pre-race blood samples were collected immediately before running the 30km, and 24h after the end of the test (the post-race samples). After the test, athletes from the control group presented an increase in plasma CK (4.4-fold), LDH (43%), PGE2 6.6-fold) and TNF-alpha (2.34-fold) concentrations, indicating a high level of cell injury and inflammation. Creatine supplementation attenuated the changes observed for CK (by 19%), PGE2 and TNF-alpha (by 60.9% and 33.7%, respectively, p<0.05) and abolished the increase in LDH plasma concentration observed after running 30km, The athletes did not present any side effects such as cramping, dehydration or diarrhea, neither during the period of supplementation, nor during the 30km race. All the athletes finished the race in a time equivalent to their personal best +/- 5.8%. These results indicate that creatine supplementation reduced cell damage and inflammation after an exhaustive intense race. PMID:15306159

  12. Risks from radionuclide migration to groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km zone.

    PubMed

    Bugai, D A; Waters, R D; Dzhepo, S P; Skal'skij, A S

    1996-07-01

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km evacuation zone is frequently identified as a priority by technical experts and Chernobyl site officials in Ukraine. In order to evaluate the health risk basis for this groundwater remediation, we have estimated both on-site and off-site health risks caused by radionuclide migration to the groundwater and compared these risks with those from exposure to radioactive contamination on the ground surface. A simple and conservative analytical model was developed to assess radionuclide transport to the groundwater from the soil surface contaminated by radioactive fallout. 90Sr, the primary radioactive contaminant of concern for the groundwater-migration exposure pathway, was evaluated in the analysis. The estimated health risk to hypothetical, self-sufficient residents in the 30-km zone is dominated by external and internal irradiation (due primarily to ingestion of agricultural products) from 137Cs, which is present in soils of the 30-km zone in roughly equal proportion with 90Sr. The estimated risk from contaminated groundwater is approximately an order of magnitude lower. Analysis of 90Sr migration via groundwater to surface water and down-river population centers shows that, despite generally unfavorable environmental conditions in the 30-km exclusion zone, radionuclide transport via the groundwater pathway has potential to contribute only marginally to the off-site radiological risk, which is governed by wash-out of radionuclides from the contaminated river flood plain and catchment areas by surface water during spring snowmelt and rains. Health risks due to off-site radionuclide migration via groundwater are below the level requiring application of counter-measures. This analysis implies that, relative to other exposure pathways, there is little current or future health risk basis for the proposed complex and costly groundwater remediation measures in the 30-km zone. Therefore, these activities should

  13. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  14. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New Zealand's…

  15. World-Wide Information Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Kjell A. H. W.

    The future paths of research and development towards world-wide, automated information networks in full operation are examined. From international networked planning and projects under way it appears that exploratory as well as normative approaches have been taken. To some extent adequate technolgical facilities have already come into existence…

  16. Diagnostics of the ionospheric turbulence by wide band radio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Evgeny; Shindin, Alexey; Grach, Savely

    Results of the investigations of the time-space structure of the HF-pumped ionospheric volume above the SURA heating facility are presented. The method of investigations is based on mea-surements of the amplitude and phase of pulsed (pulse duration < 200µs and interpulse period 20-200 ms), wide band (˜ 300 kHz) and powerful (Effective Radiated Power ˜ 20-150 MW) radio signals radiated by three SURA transmitter and used for multifrequency sounding of the ionospheric plasma in frequency band up to ˜ 1 MHz. For simultaneous modification of the ionosphere and its diagnostics, technical capabilities of SURA transmitter-receiver system, specially elaborated time-frequency modes of transmitter operation, space diversity three point reception, wide band signal recording, digital filtering, spectral and correlation analysis of the short radio pulses reflected from ionosphere were used. As a result of numerically solved in-verse problem of vertical sounding of the HF-perturbed ionosphere, dynamic behavior of the electron plasma density variations was obtained in the regions close to plasma resonance and upper hybrid resonance of the pump wave. In our experiments the pumping usually leaded to plasma expulsion from the resonance regions. A magnitude of artificial plasma density pertur-bations achieved 0.8% from the background density for pump power about P 60 MW ERP. The methods of a similarity and full correlation analysis were used for pulse signal amplitude processing, which were obtained by diversity three point reception with the receiving aerial separation of 84 m. As a result, novel data on fine structure of the space field of the vertical and horizontal velocities of plasma in the perturbed ionosphere volume with high time (up to 20 ms) and frequency (˜ 1 kHz) resolution are obtained. This frequency resolution can be translated into altitude resolution (˜ 50-100 m) in the ionosphere. The work was supported by RFBR grants 10-02-00642, 09-02-01150 and Federal

  17. Phenome-wide analysis of genome-wide polygenic scores.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, E; Euesden, J; Zabaneh, D; Pingault, J-B; Rimfeld, K; von Stumm, S; Dale, P S; Breen, G; O'Reilly, P F; Plomin, R

    2016-09-01

    Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS), which aggregate the effects of thousands of DNA variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), have the potential to make genetic predictions for individuals. We conducted a systematic investigation of associations between GPS and many behavioral traits, the behavioral phenome. For 3152 unrelated 16-year-old individuals representative of the United Kingdom, we created 13 GPS from the largest GWAS for psychiatric disorders (for example, schizophrenia, depression and dementia) and cognitive traits (for example, intelligence, educational attainment and intracranial volume). The behavioral phenome included 50 traits from the domains of psychopathology, personality, cognitive abilities and educational achievement. We examined phenome-wide profiles of associations for the entire distribution of each GPS and for the extremes of the GPS distributions. The cognitive GPS yielded stronger predictive power than the psychiatric GPS in our UK-representative sample of adolescents. For example, education GPS explained variation in adolescents' behavior problems (~0.6%) and in educational achievement (~2%) but psychiatric GPS were associated with neither. Despite the modest effect sizes of current GPS, quantile analyses illustrate the ability to stratify individuals by GPS and opportunities for research. For example, the highest and lowest septiles for the education GPS yielded a 0.5 s.d. difference in mean math grade and a 0.25 s.d. difference in mean behavior problems. We discuss the usefulness and limitations of GPS based on adult GWAS to predict genetic propensities earlier in development. PMID:26303664

  18. Full 40 km crustal reflection seismic datasets in several Indonesian basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkelman, M. G.; Granath, J. W.; Christ, J. M.; Emmet, P. A.; Bird, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Long offset, deep penetration regional 2D seismic data sets have been acquired since 2002 by GX Technology in a number of regions worldwide (www.iongeo.com/Data_Libraries/Spans/). Typical surveys consist of 10+ lines located to image specific critical aspects of basin structure. Early surveys were processed to 20 km, but more recent ones have extended to 40-45 km from 16 sec records. Pre-stack time migration is followed by pre-stack depth migration using gravity and in some cases magnetic modeling to constrain the velocity structure. We illustrate several cases in the SE Asian and Australasian area. In NatunaSPAN™ two generations of inversion can be distinguished, one involving Paleogene faults with Neogene inversion and one involving strike slip-related uplift in the West Natuna Basin. Crustal structure in the very deep Neogene East Natuna Basin has also been imaged. The JavaSPAN™ program traced Paleogene sediments onto oceanic crust of the Flores Sea, thus equating back arc spreading there to the widespread Eocene extension. It also imaged basement in the Makassar Strait beneath as much as 6 km of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks that accumulated Eocene rift basins (the North and South Makassar basins) on the edge of Sundaland, the core of SE Asia. The basement is seismically layered: a noisy upper crust overlies a prominent 10 km thick transparent zone, the base of which marks another change to slightly noisier reflectivity. Eocene normal faults responsible for the opening of extensional basins root in the top of the transparent layer which may be Moho or a brittle-ductile transition within the extended continental crust. Of particular significance is the first image of thick Precambrian basins comprising the bulk of continental crust under the Arafura Sea in the ArafuraSPAN™ program. Four lines some 1200 km long located between Australia and New Guinea on the Arafura platform image a thin Phanerozoic section overlying a striking Precambrian basement composed of

  19. Rapid Kinematic and Tectonic Variations Along the 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark Plate Boundary Zone, Papua New Guinea and Woodlark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Taylor, F. W.; Gahagan, L.; Watson, L.

    2004-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown the wide variability in present-day plate motions across the highly arcuate, 1400-km-long Australia-Woodlark plate boundary extending from Papua New Guinea to the Solomon Islands. GPS-determined motions range from orthogonal oceanic spreading in the Woodlark basin, to continental transtension in the 2.5-km-high core complex area of easternmost Papua New Guinea, to continental strike-slip and transpression in 4-km-high mountains of the Papuan Peninsula. We use imagery, earthquake focal mechanisms, coral reef uplift data, and structural mapping studies to establish the along-strike continuity of the active plate boundary fault. Systematic angular changes in the direction of the plate vector along this continuous fault explain its varied tectonic geomorphology, Holocene uplift history, and geologic structure. We use a series of plate reconstructions to illustrate the longer term, Cenozoic evolution of this boundary including: its formation as an arcuate, N- and NE-dipping ophiolitic suture zone during Paleogene time, the progressive "unzippering" of this thrust over the past 6 Ma along a N- and NE-dipping, low-angle normal fault in easternmost Papua New Guinea, and its "zippering" or continued shortening on the suture thrust in the Owen Stanley Ranges of the Papuan Peninsula. Over the 1400-km-length of the fault, the length of segments of oceanic spreading, transtension, and transpression is 250-500 km; the time period separating one tectonic style from the succeeding style encroaching from the east is several million years. This systematic spatial and temporal superposition of tectonic styles, leads to complex - but predictable - along-strike variations in geologic history.

  20. Venus night side measurements of winds at 115 km altitude from NO bright patches tracking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2014-05-01

    N and O atoms produced by photo-dissociation of CO2 and N2 on the day side of Venus are transported to the night side in the thermospheric circulation. When the air parcel is descending, the recombination N+O→ NO produces the famous γ and δ bands of NO emission. Pioneer Venus (1978) suggested that the statistical center of the emission is off from the anti-solar point, about one- two hours in Local time after midnight. This is confirmed from SPICAV/VEX results, and the explanation generally accepted is the influence of retrograde super rotation. However, the emission takes place at 115 km, while VIRTIS/VEX, with maps of O2 emission (peak altitude 95 km) in the night side of Venus (recombination of O+O coming from the day side), has shown that the maximum of emission is statistically centered on the antisolar point. Therefore, there is no influence of super-rotation at 95 km. One way to explain this paradox is that the cause of the super rotation is different at 115 km and in the lower atmosphere. Alternately, some gravity waves could propagate from below, crossing the altitude 95 km with minimal interaction, and breaking around 115 km, depositing their momentum. Another consideration is that the altitude of N2 photo-dissociation is higher in the thermosphere than CO2, therefore the thermospheric circulation pattern may be different for the transport of N atoms, and O atoms. We have started building maps of the NO emission by moving around the spacecraft along its orbit on the night side. The idea is that NO emission is concentrated generally in rather well defined patches of light. Therefore, by comparing maps taken at 1 hour or 24 hr interval, we can make a "bright patch tracking", and derive directly the velocity of the moving air parcel containing N and O (we are aware that a part of the motion could be due to a phase shift of a gravity wave, if it has some influence on the NO emission). Preliminary results from this exercise with Venus Express will be

  1. Venus night side measurements of winds at 115 km altitude from Nitric Oxide bright patches tracking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Marcq, Emmanuel

    N and O atoms produced by photo-dissociation of CO2 and N2 on the day side of Venus are transported to the night side in the thermospheric circulation. When the air parcel is descending, the recombination N+O-> NO produces the famous gamma and delta bands of NO emission. Pioneer Venus (1978) suggested that the statistical center of the emission is off from the anti-solar point, about one- two hours in Local time after midnight. This is confirmed from SPICAV/VEX results, and the explanation generally accepted is the influence of retrograde super rotation. However, the emission takes place at 115 km, while VIRTIS/VEX, with maps of O2 emission (peak altitude 95 km) in the night side of Venus (recombination of O+O coming from the day side), has shown that the maximum of emission is statistically centered on the antisolar point. Therefore, there is no influence of super-rotation at 95 km. One way to explain this paradox is that the cause of the super rotation is different at 115 km and in the lower atmosphere. Alternately, some gravity waves could propagate from below, crossing the altitude 95 km with minimal interaction, and breaking around 115 km, depositing their momentum. Another consideration is that the altitude of N2 photo-dissociation is higher in the thermosphere than CO2, therefore the thermospheric circulation pattern may be different for the transport of N atoms, and O atoms. We have started building maps of the NO emission by moving around the spacecraft along its orbit on the night side. The idea is that NO emission is concentrated generally in rather well defined patches of light. Therefore, by comparing maps taken at 1 hour or 24 hr interval, we can make a “bright patch tracking”, and derive directly the velocity of the moving air parcel containing N and O (we are aware that a part of the motion could be due to a phase shift of a gravity wave, if it has some influence on the NO emission). Preliminary results from this exercise with Venus Express will

  2. Experimental High Resolution (3 km) SMAP Soil Moisture Data Fields With Uncertainty Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. N.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31st, 2015. The objective of the mission is global mapping of surface soil moisture and landscape freeze/thaw state. SMAP utilizes an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The SMAP spacecraft is in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, and viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle with a 1000-km swath width. Merging of the high-resolution active (radar) and coarse-resolution but high-sensitivity passive (radiometer) L-band observations enable an unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrievals. However, on July 7th, 2015, the SMAP radar encountered an anomaly and is currently inoperable. Efforts are being made to revive the SMAP radar. Due to the present status of the SMAP observatory, nearly ~2.5 months (from the end of In-Orbit-Check April 13th, 2015 to July 7th, 2015) of the SMAP Active Passive product will be available to public through the NASA DAAC at National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). The baseline L2_SM_AP product is retrieved soil moisture from the disaggregated/downscaled brightness temperature obtained by merging the coarse-resolution (~36 km) radiometer brightness temperature data and the high-resolution (~3 km) radar backscatter data. The baseline product is intermediate scale 9 km global soil moisture information. Experimentally, a much higher resolution global surface soil moisture data set is also produced at 3 km. This experimental product covering the 2.5 Spring/Summer months is the focus of this presentation. We specifically focus on the analysis of errors and reliability of this data set. The errors in disaggregated brightness temperatures and the retrived soil moisture estimates are discussed. In the presentation the accuracies of the SMAP L2-SM_AP soil moisture retrievals will be shown using summary comparisons with in

  3. Extending MGS-TES Temperature Retrievals in the Martian Atmosphere up to 90 Km: Retrieval Approach and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Smith, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for performing a temperature retrieval in the Martian atmosphere in the 50-90 km altitude range using spectrally integrated 15 micrometers C02 limb emissions measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the thermal infrared spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We demonstrate that temperature retrievals from limb observations in the 75-90 km altitude range require accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) populations of the C02(v2) vibrational levels. Using the methodology described in the paper, we have retrieved approximately 1200 individual temperature profiles from MGS TES limb observations in the altitude range between 60 and 90 km. 0ur dataset of retrieved temperature profiles is available for download in supplemental materials of this paper. The temperature retrieval uncertainties are mainly caused by radiance noise, and are estimated to be about 2 K at 60 km and below, 4 K at 70 km, 7 K at 80 km, 10 K at 85 km, and 20 K at 90 km. We compare the retrieved profiles to Mars Climate Database temperature profiles and find good qualitative agreement. Quantitatively, our retrieved profiles are in general warmer and demonstrate strong variability with the following values for bias and standard deviations (in brackets) compared to the Martian Year 24 dataset of the Mars Climate Database: 6 (+/-20) K at 60 km, 7.5 (+/-25) K at 65 km, 9 (+/-27) K at 70 km, 9.5 (+/-27) K at 75 km, 10 (+/-28) K at 80 km, 11 (+/-29) K at 85 km, and 11.5 (+/-31) K at 90 km. Possible reasons for the positive temperature bias are discussed. carbon dioxide molecular vibrations

  4. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  5. From wide to close binaries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleton, Peter P.

    The mechanisms by which the periods of wide binaries (mass 8 solar mass or less and period 10-3000 d) are lengthened or shortened are discussed, synthesizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. A system of nomenclature involving seven evolutionary states, three geometrical states, and 10 types of orbital-period evolution is developed and applied; classifications of 71 binaries are presented in a table along with the basic observational parameters. Evolutionary processes in wide binaries (single-star-type winds, magnetic braking with tidal friction, and companion-reinforced attrition), late case B systems, low-mass X-ray binaries, and triple systems are examined in detail, and possible evolutionary paths are shown in diagrams.

  6. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  7. KM3NeT Neutrino Telescope 1-ns Resolution Time To Digital Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The main digitization system is composed by 31 Time to Digital Converter channels with 1-ns resolution embedded in a Field Programmable Gate Array. An architecture with low resource occupancy has been chosen allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The 4-oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks working in opposed phases has been used together with an asymmetric FIFO memory. In the present article the architecture and the first results obtained with the Time to Digital Converters are presented.

  8. One-hundred-km-scale basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an active ice shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-08-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of ˜50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. In contrast, the south polar depression is larger and apparently shallower and correlates with active resurfacing. The shape and scale of the basins is inconsistent with impact, geoid surface deflections, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus' ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for these basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of ˜10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice.

  9. Triple structure in the 8 km/s water maser source in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas Boas, J. W. S.; Abraham, Z.

    1988-10-01

    The authors report the observations of a triple structure in the 8 km s-1 water maser in Orion. Two of the components are clearly separated in the line profile by about 35 kHz (0.4 km s-1). Differences in the degree of polarization and position angle of the polarization plane across the line profile were detected when the frequency resolution of the measurements were 15 kHz. The authors interpreted the data as a result of the superposition of several components, centered at different velocities and having different values of antenna temperature, degree of polarization and position angle of the polarization plane. Three components were necessary to fit the data. The time behaviour of the flaring source since its detection in 1979 is also described in terms of a multicomponent model.

  10. 192 km relay transmission and HDTV transmission experiments by Quantum Yuen-2000 transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, S.; Doi, Y.; Hosoi, T.; Honda, M.; Harasawa, K.; Hirota, O.; Katayama, T.

    2009-04-01

    We are concerned with the realization of high speed secure communication system which is an urgent desire from the data center system. It has been proved that a quantum stream cipher by Yuen 2000 protocol (so called Y-00 or αη) has remarkable security under quantum individual attack. So it is very attractive in implementing 1˜10 G bit/sec optical data center communication system. This paper introduces a system with some randomizations to reinforcement of the security in future implementation. Furthermore, we report the data transmission of 2.5 Gbit/sec in the real commercial network of 192 Km in Tokyo, and also a demonstration of High Definition Television (HDTV: 1.4 Gbit/sec) transmission of 40 Km by 2.5 Gbit/sec transceiver based on the basic model, which is immediately applicable to medical and broadcasting system.

  11. Characterization of the 80-mm diameter Hamamatsu PMTs for the KM3NeT project

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Classen, L.; Reubelt, J.; Peek, H.; Visser, E.; Samtleben, D.; Kalekin, Oleg Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The optical module designed for the KM3NeT project consists of 31 photomultipliers of 3-inch diameter housed into a 17-inch diameter glass sphere. A proposed photomultiplier was the R12199-02 Hamamatsu 80-mm diameter. 203 of such PMTs have been delivered from Hamamatsu and tested by the KM3NeT groups of NIKHEF-Amsterdam, ECAP-Erlangen and INFN-Catania. Tests have been performed to measure the main parameters, such as gain, transit time spread, dark pulses rate, fraction of spurious pulses, quantum efficiency and effective photocathode size. The main results matched with the requirements of the project. Methods and results are presented in this report.

  12. Evaluation of Whipple Bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, J. A.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Cour-Palais, B. G.; Christiansen, E. L.; Crews, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts.

  13. Optimum design of 30-km long-distance distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Liu, Honglin; Wang, Jianfeng; Yu, Xiangdong; Jin, Yongxing; Kim, Insoo S.; Wu, Xiaobiao

    2005-02-01

    A 30km long distance distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor (DOFRTS) system has been made, it use new measuring temperature principle of optical fiber amplified anti-Stokes Raman spontaneous scattering. In the system, 1550nm erbium-doped optical fiber laser, a highness speed data acquisition card and signal processing technique are used. By using these technique, the problem of weak signal detection is resolved and signal to noise ratio is increased. All components of system are put into an intellectualized constant temperature box and work in constant temperature condition. Stability and environment adaptability are improved. By appraisal, performance of the system is listed as follows: length of single mode fiber: 31km, temperature rang:0-100°C (can be expanded), temperature measuring uncertainty:+/-2°C, temperature resolution:0.1°C, measurement time:432s, spatial resolution :3m.

  14. Progress toward a Km-scale neutrino detector in the deep ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    The best particles for observing distant objects are photons and neutrinos. Because of the neutrino`s weak interaction cross section, detectors suitable for astronomy must be very large and well shielded from cosmic rays. Eventually, a detector with the order of a square km of effective area will be needed for systematic observations of distant point sources such as active galactic nuclei. Prototype detectors are currently being developed at several sites in the ocean, at Lake Baikal, and in Antarctica. This talk summarizes the status of the projects that use the deep ocean for the detector medium and shielding: DUMAND, NESTOR and ANTARES. Technical developments will be needed for a future km-scale detector; progress on one of these, a digital electronic system, is also described.

  15. A new technique for remote sensing of O2 density from 140 to 180 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, James H.; Christensen, Andrew B.; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Crowley, Geoff; Bishop, Rebeeca L.; Budzien, Scott A.; Stephan, Andrew W.; Evans, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Observations of molecular oxygen are difficult to make in the Earth's atmosphere between 140 and 200 km altitude. Perhaps the most accurate measurements to date have been obtained from satellite instruments that measure solar occultations of the limb. These do provide height-resolved O2 density measurements, but the nature of this technique is such that the temporal/spatial distribution of the measurements is uneven. Here a new space-based technique is described that utilizes two bright dayglow emissions, the (0,0) transition of the O2 atmospheric band and the O I (630 nm), to derive the height-resolved O2 density from 140 to 180 km. Data from the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System, which was placed on the International Space Station in late 2009, are used to illustrate this technique. The O2 density results for periods in May 2010 that were geomagnetically quiet and disturbed are compared to model predictions.

  16. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  17. Measured electric field in the vicinity of a thunderstorm system at an altitude of 37 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benbrook, J. R.; Kern, J. W.; Sheldon, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment to measure the atmospheric electric field was flown from the National Scientific Balloon Facility at Palestine, Texas, on July 10, 1973. The electric field and atmospheric conductivity were measured during ascent and for a 4-hour float period at 37-km altitude. Termination of the flight occurred near a thunderstorm line in west Texas. The perturbing influence of the thunderstorms on the electric field was observed at least 100 km from the storm line. The measured electric field is in reasonable agreement with calculations based on simple models of cloud structure and atmospheric conductivity. Large pulses in the measured electric field are interpreted as being the result of intracloud lightning.

  18. First results of the KM3NeT multi-PMT DOM

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Tino; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will consist of several thousand digital optical modules (DOMs), each of which will be equipped with 31 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). This design has various advantages over the use of one large PMT per optical module, e.g. concerning effective photocathode area per module, improved background suppression and directional reconstruction. Currently, the KM3NeT collaboration is testing a prototype DOM deployed on the instrumentation line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The DOM has been operational since mid-April 2013. First data are presented and compared to simulation results. The results are very encouraging and indicate that muon identification and a coarse direction estimation are possible event with a single DOM.

  19. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-31

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of O + CO2 --> CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively. Gas plume, CO2, CO, and OH Emissions, Monte Carlo method, Rarefied flows.

  20. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

  1. QEC values of the superallowed beta emitters 34Cl and 38Km.

    PubMed

    Eronen, T; Elomaa, V-V; Hakala, J; Hardy, J C; Jokinen, A; Moore, I D; Reponen, M; Rissanen, J; Saastamoinen, A; Weber, C; Aystö, J

    2009-12-18

    The superallowed beta-decay Q(EC) values of (34)Cl and (38)K(m) have been measured with an online Penning trap to be 5491.662(47) keV and 6044.223(41) keV, respectively. The new values are more precise than the previous high-precision reaction-based values but are consistent with them and establish that there are no significant systematic differences between the two types of measurements. PMID:20366251

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Soil Fungus Aspergillus terreus (KM017963), a Potent Lovastatin Producer

    PubMed Central

    Bhargavi, S. D.; Praveen, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Aspergillus terreus (KM017963), a tropical soil isolate. The genome sequence is 29 Mb, with a G+C content of 51.12%. The genome sequence of A. terreus shows the presence of the complete gene cluster responsible for lovastatin (an anti-cholesterol drug) production in a single scaffold (1.16). PMID:27284150

  3. Silicon ions below 100 km - A case for SiO2/+/. [during meteoroid shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation regarding the occurrence of Si ions is conducted, taking into account an unusual metal ion structure observed during a meteor shower event. Loss processes involving silicon oxides are considered in connection with a study of the reasons for the unique Si(+) distribution found. It is suggested that below 100 km Si(+) is rapidly depleted by two- and three-body reactions with molecular oxygen, forming SiO2(+) which then recombines.

  4. The modelled surface mass balance of the Antarctic Peninsula at 5.5 km horizontal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Reijmer, C. H.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Barrand, N. E.; Thomas, E. R.; Turner, J.; Wuite, J.; Scambos, T. A.; van Meijgaard, E.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a high-resolution (˜ 5.5 km) estimate of surface mass balance (SMB) over the period 1979-2014 for the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), generated by the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3 and a firn densification model (FDM). RACMO2.3 is used to force the FDM, which calculates processes in the snowpack, such as meltwater percolation, refreezing and runoff. We evaluate model output with 132 in situ SMB observations and discharge rates from six glacier drainage basins, and find that the model realistically simulates the strong spatial variability in precipitation, but that significant biases remain as a result of the highly complex topography of the AP. It is also clear that the observations significantly underrepresent the high-accumulation regimes, complicating a full model evaluation. The SMB map reveals large accumulation gradients, with precipitation values above 3000 mm we yr-1 in the western AP (WAP) and below 500 mm we yr-1 in the eastern AP (EAP), not resolved by coarser data sets such as ERA-Interim. The average AP ice-sheet-integrated SMB, including ice shelves (an area of 4.1 × 105 km2), is estimated at 351 Gt yr-1 with an interannual variability of 58 Gt yr-1, which is dominated by precipitation (PR) (365 ± 57 Gt yr-1). The WAP (2.4 × 105 km2) SMB (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), where PR is large (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), dominates over the EAP (1.7 × 105 km2) SMB (75 ± 11 Gt yr-1) and PR (84 ± 11 Gt yr-1). Total sublimation is 11 ± 2 Gt yr-1 and meltwater runoff into the ocean is 4 ± 4 Gt yr-1. There are no significant trends in any of the modelled AP SMB components, except for snowmelt that shows a significant decrease over the last 36 years (-0.36 Gt yr-2).

  5. The influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing strategy during a 100-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing during a 100-km ultramarathon. Results of a 100-km race incorporating the World Masters Championships were used to identify differences in relative speeds in each 10-km segment between participants finishing in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of overall positions (Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Similar analyses were performed between the top and bottom 50% of finishers in each age category, as well as within male and female categories. Pacing varied between athletes achieving different absolute performance levels. Group 1 ran at significantly lower relative speeds than all other groups in the first three 10-km segments (all P < 0.01), and significantly higher relative speeds than Group 4 in the 6th and 10th (both P < 0.01), and Group 2 in the 8th (P = 0.04). Group 4 displayed significantly higher relative speeds than Group 2 and 3 in the first three segments (all P < 0.01). Overall strategies remained consistent across age categories, although a similar phenomenon was observed within each category whereby 'top' competitors displayed lower relative speeds than 'bottom' competitors in the early stages, but higher relative speeds in the later stages. Females showed lower relative starting speeds and higher finishing speeds than males. 'Top' and 'bottom' finishing males displayed differing strategies, but this was not the case within females. Although pacing remained consistent across age categories, it differed with level of performance within each, possibly suggesting strategies are anchored on direct competitors. Strategy differs between genders and differs depending on performance level achieved in males but not females. PMID:26034882

  6. Performance during a 20-km cycling time-trial after caffeine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of caffeine ingestion on the performance and physiological variables associated with fatigue in 20-km cycling time trials. Methods In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 13 male cyclists (26 ± 10 y, 71 ± 9 kg, 176 ± 6 cm) were randomized into 2 groups and received caffeine (CAF) capsules (6 mg.kg−1) or placebo (PLA) 60 min before performing 20-km time trials. Distance, speed, power, rpm, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), electromyography (EMG) of the quadriceps muscles and heart rate (HR) were continuously measured during the tests. In addition, BRUMS questionnaire was applied before and after the tests. Results Significant interactions were found in power and speed (P = 0.001), which were significantly higher at the end of the test (final 2 km) after CAF condition. A main effect of time (P = 0.001) was observed for RPE and HR, which increased linearly until the end of exercise in both conditions. The time taken to complete the test was similar in both conditions (PLA = 2191 ± 158 s vs. CAF = 2181 ± 194 s, P = 0.61). No significant differences between CAF and PLA conditions were identified for speed, power, rpm, RPE, EMG, HR, and BRUMS (P > 0.05). Conclusion The results suggest that caffeine intake 60 min before 20-km time trials has no effect on the performance or physiological responses of cyclists. PMID:25302056

  7. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance. PMID:25675355

  8. Correlation of the 410 km Discontinuity Low Velocity Layer with Tomographic Wavespeed Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Dueker, K. G.

    2010-12-01

    The transition zone water-filter model predicts that a hydrous melt layer at the 410-km discontinuity is only actively produced in upwelling region, and does not exist in downwelling region (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). This prediction has been tested by stacking of P-S receiver functions using the RISTRA linear array which crosses west-Texas, New Mexico and Utah. The receiver functions are binned into the NW, SE, SW azimuthal quadrants and stacked to produce well-resolved images of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. The three receiver function quadrant stack images find a correlation between the occurrence of negative polarity 410-km low velocity layer arrival and the teleseismic body wave velocity tomogram of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010); the 410 low velocity layer arrival is absent where the velocities about the 410 km discontinuity are relatively high and present where the velocities are low. Our finding is consistent with a simple interpretation of the transition zone water filter model which predicts the production of a hydrous melt layer where upflow of sufficiently hydrated transition zone mantle occurs and destruction of a hydrous melt layer where there is downflow. We test this prediction by analyzing the Colorado Rockies Experiment and Seismic Transects (CREST) seismic data which was collected in 2008-2009. This 15 month deployment of 59 CREST stations in tandem with 31 Transportable Array stations yields a total of 161 Mb>5.5 events at 30°-95° distances. The P-S receiver functions are calculated using a multi-channel deconvolution methodology and filtered with a 30-3 s post-deconvolution filter. The receiver function dataset contains about 1800 SV components after RMS, cross-correlation, and visual data quality culling. Common conversion point images are constructed using Pds timing correction from a 3-D upper mantle tomography model (McCarthy and Aster, pers. com.) to account for lateral P/S velocity heterogeneity.

  9. Response of Organic Materials to Hypervelocity Impacts (up to 11.2 km/sec)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, D. S.; Murphy, W. M.; Miller, G. P.; Grosch, D. J.; Walker, J. D.; Mullin, A.; Waite, J. H.

    1998-09-01

    It is speculated that organic-rich planetesimals played a role in the origin of life on Earth. However, the mechanism by which organics could have been delivered from space to a planetary surface is difficult to determine. Particularly problematic is the question of the stability of organic material under hypervelocity impact conditions. Although some evidence suggests organic molecules cannot survive impacts from projectile velocities greater than about 10 km/sec [1], other investigators have found that impacts create a favorable environment for post-shock recombination of organic molecules in the plume phase [2, 3]. Understanding the mechanisms involved in delivering organics to a planetary surface remains difficult to assess due to the lack of experimental results of hypervelocity impacts, particularly in the velocity range of tens of km/sec. Organic material preservation and destruction from impact shocks, the synthesis of organics in the post-impact plume environment, and implications of these processes for Earth and Mars can be investigated by launching an inorganic projectile into an analog planetesimal-and-bolide organic-rich target. We explored the pressure and temperature ranges of hypervelocity impacts (11.2 km/sec) through simulations with CTH impact physics computer code. Using an inhibited shaped-charge launcher, we also experimentally determined the response of organic material to hypervelocity impacts. Initial work focused on saturating well-characterized zeolitic tuff with an aqueous solution containing dissolved naphthalene, a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Porosity measurements, thin section, and x-ray diffraction analyses were performed to determine that the tuff is primarily fine-grained clinoptilolite. In order to distinguish between contaminants and compounds generated or destroyed in the impact, we tagged the aqueous component of our target with deuterium. Experimental tests revealed that to first order, naphthalene survived

  10. Seismic evidence of negligible water carried below 400-km depth in subducting lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Green, Harry W; Chen, Wang-Ping; Brudzinski, Michael R

    2010-10-14

    Strong evidence exists that water is carried from the surface into the upper mantle by hydrous minerals in the uppermost 10-12 km of subducting lithosphere, and more water may be added as the lithosphere bends and goes downwards. Significant amounts of that water are released as the lithosphere heats up, triggering earthquakes and fluxing arc volcanism. In addition, there is experimental evidence for high solubility of water in olivine, the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle, for even higher solubility in olivine's high-pressure polymorphs, wadsleyite and ringwoodite, and for the existence of dense hydrous magnesium silicates that potentially could carry water well into the lower mantle (deeper than 1,000 km). Here we compare experimental and seismic evidence to test whether patterns of seismicity and the stabilities of these potentially relevant hydrous phases are consistent with a wet lithosphere. We show that there is nearly a one-to-one correlation between dehydration of minerals and seismicity at depths less than about 250 km, and conclude that the dehydration of minerals is the trigger of instability that leads to seismicity. At greater depths, however, we find no correlation between occurrences of earthquakes and depths where breakdown of hydrous phases is expected. Lastly, we note that there is compelling evidence for the existence of metastable olivine (which, if present, can explain the distribution of deep-focus earthquakes) west of and within the subducting Tonga slab and also in three other subduction zones, despite metastable olivine being incompatible with even extremely small amounts of water (of the order of 100 p.p.m. by weight). We conclude that subducting slabs are essentially dry at depths below 400 km and thus do not provide a pathway for significant amounts of water to enter the mantle transition zone or the lower mantle. PMID:20927105

  11. The two stellar occultations of November 14, 2003: revealing Titan's stratosphere at sub-km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, B.; Colas, F.; Widemann, T.; Fienga, A.; Lacour, S.; Lecacheux, J.; Lellouch, E.; Pau, S.; Renner, S.; Roques, F.; Glass, I.; Baba, D.; Nagata, T.; Ferri, F.; Martinez, C.; Beisker, W.; Enke, S.; Bath, K.-L.; Bode, F.; Bode, H.-J.; Fiel, D.; Kretlow, M.; Hernandez, M.; Horns, D.; Luedemann, J.; Luedemann, H.; Tegtmeier, A.; deWitt, C.; Fraser, B.; Jones, T.; Shonau, P.; Turk, C.; Meintjies, P.; Howell, R. R.; Kidger, M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Rosenzweig, P.; Naranjo, O.; Rapaport, M.

    2004-11-01

    On November 14, 2003, Titan occulted two bright Tycho stars (V= 8.4 and V= 10.3). The first event was observed in the Indian Ocean and southern Africa, while the second one was followed from western Europe, northern and central Americas. Data were gathered by both professional and amateur astronomers, using fixed and portable telescopes at wavelengths ranging from visible to near IR (K band). Inversion of the light curves provide sub-km resolution density and temperature profiles of Titan's upper stratosphere (altitude range ˜ 250-550 km, pressure ˜ 1-250 μ bar). A well confined inversion layer, with a temperature increase of more than 15 K in about 6 km, is ubiquitous in the data near 510 km altitude (1 μ bar). This global feature is either due to a localized heating source or to dynamical processes yet to be determined. A central flash is visible in five of the light curves taken from the first event. We model the flash shape and intensity, using ray tracing with a prescribed limb shape (linked to a given zonal wind regime) and opacity. Observations are consistent with a strong jet at northern latitudes ( ˜ 200 m s-1 at latitude 55N), decreasing to ˜ 140m s-1 at equator, and tapering off to zero in the sourthern hemisphere. We do not detect the northern polar hood predicted by some GCM models, up to latitude 67N. Thus, the polar hood is either non-existent, or is present at latitudes north of 67N.

  12. Comparison between measured electron density at 600 km of altitude and IRI predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Cabrera, M. A.; Mosert, M.; Araoz, L.

    The electron density at 600 Km of altitude (N 600) predicted by IRI are compared with the measurements for a given particular time and place (not average) obtained with the Japanese Hinotori satellite. The results show disagreements among predictions and measurements when the model uses the CCIR and URSI options to obtain the peak characteristics. Good predictions are obtained for same cases using ground ionosonde data as input parameters in the model.

  13. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Androulakis, G. C.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Balasi, K.; Band, H.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Barrios, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berkien, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bianucci, S.; Billault, M.; Birbas, A.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bormuth, R.; Bouché, V.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Champion, C.; Château, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Christopoulou, B.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Deniskina, N.; Destelle, J.-J.; Distefano, C.; Di Capua, F.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Eberl, T.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Fusco, L. A.; Gajanana, D.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hevinga, M. A.; van der Hoek, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hugon, C.; Hößl, J.; Imbesi, M.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jochum, J.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Kappos, E.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Koffeman, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Le Provost, H.; Leismüller, K. P.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manolopoulos, K.; Margiotta, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Moudden, Y.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Popa, V.; Pradier, Th.; Priede, M.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Tézier, D.; Théraube, S.; Thompson, L. F.; Timmer, P.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vernin, P.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; van Wooning, R. H. L.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Zwart, A.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80 km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is described. This procedure is based on the measured coincidences produced in the sea by the ^{40}K background light and can easily be expanded to a detector with several thousands of optical modules. The time offsets between the different optical modules are obtained using LED nanobeacons mounted inside them. A set of data corresponding to 600 h of livetime was analysed. The results show good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected optical background and the signal from atmospheric muons. An almost background-free sample of muons was selected by filtering the time correlated signals on all the three optical modules. The zenith angle of the selected muons was reconstructed with a precision of about 3°.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Soil Fungus Aspergillus terreus (KM017963), a Potent Lovastatin Producer.

    PubMed

    Savitha, Janakiraman; Bhargavi, S D; Praveen, V K

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome of Aspergillus terreus (KM017963), a tropical soil isolate. The genome sequence is 29 Mb, with a G+C content of 51.12%. The genome sequence of A. terreus shows the presence of the complete gene cluster responsible for lovastatin (an anti-cholesterol drug) production in a single scaffold (1.16). PMID:27284150

  15. The effect of skin temperature on performance during a 7.5-km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos J; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein A M

    2012-09-01

    Aerobic exercise performance is seriously compromised in the heat. Possibly, a high skin temperature causes a rating of perceived exertion (RPE)-mediated decrease in exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of skin temperature on power output during a 7.5-km cycling time trial. Thirteen well-trained male subjects performed a 7.5-km cycling time trial at 15°C and 50% relative humidity (CONTROL), with radiative heat stress during the time trial, and with (PRECOOL) or without (HEAT) precooling. Heat stress was applied by infrared heaters positioned in front of the cycle ergometer between 1.5 and 6.0 km. Skin, rectal, and pill temperature, power output, heart rate, and RPE were measured during the trial. Despite the lower mean skin temperature at the start of the time trial for PRECOOL compared to HEAT (-2.1 ± 0.7°C; P < 0.01) and CONTROL (-1.8 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.05), and a greater increase in mean skin temperature during the heat stress period for PRECOOL (4.5 ± 1.0°C) and HEAT (3.9 ± 0.8°C) than for CONTROL (-0.3 ± 0.6°C; P < 0.01), no differences in power output were found between HEAT (273 ± 45 W) and CONTROL (284 ± 43 W; P = 0.11) and between HEAT and PRECOOL (266 ± 50 W; P = 0.47). Power output during the time trial was greater for CONTROL than for PRECOOL (P < 0.05). Additionally, no differences were observed in core temperature measures, HR, and RPE. Skin temperature does not affect the selection and modulation of exercise intensity in a 7.5-km cycling time trial. PMID:22270485

  16. Coherent scatter radar observations of 150-km echoes and vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, F. S.; de Paula, E. R.; Hysell, D. L.; Chau, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Coherent scatter echoes coming from the valley region (~150 km altitude) in the equatorial ionosphere during daytime have been detected by the Jicamarca radar in Peru for several decades (Basley, 1945). More recently, it was found that the vertical Doppler shift of these echoes corresponds to the vertical velocity of the F-region background plasma (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Woodman and Villanueva,1995, Chau and Woodman, 2004). Jicamarca now uses observations of 150-km echoes to provide estimates of the diurnal variation of the equatorial vertical plasma drifts in addition to traditional incoherent scatter radar drift measurements. These 150-km echoes have also been observed in other longitude sectors (e.g. Tsunoda and Ecklund,2004; Patra et al., 2008). Additionally, these echoes have also been detected in a semi-routine basis with a small, low-power radar in Sao Luis, Brazil. Initial results of our analysis suggest that vertical plasma drifts can be estimated from these observations. These measurements combined with simultaneous measurements made by the Jicamarca radar and the C/NOFS satellite can help us better understand the day-to-day variability and longitudinal variation of equatorial electric fields. In this talk we will present examples of 150-km echoes observations made with the Sao Luis radar. We will describe how vertical drifts can be estimated from the observations and how the vertical drifts over Sao Luis compare with the drifts measured simultaneously at Jicamarca. These new measurements can provide important new information about the low-latitude electrodynamics, and consequently to the C/NOFS mission.

  17. High resolution time to digital converter for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, D.; Real, D.

    2015-01-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultipliers of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels based on time to digital converter are implemented on the field-programmable gate arrays. Architectures with low resources occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and time-stamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks and an asymmetric FIFO memory is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed firmware has been developed in Xilinx Kintex-7.

  18. First observation of mesospheric wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong-Fu; Widdel, H.-U.; Offermann, D.

    1995-09-01

    Mesospheric wind profiles with an altitude resolution of 25 m have been obtained by means of radar tracking of foil chaff clouds. Such experiments were performed during winter 1990 at Biscarrosse, France (44°N, 1°W). On one flight, a wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1 at 87.4 km and a region of dynamical instability between 86 and 88 km was measured. This wind shear is believed to be the largest value ever measured in the mesosphere. The region of dynamical instability results from a superposition of two wave motions, and is found to link well with enhanced turbulence and small-scale wave activity. Acknowledgements. I thank D. R. McDiarmid of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Canada, for important ideas and discussions during the development of this work. I thank the referees for useful comments which have improved the paper. I also thank E.M. Poulter of NIWA for helpful suggestions, and for reading the manuscript and making useful comments. The work was supported by contract CO1309 of the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Topical Editor C.-G. Fälthammar thanks K. Mursula and W. J. Hughes for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: W. Allan-->

  19. 1 ns time to digital converters for the KM3NeT data readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC- Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres (nodes), each of them containing 31 photomultiplier (PMT) of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels are implemented on the Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based on Time to Digital Converter (TDC). TDC are very common devices in particles physics experiments. Architectures with low resources occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and timestamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed TDC firmware is developed using very few resources in Xilinx Kintex-7.

  20. Debris cloud characterization at impact velocities of 5 to 11 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Boslough, M.B.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher to impact a 1.25-mm thick aluminum bumper by an aluminum flier plate 17-mm diameter by 0.92-mm thick over the velocity range of 5 km/s to 11 km/s. Radiographic techniques were employed to record the debris cloud generated upon impact. The shape of the debris cloud is found to depend on the flier plate tilt. Generally -- the data indicate a central core of higher density surrounded by a diffused layer. These experiments allow measurements of debris cloud expansion velocities as the material undergoes a phase change from solid fragments at impact velocities of 5 km/s to a mixture of liquid and vapor phase at higher impact velocities. The expansion velocity of the debris cloud increases with increasing impact velocity, with the high-density leading edge traveling faster than the impact velocity. There is a difference between the X-ray and photographic measurements of expansion velocities at higher impact velocities. This is believed to be due to the presence of very low-density vapor in the photographic records that are not detecting using X-ray techniques.

  1. Short and long periodic atmospheric variations between 25 and 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Previously collected data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 25 and 200 km from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others were analyzed by a daily difference method and results on the distribution statistics, magnitude, and spatial structure of gravity wave and planetary wave atmospheric variations are presented. Time structure of the gravity wave variations were determined by the analysis of residuals from harmonic analysis of time series data. Planetary wave contributions in the 25-85 km range were discovered and found to have significant height and latitudinal variation. Long period planetary waves, and seasonal variations were also computed by harmonic analysis. Revised height variations of the gravity wave contributions in the 25 to 85 km height range were computed. An engineering method and design values for gravity wave magnitudes and wave lengths are given to be used for such tasks as evaluating the effects on the dynamical heating, stability and control of spacecraft such as the space shuttle vehicle in launch or reentry trajectories.

  2. Seismic evidence for silicate melt atop the 410-km mantle discontinuity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revenaugh, Justin; Sipkin, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    LABORATORY results demonstrating that basic to ultrabasic melts become denser than olivine-rich mantle at pressures above 6 GPa (refs 1-3) have important implications for basalt petrogenesis, mantle differentiation and the storage of volatiles deep in the Earth. A density cross-over between melt and solid in the extensively molten Archaean mantle has been inferred from komatiitic volcanism and major-element mass balances, but present-day evidence of dense melt below the seismic low-velocity zone is lacking. Here we present mantle shear-wave impedance profiles obtained from multiple-ScS reverberation mapping for corridors connecting western Pacific subduction zone earthquakes with digital seismograph stations in eastern China, imaging a ~5.8% impedance decrease roughly 330 km beneath the Sea of Japan, Yellow Sea and easternmost Asia. We propose that this represents the upper surface of a layer of negatively buoyant melt lying on top of the olivine ??? ??- phase transition (the 410-km seismic discontinuity). Volatile-rich fluids expelled from the partial melt zone as it freezes may migrate upwards, acting as metasomatic agents and perhaps as the deep 'proto-source' of kimberlites. The remaining, dense, crystalline fraction would then concentrate above 410 km, producing a garnet-rich layer that may flush into the transition zone.

  3. The effect of breast support on upper body muscle activity during 5 km treadmill running.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

    2014-12-01

    Breast support has previously been shown to influence surface EMG of the pectoralis major during running. Reductions in muscle activity have previously been associated with a reduction in energy cost, which may be advantageous for female runners. Ten female participants performed two self-paced (average pace 9 km h(-1)) 5 km treadmill runs under two breast support conditions (low and high); an additional bare-breasted 2 min run was also conducted. Surface EMG electrodes were positioned on the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, medial deltoid, and upper trapezius, with data collected during the first 2 min of running and each kilometer interval thereafter. Reductions in peak EMG of the pectoralis major, anterior and medial deltoid were reported when participants ran in the high breast support during the initial intervals of the run (up to the second kilometer). The increased activation in the pectoralis major, anterior and medial deltoid in the low breast support may be due to increased tension within these muscles, induced by the greater breast pain experienced in the low breast support. This may be a strategy to reduce the independent breast movement causing the pain through increased muscular activation. This study further promotes the use of a high breast support during running with potential benefits for treadmill running associated with reductions in muscular demand during a 5 km run. PMID:25255202

  4. The KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, Annarita

    2014-12-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will complement IceCube in its field of view and exceed it substantially in sensitivity. Its main goal is the detection of high energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. The detector will have a modular structure with six building blocks, each consisting of about 100 Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in offshore Toulon, France and offshore Capo Passero on Sicily, Italy. The technological solutions for the neutrino detector of KM3NeT and the expected performance of the neutrino telescope are presented and discussed.

  5. Photo-sensors for a Multi-PMT optical module in KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Löhner, H.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    A deep-sea Neutrino Telescope of at least 1 km3 size (KM3NeT) is being designed to search for high-energy (1-1000 TeV) neutrinos originating from galactic and extragalactic sources. The detection principle exploits the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted by charged particles resulting from neutrino interactions in the matter surrounding the telescope. An optical module containing an array of 31 3-in. diameter photomultiplier tubes is a promising alternative to an optical module containing one 10-in. diameter phototube. The single photo-electron response of 3-in. diameter phototubes (Photonis XP53B20 and ETEL 9822B) has been investigated. Phototube characteristics such as the collection efficiency, transit-time spread and peak-to-valley ratio were determined at various positions across the photocathode surface in a remote-controlled 2D scanning system. Results of these investigations are reported and the perspectives to employ the investigated phototube types in the Multi-PMT optical module of the future KM3NeT detector are discussed.

  6. Characterization of cosmic rays and direction dependence in the Polar Region up to 88 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zábori, Balázs; Hirn, Attila; Deme, Sándor; Apáthy, István; Pázmándi, Tamás

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The sounding rocket experiment REM-RED was developed to operate on board the REXUS-17 rocket in order to measure the intensity of cosmic rays. The experiment was launched from the ESRANGE Space Center (68 °N, 21 °E) on the 17th of March 2015 at the beginning of the most intense geomagnetic storm within the preceding 10 years. The experiment provided the opportunity to measure the intensity of cosmic rays in the Polar Region up to an altitude of 88 km above sea level. Methods: The experiment employed Geiger-Müller (GM) counters oriented with their axes perpendicular to each other in order to measure the cosmic ray intensity during the flight of the rocket. This measurement setup allowed performing direction-sensitive measurements as well. During the ascent phase the rocket was spinning and hence stabilized along its longitudinal axis looking close to the zenith direction. This phase of the flight was used for studying the direction dependence of the charged particle component of the cosmic rays. Results: In comparison with earlier, similar rocket experiments performed with GM tubes at lower geomagnetic latitudes, significantly higher cosmic radiation flux was measured above 50 km. A non-isotropic behavior was found below 50 km and described in detail for the first time in the Polar Region. This behavior is in good agreement with the results of the TECHDOSE experiment that used the same type of GM tubes on board the BEXUS-14 stratospheric balloon.

  7. Atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and wind variations between 50 and 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1972-01-01

    Data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 50 and 200 km were collected from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others. These data were analyzed by a daily difference method and results on the distribution statistics, magnitude, and spatial structure of the irregular atmospheric variations are presented. Time structures of the irregular variations were determined by the analysis of residuals from harmonic analysis of time series data. The observed height variations of irregular winds and densities are found to be in accord with a theoretical relation between these two quantities. The latitude variations (at 50 - 60 km height) show an increasing trend with latitude. A possible explanation of the unusually large irregular wind magnitudes of the White Sands MRN data is given in terms of mountain wave generation by the Sierra Nevada range about 1000 km west of White Sands. An analytical method is developed which, based on an analogy of the irregular motion field with axisymmetric turbulence, allows measured or model correlation or structure functions to be used to evaluate the effective frequency spectra of scalar and vector quantities of a spacecraft moving at any speed and at any trajectory elevation angle.

  8. Hypervelocity impact tests and simulations of single Whipple bumper shield concepts at 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. ); Hill, S.A. )

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities of [approximately] 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 19 mm (0.87 nun thick, L/D [approximately]0.5) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of [approximately]14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of [approximately]7 km/s. Subsequent loading by the debris on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure placed 114 mm from the bumper penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the diameter of the flier plate is reduced to 12.7 mm, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for the larger flier plate. The numerical simulation for a 12.7 mm flier plate, however, shows a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry, i.e., a spherical projectile impact geometry does not result in perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud, while the flat plate impact geometry results in perforation.

  9. Hypervelocity impact tests and simulations of single Whipple bumper shield concepts at 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S.; Hill, S.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities of {approximately} 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 19 mm (0.87 nun thick, L/D {approximately}0.5) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of {approximately}14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading by the debris on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure placed 114 mm from the bumper penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the diameter of the flier plate is reduced to 12.7 mm, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for the larger flier plate. The numerical simulation for a 12.7 mm flier plate, however, shows a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry, i.e., a spherical projectile impact geometry does not result in perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud, while the flat plate impact geometry results in perforation.

  10. The Control Unit of KM3NeT data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. With the telescopes, scientists will search for cosmic neutrinos to study highly energetic objects in the Universe, while one neutrino detector will be dedicated to measure the properties of the high-energy neutrino particles themselves. Control of the KM3NeT data acquisition processes is handled by the KM3NeT Control Unit, which has been designed to maximise the detector live time. The Control Unit features software programs with different roles, following the philosophy of having no single point of failure. While all programs are interconnected, each one can also work alone for most of the time in case other services are unavailable. All services run on the Common Language Runtime, which ensures portability, flexibility and automatic memory management. Each service has an embedded Web server, providing a user interface as well as programmatic access to data and functions. Data to and from detector components for monitoring and management purposes are transmitted using a custom designed protocol. The Control Unit is interfaced to one or more Message Dispatchers to control the data acquisition chain. A Data Base Interface provides fast and fault-tolerant connection to a remote Data Base.

  11. Whipple bumper shield results and CTH simulations at velocities in excess of 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Reinhart, W.D.; Miller, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities in excess of 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 0.67 g (0.87 mm thick) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of {approximately}14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the mass of the flier plate is reduced to 0.33 g, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete penetration of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for a 0.87 g flier plate. The numerical simulations for a 0.33 g flier plate show a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry. For the assumption of a spherical projectile impact geometry, perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud is not predicted by CTH.

  12. Whipple bumper shield results and CTH simulations at velocities in excess of 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Reinhart, W.D.; Miller, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a Whipple bumper shield to orbital space debris at impact velocities in excess of 10 km/s. Upon impact by a 0.67 g (0.87 mm thick) flier plate, the thin aluminum bumper shield disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities of [approximately]14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of [approximately]7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris penetrates the substructure completely. However, when the mass of the flier plate is reduced to 0.33 g, the substructure, although damaged, is not perforated over the duration of the experiment. Numerical simulations performed using the multi-dimensional hydrodynamics code CTH also predict complete penetration of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud for a 0.87 g flier plate. The numerical simulations for a 0.33 g flier plate show a strong dependence on assumed impact geometry. For the assumption of a spherical projectile impact geometry, perforation of the substructure by the subsequent debris cloud is not predicted by CTH.

  13. Integration of acoustical sensors into the KM3NeT optical modules

    SciTech Connect

    Enzenhöfer, A.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The next generation multi-cubic-kilometre water Cherenkov neutrino telescope will be build in the Mediterranean Sea. This telescope, called KM3NeT, is currently entering a first construction phase. The KM3NeT research infrastructure will comprise 690 so-called Detection Units in its final design which will be anchored to the sea bed and held upright by submerged floats. The positions of these Detection Units, several hundred metres in length, and their attached Optical Modules for the detection of Cherenkov light have to be monitored continously to provide the telescope with its desired pointing precision. A standard way to do this is the utilisation of an acoustic positioning system using emitters at fixed positions and receivers distributed along the Detection Units. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope comprises a custom-made acoustic positioning system with newly designed emitters attached to the anchors of the Detection Units and custom-designed receivers attached to the Detection Units. This article describes an approach for a receiver and its performance. The proposed Opto-Acoustical Modules combine the optical sensors for the telescope with the acoustical sensors necessary for the positioning of the module itself. This combination leads to a compact design suited for an easy deployment of the numerous Detection Units. Furthermore, the instrumented volume can be used for scientific analyses such as marine science and acoustic particle detection.

  14. Impact of heat and pollution on oxidative stress and CC16 secretion after 8 km run.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Elisa Couto; Stone, Vicki; Florida-James, Geraint

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the acute effect of a hot, humid and ozone-polluted (O(3)) environment on lung inflammation and oxidative tress of runners performing 8 km time trial run. Using a single-blinded randomized design, 10 male athletes (mean[Formula: see text]= 64.4 mlO(2) kg(-1) min(-1), SD = 4.4) took part in a time trial run in four different environmental conditions: 20°C + 50% relative humidity (rh) (Control); 20°C + 50% rh + 0.10 ppm O(3) (Control + O(3)); 31°C + 70% rh (Heat); 31°C + 70% rh + 0.10 ppm O(3) (Heat + O(3)). Blood samples and nasal lavage were collected post-exercise and analyzed for inflammatory, epithelial damage and oxidative stress markers. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test. A significant increase in CC16 concentration (P < 0.05) and GSH/protein concentration (P < 0.05) in the upper respiratory airways was observed following the 8 km run in the Heat + O(3) trial compared with the control trial. There were no differences in the neutrophil counts between trials. No differences were observed for the other antioxidants analyzed. A hot, humid and ozone-polluted environment (0.1 ppm) elicits an early epithelial damage and antioxidant protection process in the upper respiratory airways of athletes immediately after performing 8 km time trial run. PMID:21267745

  15. The Submarine Paleoseismic Recording Threshold of Shallow Cascadia Earthquakes Under a Wide Variety of Site Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B.; Goldfinger, C.; Patton, J. R.; Morey, A. E.; Galer, S.; Hausmann, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The triggering, recording, and preservation of seismoturbidites depends on thresholds for each step that involve slope stability, shear strength, sediment supply, bioturbation and other factors. An important factor is the triggering distances for earthquakes of varying magnitudes from a given site. Data from paleoseismic studies globally (Japan, Taiwan, Sumatra, Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Portugal, Haiti, California Borderlands, Monterey Bay, alpine lakes in Chile, Lake Washington, and southern Cascadia lakes) were compiled as a basis for comparison between sites. A limited assessment of site conditions such as across strike vs. along strike position of core sites, fault type, directivity, and Q value was included. Global averages suggest an MMI of 5.5 and distance of ~ 50-100 km is most common. Maximum triggering distances were estimated as 60-120 km for the CSZ, and 40-75 km for the NSAF based on existing data and comparisons to global values. The region between Eel Canyon and Mendocino Channel (CSZ) and Noyo Canyon (NSAF) has a higher likelihood of recording at least a portion of past seismicity from both the NSAF and CSZ, though Noyo Canyon is likely at the limit of possible influence from the CSZ. The high seismoturbidite frequency (240 yrs. vs. 500 yrs. in Washington) of southern Cascadia (excluding the Eel system) shows clear continuity along strike nearly bed for bed over 170 km (cores, CHIRP profiles), crossing four canyon systems. The record shows a weak relationship to sediment supply from the canyons, and no relationship to slope angle, recently suggested as an explanation. The average axial slope is 3-6 o for these systems, with a few short pitches of 12-20 o. By comparison, the lower frequency record at Hydrate Ridge (~ 350 yrs.) has a steeper average source slope of 10o, steep 20-30 o pitches and no modern sediment supply. The turbidite frequency at the base of the upper reach of Quinault Canyon is lower still (~ 500 years), but the source slope

  16. Communication between earthquake clusters separated by over 30 km supports simple volcano plumbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, K.; Jonasson, K.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hensch, M.; Hooper, A. J.; Holohan, E. P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Hognadottir, T.; Magnússon, E.; Pálsson, F.; Walter, T. R.; Ofeigsson, B.; Parks, M.; Roberts, M. J.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Cesca, S.; Guðmundsson, G.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Jarosch, A. H.; Dumont, S.; Fridriksdóttir, H. M.; Barsotti, S.; Einarsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    The subglacial Bárðarbunga volcano is composed of a large oval caldera (7x11 km) and fissures extending tens of kilometers away from the caldera along the rift zone, which marks the divergent plate boundary across Iceland. On August 16th, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the Bárðarbunga caldera and in the two weeks that followed a dyke migrated some 47 km laterally in the uppermost 6-10 km of the crust along the rift. The dyke propagation terminated in lava fields just north of Vatnajökull glacier, where a major (1.5 km3) six months long eruption took place. Intense earthquake activity in the caldera started in the period August 21-24 with over 70 M5 earthquakes accompanying slow caldera collapse, as verified by various geodetic measurements. The subsidence is likely due to magma withdrawal from a reservoir at depth beneath the caldera. During a five months period, October-February, the seismic activity was separated by over 30 km in two clusters; one along the caldera rims (due to piecewise caldera subsidence) and the other at the far end of the dyke (as a result of small shear movements). Here we present statistical analysis comparing the temporal behaviour of seismicity recorded in the two clusters. By comparing the earthquake rate in the dyke in temporal bins before and after caldera subsidence earthquakes to the rate away from these bins (background rate), we show that the number of dyke earthquakes was significantly higher (p <0.05) in the period 0-3 hours before a large earthquake (>M4.6) in the caldera. Increased dyke seismicity was also observed 0-3 hours following a large caldera earthquake. Elevated seismicity in the dyke before a large caldera earthquake may occur when a constriction in the dyke was reduced, followed by pressure drop in the chamber. Assuming that the large caldera earthquakes occurred when chamber pressure was lowest, the subsiding caldera piston may have caused temporary higher pressure in the dyke and thereby increased

  17. Tannase Production by Penicillium Atramentosum KM under SSF and its Applications in Wine Clarification and Tea Cream Solubilization.

    PubMed

    Selwal, Manjit K; Yadav, Anita; Selwal, Krishan K; Aggarwal, N K; Gupta, Ranjan; Gautam, S K

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase commonly known as tannase is an industrially important enzyme having a wide range of applications, so there is always a scope for novel tannase with better characteristics. A newly isolated tannase-yielding fungal strain identified as Penicillium atramentosum KM was used for tannase production under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using different agro residues like amla (Phyllanthus emblica), ber (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun (Syzygium cumini), Jamoa (Eugenia cuspidate) and keekar (Acacia nilotica) leaves. Among these substrates, maximal extracellular tannase production i.e. 170.75 U/gds and 165.56 U/gds was obtained with jamun and keekar leaves respectively at 28ºC after 96 h. A substrate to distilled water ratio of 1:2 (w/v) was found to be the best for tannase production. Supplementation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) as nitrogen source had enhanced tannase production both in jamun and keekar leaves. Applications of the enzyme were studied in wine clarification and tea cream solubilization. It resulted in 38.05% reduction of tannic acid content in case of jamun wine, 43.59% reduction in case of grape wine and 74% reduction in the tea extract after 3 h at 35°C. PMID:24031644

  18. Wide-range CCD spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, Elena A.; Reyes Cortes, Santiago D.

    1996-08-01

    The utilization of wide range spectrometers is a very important feature for the design of optical diagnostics. This paper describes an innovative approach, based on charged coupled device, which allows to analyze different spectral intervals with the same diffraction grating. The spectral interval is varied by changing the position of the entrance slit when the grating is stationary. The optical system can also include a spherical mirror. In this case the geometric position of the mirror is calculated aiming at compensating the first order astigmatism and the meridional coma of the grating. This device is planned to be used in Thomson scattering diagnostic of the TOKAMAK of Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (ISTTOK).

  19. Wide-range voltage modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider`s Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-{mu}s wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 {mu}s, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented.

  20. Wide Field Imager for Athena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Nandra, Kirpal; Rau, Arne; Plattner, Markus; WFI proto-Consortium

    2015-09-01

    The Wide Field Imager focal plane instrument on ATHENA will combine unprecedented survey power through its large field of view of 40 arcmin with a high count-rate capability (> 1 Crab). The energy resolution of the silicon sensor is state-of-the-art in the energy band of interest from 0.1 keV to 15 keV. At energy of 6 keV for example, the full width at half maximum of the line shall be not worse than 150 eV until the end of the mission. The performance is accomplished by a set of DEPFET active pixel sensor matrices with a pixel size well suited to the angular resolution of 5 arc sec (on-axis) of the mirror system.Each DEPFET pixel is a combined detector-amplifier structure with a MOSFET integrated onto a fully depleted 450 micron thick silicon bulk. Two different types of DEPFET sensors are planned for the WFI instrument: A set of large-area sensors to cover the physical size of 14 cm x 14 cm in the focal plane and a single gateable DEPFET sensor matrix optimized for the high count rate capability of the instrument. An overview will be given about the presently developed instrument concept and design, the status of the technology development, and the expected performance. An outline of the project organization, the model philosophy as well as the schedule will complete the presentation about the Wide Field Imager for Athena.

  1. Widely tunable hybrid semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Ping-Chiek; Plumb, Richard G. S.

    1999-04-01

    A new hybrid design tunable semiconductor laser, with a wide tuning range, a narrow linewidth, simple tuning/control algorithms, low variations in output power across its tuning range and simple fabrication, is introduced. This hybrid laser consists of a large spot reflective amplifier (LS-RA) coupled to a Lithium Niobate Acousto-Optic Filter (AOF), giving wavelength selective feedback. The LS-RA waveguide is angled by 10 degrees to the coupling facet, but is normal to the other facet, giving reflectivities of 5 X 10-5 and 3 X 10-1 respectively. This amplifier structure allows maximum coupling to the AOF without stringent alignment tolerance. THe AOF consists of a 2-stage acoustic TE/TM converter with a high TE reflectivity coating at the end. A propagating surface acoustic wave is employed to phase-match the TE and TM modes of a specific wavelength, achieving a narrow-band feedback into the LS-RA. Output power and wavelength of the hybrid laser are controlled by the LS-RA current and RF drive frequency of the AOF respectively. Simulations using a Time-Domain Model and initial experiments have shown that the hybrid laser have a wide tuning range, narrow linewidth, SMSR >= 30 dB and low power variations across its tuning range.

  2. Wide FOV wedge prism endoscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keri; Kim, Daeyoung; Matsumiya, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We.. have developed a novel robotic endoscope system. It can be used to observe a wide field of view without moving or bending the whole endoscope system. .. It consists of a rigid endoscope and two wedge prisms at the distal tip. Rotating each wedge prism respectively, we can change the direction of view. Accordingly it becomes possible to observe a wide field of view even in a small space, and suited to clinical uses because it does not damage body tissues or internal organs. .. Wedge prisms are designed to avoid vignetting which is caused by the refraction or the reflection at prisms. The endoscope has 10mm in diameter, and the drive unit is simply separable for the sterilization. In addition, since it has a simple and small drive unit, it does not obstruct surgeon or other surgery robots. The maximum movement of local field of view is 19degrees, and global field of view is 93degrees. In the evaluation experiment, we conformed that both of the image quality and the performance are acceptable. PMID:17281566

  3. High-Resolution, Wide-Field-of-View Scanning Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, Cesar; Wilson, Robert; Seshadri, Suresh

    2007-01-01

    A proposed telescope would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view (<0.10 ) while scanning over a total field of view nominally 16 wide without need to slew the entire massive telescope structure. The telescope design enables resolution of a 1-m-wide object in a 50- km-wide area of the surface of the Earth as part of a 200-km-wide area field of view monitored from an orbit at an altitude of 700 km. The conceptual design of this telescope could also be adapted to other applications both terrestrial and extraterrestrial in which there are requirements for telescopes that afford both wide- and narrow-field capabilities. In the proposed telescope, the scanning would be effected according to a principle similar to that of the Arecibo radio telescope, in which the primary mirror is stationary with respect to the ground and a receiver is moved across the focal surface of the primary mirror. The proposed telescope would comprise (1) a large spherical primary mirror that would afford high resolution over a narrow field of view and (2) a small displaceable optical relay segment that would be pivoted about the center of an aperture stop to effect the required scanning (see figure). Taken together, both comprise a scanning narrow-angle telescope that does not require slewing the telescope structure. In normal operation, the massive telescope structure would stare at a fixed location on the ground. The inner moveable relay optic would be pivoted to scan the narrower field of view over the wider one, making it possible to retain a fixed telescope orientation, while obtaining high-resolution images over multiple target areas during an interval of 3 to 4 minutes in the intended orbit. The pivoting relay segment of the narrow-angle telescope would include refractive and reflective optical elements, including two aspherical mirrors, to counteract the spherical aberration of the primary mirror. Overall, the combination of the primary mirror and the smaller relay optic

  4. Igneous Crystallization Beginning at 20 km Beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 14 to 16 N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.

    2003-12-01

    be plagioclase lherzolite saturated at 0.54 GPa (+/-0.14 GPa, 2σ ) and 1220° C (+/-16° C, 2σ ) [Kinzler & Grove, JGR 92]. Impregnated peridotites and olivine gabbronorites at other sites contain all or most of these minerals, have similar compositions, and record similar conditions. Melts entered the thermal boundary layer beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at about 20 km depth [e.g., Sleep, JGR1975; Reid & Jackson, MGR 82; Grove et al JGR 92; Cannat JGR 96; Michael & Chase CMP 97; Braun et al., EPSL 00], and began to crystallize within impregnated peridotites and as discrete plutons intruding peridotite. 25% gabbro in the upper 20 km of an oceanic plate would correspond to 5 km of "normal" oceanic crust. 25% gabbro (7.2 km/s) + 75% peridotite (8.2 km/s) yields a "mantle" Vp (8 km/s). Residual mantle peridotites from Leg 209 Sites N and S of the 15° 20 Fracture Zone are among the most depleted from the mid-ocean ridges. No regional compositional gradient is evident. Most gabbroic rocks are evolved gabbronorites that are not complementary to MORB; instead, they result from complete, near-fractional crystallization of migrating melt at depth. Site 1268 gabbronorites, together with impregnated peridotites, may be primitive cumulates complementary to MORB. As reported elsewhere at this meeting, high temperature shear zones and faults accomodated nearly all of the subsolidus deformation associated with corner flow and exhumation of residual peridotites and high pressure igneous rocks.

  5. California Reanalysis Downscaling at 10km: Implication to regional reanalysis over south Asia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamaru, H.; Kanamitsu, M.

    2006-12-01

    We have completed 57 year dynamical downscaling of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis over California at 10km resolution (CaRD10) for the purpose of regional climate research and application. The unique feature of the downscaling method by the Regional Spectral Model is the use of Scale Selective Bias Correction (Kanamaru and Kanamitsu 2006a) which preserves the reanalysis of the scale greater than 1000km within the regional domain. The detailed validation of the analysis with station observation and comparison with the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) have been performed and submitted for publication (Kanamitsu and Kanamaru, 2006; Kanamaru and Kanamitsu, 2006b). The study indicated that the CaRD10 generally produce analysis better fit with observation than NARR over land, due to higher spatial resolution. Precipitation suffers from wet bias, but their temporal variation agrees well with observation on time scales ranging from hourly to decadal. Comparison of moisture budget with NARR indicated that large budget residual exists for both analyses, which makes it difficult to use them in some hydrological studies. High resolution downscaling well simulates large-scale forced meso-scale features, such as Catalina eddies and Santa Ana events. The quality of the simulations strongly depends on the model resolution. These results suggest that 1) the spatial resolution as high as 10km is desirable particularly for hydrological application, 2) our downscaling technique is an economical alternative to full regional data assimilation. When combined with assimilation of observed precipitation, it has a potential of producing analysis as good and as useful as regional data assimilation product and 3) regional data assimilation technique is not mature enough to fully utilize surface observation where spatial inhomogeneity dominates. Thus, regional data assimilation near the surface tends to give higher weight to model forecast guess and the resulting analysis becomes very similar to

  6. The effect of carbohydrate gels on gastrointestinal tolerance during a 16-km run.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Beate; Cotterill, Alexandra; Grathwohl, Dominik; Stellingwerff, Trent; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2009-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of high carbohydrate (CHO) intakes during intense running. The first study investigated tolerance of a CHO gel delivering glucose plus fructose (GLU+FRC) at different rates. The second study investigated tolerance of high intakes of glucose (GLU) vs. GLU+FRC gel. Both studies used a randomized, 2-treatment, 2-period crossover design: Endurance-trained men and women (Study 1: 26 men, 8 women; 37 +/- 11 yr; 73 +/- 9 kg; 1.76 +/- 0.07 m. Study 2: 34 men, 14 women; 35 +/- 10 yr; 70 +/- 9 kg; 1.75 +/- 0.09 m) completed two 16-km outdoor-runs. In Study 1 gels were administered to provide 1.0 or 1.4 g CHO/min with ad libitum water intake every 3.2 km. In Study 2 GLU or GLU+FRC gels were given in a double-blind manner to provide 1.4 g CHO/min. In both studies a postexercise questionnaire assessed 17 symptoms on a 10-point scale (from 0 to 9). For all treatments, GI complaints were mainly scored at the low end of the scale. In Study 1 mean scores ranged from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 1.12 +/- 1.90, and in Study 2, from 0.00 +/- 0.0 to 1.27 +/- 1.78. GI symptoms were grouped into upper abdominal, lower abdominal, and systemic problems. There were no significant treatment differences in these categories in either study. In conclusion, despite high CHO gel intake, and regardless of the blend (GLU vs. GLU+FRC), average scores for GI symptoms were at the low end of the scale, indicating predominantly good tolerance during a 16-km run. Nevertheless, some runners (~10-20%) experienced serious problems, and individualized feeding strategies might be required. PMID:19910651

  7. Hydrologic Modeling on a 4km Grid over the Conterminous United States (CONUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreda, F.; Koren, V.; Cui, Z.; Reed, S.; Zhang, Z.; Smith, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Hydrology Laboratory (HL) of the NOAA/National Weather Service's Office of Hydrologic Development (OHD) is developing advanced water resources products to meet the expanding demands of the public. Recently, the HL distributed modeling research program embarked on an exciting new development for large-scale, fine-resolution soil moisture modeling. We expect this work to provide important contributions to meet the Nation's need for water resources information such as drought. In the present work, the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model is reformulated to compute physically-based estimates of soil moisture using the equations of heat transfer and a soil column representation of SAC water storage and movement. This modified SAC-SMA now runs within the HL distributed model, with the capability to generate estimates of physically-based soil moisture content at the 4 km grid scale over CONUS. In addition, we have added the NWS operational temperature index-based snow model (SNOW-17) to run on a 4 km grid. We expect that these new capabilities will help produce detailed soil moisture fields which will benefit flash flood forecasting as well as water resource management applications. In this paper, we present the first results of the new distributed SAC-SMA and SNOW-17 models over the CONUS area. Distinctive characteristics of our CONUS runs are: (a) distributed SNOW-17 model parameters are estimated from physical factors (b) NWS-gridded monthly potential evaporation products are used, (c) the forcings are the Stage IV multi-sensor precipitation mosaicked NEXRAD products. To evaluate the results, we compare our CONUS soil moisture estimates to those from the 12 km products from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS), and to the Oklahoma Mesonet soil moisture data for regional verification.

  8. Assessment of islet quality following international shipping of more than 10,000 km.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Itoh, Takeshi; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Tamura, Yoshiko; Jackson, Andrew M; Shimoda, Masayuki; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Onaca, Nicholas; Yasunami, Yohichi; Levy, Marlon F

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is an attractive therapy for type 1 diabetes, although some issues remain. One of them is the severe donor shortage in some countries. In this study, we investigated the possibility of international islet shipping beyond 10,000 km to supply islets to countries with donor shortages. Human islets were isolated from six cadaver donors and cultured until shipment. Islets were packed in either gas-permeable bags or in non-gas-permeable bags and shipped from Baylor Research Institute (Dallas, TX, USA) to Fukuoka University (Fukuoka, Japan). Pre- and postshipment islet number, purity, viability, and stimulation index (by glucose stimulation test) were assessed. Shipped 1,500 IE islets were transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice for in vivo assay. The distance of our shipment was 11,148.4 km, and the mean duration of the shipments was 48.2 ± 8.2 h. The islet number recovery rate (postshipment/preshipment) was significantly higher in gas-permeable bags (56.4 ± 10.1% vs. 20.5 ± 20.6%, p < 0.01). Islet purity was significantly reduced during shipment in non-gas-permeable bags (from 47.7 ± 18.6% to 40.2 ± 28.2 in gas-permeable bags vs. from 50.4 ± 6.4% to 25.9 ± 15.6% in non-gas-permeable bags, p < 0.05). Islet viability and stimulation index did not change significantly between pre- and postshipping, in either gas-permeable bags or in non-gas-permeable bags. One of three diabetic nude mice (33.3%) converted to normoglycemia. It is feasible to ship human islet cells internationally in gas-permeable bags. This strategy would promote basic and preclinical research for countries with donor shortages, even though the research centers are remote (over 10,000 km from the islet isolation center). PMID:20525435

  9. A comparison of the IGBP DISCover and University of Maryland 1 km global land cover products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, M.C.; Reed, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two global 1 km land cover data sets derived from 1992-1993 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are currently available, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) DISCover and the University of Maryland (UMd) 1 km land cover maps. This paper makes a preliminary comparison of the methodologies and results of the two products. The DISCover methodology employed an unsupervised clustering classification scheme on a per-continent basis using 12 monthly maximum NDVI composites as inputs. The UMd approach employed a supervised classification tree method in which temporal metrics derived from all AVHRR bands and the NDVI were used to predict class membership across the entire globe. The DISCover map uses the IGBP classification scheme, while the UMd map employs a modified IGBP scheme minus the classes of permanent wetlands, cropland/natural vegetation mosaic and ice and snow. Global area totals of aggregated vegetation types are very similar and have a per-pixel agreement of 74%. For tall versus short/no vegetation, the per-pixel agreement is 84%. For broad vegetation types, core areas map similarly, while transition zones around core areas differ significantly. This results in high regional variability between the maps. Individual class agreement between the two 1 km maps is 49%. Comparison of the maps at a nominal 0.5 resolution with two global ground-based maps shows an improvement of thematic concurrency of 46% when viewing average class agreement. The absence of the cropland mosaic class creates a difficulty in comparing the maps, due to its significant extent in the DISCover map. The DISCover map, in general, has more forest, while the UMd map has considerably more area in the intermediate tree cover classes of woody savanna/ woodland and savanna/wooded grassland.

  10. The modelled surface mass balance of the Antarctic Peninsula at 5.5 km horizontal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wessem, J. M.; Ligtenberg, S. R. M.; Reijmer, C. H.; van de Berg, W. J.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Barrand, N. E.; Thomas, E. R.; Turner, J.; Wuite, J.; Scambos, T. A.; van Meijgaard, E.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a high-resolution (~ 5.5 km) estimate of Surface Mass Balance (SMB) over the period 1979-2014 for the Antarctic Peninsula (AP), generated by the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2.3 and a Firn Densification Model (FDM). RACMO2.3 is used to force the FDM, which calculates processes in the snowpack, such as meltwater percolation, refreezing and runoff. We evaluate model output with 132 in-situ SMB observations and discharge rates from 6 glacier drainage basins, and find that the model realistically simulates the strong spatial variability in precipitation, but that significant biases remain as a result of the highly complex topography of the AP. It is also clear that the observations significantly underrepresent the high-accumulation regimes. The SMB map reveals large accumulation gradients, with precipitation values above 3000 mm we yr-1 over the western AP (WAP) and below 500 mm we yr-1 on the eastern AP (EAP), not resolved by coarser data-sets such as ERA-Interim. The other SMB components are one order of magnitude smaller, with drifting snow sublimation the largest ablation term removing up to 100 mm we yr-1 of mass. Snowmelt is widespread over the AP, reaching 500 mm we yr-1 towards the northern ice shelves, but the meltwater mostly refreezes. As a result runoff fluxes are low, but still considerable (200 mm we yr-1) over the Larsen (B/C), Wilkins and George VI ice shelves. The average AP ice sheet integrated SMB, including ice shelves (an area of 4.1 × 105 km2), is estimated at 351 Gt yr-1 with an interannual variability of 58 Gt yr-1, which is dominated by precipitation (PR) (365 ± 57 Gt yr-1). The WAP (2.4 × 105 km2) SMB (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), where PR is large (276 ± 47 Gt yr-1), dominates over the EAP (1.7 × 105 km2) SMB (75 ± 11 Gt yr-1) and PR (84 ± 11 Gt yr-1). Total sublimation is 11 ± 2 Gt yr-1 and meltwater runoff into the ocean is 4 ± 4 Gt yr-1. There are no significant trends in any of the AP SMB components, except

  11. The time behaviour of the 8 km/s water maser source in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Z.; Vilas Boas, J. W. S.; del Ciampo, L. F.

    1986-10-01

    The authors report the time behaviour of the 8 km s-1 water maser source in Orion during the period of August 1979 - November 1985. Four flares were detected, with rise times of the order of a month and decay times of the order of several months to a year. The source presented a high degree of linear polarization (40% - 60%), independent of the value of the intensity. The polarization angle varied between -3° and -36°, imposing constraints on possible models of the emitting region.

  12. The design of the optical modules of the KM3NeT-Italia project towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-07-01

    The KM3NeT-Italia project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope, to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The R&D and mass production phases of the detection elements of the telescope, the optical modules, were entirely performed in the INFN-LNS site in the harbour of Catania. In November 2014 a first tower of 14 storeys equipped with 84 optical modules was successfully deployed in the Mediterranean Sea site. The design of the optical modules and their main components are described in this paper.

  13. Characterisation and testing of the KM3NeT acoustic positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, S.; Simeone, F.; Saldaña, M.

    2016-04-01

    In underwater neutrino telescopes, the search of point-like sources through the Cherenkov detection technique requires a precise knowledge of the positions of thousands of optical sensors, spread in a volume of a few cubic kilometres. In KM3NeT the optical sensors are hosted in 700 m high semi-rigid structures, called detection units, which move under the effects of underwater currents. These movements are continuously monitored through an underwater positioning system based on acoustic emitters and receivers. In this work, the tests performed on the key elements of the positioning system are presented.

  14. Corneal Opacity in a Participant of a 161-km Mountain Bike Race at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Torres, David R

    2016-06-01

    Visual dysfunction is a relatively uncommon complaint among athletes during ultraendurance races. The pathophysiology of most of these cases is unknown. Corneal opacity has been speculated as the etiology for most of reported cases. We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old man with a partial unilateral corneal opacity and edema at kilometer 150 of a 161-km mountain bike race in high altitude. He was not able to finish the race (12-hour cutoff) because of his visual symptoms. He completely recovered in 3 days with no sequelae. PMID:27095539

  15. A technique for determining daytime atmospheric oxide above 50 km from backscattered ultraviolet measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. D.; Mcpeters, R. D.; Frederick, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Airglow from gamma band resonance fluorescence of nitric oxide near 255 nm is calculated at several solar zenith angles. Data from the Nimbus 4 BUV wavelengths 273.5 to 287.6 nm is used to estimate the Rayleigh and ozone scattering contributions to the BUV 255.5 nm data and the remaining signal is attributed to NO airglow. The low solar zenith angle contributions by NO is less than 0.5%, and the high latitude/high zenith angle contribution exceeds 5%. This technique allows for estimating NO content above 50 km, as well as partitioning that content between the mesosphere and thermosphere.

  16. Mid-Latitude Temperatures at 87 km: Results From Multi-Instrument Fourier Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. M.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C . Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5 plus or minus 8.5 K.

  17. Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard J.; Nordholt, Jane E.; Derkacs, Derek; Peterson, Charles G.

    2002-07-01

    We have demonstrated quantum key distribution (QKD) (Bennett C H and Brassard G 1984 Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (Bangalore, India) p 175) over a 10 km, 1-airmass atmospheric range during daylight and at night. Secret random bit sequences of the quality required for the cryptographic keys used to initialize secure communications devices were transferred at practical rates with realistic security. By identifying the physical parameters that determine the system's secrecy efficiency, we infer that free-space QKD will be practical over much longer ranges under these and other atmospheric and instrumental conditions.

  18. Procedure for locating 10 km UTM grid on Alabama County general highway maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paludan, C. T. N.

    1975-01-01

    Each county highway map has a geographic grid of degrees and tens of minutes in both longitude and latitude in the margins and within the map as intersection crosses. These will be used to locate the universal transverse mercator (UTM) grid at 10 km intervals. Since the maps used may have stretched or shrunk in height and/or width, interpolation should be done between the 10 min intersections when possible. A table of UTM coordinates of 10 min intersections is required and included. In Alabama, all eastings are referred to a false easting of 500,000 m at 87 deg W longitude (central meridian, CM).

  19. Extensive middle atmosphere (20-120 KM) modification in the Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-90)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, Dale

    1990-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM) is currently available in the 'GRAM-88' version (Justus, et al., 1986; 1988), which includes relatively minor upgrades and changes from the 'MOD-3' version (Justus, et al., 1980). Currently a project is underway to use large amounts of data, mostly collected under the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) to produce a major upgrade of the program planned for release as the GRAM-90 version. The new data and program revisions will particularly affect the 25-90 km height range. Sources of data and preliminary results are described here in the form of cross-sectional plots.

  20. A 1981-2012 Non-stationary AVHRR NDVI Global 8-km Data Set (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Pinzon, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    The longest global daily satellite data record is from the polar-orbiting advanced very high resolution radiometer or AVHRR instruments that started in July 1981 and continues uninterrupted to this day. In spite of non-optimum visible and near-infrared bandwidths, lack of orbital station-keeping early in the record, and '4-km' spatial resolution, we have produced a non-stationary and consistent NDVI record from that matches up well with coincident MODIS NDVI data. We review our processing methods and describe detailed coincident comparisons with MODIS NDVI data in many climate regions.

  1. Case study of polar cap scintillation modeling using DE 2 irregularity measurements at 800 km

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Weber, E.J.; Coley, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    High-resolution in situ Dynamics Explorer 2 data on thermal plasma densities are used here to study the small-scale irregularity structure of the F layer patches. It is shown that spatially discrete density structures associated with polar cap patches can be detected fairly high in the topside by an in situ irregularity sensor and that they correspond to temporally discrete scintillation patches. It is also shown that it is possible to model phase and amplitude scintillation occurrence from a knowledge of irregularity amplitude at a satellite altitude of about 800 km provided that independent measurements of the peak density and scale height of the F region are available. 19 references.

  2. Mid-latitude temperatures at 87 km: Results from multi-instrument Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Picone, J. Michael; Eckermann, Stephen D.; She, C. Y.; Kafkalidis, J. F.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Killeen, T. L.

    2000-08-01

    Using a novel Fourier fitting method we combine two years of mid-latitude temperature measurements at 87 km from the High Resolution Doppler Imager, the Colorado State University lidar, and the Peach Mountain Interferometer. After accounting for calibration bias, significant local-time variations on the order of 10 K were observed. Stationary planetary waves with amplitudes up to 10 K were observed during winter, with weaker wave amplitudes occurring during other seasons. Because of calibration biases among these instruments, we could estimate the annual mean temperature to no better than 193.5±8.5 K.

  3. A 24 km fiber-based discretely signaled continuous variable quantum key distribution system.

    PubMed

    Dinh Xuan, Quyen; Zhang, Zheshen; Voss, Paul L

    2009-12-21

    We report a continuous variable key distribution system that achieves a final secure key rate of 3.45 kilobits/s over a distance of 24.2 km of optical fiber. The protocol uses discrete signaling and post-selection to improve reconciliation speed and quantifies security by means of quantum state tomography. Polarization multiplexing and a frequency translation scheme permit transmission of a continuous wave local oscillator and suppression of noise from guided acoustic wave Brillouin scattering by more than 27 dB. PMID:20052135

  4. Kinematic and Microphysical Structures of Hurricane Bob (1991) Determined from a 1.3-km-Resolution Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Simpson, Joanne; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane Bob (1991) is simulated using the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model MM5. The simulation is conducted for a 24-h period at 4-km resolution and for a 6-h period at 1.3-km resolution. The 4-km simulation is able to fairly realistically capture the intensity and structure of the storm. The 1.3-km simulation depicts very small-scale convective structures and produces a convective band outside of the eye wall that did not occur in the 4-km simulation. The 1.3-km results are used to characterize several kinematic and cloud microphysical structures in the storm. Characteristics of air parcels flowing into and rising within the eye wall will be examined through trajectory calculations.

  5. Kinematic and Thermodynamic Structures of Hurricane Bob (1991) Determined From A 1.3-KM Resolution Numerical Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Simpson, Joanne; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    Hurricane Bob (1991) is simulated using the Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model MM5. The simulation is conducted for a 24-h period at 4-km resolution and for a 6-h period at 1.3-km resolution. The 4-km simulation is able to fairly realistically capture the intensity and structure of the storm. The 1.3-km simulation depicts very small-scale convective structures and produces a convective rain band outside of the eye wall that did not occur in the 4-km simulation. The 1.3-km results are used to characterize several kinematic structures in the storm, including low-level outflow in the eye wall, multiple outflows at upper levels, and the convective rain band structure outside of the eye wall. Thermodynamic characteristics of air parcels flowing into and rising within the eye wall will also be examined through trajectory calculations.

  6. El Chichon and 'mystery cloud' aerosols between 30 and 55 km Global observations from the SME visible spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Visible limb radiances measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) are used to obtain volume scattering ratios for aerosol loading in the 30-55 km altitude range of the stratosphere. Global maps of these ratios are presented for the period January 1982 to August 1984. Significant aerosol scattering from the 'mystery cloud' and El Chichon aerosol layers are found above 30 km. A timescale of approximately 2 months between the appearance of the aerosol at 30.5 km and at 37.5 km is consistent with vertical transport of aerosol or vapor by eddy diffusion above 30 km. An anticorrelation exists between aerosol scattering and stratospheric temperatures. Periods of lower stratospheric temperatures may account for the formation of aerosol between 40 and 55 km altitude.

  7. Crust structure of the North China Craton from a long-range seismic wide-angle-reflection/refraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Zelt, Colin A.; Wang, Fuyun; Jia, Shixu; Liu, Qiaoxia

    2014-11-01

    We present an interpretation of a 1530-km-long wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profile that extends across the North China Craton (NCC) approximately from east to west. This profile is the longest and the densest wide-angle seismic reflection/refraction profile in China up to now. Parameterizing the velocity model as layers with variable thickness, we perform seismic travel time tomography to resolve the velocity variation within layers and velocity contrast across Moho. Our model shows crustal thickness that varies from 35 km under the Shandong peninsula, to 30 km under the North China Plain (NCP) and 32-40 km under central NCC, to 45 km under the Ordos plateau. These results indicate obvious crustal thinning beneath the NCP in comparison with the ~ 35 km crustal thicknesses typical of most cratonic regions. In particular, an abrupt Moho step of ∼ 10 km is detected at the junction of the eastern block and western block of the NCC. These crustal characteristics are consistent with studies of lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) with the method of receiver function migration, and they indicate a close correlation with lithospheric thickness and surface tectonics of the northeastern NCC. These results provide robust seismological evidence that the lithosphere from NCC to the western edge of the Taihang Mountain, might have been widely affected and thinned since its formation in the Archean era.

  8. Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, David

    As Wide Field Instrument Adjutant Scientist, my goal will be to maximize the science capability of the mission in a cost-contained environment. I hope to work with the HQ, project and the FSWG to assure mission success. I plan to play a leadership role in communicating the WFIRST science capabilities to the astronomy community , obtain input from both science teams and the broader community that help derive performance requirements and calibration metrics. I plan to focus on developing the observing program for the deep fields and focus on using them to calibrate instrument performance and capabilities. I plan to organize workshops that will bring together WFIRST team members with astronomers working on LSST, Euclid, JWST, and the ELTs to maximize combined science return. I am also eager to explore the astrometric and stellar seismology capabilities of the instrument with a goal of maximizing science return without affecting science requirements.

  9. A 10 km-resolution synthetic Venus gravity field model based on topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Yan, Jianguo; Xu, Luyuan; Jin, Shuanggen; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Dohm, James H.

    2015-02-01

    A high resolution gravity field model is extremely important in the exploration of Venus. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional Venus gravity field VGM2014 constructed by using the latest gravity and topography models, residual terrain model (RTM) and the Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation model. The VGM2014 is the first 10 km scale Venus gravity field model; the final results are representations of the 3-dimensional surface gravity accelerations and gravity disturbances for Venus. We found that the optimal global compensation depth of Venus is about 60 km, and the crustal density is potentially less than the commonly accepted value of 2700-2900 kg m-3. This model will be potentially beneficial for the precise orbit determination and landing navigation of spacecraft around Venus, and may be utilized as a priori model for Venus gravity field simulation and inversion studies. The VGM2014 does not incorporate direct gravity information beyond degree 70 and it is not recommended for small-scale geophysical interpretation.

  10. Nighttime ionization by energetic particles at Wallops Island in the altitude region 120 to 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    Five Nike Apache rockets, each including an energetic particle spectrometer and an electron density-electron temperature experiment, have been launched from Wallops Island (L = 2.6) near midnight under varying geomagnetic conditions. On the most recent of these (5 January 1978) an additional spectrometer with a broom magnet, and a 391.4 nm photometer were flown. The data from this flight indicate that the energetic particle flux consists predominantly of protons, neutral hydrogen and possibly other energetic nuclei. The energy spectrum becomes much softer and the flux more intense with increasing Kp for 10-100 keV. The pitch angle distribution at 180 km is asymmetrical with a peak at 90 deg indicating that the majority of particles are near their mirroring altitude. Ionization rates are calculated based on the measured energy spectrum and mirror height distribution. The resulting ionization rate profile is found to be nearly constant with altitude in the region 120 to 200 km. The measured energetic particle flux and calculated ionization rate from the five flights are found to vary with magnetic activity (based on the Kp and Dst indexes) in the same way as the independently derived ionization rates deduced from the electron density profile.

  11. Compositional mantle layering revealed by slab stagnation at ~1000-km depth

    PubMed Central

    Ballmer, Maxim D.; Schmerr, Nicholas C.; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Improved constraints on lower-mantle composition are fundamental to understand the accretion, differentiation, and thermochemical evolution of our planet. Cosmochemical arguments indicate that lower-mantle rocks may be enriched in Si relative to upper-mantle pyrolite, whereas seismic tomography images suggest whole-mantle convection and hence appear to imply efficient mantle mixing. This study reconciles cosmochemical and geophysical constraints using the stagnation of some slab segments at ~1000-km depth as the key observation. Through numerical modeling of subduction, we show that lower-mantle enrichment in intrinsically dense basaltic lithologies can render slabs neutrally buoyant in the uppermost lower mantle. Slab stagnation (at depths of ~660 and ~1000 km) and unimpeded slab sinking to great depths can coexist if the basalt fraction is ~8% higher in the lower mantle than in the upper mantle, equivalent to a lower-mantle Mg/Si of ~1.18. Global-scale geodynamic models demonstrate that such a moderate compositional gradient across the mantle can persist can in the presence of whole-mantle convection. PMID:26824060

  12. Microstructural Evaluation of KM4 and SR3 Samples Subjected to Various Heat Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David; Gabb, Timothy; Garg, Anita

    2004-01-01

    The gamma-gamma microstructures of two advanced powder metallurgy disk alloys, KM4 and SR3, were quantified after a series of heat treatments using transmission electron microscopy and image analysis. Relationships between the heat treatments and the resulting gamma distributions were evaluated. Statistical correlations between the gamma distributions and the reported tensile strengths, creep resistances, and dwell crack growth resistances were separately assessed for each alloy. To avoid the effects of grain size related mechanisms, the grain size of the samples used in the correlations for each alloy were limited to narrow ranges of about 1.5 in ASTM grain size number. In both alloys, yield and tensile strength increased with increasing fraction of medium sized gamma. The strength increased as the size of the medium gamma decreased and the size of the fine gamma increased. Time to 0.2 percent creep in SR3 increased with increasing medium gamma volume fraction, and decreasing fine gamma sizes. However, 0.2 percent creep time was not clearly correlated with the gamma microstructures of KM4 specimens, apparently due to effects of stabilization heat treatments which greatly suppress creep resistance. Dwell fatigue crack growth rate decreased with increasing medium gamma volume fraction, indicating more medium gamma is beneficial. The crack growth rate also decreased with decreasing gamma size, indicating finer gamma is better.

  13. Field-aligned electron density irregularities near 500 km Equator to polar cap topside sounder observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to spread F, evidence for field-aligned electron density irregularities is commonly observed on Alouette 2 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee (500 km). This evidence is provided by distinctive signal returns from sounder-generated Z mode waves. At low latitudes these waves become guided in wave ducts caused by field-aligned electron density irregularities and give rise to strong long-duration echoes. At high latitudes, extending well into the polar cap, these Z mode waves (and stimulated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency) produce a series of vertical bars on the ionogram display as the satellite traverses discrete field-aligned density structures. The radio frequency (RF) noise environment to be expected in the 400 to 500 km altitude region from low to high latitudes was examined by analyzing perigee Alouette 2 topside sounder data. All observed noise bands were scaled on nearly 200 topside sounder ionograms recorded near perigee at low, mid, and high latitude telemetry stations. The minimum and maximum frequencies of each noise band were entered into a data base or computer analysis. The signals of primary interest in the perigee study were found to be sounder-generated.

  14. A New Technique for Achieving Impact Velocities Greater Than 10 km/sec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.; Nolen, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This Contractor Report describes and presents the results of work that was done in an attempt to develop an augmented acceleration technique that would launch small projectiles of known shape, mass, and state to velocities of 10 km/sec and higher. The higher velocities were to be achieved by adding a third stage to a conventional two-stage, light-gas gun and using a modified firing cycle for the third stage. The technique did not achieve the desired results and was modified for use during the development program. Since the design of the components used for the augmented-acceleration, three-stage launcher could be readily adapted for use as a three-stage launcher that used a single-stage acceleration cycle; the remainder of the contract period was spent performing test firings using the modified three-stage launcher. Work with the modified three-stage launcher, although not complete, did produce test firings in which an 0.11-g cylindrical nylon projectile was launched to a velocity of 8.65 km/sec.

  15. Effect of intermittent hypoxic training on 20 km time trial and 30 s anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, M J; Marshall, H C; Hellemans, J; Ainslie, P N; Anglem, N

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to verify whether the "live low, train high" approach is beneficial for endurance and/or anaerobic cycling performance. Sixteen well-trained athletes completed 90 min of endurance training (60-70% of heart rate reserve), followed by two 30-s all-out sprints (Wingate test), daily, for 10 consecutive days. Nine subjects [intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) group] trained with an F(I)O(2) set to produce arterial oxygen saturations of approximately 88-82%, while seven subjects (placebo group) trained while breathing a normal gas mixture (F(I)O(2)=0.21). Four performance tests were conducted at sea level including a familiarization and baseline trial, followed by repeat trials at 2 and 9 days post-intervention. Relative to the placebo group, the mean power during the 30-s Wingate test increased by 3.0% (95% confidence limits, CL +/- 3.5%) 2 days, and 1.7% (+/- 3.8%) 9 days post-IHT. Changes in other performance variables (30 s peak power, 20 km mean power and 20 km oxygen cost) were unclear. During the time trial, the IHT participants' blood lactate concentration, respiratory exchange ratio, and SpO(2), relative to the placebo group, was substantially increased at 2 days post-intervention. The addition of IHT to the normal training program of well-trained athletes produced worthwhile gains in 30 s sprint performance possibly through enhanced glycolysis. PMID:19793215

  16. KmL3D: a non-parametric algorithm for clustering joint trajectories.

    PubMed

    Genolini, C; Pingault, J B; Driss, T; Côté, S; Tremblay, R E; Vitaro, F; Arnaud, C; Falissard, B

    2013-01-01

    In cohort studies, variables are measured repeatedly and can be considered as trajectories. A classic way to work with trajectories is to cluster them in order to detect the existence of homogeneous patterns of evolution. Since cohort studies usually measure a large number of variables, it might be interesting to study the joint evolution of several variables (also called joint-variable trajectories). To date, the only way to cluster joint-trajectories is to cluster each trajectory independently, then to cross the partitions obtained. This approach is unsatisfactory because it does not take into account a possible co-evolution of variable-trajectories. KmL3D is an R package that implements a version of k-means dedicated to clustering joint-trajectories. It provides facilities for the management of missing values, offers several quality criteria and its graphic interface helps the user to select the best partition. KmL3D can work with any number of joint-variable trajectories. In the restricted case of two joint trajectories, it proposes 3D tools to visualize the partitioning and then export 3D dynamic rotating-graphs to PDF format. PMID:23127283

  17. Is 2K/km the optimal threshold for thermal tropopause definition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, Jesús Á.; Zurita-Gotor, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    The standard definition of the thermal tropopause involves the determination of the level at which the lapse rate decreases below 2 K/km (WMO, 1957). As lapse rates transition abruptly from the troposphere to the stratosphere, this threshold provides a reasonable compromise between characteristic upper troposphere and lower stratosphere lapse rates. However, because characteristic lapse rates depend to some extent on latitude and season, and may also vary across different climates, it is possible that other thresholds might be more appropriate under different conditions. In this work we define "optimal" lapse rates for thermal tropopause definition as those thresholds which give the most contrast (in a statistical sense) between the tropospheric and stratospheric air masses, using different objective criteria. These definitions are tested in reanalysis data (ERA, NCEP) and in other higher-resolution datasets, as well as in simulations of cold and warm climates. Although the optimal thresholds change slightly with latitude, season and dataset, and across different climates, the values found were remarkably close to the standard 2 K/km criterion.

  18. Live monitoring and quasi-online event reconstruction for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Tamas

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a new generation neutrino telescope in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. It will instrument a volume of several cubic kilometres of sea water in its final configuration. Currently, the project is in its first phase with the aim of constructing and installing 31 detection units up to 700 m in height, each equipped with 18 digital optical modules. The optical modules are equipped with 31 3-inch photomultipliers to detect the Cherenkov light of charged secondary particles produced in high-energy neutrino interactions. This contribution describes a live detector monitoring system, which enables real-time parameter control and a reconstruction of events soon after the data acquisition. It also allows a rapid response to or provision of external alarms of multi-messenger campaigns. The data acquisition system of KM3NeT provides pre-filtered data in event form, as well as general detector status messages. The events will be processed almost in real-time - with a delay in the range of minutes - using fast reconstruction mechanisms. This allows for high-level monitoring of the detector status using derived distributions, such as time and charge distributions and event rates. The resulting data is displayed on a web page using a dedicated, flexible web service. The same service also displays low-level monitoring data such as trigger rates, PMT hit rates and the general status of the optical modules.

  19. High-resolution polar climate parameters derived from 1-km AVHRR data

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, T.A.; Scambos, T.A.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a time-series of composites of albedo, surface temperature, and sea ice motion. The composites will be generated from high-resolution (Local Area Coverage and High Resolution Picture Transmission) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Composites of albedo and surface (skin) temperature will be derived from AVHRR data within three hours of two selected local times (0400 and 1400 for the northern hemisphere, and 0200 and 1600 for the southern hemisphere) for each day. These products will be gridded at 1.25 km cell size in an equal-area projection compatible with recent gridded products from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data and planned products from the TIROS Operational Verticle Sounder and other AVHRR data sets. Sea ice motion will be calculated once per day by comparing clear-sky image data of sea ice over a three-day period, and reported on a 1.25 km grid. A brief discussion of a reconnaissance survey of the output geophysical parameters for the Northern Hemisphere between August and October 1993 is also presented. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. A quarter of a world away: female humpback whale moves 10 000 km between breeding areas

    PubMed Central

    Stevick, Peter T.; Neves, Mariana C.; Johansen, Freddy; Engel, Marcia H.; Allen, Judith; Marcondes, Milton C. C.; Carlson, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Fidelity of individual animals to breeding sites is a primary determinant of population structure. The degree and scale of philopatry in a population reflect the fitness effects of social facilitation, ecological adaptation and optimal inbreeding. Patterns of breeding-site movement and fidelity are functions of social structure and are frequently sex biased. We report on a female humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) first identified by natural markings off Brazil that subsequently was photographed off Madagascar. The minimum travel distance between these locations is greater than 9800 km, approximately 4000 km longer than any previously reported movement between breeding grounds, more than twice the species' typical seasonal migratory distance and the longest documented movement by a mammal. It is unexpected to find this exceptional long-distance movement between breeding groups by a female, as models of philopatry suggest that male mammals move more frequently or over longer distances in search of mating opportunities. While such movement may be advantageous, especially in changeable or unpredictable circumstances, it is not possible to unambiguously ascribe causality to this rare observation. This finding illustrates the behavioural flexibility in movement patterns that may be demonstrated within a typically philopatric species. PMID:20943678

  1. Neutral atmosphere temperature change at 90 km, 70° N, 19° E, 2003-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmen, S. E.; Hall, C. M.; Tsutsumi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Neutral temperatures for 90 km height above Tromsø, Norway, have been determined using ambipolar diffusion coefficients calculated from meteor echo fading times using the Nippon/Norway Tromsø Meteor Radar (NTMR). Daily temperature averages have been calculated from November 2003 to October 2014 and calibrated against temperature measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board Aura. The long-term trend of temperatures from the NTMR radar is investigated, and winter and summer seasons are looked at separately. Seasonal variation has been accounted for, as well as solar response, using the F10.7 cm flux as a proxy for solar activity. The long-term temperature trend from 2003 to 2014 is -3.6 K ± 1.1 K decade-1, with summer and winter trends -0.8 K ± 2.9 K decade-1 and -8.1 K ± 2.5 K decade-1, respectively. How well suited a meteor radar is for estimating neutral temperatures at 90 km using meteor trail echoes is discussed, and physical explanations behind a cooling trend are proposed.

  2. Performance of photo-sensors for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Löhner, H.; Peek, H.; Steijger, J.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2013-10-01

    The future deep-sea neutrino telescope of multi cubic-km size, KM3NeT, has been designed for an efficient search for high energy neutrinos originating from galactic and extragalactic sources. The detection principle relies on the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted from relativistic charged secondary particles caused by the interaction of neutrinos with matter inside or surrounding the active detection volume. In order to provide a homogeneous photon acceptance and to reduce the environmental background by local coincidences between neighbouring photo sensors, a digital optical module (DOM) containing an array of 31 3-in. diameter photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) has been designed. Optimum performance requires sensitivity to single-photo electrons, high collection efficiency at low dark noise, homogeneous photo-cathode response and excellent timing properties. We have studied the response to single photo electrons of a newly developed 3-in. diameter PMT from ET Enterprises Ltd. A 2D-scanning system with a picosecond laser illuminating various positions on the photo-cathode surface was employed to study the timing and homogeneity of the PMT. Results of these investigations indicate good photo-cathode homogeneity, low dark noise on the sub-kHz level, and an average transit-time spread below 2 ns. Simulations indicate a significantly improved signal-to-background ratio in the multi-PMT DOM as compared to a triplet of optical modules each housing a single 10-in. PMT.

  3. 13.4km OAM state propagation by recirculating fiber loop.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Patrick; Kristensen, Poul; Ramachandran, Siddharth

    2016-08-22

    Enabled by an enhanced effective index separation (Δneff = 1.7 × 10-4) and low transmission loss (0.8dB/km), OAM states are propagated over 13.4km in an air core fiber using a recirculating fiber loop. We observe that intermodal crosstalk decreases rapidly with increasing effective index separation, Δneff, and an order of magnitude lower crosstalk may be achieved just by doubling Δneff. We find that, in agreement with coupled power theory, our fiber has mode coupling properties analogous to elliptical core PM fibers, which yield ~10 × or more lower crosstalk than for conventional LP fiber mode orders with the same Δneff. This confirms that, for OAM modes, birefringent perturbations rather than shape perturbations matter most. In the process of performing the loop experiment, we demonstrate that OAM states in these fibers can be preserved with low loss (≤ 0.2dB) and low crosstalk (-15dB) while splicing distinct segments of the air-core fiber. For well-designed fibers, we demonstrate that OAM modes can travel distances relevant for large-scale data centers. PMID:27557175

  4. Prototype of readout electronics for the LHAASO KM2A electromagnetic particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Chang, Jing-Fan; Wang, Zheng; Fan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    The KM2A (one kilometer square extensive air shower array) is the largest detector array in the LHAASO (Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory) project. The KM2A consists of 5242 EDs (Electromagnetic particle Detectors) and 1221 MDs (Muon Detectors). The EDs are distributed and exposed in the wild. Two channels, anode and dynode, are employed for the PMT (photomultiplier tube) signal readout. The readout electronics designed in this paper aims at accurate charge and arrival time measurement of the PMT signals, which cover a large amplitude range from 20 P.E. (photoelectrons) to 2 × 105 P.E. By using a “trigger-less” architecture, we digitize signals close to the PMTs. All digitized data is transmitted to DAQ (Data Acquisition) via a simplified White Rabbit protocol. Compared with traditional high energy experiments, high precision of time measurement over such a large area and suppression of temperature effects in the wild become the key techniques. Experiments show that the design has fulfilled the requirements in this project. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375210) and the Knowledge Innovation Fund of IHEP, Beijing

  5. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  6. Caffeine and 3-km cycling performance: Effects of mouth rinsing, genotype, and time of day.

    PubMed

    Pataky, M W; Womack, C J; Saunders, M J; Goffe, J L; D'Lugos, A C; El-Sohemy, A; Luden, N D

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of caffeine mouth rinsing on 3-km cycling performance and determined whether caffeine mouth rinsing affects performance gains influenced by the CYP1A2 polymorphism. Thirty-eight recreational cyclists completed four simulated 3-km time trials (TT). Subjects ingested either 6 mg/kg BW of caffeine or placebo 1 h prior to each TT. Additionally, 25 mL of 1.14% caffeine or placebo solution were mouth rinsed before each TT. The treatments were Placebo, caffeine Ingestion, caffeine Rinse and Ingestion+Rinse. Subjects were genotyped and classified as AA homozygotes or AC heterozygotes for the rs762551 polymorphism of the CYP1A2 gene involved in caffeine metabolism. Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate treatment differences in mean power output based on a predetermined meaningful treatment effect of 1.0%. AC heterozygotes (4.1%) and AA homozygotes (3.4%) benefited from Ingestion+Rinse, but only AC performed better with Ingestion (6.0%). Additionally, Rinse and Ingestion+Rinse elicited better performance relative to Placebo among subjects that performed prior to 10:00 h (Early) compared with after 10:00 h (Late). The present study provides additional evidence of genotype and time of day factors that affect the ergogenic value of caffeine intake that may allow for more personalized caffeine intake strategies to maximize performance. PMID:26062916

  7. Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaogang; Pan, Duo; Chen, Mo; Zhu, Chuanwen; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a Faraday laser using a 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity, which provides optical feedback and obtains small free spectrum range (FSR) of 83 kHz, and have succeeded in limiting the laser frequency to a crossover transition {5}2{S}1/2,F=2\\to {5}2{P}3/2,F\\prime =1,3 of the natural 87Rb at 780 nm. The Faraday laser is based on a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) with an ultra-narrow bandwidth and the long fiber extended cavity of 1.2 km. The peak transmission assigned to the crossover transition F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3 in the FADOF is 20.5% with an ultra-narrow bandwidth of 29.1 MHz. The Allan deviation of the Faraday laser is around 6.0× {10}-11 in 0.06 to 1 s sampling time. Laser frequency is always kept in the center of the transmitted peak assigned to F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3. The Faraday laser realized here can provide light exactly resonant with an atomic transition used for atom–photon interaction experiments and is insensitive to diode temperature and injection current fluctuations.

  8. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, T.; Murakami, K.; Kato, S.; Matsunaga, T.; Saigusa, N.; Hiraki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. However, most studies, which aimed at the estimation of carbon exchanges between ecosystem and atmosphere, remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. In this study, we show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. As methodology for computing the exchanges, we 1) developed a global 1km-grid climate and satellite dataset based on the approach in Setoyama and Sasai (2013); 2) used the satellite-driven biosphere model (Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data: BEAMS) (Sasai et al., 2005, 2007, 2011); 3) simulated the carbon exchanges by using the new dataset and BEAMS by the use of a supercomputer that includes 1280 CPU and 320 GPGPU cores (GOSAT RCF of NIES). As a result, we could develop a global uniform system for realistically estimating terrestrial carbon exchange, and evaluate net ecosystem production in each community level; leading to obtain highly detailed understanding of terrestrial carbon exchanges.

  9. Bottom interacting sound at 50 km range in a deep ocean environment.

    PubMed

    Udovydchenkov, Ilya A; Stephen, Ralph A; Duda, Timothy F; Bolmer, S Thompson; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Mercer, James A; Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M

    2012-10-01

    Data collected during the 2004 Long-range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment provide absolute intensities and travel times of acoustic pulses at ranges varying from 50 to 3200 km. In this paper a subset of these data is analyzed, focusing on the effects of seafloor reflections at the shortest transmission range of approximately 50 km. At this range bottom-reflected (BR) and surface-reflected, bottom-reflected energy interferes with refracted arrivals. For a finite vertical receiving array spanning the sound channel axis, a high mode number energy in the BR arrivals aliases into low mode numbers because of the vertical spacing between hydrophones. Therefore, knowledge of the BR paths is necessary to fully understand even low mode number processes. Acoustic modeling using the parabolic equation method shows that inclusion of range-dependent bathymetry is necessary to get an acceptable model-data fit. The bottom is modeled as a fluid layer without rigidity, without three dimensional effects, and without scattering from wavelength-scale features. Nonetheless, a good model-data fit is obtained for sub-bottom properties estimated from the data. PMID:23039419

  10. Design concepts for the first 40 km a key step for the space elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapman, John M.; Swan, Peter A.

    2014-11-01

    The Marine Node for the Space Elevator Infrastructure is the base for all activities to load and unload the cargo and climbers. As the basic design of the space elevator power system is solar power only, the first 40 km is hazardous to operations and demands enclosed packaging of fragile tether climbers. A significant question is: how do we place a full-up tether climber, driven by solar power, above the atmosphere? Two approaches, starting at the Marine Node, allow the tether climber to initiate the climb with solar energy above the atmosphere. The third viable approach is to provide a platform at altitude for initiation of tether climb. These approaches would enable solar power to be the source of energy for climbing. The three approaches are: Option One and Two: Marine Node (MN) Starting Location. MN - Box Protection - use boxes to protect the fragile solar panel and power the climber directly with a power extension cord to climb out of the atmosphere. MN - Spring Forward - use the characteristics of the elastic factor of the tether material. Option Three: High Stage One-develop a platform at altitude. Dangers for the space elevator during the first 40 km in altitude are discussed, and the options to deploy the tether climber and its solar arrays from the ocean surface to the desired altitude are explained.

  11. Compositional mantle layering revealed by slab stagnation at ~1000-km depth.

    PubMed

    Ballmer, Maxim D; Schmerr, Nicholas C; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2015-12-01

    Improved constraints on lower-mantle composition are fundamental to understand the accretion, differentiation, and thermochemical evolution of our planet. Cosmochemical arguments indicate that lower-mantle rocks may be enriched in Si relative to upper-mantle pyrolite, whereas seismic tomography images suggest whole-mantle convection and hence appear to imply efficient mantle mixing. This study reconciles cosmochemical and geophysical constraints using the stagnation of some slab segments at ~1000-km depth as the key observation. Through numerical modeling of subduction, we show that lower-mantle enrichment in intrinsically dense basaltic lithologies can render slabs neutrally buoyant in the uppermost lower mantle. Slab stagnation (at depths of ~660 and ~1000 km) and unimpeded slab sinking to great depths can coexist if the basalt fraction is ~8% higher in the lower mantle than in the upper mantle, equivalent to a lower-mantle Mg/Si of ~1.18. Global-scale geodynamic models demonstrate that such a moderate compositional gradient across the mantle can persist can in the presence of whole-mantle convection. PMID:26824060

  12. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E; Thornton, Michele M; Mayer, Benjamin W; Wilhelmi, Nate; Wei, Yaxing; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Cook, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    More information: http://daymet.ornl.gov Presenter: Ranjeet Devarakonda Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. The prior product (Version 1) only covered from 1980-2008. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the conterminous United States, Mexico, and Southern Canada as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool [2] and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server [3]. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. Daily data from the nearest 1 km x 1 km Daymet grid cell are extracted from the database and formatted as a table with one column for each Daymet variable and one row for each day. All daily data for selected years are returned as a single (long) table, formatted for display in the browser window. At the top of this table is a link to the same data in a simple comma-separated text format, suitable for import into a

  13. A photochemical model for the Venus atmosphere at 47-112 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2012-03-01

    The model is intended to respond to the recent findings in the Venus atmosphere from the Venus Express and ground-based submillimeter and infrared observations. It extends down to 47 km for comparison with the kinetic model for the lower atmosphere (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2007]. Icarus 191, 25-37) and to use its results as the boundary conditions. The model numerical accuracy is significantly improved by reduction of the altitude step from 2 km in the previous models to 0.5 km. Effects of the NUV absorber are approximated using the detailed photometric observations at 365 nm from Venera 14. The H2O profile is not fixed but calculated in the model. The model involves odd nitrogen and OCS chemistries based on the detected NO and OCS abundances. The number of the reactions is significantly reduced by removing of unimportant processes. Column rates for all reactions are given, and balances of production and loss may be analyzed in detail for each species. The calculated vertical profiles of CO, H2O, HCl, SO2, SO, OCS and of the O2 dayglow at 1.27 μm generally agree with the existing observational data; some differences are briefly discussed. The OH dayglow is ∼30 kR, brighter than the OH nightglow by a factor of 4. The H + O3 process dominates in the nightglow excitation and O + HO2 in the dayglow, because of the reduction of ozone by photolysis. A key feature of Venus’ photochemistry is the formation of sulfuric acid in a narrow layer near the cloud tops that greatly reduces abundances of SO2 and H2O above the clouds. Delivery of SO2 and H2O through this bottleneck determines the chemistry and its variations above the clouds. Small variations of eddy diffusion near 60 km result in variations of SO2, SO, and OCS at and above 70 km within a factor of ∼30. Variations of the SO2/H2O ratio at the lower boundary have similar but weaker effect: the variations within a factor of ∼4 are induced by changes of SO2/H2O by ±5%. Therefore the observed variations of the

  14. A Photochemical Model for the Venus Atmosphere at 47-112 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    The model is intended to respond to the recent findings in the Venus atmosphere from the Venus Express and ground-based submillimeter and infrared observations. It extends down to 47 km for comparison with the kinetic model for the lower atmosphere (Krasnopolsky, V.A., 2007, Icarus 191, 25-37) and to use its data as the boundary conditions. The model numerical accuracy is significantly improved by reduction of the altitude step from 2 km in the previous models to 0.5 km. Effects of the NUV absorber are approximated using the detailed photometric observations at 365 nm from Venera 14. The H2O profile is not fixed but calculated in the model. The model involves odd nitrogen and OCS chemistries based on the detected NO and OCS abundances. The number of the reactions is significantly reduced by removing of unimportant processes. Column rates for all reactions are given, and balances of production and loss may be analyzed in detail for each species. The calculated vertical profiles of CO, H2O, HCl, SO2, SO, OCS and of the O2 dayglow at 1.27 μm generally agree with the existing observational data; some differences are briefly discussed. The OH dayglow is ~30 kR, brighter than the OH nightglow by a factor of 4. The H + O3 process dominates in the nightglow excitation and O + HO2 in the dayglow, because of the reduction of ozone by photolysis. The model is extremely sensitive to small variations of eddy diffusion near 60 km: the calculated variations of SO2, SO, and OCS at and above the cloud tops are within a factor of ~30. Variations of the SO2/H2O ratio at the lower boundary have similar but weaker effect: variations within a factor of ~4 are induced by changes of SO2/H2O by ±5%. Therefore the observed variations of sulfur species originate from minor variations of the atmospheric dynamics near the cloud layer and do not require volcanism. NO cycles are responsible for production of a quarter of O2, SO2, and Cl2 in the atmosphere. A net effect of photochemistry in the

  15. Multi-method determination of continuous 2D velocity profiles from the surface to 1 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterie, S.; Miller, R. D.; Ivanov, J.; Schwenk, J.; Bailey, B. L.; Schwarzer, J.; Markiewicz, R.

    2012-12-01

    Compressional and shear reflection data provide critical measurements of velocity and attenuation that are necessary for numerical simulations of site response from earthquake energy and seismic investigations to lithologic and pore characterizations. Imperative for accurate site response models is a seismic velocity model extending from the surface to the depth of interest that is representative of the true subsurface. In general, no seismic method can be used to characterize the shallowest (< 30 m) and deepest (30 m to 1 km) portions of the subsurface in a single pass with a consistent set of equipment and acquisition parameters. With four unique seismic surveys targeting different portions of the subsurface and different components of the seismic wavefield, we were able to build a comprehensive dataset that facilitated continuous 2D velocity profiles. The upper kilometer underlying our study site consists of Lake Bonneville lucustrine sediments and post-Bonneville alluvium and colluvium from the nearby Wasatch Front in north central Utah (Eardley, 1938; Hintze, 2005). Four unique seismic surveys were acquired along each of two 1.5 km lines located approximately 3 km apart. Data for tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) were acquired with a bungee accelerated weight drop and 4.5 Hz compressional geophones. P-wave and S-wave reflection data were acquired with an IVI minivib 1 and 28 Hz compressional and 14 Hz SH geophones, respectively. P-wave and S-wave velocities from the surface to 30 m were determined using tomography and MASW, respectively. Stacking velocities of reflections on common midpoint gathers from the vibroseis data were used to determine Vp and Vs from approximately 30 m to nearly 1 km below ground surface. Each Vp and Vs dataset were merged to generate continuous interval and average velocity profiles. The sutured velocity cross-sections were produced for both P- and S-waves in a fashion not previously described in the

  16. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  17. Wide area continuous offender monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshen, J.; Drake, G.; Spencer, D.

    1996-11-01

    The corrections system in the U.S. is supervising over five million offenders. This number is rising fast and so are the direct and indirect costs to society. To improve supervision and reduce the cost of parole and probation, first generation home arrest systems were introduced in 1987. While these systems proved to be helpful to the corrections system, their scope is rather limited because they only cover an offender at a single location and provide only a partial time coverage. To correct the limitations of first-generation systems, second-generation wide area continuous electronic offender monitoring systems, designed to monitor the offender at all times and locations, are now on the drawing board. These systems use radio frequency location technology to track the position of offenders. The challenge for this technology is the development of reliable personal locator devices that are small, lightweight, with long operational battery life, and indoors/outdoors accuracy of 100 meters or less. At the center of a second-generation system is a database that specifies the offender`s home, workplace, commute, and time the offender should be found in each. The database could also define areas from which the offender is excluded. To test compliance, the system would compare the observed coordinates of the offender with the stored location for a given time interval. Database logfiles will also enable law enforcement to determine if a monitored offender was present at a crime scene and thus include or exclude the offender as a potential suspect.

  18. Wide spectral band beam analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharon, Oren

    2015-03-01

    The reality in laser beam profiling is that measurements are performed over a wide spectrum of wavelengths and power ranges. Many applications use multiple laser wavelengths with very different power levels, a fact which dictates a need for a better measuring tool. Rapid progress in the fiber laser area has increased the demand for lasers in the wavelength range of 900 - 1030 nm, while the telecommunication market has increased the demand for wavelength range of 1300nm - 1600 nm, on the other hand the silicone chip manufacturing and mass production requirements tend to lower the laser wavelength towards the 190nm region. In many cases there is a need to combine several lasers together in order to perform a specific task. A typical application is to combine one visible laser for pointing, with a different laser for material processing with a very different wavelength and power level. The visible laser enables accurate pointing before the second laser is operated. The beam profile of the intensity distribution is an important parameter that indicates how a laser beam will behave in an application. Currently a lab, where many different lasers are used, will find itself using various laser beam profilers from several vendors with different specifications and accuracies. It is the propose of this article to present a technological breakthrough in the area of detectors, electronics and optics allowing intricate measurements of lasers with different wavelength and with power levels that vary many orders of magnitude by a single beam profiler.

  19. Acylhydrazones as Widely Tunable Photoswitches.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Derk Jan; Kovaříček, Petr; Ihrig, Svante P; Hecht, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Molecular photoswitches have attracted much attention in biological and materials contexts. Despite the fact that existing classes of these highly interesting functional molecules have been heavily investigated and optimized, distinct obstacles and inherent limitations remain. Considerable synthetic efforts and complex structure-property relationships render the development and exploitation of new photoswitch families difficult. Here, we focus our attention on acylhydrazones: a novel, yet underexploited class of photochromic molecules based on the imine structural motif. We optimized the synthesis of these potent photoswitches and prepared a library of over 40 compounds, bearing different substituents in all four crucial positions of the backbone fragment, and conducted a systematic study of their photochromic properties as a function of structural variation. This modular family of organic photoswitches offers a unique combination of properties and the compounds are easily prepared on large scales within hours, through an atom-economic synthesis, from commercially available starting materials. During our thorough spectroscopic investigations, we identified photoswitches covering a wide range of thermal half-lives of their (Z)-isomers, from short-lived T-type to thermally stable P-type derivatives. By proper substitution, excellent band separation between the absorbance maxima of (E)- and (Z)-isomers in the UV or visible region could be achieved. Our library furthermore includes notable examples of rare negative photochromic systems, and we show that acylhydrazones are highly fatigue resistant and exhibit good quantum yields. PMID:26580808

  20. ROSAT wide field camera mirrors.

    PubMed

    Willingale, R

    1988-04-15

    The ROSAT wide field camera (WFC) is an XUV telescope operating in the 12-250-eV energy band. The mirror system utilizes Wolter-Schwarzschild type I (WS I) grazing incidence optics with a focal length of 525 mm, comprised of three nested aluminum shells with an outermost diameter of 576 mm providing a geometric aperture area of 456 cm(2). The reflecting surfaces are electroless nickel plated and coated with gold to enhance their reflectivity in the XUV. The mirrors have undergone full aperture optical testing, narrow beam XUV testing, and full aperture XUV testing. Measurements of the reflectivity are compared to theoretical values derived from the optical constants of gold in the XUV range. Analysis of the focused distribution is used to estimate the surface roughness and figuring errors of the polished surfaces. The results are compared to the mechanical metrology data collected during manufacture of the shells and the power spectral density of the reflecting surfaces is found to have a power-law form. PMID:20531591

  1. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.

    2014-12-01

    Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the North America as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool (http://daymet.ornl.gov/singlepixel.html) and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server (TDS) (http://daymet.ornl.gov/thredds_mosaics.html). The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool [2] allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool also provides the option to download multiple coordinates programmatically. The ORNL DAAC's TDS provides customized visualization and access to Daymet time series of North American mosaics. Users can subset and download Daymet data via a variety of community standards, including OPeNDAP, NetCDF Subset service, and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map/Coverage Service. References: [1] Thornton, P. E., Thornton, M. M., Mayer, B. W., Wilhelmi, N., Wei, Y., Devarakonda, R., & Cook, R. (2012). "Daymet: Daily surface weather on a 1

  2. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users.

    PubMed

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake ( V · peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min(-1), 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V · peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007) and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006). Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05) but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05). Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants' training status. PMID:27348000

  3. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users

    PubMed Central

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake (V·peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min−1, 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V·peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg−1 caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007) and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006). Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05) but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05). Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants’ training status. PMID:27348000

  4. Geothermal research on the 2.5 km deep COSC-1 drillhole, Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe; Beltrami, Hugo; Daly, Stephen; Juhlin, Christopher; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Long, Mike; Rath, Volker; Renner, Joerg; Schwarz, Gerhard; Sundberg, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The scientific drilling project "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC), supported by ICDP and the Swedish Research Council, involves the drilling of two boreholes through carefully selected sections of the Paleozoic Caledonian orogen in Central Sweden. COSC-1, the first of the two planned boreholes, was drilled and fully cored down to 2.5 km depth during spring and summer 2014 near the town of Åre. The COSC working group is organised around six thematic teams including us, the geothermal team. The major objectives of the COSC geothermal team are: a) to contribute to basic knowledge about the thermal regime of Palaeozoic orogenic belts, ancient shield areas and high heat-producing plutons; b) to refine knowledge on climate change at high latitudes (i.e. Scandinavia), including historical global changes, recent palaeoclimate development (since last ice age) and expected future trends; c) to determine the vertical variation of the geothermal gradient, heat flow and thermal properties down to 2.5 km, and to determine the required corrections for shallow (< 1 km) heat flow data; d) to explore the geothermal potential of the Åre-Järpen area; e) to explore to what degree the conductive heat transfer is affected by groundwater flow in the uppermost crust and f) to evaluate the heat generation input and impact from the basement and the alum shales. To reach these targets the following tasks were carried out or are planned: 1) heat flow predictions from shallow boreholes; 2) geophysical logging; 3) analyses of logs and well tests; (3) determination of rock thermal properties on core samples; 4) determination of heat generation rates from radiometric and geochemical studies; 5) fracture characterisation for permeability and convective heat flow estimations; 6) analysis of convective signals; 7) analysis of paleoclimatic signals; 8) heat flow modelling and evaluation of geothermal potential and 9) Fennoscandia heat flow map compilation. The purpose of

  5. Diffusive modeling of global river and floodplain dynamics based on 1km-resolution DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, D.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial water circulation is important both as a component of the climate system and as a freshwater supplying system for human beings. Recent advances in remote sensing have achieved global-scale observation of surface water storage and movement from satellites (e.g. inundated area extent by microwave imagers, terrestrial water storage by GRACE, water surface altitude and river discharge possibly by SWOT). On the other hand, global river routing models, which are practically the only available tool for simulating terrestrial water circulation, have not adequately represented the physical mechanism of terrestrial water storage and movement, such as floodplain inundation dynamics regulated by much smaller-scale topography than global model resolution. A newly developed global river routing model named “Catchment-based Macro-scale Floodplain model” (CaMa-Flood) overcomes this drawback by detailed representation of sub-grid-scale topography (ex. river channel cross-section, catchment boundaries, and floodplain elevation profile). These sub-grid features regulating surface water dynamics are objectively parameterized based on 1km-resolution global DEM and flow direction map. This approach enables explicit prediction of surface water altitude, which is essential for diffusive wave modeling of floodplain inundation dynamics. Thus, CaMa-Flood is expected to simulate not only realistic river discharge but also water depth, inundated area extent, and surface water storage. Improvements from previous global river routing models achieved by CaMa-Flood are summarized as follows: (1) objective parameterization of sub-grid topographies using 1km-resolution datasets, (2) explicit representation of floodplain inundation dynamics, (3) diffusive wave modeling for flow computation instead of kinematic wave modeling, and (4) two dimensional expression of inundated area extent which can be validated against satellite observations. Ability of CaMa-Flood is tested by comparing

  6. Distribution and relations of 4- to 10-km-diameter craters to global geologic units of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condit, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    By correlating the 1:25,000,000 geologic map of Mars of Scott and Carr (1977) with 4- to 10-km-diameter crater density data from Mariner 9 images, the average crater density for 23 of the equatorial geologic-geomorphic units on Mars was computed. The correlation of these two data sets was accomplished by digitizing both the crater density data and geologic map at the same scale and by comparing them in a computer. This technique assigns the crater density value found in the corresponding location on the geologic data set to a discrete computer file assigned each of the 23 geologic units. By averaging the crater density values accumulated in each file, an "average" crater density for each geologic unit was obtained. Condit believes these average crater density values are accurate indicators of the relative age of the geologic units considered. The statistical validity of these average values is strongest for the geologic units of the largest areal extent. The relative ages as obtained from the average crater density values for the seven largest geologic units, from youngest to oldest, are: Tharsis volcanic material, 21 ?? 4 craters/106km2; smooth plains material, 57 ?? 14 craters/106km2; rolling plains material, 66 ?? 16 craters/106km2; plains materials, 80 ?? 17 craters/106km2; ridged plains material, 128 ?? 25 craters/106km2; hilly and cratered material, 137 ?? 38 craters/106km2; and cratered plateau material, 138 ?? 27 craters/106km2. ?? 1978.

  7. Microprobe Evaluations of Grain Boundary Segregation in KM4 and IN100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, T. P.; Smith, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    Turbine disk alloys subjected to fatigue cycles with dwells at high temperatures and stresses can fail by cracking along grain boundaries. This could be due to concentrated creep deformation or environmental attack at grain boundaries. It would be important to identify any chemical segregation along grain boundaries to aid understanding of this intergranular failure mode. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of chemical segregation present at the grain boundaries of two disk alloys, KM4 and IN 100. An electron microprobe employing wavelength dispersive x-ray chemical analyses was used to characterize the chemistry along multiple grain boundaries in metallographically prepared samples of each alloy. Some degrees of boron, chromium, and cobalt enrichment of grain boundaries were observed in each alloy.

  8. Energy reconstruction of high energy muon and neutrino events in KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia; Markou, Christos; Tzamariudaki, Ekaterini; Pikounis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT will be a European deep-sea infrastructure of neutrino telescopes covering a volume of several cubic kilometers in the Mediterranean Sea aiming to search for high energy neutrinos from galactic and extragalactic sources. This analysis focuses on muons coming from neutrino charged-current interactions. In large water Cherenkov detectors the reconstructed muon is used to approximate the neutrino direction and energy, thus providing information on the astrophysical neutrino source. Muon energy estimation is also critical for the differentiation of neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from neutrinos generated in the atmosphere which constitute the detector background. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of approximately 0.27 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  9. Moon shadow observation with ANTARES and KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanguineti, Matteo; Distefano, Carla

    2016-04-01

    The ANTARES detector is the largest neutrino telescope currently in operation in the Northern Hemisphere. The search for point-like neutrino sources is one of the main goals of ANTARES, so a reliable way to evaluate the detector pointing performance is needed. The Moon shadow measurement, i.e. the deficit in the atmospheric muon flux in the direction of the Moon induced by absorption of cosmic rays, allows the estimation of the angular resolution and the pointing accuracy. The 2007-2012 ANTARES data set shows a significance of Moon shadowing around 3σ. This is the first measurement of the ANTARES angular resolution and absolute pointing for atmospheric muons using a celestial calibration source. The same approach has been used to estimate also the expected Moon shadow significance with the KM3NeT-ARCA detector, the future cubic kilometre scale detector that will be installed in Sicily.

  10. Lower thermosphere (80-100 km) dynamics response to solar and geomagnetic activity: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1989-01-01

    The variations of solar and geomagnetic activity may affect the thermosphere circulation via plasma heating and electric fields, especially at high latitudes. The possibility exists that the energy involved in auroral and magnetic storms can produce significant changes of mesosphere and lower thermosphere wind systems. A study of global radar measurements of winds at 80 to 100 km region revealed the short term effects (correlation between wind field and geomagnetic storms) and long term variations over a solar cycle. It seems likely that the correlation results from a modification of planetary waves and tides propagated from below, thus altering the dynamical regime of the thermosphere. Sometimes the long term behavior points rather to a climatic variation with the internal atmospheric cause than to a direct solar control.

  11. Effects of an ultra-long-distance (1000 km) race on lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nagel, D; Seiler, D; Franz, H; Leitzmann, C; Jung, K

    1989-01-01

    The influence was examined of ultra-long-distance running (1000 km race lasting 20 days) on changes in serum lipids. The 110 participants received two types of diet, a conventional Western diet and a wholesome vegetarian diet. Of the 55 finishers the serum concentration of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and triglycerides decreased significantly during the first 8 days of the run, but rose again towards the end of the race without reaching pre-race levels. The high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol increased initially but decreased in the final days of the run. The values for apolipoprotein A-I were not correlated with HDL-cholesterol. The free fatty acids and free glycerol showed marked increases (five times the prerace concentration), falling towards the end of the run. Changes in serum lipids showed no correlation with changes in body mass. Similar changes were observed in both dietary groups. PMID:2583145

  12. POLAR/TIDE Survey of Thermal O+ Characteristics near 5000km Altitude over the Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, B. A.; Horwitz, J. L.; Su, Y. J.; Elliott, Heather A.; Comfort, Richard H.; Moore, Thomas E.; Giles, Barbara A.; Craven, Paul D.; Chandler, Michael O.; Pollock, Craig J.

    1998-01-01

    We analyze measurements of thermal 0+ parameters from the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) on POLAR for April - May, 1996 obtained near 5000 km altitude within the polar cap ionosphere - magnetosphere interface region. Certain aspects of O+ parameters in this region were explored by Su et. al. [1998]. In this report, we hope to extend our understanding of the O+ behavior by examining relationships of densities, parallel velocities, and temperatures to the convection velocities, IMF By and Bz components. Preliminary results with the convection velocities are currently being analyzed. In doing so, we are guided in part by the Cleft Ion Fountain paradigm and model developed by Horwitz and Lockwood [1985] which involves downward O+ flows in the polar magnetosphere.

  13. [Genetic effects in mice exposed to the 10-km area around the Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station].

    PubMed

    Pomerantseva, M D; Chekhovich, A V; Ramaiĭa, L K; Shevchenko, V A; Shaks, A I; Lobaneva, N V

    1990-10-01

    Mice (CBAxC57BL) F of both sexes were exposed within the 10 km zone of Chernobyl nuclear power station. Genetic damage of phone chronic effect of increased radiation in exposed adult mice and in the course of embryogenesis was studied. The total absorbed radiation doses in testes varied from 1.85 to 0.42 Gy in embryos and from 3.4 to 2.7 Gy in adult males. Increase of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and abnormal sperm heads (ASH) was only observed right after the end of exposure of adult males. The yield of reciprocal translocations (RT) in these males was relatively low. Among the males exposed at the stage of early embryogenesis, 4 heterozygotes for RT were revealed. In other males of this group the RT yield was low. PMID:2283055

  14. Biological entities isolated from the stratosphere (22-27km): case for their space origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Milton; Rose, Christopher E.; Baker, Alexander J.; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Biological entities were isolated at a height of between 22-27 km in the stratosphere. Sampling of this region was carried out in the UK in July 2013 using a relatively simple low-cost balloon-borne sampler carrying aseptically clean scanning electron microscope stubs onto which aerosols were directly captured. The entities varied from a presumptive colony of ultra-small bacteria to two unusual individual organisms - part of a diatom frustule and a 200 micron-sized particle mass interlaced with biological filaments. Biological entities of this nature have not previously been reported occurring in the stratosphere; their likely origin is discussed and we provide arguments to support our view that such biological entities may have arrived from space. The new data gives strong confirmation of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of cometary panspermia.

  15. Beyond Vmax and Km: How details of enzyme function influence geochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes catalyze the vast majority of chemical reactions relevant to geomicrobiology. Studies of the activities of enzymes in environmental systems often report Vmax (the maximum possible rate of reaction; often proportional to the concentration of enzymes in the system) and sometimes Km (a measure of the affinity between enzymes and their substrates). However, enzyme studies - particularly those related to enzymes involved in organic carbon oxidation - are often limited to only those parameters, and a relatively limited and mixed set of enzymes. Here I will discuss some novel methods to assay and characterize the specific sets of enzymes that may be important to the carbon cycle in aquatic environments. First, kinetic experiments revealed the collective properties of the complex mixtures of extracellular peptidases that occur where microbial communities are diverse. Crystal structures combined with biochemical characterization of specific enzymes can yield more detailed information about key steps in organic carbon transformations. These new techniques have the potential to provide mechanistic grounding to geomicrobiological models.

  16. Ballistic Performance of Porous Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems at 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal-protection-systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive electronic components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles have a porous-batting of nominally 8 lb/cubic ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) insulating material coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation (TUFI) layer.

  17. GPS-aided gravimetry at 30 km altitude from a balloon-borne platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarewicz, Andrew R.; Evans, Alan G.

    1989-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment, flown at 30 km altitude over New Mexico, was used to test dynamic differential Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking in support of gravimetry at high-altitudes. The experiment package contained a gravimeter (Vibrating String Accelerometer), a full complement of inertial instruments, a TI-4100 GPS receiver and a radar transponder. The flight was supported by two GPS receivers on the ground near the flight path. From the 8 hour flight, about a forty minute period was selected for analysis. Differential GPS phase measurements were used to estimate changes in position over the sample time interval, or average velocity. In addition to average velocity, differential positions and numerical averages of acceleration were obtained in three components. Gravitational acceleration was estimated by correcting for accelerations due to translational motion, ignoring all rotational effects.

  18. Characterization of the electro-optical transceivers in the KM3NeT optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulvirenti, S.; Ameli, F.; D'Amico, A.; Kieft, G.; Schmelling, J.-W.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure hosting a network of neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. The whole data transport over an optical network is based on the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing technique with optical channels spaced 50 GHz apart and a bit rate of 1.25 Gbps. Over the telescope lifetime, precise temperature control of the laser is required to maintain stability of the central frequency, complying with the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union. We will report on the characterisation of the tuneable features of the electro-optical transceivers required to compensate for the expected wavelength drift due to aging factors. Preliminary results will be showed.

  19. Deep turbulence effects mitigation with coherent combining of 21 laser beams over 7 km.

    PubMed

    Weyrauch, Thomas; Vorontsov, Mikhail; Mangano, Joseph; Ovchinnikov, Vladimir; Bricker, David; Polnau, Ernst; Rostov, Andrey

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate coherent beam combining and adaptive mitigation of atmospheric turbulence effects over 7 km under strong scintillation conditions using a coherent fiber array laser transmitter operating in a target-in-the-loop setting. The transmitter system is composed of a densely packed array of 21 fiber collimators with integrated capabilities for piston, tip, and tilt control of the outgoing beams wavefront phases. A small cat's-eye retro reflector was used for evaluation of beam combining and turbulence compensation performance at the target plane, and to provide the feedback signal for control of piston and tip/tilt phases of the transmitted beams using the stochastic parallel gradient descent maximization of the power-in-the-bucket metric. PMID:26872202

  20. Experimental single-photon exchange along a space link of 7000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dequal, Daniele; Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Extending the single-photon transmission distance is a basic requirement for the implementation of quantum communication on a global scale. In this work we report the single-photon exchange from a medium Earth orbit satellite (MEO) at more than 7000 km of slant distance to the ground station at the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory. The single-photon transmitter was realized by exploiting the corner cube retroreflectors mounted on the LAGEOS-2 satellite. Long duration of data collection is possible with such altitude, up to 43 min in a single passage. The mean number of photons per pulse (μsat) has been limited to 1 for 200 s, resulting in an average detection rate of 3.0 counts/s and a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.5. The feasibility of single-photon exchange from MEO satellites paves the way to tests of quantum mechanics in moving frames and to global quantum Information.

  1. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems to 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Foreman, Cory D.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components and sensitive components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. These materials are also highly exposed to solid particle space environment hazards. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on ceramic tiles similar to those used on the Orbiter. These tiles are a porous-ceramic insulator of nominally 8 lb/ft(exp 3) alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) coated with a damage-resistant, toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG).

  2. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter. PMID:17811436

  3. Vertical transport and photochemistry in the terrestrial mesosphere and lower thermosphere /50-120 km/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M.; Yung, Y. L.; Waters, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A study is conducted of the coupled effects of kinetics, solar cycle flux variations, and vertical transport on the distribution of long-lived hydrogen-carbon-oxygen compounds in the terrestrial mesosphere and lower thermosphere, using a one-dimensional aeronomy model. The calculations account for the important chemical reactions and use rocket measurements of the solar flux at solar minimum and maximum. Photodissociation rates appropriate for the mesosphere are determined with a spherical shell atmosphere formalism. Detailed corrections for the O2 Schumann-Runge bands and the temperature dependence of the CO2 cross sections are used. An eddy diffusion profile is derived which is in agreement with the Aladdin 74 mass spectral measurements of atomic O, O2, CO2, and Ar in the lower thermosphere and observations of the O3 minimum at about 80 km.

  4. Deep sea tests of a prototype of the KM3NeT digital optical module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; de Asmundis, R.; Balasi, K.; Band, H.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berkien, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bianucci, S.; Billault, M.; Birbas, A.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bormuth, R.; Bouché, V.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Champion, C.; Château, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Christopoulou, B.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Deniskina, N.; Destelle, J.-J.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Eberl, T.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Fusco, L. A.; Gajana, D.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Gallo, F.; Garufi, F.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hevinga, M. A.; van der Hoek, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hugon, C.; Hößl, J.; Imbesi, M.; James, C.; Jansweijer, P.; Jochum, J.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Kappos, E.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Koffeman, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Kouchner, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Le Provost, H.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Löhner, H.; Lo Presti, D.; Louis, F.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manolopoulos, K.; Margiotta, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Moudden, Y.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papageorgiou, K.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Petridou, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Popa, V.; Pradier, Th.; Priede, M.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Royon, J.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Savvidis, I.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Solazzo, M.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Tézier, D.; Théraube, S.; Thompson, L. F.; Timmer, P.; Trapierakis, H. I.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vernin, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; van Wooning, R. H. L.; Yatkin, K.; Zachariadou, K.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Zwart, A.

    2014-09-01

    The first prototype of a photo-detection unit of the future KM3NeT neutrino telescope has been deployed in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea. This digital optical module has a novel design with a very large photocathode area segmented by the use of 31 three inch photomultiplier tubes. It has been integrated in the ANTARES detector for in-situ testing and validation. This paper reports on the first months of data taking and rate measurements. The analysis results highlight the capabilities of the new module design in terms of background suppression and signal recognition. The directionality of the optical module enables the recognition of multiple Cherenkov photons from the same $^{40}$K decay and the localization bioluminescent activity in the neighbourhood. The single unit can cleanly identify atmospheric muons and provide sensitivity to the muon arrival directions.

  5. Pioneer Venus 12.5 km Anomaly Workshop Report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiff, A.; Sromovsky, L.; Borucki, W.; Craig, R.; Juergens, D.; Young, R. E.; Ragent, B.

    1995-01-01

    A workshop was convened at Ames Research Center on September 28 and 29, 1993, to address the unexplained electrical anomalies experienced in December 1978 by the four Pioneer Venus probes below a Venus altitude of 12.5 km. These anomalies caused the loss of valuable data in the deep atmosphere, and, if their cause were to remain unexplained, could reoccur on future Venus missions. The workshop participants reviewed the evidence and studied all identified mechanisms that could consistently account for all observed anomalies. Both hardware problems and atmospheric interactions were considered. Based on a workshop recommendation, subsequent testing identified the cause as being an insulation failure of the external harness. All anomalous events are now explained.

  6. Multiple broadly synchronous km-scale exhumation episodes on different continents: implications for controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Paul; Duddy, Ian; Japsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Numerous low temperature thermochronology studies have defined regional cooling episodes which imply removal of several km of section over areas of several 104 km2. The origin of such events has long been the subject of debate, while their reality has sometimes been questioned because of the lack of a viable mechanism. Kilometre-scale denudation at rifted margins has traditionally been interpreted as related to rifting and breakup, magnified by the flexural response to denudation of the uplifted rift flanks. But it is now clear that at many margins the post-breakup history is more complex, with km-scale uplift and erosion commonly post-dating breakup by 10s of Myr and often affecting regions many 100s of kilometres inland of the margins (Green et al., 2013; Brown et al., 2014). Numerous examples around the world of km-scale exhumation affecting regions distant from continental margins, including cratonic regions traditionally regarded as stable over Phanerozoic time (e.g. Ault et al., 2009; Flowers & Kelley, 2011), cannot be explained by margin-related mechanisms. It has also become clear that periods of exhumation are separated by episodes of burial, defining a series of positive and negative vertical movements. Previous studies have defined a broad synchroneity of Early, Middle and Late Cenozoic exhumation events in regions from Alaska to Greenland, Norway and Svalbard (Green and Duddy, 2010). New results from SE Australia define a series of exhumation episodes ranging in time from Carboniferous to Cenozoic which are broadly synchronous with similar events previously defined in Brazil and South Africa (Green et al. 2013). While estimates of the timing of exhumation in different areas are subject to some uncertainty, data across three southern hemisphere continents show a broad synchronicity in similar fashion to the northern hemisphere examples cited above. Dynamic topography has been invoked as a possible mechanism for producing uplift, the effects of which

  7. A search for molecular hydrogen fluorescence near 100 km. [excitation by solar extreme UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.; Takacs, P. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The fluorescence of H2 in the Lyman band system, excited by solar extreme ultraviolet radiation, provides a means for the optical detection of H2 in the upper atmosphere. In particular, the Ly beta line of hydrogen is nearly degenerate with the (6,0) P1 transition, and absorption in this line produces fluorescence in the v-prime = 6 progression, principally at 1265, 1366, 1462 and 1608 A. Absorption by O2 rapidly attenuates the Ly beta from an overhead sun below 100 km and also significantly attenuates the fluorescent radiation. Far-ultraviolet dayglow spectra from 1130 to 1510 A obtained from an Aerobee rocket experiment on 11 December 1972 give an upper limit for any H2 emission which is a factor of 5 higher than expected according to recent hydrogen models.

  8. Aspects of the optical system relevant for the KM3NeT timing calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieft, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea housing the large Cherenkov telescope arrays of optical modules for neutrino detection. The detector control and data transmission system is based on fibre optical technology. For timing calibration of the detector signals the optical system is used to send and fan-out an onshore clock signal, derived from a GPS receiver, to all optical modules in the deep sea. The optical modules use this clock signal to time stamp the light pulses detected by the photomultipliers inside the modules. The delay time between the GPS clock on shore and the clock in each optical module is measured with sub-nanosecond precision using a White Rabbit based timing calibration system. The aspects of the optical system relevant for the timing calibration and the quantification of their effect will be presented.

  9. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part II: Evaluations and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Niwa, Y.; Saito, M.; Takagi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many studies have been trying to reveal distribution of carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere for understanding global carbon cycle dynamics by using terrestrial biosphere models, satellite data, inventory data, and so on. However, most studies remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community and to evaluate the carbon stocks by forest ecosystems in each countries. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. We show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. The methodology for these estimations are shown in the 2015 AGU FM poster "Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling". In this study, we evaluated the carbon exchanges in various regions with other approaches. We used the satellite-driven biosphere model (BEAMS) as our estimations, GOSAT L4A CO2 flux data, NEP retrieved by NICAM and CarbonTracer2013 flux data, for period from Jun 2001 to Dec 2012. The temporal patterns for this period were indicated similar trends between BEAMS, GOSAT, NICAM, and CT2013 in many sub-continental regions. Then, we estimated the terrestrial carbon exchanges in each countries, and could indicated the temporal patterns of the exchanges in large carbon stock regions.Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern of land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many

  10. Detection of EUV/Soft X-ray bremsstrahlung emission at terrestrial altitudes above 750 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiyannis, A.; Dominique, M.; De Keyser, J.; Berghmans, D.; Michel, K.; Dammasch, I. E.; Borremans, K.; De Donder, E.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2015-12-01

    LYRA is a fast radiometer on-board the PROBA-2 mission designed to observe the solar activity from UV to Soft X-rays and consists of three redundant units of four different optical bandpasses each. Since the start of operation in 2010, LYRA regularly observes disturbances with a characteristic signature that have no direct solar origin. Instead the frequency of occurrence correlates with the ApA_p index of geomagnetic activity on Earth's surface and the location of these detections coincides with the McIlwain L ≈ 3 zon. By comparing the wavelength sensitivity of the main PROBA-2 instruments, the wavelength range of the detected photons can be narrowed down to the range of 0.07-1 KeV (1-17 nm) and the altitudes of their source to those above PROBA-2's orbit (~750 km). A discussion on the magnetospheric origins of this emission is included.

  11. An Architecture Trade Study for Passive 10-km Soil Moisture Measurements from Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando; ONeill, P.; Dod, L.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In 1999 NASA HQ, as a result of an internal NASA study on potential Earth Science Enterprise Post-2002 Missions, directed the hydrology community to focus on achieving a 10-km spatial resolution global soil moisture mission. This type of resolution represents a significant technological challenge for an L-band radiometer in sun-synchronous low-earth orbit. An engineering trade study has been completed to determine alternative system configurations that could achieve the science requirements and to identify the most appropriate technology investments and development path for NASA to pursue in order to bring about such a mission. The results of the study are presented here together with a short discussion of future efforts.

  12. Wide Range SET Pulse Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert L.; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    A method for measuring a wide range of SET pulses is demonstrated. Use of dynamic logic, faster than ordinary CMOS, allows capture of short pulses. A weighted binning of SET lengths allows measurement of a wide range of pulse lengths with compact circuitry. A pulse-length-conservative pulse combiner tree routes SETs from combinational logic to the measurement circuit, allowing SET measurements in circuits that cannot easily be arranged in long chains. The method is applied to add-multiplex combinational logic, and to an array of NFET routing switches, at .35 micron. Pulses are captured in a chain of Domino Logic AND gates. Propagation through the chain is frozen on the trailing edge by dropping low the second "enable" input to the AND gates. Capacitive loading is increased in the latter stages to create an approximately logarithmic weighted binning, so that a broad range of pulse lengths can be captured with a 10 stage capture chain. Simulations show pulses can be captured which are 1/5th the length of those typically captured with leading edge triggered latch methods, and less than the length of those captured with a trailing edge latch method. After capture, the pulse pattern is transferred to an SEU protected shift register for readout. 64 instances of each of two types of logic are used as targets. One is a full adder with a 4 to 1 mux on its inputs. The other is a 4 x 4 NFET routing matrix. The outputs are passed through buffered XNOR comparators to identify pulses, which are merged in a buffered not-nand (OR) tree designed to avoid pulse absorption as much as possible. The output from each of the two test circuits are input into separate pulse measurement circuits. Test inputs were provided so that the circuit could be bench tested and calibrated. A third SET measurement circuit with no inputs was used to judge the contribution from direct hits on the measurement circuit. Heavy ions were used with an LET range from 12 to 176. At LET of 21 and below, the very

  13. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  14. Measurement and modeling of urban atmospheric PCB concentrations on a small (8 km) spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totten, Lisa A.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Gigliotti, Cari L.; Lahoti, Nilesh; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    Atmospheric transport and deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is an important problem for ecosystems around the world. Data from several monitoring networks demonstrate that atmospheric PCB concentrations are dramatically elevated in urban areas compared to rural or background regions, such that these urban emissions of PCBs support the regional and global transport and deposition of PCBs to more remote areas. Identifying and controlling the sources of urban atmospheric PCBs is thus essential in minimizing the regional and global transport and deposition of these compounds. From December 1999 to November 2000, gas-phase PCB concentrations were measured at two monitoring locations, ˜8 km apart, within the New York City metropolitan area, at Jersey City and Bayonne, NJ. Concentrations, congener patterns, and temporal patterns of PCBs differ dramatically at the two sites, suggesting that a significant source of atmospheric PCBs exists within 8 km of the Bayonne site, resulting in spikes in gas-phase PCB concentration at Bayonne that are not observed at Jersey City. The Regional Atmospheric Model System (RAMS) coupled with the Hybrid Particle and Concentration Transport model (HYPACT) was used to estimate that the PCB source near Bayonne emits a flux of ΣPCBs on the order of 100 g d -1. Extrapolation of this source magnitude to the area of New York City suggests that this urban area emits at least 300 kg yr -1ΣPCBs to the regional atmosphere, similar in magnitude to the flow of ΣPCB out of the Upper Hudson River into the New York/New Jersey Harbor.

  15. Isolation and identification of a novel, lipase-producing bacterium, Pseudomnas aeruginosa KM110

    PubMed Central

    Mobarak-Qamsari, E; Kasra-Kermanshahi, R; Moosavi-nejad, Z

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Lipases are particularly important due to the fact that they specifically hydrolyze acyl glycerol, oils and greases, which is of great interest for different industrial applications. Materialst and Methods In this study, several lipase-producing bacteria were isolated from wastewater of an oil processing plant. The strain possessing the highest lipase activity was identified both biochemically and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Then we increase lipase activity by improving conditions of production medium. Also, lipase from this strain was preliminarily characterized for use in industrial application. Results The 16S rRNA sequensing revealed it as a new strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the type strain was KM110. An overall 3-fold enhanced lipase production (0.76 U mL−1) was achieved after improving conditions of production medium. The olive oil and peptone was found to be the most suitable substrate for maximum enzyme production. Also the enzyme exhibited maximum lipolytic activity at 45°C where it was also stably maintained. At pH 8.0, the lipase had the highest stability but no activity. It was active over a pH range of 7.0–10.0. The lipase activity was inhibited by Zn2+ & Cu2+ (32 and 27%, respectively) at 1mM. The enzyme lost 29% of its initial activity in 1.0% SDS concentration, whereas, Triton X-100, Tween-80 & DMSO did not significantly inhibit lipase activity. Conclusions Based on the findings of present study, lipase of P. aeruginosa KM110 is a potential alkaline lipase and a candidate for industrial applications such as detergent, leather and fine chemical industries. PMID:22347589

  16. Empirical modeling the topside ion density around 600 km based on ROCSAT-1 satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Libo; Huijun Le, lake709.; Chen, Yiding; Wan, Weixing; Huang, He

    ROCSAT-1 satellite was operated in circular orbit at an altitude of 600 km with an inclination of 35 degree during the period from 1999 to 2004. Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument (IPEI) on board the satellite includes an Ion Trap (IT), which was mainly used to measure the total ion concentration. An empirical model of ion density was constructed by using the data obtained from IT with the temporal resolution of 1s in the range of solar proxy P10.7 from 100 to 240sfu under relatively quiet geomagnetic conditions (Ap≤22). The model describes the ion density variations as functions of local time, day of year, solar activity level, longitude, and height within the altitude range of 560-660 km. An outstanding merit of the model is that it can take the altitude variation of the electron density into account. The model reproduces the ROCSAT-1 ion density accurately with 0.141 root mean square error (RMSE), performing better than International Reference Ionosphere 2007 (IRI2007) with 5.986 RMSE. Furthermore, we use it to predict ion density observed within the similar ROCSAT-1 altitudes, such as the Japanese HINOTORI satellite, to further validate our model. The comparisons show the relative error of 94.5% data located in ±5% and more than 99% data located in ±15%. The model provides a way to describe temporal and spatial variation of topside ion density. It can capture the variations of ion density under given conditions (including height), without doing altitude normalization before modeling. With this model, it is more conducive to understand the climatological features of topside ion density. Acknowledgements: Ionosonde data are provided from BNOSE of IGGCAS. This research was supported by the projects of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KZZD-EW-01-3), National Key Basic Research Program of China (2012CB825604), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41231065, 41174137).

  17. A low Km nucleoside 3'(2'),5-bisphosphate 3'(2')-phosphohydrolase from rat liver.

    PubMed

    Meireles Ribeiro, J; Ruiz, A; Sillero, A; Günther Sillero, M A

    1990-04-01

    In the course of an investigation on the occurrence in rat liver of a specific hydrolytic activity on adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate, a nucleoside 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate 3'(2')-phosphohydrolase was purified following standard procedures. The enzyme hydrolyzes the phosphate group joined to the 3' or the 2' position of the following nucleotides (relative velocities indicated in brackets): PAdoP (100), PCydP (95), PGuoP (80), PAdo2'P (40), PdAdoP (4), SPAdoP (18). Other nucleotides were not substrates of the reaction: NADP+, PAdoPP, PPGuoP, AdoP, PAdo, GuoP, PGuo, ADP, ATP, cAMP, adenosine(3')phospho(5')adenosine. The Km values determined for PAdoP and PAdo2'P were 10 and 7 microM, respectively. Two isoforms were separated by chromatography on a Mono Q column. Both isoforms were kinetically indistinguishable, presenting a pI value of 5.35, a molecular mass of 38 kDa, pH optimum of 8.0, and strictly required Mg2+ or Mn2+. An enzymatic activity similar to the one described here has already been reported in guinea pig liver [5]. These authors however only obtained 1 enzymatic form with Km values of 3.1 and 1.8 mM for PAdoP and PAdo2'P, respectively. The potential physiological role of this enzyme in the metabolism of sulphate is also considered. The previously registered number EC 3.1.3.7 could be applied to this activity. PMID:2166593

  18. Properties of the -513 km/s Ejecta in the Spectrum of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danks, A. C.; Gull, T. R.; Vieira, G. L.; Johansson, S.

    2002-12-01

    In the spectral region 2400-3160A of Eta Carinae, we have identified approximately 500 absorption lines each with up to twenty velocity components.The -512 km/s component is truely unique as 1) the typical line width is <3 km/s, 2) the identified lines are in Fe I, Fe II, V II and Ti II, and 3) the lines originate from lower levels up to 2000 cm-1 above the ground level. We have measured the velocity centers, full width at half maximum and equivalent widths for approximately 100 absorption lines. Initial results were very confusing as we found more variation in central velocities than would be expected from known STIS echelle wavelength standards. Upon further review, we found that the reporteded wavelengths in the NIST and Kurucz databases were not sufficiently accurate. S. Johansson searched FTS laboratory measurements performed at Lund for V II and Ti II and provided much improved wavelength measures. Likewise, we find more variation in column density than expected statistically from the accuracy of the equivalent widths for lines originating from the same energy level. We are reviewing the published gf values and our measurements to improve the measured column densities. Some spectroscopy of the ejecta has already been accomplished at two different epochs. Preliminary measures of equivalent widths indicate there may be some variation with time, but we await measurements planned for July 2003 during the upcoming spectroscopic minimum of Eta Carinae. These observations were accomplished through STScI and funding was from STIS GTO resources.

  19. Letter of intent for KM3NeT 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D’Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz García, A. F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fassi, F.; Favali, P.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Filippidis, C.; Frascadore, G.; Fusco, L. A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C. M. F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E. N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M. Lindsey; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G. E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-08-01

    The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are (i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and (ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: (1) the high-energy astrophysical neutrino signal reported by IceCube and (2) the sizable contribution of electron neutrinos to the third neutrino mass eigenstate as reported by Daya Bay, Reno and others. To meet these objectives, the KM3NeT Collaboration plans to build a new Research Infrastructure consisting of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. A phased and distributed implementation is pursued which maximises the access to regional funds, the availability of human resources and the synergistic opportunities for the Earth and sea sciences community. Three suitable deep-sea sites are selected, namely off-shore Toulon (France), Capo Passero (Sicily, Italy) and Pylos (Peloponnese, Greece). The infrastructure will consist of three so-called building blocks. A building block comprises 115 strings, each string comprises 18 optical modules and each optical module comprises 31 photo-multiplier tubes. Each building block thus constitutes a three-dimensional array of photo sensors that can be used to detect the Cherenkov light produced by relativistic particles emerging from neutrino interactions. Two building blocks will be sparsely configured to fully explore the IceCube signal with similar instrumented volume, different methodology, improved resolution and complementary field of view, including the galactic plane. One building block will be densely configured to precisely measure atmospheric neutrino oscillations.

  20. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - layered modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, K. W. Helen; Watremez, Louise; Louden, Keith E.; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Karner, Garry D.

    2014-05-01

    The Orphan Basin is a large, deep water basin to the east of Newfoundland and northwest of Flemish Cap, Canada. It contains a considerably wide series of rift basins that provides an excellent opportunity to study continental crustal deformations under varying degrees of extension. We present a 500-km-long P-wave velocity model across the complete rift system of the Orphan Basin, from Flemish Cap to the Bonavista Platform, using high-resolution refraction and wide-angle reflection data from 89 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS). This layered model builds on a first-arrival traveltime tomography model (Watremez et al., this session) and is formed using additional constraints from a coincident multichannel seismic reflection profile, gravity data and borehole data from three wells. The layered model helps detail deep sediment and crustal variations across this wide region of extended continental crust. The sedimentary section contains post-rift Tertiary (vp~1.7-3.5 km/s) and syn-rift Cretaceous and Jurassic (vp~4-5.4 km/s) layers within both the eastern and the western sub-basins, separated by three basement highs, suggesting that the two sub-basins may have opened during a single, extended rifting event. The crust is composed of three layers with vp of 5.4-6.1, 6.1-6.5 and 6.3-7.1 km/s of highly variable combined thicknesses, from 32 km beneath Flemish Cap and the Bonavista Platform to <10 km beneath both western and eastern sub-basins. The shape of the crustal thinning appears highly asymmetrical across the two sub-basins. Flemish Cap crust thins westward within the eastern sub-basin into a narrow zone (35 km) of hyperextended crust (<10 km thick) beneath an 8-km-deep sedimentary basin. In contrast, the Bonavista Platform crust thins eastward within the western sub-basin into a wider zone (116 km) of hyperextended crust. Separating the two rift basins is a central section with two distinctive zones of thicker (10-16 km) crust, where muted topography characterizes the

  1. Africa-wide water balance estimation using remote sensing and global weather datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, G. B.; Pengra, B.; Bohms, S.; Singh, A.; Verdin, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    The continent of Africa encompasses diverse ecological systems - from desert to equatorial forest - with major rivers flowing in different directions such as the Congo, Niger, Nile, Senegal and Zambezi. A lack of consistent data or access to important data sets such as rainfall, stream flow and evapotranspiration has been a barrier to developing Africa-wide water atlas in the past. We used globally available and consistent weather and remotely sensed datasets to estimate annual average (2001-2009) actual evapotranspiration (ET) at 1 km scale for the entire continent from the 8-day ET estimates using the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model. Thermal and optical remotely sensed data from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor were used. Annual rainfall was generated from the widely used climatological monthly rainfall summaries developed by FAO (1961-1990) at 10 km resolution. Spatially explicit annual water balance was calculated as the difference between annual rainfall and actual ET at 1 km resolution. The result was summarized by major river basins to estimate the relative contribution of the riparian countries in the basin. From this study, we estimated the total annual runoff depth for Africa to be a depth of 142.5 mm or 4,483 km3 (using a continental area of 30.65 km2). This figure compares within 4 percent of an average runoff estimate reported in the literature.

  2. Hard X-ray Polarimetry With Wide Band Laue Lens Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, E.

    2011-09-01

    Polarimetry is today considered a key observational parameter which can be used to help solve important scientific issues that are still open in the hard X-ray domain (above 10 keV). Therefore the ability to perform high sensitivity polarisation measurements has become a mandatory requirement for the next generation of space telescopes operating in this energy range. In particular the development of new high energy focusing optics, such as wide band Laue lenses operating from ~60 keV up to several hundred keV, with their 50-100 times better sensitivity with respect to current instrumentation, opens a real possibility to make hard X-ray polarimetry an almost standard measurement. Hard X-ray polarimetry can be performed using highly segmented focal plane detectors operated as scattering polarimeters. In this work we summarize results obtained by our group in a series of experiments with CZT/CdTe pixel detector prototypes operating as scattering polarimeters in the range between ~100-700 keV as well as Montecarlo evaluations of the achievable performance in polarisation measurements for Laue lens telescopes using focal planes based on CdTe/CZT pixel detectors.

  3. On the 300km discontinuity with Conversion Phases SdP in the Tonga-Fiji Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Sui, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Conversion phases SdP are powerful for retrieving information of velocity interfaces of deep structure of Earth's interior. The high sensitivity seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) has about 800 seismometers which can provide digital waveform data from since 2004 through internet. The difference between the focal depths and the depth of 300 km discontinuity determines the sizes of Fresnel zones at the discontinuity for the waveform data from the seismic network, so seismic waveform of six earthquakes with depths from 145 to 220km between 2004 and 2011 beneath Tonga-Fiji region are retrieved from Hi-net (www.hinet.bosai.go.jp). The magnitudes of the events used are Mb 5.0-5.7 which means there are good signal-noise ratios and relatively simple source time functions. In this study, the focal depths determined with pP phases are provided by EHB database for those before 2006 and www.globalcmt.org for those after that year. After filtering with 0.2-1.0Hz (e.g. Castle and Creager, JGR, 2000) and manually selection, waveform data are divided to 5-8 groups related to the regional locations of seismometers and proceeded with N-th root slant-stack method, then we can get the related vespegram in differential time vs slowness. There are 38 vespegrams for 6 events. From the vespegrams, the conversion phases are picked according to the references of the theoretical values of the differential times and slownesses. The parameters read from vespegrams are inverted with IASP91 model to the depths and locations of conversion points. The conversion points related to 300 km discontinuity are distributed from 302 to 328km in the Fuji-Tonga region. For the vespegrams from one certain event but sub-networks, the depth variation are less than 20 km, mostly are less than 11km. Especially, the depth variation of the event 6 are just 8 km. So in the square region with 200 * 300 km, the lateral variation of the depth of the 300 km discontinuity is relatively small. Comparing with the former

  4. Crustal structure of the NE Rockall Trough from wide-angle seismic data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KlingelhöFer, F.; Edwards, R. A.; Hobbs, R. W.; England, R. W.

    2005-11-01

    Two wide-angle seismic lines located in the northern Rockall Trough were acquired in May 2000. One line (line E) crosses the trough from the continental shelf off Lewis to normal oceanic crust west of Lousy Bank in NW-SE direction. The other line (line D) intersects with line E, crosses the Wyville-Thomson Ridge in a SW-NE direction and ends in the Faeroe-Shetland Basin. Sonobuoy data and expanding spread profiles acquired in the same area have been remodeled. Analysis of the seismic data using travel times and amplitudes reveals an up to 5 km thick sedimentary basin including an up to 1.5 km thick basaltic layer which is present in most of the trough. Further conclusions of this study are that the Rockall Trough is underlain by highly stretched continental crust of ˜13 km thickness. The crust thickens to ˜24 km beneath Lousy Bank, which is interpreted to be of continental nature. Beneath the Hebrides continental shelf a three-layer continental crust of 26 km is modeled. An up to 12 km thick high-velocity layer is observed underneath the ocean-continent boundary and is interpreted as magmatic underplating resulting from excess volcanism during rifting. No evidence for an underplate layer could be distinguished beneath the trough area. Modeling of the structure of the Wyville-Thomson Ridge revealed no existing igneous core of the ridge confirming existing theories, that it is a compressional structure.

  5. Monitoring Long-term Regional Changes in the Arctic and Antarctic with AVHRR 5 km Polar Pathfinder Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, J.; Fowler, C.; Scambos, T.

    2001-12-01

    This project illustrates applications of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 5 km Polar Pathfinder data in large-scale climate studies for the Arctic and Antarctica. The National Snow and Ice Data center (NSIDC) archives and distributes AVHRR Polar Pathfinder data at 1.25 km and 5 km resolution. The 5 km data include five AVHRR channels, clear sky surface broadband albedo and skin temperature, solar zenith angle, satellite elevation angle, sun-satellite relative azimuth angle, surface type mask, cloud mask, and Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) of acquisition. Data are composited onto two grids per day based on common local solar times and scan angle. Temporal coverage is from July 1981 to August 1998. AVHRR 5 km data provide a time series of consistent observations. The temporal coverage is designed to provide information on diurnal variations and seasonal-to-interannual evolution in climate and surface conditions. The 5 km products are useful for studies of regional changes and monitoring over longer time periods. Applications of 5 km products are illustrated by: (1) monitoring a time series of coastline changes along the Northern West Antarctic coast, (2) measuring mean monthly and interannual melt patterns in the South Dome of Greenland with a transect of reflectance and surface temperature observations, and (3) monitoring interannual albedo and temperature patterns of selected small lakes in the Northwest Territories of Canada.

  6. Atmospheric Solar Absorption measurements in the lowest 3-km of the atmosphere with small UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, M. V.; Ramanathan, V.; Roberts, G.; Corrigan, C.; Nguyen, H. V.; McFarquhar, G.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports unique measurements of atmospheric solar absorption and heating rates in the visible (0.4- 0.7 Ým) and broadband (0.3-2.8 Ým) spectral regions using vertically stacked multiple light weight autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the Maldives autonomous UAV campaign (MAC). The UAVs and ground based remote sensing instruments determined most of the parameters required for calculating the albedo and vertical distribution of solar fluxes. Measured fluxes have been compared with those derived from a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer algorithm which can incorporate both gaseous and aerosol components. The analysis focuses on a cloud-free day when the air was polluted due to long range transport from India, and the mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) was 0.31 and mean single scattering albedo was 0.92. The UAV measured absorption AOD was 0.019 which agreed within 20% of the value of 0.024 reported by a ground based instrument. The observed and simulated solar absorption agreed within 5% above 1.0 km and aerosol absorption accounted for 30% to 50% of the absorption depending upon the altitude and solar zenith angle. Thus there was no need to invoke anomalous or excess absorption or unknown physics in clear skies, provided we account for aerosol black carbon. The diurnal mean absorption values for altitudes between 0.5 and 3.0 km msl were observed to be 41¡Ó3 Wm-2 (1.5 K/day) in the broadband region and 8¡Ó2 Wm-2 (0.3 K/day) in the visible region. Future investigations into the atmospheric absorption in cloudy skies will characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the cloudy atmosphere in sufficient detail to simulate the vertical distribution of net solar fluxes to permit comparison with the collected radiative observations. This next phase will utilize 4 stacked UAVs to observe the extended cloud decks off the coast of California. A combination of observations and models will then be used to assess if the amount of solar absorption

  7. Cardiac Troponin T and I Release After a 30-km Run.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Luyten, Peter; van der Linden, Noreen; Urgel, Kim; Snijders, Daniëlle P C; Knackstedt, Christian; Dennert, Robert; Kietselaer, Bastiaan L J H; Mingels, Alma M A; Cardinaels, Eline P M; Peeters, Frederique E C M; van Suijlen, Jeroen D E; Ten Kate, Joop; Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L; Sluimer, Judith C; Wouters, Kristiaan; Bekers, Otto; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M; van Loon, Luc J C; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Meex, Steven J R

    2016-07-15

    Prolonged endurance-type exercise is associated with elevated cardiac troponin (cTn) levels in asymptomatic recreational athletes. It is unclear whether exercise-induced cTn release mirrors a physiological or pathological underlying process. The aim of this study was to provide a direct comparison of the release kinetics of high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI) and T (hs-cTnT) after endurance-type exercise. In addition, the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), a cardioprotective strategy that limits ischemia-reperfusion injury, was investigated in a randomized controlled crossover manner. Twenty-five healthy volunteers completed an outdoor 30-km running trial preceded by RIPC (4 × 5 min 220 mm Hg unilateral occlusion) or control intervention. hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and sensitive cTnI (s-cTnI) concentrations were examined before, immediately after, 2 and 5 hours after the trial. The completion of a 30-km run resulted in a significant increase in circulating cTn (time: all p <0.001), with maximum hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and s-cTnI levels of 47 ± 27, 69 ± 62, and 82 ± 64 ng/L (mean ± SD), respectively. Maximum hs-cTnT concentrations were measured in 60% of the participants at 2 hours after exercise, compared with maximum hs-cTnI and s-cTnI concentrations at 5 hours in 84% and 80% of the participants. Application of an RIPC stimulus did not reduce exercise-induced cTn release (time × trial: all p >0.5). In conclusion, in contrast to acute myocardial infarction, maximum hs-cTnT levels after exercise precede maximum hs-cTnI levels. Distinct release kinetics of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI and the absence of an effect of RIPC favors the concept that exercise-induced cTn release may be mechanistically distinct from cTn release in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27282835

  8. Cultivation of methanogenic community from 2-km deep subseafloor coalbeds using a continuous-flow bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imachi, H.; Tasumi, E.; Morono, Y.; Ito, M.; Takai, K.; Inagaki, F.

    2013-12-01

    Deep subseafloor environments associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs have been least explored by previous scientific drilling and hence the nature of deep subseafloor life and its ecological roles in the carbon cycle remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed cultivation of subseafloor methanogenic communities using a continuous-flow bioreactor with polyurethane sponges, called down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor. The sample used for the reactor cultivation was obtained from 2 km-deep coalbeds off the Shimokita Peninsula of Japan, the northwestern Pacific, during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 337 using a riser drilling technology of the drilling vessel Chikyu. The coalbed samples were incubated anaerobically in the DHS reactor at the in-situ temperature of 40°C. Synthetic seawater supplemented with a tiny amount of yeast extract, acetate, propionate and butyrate was provided into the DHS reactor. After 34 days of the bioreactor operation, a small production of methane was observed. The methane concentration was gradually increased and the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane was consistency 13C-depleted during the bioreactor operation, indicating the occurrence of microbial methanogenesis. Microscopic observation showed that the enrichment culture contained a variety of microorganisms, including methanogen-like rod-shaped cells with F420 auto-fluorescence. Interestingly, many spore-like particles were observed in the bioreactor enrichment. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed the growth of phylogenetically diverse bacteria and archaea in the DHS reactor. Predominant archaeal components were closely related to hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the genus Methanobacterium. Some predominant bacteria were related to the spore-formers within the class Clostridia, which are overall in good agreement with microscopic observations. By analyzing ion images using a nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano

  9. Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Mark; Pattison, John R; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Patterson, Stephen D; Foley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute supplementation effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on 20-km cycling time trial performance. Using a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind Latin-square design, 14 competitive female cyclists (age: 31 ± 7 years; height: 1.69 ± 0.07 m; body mass: 61.6 ± 6.0 kg) completed four 20-km time trials on a racing bicycle fitted to a turbo trainer. Approximately 2.5 hours before each trial, subjects consumed a 70-ml dose of concentrated beetroot juice containing either 0.45 g of dietary nitrate or with the nitrate content removed (placebo). One hour before each trial, subjects consumed a capsule containing either 5 mg·kg of caffeine or maltodextrin (placebo). There was a significant effect of supplementation on power output (p = 0.001), with post hoc tests revealing higher power outputs in caffeine (205 ± 21 W) vs. nitrate (194 ± 22 W) and placebo (194 ± 25 W) trials only. Caffeine-induced improvements in power output corresponded with significantly higher measures of heart rate (caffeine: 166 ± 12 b·min vs. placebo: 159 ± 15 b·min; p = 0.02), blood lactate (caffeine: 6.54 ± 2.40 mmol·L vs. placebo: 4.50 ± 2.11 mmol·L; p < 0.001), and respiratory exchange ratio (caffeine: 0.95 ± 0.04 vs. placebo: 0.91 ± 0.05; p = 0.03). There were no effects (p ≥ 0.05) of supplementation on cycling cadence, rating of perceived exertion, (Equation is included in full-text article.), or integrated electromyographic activity. The results of this study support the well-established beneficial effects of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. In contrast, acute supplementation with dietary nitrate seems to have no effect on endurance performance and adds nothing to the benefits afforded by caffeine supplementation. PMID:24978834

  10. Risk of Hypothermia in a New Olympic Event: the 10-km Marathon Swim

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Renata R. T.; Mendes, Fernanda SNS; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio L.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are no available data addressing the potential clinical risks of open-water swimming competitions. OBJECTIVE: Address the risks of hypothermia and hypoglycemia during a 10-km open-water swimming competition in order to alert physicians to the potential dangers of this recently-introduced Olympic event. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study, conducted during a 10-km open-water event (water temperature 21°C). The highest ranked elite open-water swimmers in Brazil (7 men, 5 women; ages 21±7 years old) were submitted to anthropometrical measurements on the day before competition. All but one athlete took maltodextrine ad libitum during the competition. Core temperature and capillary glycemia data were obtained before and immediately after the race. RESULTS: Most athletes (83%) finished the race with mild to moderate hypothermia (core temperature <35°C). The body temperature drop was more pronounced in female athletes (4.2±0.7°C vs. male: 2.7±0.8°C; p=0.040). When data from the athlete who did not take maltodextrine was excluded, capillary glycemia increased among athletes (pre 86.6±8.9 mg/dL; post 105.5±26.9 mg/dL; p=0.014). Time to complete the race was inversely related to pre- competition body temperature in men (r=−0.802; p=0.030), while it was inversely correlated with the change in capillary glycemia in women (r=−0.898; p=0.038). CONCLUSION: Hypothermia may occur during open-water swimming events even in elite athletes competing in relatively warm water. Thus, core temperature must be a chief concern of any physician during an open-water swim event. Capillary glycemia may have positive effects on performance. Further studies that include more athletes in a controlled setting are warranted. PMID:19488594

  11. A modified density model of the Venus atmosphere at 130-200 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Grotheer, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    Until recently the only information on the structure of the polar upper atmosphere of Venus available has been based on the reference atmosphere models such as the VTS3 or VIRA models. These models extrapolate the values from low latitudes to high latitudes by using equivalent solar zenith angles. New measurements by Venus Express show that such extrapolations not always give correct results and that there is a permanent overestimate of the density at high latitudes. These new results have been reached by using two different but related techniques, both using an atmospheric drag effect on the spacecraft. By reducing the pericentre altitude the total mass density in the altitude range 150-200km can be measured in situ by monitoring the orbital decay caused by the drag on the spacecraft by the atmosphere via direct tracking of the Doppler signal on the telecommunication link. Such measurements have been performed with Venus Express several times during the last years as part of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE). The results indicate a large variability within only a few days and have led to questions if these variations are real or within the uncertainty of the measurements. A completely different and independent measurement is given by monitoring the torque asserted by the atmosphere on the spacecraft. This is done by monitoring the momentum accumulated in the reaction wheels during the pericenter pass and at the same time considering all other perturbing forces. This requires the spacecraft to fly in an asymmetric configuration with respect to the center of gravity, center of drag and the velocity vector. This technique has proven very sensitive, in particular if the geometric asymmetry is large, and offers an additional method of measuring atmospheric densities in-situ that previously had not been explored with the Venus Express spacecraft. Similar measurements have been done in the past by Magellan at Venus and by Cassini at Titan. Between

  12. COLLISIONAL EVOLUTION OF ULTRA-WIDE TRANS-NEPTUNIAN BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Alex H.; Kavelaars, J. J.

    2012-01-10

    The widely separated, near-equal mass binaries hosted by the cold classical Kuiper Belt are delicately bound and subject to disruption by many perturbing processes. We use analytical arguments and numerical simulations to determine their collisional lifetimes given various impactor size distributions and include the effects of mass loss and multiple impacts over the lifetime of each system. These collisional lifetimes constrain the population of small (R {approx}> 1 km) objects currently residing in the Kuiper Belt and confirm that the size distribution slope at small size cannot be excessively steep-likely q {approx}< 3.5. We track mutual semimajor axis, inclination, and eccentricity evolution through our simulations and show that it is unlikely that the wide binary population represents an evolved tail of the primordially tight binary population. We find that if the wide binaries are a collisionally eroded population, their primordial mutual orbit planes must have preferred to lie in the plane of the solar system. Finally, we find that current limits on the size distribution at small radii remain high enough that the prospect of detecting dust-producing collisions in real time in the Kuiper Belt with future optical surveys is feasible.

  13. Sudbury Breccia and suevite as glacial indicators transported 800 km to Kentland Astrobleme, Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchone, John F.; Dietz, Robert S.; Peredery, Walter V.

    1992-01-01

    A glacial erratic whose place of origin is known by direct comparison with bedrock is known as an indicator. In 1971, while visiting the known astrobleme at Kentland, Indiana, Peredery recognized and sampled in the overlying glacial drift deposits a distinctive boulder of Sudbury suevite (black member, Onaping Formation) that normally occurs within the Sudbury Basin as an impact fall-back or wash-in deposit. The rock was sampled (but later mislaid) from a farmer's cairn next to a cleared field. Informal reports of this discovery prompted the other authors to recently reconnoiter the Kentland locality in an attempt to relocate the original boulder. Several breccia blocks were sampled but laboratory examination proved most of these probably to be diamictites from the Precambrian Gowganda Formation, which outcrops extensively in the southern Ontario. However, one sample was confirmed as typical Sudbury Breccia, which outcrops in the country rock surrounding the Sudbury Basin. Thus two glacial indicators were transported by Pleistocene continental glaciers about 820 km over a tightly proscribed path and, curiously, from one astrobleme to another. Brecciated boulders in the Illinois/Indiana till plain are usually ascribed to the Gowganda or Mississagi formations in Ontario. But impact-generated rocks need not be confused. The carbonaceous matrix of the suevite, for example, was sufficiently distinctive to assign it to the upper portion of the black Onaping. The unique and restricted source area of these indicators provide an accurate and reliable control for estimating Pleistocene ice movement.

  14. Near-Cloud Aerosol Properties from the 1 Km Resolution MODIS Ocean Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnai, Tamas; Marshak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study examines aerosol properties in the vicinity of clouds by analyzing high-resolution atmospheric correction parameters provided in the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color product. The study analyzes data from a 2 week long period of September in 10 years, covering a large area in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The results indicate that on the one hand, the Quality Assessment (QA) flags of the ocean color product successfully eliminate cloud-related uncertainties in ocean parameters such as chlorophyll content, but on the other hand, using the flags introduces a sampling bias in atmospheric products such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Angstrom exponent. Therefore, researchers need to select QA flags by balancing the risks of increased retrieval uncertainties and sampling biases. Using an optimal set of QA flags, the results reveal substantial increases in optical thickness near clouds-on average the increase is 50% for the roughly half of pixels within 5 km from clouds and is accompanied by a roughly matching increase in particle size. Theoretical simulations show that the 50% increase in 550nm AOT changes instantaneous direct aerosol radiative forcing by up to 8W/m2 and that the radiative impact is significantly larger if observed near-cloud changes are attributed to aerosol particles as opposed to undetected cloud particles. These results underline that accounting for near-cloud areas and understanding the causes of near-cloud particle changes are critical for accurate calculations of direct aerosol radiative forcing.

  15. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model for Weather Support to the United States Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John; Nutter, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) conducted a year-long evaluation of NCEP's 29-km mesoscale Eta (meso-eta) weather prediction model in order to identify added value to forecast operations in support of the United States space program. The evaluation was stratified over warm and cool seasons and considered both objective and subjective verification methodologies. Objective verification results generally indicate that meso-eta model point forecasts at selected stations exhibit minimal error growth in terms of RMS errors and are reasonably unbiased. Conversely, results from the subjective verification demonstrate that model forecasts of developing weather events such as thunderstorms, sea breezes, and cold fronts, are not always as accurate as implied by the seasonal error statistics. Sea-breeze case studies reveal that the model generates a dynamically-consistent thermally direct circulation over the Florida peninsula, although at a larger scale than observed. Thunderstorm verification reveals that the meso-eta model is capable of predicting areas of organized convection, particularly during the late afternoon hours but is not capable of forecasting individual thunderstorms. Verification of cold fronts during the cool season reveals that the model is capable of forecasting a majority of cold frontal passages through east central Florida to within +1-h of observed frontal passage.

  16. Capture of Cometary Dust Grains in Impacts at 6.1 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, M. J.; Foster, N.; Kearsley, A.; Wozniakiewicz, P.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 collected grains of cometary dust freshly ejected from the comet during a fly-by at a speed of 6.1 km s-1. These were captured on aluminum foils and in blocks of silica aerogel. The dust underwent a severe shock during capture. The nature of the shock process depends on the properties of the dust and the collecting media. On the aluminium, the shock process and impact damage is typical of that between high-density (or hard materials) at high velocity, resulting in craters lined with impactor residues. The peak shock pressures are estimated at 60-80 GPa. Two main crater types are seen, simple bowl shaped and multiple pit craters: these reflect the degree of consolidation of the original dust grain. Capture in the low density aerogel was via a more gradual slowing of the dust grains accompanied by a variety of effects on the grains (complete break up of weak grains vs. ablation of well consolidated grains). The relation between the structure of the dust grains and the resulting impact features in both collector materials is discussed.

  17. Practical Point-to-Point Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution over 1/2 KM

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.; Lamoreaux, S.K.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.

    1999-02-01

    We have demonstrated point-to-point single-photon quantum key distribution (QKD) over a free-space optical path of {approximately}475 m under daylight conditions. This represents an increase of >1,000 times farther than any reported point-to-point demonstration, and >6 times farther than the previous folded path daylight demonstration. We expect to extend the daylight range to 2 km or more within the next few months. A brief description of the system is given here. The QKD transmitter, a.k.a. ''Alice'' (Fig. 1), consists of three thermoelectrically cooled diode lasers, a single interference filter (IF), two optical attenuators, two linear polarizers, two non-polarization beam-splitters (BSs), and a 27x beam expander. The two data-lasers' (dim-lasers') wavelengths are temperature controlled and constrained by the IF to {approximately}773 {+-} 0.5 nm, while the transmitted wavelength of the bright-laser (timing-laser) is {approximately}768 nm; the data-lasers are configured to emit a weak pulse of approximately 1 ns duration. The transmitter incorporates no active polarization switching--a first in QKD.

  18. The Manaus Dual Flux Tower Experience: Rainforest ecophysiological heterogeneities in a 10 km Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, A. D.; Araujo, A. C.; Kruijt, B.; Dallarosa, R.

    2001-12-01

    Superficially rainforests appear very similar throughout the Amazon, but the region consists of a number of very distinct climatic sub-regions with very high spatial variability in species composition and physiognomy, underlined by pronounced small-scale differences in geomorphology and soils. Most FLUXNET sites represent land cover with a single tower per ecosystem type, assuming that the tower footprint encompasses a range of ecophysiological variations significantly representative of that ecosystem. In comparing two years of eddyflux data since 1999 from two LBA towers located 11 km apart on the same type of rainforest, we found striking differences in NEE (net CO2 ecosystem exchange), which could not be attributed to instrument errors or calibration problems. On analysing topography and vegetation we concluded that the flux differences could be ascribed to vegetation differences, mainly determined by areal extent of high land versus low land, which apparently leads to the definition of contrasting forest dimensions and densities. Directional NEE analysis provided additional evidence that low land waterlogged forests could be much less productive than upland forests, helping in the explanation of the differences between the towers. Our findings indicate that the single tower-per-ecosystem (i.e. forest vs non-forest) or macro-region approach, although appropriated for low biomass and/or low diversity ecosystems, might not represent well the heterogeneities of the Amazonian rainforest in finer scales.

  19. Equatorial ozone profiles from the ground to 52 km during the Southern Hemisphere autumn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Holland, Alfred C.; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an ozone measurement campaign conducted at Natal, Brazil from March 25 to April 15, 1985 are reported. Complete profiles of ozone, pressure, and temperature were obtained from the ground to 52 km, and all of the profiles correspond with site overpasses by ozone instruments on NASA and NOAA satellites. The profiles from this measurement series show reasonable agreement with established satellite climatologies. Stratospheric ozone variability was 2 percent or less during the 3 weeks of the measurement campaign, with stratospheric temperature and pressure variabilities half that amount. Low variability at a single location for this period implies comparable uniformity for ozone profiles over a large area around the measurement site. The auxiliary pressure and temperature profiles presented here allow the use of this data set as a transfer standard between satellite instruments with different fundamental ozone measurements. Finally, the low ozone variability in the stratosphere at Natal during this measurement series should provide an opportunity for high-quality intercomparisons of measured and modeled ozone concentrations in the equatorial stratosphere and lower mesosphere as well as a consistency check among satellite ozone measurements.

  20. No fluid overload in male ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Senn, Oliver; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Joleska, Irena; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the change in body composition and hydration status in 27 male ultra-runners during a 100 km ultra-run. The athletes drank fluids ad libitum during the run; intake of calories, fluids, and electrolytes during performance were determined. Body mass decreased by 1.9 kg, haematocrit decreased, plasma [Na(+)] remained unchanged, and urinary specific gravity and plasma volume increased. Fluid intake was 0.52 (0.18) L/h and was related to running speed (r = 0.50; p = 0.0081). Δ body mass was associated with total fluid intake during the race (r = 0.49, p = 0.0095). Sodium intake amounted to 425 (478) mg/h and potassium intake to 140 (179) mg/h. Sodium and potassium intake were not related to either postrace concentration or change in plasma concentration. Sodium intake, however, was related to Δ urinary sodium concentration (r = 0.45, p = 0.0227). The increase in plasma volume was significantly and negatively related to both postrace plasma [Na(+)] (r = - 0.42, p = 0.0278) and the postrace potassium-to-sodium ratio in urine (r = - 0.44, p = 0.0218). To conclude, we found no fluid overload in these ultra-runners, the increase in plasma volume was most probably due to a stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) since sodium intake was not related to both the change in plasma [Na(+)] or postrace plasma [Na(+)]. PMID:21253973

  1. [Signs of extreme vagotonia in the electrocardiogram of an Olympic 5km running champion].

    PubMed

    Chrástek, J

    2002-12-01

    Hypokinesia (lack of exercise)--a disease caused by lack of physical activity leads among others to a predominance of the sympathetic nerve in the circulation. Its manifestations are briefly described according to Kraus-Raab's hypothesis of 1961. The opposite of a hypokinetic man are trained (hyperkinetic) sportsmen, in particular long-distance runners. Their neurovegetative balance is shifted to the side of the vagus (parasympathetic nerve). This is described as training vagotonia. On the example of ECG tracings of an Olympic 5 km runner, the Tunisian Mohamed Gammoudi, the author describes its manifestations at rest, during the orthostatic test and during work, i.e. the step test. These manifestations include in particular bradycardia of 32 beats per minute, prolonged atrioventricular conduction > 0.2 sec., a long period of the electric systole = 0.44 sec. and an enormously prolonged electric diastole T-P = 1.1 sec. This long diastolic filling stage makes it possible in particular during physical work to increase the systolic and diastolic output to double the values of a healthy non-trained heart. Training vagotonia is usually not the source for manifestation of dangerous arrhythmias, as it may be the case in constitutional vagotonia. So far expert comparison of these two types of change to parasympathic tonus is lacking, similarly as a comparative study with medicamentously influenced vagotonia by means of beta-blockers. PMID:12744051

  2. Organic geochemistry of the 9.6 km Bertha Rogers No. 1. well, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Clayton, J.L.; Rumen, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Organic geochemical analyses of fine-grained rocks from the 9.590 km Bertha Rogers No. 1 well have been carried out: total organic carbon, Soxhlet extraction and silica gel chromatography, C15+ saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, kerogen analysis, X-ray diffraction and visual kerogen analysis. Rocks ranged in age from Permian to Ordovician; the well has an estimated bottom hole temperature of 225??C. Some data from this study are inconsistent with conventional theories concerning the generation and thermal destruction of hydrocarbons. For example, appreciable amounts of C15+ gas-condensate-like hydrocarbons are present in very old rocks currently at temperatures where current theory predicts that only methane and graphite should remain. Also, substantial amounts of pyrolyzable C15+ hydrocarbons remain on the kerogen in these deeply buried Paleozoic rocks. This suggests, at least in somes cases, that temperatures much higher than those predicted by current theory are required for generation and thermal destruction of hydrocarbons. The data from this well also suggest that original composition of organic matter and environment of deposition may have a much stronger influence on the organic geochemical characteristics of fine-grained sediments than has previously been ascribed to them. The results from this well, from other deep hot wells in which temperatures exceed 200??C, and from laboratory experiments, suggest that some of the basic concepts of the generation and maturation of petroleum hydrocarbons may be in error and perhaps should be reexamined. ?? 1981.

  3. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue O O; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 10(5) sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  4. Teichoic acid and lipid metabolism during sporulation of Bacillus megaterium KM.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, K; Simion, F A; Ellar, D J

    1982-01-01

    The biochemistry of teichoic acid and lipid metabolism has been studied during sporulation of Bacillus megaterium KM. Measurements of cell-wall and membrane teichoic acid have shown that net synthesis of these polymers ceases at the onset of sporulation. Pulse-labelling studies show that the period of asymmetric septation and forespore engulfment is marked by an initiation of turnover of membrane teichoic acid but not of wall teichoic acid. This is reflected in the presence of inner-membrane teichoic acid and the virtual absence of wall teichoic acid in dormant spores. The total amount of lipid phosphorus in the sporulating cell increases by 70% as a result of asymmetric septation and subsequent engulfment of the forespore. The phosphorus requirement for this synthesis is derived from a pool formed during exponential growth, which is not exchangeable with extracellular Pi during sporulation. These results suggest that during sporulation a proportion of the glycerol 3-phosphate produced by preferential degradation of membrane teichoic acid formed during exponential growth is used for phospholipid synthesis during sporulation. PMID:6807293

  5. Ediacaran 2,500-km-long synchronous deep continental subduction in the West Gondwana Orogen.

    PubMed

    Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Joerg; Cordani, Umberto G; Caby, Renaud; Basei, Miguel A S

    2014-01-01

    The deeply eroded West Gondwana Orogen is a major continental collision zone that exposes numerous occurrences of deeply subducted rocks, such as eclogites. The position of these eclogites marks the suture zone between colliding cratons, and the age of metamorphism constrains the transition from subduction-dominated tectonics to continental collision and mountain building. Here we investigate the metamorphic conditions and age of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from Mali, Togo and NE-Brazil and demonstrate that continental subduction occurred within 20 million years over at least a 2,500-km-long section of the orogen during the Ediacaran. We consider this to be the earliest evidence of large-scale deep-continental subduction and consequent appearance of Himalayan-scale mountains in the geological record. The rise and subsequent erosion of such mountains in the Late Ediacaran is perfectly timed to deliver sediments and nutrients that are thought to have been necessary for the subsequent evolution of sustainable life on Earth. PMID:25319269

  6. Experiments on 1,000 km/s flyer acceleration and collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Kehne, D. M.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2012-10-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities achieved using the ultra-uniform deep-uv drive of the Nike KrF laser [Karasik et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010)], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce ˜1 Gbar shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Such velocities may indicate a path to lower minimum energy required for central ignition. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. New results give velocity of >1,100 km/s achieved through improvements in pulseshaping. Variation of second foil parameters results in significant change in fusion neutron production on impact. In-flight target density is inferred from target heating upon collision via DD neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Availability of pressures generated by collisions of such highly accelerated flyers may provide an experimental platform for study of matter at extreme conditions. Work is supported by US DOE (NNSA).

  7. Faster Heart Rate Recovery With Increased RPE: Paradoxical Responses After an 87-km Ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Mann, Theresa N; Platt, Cathrin E; Lamberts, Robert P; Lambert, Michael I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between heart rate recovery (HRR) and an acute training "overload" by comparing HRR responses before and after an ultramarathon road race. Ten runners completed a standardized laboratory protocol ∼7 days before and between 2 and 4 days after participating in the 87-km Comrades Marathon. The protocol included muscle pain ratings, a 5-bound test, and 20 minutes of treadmill exercise at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 15 minutes of recovery. Respiratory gases and heart rate measurements were used to calculate steady-state exercise responses, HRR, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and participants also provided a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise. The RPE was significantly increased (13 ± 2 vs. 11 ± 1) (p < 0.01), and HRR was significantly faster (35 ± 5 beats vs. 29 ± 4 beats) (p < 0.01) following the postrace vs. prerace submaximal exercise bout, with no significant changes in respiratory or heart rate parameters during exercise or in EPOC. Although previous studies have shown that faster HRR reflected an "adapted" state with enhanced training status, the current findings suggest that this may not always be the case. It follows that changes in HRR should be considered in the context of other factors, such as recent training load and RPE during submaximal exercise. PMID:25970491

  8. A new global 1-km dataset of percentage tree cover derived from remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFries, R.S.; Hansen, M.C.; Townshend, J.R.G.; Janetos, A.C.; Loveland, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the spatial extent of forest cover is a crucial requirement for quantifying the sources and sinks of carbon from the terrestrial biosphere. In the more immediate context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, implementation of the Kyoto Protocol calls for estimates of carbon stocks for a baseline year as well as for subsequent years. Data sources from country level statistics and other ground-based information are based on varying definitions of 'forest' and are consequently problematic for obtaining spatially and temporally consistent carbon stock estimates. By combining two datasets previously derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) at 1 km spatial resolution, we have generated a prototype global map depicting percentage tree cover and associated proportions of trees with different leaf longevity (evergreen and deciduous) and leaf type (broadleaf and needleleaf). The product is intended for use in terrestrial carbon cycle models, in conjunction with other spatial datasets such as climate and soil type, to obtain more consistent and reliable estimates of carbon stocks. The percentage tree cover dataset is available through the Global Land Cover Facility at the University of Maryland at http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu.

  9. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline.

    PubMed

    Jurgens, Laura J; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T; Schiebelhut, Lauren M; Dawson, Michael N; Grosberg, Richard K; Gaylord, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer), and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp.) were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus), and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species. PMID:26039349

  10. Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0 - 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Eric L.; Chandra, Sushil; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Barnett, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A monthly mean climatology is presented of temperature, wind, and geopotential height with nearly pole-to-pole coverage (80 S to 80 N) for 0 to 210 km, which can be used as a function of altitude and pressure. The purpose is to provide a reference for various atmospheric research and analysis activities. Data sources and methods of computation are described; in general, hydrostatic and thermal wind balance are maintained at all levels and latitudes. As observed in a series of cross-sectional plots, this climatology accurately reproduces most of the characteristic features of the atmosphere such as equatorial wind and the general structure of the tropopause, stratopause, and mesopause. A series of zonal wind profiles is also represented comparing this climatological wind with monthly mean climatological direct wind measurements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The temperature and zonal wind climatology at stratospheric levels is compared with corresponding data from the National Meteorological Center, and general agreement is observed between the two data sets. Tables of the climatological values as a function of latitude and height for each month are contained in Appendix B, and are also available in floppy disk.

  11. Muon and neutrino energy reconstruction for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT/ARCA is a European deep-sea research infrastructure that will host a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometers at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will search for galactic and extragalactic neutrinos from astrophysical sources like gamma ray bursts, super-novae or colliding stars. The analyses performed in large water Cherenkov detectors rely upon the reconstruction of the muon direction and energy, and consequently, those of the neutrino. The estimation of the muon energy is also critical for the differentiation of muons from neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from muons and neutrinos that have been generated in the atmosphere and constitute the detector background. The energy is derived from the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by the muons that are created during the charged current interactions of neutrinos in or in the vicinity of the detector. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of about 0.29 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  12. Compression of regions in the global advanced very high resolution radiometer 1-km data set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kess, Barbara L.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    The global advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data set is a 10-band image produced at USGS' EROS Data Center for the study of the world's land surfaces. The image contains masked regions for non-land areas which are identical in each band but vary between data sets. They comprise over 75 percent of this 9.7 gigabyte image. The mask is compressed once and stored separately from the land data which is compressed for each of the 10 bands. The mask is stored in a hierarchical format for multi-resolution decompression of geographic subwindows of the image. The land for each band is compressed by modifying a method that ignores fill values. This multi-spectral region compression efficiently compresses the region data and precludes fill values from interfering with land compression statistics. Results show that the masked regions in a one-byte test image (6.5 Gigabytes) compress to 0.2 percent of the 557,756,146 bytes they occupy in the original image, resulting in a compression ratio of 89.9 percent for the entire image.

  13. Characteristics of the 1 km AVHRR data set for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Z.-L.; Yang, L.

    1996-01-01

    The North America portion of a new global 1 km AVHRR time-series dataset was produced recently by the U.S. Geological Survey, EROS Data Center. Characteristics of the dataset were evaluated for scan-angle distribution, image area distortion as the result of map projection, distribution of high solar zenith angle, and cloud presence in image composites produced using maximum values of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The evaluation showed that the compositing procedure exhibits a bias favouring off-nadir pixels, particularly at post-nadir (forward scanning) positions in the winter months. Results for scan angle distribution and image area distortion provide a basis for calculating the data's effective minimum mapping area for various geographical locations. The amount of missing data due to large solar zenith angle effect varies from 42 per cent in January to 1 per cent in July. Cloud contaminated pixels estimated for the thirty-six 10-day composites range from 7??5 per cent in May to 1??6 per cent in November. Recompositing the North America data set from 10-day cycles to monthly cycles can effectively reduce the amount of cloudy pixels in the data.

  14. How to evacuate 10 km3 of mud: saturate with gas and decrease the pressure!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbert, Patrice; Geiss, Bernard; Fatjó de Martín, Núria

    2014-06-01

    The crest of the Absheron anticline in the South Caspian Basin at a few hundred meters below the present seafloor shows a subcircular depression about 8 km in diameter and 200 m deep, bounded by steep edges dipping 15° to 45° into it. The depression and the surrounding series are respectively filled and overlain by a regional mass-transport deposit (MTD) 150 m thick outside the depression and 300 m thick inside, composed mostly of extensional blocks. Geometric and stratigraphic analyses indicate that 150 m of initially deposited sediment were removed from a closed area after burial. Seismic evidence of shallow gas accumulations below the crater-like feature suggests that gas likely played a significant role in its development. The model proposed for the emplacement of the crater is that the gas-bearing cover of a shallow gas reservoir underwent exsolution when its overburden thinned during an episode of extensional slope failure. This resulted in loss of resistance to shear and evacuation of the gas-bearing sediment, likely at the shearing base of the failed mass. This evacuation feature is considered an example where the presence of gas locally governs the morphology of an MTD. The interpreted process shows a positive feedback between slope failure and loss of strength at the base of the resulting MTD.

  15. Near-global freshwater-specific environmental variables for biodiversity analyses in 1 km resolution.

    PubMed

    Domisch, Sami; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Jetz, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The lack of freshwater-specific environmental information at sufficiently fine spatial grain hampers broad-scale analyses in aquatic biology, biogeography, conservation, and ecology. Here we present a near-global, spatially continuous, and freshwater-specific set of environmental variables in a standardized 1 km grid. We delineate the sub-catchment for each grid cell along the HydroSHEDS river network and summarize the upstream climate, topography, land cover, surface geology and soil to each grid cell using various metrics (average, minimum, maximum, range, sum, inverse distance-weighted average and sum). All variables were subsequently averaged across single lakes and reservoirs of the Global lakes and Wetlands Database that are connected to the river network. Monthly climate variables were summarized into 19 long-term climatic variables following the 'bioclim' framework. This new set of variables provides a basis for spatial ecological and biodiversity analyses in freshwater ecosystems at near global extent, yet fine spatial grain. To facilitate the generation of freshwater variables for custom study areas and spatial grains, we provide the 'r.stream.watersheds' and 'r.stream.variables' add-ons for the GRASS GIS software. PMID:26647296

  16. A simple theory of cloud spreading at ranges from 1-2000 km

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, F.A.

    1987-01-01

    Examples support the conclusion that cloud or plume spreading in the troposphere proceeds rapidly and rather steadily for times on the order of a day or two and to distances of several hundreds of kilometers. Subsequently, possibly after a transition to the asymptotic rate of relative diffusion, the cloud begins to develop a streaky structure under the influence of the large-scale, enstrophy-cascade range of motions. The GASP spectra indicate that the transition between these two modes of spreading begins at several hundred kilometers ad is well developed by about 1000 km, in terms of spectral wavelength. The cloud streaks and patches elongate rapidly, evidently at the exponential rate, but spread laterally more slowly, at a rate that represents the effects of the conservation of cloud area under large-scale deformation and the lateral diffusion at the asymptotic rate. Although this relative diffusion occurs at a comparatively slow rate, it is very effective in reducing cloud concentrations in combination with the rapid, large-scale cloud stretching by the 2-D, enstrophy-cascade range eddies. The LANL heavy-methane cloud data indicate that the net result is very rapid decay of cloud concentration, apparently at an exponential rate.

  17. Free-space Quantum Key Distribution over 10 km in Daylight and at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard; Nordholt, Jane; Peterson, Charles

    2002-05-01

    In quantum key distribution (QKD) single-photon transmissions transfer the shared, secret random number sequences, known as cryptographic keys that are used to encrypt and decrypt secret communications. Because the security of QKD is based on principles of quantum physics and information theory an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection. We have performed QKD using the four-state Â"BB84Â" protocol with non-orthogonal photon polarization states across a 10-km line-of-sight path in daylight and at night [1]. We transferred secret, cryptographic quality random numbers at practical rates with security against technologically feasible eavesdropping strategies. By relating the secrecy capacity (secret bits transferred per transmitted bit), which had values up to 10-3, to properties of the atmospheric channel we are able to infer the secrecy capacity of free-space QKD under other atmospheric conditions and over other, longer transmission distances. 1. R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs and C. G. Peterson, Los Alamos report LA-UR-02-449.

  18. Novel FBG interrogation technique for achieving < 100 nɛ accuracies at remote distances > 70 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Tom; O'Connor, Peter; Levins, John; McDonald, David

    2005-06-01

    Due to the development of Fibre Bragg Grating sensors for the measurement of temperature, strain and pressure many markets can benefit from optical technology. These markets are the oil and gas industry, structural and civil engineering, rail and aerospace to name a few. The advantages of using optical sensing technology are that high accuracy measurements can be performed with a passive optical system. By running one fibre along the structure or down the well, multiple points along the fibre can be tested to measure strain, temperature and pressure. Of importance with these systems is the reach that can be obtained while maintaining accuracy. A major problem with long reach system is the back reflection due to SBS and Rayleigh scattering processes which reflect part of the laser light back into the receiver which affect the sensitivity of system. This paper shows a technique to enable a reach of >70km by using a tunable laser and receiver. Techniques for the suppression of receiver noise from SBS and Raleigh scattering are implemented. In addition polarisation dependence of the FBG is considered and results of techniques to limit the effect of polarisation at long and short reaches are shown.

  19. Changes in Humpback Whale Song Occurrence in Response to an Acoustic Source 200 km Away

    PubMed Central

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J.; Ellison, William T.; Van Parijs, Sofie M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species. PMID:22253769

  20. EVIDENCE FOR 1000 km s{sup -1} MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE LOCAL ULIRG POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Aeree; Yun, Min S.; Naraynan, Gopal; Heyer, Mark; Erickson, Neal R.

    2011-05-01

    The feedback from galactic outflows is thought to play an important role in shaping the gas content, star formation history, and ultimately the stellar mass function of galaxies. Here we present evidence for massive molecular outflows associated with ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) in the co-added Redshift Search Receiver {sup 12}CO (1-0) spectrum. Our stacked spectrum of 27 ULIRGs at z = 0.043-0.11 ({nu}{sub rest} = 110-120 GHz) shows broad wings around the CO line with {Delta}V(FWZI) {approx} 2000 km s{sup -1}. Its integrated line flux accounts for up to 25% {+-} 5% of the total CO line luminosity. When interpreted as a massive molecular outflow wind, the associated mechanical energy can be explained by a concentrated starburst with star formation rate (SFR) {>=}100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, which agrees well with their SFR derived from the FIR luminosity. Using the high signal-to-noise stacked composite spectrum, we also probe {sup 13}CO and {sup 12}CN emission in the sample and discuss how the chemical abundance of molecular gas may vary depending on the physical conditions of the nuclear region.

  1. Morphological traits: predictable responses to macrohabitats across a 300 km scale

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Michelle L.; Binns, Matthew; Gibb, Heloise

    2014-01-01

    Species traits may provide a short-cut to predicting generalities in species turnover in response to environmental change, particularly for poorly known taxa. We ask if morphological traits of assemblages respond predictably to macrohabitats across a large scale. Ant assemblages were collected at nine paired pasture and remnant sites from within three areas along a 300 km distance. We measured ten functional morphological traits for replicate individuals of each species. We used a fourth corner model to test associations between microhabitat variables, macrohabitats (pastures and remnants) and traits. In addition, we tested the phylogenetic independence of traits, to determine if responses were likely to be due to filtering by morphology or phylogeny. Nine of ten traits were predicted by macrohabitat and the majority of these traits were independent of phylogeny. Surprisingly, microhabitat variables were not associated with morphological traits. Traits which were associated with macrohabitats were involved in locomotion, feeding behaviour and sensory ability. Ants in remnants had more maxillary palp segments, longer scapes and wider eyes, while having shorter femurs, smaller apical mandibular teeth and shorter Weber’s lengths. A clear relationship between traits and macrohabitats across a large scale suggests that species are filtered by coarse environmental differences. In contrast to the findings of previous studies, fine-scale filtering of morphological traits was not apparent. If such generalities in morphological trait responses to habitat hold across even larger scales, traits may prove critical in predicting the response of species assemblages to global change. PMID:24688850

  2. The latitudinal distribution of ozone to 35 km altitude from ECC ozonesonde observations, 1982-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komhyr, W. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Lathrop, J. A.; Kerr, J. B.; Matthews, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozone-sonde observations, made in recent years at ten stations whose locations range from the Arctic to Antarctica, have yielded a self-consistent ozone data base from which mean seasonal and annual latitudinal ozone vertical distributions to 35 km have been derived. Ozone measurement uncertainties are estimated, and results are presented in the Bass-Paur (1985) ozone absorption coefficient scale adopted for use with Dobson ozone spectrophotometers January 1, 1992. The data should be useful for comparison with model calculations of the global distribution of atmospheric ozone, for serving as apriori statistical information in deriving ozone vertical distributions from satellite and Umkehr observations, and for improving the satellite and Umkehr ozone inversion algorithms. Attention is drawn to similar results based on a less comprehensive data set published in Ozone in the Atmosphere, Proceedings of the 1988 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium where errors in data tabulations occurred for three of the stations due to inadvertent transposition of ozone partial pressure and air temperature values.

  3. Energy status and oxidation reduction status in rat liver at high altitude /3.8 km/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. D.; Pace, N.

    1980-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed to 3.8-km altitude for intervals ranging from 1 h-60 d. Liver samples were taken under light ether anesthesia and were examined by enzymatic analyses. Within 1-6 h of hypoxic exposure, ATP levels decreased while ADP and AMP levels increased, producing a fall in calculated ATP/ADP and adenylate charge ratios. Concurrently, lactate/pyruvate and alpha-glycerophosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate ratios increased markedly. Direct measurements of cellular pyridine nucleotides indicated increased NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP ratios. Levels of total adenosine phosphates and pyridine nucleotides decreased in a significant accompanying response. Many metabolite levels and calculated ratios returned to near-normal values within 1 week of exposure, indicating secondary intracellular adjustments to hypoxic stress; however, persistence of that stress is reflected in lactate concentrations and both substrate redox ratios. Results support and explore concepts that increased oxidation-reduction status and decreased energy status are primary events during hypoxia.

  4. The HyperV 8000 μg, 50 km/s Plasma Railgun for PLX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Wu, Linchun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    HyperV has developed a gas fed, pulsed, plasma railgun which accelerates 8000 μg of argon to 50 km/s meeting the performance requirements originally specified for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX). The present 2.5 cm square-bore plasma railgun forms plasma armatures from high density neutral gas, pre-ionizes it electro-thermally, and accelerates the armature with 30 cm long parallel-plate railgun electrodes driven by a pulse forming network (PFN). A high voltage, high current linear array spark-gap switch and flexible, low-inductance transmission line were designed and constructed to handle the increased current load. We will describe these systems and present initial performance data from high current operation of the plasma rail gun from spectroscopy, interferometry, and imaging systems. Measurements of momentum, pressure, magnetic field, and other optical diagnostics will also be discussed as well as plans for upcoming experimentation to increase performance even further. Work supported by USDOE under DE-FG02-05ER54810 and DE-FG02-08ER85114.

  5. Patterns of Mass Mortality among Rocky Shore Invertebrates across 100 km of Northeastern Pacific Coastline

    PubMed Central

    Jurgens, Laura J.; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T.; Schiebelhut, Lauren M.; Dawson, Michael N.; Grosberg, Richard K.; Gaylord, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Mass mortalities in natural populations, particularly those that leave few survivors over large spatial areas, may cause long-term ecological perturbations. Yet mass mortalities may remain undocumented or poorly described due to challenges in responding rapidly to unforeseen events, scarcity of baseline data, and difficulties in quantifying rare or patchily distributed species, especially in remote or marine systems. Better chronicling the geographic pattern and intensity of mass mortalities is especially critical in the face of global changes predicted to alter regional disturbance regimes. Here, we couple replicated post-mortality surveys with preceding long-term surveys and historical data to describe a rapid and severe mass mortality of rocky shore invertebrates along the north-central California coast of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. In late August 2011, formerly abundant intertidal populations of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a well-known ecosystem engineer), and the predatory six-armed sea star (Leptasterias sp.) were functionally extirpated from ~100 km of coastline. Other invertebrates, including the gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri) the ochre sea star (Pisaster ochraceus), and subtidal populations of purple sea urchins also exhibited elevated mortality. The pattern and extent of mortality suggest the potential for long-term population, community, and ecosystem consequences, recovery from which may depend on the different dispersal abilities of the affected species. PMID:26039349

  6. Desulfotomaculum spp.and Methanobacterium spp. Dominate a 4-5 km Deep Fault

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P.; Gihring, Thomas M.; Brockman, Fred J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Balkwill, David L.; Dollhopf, M E.; Lollar, B S.; Pratt, Lisa; Boice, E.; Southam, G; Wanger, Greg; Baker, Brett; Pfiffner, S; Lin, L; Onstott, T C.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfidic, 54-60 C, 3 to 30 million year old meteoric water stably Alkaline, sulfidic, 54 to 60 C, 4 to 53 million-year-old meteoric water emanating from a borehole intersecting quartzite-hosted fractures >3.3 km beneath the surface supported a microbial community dominated by a bacterial species affiliated with Desulfotomaculum spp. and an archaeal species related to Methanobacterium spp. The geochemical homogeneity over the 650-m length of the borehole, the lack of dividing cells, and the absence of these microorganisms in mine service water support an indigenous origin for the microbial community. The coexistence of these two microorganisms is consistent with a limiting flux of inorganic carbon and SO4 2 in the presence of high pH, high concentrations of H2 and CH4, and minimal free energy for autotrophic methanogenesis. Sulfide isotopic compositions were highly enriched, consistent with microbial SO4 2 reduction under hydrologic isolation. An analogous microbial couple and similar abiogenic gas chemistry have been reported recently for hydrothermal carbonate vents of the Lost City near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D. S. Kelly et al., Science 307:1428-1434, 2005), suggesting that these features may be common to deep subsurface habitats (continental and marine) bearing this geochemical signature. The geochemical setting and microbial communities described here are notably different from microbial ecosystems reported for shallower continental subsurface environments.

  7. Pile driving zone of responsiveness extends beyond 20 km for harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena (L.)).

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Jakob; Carstensen, Jacob; Teilmann, Jonas; Skov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Per

    2009-07-01

    Behavioral reactions of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) to underwater noise from pile driving were studied. Steel monopile foundations (4 m diameter) for offshore wind turbines were driven into hard sand in shallow water at Horns Reef, the North Sea. The impulsive sounds generated had high sound pressures [source level 235 dB re 1 microPa(pp) at 1 m, transmission loss 18 log(distance)] with a strong low frequency emphasis but with significant energy up to 100 kHz. Reactions of porpoises were studied by passive acoustic loggers (T-PODs). Intervals between echolocation events (encounters) were analyzed, and a significant increase was found from average 5.9 h between encounters in the construction period as a whole to on average 7.5 h between first and second encounters after pile driving. The size of the zone of responsiveness could not be inferred as no grading in response was observed with distance from the pile driving site but must have exceeded 21 km (distance to most distant T-POD station). PMID:19603857

  8. Deformation and fatigue behavior of the nickel-base superalloy KM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, Amit

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue threshold behavior, in the high cycle regime, for two microstructures (grain size 6 mum and 55 mum) of the nickel-base superalloy KM4 was studied. The threshold values were found to be a complicated function of temperature, microstructure and frequency. Increasing the load ratio, however, always led to a decrease in the threshold values. Measurements of crack closure could not explain all the observed variations in the threshold value. A physically relevant roughness parameter was defined. This parameter reproduced the complicated trends in the variation of the high temperature threshold values with frequency. Roughness of the fracture surface was found to be merely an indicator of the intrinsic deformation/fracture mechanisms and associated environmental interactions which determine the threshold value, and not the cause of threshold variations. The most important factor determining roughness was found to be the heterogeneity of deformation. The heterogeneity of slip was characterized using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. A new parameter was developed to quantify slip irreversibility. Microstructural differences in slip irreversibility were determined, and slip heterogeneity was quantified. Based on these observations, a model was developed to predict the roughness of the fracture surface from parameters which determine the heterogeneity of deformation. The quantification of environmental interactions along with the slip irreversibility parameter led to the development of another model in which the fatigue threshold resulted from a summation of the above two contributions.

  9. Seasonal dependence of mesospheric gravity waves ( <100 Km) at Peach Mountain Observatory, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Killeen, T. L.

    We present results from a 14-month study of all-sky camera observations of the Hydroxyl (OH) nightglow made at the Peach Mountain Observatory, Michigan (42.3°N 83.7°W) Spatial variations in the observed OH airglow images have been used to assess gravity-wave (GW) occurrence frequency at ∼85 km altitude as a function of season. A Strong seasonal dependence of mesospheric GW activity is observed, with peak activity in the summer months and much reduced activity during the winter months. Gravity waves (as defined by observed coherent variations in relative OH brightnesses of >∼7.5) were found to be present on about 70% of the clear-sky nights during the summer months. During the spring, fall, and winter months, however, the observed GW occurrence frequency was very low (<10%). Most of the GWs were observed to propagate towards the eastward hemisphere. We suggest that the tropospherically-generated GWs are anisotropic (eastward) thus passing through to the mesosphere only in the summer and being filtered out by the intervening neutral winds during other seasons. It is also possible that the GWs are able to reach higher altitudes without breaking because of their smaller amplitudes at lower altitudes during the summer season relative to the winter season.

  10. Estimation of Surface Air Temperature from MODIS 1km Resolution Land Surface Temperature Over Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Suhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Surface air temperature is a critical variable to describe the energy and water cycle of the Earth-atmosphere system and is a key input element for hydrology and land surface models. It is a very important variable in agricultural applications and climate change studies. This is a preliminary study to examine statistical relationships between ground meteorological station measured surface daily maximum/minimum air temperature and satellite remotely sensed land surface temperature from MODIS over the dry and semiarid regions of northern China. Studies were conducted for both MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua by using year 2009 data. Results indicate that the relationships between surface air temperature and remotely sensed land surface temperature are statistically significant. The relationships between the maximum air temperature and daytime land surface temperature depends significantly on land surface types and vegetation index, but the minimum air temperature and nighttime land surface temperature has little dependence on the surface conditions. Based on linear regression relationship between surface air temperature and MODIS land surface temperature, surface maximum and minimum air temperatures are estimated from 1km MODIS land surface temperature under clear sky conditions. The statistical errors (sigma) of the estimated daily maximum (minimum) air temperature is about 3.8 C(3.7 C).

  11. Influence of a 100-km ultra-marathon on hepatitis B carrier runners.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y-H; Hou, S-K; How, C-K; Li, L-H; Kao, W-F; Yang, C-C; Chou, S-L; Shiau, Y-T S; Lam, C; Chen, R-J

    2013-09-01

    This study compares the serological markers between runners who are hepatitis B virus carries (HBVc) and runners who are non-HBVc in a 100-km ultra-marathon race. Blood samples of 8 HBVc and 18 non-HBVc runners were drawn 1 week before, immediately following, and 24 h after the race. Samples were analyzed and compared between the 2 groups for liver function tests, muscle damage markers and oxidative stress cytokines. For HBVc runners, HBV-DNA (hepatitis B virus-deoxyribonucleic acid) levels were also evaluated for virus reactivation. The results demonstrate a statistically significant increase in both immediate and 24-h post-race values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), compared with pre-race values. No statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups for the values of AST, LDH, CK, hs-CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α either before or after the race. There was also no statistically significant change in the levels of HBV-DNA in HBVc runners. These findings suggest that HBVc runners do not have higher risks of liver function impairment, muscle breakdown and inflammatory response compared to non-HBVc runners in such endurance races. PMID:23444084

  12. A metagenomic window into carbon metabolism at 3 km depth in Precambrian continental crust.

    PubMed

    Magnabosco, Cara; Ryan, Kathleen; Lau, Maggie C Y; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Kieft, Thomas L; van Heerden, Esta; Onstott, Tullis C

    2016-03-01

    Subsurface microbial communities comprise a significant fraction of the global prokaryotic biomass; however, the carbon metabolisms that support the deep biosphere have been relatively unexplored. In order to determine the predominant carbon metabolisms within a 3-km deep fracture fluid system accessed via the Tau Tona gold mine (Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa), metagenomic and thermodynamic analyses were combined. Within our system of study, the energy-conserving reductive acetyl-CoA (Wood-Ljungdahl) pathway was found to be the most abundant carbon fixation pathway identified in the metagenome. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes that have the potential to participate in (1) both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms through the reversible oxidization of CO and subsequent transfer of electrons for sulfate reduction, (2) direct utilization of H2 and (3) methanogenesis were identified. The most abundant members of the metagenome belonged to Euryarchaeota (22%) and Firmicutes (57%)-by far, the highest relative abundance of Euryarchaeota yet reported from deep fracture fluids in South Africa and one of only five Firmicutes-dominated deep fracture fluids identified in the region. Importantly, by combining the metagenomics data and thermodynamic modeling of this study with previously published isotopic and community composition data from the South African subsurface, we are able to demonstrate that Firmicutes-dominated communities are associated with a particular hydrogeologic environment, specifically the older, more saline and more reducing waters. PMID:26325359

  13. Assessment of the 60 km Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) with Near Real-Time Aircraft Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, R. E.; Richard, C.; Kim, S.; Bailey, D.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing the Center-TRA-CON Advisory System (CTAS), a set of Air Traffic Management (ATM) Decision Support Tools (DST) for en route (Center) and terminal (TRACON) airspace designed to enable controllers to increase capacity and flight efficiency. A crucial component of the CTAS, or any ATM DST, is the computation of the time-of-flight of aircraft along flight path segments. Earlier NASA studies show that accurate knowledge of the wind through which the aircraft are flying is required to estimate time-of-flight accurately. There are current envisioned to be two sources of wind data for CTAS: The Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) for the Center airspace, a numerical model developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Forecast System Laboratory (FSL) and run operationally by the National Weather Service (NWS) National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP); and The Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS) Terminal Winds (TW) for the TRACON airspace, developed at MIT Lincoln Laboratory under funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This study has three goals: (1) determine the errors in the baseline 60 km resolution RUC forecast wind fields relative to the needs of en route DSTs such as CTAS, (2) determine the benefit of using the TW algorithm to refine the RUC forecast wind fields with near real-time Meteorological Data Collection and Reporting System (MDCRS) reports, and (3) identify factors that influence wind errors in order to improve accuracy and estimate errors in real time.

  14. Changes in humpback whale song occurrence in response to an acoustic source 200 km away.

    PubMed

    Risch, Denise; Corkeron, Peter J; Ellison, William T; Parijs, Sofie M Van

    2012-01-01

    The effect of underwater anthropogenic sound on marine mammals is of increasing concern. Here we show that humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) was reduced, concurrent with transmissions of an Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) experiment approximately 200 km away. We detected the OAWRS experiment in SBNMS during an 11 day period in autumn 2006. We compared the occurrence of song for 11 days before, during and after the experiment with song over the same 33 calendar days in two later years. Using a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model (GLM), we demonstrate a significant difference in the number of minutes with detected song between periods and years. The lack of humpback whale song during the OAWRS experiment was the most substantial signal in the data. Our findings demonstrate the greatest published distance over which anthropogenic sound has been shown to affect vocalizing baleen whales, and the first time that active acoustic fisheries technology has been shown to have this effect. The suitability of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing technology for in-situ, long term monitoring of marine ecosystems should be considered, bearing in mind its possible effects on non-target species, in particular protected species. PMID:22253769

  15. Diversity of Pico- to Mesoplankton along the 2000 km Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue O. O.; Karlson, Bengt; Charvet, Sophie; Andersson, Anders F.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial plankton form the productive base of both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients. Plankton diversity is immense with representations from all major phyla within the three domains of life. So far, plankton monitoring has mainly been based on microscopic identification, which has limited sensitivity and reproducibility, not least because of the numerical majority of plankton being unidentifiable under the light microscope. High-throughput sequencing of taxonomic marker genes offers a means to identify taxa inaccessible by traditional methods; thus, recent studies have unveiled an extensive previously unknown diversity of plankton. Here, we conducted ultra-deep Illumina sequencing (average 105 sequences/sample) of rRNA gene amplicons of surface water eukaryotic and bacterial plankton communities sampled in summer along a 2000 km transect following the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Community composition was strongly correlated with salinity for both bacterial and eukaryotic plankton assemblages, highlighting the importance of salinity for structuring the biodiversity within this ecosystem. In contrast, no clear trends in alpha-diversity for bacterial or eukaryotic communities could be detected along the transect. The distribution of major planktonic taxa followed expected patterns as observed in monitoring programs, but groups novel to the Baltic Sea were also identified, such as relatives to the coccolithophore Emiliana huxleyi detected in the northern Baltic Sea. This study provides the first ultra-deep sequencing-based survey on eukaryotic and bacterial plankton biogeography in the Baltic Sea. PMID:27242706

  16. Cloning and characterization of two xyloglucanases from Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakai, Tomonori; Kameda, Yoshiro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2005-12-01

    Two xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (xyloglucanases [XEGs]), XEG5 and XEG74, with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21, which degrades tamarind seed xyloglucan. The genes encoding these XEGs were cloned and sequenced. Based on their amino acid sequences, the catalytic domains of XEG5 and XEG74 were classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 74, respectively. XEG5 is the first xyloglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. XEG5 lacks a carbohydrate-binding module, while XEG74 has an X2 module and a family 3 type carbohydrate-binding module at its C terminus. The two XEGs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant forms of the enzymes were purified and characterized. Both XEGs had endoglucanase active only toward xyloglucan and not toward Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, barley beta-1,3/1,4-glucan, or xylan. XEG5 is a typical endo-type enzyme that randomly cleaves the xyloglucan main chain, while XEG74 has dual endo- and exo-mode activities or processive endo-mode activity. XEG5 digested the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXGXXXG to produce XXXG, whereas XEG74 digestion of XXXGXXXG resulted in XXX, XXXG, and GXXXG, suggesting that this enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond of unbranched Glc residues. Analyses using various oligosaccharide structures revealed that unique structures of xyloglucan oligosaccharides can be prepared with XEG74. PMID:16332739

  17. Cloning and Characterization of Two Xyloglucanases from Paenibacillus sp. Strain KM21

    PubMed Central

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakai, Tomonori; Kameda, Yoshiro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2005-01-01

    Two xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanases (xyloglucanases [XEGs]), XEG5 and XEG74, with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively, were isolated from the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus sp. strain KM21, which degrades tamarind seed xyloglucan. The genes encoding these XEGs were cloned and sequenced. Based on their amino acid sequences, the catalytic domains of XEG5 and XEG74 were classified in the glycoside hydrolase families 5 and 74, respectively. XEG5 is the first xyloglucanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 5. XEG5 lacks a carbohydrate-binding module, while XEG74 has an X2 module and a family 3 type carbohydrate-binding module at its C terminus. The two XEGs were expressed in Escherichia coli, and recombinant forms of the enzymes were purified and characterized. Both XEGs had endoglucanase active only toward xyloglucan and not toward Avicel, carboxymethylcellulose, barley β-1,3/1,4-glucan, or xylan. XEG5 is a typical endo-type enzyme that randomly cleaves the xyloglucan main chain, while XEG74 has dual endo- and exo-mode activities or processive endo-mode activity. XEG5 digested the xyloglucan oligosaccharide XXXGXXXG to produce XXXG, whereas XEG74 digestion of XXXGXXXG resulted in XXX, XXXG, and GXXXG, suggesting that this enzyme cleaves the glycosidic bond of unbranched Glc residues. Analyses using various oligosaccharide structures revealed that unique structures of xyloglucan oligosaccharides can be prepared with XEG74. PMID:16332739

  18. The wide field/planetary camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.; Baum, W. A.; Code, A. D.; Currie, D. G.; Danielson, G. E.; Gunn, J. E.; Kelsall, T. F.; Kristian, J. A.; Lynds, C. R.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    A wide site of potential astronomical and solar system scientific studies using the wide field planetary camera on space telescope are described. The expected performance of the camera as it approaches final assembly and testing is also detailed.

  19. SAR interferometry for DEM generation: wide-area error assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, Daniel; Broquetas, Antoni; Pena, Ramon; Arbiol, Roman; Castillo, Manuel; Pala, Vincenc

    1998-11-01

    The present work consists on the generation of a DEM using ERS satellites interferometric data over a wide area (50 X 50 Km) with an error study using a high accuracy reference DEM, focusing on the atmosphere induced errors. The area is heterogeneous with flat and rough topography ranging from sea level up to 1200 m in the inland ranges. The ERS image has a 100 X 100 Km2 area and has been divided in four quarters to ease the processing. The phase unwrapping algorithm, which is a combination of region growing and least squares techniques, worked out successfully the rough topography areas. One quarter of the full scene was geocoded over a local datum ellipsoid to a UTM grid. The resulting DEM was compared to a reference one provided by the Institut Cartografic de Catalunya. Two types of atmospheric error or artifacts were found: a set of very localized spots, up to one phase cycle, which generated ghost hills up to 100, and a slow trend effect which added up to 50 m to some areas in the image. Besides of the atmospheric errors, the quality of the DEM was assessed. The quantitative error study was carried out locally at several areas with different topography.

  20. An Observation-base investigation of nudging in WRF for downscaling surface climate information to 12-km Grid Spacing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has demonstrated the ability to use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model and contemporary dynamical downscaling methods to refine global climate modeling results to a horizontal resolution of 36 km. Environmental managers and urban planners have expre...