Science.gov

Sample records for 50-100 million people

  1. 41 CFR 109-50.100 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope of subpart. 109-50.100 Section 109-50.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND...

  2. 41 CFR 109-50.100 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope of subpart. 109-50.100 Section 109-50.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND...

  3. 41 CFR 109-50.100 - Scope of subpart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of subpart. 109-50.100 Section 109-50.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND...

  4. The Population of China. One Billion, Eight Million People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    Several programs have been instituted in China over the past 30 years in order to slow the birth rate. The population, set at 1,008,175,288 people by a 1982 census, is by far the largest of any nation. A 10-year family planning program, begun in 1957, caused the birth rate to drop considerably through the mid-1960's. In 1971, "wan xi shao," the…

  5. 41 CFR 128-50.100 - Storage and care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage and care. 128-50... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 50-SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY 50.1-Storage and Care of Seized Personal Property § 128-50.100 Storage and care. (a) Each bureau shall be responsible...

  6. Experimental solar radio spectrum analyzer (50-100 MHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, A.

    1978-01-01

    Summarized is the work carried out under a NASA Grant covering the period 15 October 1977 to 14 January 1978. The grant provided funds for the acquisition of an experimental radio spectrum analyzer covering the band 50-100 MHz, for use in a program of solar radio observations. Components for the experimental analyzer were duly obtained, and the system was assembled, checked, and put into operation in early February 1978. The analyzer is working in an entirely satisfactory manner and, from the time that it has been put into operation, it has played an important part in the on-going research programs in solar radio astronomy being conducted.

  7. Zooniverse - Real science online with more than a million people. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A.; Lynn, S.; Lintott, C.; Whyte, L.; Borden, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Zooniverse (zooniverse.org) began in 2007 with the launch of Galaxy Zoo, a project in which more than 175,000 people provided shape analyses of more than 1 million galaxy images sourced from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These galaxy 'classifications', some 60 million in total, have since been used to produce more than 50 peer-reviewed publications based not only on the original research goals of the project but also because of serendipitous discoveries made by the volunteer community. Based upon the success of Galaxy Zoo the team have gone on to develop more than 25 web-based citizen science projects, all with a strong research focus in a range of subjects from astronomy to zoology where human-based analysis still exceeds that of machine intelligence. Over the past 6 years Zooniverse projects have collected more than 300 million data analyses from over 1 million volunteers providing fantastically rich datasets for not only the individuals working to produce research from their project but also the machine learning and computer vision research communities. This talk will focus on the core 'method' by which Zooniverse projects are developed and lessons learned by the Zooniverse team developing citizen science projects across a range of disciplines.

  8. Occupation and cancer - follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Lynge, Elsebeth; Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur Kolbrun; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kjaerheim, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    We present up to 45 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. The study covers the 15 million people aged 30-64 years in the 1960, 1970, 1980/1981 and/or 1990 censuses in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and the 2.8 million incident cancer cases diagnosed in these people in a follow-up until about 2005. The study was undertaken as a cohort study with linkage of individual records based on the personal identity codes used in all the Nordic countries. In the censuses, information on occupation for each person was provided through free text in self-administered questionnaires. The data were centrally coded and computerised in the statistical offices. For the present study, the original occupational codes were reclassified into 53 occupational categories and one group of economically inactive persons. All Nordic countries have a nation-wide registration of incident cancer cases during the entire study period. For the present study the incident cancer cases were classified into 49 primary diagnostic categories. Some categories have been further divided according to sub-site or morphological type. The observed number of cancer cases in each group of persons defined by country, sex, age, period and occupation was compared with the expected number calculated from the stratum specific person years and the incidence rates for the national population. The result was presented as a standardised incidence ratio, SIR, defined as the observed number of cases divided by the expected number. For all cancers combined (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer), the study showed a wide variation among men from an SIR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95) in domestic assistants to 1.48 (1.43-1.54) in waiters. The occupations with the highest SIRs also included workers producing beverage and tobacco, seamen and chimney sweeps. Among women, the SIRs varied from 0.58 (0.37-0.87) in seafarers to 1.27 (1.19-1.35) in tobacco workers. Low

  9. Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Aiden R.; Smeaton, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    In sensor research we take advantage of additional contextual sensor information to disambiguate potentially erroneous sensor readings or to make better informed decisions on a single sensor’s output. This use of additional information reinforces, validates, semantically enriches, and augments sensed data. Lifelog data is challenging to augment, as it tracks one’s life with many images including the places they go, making it non-trivial to find associated sources of information. We investigate realising the goal of pervasive user-generated content based on sensors, by augmenting passive visual lifelogs with “Web 2.0” content collected by millions of other individuals. PMID:22294880

  10. A study of improved MHR 50/100 toward a higher level of inherent safety

    SciTech Connect

    Minatsuki, I.; Otani, T.; Shimizu, K.; Oyama, S.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kunitomi, K.

    2012-07-01

    A new concept of the Mitsubishi small-sized High temperature gas-cooled modular Reactors (MHR-50/100) had been developed and published in papers. The study results of the first design concept show that the MHR-50/100 can achieve the inherent safety level set as a design target in case of water ingress during steam generator tube rupture accident. And more specifically, the reactor was shown to remain stable during long-term station black out (SBO) with protection of only passive devices during a depressurization accident and with additional motion of steam dump system during a water ingress accident. Recently greater requirements for safety of future nuclear plants including the MHR-50/100 have been expected. This study has thus made a key design improvement for the MHR-50/100 in order to secure the inherent safety aspect without reliance on active steam dump system in case of a water ingress accident. The innovative technologies listed below have been created and investigated to achieve the improved MHR-50/100 design; (1) Design improvement of steam generator, (2) Heat balance optimization of steam cycle, (3) Control system design of differential pressure between primary helium gas and water/steam, (4) Study on operation procedure during a water ingress accident. (authors)

  11. THE GREAT SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SHAKEOUT: Earthquake Science for 22 Million People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.; Cox, D.; Perry, S.; Hudnut, K.; Benthien, M.; Bwarie, J.; Vinci, M.; Buchanan, M.; Long, K.; Sinha, S.; Collins, L.

    2008-12-01

    Earthquake science is being communicated to and used by the 22 million residents of southern California to improve resiliency to future earthquakes through the Great Southern California ShakeOut. The ShakeOut began when the USGS partnered with the California Geological Survey, Southern California Earthquake Center and many other organizations to bring 300 scientists and engineers together to formulate a comprehensive description of a plausible major earthquake, released in May 2008, as the ShakeOut Scenario, a description of the impacts and consequences of a M7.8 earthquake on the Southern San Andreas Fault (USGS OFR2008-1150). The Great Southern California ShakeOut was a week of special events featuring the largest earthquake drill in United States history. The ShakeOut drill occurred in houses, businesses, and public spaces throughout southern California at 10AM on November 13, 2008, when southern Californians were asked to pretend that the M7.8 scenario earthquake had occurred and to practice actions that could reduce the impact on their lives. Residents, organizations, schools and businesses registered to participate in the drill through www.shakeout.org where they could get accessible information about the scenario earthquake and share ideas for better reparation. As of September 8, 2008, over 2.7 million confirmed participants had been registered. The primary message of the ShakeOut is that what we do now, before a big earthquake, will determine what our lives will be like after. The goal of the ShakeOut has been to change the culture of earthquake preparedness in southern California, making earthquakes a reality that are regularly discussed. This implements the sociological finding that 'milling,' discussing a problem with loved ones, is a prerequisite to taking action. ShakeOut milling is taking place at all levels from individuals and families, to corporations and governments. Actions taken as a result of the ShakeOut include the adoption of earthquake

  12. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  13. A 50-100 kWe gas-cooled reactor for use on Mars.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Curtis D.

    2006-04-01

    In the space exploration field there is a general consensus that nuclear reactor powered systems will be extremely desirable for future missions to the outer solar system. Solar systems suffer from the decreasing intensity of solar radiation and relatively low power density. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators are limited to generating a few kilowatts electric (kWe). Chemical systems are short-lived due to prodigious fuel use. A well designed 50-100 kWe nuclear reactor power system would provide sufficient power for a variety of long term missions. This thesis will present basic work done on a 50-100 kWe reactor power system that has a reasonable lifespan and would function in an extraterrestrial environment. The system will use a Gas-Cooled Reactor that is directly coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle (GCR-CBC) power system. Also included will be some variations on the primary design and their effects on the characteristics of the primary design. This thesis also presents a variety of neutronics related calculations, an examination of the reactor's thermal characteristics, feasibility for use in an extraterrestrial environment, and the reactor's safety characteristics in several accident scenarios. While there has been past work for space reactors, the challenges introduced by thin atmospheres like those on Mars have rarely been considered.

  14. Conceptual Design of a 50--100 MW Electron Beam Accelerator System for the National Hypersonic Wind Tunnel Program

    SciTech Connect

    SCHNEIDER,LARRY X.

    2000-06-01

    The National Hypersonic Wind Tunnel program requires an unprecedented electron beam source capable of 1--2 MeV at a beam power level of 50--100 MW. Direct-current electron accelerator technology can readily generate high average power beams to approximately 5 MeV at output efficiencies greater than 90%. However, due to the nature of research and industrial applications, there has never been a requirement for a single module with an output power exceeding approximately 500 kW. Although a 50--100 MW module is a two-order extrapolation from demonstrated power levels, the scaling of accelerator components appears reasonable. This paper presents an evaluation of component and system issues involved in the design of a 50--100 MW electron beam accelerator system with precision beam transport into a high pressure flowing air environment.

  15. New policies and measures for saving a great manmade reservoir providing drinking water for 20 million people in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, K H

    2000-01-01

    Water quality of the Paldang reservoir, the largest drinking water supply source in the Republic Korea provides raw water for about 20 million people living in Seoul Metropolitan area. Water quality has been deteriorating mainly due to improperly treated livestock waste and domestic wastewater discharged from motels, restaurants, and private homes. A recent survey conducted by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) showed that the water quality of this reservoir has been identified as Class III must contain less than 6 ppm of BOD, which will require advanced purification treatment before it can be used as drinking water. The MOE also announced that this water source would no longer be potable unless wastewater in the catchment is treated efficiently. To protect drinking water resources, the MOE has set up comprehensive management. These programmes include new regulations, measures, land use planning and economic incentives. PMID:10842849

  16. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  17. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  18. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  19. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  20. Cancer risk in 680 000 people exposed to computed tomography scans in childhood or adolescence: data linkage study of 11 million Australians

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Anna V; Brady, Zoe; Butler, Martin W; Goergen, Stacy K; Byrnes, Graham B; Giles, Graham G; Wallace, Anthony B; Anderson, Philip R; Guiver, Tenniel A; McGale, Paul; Cain, Timothy M; Dowty, James G; Bickerstaffe, Adrian C; Darby, Sarah C

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the cancer risk in children and adolescents following exposure to low dose ionising radiation from diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans. Design Population based, cohort, data linkage study in Australia. Cohort members 10.9 million people identified from Australian Medicare records, aged 0-19 years on 1 January 1985 or born between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2005; all exposures to CT scans funded by Medicare during 1985-2005 were identified for this cohort. Cancers diagnosed in cohort members up to 31 December 2007 were obtained through linkage to national cancer records. Main outcome Cancer incidence rates in individuals exposed to a CT scan more than one year before any cancer diagnosis, compared with cancer incidence rates in unexposed individuals. Results 60 674 cancers were recorded, including 3150 in 680 211 people exposed to a CT scan at least one year before any cancer diagnosis. The mean duration of follow-up after exposure was 9.5 years. Overall cancer incidence was 24% greater for exposed than for unexposed people, after accounting for age, sex, and year of birth (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.29); P<0.001). We saw a dose-response relation, and the IRR increased by 0.16 (0.13 to 0.19) for each additional CT scan. The IRR was greater after exposure at younger ages (P<0.001 for trend). At 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and 15 or more years since first exposure, IRRs were 1.35 (1.25 to 1.45), 1.25 (1.17 to 1.34), 1.14 (1.06 to 1.22), and 1.24 (1.14 to 1.34), respectively. The IRR increased significantly for many types of solid cancer (digestive organs, melanoma, soft tissue, female genital, urinary tract, brain, and thyroid); leukaemia, myelodysplasia, and some other lymphoid cancers. There was an excess of 608 cancers in people exposed to CT scans (147 brain, 356 other solid, 48 leukaemia or myelodysplasia, and 57 other lymphoid). The absolute excess incidence rate for all cancers combined was 9.38 per

  1. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  2. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  3. Refugee migration and risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: cohort study of 1.3 million people in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Dal, Henrik; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia; Kirkbride, James B; Dalman, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether refugees are at elevated risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, relative to non-refugee migrants from similar regions of origin and the Swedish-born population. Design Cohort study of people living in Sweden, born after 1 January 1984 and followed from their 14th birthday or arrival in Sweden, if later, until diagnosis of a non-affective psychotic disorder, emigration, death, or 31 December 2011. Setting Linked Swedish national register data. Participants 1 347 790 people, including people born in Sweden to two Swedish-born parents (1 191 004; 88.4%), refugees (24 123; 1.8%), and non-refugee migrants (132 663; 9.8%) from four major refugee generating regions: the Middle East and north Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe and Russia. Main outcome measures Cox regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for non-affective psychotic disorders by refugee status and region of origin, controlling for age at risk, sex, disposable income, and population density. Results 3704 cases of non-affective psychotic disorder were identified during 8.9 million person years of follow-up. The crude incidence rate was 38.5 (95% confidence interval 37.2 to 39.9) per 100 000 person years in the Swedish-born population, 80.4 (72.7 to 88.9) per 100 000 person years in non-refugee migrants, and 126.4 (103.1 to 154.8) per 100 000 person years in refugees. Refugees were at increased risk of psychosis compared with both the Swedish-born population (adjusted hazard ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 3.6) and non-refugee migrants (1.7, 1.3 to 2.1) after adjustment for confounders. The increased rate in refugees compared with non-refugee migrants was more pronounced in men (likelihood ratio test for interaction χ2 (df=2) z=13.5; P=0.001) and was present for refugees from all regions except sub-Saharan Africa. Both refugees and non-refugee migrants from sub-Saharan Africa had similarly high

  4. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  5. REE Sorption Study of Seived -50 +100 Mesh Fraction of Media #1 in Brine #1 at Different Concentrations of REE at 70C

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-06-29

    This dataset shows the sorption capacities of smaller grain size (-50 +100 mesh) of media #1 in brine #1 at different starting concentrations of REE's at elevated temperature of 70C. The experimental conditions are 2g of -50 +100 mesh media #1 to 150mL of REE solution at concentartions of .2ppm each, 2ppm each, and 20ppm each. The pH of the solution is 5.5, and the temperature was at 70C.

  6. Regression equations for estimating flood flows for the 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-Year recurrence intervals in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple linear-regression equations were developed to estimate the magnitudes of floods in Connecticut for recurrence intervals ranging from 2 to 500 years. The equations can be used for nonurban, unregulated stream sites in Connecticut with drainage areas ranging from about 2 to 715 square miles. Flood-frequency data and hydrologic characteristics from 70 streamflow-gaging stations and the upstream drainage basins were used to develop the equations. The hydrologic characteristics?drainage area, mean basin elevation, and 24-hour rainfall?are used in the equations to estimate the magnitude of floods. Average standard errors of prediction for the equations are 31.8, 32.7, 34.4, 35.9, 37.6 and 45.0 percent for the 2-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively. Simplified equations using only one hydrologic characteristic?drainage area?also were developed. The regression analysis is based on generalized least-squares regression techniques. Observed flows (log-Pearson Type III analysis of the annual maximum flows) from five streamflow-gaging stations in urban basins in Connecticut were compared to flows estimated from national three-parameter and seven-parameter urban regression equations. The comparison shows that the three- and seven- parameter equations used in conjunction with the new statewide equations generally provide reasonable estimates of flood flows for urban sites in Connecticut, although a national urban flood-frequency study indicated that the three-parameter equations significantly underestimated flood flows in many regions of the country. Verification of the accuracy of the three-parameter or seven-parameter national regression equations using new data from Connecticut stations was beyond the scope of this study. A technique for calculating flood flows at streamflow-gaging stations using a weighted average also is described. Two estimates of flood flows?one estimate based on the log-Pearson Type III analyses of the annual

  7. REE Sorption Study of Sieved -50 +100 mesh Media #1 in Brine #1 with Different Starting pH's at 70C

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-07-21

    This dataset described shaker table experiments ran with sieved -50 +100 mesh media #1 in brine #1 that have 2ppm each of the 7 REE metals at different starting pH's of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. The experimental conditions are 2g media to 150mL of REE solution, at 70C.

  8. Record linked retrospective cohort study of 4.6 million people exploring ethnic variations in disease: myocardial infarction in South Asians

    PubMed Central

    Fischbacher, CM; Bhopal, R; Povey, C; Steiner, M; Chalmers, J; Mueller, G; Jamieson, J; Knowles, D

    2007-01-01

    Background Law and policy in several countries require health services to demonstrate that they are promoting racial/ethnic equality. However, suitable and accurate data are usually not available. We demonstrated, using acute myocardial infarction, that linkage techniques can be ethical and potentially useful for this purpose. Methods The linkage was based on probability matching. Encryption of a unique national health identifier (the Community Health Index (CHI)) ensured that information about health status and census-based ethnicity could not be ascribed to an identified individual. We linked information on individual ethnic group from the 2001 Census to Scottish hospital discharge and mortality data. Results Overall, 94% of the 4.9 million census records were matched to a CHI record with an estimated false positive rate of less than 0.1 %, with 84.9 – 87.6% of South Asians being successfully linked. Between April 2001 and December 2003 there were 126 first episodes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among South Asians and 30,978 among non-South Asians. The incidence rate ratio was 1.45 (95% CI 1.17, 1.78) for South Asian compared to non-South Asian men and 1.80 (95% CI 1.31, 2.48) for South Asian women. After adjustment for age, sex and any previous admission for diabetes the hazard ratio for death following AMI was 0.59 (95% CI 0.43, 0.81), reflecting better survival among South Asians. Conclusion The technique met ethical, professional and legal concerns about the linkage of census and health data and is transferable internationally wherever the census (or population register) contains ethnic group or race data. The outcome is a retrospective cohort study. Our results point to increased incidence rather than increased case fatality in explaining high CHD mortality rate. The findings open up new methods for researchers and health planners. PMID:17615055

  9. Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wormser, David; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Kaptoge, Stephen; Wood, Angela M; Gao, Pei; Sun, Qi; Walldius, Göran; Selmer, Randi; Verschuren, WM Monique; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Engström, Gunnar; Ridker, Paul M; Njølstad, Inger; Iso, Hiroyasu; Holme, Ingar; Giampaoli, Simona; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh; Gaziano, J Michael; Brunner, Eric; Kee, Frank; Tosetto, Alberto; Meisinger, Christa; Brenner, Hermann; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Whincup, Peter H; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Ian; Cremer, Peter; Hofman, Albert; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Clarke, Robert; de Boer, Ian H; Jukema, J Wouter; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín; Lawlor, Debbie A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Casiglia, Edoardo; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Simons, Leon A; Nietert, Paul J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Björkelund, Cecilia; Strandberg, Timo E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Blazer, Dan G; Meade, Tom W; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Woodward, Mark; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kromhout, Daan; Jørgensen, Torben; Tilvis, Reijo S; Guralnik, Jack M; Rosengren, Annika; Taylor, James O; Kiechl, Stefan; Dagenais, Gilles R; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Wallace, Robert B; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Shaffer, Jonathan A; Visser, Marjolein; Kauhanen, Jussi; Salonen, Jukka T; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kitamura, Akihiko; Sundström, Johan; Wennberg, Patrik; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Daimon, Makoto; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Cooper, Jackie A; Onat, Altan; Devereux, Richard; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Dankner, Rachel; Knuiman, Matthew W; Crespo, Carlos J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Goldbourt, Uri; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Shaw, Jonathan E; Mussolino, Michael; Nakagawa, Hidaeki; Fletcher, Astrid; Kuller, Lewis H; Gillum, Richard F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Assmann, Gerd; Wald, Nicholas; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Greenland, Philip; Trevisan, Maurizio; Ulmer, Hanno; Butterworth, Adam S; Folsom, Aaron R; Davey-Smith, George; Hu, Frank B; Danesh, John; Tipping, Robert W; Ford, Charles E; Simpson, Lara M; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Folsom, Aaron R; Demerath, Ellen W; Franceschini, Nora; Lutsey, Pamela L; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Shaw, Jonathan E; Atkins, Robert; Zimmet, Paul Z; Barr, Elizabeth LM; Knuiman, Matthew W; Whincup, Peter H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Morris, Richard W; Willeit, Johann; Kiechl, Stefan; Weger, Siegfried; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Wald, Nicholas; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Gallacher, John; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Yarnell, John WG; Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Greenland, Philip; Shay, Christina M; Garside, Daniel B; Nietert, Paul J; Sutherland, Susan E; Bachman, David L; Keil, Julian E; de Boer, Ian H; Kizer, Jorge R; Psaty, Bruce M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B; Schnohr, Peter; Giampaoli, Simona; Palmieri, Luigi; Panico, Salvatore; Pilotto, Lorenza; Vanuzzo, Diego; de la Cámara, Agustin Gómez; Simons, Leon A; Simons, Judith; McCallum, John; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gerry, F; Fowkes, R; Price, Jackie F; Lee, Amanda J; Taylor, James O; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Wallace, Robert B; Kohout, Frank J; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan C; Guralnik, Jack M; Blazer, Dan G; Guralnik, Jack M; Phillips, Caroline L; Phillips, Caroline L; Guralnik, Jack M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben; Müller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Wennberg, Patrik; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Nissinen, Aulikki; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Giampaoli, Simona; Woodward, Mark; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka R; Harald, Kennet; Salomaa, Veikko; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; Daimon, Makoto; Oizumi, Toshihide; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Jørgensen, Torben; Møller, Lars; Jespersen, Jørgen; Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Lubin, Flora; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Welin, Lennart; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika; Lappas, Georgios; Welin, Lennart; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Eriksson, Henry; Lappas, Georgios; Bengtsson, Calle; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Cremer, Peter; Nagel, Dorothea; Strandberg, Timo E; Salomaa, Veikko; Tilvis, Reijo S; Miettinen, Tatu A; Tilvis, Reijo S; Strandberg, Timo E; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Arima, Hisatomi; Doi, Yasufumi; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen DA; Hu, Frank B; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Yamagishi, Kazumasa

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain. Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5 cm, using individual–participant data on 174 374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1 085 949 people in 121 prospective studies. Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1 cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5 cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5 cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators. Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases. PMID:22825588

  10. Mr Cameron's Three Million Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the 2015 general election campaign David Cameron celebrated the success of apprenticeships during the Coalition and promised another 3 million. This article argues that the "reinvention" of apprenticeships has neither created real skills nor provided real alternatives for young people and that the UK schemes fall far short of those in…

  11. A comparison of 50, 100 and 200 mg of intra-articular pethidine during knee joint surgery, a controlled study with evidence for local demethylation to norpethidine.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, A; Boreus, L O; Westman, L; Engström, B; Valentin, A; Ekblom, A

    1999-03-01

    Pethidine (meperidine) is a compound with both local anaesthetic and opioid agonist properties. We have in a recent study demonstrated that pethidine could be an interesting alternative to prilocaine in arthroscopy with local anaesthetic technique. Therefore, we investigated, in a controlled randomized double-blind study, the effect of three doses of pethidine compared with a standard local anaesthetic, in patients subjected to arthroscopic knee joint surgery. Ten patients in each group received 50 mg (P50), 100 mg (P100), 200 mg (P200) of pethidine or prilocaine (5 mg/ml) + adrenaline (4 mg/ml) (PC), injected intra-articularly (i.a.) before surgery. We measured pain intensity and discomfort during arthroscopy and pain intensity at rest and at movement, nausea and tiredness for 3 days post-operatively at regular intervals using the VAS-technique. We also measured the concentration of pethidine and its demethylated metabolite, norpethidine, in plasma by collecting blood samples at 20, 40, 60, 80, 140 and 200 min following injection, and in synovial fluid which was collected through the arthroscope at the start and the end of the surgery. It was found that significantly more patients in the P50 group (n = 6) needed general anaesthesia due to intense pain than those in the P100 group (n = 1), P200 group (n = 0) or the PC group (n = 1). The PC group required significantly more analgesics and had a significantly higher calculated total sum of pain scores at movement post-operatively, than the other three groups. The P200 group more often reported tiredness post-operatively than the other three groups. We conclude that 100 or 200 mg pethidine i.a. produces satisfactory anaesthesia for surgery. There was a rapid transfer of pethidine from synovial fluid to plasma, resulting in plasma levels earlier reported to produce centrally mediated effects, such as analgesia and tiredness. We found much higher concentrations of norpethidine in the synovial fluid than in plasma

  12. Million Solar Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    Since its announcement in June 1997, the Million Solar Roofs Initiative has generated a major buzz in communities, states, and throughout the nation. With more than 300,000 installations, the buzz is getting louder. This brochure describes Million Solar Roofs activities and partnerships.

  13. The Valiant 77 Million.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Jr., William G.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the population depends on one-third of the population for survival. The valiant 77 million constitute the full-time work force in the United States. The conflict between excellence and equality weakens the development of a maximally productive work force. (JN)

  14. 76 FR 60841 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Million Hearts Challenge”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... cardiovascular disease in their own care using the Million Hearts' ABCs framework (Aspirin for people at high... pressure, cholesterol level, smoking status, pertinent medical ] history, aspirin and...

  15. Now and Then: The U.S. Reaches 300 Million

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Judith; Crews, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Today, the Census Bureau compiles extensive information every year about the people and the economy of the United States. That is how the authors know that in 2006 the United States is going to reach an extraordinary milestone--300 million people. In this article, the authors discuss the "now and then" of the U.S. society. The authors observed…

  16. The $578 Million School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The 24-acre site south of Wilshire Boulevard in the Koreatown section of Los Angeles signifies different things to different people. To those with fond memories of the golden era of Hollywood glamour, the site is where starlets were discovered, some of the first Academy Award ceremonies were held, and where the Rat Pack hung out. To those…

  17. After All, Only Millions?

    PubMed Central

    Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An update on the census of species of Archaea and Bacteria published recently in mBio (P. D. Schloss, R. A. Girard, T. Martin, J. Edwards, and J. C. Thrash, mBio 7:e00201-16, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00201-16) showed again that, despite ever-increasing sequencing efforts, the PCR-based retrieval of 16S rRNA genes is approaching saturation. On average, 95% of the genes analyzed today are identical to those present in public databases, with rarefaction analysis indicating that about one-third of the bacterial and archaeal diversity has already been covered. Therefore, despite estimates of up to 1012 microbial species, the option should be considered that the census of Archaea and Bacteria on planet Earth might yield only millions of species after all. PMID:27381294

  18. Understanding "people" people.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions. PMID:15202289

  19. Understanding "people" people.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  20. College Students' Attitudes Toward People Infected with HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popova, N. V.

    2007-01-01

    According to data of the World Health Organization, 34-46 million people are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2003 alone, the number of newly infected people in all countries came to about 5 million. By January 2001, more than 80,000 HIV-infected people were registered in Russia, of whom over 90 percent were drug users.…

  1. 77 FR 40364 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Million Hearts TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... for Million Hearts TM Caregiver Video Challenge AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... (CDC) within the Department of Health and Human Services, in partnership with Million Hearts TM announces the launch of The Million Hearts TM Caregiver Video Challenge. We invite people who play a role...

  2. A Million Comet Pieces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Million Comet Pieces (poster version)

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the broken Comet 73P/Schwassman-Wachmann 3 skimming along a trail of debris left during its multiple trips around the sun. The flame-like objects are the comet's fragments and their tails, while the dusty comet trail is the line bridging the fragments.

    Comet 73P /Schwassman-Wachmann 3 began to splinter apart in 1995 during one of its voyages around the sweltering sun. Since then, the comet has continued to disintegrate into dozens of fragments, at least 36 of which can be seen here. Astronomers believe the icy comet cracked due the thermal stress from the sun.

    The Spitzer image provides the best look yet at the trail of debris left in the comet's wake after its 1995 breakup. The observatory's infrared eyes were able to see the dusty comet bits and pieces, which are warmed by sunlight and glow at infrared wavelengths. This comet debris ranges in size from pebbles to large boulders. When Earth passes near this rocky trail every year, the comet rubble burns up in our atmosphere, lighting up the sky in meteor showers. In 2022, Earth is expected to cross close to the comet's trail, producing a noticeable meteor shower.

    Astronomers are studying the Spitzer image for clues to the comet's composition and how it fell apart. Like NASA's Deep Impact experiment, in which a probe smashed into comet Tempel 1, the cracked Comet 73P/Schwassman-Wachmann 3 provides a perfect laboratory for studying the pristine interior of a comet.

    This image was taken from May 4 to May 6 by Spitzer's multi-band imaging photometer, using its 24-micron wavelength channel.

  3. Million object spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  4. People's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsini, S. R.

    The "Folkehojskole," or Folk High School (more accurately translated as "People's College") which is Denmark's unique contribution to adult education, offer residential adult instruction. The aims of folk education are to help adults behave as independent and mature members of the community and think and speak freely. Emphasis is on cultural…

  5. House okays $330 million for population.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    A total of $330 million for international population assistance has been approved by the US House of Representatives in the foreign operations appropriations bill for fiscal 1993. The legislation, which includes $20 million for the UNFPA, is expected to be considered by the Senate in the late summer or early autumn. The bill stipulated that the amount earmarked for UNFPA must be used solely for the provision of FDA-approved contraceptives and related logistics. Other restrictions placed on the funds specify that; none of the funds may be used in the People's Republic of China; they must be placed in a separate account and not co-mingled with any other funds; they may not be use to carry out any program, project or activity disapproved by the US Ambassador to the UN; the full amount must be refunded if UNFPA provides more than $57 million for its 5-year family planning program in china that began in 1990 and for which funds already have been committed. Once the largest donor to UNFPA, the US government has not contributed to the Fund since 1985 after the Reagan Administration and antifamily planning forces in Congress lashed out against UNFPA for its support of the allegedly coercive Chinese national family planning program. 2 USAID probes were unable to trace UNFPA funds to the forced abortions the Chinese government program was charged with encouraging and carrying out. Nevertheless, after Congress approved the 1989 foreign operations bill with $15 million earmarked for UNFPA, President Bush vetoed the measure. In his veto message, the President said that UNFPA "participates in and strongly defends the program of a particular foreign government which relies heavily upon compulsory abortion." Pointing out that UNFPA has received no US assistance since 1985 "precisely because of its involvement in this coercive abortion policy," Bush said the 1989 bill represented "a radical and unwarranted change in policy." Although the President failed to name the country that

  6. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many older people believe that HIV only affects younger people Most older people get little training in ... diseases among older people, as they do for younger people. Physicians may not diagnose HIV infection in ...

  7. Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    TORNADO • FLASH FLOOD • EARTHQUAKE • WINTER STORM • HURRICANE • FIRE • HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILL Preparing for Emergencies A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases F or the millions of Americans with limited ...

  8. Building a million beacon map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julier, Simon J.; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2001-10-01

    Many future missions for mobile robots demand multi-robot systems which are capable of operating in large environments for long periods of time. A critical capability is that each robot must be able to localize itself. However, GPS cannot be used in many environments (such as within city streets, under water, indoors, beneath foliage or extra-terrestrial robotic missions) where mobile robots are likely to become commonplace. A widely researched alternative is Simultaneous Localization and Map Building (SLAM): the vehicle constructs a map and, concurrently, estimates its own position. In this paper we consider the problem of building and maintaining an extremely large map (of one million beacons). We describe a fully distributed, highly scaleable SLAM algorithm which is based on distributed data fusion systems. A central map is maintained in global coordinates using the Split Covariance Intersection (SCI) algorithm. Relative and local maps are run independently of the central map and their estimates are periodically fused with the central map.

  9. 41 CFR 128-50.100 - Storage and care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radios, tape players, and speakers) and all exterior accessories (for example, wheel covers) that are subject to pilferage and properly store them; and (5) Shut all windows and lock all doors and compartments that have locks....

  10. 41 CFR 128-50.100 - Storage and care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radios, tape players, and speakers) and all exterior accessories (for example, wheel covers) that are subject to pilferage and properly store them; and (5) Shut all windows and lock all doors and compartments that have locks....

  11. 41 CFR 128-50.100 - Storage and care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radios, tape players, and speakers) and all exterior accessories (for example, wheel covers) that are subject to pilferage and properly store them; and (5) Shut all windows and lock all doors and compartments that have locks....

  12. 41 CFR 128-50.100 - Storage and care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bureau preparing a seized vehicle for storage should be at a minimum; (1) Protect the cooling system from freezing; (2) Protect the battery by assuring it is properly watered; (3) Protect the tires by inflating...

  13. Powering the people: India's capacity expansion plans

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, S.

    2009-05-15

    India has become a global business power even though hundreds of millions of its citizens still live in poverty. To sustain economic growth and lift its people out of poverty, India needs more and more reliable power. Details of government plans for achieving those goals demonstrate that pragmatism may be in shorter supply than ambition and political will. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Assessing and managing depression in older people.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Hywel

    Depression is the most common mental health condition in people aged 65 and over. It can have a detrimental effect on quality of life and reduce patients' ability to manage their health. Nurses caring for older people with physical health problems are in an ideal position to identify depression; this article outlines how general receive the appropriate mental health care. nurses can do so and ensure their patientsepression can occur as a result of major life changes. It affects an estimated two million people over the age of 65 in the UK and is the most common mental illness

  15. Resources, people: uneasy balance.

    PubMed

    1984-03-01

    Recently, population growth spurted ahead of the growth of the world's output of goods and services, whose yearly rise averaged only 1.6% from 1979-82. That difference means misery for millions of people. Many nations will be unable to provide enough jobs for its population. Living standards and incomes will plummet, and millions may starve. In developing nations, where population growth sometimes outpaces economic growth by 4 or 5 percentage points, the future looks particularly bleak. Worldwide the production of grain has managed to keep up with population growth, but Africa is undergoing the most explosive growth of any continent in history, and food output there just cannot keep up. Since 1970 the amount of grain available for each African dropped more than 11%. In order to produce more food, Africans need chemical fertilizer and farm machines. The problem is that most African countries are so short of cash that they cannot afford to buy the fertilizer and equipment they need to modernize their farming methods. Theirmain source of cash, besides loans, is from the export of goods and services. Many African nations saw those exports decline during the 1970s. The major element responsible for the deline is costly oil. The era of cheap oil ended in 1973. Exporting nations raised the price of a barrel of oil from about US$2-$12. The output of food, goods, and services slowed as farm and factory owners tried to adjust to the higher costs of energy. In 1979 the price of a barrel of oil moved past US$30, triggering a worldwide economic slump. At the same time the world's people were multiplying faster than the output of goods and services. The specter of large scale famine is real. In the early 1970s Bangladesh attributed nearly 800,000 deaths to diseases related to malnutrition. In 1972, after India's grain harvest failed, there were 829,000 more deaths than in 1971. The governments of both India and Bangladesh have made slowing population growth a major priority.

  16. [The Six Million Dollar Man: from fiction to reality].

    PubMed

    Langeveld, C H Kees

    2013-01-01

    The term 'bionic' has been in existence since 1958, but only gained general recognition from the television series 'The Six Million Dollar Man'. Following a crash, the central figure in this series - test pilot Steve Austin - has an eye, an arm and both legs replaced by prostheses which make him stronger and faster than a normal person. This story is based on the science fiction book 'Cyborg' by Martin Caidin. In the world of comic books and films there are a number of examples of people who are given superhuman powers by having technological gadgets built in. Although the latter is not yet possible, the bionic human has now become reality. PMID:24382050

  17. [The Six Million Dollar Man: from fiction to reality].

    PubMed

    Langeveld, C H Kees

    2013-01-01

    The term 'bionic' has been in existence since 1958, but only gained general recognition from the television series 'The Six Million Dollar Man'. Following a crash, the central figure in this series - test pilot Steve Austin - has an eye, an arm and both legs replaced by prostheses which make him stronger and faster than a normal person. This story is based on the science fiction book 'Cyborg' by Martin Caidin. In the world of comic books and films there are a number of examples of people who are given superhuman powers by having technological gadgets built in. Although the latter is not yet possible, the bionic human has now become reality.

  18. Problems of the Education and Inclusion of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khudorenko, E. A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most urgent problems today is the prevalence of disabilities and the loss of health. According to World Health Organization data, there are more than 600 million handicapped people in the world. Despite measures in effect for the normative legal regulation of the life and activity of people with disabilities in Russia, the present…

  19. Undue Certainty: Where Howard Zinn's "A People's History" Falls Short

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Howard Zinn's "A People's History" of the United States has few peers among contemporary historical works. With more than 2 million copies in print, "A People's History" is more than a book. It is a cultural icon. While most historians aim to examine the full historical record, Zinn picks and chooses from it. Writing persuasively, he hides the…

  20. Enhancing young people's awareness.

    PubMed

    Doan Thi Tien

    1995-01-01

    The role of the Vietnam Youth Union (21 million members) is to educate the youth aged 14-28 years about the movement at the grassroots level. Since 1995, it has been entrusted with information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (implemented through the Educational Center for Population, Health, and Development) concerning family planning, the environment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mass media, direct communication, Youth Union leading staff, Youth Union cultural and arts activities, and advertisement have been used. 16 newspapers and magazines, a radio program, and a TV program disseminate information for the group. 1000 motivators' groups, 1370 Youth Clubs, and Youth Villages at the commune level work to enhance awareness and to change biased attitudes and habits. Leading staff speak at conferences and seminars that are attended by target groups. Art troupes perform at special local events; plays are organized and videos are shown. The HIV/AIDS information and prevention campaign is of great importance because research findings indicate that many young people believe that only prostitutes and drug addicts can be infected, and that condoms are bad and only for use with prostitutes. There are about 2300 persons infected with HIV in 14 provinces, mostly in the south and central regions. 131 are reported to have developed AIDS. PMID:12320323

  1. Children Adrift: Educating China's Millions of Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Haili

    1999-01-01

    The population of migrants moving within China's borders has reached some 80 million, including 2-3 million school-aged children. As migrant workers flock to cities, their children strain urban school systems or receive no education. But independent schools for migrants are illegal and substandard. In some rural provinces, vocational training may…

  2. Indonesia: a delicate balance between people and land.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    60% of Indonesia's approximately 148 million people live on the island of Java, which accounts for only 6% of Indonesia's total land area. Because of the alarming projected population growth increase by the year 2000, it is imperative that Java's population problems be approached with regard to the environment rather than urban planning alternatives. A rural family of 5 or 6 persons should have at least 3 quarters to 1 hectare of rice-filled land to live decently. Java's current situation precludes the use of any more land for urban purposes as it would reduce the amount of land available for food production. To maintain the delicate balance between human needs and nature, existing forests should be enlarged, extensive critical land areas restored, and rice fields maintained as they are now. It is estimated that a maximum of approximately 60 million people can live humanely in Indonesia's rural areas; if 126 million people will inhabit Java by 2000, 66 million will have to live in urban areas. This means being prepared for high density cities with all their implications and complications. Jakarta, Indonesia's capital city, has a current population of about 6.6 million people but is expected to grow to 9.7 million by 2001. Its annual growth rate is 4.5%, 42% of which results from in-migration from rural areas. In view of the projected population problems, rapid urbanization of Java appears to be more a solution rather than a problem.

  3. Enron Corporation bets $150 million on solar-powered generation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This nation`s largest natural gas company is betting $150 million that it can produce solar power at rates competitive with those of energy generated from oil, gas and coal. The Enron Corporation plans to build a photovoltaic power plant in the southern Nevada desert that would be the largest operation in the country making electricity directly from sunlight, producing enough to power a city of 100,000 people. It is expected to begin operating in two to three years. Some of the nation`s leading solar power experts say Enron`s optimistic goal probably is reachable. The cost of solar power generation has quietly declined by two-thirds. Far from depending on some wondrous breakthrough, the experts say, Enron can offer commercially competitive solar power by inexpensively mass-producing solar panels and then employing thousands of them in the Nevada desert.

  4. The 100 People Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Keri

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the 100 People Project and how the author integrates the project in her class. The 100 People Project is a nonprofit organization based in New York City. The organization poses the question: If there were only 100 people in the world, what would the world look like? Through the project, students were taught about ethics in…

  5. One Half Million Mile Solar Filament

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captures a very long, whip-like solar filament extending over half a million miles in a long arc above the sun’s surface. Filaments are cooler clouds of ...

  6. Learning Our Way to One Million

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitin, David J.

    2008-01-01

    David Schwartz's classic book "How Much Is a Million?" can be the catalyst for sparking many interesting mathematical investigations. This article describes five episodes in which children in grades 2-5 all heard this familiar story read aloud to them. At each grade level, they were encouraged to think of their own way to explore the concept of…

  7. Foreclosed: Two Million Homeless Students and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKibben, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that according to First Focus, a bipartisan advocacy organization for children and families, a predicted two million children will lose their homes over the next two years because of the foreclosure crisis. From an economy deep in recession, an entirely new population of homeless students has emerged. And with job losses at…

  8. Leading the Maricopa Millions OER Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raneri, April; Young, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    With a reduced number of students purchasing required and necessary textbooks, higher education leaders must look to new opportunities to increase student success. While open educational resources have addressed this issue, they have not received widespread support from faculty, staff, and administrators. The Maricopa Millions OER Project: Scaling…

  9. Update on the Million Solar Roofs Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Herig, C.

    1999-05-09

    The Million Solar Roofs Initiative, announced by the President in June of 1997, spans a period of twelve years and intends to increase domestic deployment of solar technologies. This paper presents an overview of the development of the initiative and significant activities to date.

  10. Sex and STEM Occupation Predict Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Scores in Half a Million People

    PubMed Central

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Smith, Paula; Musto, Henry; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores in a ‘big data’ sample collected through the UK Channel 4 television website, following the broadcasting of a medical education program. We examine correlations between the AQ and age, sex, occupation, and UK geographic region in 450,394 individuals. We predicted that age and geography would not be correlated with AQ, whilst sex and occupation would have a correlation. Mean AQ for the total sample score was m = 19.83 (SD = 8.71), slightly higher than a previous systematic review of 6,900 individuals in a non-clinical sample (mean of means = 16.94) This likely reflects that this big-data sample includes individuals with autism who in the systematic review score much higher (mean of means = 35.19). As predicted, sex and occupation differences were observed: on average, males (m = 21.55, SD = 8.82) scored higher than females (m = 18.95; SD = 8.52), and individuals working in a STEM career (m = 21.92, SD = 8.92) scored higher than individuals non-STEM careers (m = 18.92, SD = 8.48). Also as predicted, age and geographic region were not meaningfully correlated with AQ. These results support previous findings relating to sex and STEM careers in the largest set of individuals for which AQ scores have been reported and suggest the AQ is a useful self-report measure of autistic traits. PMID:26488477

  11. Sex and STEM Occupation Predict Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Scores in Half a Million People.

    PubMed

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Smith, Paula; Musto, Henry; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores in a 'big data' sample collected through the UK Channel 4 television website, following the broadcasting of a medical education program. We examine correlations between the AQ and age, sex, occupation, and UK geographic region in 450,394 individuals. We predicted that age and geography would not be correlated with AQ, whilst sex and occupation would have a correlation. Mean AQ for the total sample score was m = 19.83 (SD = 8.71), slightly higher than a previous systematic review of 6,900 individuals in a non-clinical sample (mean of means = 16.94) This likely reflects that this big-data sample includes individuals with autism who in the systematic review score much higher (mean of means = 35.19). As predicted, sex and occupation differences were observed: on average, males (m = 21.55, SD = 8.82) scored higher than females (m = 18.95; SD = 8.52), and individuals working in a STEM career (m = 21.92, SD = 8.92) scored higher than individuals non-STEM careers (m = 18.92, SD = 8.48). Also as predicted, age and geographic region were not meaningfully correlated with AQ. These results support previous findings relating to sex and STEM careers in the largest set of individuals for which AQ scores have been reported and suggest the AQ is a useful self-report measure of autistic traits.

  12. Sex and STEM Occupation Predict Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) Scores in Half a Million People.

    PubMed

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Smith, Paula; Musto, Henry; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores in a 'big data' sample collected through the UK Channel 4 television website, following the broadcasting of a medical education program. We examine correlations between the AQ and age, sex, occupation, and UK geographic region in 450,394 individuals. We predicted that age and geography would not be correlated with AQ, whilst sex and occupation would have a correlation. Mean AQ for the total sample score was m = 19.83 (SD = 8.71), slightly higher than a previous systematic review of 6,900 individuals in a non-clinical sample (mean of means = 16.94) This likely reflects that this big-data sample includes individuals with autism who in the systematic review score much higher (mean of means = 35.19). As predicted, sex and occupation differences were observed: on average, males (m = 21.55, SD = 8.82) scored higher than females (m = 18.95; SD = 8.52), and individuals working in a STEM career (m = 21.92, SD = 8.92) scored higher than individuals non-STEM careers (m = 18.92, SD = 8.48). Also as predicted, age and geographic region were not meaningfully correlated with AQ. These results support previous findings relating to sex and STEM careers in the largest set of individuals for which AQ scores have been reported and suggest the AQ is a useful self-report measure of autistic traits. PMID:26488477

  13. A question mark on iron deficiency in 185 million people of Pakistan: its outcomes and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Khalid, Nauman; David, Angel; Sandhu, Mansoor Abdullah; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency especially the iron deficiency is the bane of our lives, affecting all strata of society. Unfortunately, the women during pregnancy, adolescence, and children are under this curse particularly in developing countries like Pakistan. It is one of the biggest reasons of complications during pregnancy and malnourished children under five years of age. Maternal death, still-births, and underweight births are most common consequences of iron deficiency and these outbreaks as iron-deficiency anemia in Pakistan. Disastrous nature of iron deficiency requires an urgent call to eradicate it. Hence, the solution should not be frail comparing with the huge economic loss and other incompatibilities. Flour fortification, supplementation, dietary diversification, and especially maternal education are possible solutions for combating this micronutrient deficiency.

  14. Emulating a million machines to investigate botnets.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudish, Donald W.

    2010-06-01

    Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, California are creating what is in effect a vast digital petridish able to hold one million operating systems at once in an effort to study the behavior of rogue programs known as botnets. Botnets are used extensively by malicious computer hackers to steal computing power fron Internet-connected computers. The hackers harness the stolen resources into a scattered but powerful computer that can be used to send spam, execute phishing, scams or steal digital information. These remote-controlled 'distributed computers' are difficult to observe and track. Botnets may take over parts of tens of thousands or in some cases even millions of computers, making them among the world's most powerful computers for some applications.

  15. Ending Discrimination against People with Alcohol and Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    People with alcohol or other drug disease face public and private policies that restrict their access to appropriate health care, employment, and public benefits, discouraging them from seeking treatment, robbing them of hope for recovery, and costing society millions of dollars. Join Together, a project of Boston University School of Public…

  16. International development. 'Go and tell people what it's like here'.

    PubMed

    Dent, Emma

    2007-06-01

    Malawi's healthcare system struggles with too few nurses, inadequate resources and high disease rates. U.K. funding should see nurses' salaries increase by 52 per cent by 2010-11, but many seek overseas work as soon as they are qualified. Almost a million people are living with HIV and AIDS.

  17. Young People and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Dave; Martyn, Madeline; Tucker, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a small-scale qualitative inquiry into risk in the lives of children and young people. Conducted over a 12-month period in Birmingham and the Black Country in the United Kingdom, the study sought to elicit perceptions of risk from the perspective of children and young people in primary and secondary school…

  18. Managing & Developing People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, Gill, Ed.

    This book presents ideas about and approaches to human resource management (HRM) in British further education (FE) colleges. Introductory material includes author biographies and a preface (Brain) on human resource issues in FE. "Investors in People" (Chambers) considers how working toward recognition as an Investor in People (a British National…

  19. HOSPITALS FOR RURAL PEOPLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANNY, ELSIE S.; ROGERS, CHARLES E.

    MODERN ADVANCEMENTS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE HAVE PRECIPITATED THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE UP-TO-DATE HOSPITAL FACILITIES REASONABLY CLOSE TO ALL PEOPLE. RURAL COMMUNITIES HAVE UTILIZED FEDERAL AID, STATE AID, ASSISTANCE FROM FOUNDATIONS, CIVIC BONDS, AND VOLUNTEER CONTRIBUTIONS AND DRIVES TO ERECT AND EQUIP HOSPITALS. HOSPITAL CARE FOR RURAL PEOPLE USUALLY…

  20. Psychodrama with Deaf People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Lynette; Robinson, Luther D.

    1971-01-01

    Observations based on psychodrama with deaf people, relating to interaction between people and the communication process, are made. How role training skills, which involve some of the skills of psychodrama, can be applied by professionals in vocational and social learning situations is illustrated. (KW)

  1. Older people. Courtesy entitles.

    PubMed

    Calnan, Michael; Woolhead, Gillian; Dieppe, Paul

    2003-02-20

    A study of 72 people, with an average age of 72, showed that dignity--and lack of it--were key issues in their estimation of care. Concerns about lack of dignity centred on lack of privacy, mixed sex wards, forms of address and loss of independence. The study suggested that older people do not complain about care for fear of retaliation.

  2. People & Tropical Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways people who live in rain forests make a living and some of the products that enrich our lives. Provides activities covering forest people, tropical treats, jungle in the pantry, treetop explorers, and three copyable pages to accompany activities. (Author/RT)

  3. We, the People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    The meaning of the Constitution is reflected in its preamble, which lists the reasons for framing the Constitution; but, in turn, the rights of the people are either not mentioned or relegated to some tangential concern. The first three articles of the Constitution reveal that "we the people" is determined by the states as well as the crucial…

  4. Innovation for the 'bottom 100 million': eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Dumonteil, Eric; Heffernan, Michael J; Bottazzi, Maria E

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 100 million people in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region live on less than US$2 per day, while another 46 million people in the US live below that nation's poverty line. Almost all of the 'bottom 100 million' people suffer from at least one neglected tropical disease (NTD), including one-half of the poorest people in the region infected with hookworms, 10% with Chagas disease, and up to 1-2% with dengue, schistosomiasis, and/or leishmaniasis. In the US, NTDs such as Chagas disease, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, and trichomoniasis are also common among poor populations. These NTDs trap the poorest people in the region in poverty, because of their impact on maternal and child health, and occupational productivity. Through mass drug administration (MDA), several NTDs are on the verge of elimination in the Americas, including lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and possibly leprosy. In addition, schistosomiasis may soon be eliminated in the Caribbean. However, for other NTDs including hookworm infection, Chagas disease, dengue, schistosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, a new generation of 'anti-poverty vaccines' will be required. Several vaccines for dengue are under development by multinational pharmaceutical companies, whereas others are being pursued through non-profit product development partnerships (PDPs), in collaboration with developing country manufacturers in Brazil and Mexico. The Sabin Vaccine Institute PDP is developing a primarily preventive bivalent recombinant human hookworm vaccine, which is about to enter phase 1 clinical testing in Brazil, as well as a new therapeutic Chagas disease vaccine in collaboration with several Mexican institutions. The Chagas disease vaccine would be administered to seropositive patients to delay or prevent the onset of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (secondary prevention). Together, MDA and the development of new anti-poverty vaccines afford an opportunity to implement effective control and

  5. Intelligent Interfaces to Empower People with Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betke, Margrit

    Severe motion impairments can result from non-progressive disorders, such as cerebral palsy, or degenerative neurological diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), or muscular dystrophy (MD). They can be due to traumatic brain injuries, for example, due to a traffic accident, or to brainstem strokes [9, 84]. Worldwide, these disorders affect millions of individuals of all races and ethnic backgrounds [4, 75, 52]. Because disease onset of MS and ALS typically occurs in adulthood, afflicted people are usually computer literate. Intelligent interfaces can immensely improve their daily lives by allowing them to communicate and participate in the information society, for example, by browsing the web, posting messages, or emailing friends. However, people with advanced ALS, MS, or MD may reach a point when they cannot control the keyboard and mouse anymore and also cannot rely on automated voice recognition because their speech has become slurred.

  6. Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations: A Curriculum Project for Grades VII-XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Judith P.

    Indigenous peoples number over 200 million and constitute four percent of the world's population. They live in every part of the world and share a tragic common history: invasion of their lands and alteration of their environment, abrogation of treaties, continuing violence against their peoples, discrimination and abuse, poor health care and…

  7. Genotype Imputation with Millions of Reference Samples.

    PubMed

    Browning, Brian L; Browning, Sharon R

    2016-01-01

    We present a genotype imputation method that scales to millions of reference samples. The imputation method, based on the Li and Stephens model and implemented in Beagle v.4.1, is parallelized and memory efficient, making it well suited to multi-core computer processors. It achieves fast, accurate, and memory-efficient genotype imputation by restricting the probability model to markers that are genotyped in the target samples and by performing linear interpolation to impute ungenotyped variants. We compare Beagle v.4.1 with Impute2 and Minimac3 by using 1000 Genomes Project data, UK10K Project data, and simulated data. All three methods have similar accuracy but different memory requirements and different computation times. When imputing 10 Mb of sequence data from 50,000 reference samples, Beagle's throughput was more than 100× greater than Impute2's throughput on our computer servers. When imputing 10 Mb of sequence data from 200,000 reference samples in VCF format, Minimac3 consumed 26× more memory per computational thread and 15× more CPU time than Beagle. We demonstrate that Beagle v.4.1 scales to much larger reference panels by performing imputation from a simulated reference panel having 5 million samples and a mean marker density of one marker per four base pairs. PMID:26748515

  8. Kumbh Mela 2013: Healthcare for the millions.

    PubMed

    Cariappa, M P; Singh, B P; Mahen, A; Bansal, A S

    2015-07-01

    Mass gatherings pose challenges to healthcare systems anywhere in the world. The Kumbh Mela 2013 at Allahabad, India was the largest gathering of humanity in the history of mankind, and posed an exciting challenge to the provision of healthcare services. At the finale of the Mela, it was estimated that about 120 million pilgrims had visited the site. Equitable geospatial distribution of adhoc health care facilities were created on a standardised template with integrated planning of evacuation modalities. Innovative and low cost response measures for disaster mitigation were implemented. Emergency patient management kits were prepared and stocked across the health care facilities for crisis response. Dynamic resource allocation (in terms of manpower and supplies) based on patient volumes was done on a daily basis, in response to feedback. An adhoc mega township created on the banks of a perennial river (Ganga) in the Indian subcontinent for accommodating millions of Hindu pilgrims. Conventional mindset of merely providing limited and static healthcare through adhoc facilities was done away with. Innovative concepts such as riverine ambulances and disaster kits were introduced. Managing the medical aspects of a mass gathering mega event requires allocation of adequate funds, proactive and integrated medical planning and preparedness.

  9. Kumbh Mela 2013: Healthcare for the millions.

    PubMed

    Cariappa, M P; Singh, B P; Mahen, A; Bansal, A S

    2015-07-01

    Mass gatherings pose challenges to healthcare systems anywhere in the world. The Kumbh Mela 2013 at Allahabad, India was the largest gathering of humanity in the history of mankind, and posed an exciting challenge to the provision of healthcare services. At the finale of the Mela, it was estimated that about 120 million pilgrims had visited the site. Equitable geospatial distribution of adhoc health care facilities were created on a standardised template with integrated planning of evacuation modalities. Innovative and low cost response measures for disaster mitigation were implemented. Emergency patient management kits were prepared and stocked across the health care facilities for crisis response. Dynamic resource allocation (in terms of manpower and supplies) based on patient volumes was done on a daily basis, in response to feedback. An adhoc mega township created on the banks of a perennial river (Ganga) in the Indian subcontinent for accommodating millions of Hindu pilgrims. Conventional mindset of merely providing limited and static healthcare through adhoc facilities was done away with. Innovative concepts such as riverine ambulances and disaster kits were introduced. Managing the medical aspects of a mass gathering mega event requires allocation of adequate funds, proactive and integrated medical planning and preparedness. PMID:26288497

  10. Kumbh Mela 2013: Healthcare for the millions

    PubMed Central

    Cariappa, M.P.; Singh, B.P.; Mahen, A.; Bansal, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings pose challenges to healthcare systems anywhere in the world. The Kumbh Mela 2013 at Allahabad, India was the largest gathering of humanity in the history of mankind, and posed an exciting challenge to the provision of healthcare services. At the finale of the Mela, it was estimated that about 120 million pilgrims had visited the site. Equitable geospatial distribution of adhoc health care facilities were created on a standardised template with integrated planning of evacuation modalities. Innovative and low cost response measures for disaster mitigation were implemented. Emergency patient management kits were prepared and stocked across the health care facilities for crisis response. Dynamic resource allocation (in terms of manpower and supplies) based on patient volumes was done on a daily basis, in response to feedback. An adhoc mega township created on the banks of a perennial river (Ganga) in the Indian subcontinent for accommodating millions of Hindu pilgrims. Conventional mindset of merely providing limited and static healthcare through adhoc facilities was done away with. Innovative concepts such as riverine ambulances and disaster kits were introduced. Managing the medical aspects of a mass gathering mega event requires allocation of adequate funds, proactive and integrated medical planning and preparedness. PMID:26288497

  11. Photographer : JPL Range : 6 million kilometers (3.7 million miles) Central Longitude 120 degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 6 million kilometers (3.7 million miles) Central Longitude 120 degrees west, North is up. and 3rd from the planet. Photo taken after midnight Ganymede is slightly larger than Mercury but much less dense (twice the density of water). Its surface brightness is 4 times of Earth's Moon. Mare regions (dark features) are like the Moon's but have twice the brightness, and believed to be unlikely of rock or lava as the Moon's are. It's north pole seems covered with brighter material and may be water frost. Scattered brighter spots may be related to impact craters or source of fresh ice.

  12. Making people be healthy.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Timothy Martin

    2009-09-01

    How are we supposed to decide the rights and wrongs of banning smoking in bars, restricting adverts for junk food, nagging people into being screened for cancers, or banning the sale of party pills? The aim of this paper is to think through the political ethics of trying to make people healthier through influencing or restricting their choices. This paper covers: (1) Paternalism. What it is, what it assumes. (2) The place of health in well-being, and how this makes paternalism problematic. (3) The mistakes people make in acting in their own interests, and the implications for pro-health paternalism. (4) Autonomy objections to paternalism. The paper (5) finishes on a note of hope, by commending the currently fashionable libertarian paternalism: trying to have one's carrot cake and eat it too. A persistent theme is that thinking sensibly about making people healthier needs subtlety, not broad, ringing declarations. PMID:20690392

  13. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than they were before the use of anti-HIV drugs. It is difficult to know what is causing mental problems in older people with HIV. Is it normal aging, or is it HIV disease? Research studies have ...

  14. People and Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  15. Meet the Noodle People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kananen, Mary King

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity for children to build and take home a basic model of the human skeletal system. Describes how to make "noodle people" from ordinary materials including pasta, pipe cleaners, straws, and margarine tub lids. (NB)

  16. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  17. Six People to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robyn R.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching is a difficult and time-consuming job, but the rewards teachers receive from their students are unquestionably worth it. The good news is that in every school, there are people that they work with who can help to make their daily life much easier--but they are not always the people that they would think to ask for help. New teachers often…

  18. US cancer survivors grows to nearly 12 million

    Cancer.gov

    The number of cancer survivors in the United States increased to 11.7 million in 2007, according to a report released by NCI and CDC. There were 3 million cancer survivors in 1971 and 9.8 million in 2001.

  19. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

  20. People in videos from people in pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Jehanzeb; Dagli, Charlie K.; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    We propose an appearance based model for face recognition in news videos using an enormously large databank of still images. This is a step towards building an elaborate face-query system using multimodal audio-visual data. We use the fact that faces of the same person appear similar than of different people. We preprocess the videos, apply feature extraction, feature matching and a unique parallel line matching algorithm to develop a simple yet a powerful face recognition system. We tested our approach on real world data and the results show good performance both for high resolution still images and low resolution news videos without involving any training or tasks like face rectification, warping etc. It can be incorporated as part of a larger multimodal news video analysis system with problems of time alignment between text and faces. Our results show that this simple approach also works well where video modality is the only source of information.

  1. [Children's health. 40. Unacceptable that 14 million children die every year].

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, L P

    1987-10-01

    The 40th annual report of the UN Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) states that about 7 million of the 14 million children who die throughout the world each year could be saved by modern methods of health care and food supply. UNICEF's executive director James Grant points out that 40 years ago little international attention was given to mass death from starvation, but today any such crisis attracts the mass media, and people and governments act to avoid mass death. Undernourishment and epidemics continue to threaten the world's children and more than 280,000 children die from these causes each week. Even with the crises of the past two years in Africa there have been more deaths among children in India and Pakistan than in all of Africa's 46 countries together. Existing knowledge on cheap methods of improving the health of children in underdeveloped countries is sufficient to save at least 7 million children's lives each year. Many millions more could have a normal growth with better information on replacements on mother's milk, vaccinations and access to supplies of water, sugar, and salt for oral rehydration therapy. Just as important are the new technologies of the communications revolution which is taking place in underdeveloped countries. Most homes have a radio, and televisions are available in most villages and in many small communities there are schools and health workers.

  2. Enhancing the view of a million galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 851 KB Credits: ESA/Univ. of Leicester/I. Stewart and M. Watson XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. The view gives an X-ray pseudo-colour representation of all the sources, coded according to their X-ray energy. More energetic sources are shown in blue and less energetic ones in red. This mosaic image, composed of 7 partially overlapping pointings, maps the full extent of the SXDF and corresponds to an exposure time exceeding one hundred hours. These data form the largest contiguous area over which deep X-ray observations have been performed. Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 6215 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope XMM-Newton/Subaru colour composite image A colour composite image obtained by combining data taken with the Subaru Telescope in blue, red and near-infrared light. The image, worth over two hundred hours of exposure time, covers an area of sky seven times larger than the full moon. The images in blue light show details several hundred million times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 448 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The teardrop-shaped galaxy in the upper right portion of the frame is likely to have suffered from a collision with another galaxy. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 358 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The prominent spiral galaxy near the centre may be ineracting with a less-conspicuous dwarf galaxy to its lower right. One of the fundamental goals of modern astronomy is understanding the history of the Universe, and in particular learning about the processes that shape the formation and evolution of galaxies. To observe these processes as they unfold, astronomers must survey galaxies near and far, spanning a large enough volume of the Universe, so that local variations in the

  3. How to Steal a Million Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of Italian astronomers reports [1] that the stellar cluster Messier 12 must have lost to our Milky Way galaxy close to one million low-mass stars. ESO PR Photo 04a/06 ESO PR Photo 04a/06 The Central Part of Messier 12 "In the solar neighbourhood and in most stellar clusters, the least massive stars are the most common, and by far", said Guido De Marchi (ESA), lead author of the study. "Our observations with ESO's VLT show this is not the case for Messier 12." The team, which also includes Luigi Pulone and Francesco Paresce (INAF, Italy), measured the brightness and colours of more than 16,000 stars within the globular cluster Messier 12 [2] with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument attached to one of the Unit Telescopes of ESO's VLT at Cerro Paranal (Chile). The astronomers could study stars that are 40 million times fainter than what the unaided eye can see (magnitude 25). Located at a distance of 23,000 light years in the constellation Ophiuchus (The Serpent-holder), Messier 12 got its name by being the 12th entry in the catalogue of nebulous objects compiled in 1774 by French astronomer and comet chaser Charles Messier. It is also known to astronomers as NGC 6218 and contains about 200,000 stars, most of them having a mass between 20 and 80 percent of the mass of the Sun. "It is however clear that Messier 12 is surprisingly devoid of low-mass stars", said De Marchi. "For each solar-like star, we would expect roughly four times as many stars with half that mass. Our VLT observations only show an equal number of stars of different masses." ESO PR Photo 04b/06 ESO PR Photo 04b/06 Loosing Stars in the Milky Way Globular clusters move in extended elliptical orbits that periodically take them through the densely populated regions of our Galaxy, the plane, then high above and below, in the 'halo'. When venturing too close to the innermost and denser regions of the Milky Way, the 'bulge', a globular cluster can be

  4. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    PubMed

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  5. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    PubMed

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  6. Experience of active tuberculosis case finding in nearly 5 million households in India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, B M; Satyanarayana, S; Chadha, S S; Das, A; Thapa, B; Mohanty, S; Pandurangan, S; Babu, E R; Tonsing, J; Sachdeva, K S

    2016-03-21

    In India, to increase tuberculosis (TB) case detection under the National Tuberculosis Programme, active case finding (ACF) was implemented by the Global Fund-supported Project Axshya, among high-risk groups in 300 districts. Between April 2013 and December 2014, 4.9 million households covering ~20 million people were visited. Of 350 047 presumptive pulmonary TB cases (cough of ⩾2 weeks) identified, 187 586 (54%) underwent sputum smear examination and 14 447 (8%) were found to be smear-positive. ACF resulted in the detection of a large number of persons with presumptive pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB. Ensuring sputum examination of all those with presumptive TB was a major challenge.

  7. Creating a different international HIV response for young people.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Caitlin L

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that certain notions of young people in the HIV and AIDS response reveal an overly generalised understanding of 'youth' that does not reflect a realistic view of young people's identity and lives. Faulty stereotypes of 'youth'--such as the perceptions that young people are necessarily victims or risk-takers--result in many HIV programmes based on generalisations about young people, rather than their actual needs and realities. These stereotypes and generalisations dominate million dollar prevention programmes that have little effect on HIV incidence rates amongst young people. To create a different future for young people and achieve real and lasting change, this paper recommends three discrete but interrelated actions for the international HIV community to undertake now; to base programmes on definitions of young people that emerge from the setting in which the programme will be implemented; to ensure HIV prevention programming is targeted at specific groups of young people, rather than a 'one-size-fits-all' package; and to incorporate structural approaches into AIDS programming to address the underlying factors that make younger age groups more vulnerable to HIV--including age-related stigma, discrimination and human rights abuses.

  8. A million X-ray detections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N.; XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC)

    2016-06-01

    Part of the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre responsibilities include producing an X-ray catalogue of all X-ray sources detected with XMM-Newton. The latest version, 3XMM, takes advantage of improvements made to the source characterisation, reducing the number of spurious detections, but providing better astrometric precision, greater net sensitivity, as well as spectra and timeseries for a quarter of all catalogue detections. The data release 5 (3XMM-DR5, April 2015) is derived from the first 13 years of observations with XMM-Newton. 3XMM-DR5 includes 565962 X-ray detections and 396910 unique sources, detected as many as 48 times. 3XMM-DR5 is therefore the largest X-ray source catalogue. 3XMM-DR6 will be made available during 2016 and will augment the catalogue with 70000 X-ray detections. Over the next decade the catalogue will reach 1 million X-ray detections, including galaxy clusters, galaxies, tidal disruption events, gamma-ray bursts, stars, stellar mass compact objects, supernovae, planets, comets and many other systems. Thanks to the wide range of data products for each catalogue detection, the catalogue is an excellent resource for finding populations of sources as well as new and extreme objects. Here we present results achieved from searching the catalogue and discuss improvements that will be provided in future versions.

  9. People's Theatre in Amerika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Karen Malpede

    A history of the people's theatre movement in this country from the early 1920s to the early 1970s, this book deals with the structural and thematic connections between the radical theatre of the twenties and thirties and current work of such revolutionary theatres as the Living Theatre, Open Theatre, Bread and Puppet Theatre, El Teatro Campesino,…

  10. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. PMID:27105933

  11. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  12. People of the Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George; And Others

    Suitable for use in middle school classes, this interdisciplinary resource book on the culture of Appalachia is divided into 15 units. Topics covered are: stereotyping, values, geography, coal, people, family, housing, biographies, literature, music, crafts, dance, religion, wisdom, and change. Through a variety of learning activities and…

  13. Improving Young People's Concerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Harvey

    1998-01-01

    Stresses that symphony orchestras and other professional arts organizations need to improve young people's concerts by accounting for student learning and becoming partners with music educators. Provides an experience hierarchy that helps artists and arts organizations benefit from music teachers' knowledge and a list of five elements to consider…

  14. Protecting our peoples.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F V

    1997-01-01

    In this speech, delivered at the Opening Ceremonies of the 4th International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific, Philippines President Fidel Ramos called for international cooperation in seeking solutions to the universal problem posed by HIV/AIDS. The Philippines proclaimed 1997 as national AIDS prevention year, and the nation is aware that the disease is a socioeconomic and development problem, not merely a public health problem. This recognition has allowed the Philippines to craft a response to HIV/AIDS that is holistic and comprehensive, rather than isolationist. By pooling resources effectively, Asian countries should be able to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention efforts and, hopefully, to efforts to cure the disease. In the Philippines, nongovernmental organizations have shown how much can be accomplished through effective management of scarce resources. The Department of Health (DOH) also stretches its modest HIV/AIDS prevention and care budget through effort, enthusiasm, and networking. The Philippines National AIDS Council, an advisory body, includes a representative from an organization of people with HIV. The DOH has established a home for people with HIV/AIDS and hires HIV-positive patients to work as health educators. The government's labor policies also protect people with HIV/AIDS from discrimination. A proposed law will extend protection of the rights of HIV-positive individuals and will address prevention efforts. Asian-Pacific region countries must act collectively to meet the challenge of protecting their peoples from HIV/AIDS.

  15. [People's knowledge about dementia].

    PubMed

    Bogolepova, A N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most urgent problems due to the high prevalence and disability. Timely identification and early diagnosis of dementia are the most important for successful management of patients that may be possible only if patients refer for medical care. In this connection, people's knowledge about dementia is of great importance. To study people's knowledge about problems of dementia. The survey was carried out in September 2014 in 42 regions of the Russian Federation (130 survey sites) and comprised 1600 respondents. The survey has revealed that 48% of participants are afraid to have dementia, 47% are not aware of signs and symptoms of marked cognitive impairment and 54% have concerns about age-related memory impairment. A low percent of people who refer for medical care may be explained by the widespread opinion (37% of Russians) that dementia is not curable; 42% believe that there are no drugs for treatment of dementia. Only 5% of respondents would visit a doctor if their relative has dementia. The results of this survey highlighted the necessity of using special programs to improve people's knowledge about problems of dementia.

  16. First People, Firsthand Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Dennis

    1996-01-01

    We are infatuated with our abilities to predict and analyze, yet we need to listen and observe, behaviors that made Native Americans wise environmental managers. European Americans, who are new to this hemisphere, and indigenous people must forge a world view that synthesizes Western science and traditional environmental knowledge in order to…

  17. Drugs and Young People

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  18. Researching Marginalised Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Young people not in employment, education or training (NEET) are not a static, homogenous group. For most, being NEET is a temporary state as they move between different forms of participation and non-participation. This paper explores how the complexities of defining NEET, the re-structuring of the careers service and the nature of post-16…

  19. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  20. Sculptures of Ordinary People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the presence of ordinary people in art. Features four sculptors and examples of their work: (1) "Janitor" by Duane Hanson; (2) "The Red Light" by George Segal; (3) "The Sodbuster" by Luis A. Jimenez; and (4) "The Driller" by Mahonri Young. (CMK)

  1. People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    PubMed

    1985-08-01

    The population of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen grew from 992,000 in 1950 to 1.7 million in 1975, and the total fertility rate has remained relatively constant at 7 since 1950. The Government has not adopted a population policy per se, but has included sectoral policies that have implications for the size, growth, composition, and distribution of the population. The Government maintains that population issues should be viewed comprehensively within the framework of economic and social development. Measures to achieve economic growth, combined with the expansion of health, education, cultural, and social services, as well as the eradication of illiteracy and the emancipation of women, are expected to have a major impact on the society's demographic structure. The Government's main concern with regard to population growth is a reduction in morbidity and mortality. The rate of growth is projected to increase from 2.7% in 1980-85 to 2.9 in the year 2000, at which point it should begin to decline. The crude death rate is presently 18.8/1000 and is expected to drop to 13.1/1000 by 2000. Infant mortality stood at 138/1000 in 1980-85. Morbidity and mortality are unacceptably high among infants, children, nomads, and rural residents. Priorities for the health sector include the development and expansion of health services, intensive preventive health care for mothers and children, development of a safe drinking water system, nutrition and health education campaigns, and training of health personnel. Measures that are expected to decrease fertility include family planning education, an expansion of facilities to rural areas, and improvements in the status of women. Family planning services are freely available from maternal and child health centers, mainly in urban areas. A mass literacy campaign seeks to increase the female literacy rate to 90%, and women's participation in wage labor is being encouraged. A further goal of population policy is to modify spatial

  2. SETI@home: A Million CPU Years and Still No ETs

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David P.

    2001-04-11

    SETI{at}home records data at the Arecibo radio observatory, distributes it through the Internet, and analyzes it using a screensaver program, searching for signs of extraterrestrial life. In our first year of operation we analyzed 15 Terabytes of data using 400,000 years of computer time. Over 2.5 million people in 226 countries have participated. SETI{at}home is the largest computation ever performed, is the first major scientific experiment with large-scale public participation, and serves as a prototype for future distributed-computing projects.

  3. WISE Photometry for 400 Million SDSS Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Dustin; Hogg, David W.; Schlegel, David J.

    2016-02-01

    We present photometry of images from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) of over 400 million sources detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We use a “forced photometry” technique, using measured SDSS source positions, star-galaxy classification, and galaxy profiles to define the sources whose fluxes are to be measured in the WISE images. We perform photometry with The Tractor image modeling code, working on our “unWISE” coaddds and taking account of the WISE point-spread function and a noise model. The result is a measurement of the flux of each SDSS source in each WISE band. Many sources have little flux in the WISE bands, so often the measurements we report are consistent with zero given our uncertainties. However, for many sources we get 3σ or 4σ measurements; these sources would not be reported by the “official” WISE pipeline and will not appear in the WISE catalog, yet they can be highly informative for some scientific questions. In addition, these small-signal measurements can be used in stacking analyses at the catalog level. The forced photometry approach has the advantage that we measure a consistent set of sources between SDSS and WISE, taking advantage of the resolution and depth of the SDSS images to interpret the WISE images; objects that are resolved in SDSS but blended together in WISE still have accurate measurements in our photometry. Our results, and the code used to produce them, are publicly available at http://unwise.me.

  4. 40 Million Years of the Iceland Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell-Turner, R. E.; White, N.; Henstock, T.; Maclennan, J.; Murton, B. J.; Jones, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The V-shaped ridges, straddling the mid oceanic ridges to the North and South of Iceland, provide us with a linear record of transient mantle convective circulation. Surprisingly, we know little about the structure of these ridges: prior to this study, the most recent regional seismic reflection profiles were acquired in the 1960s. During the Summer of 2010, we acquired over 3,000 km of seismic reflection data across the oceanic basin South of Iceland. The cornerstones of this programme are two 1000 km flowlines, which traverse the basin from Greenland to the European margin. The geometry of young V-shaped ridges near to the oceanic spreading center has been imaged in fine detail; older ridges, otherwise obscured in gravity datasets by sediment cover, have been resolved for the first time. We have mapped the sediment-basement interface, transformed each profile onto an astronomical time scale, and removed the effects of long wavelength plate cooling. The resulting chronology of Icelandic plume activity provides an important temporal frame of reference for plume flux over the past 40 million years. The profiles also cross major contourite drift deposits, notably the Gardar, Bjorn and Eirik drifts. Fine-scale sedimentary features imaged here demonstrate distinct episodes of drift construction; by making simple assumptions about sedimentation rates, we can show that periods of drift formation correspond to periods of enhanced deep water circulation which is in turn moderated by plume activity. From a regional point of view, this transient behaviour manifests itself in several important ways. Within sedimentary basins fringing the North Atlantic, short lived regional uplift events periodically interrupt thermal subsidence from Eocene times to the present day. From a paleoceanographic perspective, there is good correlation between V-shaped ridge activity and changes in overflow of the ancient precursor to North Atlantic Deep Water. This complete history of the Iceland

  5. Enhancing the view of a million galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 851 KB Credits: ESA/Univ. of Leicester/I. Stewart and M. Watson XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image XMM-Newton X-ray spectral colour composite image of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. The view gives an X-ray pseudo-colour representation of all the sources, coded according to their X-ray energy. More energetic sources are shown in blue and less energetic ones in red. This mosaic image, composed of 7 partially overlapping pointings, maps the full extent of the SXDF and corresponds to an exposure time exceeding one hundred hours. These data form the largest contiguous area over which deep X-ray observations have been performed. Composite image hi-res Size hi-res: 6215 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope XMM-Newton/Subaru colour composite image A colour composite image obtained by combining data taken with the Subaru Telescope in blue, red and near-infrared light. The image, worth over two hundred hours of exposure time, covers an area of sky seven times larger than the full moon. The images in blue light show details several hundred million times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 448 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The teardrop-shaped galaxy in the upper right portion of the frame is likely to have suffered from a collision with another galaxy. SXDS field hi-res Size hi-res: 358 KB Credits: NAOJ/Subaru Telescope SXDS field A particular of the SXDS field. The prominent spiral galaxy near the centre may be ineracting with a less-conspicuous dwarf galaxy to its lower right. One of the fundamental goals of modern astronomy is understanding the history of the Universe, and in particular learning about the processes that shape the formation and evolution of galaxies. To observe these processes as they unfold, astronomers must survey galaxies near and far, spanning a large enough volume of the Universe, so that local variations in the

  6. Monsters are people too

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J.; Foulsham, T.; Kingstone, A.

    2013-01-01

    Animals, including dogs, dolphins, monkeys and man, follow gaze. What mediates this bias towards the eyes? One hypothesis is that primates possess a distinct neural module that is uniquely tuned for the eyes of others. An alternative explanation is that configural face processing drives fixations to the middle of peoples' faces, which is where the eyes happen to be located. We distinguish between these two accounts. Observers were presented with images of people, non-human creatures with eyes in the middle of their faces (`humanoids’) or creatures with eyes positioned elsewhere (`monsters’). There was a profound and significant bias towards looking early and often at the eyes of humans and humanoids and also, critically, at the eyes of monsters. These findings demonstrate that the eyes, and not the middle of the head, are being targeted by the oculomotor system. PMID:23118434

  7. Monsters are people too.

    PubMed

    Levy, J; Foulsham, T; Kingstone, A

    2013-02-23

    Animals, including dogs, dolphins, monkeys and man, follow gaze. What mediates this bias towards the eyes? One hypothesis is that primates possess a distinct neural module that is uniquely tuned for the eyes of others. An alternative explanation is that configural face processing drives fixations to the middle of peoples' faces, which is where the eyes happen to be located. We distinguish between these two accounts. Observers were presented with images of people, non-human creatures with eyes in the middle of their faces (`humanoids') or creatures with eyes positioned elsewhere (`monsters'). There was a profound and significant bias towards looking early and often at the eyes of humans and humanoids and also, critically, at the eyes of monsters. These findings demonstrate that the eyes, and not the middle of the head, are being targeted by the oculomotor system.

  8. Careers and people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Young scientists fly high Teenagers from Poland, Slovakia and the UK won first prizes at the annual European Union (EU) Contest for Young Scientists. Magdalena Bojarska's study of Hamiltonian cycles in generalized Halin graphs, Martin Tkác's insights on tilting bulk materials in railway cargo and Elisabeth Muller's project on lunar meteorites each garnered awards worth €7000 from the EU's Science in Society programme, which aims to encourage young people to pursue scientific careers.

  9. HIV among transgendered people.

    PubMed

    Kenagy, G P

    2002-02-01

    This study explores HIV status and HIV-related risk factors among transgendered people. A needs assessment survey developed with the help of transgendered people was used to conduct face-to-face interviews with 81 transgendered persons, 49 male-to-females (MTFs) and 32 female-to-males (FTMs). The findings indicate that HIV/AIDS is a serious health concern facing the transgender community. The majority of respondents engaged in at least one high risk sexual activity during the past three months, were willing to have high risk sex in the future and did not believe they were susceptible to infection. FTMs have a significantly lower level of AIDS knowledge than MTFs (p < 0.01). Over half (56.7%) of FTMs have not been tested for HIV/AIDS. Efforts to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS among the transgender community are urgently needed. HIV/AIDS prevention must specifically target transgendered people, including FTMs who, despite being at risk, have been largely ignored.

  10. Genomic view on the peopling of India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    India is known for its vast human diversity, consisting of more than four and a half thousand anthropologically well-defined populations. Each population differs in terms of language, culture, physical features and, most importantly, genetic architecture. The size of populations varies from a few hundred to millions. Based on the social structure, Indians are classified into various caste, tribe and religious groups. These social classifications are very rigid and have remained undisturbed by emerging urbanisation and cultural changes. The variable social customs, strict endogamy marriage practices, long-term isolation and evolutionary forces have added immensely to the diversification of the Indian populations. These factors have also led to these populations acquiring a set of Indian-specific genetic variations responsible for various diseases in India. Interestingly, most of these variations are absent outside the Indian subcontinent. Thus, this review is focused on the peopling of India, the caste system, marriage practice and the resulting health and forensic implications. PMID:23020857

  11. Strategies to choose from millions of imputed sequence variants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Millions of sequence variants are known, but subsets are needed for routine genomic predictions or to include on genotyping arrays. Variant selection and imputation strategies were tested using 26 984 simulated reference bulls, of which 1 000 had 30 million sequence variants, 773 had 600 000 markers...

  12. 12 Scientists Will Share $120-Million from Saudis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2008-01-01

    This spring 12 scientists found themselves in an unusual position--they have to figure out how to spend $2-million every year for the next five years. The money adds up to $10-million per researcher. In May the researchers made a pilgrimage to the source of the generous grants: King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, a graduate…

  13. Millions of Americans may be eligible for Marketplace coverage outside open enrollment as a result of qualifying life events.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Lacey; Espinoza, Giovann Alarcon; Fried, Brett; Sonier, Julie

    2015-05-01

    Federal regulations establish special enrollment periods--times outside of open enrollment periods--during which people may enroll in or change their health insurance plans offered through the federal and state-based exchanges, or Marketplaces. To be eligible, a person must experience a shift in income or another "qualifying life event," such as a change in marital status or the number of dependents, or the loss of minimum essential health coverage. We produced an upper-bound estimate that 3.7 million nonelderly adults with coverage through a federal or state Marketplace could have experienced a qualifying life event and become eligible for a special enrollment period because of income shifts. In addition, more than 8.4 million nonelderly adults who did not have Marketplace coverage--three-quarters of whom had no insurance--became eligible for a special enrollment period as a result of other qualifying life events. Many if not most of these people may be unaware of their eligibility. In states that did not expand Medicaid eligibility, we estimated that 1.9 million people experienced income shifts outside of the open enrollment period that would make them eligible for Marketplace subsidies. However, because they were uninsured or had nongroup coverage (instead of Medicaid) during the most recent open enrollment period, they had to wait until the next period to enroll in a Marketplace plan. PMID:25926592

  14. India has the largest number of people infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1999-01-01

    With a population of almost 1 billion people and an estimated 4 million people infected with HIV, India is thought to be the country with the largest number of HIV-infected people in the world. According to UNAIDS, HIV is firmly embedded in India's general population and rapidly spreading into rural areas previously thought to be relatively spared from the epidemic. Almost 500,000 people are infected in Tamil Nadu and the infection rate is 3 times higher in villages than in cities. According to the National AIDS Control Organization, the rate of HIV infection among attendees of STD clinics in Mumbai increased from 23% to 36% in 1 year, and 51% of prostitutes in Mumbai and 55.8% of IV drug users in Manipur are infected. It is estimated that AIDS will cost India US$11 billion cumulatively by 2000, 5% of the country's gross domestic product. Negotiations are underway for the World Bank to loan India $200 million with which to combat HIV/AIDS. Since antiretroviral therapy is too expensive for most Indians, vaccine research must be accelerated in India. HIV infection in India is mainly of HIV-1 subtype C, although subtypes A and B, along with some new recombinant subtypes, have also been reported. HIV-2 has been reported sporadically.

  15. Astronomical activities with disabled people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, Amelia; Blay, Pere; Gallego Calvente, A. Teresa; Gómez, Miquel; Guirado, José Carlos; Lanzara, Mariana; Martínez Núñez, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    As we celebrate the International Year of Astronomy, we have been working on four different projects with the goal of making astronomy more accessible to people with special needs. These projects are 1) an astronomy book and web site for blind people, 2) an open source software for people with motor disabilities, 3) a planetarium program for the visually impaired and 4) educational material for intellectually disabled people.

  16. Discover Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Poston Dl

    1988-02-01

    Tianjin, China's 3rd largest city, often is overlooked by Westerners, yet it has a population of over 8 million and is one of the most accessible cities in the country. Tianjin produced almost 4% of China's gross industrial output in 1984, ranking 2nd to Shanghai only. The city rivals Beijing as a key center of higher education as well as a growing hotspot for marine-chemical, textile, and petro-chemical industries. There are 29 colleges and 148 research institutes located in the city along with 4000 industrial enterprises. Also, in 1984 government officials designated Tianjin a "coastal city" and in 1985 gave the city special priority as a site for joint-venture operations. Tianjin along with Beijing and Shanghai has the status, responsibilities, and powers of a province and is directly administered by the central Chinese government. The number of urban residents in Tianjin increased from just over 2.5 million in the early 1950s to more than 5.5 million at the end of 1985. The birthrate was relatively high in Tianjin during the early 1980s, even though about 94% of all births were 1st births. This high 1st birthrate is explained by the fact that the official minimum marriage age was lowered in 1981 and that large numbers of people are reaching childbearing age. It is anticipated that future birthrates will be low due to the fact that the marriage effect is tapering off and the number of people of childbearing age eventually will decline. The country's plans for the future of Tianjin figure prominently in the national economic restructuring effort that began with the 1979 modernization campaign. China's Seventh Five Year Plan (1986-90) focuses in part on increasing production and promoting exportable goods, maintaining full employment, and accelerating the construction of housing and other public facilities in Tianjin. At this time, Chinese leaders are planning to accelerate the development of Tanggu -- Tianjin's satellite port city. Developers also are at work on

  17. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  18. The People Capability Maturity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wademan, Mark R.; Spuches, Charles M.; Doughty, Philip L.

    2007-01-01

    The People Capability Maturity Model[R] (People CMM[R]) advocates a staged approach to organizational change. Developed by the Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute, this model seeks to bring discipline to the people side of management by promoting a structured, repeatable, and predictable approach for improving an…

  19. Violence against elderly people.

    PubMed

    Cammer Paris, B E

    1996-03-01

    Every year, more than one million older Americans are injured physically, debilitated psychologically, or exploited financially by a family member. Elderly men and women, who are from all socioeconomic, ethnic, and religious backgrounds and who have varying functional abilities are vulnerable to abuse and neglect. Health care professionals need to develop the skills to detect both patients at risk and those actively being abused. Barriers to detection of abuse and neglect are complex and include victims' resistance to disclosure due to their own ageist attitudes or feelings of shame and guilt; isolation of victims by their abusers; and the health care professional's discomfort with the situation and hesitancy to intervene, often as a result of inadequate knowledge and training in this area. Researchers have identified specific risk factors for abuse and neglect by family members, including psychopathology among family members, a family history of transgenerational violence, the elder's dependency, the elders and the caregivers' isolation, the caregivers' stress, and living arrangements. Thorough assessment of patients at risk by a multidisciplinary team including a physician, a nurse, and a social worker and the team's subsequent development of individualized intervention strategies can have a positive impact on this devastating problem. PMID:8775138

  20. Where people die.

    PubMed

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources.

  1. 6 Million Americans Drink Water Tainted with Toxic Chemicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160327.html 6 Million Americans Drink Water Tainted With Toxic Chemicals: Report Many systems contain ... unsafe levels of dangerous chemicals in their drinking water that may trigger a host of health problems, ...

  2. 31 Million Older Americans Aren't Getting Enough Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... 31 Million Older Americans Aren't Getting Enough Exercise Inactivity boosts their risk for falls, broken bones, ... one-quarter of Americans over 50 don't exercise, a new federal report estimates, increasing their risk ...

  3. Monsanto Gives Washington U. $23.5 Million.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews various provisions of a five-year, $23.5-million research agreement between Washington University and the Monsanto Company. The scientific focus of this venture will be on proteins and peptides which modify cellular behavior. (SK)

  4. Fourier spectroscopy with a one-million-point transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connes, J.; Delouis, H.; Connes, P.; Guelachvili, G.; Maillard, J.; Michel, G.

    1972-01-01

    A new type of interferometer for use in Fourier spectroscopy has been devised at the Aime Cotton Laboratory of the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Orsay, France. With this interferometer and newly developed computational techniques, interferograms comprising as many as one million samples can now be transformed. The techniques are described, and examples of spectra of thorium and holmium, derived from one million-point interferograms, are presented.

  5. More than one million new American Indians in 2000: who are they?

    PubMed

    Liebler, Carolyn A; Ortyl, Timothy

    2014-06-01

    More than one million people reported their race as American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) in the 2000 U.S. census but did not do so in the 1990 census. We ask three questions. First, which subgroups had the greatest numerical growth? Second, which subgroups had the greatest proportional increase? And third, are the 2000 single-race AIANs and the 1990 AIANs the same set of people? We use full-count and high-density decennial census data; adjust for birth, death, and immigration; decompose on age, gender, Latino origin, education, and birth state; and compare the observed subgroup sizes in 2000 with the sizes expected based on 1990 counts. The largest numerical increases were among adolescent and middle-aged non-Latinos, non-Latino women, and adults with no college degree. Latinos, women, highly educated adults, and people born in Eastern states had the largest proportionate gains. The ability to report multiple races in 2000 and the new federal definition of "American Indian" may have especially affected these groups, although personal-identity changes are probably also involved. We find that thousands of new Latino AIANs reported only one race in 2000, but many 1990 AIANs reported multiple races in 2000. Thus, the 1990 AIANs and 2000 single-race AIANs are not always the same individuals. PMID:24719274

  6. Photographer: JPL P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21741 BW Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed.

  7. Photographer: JPL P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io,

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: JPL P-21741 C Range: 2.6 million kilometers (1.6 million miles) This picture of Io, taken by Voyager 1, shows the region of the Jovian moon which will be monitored for volcanic eruptions by Voyager 2 during the 'Io movie' sequence. The white and orange patches probably are deposits of sulphur compounds and other volcanic materials. The Voyager 2 pictures of this region will be much more detailed.

  8. New Zealand's 70 million sheep create 350 million methane gallons daily

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    If you could hook up a sheep to the carburetor of a car, you could run it for several kilometers a day. To power the same vehicle by people, you'd need a whole football team and a couple of kegs of beer. That observation is made by David Lowe, a geophysicist with the New Zealand Institute of Nuclear Sciences in Wellington. Scientists are studying the methane output because of its potential serious threat by contributing to global warming via the greenhouse effect. According to a report in the Wall Street Journal, analysis of ancient air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice shows that 30,000 years ago methane concentration in the Earth's atmosphere was only a third as much as it is today. Radioactive dating can distinguish ages of different types of methane in the air, and researchers hope to quantify sources from sheep, swamps, people or industry. Sheep methane is collected at a local agricultural university from sheep with tubes protruding from their intestines. Sample collector Lowe alternates specimens from the university and the digester tank at the sewage treatment plant. The cleanest air samples, by contrast, are collected by Lowe at Baring Head, the first outcrop of land Antarctic winds hit after crossing thousands of miles of open sea. So far, Lowe and his colleagues have found that 75% of methane in the atmosphere is biological and of very recent origin. While the research goes on, New Zealand's sheep population continue to churn out 2.5 billion gallons of methane every week.

  9. People vs. animals.

    PubMed

    Engram, S

    1992-07-12

    Animal rights activists demonstrated against physicians in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who had transplanted a baboon liver into a man. They complained that baboons should not serve as spare parts for humans, but the complaint misfired when another man with liver disease challenged them. Nevertheless the rapidly growing population in the world is threatening animal species such as elephants. In Zimbabwe where a severe drought exists and which has been somewhat able to protect animals from poachers, the government now allows people to kill elephants and other animals for their meat. The great numbers of wildlife have placed considerable population pressure on Gonarezhou National Park. The government hopes the good will plan will reduce the number of illegal poachings in the future. This illustrates the need for population stability to protect the environment. Yet the 1992 UN environment conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, did not address population growth as a threat to biodiversity and the environment. Indeed if population continues to grow at its present rate, the population in 2100 will stand at 19 billion and each year before that the Earth will lose more farmland and forests and witness more days of smog, polluted water, political instabilities, and environmental refugees. Viruses like HIV may afflict the population. Most of the population growth will be in developing countries where drought and economic and political instabilities are common. In 2100 with such a hugh population, a national park for wildlife will most likely only be a luxury. We can no longer be complacent and must take action now to prevent this disaster. It will soon be clear that a growing population does not produce more prosperity as many economists would like us to believe, and discussions about using animals for spare parts will be ludicrous. PMID:12286283

  10. The attitude of employers to people with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Moody, G A; Probert, C S; Jayanthi, V; Mayberry, J F

    1992-02-01

    Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease are anxious about their future prospects of employment. Personnel managers at 61 major national and 136 principal local employers in Leicester and Cardiff were asked to provide details about their attitude to people with inflammatory bowel disease and the type of health care they offer to employees. Over one million people were employed by these companies. A poor response rate of 27% suggested at best disinterest in the subject on the part of employers. In those who did reply the attitude to people with inflammatory bowel disease was often positive, although up to a quarter (25%) would not continue to employ people if they developed these conditions and many (30%) would not provide time off work to attend hospital clinics. Only 60% of respondents would consider providing lighter duties to affected employees. In general there is a surprisingly negative attitude to promotion of people with chronic diseases such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis or liver disease. This seems less so in inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Homicide of Strangers by People with a Psychotic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Nielssen, Olav; Bourget, Dominique; Laajasalo, Taina; Liem, Marieke; Labelle, Alain; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helina; Koenraadt, Frans; Large, Matthew M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The homicide of strangers by people with psychosis, referred to here as “stranger homicides,” are rare and tragic events that generate adverse publicity for mental health services and have resulted in significant changes in mental health policy and law. Aim: To estimate the incidence of stranger homicides, using data from previously published studies, and to compare the characteristics of psychotic offenders who killed strangers with the characteristics of those who killed a close relative. Method: Meta-analysis of the population-based studies of homicide by persons suffering from a psychosis in which the number of subjects who killed strangers was also reported. Characteristics of stranger homicide and family homicide offenders were examined in a multicenter case–control study of homicide during psychotic illness in four high-income countries. Results: A pooled estimate of 1 stranger homicide per 14.3 million people per year (95% confidence interval, 1 in 18.9 million to 1 in 11.5 million people per year) was calculated by meta-analysis of 7 studies. The characteristics of the 42 stranger homicide offenders from New South Wales [NSW], Quebec and Eastern Ontario, Finland, and the Netherlands were identified. Twenty seven (64%) of these had never previously received treatment with antipsychotic medication. The stranger homicide offenders were more likely to be homeless, have exhibited antisocial conduct, and had fewer negative symptoms than those who killed family members. The victims of stranger homicide were mostly adult males and the homicides rarely occurred in the victim’s home or workplace. Conclusions: Stranger homicide in psychosis is extremely rare and is even rarer for a patient who has received treatment with antipsychotic medication. A lack of distinguishing characteristics of stranger homicide offenders and an extremely low base rate of stranger-homicide suggests that risk assessment of patients known to have a psychotic illness will

  12. Mathematics for the Millions, Science for the People: Comments on Black Students and the Mathematics, Science, and Technology Pipeline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes concerns addressed in this special issue on Black students and mathematics, science, and technology education, including the following: (1) the imperative to improve the educational delivery system; (2) the consequences of failure to do so; (3) the necessity of empowerment; (4) the call for a multicultural approach; and (5) the role of…

  13. Applications Technology Satellite 6 - Upgrading the life style of millions of people. [health and educational TV broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thole, J. M.; Dornbrand, H.

    1974-01-01

    The primary objective of the ATS-6 is to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a high-powered geosynchronous communications satellite capable of relaying color TV and other high-quality signals on multiple frequencies to relatively simple and inexpensive ground receivers. Other capabilities include providing a link between ships, aircraft, or other earth satellites (e.g., low-orbit meteorological satellites) and the ground. The ATS-6 flight-objective accomplishments and subsystem performance for its first 30 days in orbit are summarized. Success is predicted for most of the experiments carried.

  14. What Do Happy People Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Martin, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Little attention in the quality-of-life literature has been paid to data on the daily activity patterns of happy and less happy people. Using ratings-scale information from time-diary studies, this article examines the hypothesis that people who describe themselves as happier engage in certain activities more than those who describe themselves as…

  15. People: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that literature about people from the past allows readers to experience vicariously another time and place. Proposes that readers might discover that the actions of people in the past or present may influence the future. Presents annotations of 30 children's books which deal with special characters of the past or present in the categories of…

  16. Employment and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue offers six articles on employment of people with disabilities. "Employment and People with Disabilities: Challenges for the Nineties" (Frank Bowe) discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act, issues in unemployment and under-education, earnings, and implications for the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative…

  17. Anemia in People with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... My ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Anemia in People With Cancer What is anemia? When you don’t have enough healthy red ... the symptoms that bother people most. What causes anemia? There are many different reasons a person with ...

  18. Information Technology and Indigenous People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

  19. Attitudes toward people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Brillhart, B A; Jay, H; Wyers, M E

    1990-01-01

    Attitudes toward people with disabilities are learned, emotionally toned predispositions. This study compares such attitudes held by nursing faculty, beginning nursing students, graduating nursing students, registered nurses, and people with disabilities. Results of the study indicate that persons with disabilities were significantly more positive in their attitudes. Faculty held the least positive attitude, closely followed by graduating nursing students.

  20. Effective Communication with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  1. Revenge of the Nextgen People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel Singer

    2005-01-01

    The author of this article, a card-carrying member of the American Library Association (ALA), discusses her views on how difficult it is for some leaders to accept that this is the 21st century. She feels that people do not need to choose between blogs and printed text, because people can read both. She also feels that library shelves have room…

  2. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  3. Young People and Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Helene

    2005-01-01

    In this article empirical examples are used to connect theories about young people, contemporary art forms and learning. The first part of the article introduces the new forms of consciousness which, according to the youth researchers Birgitte Simonsen and Thomas Ziehe, characterize young people of today. In the second part, the qualities of…

  4. Leading Work with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Roger, Ed.; Benjamin, Cathy, Ed.; Curran, Sheila, Ed.; Hunter, Rob, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Leading Work with Young People" provides a selection of writing from a complex and dynamic field of work. The editors bring together key readings and newly commissioned material to present a variety of theoretical and practical perspectives on leading and managing work with young people. The book will equip students with the knowledge, skills,…

  5. How People Really Detect Lies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.; Morrison, Kelly; Ferrara, Merissa

    2002-01-01

    Considers that participants in previous deception detection experiments may not have had access to the types of information people most often use to detect real-life lies. Suggests that people most often rely on information from third parties and physical evidence when detecting lies, and that the detection of a lie is a process that takes days,…

  6. Racially Mixed People in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive look at the social and psychological adjustment of multiracial people, models for identity development, contemporary immigration and marriage patterns, and methodological issues involved in conducting research with mixed-race people, all in the context of America's multiracial past and present. The following 26…

  7. The organization of health services for Indian people.

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, E R; Reyes, L L; Buzzard, G D

    1987-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) is a bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, an agency of the Public Health Service. It was formed in 1955 by a transfer of health services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior. Since that time, IHS has grown larger and more complicated and has become a truly complex national organization that is responsible for direct and contract health care services to approximately 1 million Indian people. The historical background of the Service, its present organization, and the services that it provides through a variety of organizational structures are outlined in this report. PMID:3112842

  8. Measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and the missing millions.

    PubMed

    Carr-Hill, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    The 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is fast approaching, but there is very little discussion of the validity of the indicators used to measure progress. In particular, there has been little attention given to the problems that arise when assessments of progress are based on household surveys. These are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor. Typically, they omit by design those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations; and, in practice, household surveys will typically under-represent those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; and those in urban slums and insecure areas of a country. Those six subgroups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the "poorest of the poor." Between 300 and 500 million people--mainly in developing countries--will be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of household surveys.

  9. Measuring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and the missing millions.

    PubMed

    Carr-Hill, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    The 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is fast approaching, but there is very little discussion of the validity of the indicators used to measure progress. In particular, there has been little attention given to the problems that arise when assessments of progress are based on household surveys. These are inappropriate for obtaining information about the poorest of the poor. Typically, they omit by design those not in households because they are homeless; those who are in institutions; and mobile, nomadic or pastoralist populations; and, in practice, household surveys will typically under-represent those in fragile, disjointed or multiple occupancy households; and those in urban slums and insecure areas of a country. Those six subgroups constitute a pretty comprehensive ostensive definition of the "poorest of the poor." Between 300 and 500 million people--mainly in developing countries--will be missed worldwide from the sampling frames of household surveys. PMID:23713207

  10. Saudi production capacity climbing to 10 million b/d

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-11

    Saudi Arabia this year is completing its expansion of production capacity and developing recent discoveries to enhance export flexibility. The 3 million b/d capacity expansion to 10 million b/d, announced in 1989, is on target for completion by year end 1994. Most of the effort involves restoration of mothballed production equipment and installation of several gas-oil separation plants (GOSPs) in existing fields. But Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) also this year will start up production of extra-light oil from a new field in the central part of the kingdom. Start-up of Hawtah area production demonstrates success of an oil search Aramco began after receiving exclusive exploration rights to nearly all of Saudi Arabia's prospective area in 1986. From new fields and traditional producing areas, therefore, Saudi Arabia has the potential to expand production capacity beyond 10 million b/d. The paper describes the development of the extra capacity.

  11. Gates Foundation donates $25 million for AIDS vaccine.

    PubMed

    1999-05-01

    The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) received a $25 million five-year grant from Bill and Melinda Gates through the William H. Gates Foundation. This is the largest gift seen in the AIDS epidemic, and will allow IAVI to more than double vaccine development efforts. IAVI is currently developing two potential vaccines, hopes to study three others, and is working with the business community to insure that a successful vaccine is affordable in developing countries. With 16,000 new infections occurring daily, a vaccine is seen as the most effective way to stop the epidemic. The William H. Gates Foundation had donated $1.5 million to IAVI and $100 million for programs to speed the delivery of vaccines to children in poor countries. Internet addresses are included for both IAVI and the William H. Gates Foundation.

  12. [Virtual reality for clinical assessment of elderly people: early screening for dementia].

    PubMed

    Déjos, M; Sauzéon, H; N'kaoua, B

    2012-05-01

    Today, there are 24.3 million people suffering from dementia worldwide, that is a new case every 7 seconds (Ferri et al., 2005) and more than 80 million cases expected in 2040. Aging-related morbidity is a real social problem making screening a major challenge. Currently, screening and diagnostic tools for dementia remain independent from each other, screening tools being non-specific and diagnostic tools non-naturalistic. With the technological possibilities offered by virtual reality, it is becoming easier to investigate cognition and behavior in elderly people. Virtual reality allows a better understanding and assessment, and perhaps could stimulate cognitive functioning of elderly people. Combining measurements of cognitive impairment and disability might help close the gap between structural and naturalistic validity.

  13. Woodwaste saves Louisiana-Pacific $164 million a year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Louisiana Pacific is reported to be producing 74% of its total energy requirements from woodwaste. The company is saving the equivalent of more than five million barrels of oil a year with its waste conversion systems using bark, sawdust and sanderdust. The new generating facilities, scheduled to go online next year, will save an additional half-million barrels of oil a year. The company is already looking at new ways to further reduce its dependence on nonrenewable energy sources. One promising technology is wood gasification.

  14. Preventing abuse of older people.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Aileen

    2010-10-01

    The author travelled to the United States on a Florence Nightingale Travel Scholarship to study the systems in place to respond to and prevent elder abuse. She visited centres in Orange County, California, and New York City that are involved in dealing with the issue. This article provides a summary of her findings, with emphasis on education and training strategies for healthcare professionals working with older people, and provides recommendations for developments in safeguarding older people in the UK. The author also reviews models of service, models of evaluation and approaches to older people who self-neglect.

  15. Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 4.2 million km. ( 2.6 million miles ) Jupiter's moon Europa, the size of earth's moon, is apparently covered by water ice, as indicated by ground spectrometers and its brightness. In this view, global scale dark sreaks discovered by Voyager 1 that criss-cross the the satelite are becoming visible. Bright rayed impact craters, which are abundant on Ganymede and Callisto, would be easily visible at this range, suggesting that Europa's surface is young and that the streaks are reflections of currently active internal dynamic processes.

  16. Capital Campaigns to Raise $100-Million or More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A table lists the colleges and universities that have initiated capital campaigns to raise $100-million or more. Names of the universities, their goals, public announcement dates, completion dates, and gifts and pledges as of June 30, 1987 are given. (MLW)

  17. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Once in a Million Years: Teaching Geologic Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Susan E.; Lampe, Kristen A.; Lloyd, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors advocate that students frequently lack fundamental numerical literacy on the order of millions or billions, and that this comprehension is critical to grasping key evolutionary concepts related to the geologic time scale, the origin and diversification of life on earth, and other concepts such as the national debt, human population…

  19. Copper River hydraulic study at Million Dollar Bridge, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Stanley H.; Barber, William F.

    1980-01-01

    The Copper River hydraulic conditions in the vicinity of the Million-Dollar Bridge, Alaska, at the outlet to Miles Lake are described. The water discharge, lake and river bed profiles, bathymetry, velocity, and direction of flow are presented. (Kosco-USGS)

  20. The Million-Dollar President, Soon to Be Commonplace?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey conducted by "The Chronicle" that examined college presidents' compensation. The survey found a 53-percent increase in presidents' compensation. While the salaries do not have an eye-popping quotient as those of corporate CEOs'--whose median compensation was just over $6 million among the 350 largest US…

  1. The Million Dollar Bowl. OSHA in the Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Carl

    Accidents to office workers add up to 40,000 injuries and more than 200 deaths a year, amounting to expenses from medical assistance and loss of productivity of $100 million. Leading types of accidents are falling caused by slipping on slick or wet floors, tripping over file drawers, slipping on debris on stairs, injuries from poor lighting,…

  2. The MET Project: The Wrong 45 Million Dollar Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded the investigation of a $45 million question: How can we identify and develop effective teaching? Now that the findings from their Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project have been released, it's clear they asked a simpler question, namely, What other measures match up well with value-added…

  3. Uncovered: Social Security, Retirement Uncertainty, and 1 Million Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Leslie; Aldeman, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Retirement savings are often described as a three-legged stool: Social Security, employer retirement plans, and personal savings. For many American workers, Social Security is the most consistent portion of the three-legged model, providing a solid plank of retirement savings. But nationwide, more than 1 million teachers--about 40 percent of all…

  4. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  5. Scramble Begins for $650 Million in "i3" Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 2,500 districts, schools, and nonprofits representing every state have indicated they plan to compete for an Investing in Innovation grant, setting up a furious fight over $650 million in federal economic-stimulus money that is designed to scale up creative solutions to education's most vexing problems. The large group of prospective…

  6. New Program Aims $300-Million at Young Biomedical Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Hurley

    2008-01-01

    Medical scientists just starting at universities have been, more and more often, left empty-handed when the federal government awards grants. To offset this, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, a nonprofit organization dedicated to medical research, announced a new program that will award $300-million to as many as 70 young scientists. The Early…

  7. People matter: tomorrow's workforce for tomorrow's world

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The focus of any health service, now and into the future, should be people delivering safe, quality care to people; care that covers not just diagnosis and treatment, but the whole experience that patients and their carers have of the service. Workforce development, the process by which the current and future workforce is planned and trained, must be related to current and future patterns of service delivery and take account of financial reality. It cannot exist in isolation. Despite employing 1.3 million people, upon whom up to 70% of its budget is spent, the NHS has been curiously relaxed about the workforce development of both its staff in training and of those trained staff who, with the impact of demographic change and the increasing speed of technological progress, will need to adapt to new ways of working and learn new skills. Given that the NHS has been repeatedly criticised by the Health Select Committee for its failure to link workforce planning and development with service and financial planning, and that inadequate staffing has been a feature of a number of recent organizational failures, how is this to be achieved? Some NHS organisations have been shown to be poor employers with a culture of bullying and fear and the use of suspensions and financial settlements bound to gagging clauses to remove whistleblowers. Gender and ethnic discrimination is an issue not yet fully resolved. Furthermore with the demographic changes around the increasing needs of an elderly population, the introduction of new technology and the increasing interdependency of health and social care, there is a need for a clear vision as to how the future NHS will be structured and developed. Fewer large specialist centres are likely, combined with local, community oriented integrated services with appropriate specialist support. Decisions need to be taken about this in time to give workforce development processes time to plan the best skill mix combinations and to develop clinicians

  8. [Fifteen million young children at the mercy of apartheid].

    PubMed

    1988-03-16

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) organized a conference in March 1988 in Harare, Zimbabwe, to publicize the plight of the 15 million children of South Africa and the 9 neighboring countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Children of the region have been imprisoned, tortured, kidnapped and assassinated, and have suffered all the atrocities of war. Of the 3.5 million children born each year in the 9 countries neighboring South Africa, 750,000 die before the age of 5 years. War is the cause of much of the mortality, and South Africa is at the center of the war. According to the UNICEF spokesperson, children have been kidnapped and taught to kill. Between 1980-86, 1/2 million children under 5 have died in Angola and Mozambique because of the war. Angola and Mozambique are undoubtedly the 2 "front-line" countries most touched by the aggression of South Africa. The infant mortality rate in the 2 countries the highest in the world. Victims of the ware include civilians of all types, not just military. Children are the most several affected by pillaging and burning of stores and supplies, destruction of villages, poisoning of water supplies, and cutting of communication links. In 1985, 40% of schools were destroyed, and 20% of children were forced to abandon their educations. About 8 million Angolans and Mozambicans, or 1/2 the rural population of the 2 countries, have been forced to flee and reduced to wandering. Among them are almost 4 million children. Serious psychological problems resulting from the upheaval and war have affected many of the children. The economic loss resulting from South Africa's aggression has been estimated at $30 billion between 1980-86 in the southern African countries. In South Africa itself, rigid censorship assures that little word escapes of the atrocities committed against children, but the rare news that filters out describes tortures so horrible that they recall the

  9. Type 2 diabetes epidemic in First Nations people of Canada.

    PubMed

    Ayach, Bilal B; Korda, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic condition that results in the body's inability to either produce or respond to insulin. Abnormal insulin production and sensitivity lead to improper blood glucose levels and energy storage required for homeostatic organ maintenance. Over 151 million people worldwide, including 7% of the US and 5% of Canadian populations have been diagnosed with diabetes, and the prevalence varies greatly by race and ethnicity. However, since the end of World War II, the people with the greatest risk include First Nations people, including Canada's aboriginal, Inuit and Native Indian populations with up to a 5-fold greater prevalence than the general population. Prevalence can vary from 8% to 48% among the sexes and tribes. Understanding the prevalence and causes of this epidemic is immediately needed as diabetes precedes various other endocrine and cardiovascular diseases. Here we review the current understanding of diabetes risk in Canada's First Nations people in the hope to bring greater awareness among healthcare professionals and implementation of measures to prevent spread of this disease. PMID:20828106

  10. Telerehabilitation for people with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Ava K; Wykstra, Stephanie L; Yoshinaga, Patrick D; Li, Tianjing

    2016-01-01

    Background Low vision affects over 300 million people worldwide and can compromise both activities of daily living and quality of life. Rehabilitative training and vision assistive equipment (VAE) may help, but some visually impaired people have limited resources to attend in-person visits at rehabilitation clinics. These people may be able to overcome barriers to care through remote, Internet-based consultation (i.e., telerehabilitation). Objectives To compare the effects of telerehabilitation with face-to-face (e.g., in-office or inpatient) vision rehabilitation services for improving vision-related quality of life and reading speed in people with visual function loss due to any ocular condition. Secondary objectives are to evaluate compliance with scheduled rehabilitation sessions, abandonment rates for visual assistive equipment devices, and patient satisfaction ratings. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015 Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1980 to June 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2015), PubMed (1980 to June 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any language restriction or study design filter in the electronic searches; however, we restricted the searches from 1980 onwards because the Internet was not introduced to the public until 1982. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 June 2015. Selection criteria We planned to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) in which participants were diagnosed with low vision and were undergoing low vision rehabilitation using an Internet, web-based technology compared with an approach based on in-person consultations. Data collection and analysis Two

  11. Dose Reconstruction for the Million Worker Study: Status and Guidelines

    DOE PAGES

    Bouville, André; Toohey, Richard E.; Boice, John D.; Beck, Harold L.; Dauer, Larry T.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Hagemeyer, Derek; Leggett, Richard W.; Mumma, Michael T.; Napier, Bruce; et al

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans (the Million-Worker study) is to provide scientifically valid information on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time, and not acutely as was the case for Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The primary outcome of the epidemiological study is cancer mortality but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated. The success of the study is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide unbiased estimates of organ-specific radiation absorbed doses and theirmore » accompanying uncertainties. The dosimetry aspects for the Million-Worker study are challenging in that they address diverse exposure scenarios for diverse occupational groups being studied over a period of up to 70 years. The dosimetric issues differ among the varied exposed populations that are considered: atomic veterans, DOE workers exposed to both penetrating radiation and intakes of radionuclides, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers. While a major source of radiation exposure to the study population comes from external gamma-ray or x-ray sources, for certain of the study groups there is a meaningful component of radionuclide intakes that require internal radiation dosimetry measures. Scientific Committee 6-9 has been established by NCRP to produce a report on the comprehensive organ dose assessment (including uncertainty analysis) for the Million-Worker study. The Committee’s report will cover the specifics of practical dose reconstruction for the ongoing epidemiologic studies with uncertainty analysis discussions and will be a specific application of the guidance provided in NCRP Reports 158, 163, 164, and 171. The main role of the Committee is to provide guidelines to the various groups of dosimetrists involved in the various components of the Million

  12. Dose Reconstruction for the Million Worker Study: Status and Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bouville, André; Toohey, Richard E.; Boice, John D.; Beck, Harold L.; Dauer, Larry T.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Hagemeyer, Derek; Leggett, Richard W.; Mumma, Michael T.; Napier, Bruce; Pryor, Kathy H.; Rosenstein, Marvin; Schauer, David A.; Sherbini, Sami; Stram, Daniel O.; Thompson, James L.; Till, John E.; Yoder, Craig; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans (the Million-Worker study) is to provide scientifically valid information on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time, and not acutely as was the case for Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The primary outcome of the epidemiological study is cancer mortality but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated. The success of the study is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide unbiased estimates of organ-specific radiation absorbed doses and their accompanying uncertainties. The dosimetry aspects for the Million-Worker study are challenging in that they address diverse exposure scenarios for diverse occupational groups being studied over a period of up to 70 years. The dosimetric issues differ among the varied exposed populations that are considered: atomic veterans, DOE workers exposed to both penetrating radiation and intakes of radionuclides, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers. While a major source of radiation exposure to the study population comes from external gamma-ray or x-ray sources, for certain of the study groups there is a meaningful component of radionuclide intakes that require internal radiation dosimetry measures. Scientific Committee 6-9 has been established by NCRP to produce a report on the comprehensive organ dose assessment (including uncertainty analysis) for the Million-Worker study. The Committee’s report will cover the specifics of practical dose reconstruction for the ongoing epidemiologic studies with uncertainty analysis discussions and will be a specific application of the guidance provided in NCRP Reports 158, 163, 164, and 171. The main role of the Committee is to provide guidelines to the various groups of dosimetrists involved in the various components of the Million

  13. ICT Interface Design for Ageing People and People with Dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice D.; Martin, Suzanne; Stephens, Sharon; Burns, William

    Ageing population trends, rising healthcare costs and social and digital inclusion are all factors in the background to the problem of older adults interacting with technology. Approaches to address "physical accessibility" and "access to technology" issues, as well as training for existing systems are evident, yet a usability issue still prevails. The primary aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the research and literature and discuss the differing contexts in which older people and people with dementia interact with computerised systems and their associated issues.

  14. Flood basalt volcanism during the past 250 million years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1988-01-01

    A chronology of the initiation dates of major continental flood basalt volcanism is established from published potassium-argon (K-Ar) and argon-argon (Ar-Ar) ages of basaltic rocks and related basic intrusions. The dating is therefore independent of the biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic time scales. Estimated errors of the initiation dates of the volcanic episodes determined from the distributions of the radiometric ages are, approximately, + or - 4 percent. There were 11 distinct episodes during the past 250 million years. Sometimes appearing in pairs, the episodes have occurred quasi-periodically with a mean cycle time of 32 + or - 1 (estimated error of the mean) million years. The initiation dates of the episodes are close to the estimated dates of mass extinctions of marine organisms. Showers of impacting comets may be the cause.

  15. Million-degree plasma pervading the extended Orion Nebula.

    PubMed

    Güdel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R; Montmerle, Thierry; Audard, Marc; Rebull, Luisa; Skinner, Stephen L

    2008-01-18

    Most stars form as members of large associations within dense, very cold (10 to 100 kelvin) molecular clouds. The nearby giant molecular cloud in Orion hosts several thousand stars of ages less than a few million years, many of which are located in or around the famous Orion Nebula, a prominent gas structure illuminated and ionized by a small group of massive stars (the Trapezium). We present x-ray observations obtained with the X-ray Multi-Mirror satellite XMM-Newton, revealing that a hot plasma with a temperature of 1.7 to 2.1 million kelvin pervades the southwest extension of the nebula. The plasma flows into the adjacent interstellar medium. This x-ray outflow phenomenon must be widespread throughout our Galaxy.

  16. The 13 million year Cenozoic pulse of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiasheng; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Liu, Xiuming

    2015-12-01

    The geomagnetic polarity reversal rate changes radically from very low to extremely high. Such process indicates fundamental changes in the Earth's core reorganization and core-mantle boundary heat flow fluctuations. However, we still do not know how critical such changes are to surface geology and climate processes. Our analysis of the geomagnetic reversal frequency, oxygen isotope record, and tectonic plate subduction rate, which are indicators of the changes in the heat flux at the core mantle boundary, climate and plate tectonic activity, shows that all these changes indicate similar rhythms on million years' timescale in the Cenozoic Era occurring with the common fundamental periodicity of ∼13 Myr during most of the time. The periodicity is disrupted only during the last 20 Myr. Such periodic behavior suggests that large scale climate and tectonic changes at the Earth's surface are closely connected with the million year timescale cyclical reorganization of the Earth's interior.

  17. Berkeley Lab scientists develop criteria for $20 million energy challenge

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Labs Iain Walker and his colleagues in environmental energy research helped the Siebel Foundation develop the criteria for its Energy Free Home Challenge, which comes with a $20 million global incentive prize. The Challenge is a competition to create a new generation of systems and technologies for practical homes that realize a net-zero, non-renewable energy footprint without increasing the cost of ownership. It is open to everyone everywhere ? university teams to handymen and hobbyists.

  18. People Caring about People--The Prairie Housing Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappel, Bruce; Wetherow, David

    1986-01-01

    The Prairie Housing Cooperative has purchased 20 homes which provide 60 people (12 of whom are mentally retarded) with decent affordable housing in five neighborhoods in Winnipeg, Canada. Needed special services are provided by the non-handicapped members when possible or by outside contracts. (DB)

  19. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology.

  20. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-07-01

    WORLD YEAR OF PHYSICS Physics around the world: America Julio Benegas, Don Metz, Jesús Vázquez-Abad, Eduardo Molto, Josip Slisko and Rick Holmes INTERVIEW Things can only get better: a rock star tells of his hopes for popular physics David Smith talks to Brian Cox

  1. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    INTERVIEW Lightning strikes in Boston Michael Alexander, the director of public programs at the Boston Museum of Science, talks to David Smith about how to deal with issues and subjects that are difficult to present using more traditional museum methods.

  2. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    WORLD YEAR OF PHYSICS Around the world with physics Stuart Farmer; Leopold Mathelitsch; Rita Wodzinski and Michael Vollmer; Finn Ingebretsen; Mojca Cepic, Gorazd Planinsic and Mirko Cvahte; Ann-Marie Pendrill; Rajka Jurdana-Sepic INTERVIEW Close encounters of the cosmic kind David Smith talks to Frank Close BIOGRAPHIES Meet Physics Education’s family Steven Chapman and Andrea Pomroy

  3. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    INTERVIEW From poetry to energy research David Smith talks to John Constable, policy and research director for the Renewable Energy Foundation (REF), a charity providing comment and analysis on the energy sector.

  4. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education ON THE MAP (264) Kharkiv National University of Radioelectronics, Ukraine Kerry Parker STARTING OUT (265) Preparation, preparation, preparation Steven Chapman TEACHING ANECDOTES (266) Lise Meitner PERSONALITY (267) The Accidental Astronomer Kerry Parker talks to Marie Radbo, Astronomer

  5. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that takes me to where I am now in my first year at the Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute of the Open University in Milton Keynes. If everything goes according to plan, three years later I will be Dr Bentley and know a whole lot more about Mercury! So what am I now? A physicist at heart, but I guess 'planetary scientist' is more accurate... The great thing about studying the planets is that the field can be stretched to encompass just about any aspect of science you care to choose from biology, through engineering, to physics and more. Planetary science fits well with the modern 'trend' for multidisciplinary research as well as being on the leading edge of modern science, and one of the most international areas of study. In studying our solar system we aim to learn more about the processes that formed the planets and ultimately life itself. For the foreseeable future the nine major bodies and their associated moons are our only glimpse back in time to the early life of our corner of the Universe. Over the past few decades, a relatively short period of time, we have expanded our understanding of the planets by orders of magnitude. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have enabled more and more detailed images of both the near and far, whilst robotic space probes have extended scientists' senses to the far corners of the solar system. The two least studied planets lie at the two extreme ends of our system. Pluto sits at the outer edges of the solar system, a small icy ball that astronomers even argue about calling a planet. Mercury, messenger of the Gods, is a relative inferno, closer to the Sun than any other body. Mercury is not an easy target for spacecraft. Tucked deep in the Sun's gravitational well, any mission must lose about 60% of its orbital energy in order to match Mercury's orbit. The only spacecraft to visit Mercury to date was Mariner 10, a NASA mission flown in the mid-70s. It had far too much energy to enter orbit and could just make several quick passes, leaving an incomplete image of only half of the planet. This, and observations made from Earth, provide almost all of our knowledge of Mercury. Earth observations, however, are hampered by the planet's proximity to the Sun, making observations possible only at dawn and dusk. A mosaic of images of Mercury from the NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft. ©NASA In the mid-80s improved radar equipment allowed high resolution mapping of surface features from the Earth. Amongst the results were two tantalising mysteries: a large dome feature, similar in some ways to shield volcanoes seen on Mars, observed on the unimaged side of the planet and complex scattering of returned radar from distinct areas around the poles, suggesting that water ice may exist in craters there. Both NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) are now planning missions to Mercury. The US team are using a newly discovered trajectory that will allow them to reach Mercury using traditional chemical propulsion, incorporating various planetary flybys so-called 'gravity assist' manoeuvres. The European team, on the other hand, has proposed a much more complex mission. In order to get to Mercury, ESA have adopted a novel technology knows as 'solar electric propulsion' (SEP). The basic principle is that electrical energy is produced using solar cells, and this is used to accelerate ions of gas, producing a continuous, if low thrust. The upshot is that the mission is much less constrained by the alignment of the planets and other trajectory concerns and can complete the journey in only two and a half years. BepiColombo, ESA's Mercury mission, will actually consist of three spacecraft! The planetary orbiter will stay close to Mercury and perform remote sensing and mapping of the surface environment. The magnetospheric orbiter, now going to be built by the Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan, will fly in a highly eccentric orbit that takes it from within a few hundred kilometres of the surface to a distance of several planetary radii. This means it will fly in and out of the magnetosphere, the magnetic 'bubble' formed by interaction of the planetary magnetic field with the solar wind. The third and final element is termed the 'MSE' the Mercury Surface Element, or in plain terms a lander, and this is where my research comes in. There is only so much that remote observation can tell us about a planet. The only true way of verifying what we are seeing is to literally go and 'dig the dirt'. The lander on BepiColombo is designed to do just that, using inflated airbags to cushion its descent to the surface. This 'soft landing' will take place in the polar regions of Mercury, where the surface temperature is moderate—between -50 and +70 °C at the sub-solar point at Mercury's closest approach to the Sun the temperature can reach over 400 °C! It is the potential for making these surface measurements that forms my PhD research. There are a whole series of fundamental questions that scientists would like to answer about Mercury. For example: why is the planet much denser than the other 'terrestrial' bodies? And how has such a small planet got a magnetic field? The answers to these questions need data from several complementary sources. The first step is to identify the science goals, then look at what measurements could be made to resolve or constrain these questions, and finally consider the physics of obtaining this data. My project focuses on the surface and sub-surface material on the planet. The surface of Mercury, like the Moon, has been shaped by the impacts upon it and this is still very much in evidence from images of the planet. Craters of many different sizes are evident over most of the surface. These impacts also break up rocks on the surface and produce a finer distribution of particles, known as regolith. The stratigraphy of this material can therefore tell us something about the change in impact environment over time. A conceptual design of the BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element (lander) ©ESA. Conceptual image of the BepiColombo spacecraft at Mercury ©ESA. As well as being interesting in its own right, the regolith also interacts with almost all other aspects of the Mercurian environment. By analysing the regolith we will be able to find out about Mercury's thin atmosphere and also (because the magnetosphere affects the amount of solar wind hitting the planet's surface) changes in the magnetosphere. Planets like the Earth and Jupiter rely on an electrically conductive ionosphere to close the current systems generated by the magnetosphere. Some researchers believe that on Mercury these currents could flow through, or very close to, the surface itself! Designing and building instruments to work in an environment like the surface of Mercury is one of the major challenges I face. Not only must they be capable of surviving extremes of temperature and vibration they must also be small enough to fit into a total lander payload mass of just 7 kg and complete their investigations within the one week expected lifetime of the MSE. In order to take measurements in more than one place, the lander must be equipped with some limited form of mobility. A 'micro-rover' will be carried and deployed after landing, a miniature tracked vehicle that will carry instruments (probably an alpha x-ray spectrometer) to specific target rocks and areas around the lander. To keep things simple the rover will be physically and electronically connected to the lander by a flexible tether. The lander will also carry a 'mole', a slender cylinder (currently being developed for the Beagle-2 Mars lander) with an internal hammering mechanism. Once pushed into the top layer of soil the mole will be able to drive itself down, pushing aside or breaking small rocks, to a depth of several metres, taking measurements as it goes. Over the past few months we have been studying some of the instruments which could be carried by the mole. Concentrating on just one of these it is easy to see how quickly you run into problems! If the MSE lands near the poles, one of the most fascinating activities would be to look for evidence of water ice. In recent years researchers looking at life on the Earth have shown that if water is present, even in the most inhospitable of environments, life often finds a way to survive. The possibility of water on any planet is therefore an exciting prospect! One possible way to look for ice either at or near the surface is to extract a sample using the mole as it penetrates the regolith, heat it at a constant rate and record the amount of energy used to maintain that rate. This technique, differential scanning calorimetry, can observe phase changes in materials and so help to identify them. The technical challenges of performing even this simplistic analysis task are quite daunting. We have to design and build a sample acquisition mechanism that can withstand launch and landing and work at extreme temperatures, heat a sample down a borehole and reject excess heat and the electronics must fit into a 2 cm diameter by 50 cm long mole. So although BepiColombo will not launch until 2009 and will not arrive at Mercury until 2012, there's more than enough work to keep me busy until then!

  6. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education STARTING OUT (81) DATA: Developing students' abilities to teach astronomy Ruth Jarman and Billy McClune PERSONALITY (82) Music, Creativity and Physics Wendy Sadler Correction: Printed copies of Physics Education contain an incorrect version of this Personality article. The PDF file here contains the correct version. The Editor and publishers apologise to Ms Sadler for the error. Further details will appear in the next issue. ON THE MAP (84) Spreading the resources: South Africa and India Charlie Milward

  7. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education ON THE MAP (543) Problems and solutions for high school physics in Turkey Mevlut Dogan, Bekir Oruncak and Ilhan Gunbayi PERSONALITY (546) Neil Linford - archaeologist with a specialism in geophysics Kerry Parker talks to Neil Linford, archaeological geophysicist STARTING OUT (548) Physics to avoid daytime TV? Victoria Marie Folgate What Katie did next Katie Pennicott TEACHING ANECDOTES (550) Ernest Rutherford

  8. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education ON THE MAP (160) Greenhead College: getting great A-level results Kerry Parker PERSONALITY (161) Physics, sex and politics Lynda Williams, the Physics Chanteuse TEACHING ANECDOTES (163) Yuri Gagarin

  9. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (446) A choice of Materials Bernard Taylor talks to Diane Talbot, Materials Education Coordinator at the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining TEACHING ANECDOTES (447) H G Wells ON THE MAP (448) Gordano school - crowded with physics teachers

  10. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    WORLD YEAR OF PHYSICS Physics around the world: Asia Shinjiro Ogawa, Mak Se-yuen and R Subramaniam INTERVIEW Weather forecasting: a bright outlook with high chance of using your physics David Smith talks to Will Lang BIOGRAPHIES Let me introduce you: more members of the extended Physics Education family Clare Thomson and Alan Evans

  11. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    How and why we teach An interview with Mick Nott conducted by David Sang Mick Nott teaches at Sheffield Hallam University. He is editor of School Science Review, and over the last three years he has been organizing a website, book and display for the ASE's Science Teacher Festival. Mick Nott You studied Logic with Physics as your undergraduate degree course, at Sussex, at the end of the 1960s. Wasn't this a rather unusual choice? At school, I loved chemistry, particularly physical chemistry. However, physical chemistry didn't love me when I studied it at university. I grew resentful of the demands made on me with the overcrowded morning lecture programme that was mainly a board-copying exercise and the afternoon hours of labs. I felt stifled; there didn't seem to be any space to express oneself. I wanted a course that allowed me some freedom of thought. So in the summer of 1969 I transferred to the Logic with Physics course. Alongside our 'straight' physics we studied the history of topics like atomic and quantum theory, thermodynamics, mechanics from the Greeks to the Newtonian synthesis and we also had a couple of units in the sociology of science. Amongst the set texts of our first class in the summer of 1969 was Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Now well worn with its cover repaired by sticky tape, it still rests on my bookshelves. Reading Kuhn, I understood why I had been dissatisfied with my chemistry course. If I wanted to make it in chemistry I was going to have to conform to thinking exactly like all the other chemists. That wasn't for me. What attracted you into teaching? And where did you teach? I think it was a vocation in that, from the age of 15, I could imagine myself in the role and it was a job I could 'see' myself doing. Now thinking back I suppose it was an obvious way in which a working class child could transcend class barriers. I did my postgraduate teacher training at Sussex because it was assessed by coursework and classroom competence (in the early 1970s most such courses still had written examinations). I thought it was fantastic. We spent three days a week from October to May in one school. I had one regular third-year class every week and the rest of my teaching timetable varied from term to term. It was like being a 0.3/0.4 member of staff and for that one third-year class I had to do parents' evenings, reports etc. The teachers were paid to act as tutors for the preparation of schemes of work, lessons and tutorial work and they assessed my teaching. Teachers, tutors and trainees attended seminars together. My first teaching job was at Holland Park School in London, at a time when it was famous, perhaps even infamous! It was a real baptism of fire - over 2000 pupils, tens of different first languages, a real mix of class and ethnicity, and newly introduced mixed ability teaching for the first three years. We worked very hard writing schemes of work and developing worksheets and audiovisual materials but, on reflection, I am not sure that we were that effective in developing the science curriculum. I remember using Nuffield Combined Science with the first two years and that was in danger of becoming death by a thousand worksheets. After three years I went to teach in a small private school in Madrid for a year. I was the physics department and my title of Head of Physics meant I was in charge of myself. This was highly formative as a teacher - I had nobody to ask if I didn't understand some physics. As the school was poorly equipped I learned to make apparatus and be very resourceful. There was no pupils' practical work in school science in Spain at that time and I spent a lot of time in hardware stores and medical suppliers! After Spain all of my teaching career was in 11-18 mixed comprehensives, in Cheshire and then Peterborough, and I rose to the dizzy heights of Head of Science. By the time I left the school in Peterborough in 1986 we had established the curriculum framework for broad and balanced science for all to age 16. Did your undergraduate studies influence the way you taught science? I think they made me think critically about my teaching right from the start. Although there was much that I admired in the Nuffield approach, I felt that it was unrealistic to expect pupils to discover the whole of Physics for themselves in the time available! In 1973, 'Learning by discovery' was the slogan. My first lesson on my own was with a class of 32 children and 16 brightly illuminated ripple tanks in a dim laboratory. The pupils' task was to 'discover' that v = fλ. The familiar cry, 'What's supposed to happen, Sir?' arose around the room. At the end, as I removed the crocodile clips the pupils had stuck on my jacket, I had to tell them what the result should have been. Nowadays I am convinced that science has to be taught as well as it has to be learned. I don't go along with the teacher as solely a 'facilitator' of learning and the learning environment. Schooling is an enculturation into ways of thinking and important things to know. Teachers have a responsibility to set an agenda for their pupils, e.g. what is important for pupils to learn, why is it important and how does it contribute pupils' personal and social development as well as their potential development as a scientist. You played a big role in the Secondary Science Curriculum Review (SSCR) in the 1980s. What impact did that experience have on you? The SSCR started off as a democratic experiment, trying to 'hand' science curriculum development to class teachers. I worked for the project as an advisory teacher for a year developing problem-solving as a teaching strategy in lower secondary school science. I think the SSCR was crucial to the successful launching of broad and balanced science and the political battle to establish science as a core subject. Can you still discern the influence of the SSCR in today's National Curriculum? I don't think the present science curriculum is what the SSCR envisaged. However, many projects which were partly products of SSCR have had a profound impact (for example the CLIS project Suffolk Coordinated Science and NEAB Modular Science). I welcomed the inclusion of an attainment target on the nature of science (AT17) in the first version of the National Curriculum but it soon became weakened when the Science National Curriculum was revised. However, I think that some aspects have resurfaced in the new emphasis on ideas and evidence. I was involved in the writing of the Nuffield report, Beyond 2000: Science education for the future, and I think this has had an impact at the policy level, but its suggested strategies were not 'periphery to centre' which was the slogan of the SSCR. At Sheffield Hallam University, you have been involved in initial teacher training and you have also taught on undergraduate physics courses. What are your areas of interest in teaching and research today? I am interested in the history and culture of science education: Why do we teach science in the way we do? What are the roots of today's science curriculum? Knowing what we know about the past, how can we develop things in the future? You are now organizing the Science Teacher Festival, celebrating 100 years of the ASE and its forerunners. What made you think this was worth doing? There is an old saying that if we forget our history, we will be condemned to relive it, and I think it was Marx who said that there is no point in studying your past if you are not going to use it to change the future. Looking back through past decades of School Science Review, Physics Education and other journals, you can see the same arguments arising time and again - for example, can pupils learn their science through discovery/problem-solving/investigations? what methods of assessment match our science teaching objectives? should science be taught as general/integrated/separate sciences? These arguments have been with us throughout the past century and the 'winners' and 'losers' rise and fall! I think that to be a profession, we need to recognize our heritage and tradition. At the moment I get the impression that every year is Year Zero as some 'new' initiative starts. We can learn from the past, and next time we try an idea we should take it further, research it deeper and disseminate it wider than we did before.

  12. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    How and why we teach An interview with Mick Nott conducted by David Sang Mick Nott teaches at Sheffield Hallam University. He is editor of School Science Review, and over the last three years he has been organizing a website, book and display for the ASE's Science Teacher Festival. Mick Nott You studied Logic with Physics as your undergraduate degree course, at Sussex, at the end of the 1960s. Wasn't this a rather unusual choice? At school, I loved chemistry, particularly physical chemistry. However, physical chemistry didn't love me when I studied it at university. I grew resentful of the demands made on me with the overcrowded morning lecture programme that was mainly a board-copying exercise and the afternoon hours of labs. I felt stifled; there didn't seem to be any space to express oneself. I wanted a course that allowed me some freedom of thought. So in the summer of 1969 I transferred to the Logic with Physics course. Alongside our 'straight' physics we studied the history of topics like atomic and quantum theory, thermodynamics, mechanics from the Greeks to the Newtonian synthesis and we also had a couple of units in the sociology of science. Amongst the set texts of our first class in the summer of 1969 was Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Now well worn with its cover repaired by sticky tape, it still rests on my bookshelves. Reading Kuhn, I understood why I had been dissatisfied with my chemistry course. If I wanted to make it in chemistry I was going to have to conform to thinking exactly like all the other chemists. That wasn't for me. What attracted you into teaching? And where did you teach? I think it was a vocation in that, from the age of 15, I could imagine myself in the role and it was a job I could 'see' myself doing. Now thinking back I suppose it was an obvious way in which a working class child could transcend class barriers. I did my postgraduate teacher training at Sussex because it was assessed by coursework and classroom competence (in the early 1970s most such courses still had written examinations). I thought it was fantastic. We spent three days a week from October to May in one school. I had one regular third-year class every week and the rest of my teaching timetable varied from term to term. It was like being a 0.3/0.4 member of staff and for that one third-year class I had to do parents' evenings, reports etc. The teachers were paid to act as tutors for the preparation of schemes of work, lessons and tutorial work and they assessed my teaching. Teachers, tutors and trainees attended seminars together. My first teaching job was at Holland Park School in London, at a time when it was famous, perhaps even infamous! It was a real baptism of fire - over 2000 pupils, tens of different first languages, a real mix of class and ethnicity, and newly introduced mixed ability teaching for the first three years. We worked very hard writing schemes of work and developing worksheets and audiovisual materials but, on reflection, I am not sure that we were that effective in developing the science curriculum. I remember using Nuffield Combined Science with the first two years and that was in danger of becoming death by a thousand worksheets. After three years I went to teach in a small private school in Madrid for a year. I was the physics department and my title of Head of Physics meant I was in charge of myself. This was highly formative as a teacher - I had nobody to ask if I didn't understand some physics. As the school was poorly equipped I learned to make apparatus and be very resourceful. There was no pupils' practical work in school science in Spain at that time and I spent a lot of time in hardware stores and medical suppliers! After Spain all of my teaching career was in 11-18 mixed comprehensives, in Cheshire and then Peterborough, and I rose to the dizzy heights of Head of Science. By the time I left the school in Peterborough in 1986 we had established the curriculum framework for broad and balanced science for all to age 16. Did your undergraduate studies influence the

  13. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-03-01

    INTERVIEW Interview: Earth science gets to the core Some 20 years ago, Prof. G David Price was one of the first to establish the now major field of computational mineral physics. He combines experiment, theory and modelling to tackle major deep Earth science problems. He is vice-provost for research and professor of mineral physics at UCL. David Smith quizzed him on behalf of Physics Education.

  14. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that takes me to where I am now in my first year at the Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute of the Open University in Milton Keynes. If everything goes according to plan, three years later I will be Dr Bentley and know a whole lot more about Mercury! So what am I now? A physicist at heart, but I guess 'planetary scientist' is more accurate... The great thing about studying the planets is that the field can be stretched to encompass just about any aspect of science you care to choose from biology, through engineering, to physics and more. Planetary science fits well with the modern 'trend' for multidisciplinary research as well as being on the leading edge of modern science, and one of the most international areas of study. In studying our solar system we aim to learn more about the processes that formed the planets and ultimately life itself. For the foreseeable future the nine major bodies and their associated moons are our only glimpse back in time to the early life of our corner of the Universe. Over the past few decades, a relatively short period of time, we have expanded our understanding of the planets by orders of magnitude. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have enabled more and more detailed images of both the near and far, whilst robotic space probes have extended scientists' senses to the far corners of the solar system. The two least studied planets lie at the two extreme ends of our system. Pluto sits at the outer edges of the solar system, a small icy ball that astronomers even argue about calling a planet. Mercury, messenger of the Gods, is a relative inferno, closer to the Sun than any other body. Mercury is not an easy target for spacecraft. Tucked deep in the Sun's gravitational well, any mission must lose about 60% of its orbital energy in order to match Mercury's orbit. The only spacecraft to visit Mercury to date was Mariner 10, a NASA mission flown in the mid-70s. It had far too much energy to enter orbit and could just make several quick passes, leaving an incomplete image of only half of the planet. This, and observations m

  15. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    INTERVIEW Dedicated to Galileo's legacy In 2009 the world will celebrate the International Year of Astronomy to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Galileo's use of a telescope to study the night sky. Galileo scholar Thomas B Settle, guest at the Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence, talks to David Smith about the Tuscan hero.

  16. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    INTERVIEW Interview: How Google conquered the sky Carol Christian and Alberto Conti work at the Space Telescope Science Institute (the home of Hubble) in Baltimore and co-created Sky in Google Earth. David Smith spoke to them between stage appearances at Astrofest

  17. Increasing Physical Activity and Participation in People With Multiple Sclerosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Backus, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting >2.5 million people worldwide. Damage to neurons in the CNS causes various sensorimotor and cognitive symptoms, such as fatigue, pain, spasticity, memory deficits, and impairment of mobility. Until the late 1990s, it was believed that symptoms of MS would be worsened with physical exertion and people with MS were encouraged to limit physical activity and exertion. Not only has emerging evidence suggested that physical activity, including exercise, is safe for people with MS, there is also evidence that at least some of the disability that occurs after MS is due to secondary deconditioning from the sedentary lifestyle adopted because of the symptoms of MS, not just CNS damage alone. Therefore, not only is physical activity safe, it is also required for maintaining function and health in people with MS. The purpose of this article is to review the unique physical and social barriers to physical activity in people with MS, including those with moderate to severe disability who use a wheelchair or scooter for mobility. We will discuss how existing guidelines for physical activity may not meet the needs of people with MS and present evidence-based considerations for promoting physical activity in people with MS. Ultimately, the goal is to overcome the barriers to physical activity and improve health, participation, and quality of life in people with MS. PMID:27211007

  18. Narratives and Understanding Other People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzebiski, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    Presenting a story of an ill person, in comparison to a description of illness, as well as activating a narrative approach toward this person increased the probability in subjects of helping behaviour?in this case the promise of donations of bone marrow for leukaemia patients or willingness to spend time on soliciting money for other people's…

  19. Warehoused Apartments/Warehoused People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for the Homeless, New York, NY.

    Between 45,000 and 90,000 habitable New York City apartments are being kept deliberately vacant ("warehoused") by the speculators who own them. Most of these apartments have reasonable rents, affordable by middle- and low-income families. Meanwhile, the housing crisis for poor New Yorkers has grown steadily worse. As many as 75,000 people are…

  20. Young People's Favorite Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zvonovskii, Vladimir; Lutseva, Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a study based on surveys conducted annually for the past nine years by the Samara Foundation for Social Research, commissioned by the committee for youth affairs of the administration of Samara Oblast. The sample consists of about 800 young people aged fourteen to thirty. In the present study the authors have focused on…

  1. What Happens When People Reread?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven

    This paper addresses how rereading can improve comprehension of second language college texts, describing a pilot study that examined what happens when people reread. The study involved two female Japanese college students enrolled in a U.S. university. The women were asked to do think-aloud protocols while individually reading a section of an…

  2. Entrepreneurship among People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Tamara

    This brief paper reviews the literature on entrepreneurship among people with disabilities. It notes that entrepreneurship by individuals with disabilities is often a consequence of disability discrimination in the workforce and provides both benefits and disadvantages such as independence and freedom from access-related obstacles (benefits) and…

  3. People and Places for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Peter C.

    1975-01-01

    There's not enough variety of personnel and activity, not enough movement in and out of schools, and not enough cross-fertilization of people and ideas between the schools and the communities of which they are supposed to be a part. (Author)

  4. Getting People Back to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Getting people back to work has become a national concern. The nation's economy lost jobs as of July 2003 for six months in a row, dealing another blow to a slow reviving labor market. According to the Labor Department, 486,000 jobs disappeared from the economy. And, the Employment Development Department in California reported a decline of 21,800…

  5. People in Institutions in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Chris; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Statistical data indicate that Scandinavia and the United Kingdom have lower rates of institutionalization of people with mental retardation/developmental disabilities than do other European Community countries and East European countries. A table shows total institutional populations, institutionalization rates, and average annual rates of change…

  6. Productivity, People, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, prepared by the United States Chamber of Commerce, is intended to help create a better public understanding of how productivity affects this country and to suggest how people can change public policy in favor of a revitalized America. The booklet is organized in five sections. The first section defines productivity and introduces the…

  7. Poor People as Environmental Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douw, John

    1979-01-01

    In the United States Court of Appeals decision which ruled against New York City's plan to build 160 units of public housing in its West Side Urban Renewal Area, low income people were viewed as a threat to the environment in the same way as more familiar kinds of hazards protected against by federal environmental law. (Author/EB)

  8. Communication Apprehension and People Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Bob

    Assuming that different programs for communication apprehensive/avoidant students attract different types of students according to their needs and apprehension types, a study examined the relationship between communication apprehension (CA) and general people orientations, as measured by the Personal Record of Communication Apprehension-24…

  9. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

  10. Talking about Plants and People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Eden Project in Cornwall sets out to educate about the interdependence of plants and people. Its tropical and Mediterranean biomes are housed in the largest "greenhouses" in the world, which serve as a backdrop to plants that grow in the temperate zones of the world, grown in Eden's outdoor landscape. Eden has aroused worldwide interest, and…

  11. Apprenticeship for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Donald M.; Hughes, James H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report results from a national survey on participation of disabled people in apprenticeship. Results indicate that disabled persons comprise 2 percent of the total apprentice population. Exemplary programs and practices are described. The authors present implications and recommendations drawn from the study results. (CH)

  12. Theme: Pharmacology and Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue discusses maximizing the benefits and minimizing the risks of drug therapy for older people. It includes articles on psychoactive drugs, drug-related problems, medication compliance, geriatric psychopharmacotherapy, consumer guidelines, and outpatient prescriptions drug coverage as it relates to health care reform. (JOW)

  13. Disabled People in Japanese Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kojima, Yoko, Ed.; And Others

    The volume is intended to give readers a glimpse of the day-to-day life of disabled people in Japan. Eight brief papers present life experiences of a mentally retarded preschooler, severely disabled children, a child with muscular dystrophy, a young girl with polio living in the community, visually disabled and recovering mentally ill people…

  14. Of people, particles and prejudice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Penny; Greene, Anne; Mears, Matt; Spacecadet1; Green, Christian; Hunt, Devin J.; Berglyd Olsen, Veronica K.; Ilya, Komarov; Pierpont, Elaine; Gillman, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    In reply to Louise Mayor's feature article “Where people and particles collide”, about the experiences of researchers at CERN who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), efforts to make LGBT CERN an officially recognized club, and incidents where posters advertising the club have been torn down or defaced (March pp31-36, http://ow.ly/YVP2Z).

  15. Bringing science to the people

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an opinion editorial piece about the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). It describes the active role that the ISHS takes in bringing scientific information to people throughout the world. The society holds periodic symposia on 10 different crops and 14 different cross-co...

  16. Of people, particles and prejudice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Penny; Greene, Anne; Mears, Matt; Spacecadet1; Green, Christian; Hunt, Devin J.; Berglyd Olsen, Veronica K.; Ilya, Komarov; Pierpont, Elaine; Gillman, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    In reply to Louise Mayor's feature article “Where people and particles collide”, about the experiences of researchers at CERN who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), efforts to make LGBT CERN an officially recognized club, and incidents where posters advertising the club have been torn down or defaced (March pp31–36, http://ow.ly/YVP2Z).

  17. Young People in Changing Societies. Regional Monitoring Report, No. 7. The MONEE Project, CEE/CIS/Baltics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Migel; Fajth, Gaspar; Gantcheva, Roumiana; Kolev, Alexandre; Micklewright, John; Marnie, Sheila; Motivans, Albert

    This report covers countries in transition--the 27 nations of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States--that embarked on market and democratic reforms after the collapse of the Iron Curtain. The theme is a generation in transition--65 million young people aged 15-24. Are these youths better off? Are they healthier or…

  18. Ten million and one penguins, or, lessons learned from booting millions of virtual machines on HPC systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Minnich, Ronald G.; Rudish, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we describe Megatux, a set of tools we are developing for rapid provisioning of millions of virtual machines and controlling and monitoring them, as well as what we've learned from booting one million Linux virtual machines on the Thunderbird (4660 nodes) and 550,000 Linux virtual machines on the Hyperion (1024 nodes) clusters. As might be expected, our tools use hierarchical structures. In contrast to existing HPC systems, our tools do not require perfect hardware; that all systems be booted at the same time; and static configuration files that define the role of each node. While we believe these tools will be useful for future HPC systems, we are using them today to construct botnets. Botnets have been in the news recently, as discoveries of their scale (millions of infected machines for even a single botnet) and their reach (global) and their impact on organizations (devastating in financial costs and time lost to recovery) have become more apparent. A distinguishing feature of botnets is their emergent behavior: fairly simple operational rule sets can result in behavior that cannot be predicted. In general, there is no reducible understanding of how a large network will behave ahead of 'running it'. 'Running it' means observing the actual network in operation or simulating/emulating it. Unfortunately, this behavior is only seen at scale, i.e. when at minimum 10s of thousands of machines are infected. To add to the problem, botnets typically change at least 11% of the machines they are using in any given week, and this changing population is an integral part of their behavior. The use of virtual machines to assist in the forensics of malware is not new to the cyber security world. Reverse engineering techniques often use virtual machines in combination with code debuggers. Nevertheless, this task largely remains a manual process to get past code obfuscation and is inherently slow. As part of our cyber security work at Sandia National Laboratories

  19. From Hospital to Home Care: Creating a Domotic Environment for Elderly and Disabled People.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Natalia M; Ponce, Sergio; Piccinini, David; Perez, Elisa; Roberti, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Advances in medicine have led to a significant increase in human life expectancy and, therefore, to a growing number of disabled elderly people who need chronic care and assistance [1]. The World Health Organization reports that the world's population over 60 years old will double between 2000 and 2050 and quadruple for seniors older than 80 years, reaching 400 million [2]. In addition, strokes, traffic-related and other accidents, and seemingly endless wars and acts of terrorism contribute to an increasing number of disabled younger people.

  20. From Hospital to Home Care: Creating a Domotic Environment for Elderly and Disabled People.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Natalia M; Ponce, Sergio; Piccinini, David; Perez, Elisa; Roberti, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Advances in medicine have led to a significant increase in human life expectancy and, therefore, to a growing number of disabled elderly people who need chronic care and assistance [1]. The World Health Organization reports that the world's population over 60 years old will double between 2000 and 2050 and quadruple for seniors older than 80 years, reaching 400 million [2]. In addition, strokes, traffic-related and other accidents, and seemingly endless wars and acts of terrorism contribute to an increasing number of disabled younger people. PMID:27187540

  1. Stealth Physics: Sneaking in Science Where People Least Expect It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2014-03-01

    The majority of science outreach focuses on a small group of well-educated older people (still majority male) with an already existing interest in science. The dominant paradigm of ``you-come-to-us'' leaves out many more people than it brings in. Most people only become interested in science when it affects something they care about, whether that be their personal or economic health, or their recreational passions. My experiences writing and promoting The Physics of NASCAR forced me to change my approach to science outreach in terms not only of how to do outreach, but also what impact I hope to have. There are 75 million NASCAR fans. Every fan wants to know one thing: Why isn't my driver winning? I'll share my experiences using television, radio and blogging to reach an oft-neglected group that is characterized by a certainty that they - even if they wanted to - are not capable of understanding science. This lack of self-efficacy is likely the biggest barrier scientists have to reaching the general public. My central thesis is that ``Science for All'' doesn't necessarily mean that scientists need to convince the public that what the scientists are doing is interesting. It means that scientists doing outreach need to learn how to engage the public with science that affects things the public already cares about.

  2. Yucca mountain - From 10,000 to 1-Million year compliance period

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, R.G.

    2007-07-01

    Two plus years ago a U.S. Federal Court of Appeals (the Court) ruled that EPA had not followed the recommendation of the National Academy of Science (NAS) with regard to the 10,000 year period of regulatory compliance. In response to that ruling EPA went back to the drawing board in 2005 and issued a draft rule that it believed complied with the Court's ruling and the intent of the NAS recommendation. The result is a recommendation to cause there to be compliance out to 1- million years. It is the author's belief that thinking in terms of 1-million years is absurd, not based upon scientific information, and just results in yet another delay for an environmental program sorely needed by this country, especially in light of the nuclear power renaissance emerging at this time around the world. So, the Yucca Mountain Project is at yet another critical juncture. It is facing a decision to either clear the political and regulatory issues and move ahead; continue to be stalled costing the nation billions of wasted dollars; or be moth balled until a solution is reached. The Department of Energy has announced that waste acceptance will be delayed until at least 2017 and it is hard to comprehend why the project should continue to be funded at current levels. It is the author's opinion that only Congress can clear these obstacles so the project can move forward in a safe and efficient manner. This paper will present the history of the ever increasing compliance period for Yucca Mountain; the need to reevaluate the regulatory strategy; the events that have occurred in the history of man and geologically in a million year time span; the absence of a mechanism for enforcing such regulations; the approach other countries are taking on this issue; the absurdity of trying to protecting people thousand of generations in the future from radiation doses that our generation is already exposed to from mostly natural causes, and lastly proposes a rational compliance period and regulatory

  3. Resilience and Young People Leaving Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mike

    2008-01-01

    How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

  4. Millions of extra deaths a result of shortfalls in ODA.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This news brief summarizes the conclusions of a newly released report by the UN Population Fund for its executive board. The report is "Meeting the Goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD): Consequences of Resource Shortfalls up to the Year 2000." Donor spending, including World Bank loans, increased by 40% in 1994, increased by 40% in 1995, and stabilized. The ICPD indicates a need for an additional $5.7 billion in donor assistance, an increase of 23% each year until the year 2000. Donors must meet their 33% share of the US$17 billion required in the year 2000 and the $21.7 billion by 2015. This level of assistance is needed in order to meet the goals of the ICPD agreed upon by attending countries. Developing countries have continued to increase their allocations for reproductive health in accordance with the ICPD recommendations. Most donor countries were not close to meeting the official development assistance target of 0.7% of gross national product. France, Italy, and Belgium have been slow in responding to population program assistance. However, Norway and the Netherlands have passed laws requiring that 4% of their official development assistance be applied to population programs. Denmark is cooperative. Japan is a leading donor, followed by the UK. It is estimated in the UN executive board report that during 1995-2000 shortfalls in assistance will result in at least 120 million additional unwanted pregnancies, 49 million abortions, 5 million infant and child deaths, and 65,000 maternal deaths.

  5. Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Carolyn W.

    2016-10-01

    Reconstructions of Earth’s past climate strongly influence our understanding of the dynamics and sensitivity of the climate system. Yet global temperature has been reconstructed for only a few isolated windows of time, and continuous reconstructions across glacial cycles remain elusive. Here I present a spatially weighted proxy reconstruction of global temperature over the past 2 million years estimated from a multi-proxy database of over 20,000 sea surface temperature point reconstructions. Global temperature gradually cooled until roughly 1.2 million years ago and cooling then stalled until the present. The cooling trend probably stalled before the beginning of the mid-Pleistocene transition, and pre-dated the increase in the maximum size of ice sheets around 0.9 million years ago. Thus, global cooling may have been a pre-condition for, but probably is not the sole causal mechanism of, the shift to quasi-100,000-year glacial cycles at the mid-Pleistocene transition. Over the past 800,000 years, polar amplification (the amplification of temperature change at the poles relative to global temperature change) has been stable over time, and global temperature and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have been closely coupled across glacial cycles. A comparison of the new temperature reconstruction with radiative forcing from greenhouse gases estimates an Earth system sensitivity of 9 degrees Celsius (range 7 to 13 degrees Celsius, 95 per cent credible interval) change in global average surface temperature per doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide over millennium timescales. This result suggests that stabilization at today’s greenhouse gas levels may already commit Earth to an eventual total warming of 5 degrees Celsius (range 3 to 7 degrees Celsius, 95 per cent credible interval) over the next few millennia as ice sheets, vegetation and atmospheric dust continue to respond to global warming.

  6. A Million-Second Chandra View of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin; Badenes, Carles; Berendse, Fred; Blondin, John; Cioffi, Denis; DeLaney, Tracey; Dewey, Daniel; Fesen, Robert; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a million-second observation of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The bipolar structure of the Si-rich ejecta (NE jet and SW counterpart) is clearly evident in the new images, and their chemical similarity is confirmed by their spectra. These are most likely due to jets of ejecta as opposed to cavities in the circumstellar medium, since we can reject simple models for the latter. The properties of these jets and the Fe-rich ejecta will provide clues to the explosion of Cas A.

  7. Photogrammetric measurement to one part in a million

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Clive S.

    1992-03-01

    Industrial photogrammetric measurement to accuracies of 1 part in 1,000,000 of the size of the object is discussed. Network design concepts are reviewed, especially with regard both to the relationships between the first- and second-order design phases and to minimization of the influences of uncompensated systematic error. Photogrammetric system aspects are also briefly touched upon. The network optimization process for the measurement of a large compact range reflector is described and results of successive alignment surveys of this structure are summarized. These photogrammetric measurements yielded three dimensional (3D) coordinate accuracies surpassing one part in a million.

  8. MULTI - MILLION - TURN BEAM POSITION MONITORS FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    SATOGATA,T.CAMERON,P.CERNIGLIA,P.CUPOLO,J.DAWSON,CDEGEN,CMEAD,JVETTER,K

    2003-05-12

    During the RHIC 2003 run, two beam position monitors (BPMs) in each transverse plane in the RHIC blue ring were upgraded with high-capacity mezzanine cards. This upgrade provided these planes with the capability to digitize up to 128 million consecutive turns of RHIC beam, or almost 30 minutes of continuous beam centroid phase space evolution for a single RHIC bunch. This paper describes necessary hardware and software changes and initial system performance. We discuss early uses and results for diagnosis of coherent beam oscillations, turn-by-turn (TBT) acquisition through a RHIC acceleration ramp, and ac-dipole nonlinear dynamics studies.

  9. Osteopathology in Rhinocerotidae from 50 Million Years to the Present.

    PubMed

    Stilson, Kelsey T; Hopkins, Samantha S B; Davis, Edward Byrd

    2016-01-01

    Individual elements of many extinct and extant North American rhinocerotids display osteopathologies, particularly exostoses, abnormal textures, and joint margin porosity, that are commonly associated with localized bone trauma. When we evaluated six extinct rhinocerotid species spanning 50 million years (Ma), we found the incidence of osteopathology increases from 28% of all elements of Eocene Hyrachyus eximius to 65-80% of all elements in more derived species. The only extant species in this study, Diceros bicornis, displayed less osteopathologies (50%) than the more derived extinct taxa. To get a finer-grained picture, we scored each fossil for seven pathological indicators on a scale of 1-4. We estimated the average mass of each taxon using M1-3 length and compared mass to average pathological score for each category. We found that with increasing mass, osteopathology also significantly increases. We then ran a phylogenetically-controlled regression analysis using a time-calibrated phylogeny of our study taxa. Mass estimates were found to significantly covary with abnormal foramen shape and abnormal bone textures. This pattern in osteopathological expression may reflect a part of the complex system of adaptations in the Rhinocerotidae over millions of years, where increased mass, cursoriality, and/or increased life span are selected for, to the detriment of long-term bone health. This work has important implications for the future health of hoofed animals and humans alike.

  10. Three million years of monsoon variability over the northern Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrasoana, J. C.; Roberts, A. P.; Rohling, E. J.; Winklhofer, M.; Wehausen, R.

    2003-04-01

    We present a 3 million-year record of aeolian dust supply into the eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on hematite contents derived from magnetic properties of sediments form ODP Site 967. Our record has an average temporal resolution of ˜400~years. We deduce that the aeolian hematite in eastern Mediterranean sediments derived from eastern Algerian, Libyan, and western Egyptian lowlands located north of the central Saharan watershed (˜21o~N). We relate dust-flux minima to penetration of the African summer monsoon front to the north of the central Saharan watershed. This would have enhanced soil humidity and vegetation cover in the source regions, in agreement with results from "green Sahara" climate models. Our results indicate that this northward monsoon penetration occured pervasively during insolation maxima throughout the last 3 million years. As would be expected, this orbital precession-scale mechanism is modulated on both short (95 kyr) and long (406 kyr) eccentricity time scales. We also observe a strong expression of the 41-kyr obliquity cycle. There is a marked increase in sub-Milankovitch variability around the Mid-Pleistocene transition (˜0.95~Ma), which suggests a link between millennial-scale variability, including monsoon dynamics, and the size of the northern hemisphere ice sheets.

  11. Osteopathology in Rhinocerotidae from 50 Million Years to the Present

    PubMed Central

    Stilson, Kelsey T.; Hopkins, Samantha S. B.; Davis, Edward Byrd

    2016-01-01

    Individual elements of many extinct and extant North American rhinocerotids display osteopathologies, particularly exostoses, abnormal textures, and joint margin porosity, that are commonly associated with localized bone trauma. When we evaluated six extinct rhinocerotid species spanning 50 million years (Ma), we found the incidence of osteopathology increases from 28% of all elements of Eocene Hyrachyus eximius to 65–80% of all elements in more derived species. The only extant species in this study, Diceros bicornis, displayed less osteopathologies (50%) than the more derived extinct taxa. To get a finer-grained picture, we scored each fossil for seven pathological indicators on a scale of 1–4. We estimated the average mass of each taxon using M1-3 length and compared mass to average pathological score for each category. We found that with increasing mass, osteopathology also significantly increases. We then ran a phylogenetically-controlled regression analysis using a time-calibrated phylogeny of our study taxa. Mass estimates were found to significantly covary with abnormal foramen shape and abnormal bone textures. This pattern in osteopathological expression may reflect a part of the complex system of adaptations in the Rhinocerotidae over millions of years, where increased mass, cursoriality, and/or increased life span are selected for, to the detriment of long-term bone health. This work has important implications for the future health of hoofed animals and humans alike. PMID:26840633

  12. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. PMID:26964691

  13. Dry mouth and older people.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring.

  14. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight.

  15. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options.

  16. Nearly 10 Million U.S. Adults Considered Suicide Last Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160979.html Nearly 10 Million U.S. Adults Considered Suicide Last Year Rates at historically high levels -- up ... 10 million U.S. adults seriously thought about committing suicide last year, federal health officials reported Thursday. Rates ...

  17. Cost per million BTU of solar heat, insulation, and conventional fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1984-07-01

    The cost per million BTU is calculated for insulation (useful heat saved) and for flat plate solar collector systems applied to space heating of houses and to water heating. Results are compared with cost per million BTU from conventional sources.

  18. Depression Strikes Nearly 3 Million U.S. Teens a Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159763.html Depression Strikes Nearly 3 Million U.S. Teens a Year ... million U.S. teens suffered a major bout of depression, a new government report shows. "Adolescence is a ...

  19. A 40-million-year history of atmospheric CO(2).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi Ge; Pagani, Mark; Liu, Zhonghui; Bohaty, Steven M; Deconto, Robert

    2013-10-28

    The alkenone-pCO2 methodology has been used to reconstruct the partial pressure of ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2) for the past 45 million years of Earth's history (Middle Eocene to Pleistocene epochs). The present long-term CO2 record is a composite of data from multiple ocean localities that express a wide range of oceanographic and algal growth conditions that potentially bias CO2 results. In this study, we present a pCO2 record spanning the past 40 million years from a single marine locality, Ocean Drilling Program Site 925 located in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The trends and absolute values of our new CO2 record site are broadly consistent with previously published multi-site alkenone-CO2 results. However, new pCO2 estimates for the Middle Miocene are notably higher than published records, with average pCO2 concentrations in the range of 400-500 ppm. Our results are generally consistent with recent pCO2 estimates based on boron isotope-pH data and stomatal index records, and suggest that CO2 levels were highest during a period of global warmth associated with the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum (17-14 million years ago, Ma), followed by a decline in CO2 during the Middle Miocene Climate Transition (approx. 14 Ma). Several relationships remain contrary to expectations. For example, benthic foraminiferal δ(18)O records suggest a period of deglaciation and/or high-latitude warming during the latest Oligocene (27-23 Ma) that, based on our results, occurred concurrently with a long-term decrease in CO2 levels. Additionally, a large positive δ(18)O excursion near the Oligocene-Miocene boundary (the Mi-1 event, approx. 23 Ma), assumed to represent a period of glacial advance and retreat on Antarctica, is difficult to explain by our CO2 record alone given what is known of Antarctic ice sheet history and the strong hysteresis of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet once it has grown to continental dimensions. We also demonstrate that in the

  20. A million peptide motifs for the molecular biologist.

    PubMed

    Tompa, Peter; Davey, Norman E; Gibson, Toby J; Babu, M Madan

    2014-07-17

    A molecular description of functional modules in the cell is the focus of many high-throughput studies in the postgenomic era. A large portion of biomolecular interactions in virtually all cellular processes is mediated by compact interaction modules, referred to as peptide motifs. Such motifs are typically less than ten residues in length, occur within intrinsically disordered regions, and are recognized and/or posttranslationally modified by structured domains of the interacting partner. In this review, we suggest that there might be over a million instances of peptide motifs in the human proteome. While this staggering number suggests that peptide motifs are numerous and the most understudied functional module in the cell, it also holds great opportunities for new discoveries. PMID:25038412

  1. Twitter classification model: the ABC of two million fitness tweets.

    PubMed

    Vickey, Theodore A; Ginis, Kathleen Martin; Dabrowski, Maciej

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to design and test data collection and management tools that can be used to study the use of mobile fitness applications and social networking within the context of physical activity. This project was conducted over a 6-month period and involved collecting publically shared Twitter data from five mobile fitness apps (Nike+, RunKeeper, MyFitnessPal, Endomondo, and dailymile). During that time, over 2.8 million tweets were collected, processed, and categorized using an online tweet collection application and a customized JavaScript. Using the grounded theory, a classification model was developed to categorize and understand the types of information being shared by application users. Our data show that by tracking mobile fitness app hashtags, a wealth of information can be gathered to include but not limited to daily use patterns, exercise frequency, location-based workouts, and overall workout sentiment. PMID:24073182

  2. Bilaterian burrows and grazing behavior at >585 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Pecoits, Ernesto; Konhauser, Kurt O; Aubet, Natalie R; Heaman, Larry M; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; Stern, Richard A; Gingras, Murray K

    2012-06-29

    Based on molecular clocks and biomarker studies, it is possible that bilaterian life emerged early in the Ediacaran, but at present, no fossils or trace fossils from this time have been reported. Here we report the discovery of the oldest bilaterian burrows in shallow-water glaciomarine sediments from the Tacuarí Formation, Uruguay. Uranium-lead dating of zircons in cross-cutting granite dykes constrains the age of these burrows to be at least 585 million years old. Their features indicate infaunal grazing activity by early eumetazoans. Active backfill within the burrow, an ability to wander upward and downward to exploit shallowly situated sedimentary laminae, and sinuous meandering suggest advanced behavioral adaptations. These findings unite the paleontological and molecular data pertaining to the evolution of bilaterians, and link bilaterian origins to the environmental changes that took place during the Neoproterozoic glaciations.

  3. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  4. Atmospheric Oxygen Variation Over the Last 100 Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, A. J.; Mills, B.; Daines, S. J.; Lenton, T. M.; Belcher, C.

    2014-12-01

    There is no agreement over how atmospheric oxygen has varied over recent Earth history. Our knowledge of past O2 concentrations relies on biogeochemical modelling, constrained by geochemical data and proxies. There are however few direct indicators of oxygen concentrations, though the presence of fossil charcoal indicates that levels have not strayed outside the "fire window", say below 16% or above 35%, during the last hundred million years. Different model predictions encompass both decreasing and increasing trends over this period however. These predictions are sensitive to weathering of continental rocks, which provide a sink for O2, but also a supply of phosphorus and sediment to the ocean, both of which increase carbon burial and thereby provide an oxygen source. Here we update our COPSE model with a more detailed treatment than hitherto, incorporating new input data, seafloor weathering processes, and different compositions and weatherability of granites and basalts. Our model suggests a broadly declining O2 trend over the late Mesozoic to present. An alternative forcing uses the phosphorus deposition curve of Follmi (1995), which is constructed from P measurements in ocean cores, and indicates P fluxes to the oceans that have varied over time by two orders of magnitude. Used to drive the model this also results in a declining long-term trend for atmospheric O2 over the last hundred million years, but with dramatic shorter-term variations superposed on the trend. These however stay (just) within the "fire window" for oxygen concentrations, and can be tentatively related to the evolution of fire adaptations in plants.

  5. Population 70 million: a consideration of health aspects.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, S N; Yusof, K

    1985-06-01

    A 70 million population for Malaysia by the year 2010 has been officially targeted for in the mid-term review of the Fourth Malaysia Plan, 1981-1985. In response to this, a preliminary investigation was undertaken into the health aspects of population growth; infant mortality rates are used as the health indicators. In recognition of the relevance of the medical, economic, and education factors to health, trends in Malaysia's population ratio, per capita gross national product (GNP), and rates of school enrollment are also drawn. The characteristics associated with low mortality and high life expectancy are identified as low population growth, high literacy, and high per capita GNP. Whatever the ideology--Malthusian or Marxist--there is no doubt that population is closely linked to development variables, of which health is a part. Linear regressions on West Malaysian trends show a very high correlation between percent school enrollment and number of medical doctors. Selected cross-country comparisons show that the real issue is not the size of the population but its pace of growth and the social and economic climate at the time. The most dramatic reduction in mortalities from 1957-1980 has been for infant mortality rates (IMR), which have fallen from 76 to 25/1000 live births. Significant control over IMRs has been achieved by effective treatment of malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, whooping cough, and diarrheal diseases. Attempting a prediction on health outcome at population 70 million, various health statistics from selected countries near that population size were compiled. It is apparent that certain relevant features are associated with low infant mortalities and high life expectancy at birth: 1) low population growth rates, crude birth rates, and fertility; 2) high literacy rates; and 3) high per capita GNP. Overall, health improved for the nation as a whole, and this is highly correlated with school enrollment and health service ratios.

  6. Prescribing for people in custody

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Stephen; Blomgren, Donna; Roberts, Jill; Mackinnon, Tobias; Nicholls, Gary

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY People who are, or have been, in custody often have multiple morbidities and multi-dimensional disadvantage. A thorough clinical evaluation and multidisciplinary approach will assist in managing these patients. Treatment plans should be pragmatic and simple, and explained in an understandable manner. Caution should be used in the prescription of any medicines that have the potential for abuse. There is also a risk of drug diversion. There is an increase in mortality after prisoners are released into the community. Preparations should therefore be made before release to ensure continuity of care. PMID:26648653

  7. A Class Museum of the 2012 Election: "Government OF the People, BY the People, and FOR the People"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Sarah Lewis; Turner, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 elections are the perfect opportunity to help students make sense of and visualize their role in the democratic society. In this article, the authors examine the benefits of building a class museum centered on the theme: "Government of the People, for the People, and by the People." They provide steps and examples to show how to build a…

  8. Sex education and young people.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Young people comprise up to 60% of Belize's total population of more than 200,000. Many of them have dropped out of school and simply loiter on the streets with little or nothing to do. The only nongovernmental organization in Belize providing family planning and sexual and reproductive health care services, the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) is well aware of the many problems facing youth, such as AIDS, teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, poverty, and gangs. In an effort to improve conditions for youth and to address their problems, the BFLA established a successful teen center in the Mesopotamia Area and the Belizean Youths with an Aim for Prosperity (BYAP), a project designed to foster and support entrepreneurship among a group comprised mainly of out-of-school at-risk youths. Population Concern is helping to fund reproductive health projects for youth in South Africa with the goal of reducing the prevalence of unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and unsafe abortion through reproductive health services and education. Young people are helping design the project by explaining their perceived needs to the project team. In Trinidad and Tobago, controversy followed the Family Planning Association of Trinidad and Tobago's (FPATT) recent launch of its annual Family Life Education Training program for teachers, while 2 recent hurricanes, unemployment, and illicit drug sales and use are some of the problems facing the Dominica Planned Parenthood Federation and Dominica's youth. PMID:12321260

  9. Service for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Totty, P

    1998-01-01

    A couple of years ago a newspaper commentator wrote that even though the current era compares unfavorably in many ways to American life in the 1940s and 50s, we are better off in one way. "We are kinder to one another," she said, remarking on how far we've come in how we treat people with disabilities or non-mainstream looks and lifestyles. We may sometimes verge on a mindless political correctness in our kindness, and we may sometimes practice such kindness through clenched teeth, but all in all, she said, we are better at it than we were forty years ago. The kindness has certainly extended to new groups of dental patients. At UOP, the Special Needs Clinic of the Department of Dental Practice has become symbolic of the school's outreach to formerly underserved communities. Since its founding in 1985 as an adjunct to the department, the Special Needs Clinic has wracked up an impressive list of accomplishments: It has included disabled teens and adults among the populations that UOP routinely serves in its community dental programs; advised state agencies on how to deal with disabled adults and their dental problems (and won more than $600,000 in consultant contracts from those same agencies); produced a preventive dentistry x-raying program that is used as a video on how to teach dental hygiene to developmentally disabled people that later shocked the department when it won the equivalent of an Oscar in its field against competition on far bigger budgets.

  10. Sex education and young people.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Young people comprise up to 60% of Belize's total population of more than 200,000. Many of them have dropped out of school and simply loiter on the streets with little or nothing to do. The only nongovernmental organization in Belize providing family planning and sexual and reproductive health care services, the Belize Family Life Association (BFLA) is well aware of the many problems facing youth, such as AIDS, teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease, poverty, and gangs. In an effort to improve conditions for youth and to address their problems, the BFLA established a successful teen center in the Mesopotamia Area and the Belizean Youths with an Aim for Prosperity (BYAP), a project designed to foster and support entrepreneurship among a group comprised mainly of out-of-school at-risk youths. Population Concern is helping to fund reproductive health projects for youth in South Africa with the goal of reducing the prevalence of unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and unsafe abortion through reproductive health services and education. Young people are helping design the project by explaining their perceived needs to the project team. In Trinidad and Tobago, controversy followed the Family Planning Association of Trinidad and Tobago's (FPATT) recent launch of its annual Family Life Education Training program for teachers, while 2 recent hurricanes, unemployment, and illicit drug sales and use are some of the problems facing the Dominica Planned Parenthood Federation and Dominica's youth.

  11. How do people order stimuli?

    PubMed

    Kemp, Simon; Grace, Randolph C

    2014-08-01

    People may find it easier to construct an order after first representing stimuli on a scale or categorizing them, particularly when the number of stimuli to be ordered is large or when some of them must be remembered. Five experiments tested this hypothesis. In two of these experiments (1 and 3), we asked participants to rank line lengths or to rank photographs by artistic value. The participants provided evidence of how they performed these tasks, and this evidence indicated that they often made use of some preliminary representation--either a metric or a categorization. Two further experiments (2 and 4) indicated that people rarely produced rankings when given a choice of assessment measures for either the length of lines or the artistic value of photographs. In Experiment 5, when the number of lines was larger or lines were only visible one at a time, participants were faster at estimating line lengths as a percentage of the card covered than at rank ordering the lengths. Overall, the results indicate that ordering stimuli is not an easy or natural process when the number of stimuli is large or when the stimuli are not all perceptible at once. An implication is that the psychological measures available to individuals are not likely to be purely ordinal when many of the elements being measured must be recalled.

  12. Advice on healthy eating for older people.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Karen

    As part of its Food and Health Action Plan, the Department of Health is working with the food industry, and with other stakeholders, to establish a coherent national plan to help people in England improve their diets. Maintaining a healthy diet is important for all age groups, but healthy older people have particular needs. Karen Fisher describes the specific nutritional issues affecting healthy older people and suggests advice that nurses can offer people during opportunistic consultations in primary care.

  13. Health Care Access among Deaf People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in…

  14. Interface Design and Engagement with Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorn, D.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper examines the design process that led to an unusually successful interactive tutorial for older people. The paper describes the issues that make designing for older people different. These include differences between the designer and the target population and the difficulty that older people have in interacting with low-fidelity…

  15. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  16. Young People in Recovery: Building a Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2012-01-01

    The newly formed national group, Young People in Recovery, is comprised of young people, roughly 17-28 years old, who are in long term recovery. Their goal is to increase awareness amongst social service providers about the needs of youth in recovery, increase services, and facilitate partnerships which support young people in finding and…

  17. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  18. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  19. National Education Policies for Aboriginal Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Roger; And Others

    Written as a reference for students, teachers, educationists, lawyers, and researchers, the book provides information on the education of indigenous peoples and a variety of other interests, such as characteristics of individual countries, history of native peoples, country's definition of indigenous people, statistics on educational performance,…

  20. Floods, fish, and people: Connecting biogeochemical fluxes to aquatic ecosystem functions and people (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtgrieve, G. W.; Arias, M. E.; Chheng, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River basin, including Tonle Sap Lake (TSL), is the largest inland fishery in the world and a dominant source of protein and income for much of Southeast Asia. Maintaining ecosystem productivity in the face of large-scale environmental change from hydroelectric dams and climate change is critical for economic and social well-being in the region. Yet, we currently lack the most basic understanding of how hydrologic variation relates to fisheries production, nutritional quality, and ultimately livelihoods of people. We will describe past, present, and future research to establish mechanistic connections between the hydrology, ecology, and sustainability of the Mekong ecosystem. Past research includes application of a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1 × 2.3 g O2 m-3 d-1 with minimal differences among sites, while ER averaged 24.9 × 20.0 g O2 m-3 d-1, but had greater than six-fold variation among sites. Using our measurements of GPP, we calibrated a hydrodynamic-productivity model and predicted aquatic net primary production of 2.0 × 0.2 g C m-2 d-1 (2.4 × 0.2 million tonnes C y-1). Present research is using stable isotope and fatty acid methyl ester biomarkers to investigate basal carbon sources to the fishery, focusing specifically on the role of biogenic methane oxidation in supporting the food web. Individuals a wide variety of taxa had tissue carbon isotope values (δ13C) ranging from -36 to -57 per mil. These extremely depleted values are best explained by utilization of biogenic methane by methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and subsequent grazing of these bacterial by benthic insects and ultimately fishes. The presence of MOB in the food web was confirmed by identifying 16:1ω8 and 18:1ω8 FAME biomarkers specific to these bacteria in fish

  1. Zooniverse - Web scale citizen science with people and machines. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A.; Lynn, S.; Lintott, C.; Simpson, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Zooniverse (zooniverse.org) began in 2007 with the launch of Galaxy Zoo, a project in which more than 175,000 people provided shape analyses of more than 1 million galaxy images sourced from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These galaxy 'classifications', some 60 million in total, have since been used to produce more than 50 peer-reviewed publications based not only on the original research goals of the project but also because of serendipitous discoveries made by the volunteer community. Based upon the success of Galaxy Zoo the team have gone on to develop more than 25 web-based citizen science projects, all with a strong research focus in a range of subjects from astronomy to zoology where human-based analysis still exceeds that of machine intelligence. Over the past 6 years Zooniverse projects have collected more than 300 million data analyses from over 1 million volunteers providing fantastically rich datasets for not only the individuals working to produce research from their project but also the machine learning and computer vision research communities. The Zooniverse platform has always been developed to be the 'simplest thing that works' implementing only the most rudimentary algorithms for functionality such as task allocation and user-performance metrics - simplifications necessary to scale the Zooniverse such that the core team of developers and data scientists can remain small and the cost of running the computing infrastructure relatively modest. To date these simplifications have been appropriate for the data volumes and analysis tasks being addressed. This situation however is changing: next generation telescopes such as the Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) will produce data volumes dwarfing those previously analyzed. If citizen science is to have a part to play in analyzing these next-generation datasets then the Zooniverse will need to evolve into a smarter system capable for example of modeling the abilities of users and the complexities of

  2. Eye Disorders in Old People

    PubMed Central

    M., Khalaj; A., Barikani; H., Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Visual impairment is one of a major public health problem among elderly people. Object: Aim of this study was determining the prevalence of visual impairment in median and old peoples in Qazvin (Iran). Method: In this cross sectional study, with a simple random sampling, 446 patients older than 5o years who were referred to outpatient ophthalmology clinics at Avecina hospital of Qazvin (a province of Iran) in 2010 were enrolled. Participants first complete a questionnaire with 25 questions toward demographic and past medical history and then were examined by ophthalmologist. These examinations includes direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, slit lamp examination, measurement of uncorrected visual acuity and visual acuity with current glasses, lensometery of the previous glasses, refraction with and without the use of cycloplegic and determining the best corrected visual acuity. All slit lamp examinations were performed by the same ophthalmologist. Data were analyzed with SPSS16 with use of Chi – Square test with Pvalue <0.05. Results: In this study 446 patients were examined that 54.7% were male. Mean age of study population was 62+-9.3 years old. 96.4% of participants had refractory disorder. Prevalence of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 33.6%, 45.9% and 16.8% respectively. Of patients 17.4% had diabetes. Of participants 28.9% had temporal headache, 37% red eye, 41.2% flashing, 27.3% and 28% had dryness and discharge of eye respectively. 31.1% of participants had eyelide problem, 4.7% Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) and 3.8% had family history of CVD. Of total 4.5% had glaucoma, 3.3% macular degeneration and 21.7% had hypertension. 0.6% of population had macular degeneration, 0.4% of population had glaucoma Of 892 eyes (446 individuals), 36.2% had visual acuity less than 7/10, 1.7% light perception (LP) and 0.22% no light perception (NLP) and 2.7% finger count. Conclusion: Refractory errors, cataract and amblyopia were most important eye disorders

  3. DOSE RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE MILLION WORKER STUDY: STATUS AND GUIDELINES

    PubMed Central

    Bouville, André; Toohey, Richard E.; Boice, John D.; Beck, Harold L.; Dauer, Larry T.; Eckerman, Keith F.; Hagemeyer, Derek; Leggett, Richard W.; Mumma, Michael T.; Napier, Bruce; Pryor, Kathy H.; Rosenstein, Marvin; Schauer, David A.; Sherbini, Sami; Stram, Daniel O.; Thompson, James L.; Till, John E.; Yoder, Craig; Zeitlin, Cary

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans [the Million Worker Study (MWS)] is to provide scientifically valid information on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time, and not within seconds as was the case for Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. The primary outcome of the epidemiologic study is cancer mortality but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated. The success of the study is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide realistic estimates of organ-specific radiation absorbed doses that are as accurate and precise as possible and to properly evaluate their accompanying uncertainties. The dosimetry aspects for the MWS are challenging in that they address diverse exposure scenarios for diverse occupational groups being studied over a period of up to 70 y. The dosimetric issues differ among the varied exposed populations that are considered: atomic veterans, U.S. Department of Energy workers exposed to both penetrating radiation and intakes of radionuclides, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers. While a major source of radiation exposure to the study population comes from external gamma- or x-ray sources, for some of the study groups there is a meaningful component of radionuclide intakes that require internal radiation dosimetry assessments. Scientific Committee 6–9 has been established by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) to produce a report on the comprehensive organ dose assessment (including uncertainty analysis) for the MWS. The NCRP dosimetry report will cover the specifics of practical dose reconstruction for the ongoing epidemiologic studies with uncertainty analysis discussions and will be a specific application of the guidance provided in NCRP Report Nos. 158, 163, 164, and 171. The main role of the

  4. Dose reconstruction for the million worker study: status and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Toohey, Richard E; Boice, John D; Beck, Harold L; Dauer, Larry T; Eckerman, Keith F; Hagemeyer, Derek; Leggett, Richard W; Mumma, Michael T; Napier, Bruce; Pryor, Kathy H; Rosenstein, Marvin; Schauer, David A; Sherbini, Sami; Stram, Daniel O; Thompson, James L; Till, John E; Yoder, Craig; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans [the Million Worker Study (MWS)] is to provide scientifically valid information on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time and not within seconds, as was the case for Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The primary outcome of the epidemiologic study is cancer mortality, but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated. The success of the study is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide realistic estimates of organ-specific radiation absorbed doses that are as accurate and precise as possible and to properly evaluate their accompanying uncertainties. The dosimetry aspects for the MWS are challenging in that they address diverse exposure scenarios for diverse occupational groups being studied over a period of up to 70 y. The dosimetric issues differ among the varied exposed populations that are considered: atomic veterans, U.S. Department of Energy workers exposed to both penetrating radiation and intakes of radionuclides, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers. While a major source of radiation exposure to the study population comes from external gamma- or x-ray sources, for some of the study groups, there is a meaningful component of radionuclide intakes that requires internal radiation dosimetry assessments. Scientific Committee 6-9 has been established by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) to produce a report on the comprehensive organ dose assessment (including uncertainty analysis) for the MWS. The NCRP dosimetry report will cover the specifics of practical dose reconstruction for the ongoing epidemiologic studies with uncertainty analysis discussions and will be a specific application of the guidance provided in NCRP Report Nos. 158, 163, 164, and 171. The main role of the

  5. Dose reconstruction for the million worker study: status and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Toohey, Richard E; Boice, John D; Beck, Harold L; Dauer, Larry T; Eckerman, Keith F; Hagemeyer, Derek; Leggett, Richard W; Mumma, Michael T; Napier, Bruce; Pryor, Kathy H; Rosenstein, Marvin; Schauer, David A; Sherbini, Sami; Stram, Daniel O; Thompson, James L; Till, John E; Yoder, Craig; Zeitlin, Cary

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the epidemiologic study of one million U.S. radiation workers and veterans [the Million Worker Study (MWS)] is to provide scientifically valid information on the level of radiation risk when exposures are received gradually over time and not within seconds, as was the case for Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The primary outcome of the epidemiologic study is cancer mortality, but other causes of death such as cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease will be evaluated. The success of the study is tied to the validity of the dose reconstruction approaches to provide realistic estimates of organ-specific radiation absorbed doses that are as accurate and precise as possible and to properly evaluate their accompanying uncertainties. The dosimetry aspects for the MWS are challenging in that they address diverse exposure scenarios for diverse occupational groups being studied over a period of up to 70 y. The dosimetric issues differ among the varied exposed populations that are considered: atomic veterans, U.S. Department of Energy workers exposed to both penetrating radiation and intakes of radionuclides, nuclear power plant workers, medical radiation workers, and industrial radiographers. While a major source of radiation exposure to the study population comes from external gamma- or x-ray sources, for some of the study groups, there is a meaningful component of radionuclide intakes that requires internal radiation dosimetry assessments. Scientific Committee 6-9 has been established by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) to produce a report on the comprehensive organ dose assessment (including uncertainty analysis) for the MWS. The NCRP dosimetry report will cover the specifics of practical dose reconstruction for the ongoing epidemiologic studies with uncertainty analysis discussions and will be a specific application of the guidance provided in NCRP Report Nos. 158, 163, 164, and 171. The main role of the

  6. [Functional decline in older people].

    PubMed

    Wada, Taizo

    2013-10-01

    World Health Organization(WHO) proposed to be used as an index of the health of elderly independence of functioning. Basic activities of daily living (BADL), such as bathing, dressing, toileting, transferring, continence, and feeding are well known as the functioning of the elderly. However, not only BADL, there are a variety of levels, such as the ability to play a social role, intellectual activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), which are components of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence(TMIG-IC). Functional decline in older people is associated with age, gender, depression, up and go test and manual dexterity. Smoking, body-mass index, and exercise patterns in midlife and late adulthood are predictors of subsequent disability. PMID:24261199

  7. Educating the people we serve

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.C.

    1981-12-01

    The basic responsibilities of members of organizational communication groups are to fulfill the needs of those seeking advice, expertise and assistance. That means evaluating their needs, planning methods to meet them, and implementing those methods, all within frequently limited time frames and budgets. In order to fulfill those responsibilities, it is important to establish communication. Because many people who solicit these services are uninformed about the terminology and workings of the profession, the first step often is to educate them. The education process should begin with the first meeting and continue throughout the course of the relationship. It can be divided into four basic steps: (1) opening the lines of communication, (2) establishing what our clients want/need (these are not necessarily the same), outlining responsibilities - ours and theirs, and (4) providing estimates.

  8. Maximizing your return on people.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Laurie; McMurrer, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Though most traditional HR performance metrics don't predict organizational performance, alternatives simply have not existed--until now. During the past ten years, researchers Laurie Bassi and Daniel McMurrer have worked to develop a system that allows executives to assess human capital management (HCM) and to use those metrics both to predict organizational performance and to guide organizations' investments in people. The new framework is based on a core set of HCM drivers that fall into five major categories: leadership practices, employee engagement, knowledge accessibility, workforce optimization, and organizational learning capacity. By employing rigorously designed surveys to score a company on the range of HCM practices across the five categories, it's possible to benchmark organizational HCM capabilities, identify HCM strengths and weaknesses, and link improvements or back-sliding in specific HCM practices with improvements or shortcomings in organizational performance. The process requires determining a "maturity" score for each practice, based on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Over time, evolving maturity scores from multiple surveys can reveal progress in each of the HCM practices and help a company decide where to focus improvement efforts that will have a direct impact on performance. The authors draw from their work with American Standard, South Carolina's Beaufort County School District, and a bevy of financial firms to show how improving HCM scores led to increased sales, safety, academic test scores, and stock returns. Bassi and McMurrer urge HR departments to move beyond the usual metrics and begin using HCM measurement tools to gauge how well people are managed and developed throughout the organization. In this new role, according to the authors, HR can take on strategic responsibility and ensure that superior human capital management becomes central to the organization's culture.

  9. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years.

    PubMed

    Pearson, P N; Palmer, M R

    2000-08-17

    Knowledge of the evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations throughout the Earth's history is important for a reconstruction of the links between climate and radiative forcing of the Earth's surface temperatures. Although atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the early Cenozoic era (about 60 Myr ago) are widely believed to have been higher than at present, there is disagreement regarding the exact carbon dioxide levels, the timing of the decline and the mechanisms that are most important for the control of CO2 concentrations over geological timescales. Here we use the boron-isotope ratios of ancient planktonic foraminifer shells to estimate the pH of surface-layer sea water throughout the past 60 million years, which can be used to reconstruct atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We estimate CO2 concentrations of more than 2,000 p.p.m. for the late Palaeocene and earliest Eocene periods (from about 60 to 52 Myr ago), and find an erratic decline between 55 and 40 Myr ago that may have been caused by reduced CO2 outgassing from ocean ridges, volcanoes and metamorphic belts and increased carbon burial. Since the early Miocene (about 24 Myr ago), atmospheric CO2 concentrations appear to have remained below 500 p.p.m. and were more stable than before, although transient intervals of CO2 reduction may have occurred during periods of rapid cooling approximately 15 and 3 Myr ago.

  10. 470-Million-year-old black corals from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliński, Andrzej; Sun, Yuanlin; Dzik, Jerzy

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatic (possibly secondarily phosphatised) remains of antipatharian coralla, previously unknown in the fossil record, occur abundantly in the early Ordovician Fenxiang Formation in the Hubei Province, southern China. Probably two species (and genera) are represented, which differ in spinosity of branches. The more spinose one, Sinopathes reptans, has its lateral spines bearing regular, longitudinally arranged costellae. The early Floian geological age of this finding, about 470 Ma, supports predictions on the timing of anthozoan phylogeny derived from the molecular phylogenetic evidence. Black corals (Antipatharia) are basal to the scleractinians in the Hexacorallia clade, being more derived than sea anemones and the Zoantharia. Based on calibration of the molecular clock with Mesozoic data, the first split of lineages within the scleractinian hexacorals was proposed to take place approximately 425 million years ago. This implies that the origin of Antipatharia should precede this date. They have not been known in the fossil record because of unmineralised skeleton composed primarily of laminar chitin complexed with a protein. Unlike all recent species, the encrusting basal part of the colony dominated in the Ordovician ones and only occasionally erect branches developed, rather chaotically ramified. This presumably plesiomorphic trait seems consistent with ancient geological age and suggests that some problematic fossils from the Late Cambrian may be their, even less-derived, relatives.

  11. Hominins on Flores, Indonesia, by one million years ago.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Adam; Jensen, Gitte M; van den Bergh, Gert D; Morwood, Michael J; Kurniawan, Iwan; Aziz, Fachroel; Storey, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Previous excavations at Mata Menge and Boa Lesa in the Soa Basin of Flores, Indonesia, recovered stone artefacts in association with fossilized remains of the large-bodied Stegodon florensis florensis. Zircon fission-track ages from these sites indicated that hominins had colonized the island by 0.88 +/- 0.07 million years (Myr) ago. Here we describe the contents, context and age of Wolo Sege, a recently discovered archaeological site in the Soa Basin that has in situ stone artefacts and that lies stratigraphically below Mata Menge and immediately above the basement breccias of the basin. We show using (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating that an ignimbrite overlying the artefact layers at Wolo Sege was erupted 1.02 +/- 0.02 Myr ago, providing a new minimum age for hominins on Flores. This predates the disappearance from the Soa Basin of 'pygmy' Stegodon sondaari and Geochelone spp. (giant tortoise), as evident at the nearby site of Tangi Talo, which has been dated to 0.90 +/- 0.07 Myr ago. It now seems that this extirpation or possible extinction event and the associated faunal turnover were the result of natural processes rather than the arrival of hominins. It also appears that the volcanic and fluvio-lacustrine deposits infilling the Soa Basin may not be old enough to register the initial arrival of hominins on the island.

  12. Anthropogenic carbon release rate unprecedented during past 66 million years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeebe, R. E.; Ridgwell, A.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon release rates from anthropogenic sources have reached a record high of about 10 Pg C/y in 2013. However, due to uncertainties in the strength of climate system feedbacks, the full impact of the rapid carbon release on the Earth system is difficult to predict with confidence. Geologic analogues from past transient climate changes could provide invaluable constraints but only if the associated carbon release rates can be reliably reconstructed. We present a new technique - based on combined data-model analysis - to extract rates of change from the geological record, without the need for a stratigraphic age model. Given currently available records, we then show that the present anthropogenic carbon release rate is unprecedented during the Cenozoic (past 66 million years) by at least an order of magnitude. Our results have important implications for our ability to use past analogues to predict future changes, including constraints on climate sensitivity, ocean acidification, and impacts on marine and terrestrial ecosystems. For example, the fact that we have effectively entered an era of 'no analogue' state presents fundamental challenges to constraining forward modeling. Furthermore, future ecosystem disruptions will likely exceed the relatively limited extinctions observed during climate aberrations throughout the Cenozoic.

  13. Simulation of LHC events on a millions threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, J. T.; Uram, T. D.; LeCompte, T. J.; Papka, M. E.; Benjamin, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    Demand for Grid resources is expected to double during LHC Run II as compared to Run I; the capacity of the Grid, however, will not double. The HEP community must consider how to bridge this computing gap by targeting larger compute resources and using the available compute resources as efficiently as possible. Argonne's Mira, the fifth fastest supercomputer in the world, can run roughly five times the number of parallel processes that the ATLAS experiment typically uses on the Grid. We ported Alpgen, a serial x86 code, to run as a parallel application under MPI on the Blue Gene/Q architecture. By analysis of the Alpgen code, we reduced the memory footprint to allow running 64 threads per node, utilizing the four hardware threads available per core on the PowerPC A2 processor. Event generation and unweighting, typically run as independent serial phases, are coupled together in a single job in this scenario, reducing intermediate writes to the filesystem. By these optimizations, we have successfully run LHC proton-proton physics event generation at the scale of a million threads, filling two-thirds of Mira.

  14. "Dry Eye" Is the Wrong Diagnosis for Millions.

    PubMed

    Korb, Donald R; Blackie, Caroline A

    2015-09-01

    The clinical perspective that dry eye is, at best, an incomplete diagnosis and the benefit of an etiology-based approach to dry eye are presented. To provide context for this perspective, the historical and current definition of dry eye is reviewed. The paradigm shift introduced by the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop, that MGD is likely the leading cause of dry eye, is discussed in combination with the advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of MGD. To facilitate discussion on the benefit of an etiology-based approach, a retrospective observational analysis was performed on deidentified data from eligible, fully consented, refractory dry eye patients, where conventional sequelae-based dry eye treatment had failed. In this refractory population, the diagnosis of MGD, which directed treatment to evacuating gland obstructions and rehabilitating gland function, was successful. The clinical perspective that "dry eye" is the wrong diagnosis for millions is provocative. However, the MGD-first approach has the potential to revolutionize the timing of diagnosis and the choice of frontline therapy in most patients with dry eye. Additionally, the ability to screen for MGD in its earliest stages, during routine care, expands the scope of clinical practice to include early intervention. For most patients, we are no longer constrained to delay diagnosis until the tear film has decompensated and the cascade of inflammation has ensued. We do not have to wait for our patients to tell us there is a problem.

  15. "Dry Eye" Is the Wrong Diagnosis for Millions.

    PubMed

    Korb, Donald R; Blackie, Caroline A

    2015-09-01

    The clinical perspective that dry eye is, at best, an incomplete diagnosis and the benefit of an etiology-based approach to dry eye are presented. To provide context for this perspective, the historical and current definition of dry eye is reviewed. The paradigm shift introduced by the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop, that MGD is likely the leading cause of dry eye, is discussed in combination with the advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of MGD. To facilitate discussion on the benefit of an etiology-based approach, a retrospective observational analysis was performed on deidentified data from eligible, fully consented, refractory dry eye patients, where conventional sequelae-based dry eye treatment had failed. In this refractory population, the diagnosis of MGD, which directed treatment to evacuating gland obstructions and rehabilitating gland function, was successful. The clinical perspective that "dry eye" is the wrong diagnosis for millions is provocative. However, the MGD-first approach has the potential to revolutionize the timing of diagnosis and the choice of frontline therapy in most patients with dry eye. Additionally, the ability to screen for MGD in its earliest stages, during routine care, expands the scope of clinical practice to include early intervention. For most patients, we are no longer constrained to delay diagnosis until the tear film has decompensated and the cascade of inflammation has ensued. We do not have to wait for our patients to tell us there is a problem. PMID:26204473

  16. Lessons learned at 208K: Towards Debugging Millions of Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G L; Ahn, D H; Arnold, D C; de Supinski, B R; Legendre, M; Miller, B P; Schulz, M J; Liblit, B

    2008-04-14

    Petascale systems will present several new challenges to performance and correctness tools. Such machines may contain millions of cores, requiring that tools use scalable data structures and analysis algorithms to collect and to process application data. In addition, at such scales, each tool itself will become a large parallel application--already, debugging the full Blue-Gene/L (BG/L) installation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory requires employing 1664 tool daemons. To reach such sizes and beyond, tools must use a scalable communication infrastructure and manage their own tool processes efficiently. Some system resources, such as the file system, may also become tool bottlenecks. In this paper, we present challenges to petascale tool development, using the Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT) as a case study. STAT is a lightweight tool that gathers and merges stack traces from a parallel application to identify process equivalence classes. We use results gathered at thousands of tasks on an Infiniband cluster and results up to 208K processes on BG/L to identify current scalability issues as well as challenges that will be faced at the petascale. We then present implemented solutions to these challenges and show the resulting performance improvements. We also discuss future plans to meet the debugging demands of petascale machines.

  17. Implementing Municipal Tree Planting: Los Angeles Million-Tree Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincetl, Stephanie

    2010-02-01

    Urban forests are increasingly being seen as an important infrastructure that can help cities remediate their environmental impacts. This work reports on the first steps in implementing a million tree program in Los Angeles and the ways such a biogenic—living—infrastructure has been approached. Numbers of studies have been done to quantify the benefits of urban forests, but little has been written on the process of implementing urban tree planting programs. The investigative methods were primarily qualitative, involving interviews, attending meetings and conducting literature reviews. Results indicate that multiple nonprofit and city agency programs are involved in planting and maintaining trees and this has required coordination among groups that here-to-fore were unaccustomed to having to collaborate. The main finding that emerge from this research is that the implementation of such a program in Los Angeles is more complicated than it may seem due to several interacting factors: the need to rely on multiple public and private organizations to put trees into the ground and to maintain them; coordination of these multiple efforts must be centralized, but requires a great deal of time and effort and maybe resisted by some of the partners; funding for planting and long term maintenance must be pieced together from multiple sources; acceptance of trees by residents varies by neighborhood as does tree canopy cover; appropriate nursery supply can be limited; the location of the program within the city administration is determined by who initiates the program.

  18. Hominins on Flores, Indonesia, by one million years ago.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Adam; Jensen, Gitte M; van den Bergh, Gert D; Morwood, Michael J; Kurniawan, Iwan; Aziz, Fachroel; Storey, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Previous excavations at Mata Menge and Boa Lesa in the Soa Basin of Flores, Indonesia, recovered stone artefacts in association with fossilized remains of the large-bodied Stegodon florensis florensis. Zircon fission-track ages from these sites indicated that hominins had colonized the island by 0.88 +/- 0.07 million years (Myr) ago. Here we describe the contents, context and age of Wolo Sege, a recently discovered archaeological site in the Soa Basin that has in situ stone artefacts and that lies stratigraphically below Mata Menge and immediately above the basement breccias of the basin. We show using (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating that an ignimbrite overlying the artefact layers at Wolo Sege was erupted 1.02 +/- 0.02 Myr ago, providing a new minimum age for hominins on Flores. This predates the disappearance from the Soa Basin of 'pygmy' Stegodon sondaari and Geochelone spp. (giant tortoise), as evident at the nearby site of Tangi Talo, which has been dated to 0.90 +/- 0.07 Myr ago. It now seems that this extirpation or possible extinction event and the associated faunal turnover were the result of natural processes rather than the arrival of hominins. It also appears that the volcanic and fluvio-lacustrine deposits infilling the Soa Basin may not be old enough to register the initial arrival of hominins on the island. PMID:20237472

  19. 100 million refugees. The world stabilizes through population stability.

    PubMed

    Sakaiya, T

    1993-09-01

    Global change has come about due to shifts in the business cycle, a new undeveloped paradigm to replace the Cold War, and a stabilization of expansion and development of modern industrial society. Japan has been transfixed with its own internal domestic affairs, but will feel the consequences of the Industrial Age nearing its end. Industrialization had relied on unlimited resources from the natural environment and the belief that a free-market economy would automatically lead to orderliness and a state of economic equilibrium. Population control has been an issue that has slid over the years as a priority status. In 1800, the population in developed countries was 4 times the population in developing countries; the reverse is becoming true. Mass migration was an unusual phenomena and not the problem it is today. There is a gap between population and productive capacity. Developed countries believed in humanitarian aid for refugees and impoverished peoples, but the numbers were unanticipated. There is no shame for war or civil unrest to drive boat people and hugh numbers to another country. The notion of nation state has changed. The boat people from Cuba were a beginning example of how governments were unconcerned about the loss of population. Afghanistan in 1979 was another example of refugees fleeing civil war. Iraq bombed the Kurds until there was no choice but to leave. Turkey was required to use troops to drive the Kurds back into Iraq. To increase aid indefinitely, or to send out more refugees than it takes in, or to use military forces to kill the invading refugees are not acceptable. An international framework with consensus from developed and developing countries is needed for dealing with mass migrations. Conventions adopted would have to be recognized as in each countries self-interest; disregard of the regulations would have to reflect significant disadvantages to a nation. Several issues are discussed as key in such a global framework: assuring

  20. NativeView: Our Land, Our People, Our Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, T.

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this discussion is to (1) discuss the chasm between the breadth of Tribal land and resource to be sustained compared to the finite number of Tribal people trained in the sciences; (2) illustrate the need for integrating scientific knowledge with cultural knowledge; and (3) discuss the emergence of NativeView as Tribal College (TCUs) initiative leading the integration of geoscience and geospatial technology (GIS, Remote Sensing) with cultural knowledge to meet the growing needs of indigenous communities. It's about our land, our people and the need for highly trained individuals to sustainable and manage our resources for the future. There is a tremendous gap between total acreage of land owned or managed and the level of education obtained by indigenous people. In the United States today, American Indians and Alaskan Natives account for less than one percent of the total population, yet are responsible for more than five percent of the total land area. In North Dakota, there are over 54 thousand American Indians responsible for more than 3.8 million acres of Tribal Land. In contrast, less than 15 percent of indigenous people finish a Bachelor's degree of any kind and far fewer finish a science degree that would help them become more effective and responsible land managers. This poses an important dilemma. How will the Tribes meet (1) the resource needs of a growing population, (2) the demand for a skilled workforce, and (3) resource management goals in ways that contribute to Tribal infrastructure and equate to sustainable resource management? The integration of geoscience and geospatial technologies into the curriculum of Tribal Colleges (TCU's) has quietly emerged as one of the leading initiatives across Indian Country. These skills are widely recognized as a vehicle to empower our constituents in the sciences, in the cultural values and the traditional land ethic that defines us as a people. NativeView has taken the lead in working with the

  1. Invest in adolescents and young people: it pays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This year’s Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women–some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world–and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection. In response to an invitation from the editors of Reproductive Health, we-the sixteen coauthors of this commentary–put together key themes that reverberated throughout the conference, on the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, and promising solutions to meet them. 1. Investing in adolescents and young people is crucial for ensuring health, creating prosperity and fulfilling human rights. 2. Gender inequality contributes to many health and social problems. Adolescent girls and boys, and their families and communities, should be challenged and supported to change inequitable gender norms. – Child marriage utterly disempowers girls. It is one of the most devastating manifestations of gender discrimination. – Negative social and cultural attitudes towards menstruation constrain the lives of millions of girls. This may well establish the foundation for lifelong discomfort felt by girls about their bodies and reticence in seeking help when problems arise. 3. Adolescents need comprehensive, accurate and developmentally appropriate sexuality education. This will provide the bedrock for attitude formation and decision making. 4. Adolescent-centered health services can prevent sexual and reproductive health problems and detect and treat them if and when they occur. 5. National governments have the authority and the responsibility to address social and cultural barriers to the provision of sexual and reproductive health education and services for adolescents and young people

  2. People are satisfied with it.

    PubMed

    Hata, K

    1992-08-01

    The success of the integrated Family Planning (FP) and Parasite Control Project (IP) of Indonesia is discussed in terms of the government's view, the major characteristics of IP, the major problem, future funding sources, the purposes of community participation, obstacles encountered, and impact. Ministry policymakers consider IP effective and desirable, and suggest IP in remote areas with poor infrastructure such as Lombok in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Health is improved for parents and children initially. The project is self-reliant with small, affordable fees. Support has come from the Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association and Kusuma Buana Foundation; although external financial assistance has ceased, expansion is possible with the income generated. The Jakarta Municipal government may pick up the cost of implementing it through the public health center Pukesmas, either with existing project staff or local staff in collaboration with IP staff. The government is not ready to implement it because control of intestinal parasites is of low priority. Major problems are the uneven performance particularly in IP bases in Jakarta, which is attributed to lack of concern by managers for community health conditions. Community participation is important because people are eager to learn how to prevent the parasitic invasions after being successfully treated. When success in cleaning houses and toilets and lower incidence of infection is accomplished, then people trust and use the health services more. Obstacles have been the cost of building hygienic latrines and access to safe and potable water, particularly in slum areas of Jakarta, and changing institutional representation on the IP project National Coordinating Forum, the IP policy making group, and officials from government FP and Health and Education Departments. Government officials need to understand the intricacies of how IP operates. Evaluation is difficult with measures such as the fertility rate or infant

  3. Multi-million atom electronic structure calculations for quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad

    Quantum dots grown by self-assembly process are typically constructed by 50,000 to 5,000,000 structural atoms which confine a small, countable number of extra electrons or holes in a space that is comparable in size to the electron wavelength. Under such conditions quantum dots can be interpreted as artificial atoms with the potential to be custom tailored to new functionality. In the past decade or so, these nanostructures have attracted significant experimental and theoretical attention in the field of nanoscience. The new and tunable optical and electrical properties of these artificial atoms have been proposed in a variety of different fields, for example in communication and computing systems, medical and quantum computing applications. Predictive and quantitative modeling and simulation of these structures can help to narrow down the vast design space to a range that is experimentally affordable and move this part of nanoscience to nano-Technology. Modeling of such quantum dots pose a formidable challenge to theoretical physicists because: (1) Strain originating from the lattice mismatch of the materials penetrates deep inside the buffer surrounding the quantum dots and require large scale (multi-million atom) simulations to correctly capture its effect on the electronic structure, (2) The interface roughness, the alloy randomness, and the atomistic granularity require the calculation of electronic structure at the atomistic scale. Most of the current or past theoretical calculations are based on continuum approach such as effective mass approximation or k.p modeling capturing either no or one of the above mentioned effects, thus missing some of the essential physics. The Objectives of this thesis are: (1) to model and simulate the experimental quantum dot topologies at the atomistic scale; (2) to theoretically explore the essential physics i.e. long range strain, linear and quadratic piezoelectricity, interband optical transition strengths, quantum confined

  4. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  5. Hypertension Vaccine may be a boon to millions in developing world.

    PubMed

    Bairwa, Mohan; Pilania, Manju; Gupta, Vivek; Yadav, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension affects around 40% adults aged 25 years and more worldwide, and accounts for 7% of total disability-adjusted life-years. A simple algorithmic program is required to manage hypertension consisting of screening, life style measures, treatment and follow-up, a reliable drug supply and distribution system, and a credible health information system. Despite availability of effective antihypertensive drugs, long term treatment is still costly, tedious, and at the population level rather unsuccessful. Hypertension leaves patients and families with an avoidable heavy economic burden due to failure to control blood pressure. Health policy needs to address gross imbalance between prevention and management by increasing contribution to the preventive programs. During 21st century, the risk factors for morbidity and mortality have been changed, and researchers have started to work upon vaccines against lifestyle diseases like hypertension, diabetes etc. Researchers began experimenting with vaccines against the renin-angiotensin system to control hypertension around six decades ago. The vaccine candidates against hypertension namely ATR12181, pHAV-4Ang IIs, CYT006-AngQb, AngI-R, ATRQβ-001 have shown promising results. A candidate vaccine, CYT006-AngQb, has crossed initial phase and moved into phase 2 trials. However, more human studies in subsequent phases of trials are required to establish the safety and efficacy of anti-hypertensive vaccine. If proved safe and cost effective, a vaccine even with 50% efficacy against hypertension may protect about 90 million people from hypertension and its heavy economic burden. It can be an appropriate solution for low compliance to antihypertensive drug therapy as well as an avalanche to induce efforts on various chronic disease vaccine development programs.

  6. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  7. Blending of Radioactive Salt Solutions in Million Gallon Tanks - 13002

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2013-07-01

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 - 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, 'One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory'. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks. (authors)

  8. Blending Of Radioactive Salt Solutions In Million Gallon Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Lee, Si Y.; Fowley, Mark D.; Poirier, Michael R.

    2012-12-10

    Research was completed at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate processes related to the blending of radioactive, liquid waste, salt solutions in 4920 cubic meter, 25.9 meter diameter storage tanks. One process was the blending of large salt solution batches (up to 1135 ? 3028 cubic meters), using submerged centrifugal pumps. A second process was the disturbance of a settled layer of solids, or sludge, on the tank bottom. And a third investigated process was the settling rate of sludge solids if suspended into slurries by the blending pump. To investigate these processes, experiments, CFD models (computational fluid dynamics), and theory were applied. Experiments were performed using simulated, non-radioactive, salt solutions referred to as supernates, and a layer of settled solids referred to as sludge. Blending experiments were performed in a 2.44 meter diameter pilot scale tank, and flow rate measurements and settling tests were performed at both pilot scale and full scale. A summary of the research is presented here to demonstrate the adage that, ?One good experiment fixes a lot of good theory?. Experimental testing was required to benchmark CFD models, or the models would have been incorrectly used. In fact, CFD safety factors were established by this research to predict full-scale blending performance. CFD models were used to determine pump design requirements, predict blending times, and cut costs several million dollars by reducing the number of required blending pumps. This research contributed to DOE missions to permanently close the remaining 47 of 51 SRS waste storage tanks.

  9. STBase: One Million Species Trees for Comparative Biology

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Michelle M.; Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David; Boss, Darren; Sanderson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensively sampled phylogenetic trees provide the most compelling foundations for strong inferences in comparative evolutionary biology. Mismatches are common, however, between the taxa for which comparative data are available and the taxa sampled by published phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, many published phylogenies are gene trees, which cannot always be adapted immediately for species level comparisons because of discordance, gene duplication, and other confounding biological processes. A new database, STBase, lets comparative biologists quickly retrieve species level phylogenetic hypotheses in response to a query list of species names. The database consists of 1 million single- and multi-locus data sets, each with a confidence set of 1000 putative species trees, computed from GenBank sequence data for 413,000 eukaryotic taxa. Two bodies of theoretical work are leveraged to aid in the assembly of multi-locus concatenated data sets for species tree construction. First, multiply labeled gene trees are pruned to conflict-free singly-labeled species-level trees that can be combined between loci. Second, impacts of missing data in multi-locus data sets are ameliorated by assembling only decisive data sets. Data sets overlapping with the user’s query are ranked using a scheme that depends on user-provided weights for tree quality and for taxonomic overlap of the tree with the query. Retrieval times are independent of the size of the database, typically a few seconds. Tree quality is assessed by a real-time evaluation of bootstrap support on just the overlapping subtree. Associated sequence alignments, tree files and metadata can be downloaded for subsequent analysis. STBase provides a tool for comparative biologists interested in exploiting the most relevant sequence data available for the taxa of interest. It may also serve as a prototype for future species tree oriented databases and as a resource for assembly of larger species phylogenies from precomputed

  10. STBase: one million species trees for comparative biology.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Michelle M; Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David; Boss, Darren; Sanderson, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensively sampled phylogenetic trees provide the most compelling foundations for strong inferences in comparative evolutionary biology. Mismatches are common, however, between the taxa for which comparative data are available and the taxa sampled by published phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, many published phylogenies are gene trees, which cannot always be adapted immediately for species level comparisons because of discordance, gene duplication, and other confounding biological processes. A new database, STBase, lets comparative biologists quickly retrieve species level phylogenetic hypotheses in response to a query list of species names. The database consists of 1 million single- and multi-locus data sets, each with a confidence set of 1000 putative species trees, computed from GenBank sequence data for 413,000 eukaryotic taxa. Two bodies of theoretical work are leveraged to aid in the assembly of multi-locus concatenated data sets for species tree construction. First, multiply labeled gene trees are pruned to conflict-free singly-labeled species-level trees that can be combined between loci. Second, impacts of missing data in multi-locus data sets are ameliorated by assembling only decisive data sets. Data sets overlapping with the user's query are ranked using a scheme that depends on user-provided weights for tree quality and for taxonomic overlap of the tree with the query. Retrieval times are independent of the size of the database, typically a few seconds. Tree quality is assessed by a real-time evaluation of bootstrap support on just the overlapping subtree. Associated sequence alignments, tree files and metadata can be downloaded for subsequent analysis. STBase provides a tool for comparative biologists interested in exploiting the most relevant sequence data available for the taxa of interest. It may also serve as a prototype for future species tree oriented databases and as a resource for assembly of larger species phylogenies from precomputed

  11. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  12. Wetlands: water, wildlife, plants, & people

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are part of all our lives. They can generally be described as transitional areas between land and deepwater habitats. There are many different kinds of wetlands, and they can be found in many different habitat types, from forests to deserts; some are maintained by saltwater, others by freshwater. This poster shows general types of diverse wetlands and demonstrates how people and wetlands can benefit by living together. The diversity of plants and animals is shown in cartooned pictures. As with plants and animals, there are many different common names for the various wetland types. The common names used on this poster were used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the publication "Wetlands-Status and Trends in the Conterminous United States, Mid-1970's to Mid-1980's." Estuarine wetland types--salt marshes and mangrove swamps--are labeled in red letters. The estuary is where ocean saltwater and river freshwater mix. The estuary is labeled in orange letters. The inland wetland types-inland marshes and wet meadows, forested wetlands, and shrub wetlands-are labeled in yellow. Other wetlands are present in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. The water bodies associated with these wetlands are labeled in black. The poster is folded into 8.5" x 11" panels; front and back panels can easily be photocopied.

  13. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  14. Extensive 200-million-year-Old continental flood basalts of the central atlantic magmatic province

    PubMed

    Marzoli; Renne; Piccirillo; Ernesto; Bellieni; De Min A

    1999-04-23

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is defined by tholeiitic basalts that crop out in once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America and is associated with the breakup of Pangea. 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic data indicate that CAMP magmatism extended over an area of 2.5 million square kilometers in north and central Brazil, and the total aerial extent of the magmatism exceeded 7 million square kilometers in a few million years, with peak activity at 200 million years ago. The magmatism coincided closely in time with a major mass extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  15. Corning Inc.: Proposed Changes at Glass Plant Indicate $26 Million in Potential Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, the Corning glass plant in Greenville, Ohio, consumed almost 114 million kWh of electricity and nearly 308,000 MMBtu of natural gas in its glassmaking processes for a total cost of approximately $6.4 million. A plant-wide assessment indicated that improvement projects could save nearly $26 million and reduce natural gas use by 122,900 MMBtu per year, reduce electrical use by 72,300,000 kWh per year, and reduce CO2 emissions by 180 million pounds per year.

  16. Extensive 200-million-year-Old continental flood basalts of the central atlantic magmatic province

    PubMed

    Marzoli; Renne; Piccirillo; Ernesto; Bellieni; De Min A

    1999-04-23

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is defined by tholeiitic basalts that crop out in once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America and is associated with the breakup of Pangea. 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic data indicate that CAMP magmatism extended over an area of 2.5 million square kilometers in north and central Brazil, and the total aerial extent of the magmatism exceeded 7 million square kilometers in a few million years, with peak activity at 200 million years ago. The magmatism coincided closely in time with a major mass extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. PMID:10213679

  17. Health Care Access Among Deaf People.

    PubMed

    Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in global health knowledge for deaf people including those with even higher risk of marginalization. Examples of approaches to improve access to health care, such as providing powerful and visually accessible communication through the use of sign language, the implementation of important communication technologies, and cultural awareness trainings for health professionals are discussed. Programs that raise health knowledge in Deaf communities and models of primary health care centers for deaf people are also presented. Published documents can empower deaf people to realize their right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of health.

  18. Familiar people recognition disorders: an introductory review.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this introduction is to provide a general background for the individual contributions dealing with different aspects of familiar people recognition disorders. Following are the main points considered in this survey: 1) the cognitive models proposed to explain the functional architecture of processes subsuming familiar people recognition; 2) the different roles of the right and left hemisphere in identifying people by face voice and name; 3) the anatomical structures and the cognitive processes involved in face and voice recognition; 4) the interactions that exist among the perceptual processes subsuming face and voice recognition, but not people's faces, voices and proper names; 5) the patterns of multimodal defects of familiar people recognition and their implications for current cognitive models. Finally, there is a short discussion of two models advanced to explain the role of the anterior temporal lobes in people recognition.

  19. Cancer Stage at Diagnosis in HIV-infected People and Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, Meredith S.; Copeland, Glenn; Goodman, Marc T.; Harrell, Janna; Lynch, Charles F.; Pawlish, Karen; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether immunosuppression results in more aggressive, advanced stage cancers. As cancer stage is influenced both by tumor biology and medical surveillance, we assessed cancer stage in HIV-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients, two immunosuppressed groups with differences in healthcare utilization. Methods We used data on all cases of 15 cancer types, diagnosed during 1996–2010 in two studies that linked U.S. cancer registries to HIV and transplant registries. Odds ratios (ORs) for advanced (vs. local) disease were estimated comparing HIV and transplant populations to immunocompetent people in polytomous logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, race, registry and year. Results A total of 8,411 of 4.5 million cancer cases occurred in HIV-infected people, and 7,322 of 6.4 million cancer cases occurred in transplant recipients. Compared to immunocompetent people with cancer, HIV-infected people were more likely to be diagnosed with distant stage lung (OR=1.13), female breast (OR=1.99), and prostate cancers (OR=1.57), while transplant recipients had fewer distant stage lung (OR=0.54), female breast (OR=0.75) and prostate cancers (OR=0.72). Both immunosuppressed populations had a shift toward advanced stage melanoma (ORs: HIV=1.97; transplant=1.82) and bladder cancer (ORs: HIV=1.42; transplant=1.54). Conclusions Bladder cancer and melanoma were more likely to be diagnosed at non-local stage in both HIV-infected people and transplant recipients, suggesting a role of immunosuppression in their progression. Additionally, we observed a shift for some common cancers toward later stages in HIV-infected individuals and toward earlier stages in transplant recipients, consistent with differential access to medical care or surveillance. PMID:25739496

  20. Whales Are Big With Little People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dommers, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Presented is a discussion on why people should study whales. Background information, learning activities appropriate for different subject areas, and whale-related teaching materials are included. (DC)

  1. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  2. Visual Handicaps of Mentally Handicapped People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, David

    1979-01-01

    Recent literature concerning visual handicaps of mentally handicapped people is reviewed. Topic areas considered are etiology and epidemiology, visual acuity, color vision, and educational techniques. (Author)

  3. Indian Peoples of Central America: Oppression Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Paul; Schaeffer, Dolores

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the historical and contemporary social situation of the indigenous peoples of Guatemala and Nicaragua, including the current conflict between the Sandinista government and the Miskitu Indians. (GC)

  4. Rockets and People. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chertok, Boris E; Siddiqi, Asif A. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written in the West on the history of the Soviet space program but few Westerners have read direct first-hand accounts of the men and women who were behind the many Russian accomplishments in exploring space.The memoirs of Academician Boris Chertok, translated from the original Russian, fills that gap.Chertok began his career as an electrician in 1930 at an aviation factory near Moscow.Twenty-seven years later, he became deputy to the founding figure of the Soviet space program, the mysterious Chief Designer Sergey Korolev. Chertok s sixty-year-long career and the many successes and failures of the Soviet space program constitute the core of his memoirs, Rockets and People. These writings are spread over four volumes. This is volume I. Academician Chertok not only describes and remembers, but also elicits and extracts profound insights from an epic story about a society s quest to explore the cosmos. In Volume 1, Chertok describes his early years as an engineer and ends with the mission to Germany after the end of World War II when the Soviets captured Nazi missile technology and expertise. Volume 2 takes up the story with the development of the world s first intercontinental ballistic missile ICBM) and ends with the launch of Sputnik and the early Moon probes. In Volume 3, Chertok recollects the great successes of the Soviet space program in the 1960s including the launch of the world s first space voyager Yuriy Gagarin as well as many events connected with the Cold War. Finally, in Volume 4, Chertok meditates at length on the massive Soviet lunar project designed to beat the Americans to the Moon in the 1960s, ending with his remembrances of the Energiya-Buran project.

  5. Putting people into the picture.

    PubMed

    Rowley, J

    1989-01-01

    In an interview with the newly appointed head of the Population, Women, and Natural Resources Program of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Dr. Pietronella van den Oever reflects on the concern about natural resources and working with women, rural development, and agricultural extension projects. She considers her job to have three main objectives: 1) to try to increase the in-house knowledge among the staff about population matters and also in the country where they work; 2) to conceptualize the linkages between the sustainable use of natural resources and demographic variables because of the struggle to integrate population concerns into programs (the example of Zaire is given, which had the same level of fertility and maternal mortality as Mali with very few resources; this shows the lack of knowledge and the effect of resources on population); 3) to test the practical application of joint policies, strategies, and projects relating to conservation of natural resources and population. This can be done if population and natural resources projects are integrated. As a start a population reference library will be set up and a population data tape will be produced for staff who travel to various countries. Other initiatives will be the formation of a committee on population/resources links, and the field testing of the unit's Population, Resources, and Development Guidebook, particularly in relation to Pakistan's national conservation strategy. Eventually a work book is hoped to be developed from this for those wanting to plan their natural resources. In addition, the program is helping to plan the Africa Women's Assembly in Harare, Zimbabwe, to be held in February 1990. The objective is to involve local people in conserving nature. Since women are heavily involved in agriculture, they should be educated to use resources in a sustainable way.

  6. They're not employees, they're people.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Peter F

    2002-02-01

    In this essay, business thinker Peter Drucker examines the changing dynamics of the workforce--in particular, the need for organizations to take just as much care and responsibility when managing temporary and contract workers as they do with their traditional employees. Two fast-growing trends are demanding that business leaders pay more attention to employee relations, Drucker says. First is the rise of the temporary, or contract, workers; 8 million to 10 million temp workers are placed each day worldwide. And they're not just filling in at reception desks. Today, there are temp suppliers for every kind of job, all the way up to CEO. Second, a growing number of businesses are outsourcing their employee relations to professional employee organizations (PEOs)--third-party groups that handle the ever mounting administrative tasks associated with managing a company's employees. (Managers can easily spend up to one-quarter of their time on employee-related rules, regulations, and paperwork.) Driving these trends, Drucker observes, is the shift from a dependency on manual labor to create wealth and jobs to a dependency on specialization and knowledge. Leaders are increasingly trying to keep up with the needs of many small groups of product or service experts within their companies. Temps and PEOs free up leaders to focus on the business rather than on HR files and paperwork. But if organizations outsource those functions, they need to be careful not to damage relationship with their people in the process, Drucker concludes. After all, developing talent is business's most important task--the sine qua non of competition in a knowledge economy.

  7. [Analysis of population status in the People's Republic of Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Bater

    1991-02-01

    The population of the People's Republic of Mongolia increased 2.1 times in 70 years from 0.65 million in 1981 to 2.02 million in 1987. 1918-1956 was a pre-transitional period of low population growth. A substantial growth was experienced during the period of 1956-1987, since economic and technological development increased living standards and reduced mortality. The Mongolian government adopted a pro-natal policy in which incentives are given to have large families. Nevertheless, fertility started to decline in the 1980s. Promoting education had been an important achievement of Mongolia since its independence in 1921. 54% of the current population received more than 8 years of education, and 7.32% had college or vocational school education. Over a quarter of the population was in school. The rapid increase in the level of education attained by the population can be attributed to the priority status given to education by the government. The expenditure in education and health in 1987 was 7.7% of the total national economic investment. Education at all levels including kindergarten is free. The occupational composition of the population had undergone considerable changes since 1960. Those engaged in farming and animal husbandry decreased from 60.8% of the working population in 1960 to 31.5% in 1987. while the proportion of industrial workers increased from 12% of the working population in 1960 to 19% in 1987. The population in the service industry, research, and education increased to 5.5, 3.5, and 1.8 times the 1960 figure, respectively, in 1987. The rural population decreased from 78.4% in 1959 to 47.9% in 1987. These population changes reflects the socio-economic development of Mongolia.

  8. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Care Among People with Severe Mental Illness: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mangurian, Christina; Newcomer, John W; Modlin, Chelsea; Schillinger, Dean

    2016-09-01

    Close to 19 million US adults have severe mental illnesses (SMI), and they die, on average, 25 years earlier than the general population, most often from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many of the antipsychotic medications used to treat SMI contribute to CVD risk by increasing risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Based on compelling evidence, the American Diabetes Association and the American Psychiatric Association developed guidelines for metabolic screening and monitoring during use of these medications.In this manuscript, we have reviewed the evidence on diabetes and other CVD risk screening, prevalence, and management among populations with SMI. We also review differences in screening among subpopulations with SMI (e.g., racial/ethnic minorities, women, and children). We found that despite national guidelines for screening for diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, up to 70 % of people taking antipsychotics remain unscreened and untreated. Based on estimates that 20 % of the 19 million US adults with SMI have diabetes and 70 % of them are not screened; it is likely that over 2 million Americans with SMI have unidentified diabetes. Given that undiagnosed diabetes costs over $4,000 per person, this failure to identify diabetes among people with SMI represents a missed opportunity to prevent morbidity and translates to over $8 billion in annual preventable costs to our healthcare system.Given the high burden of disease and significant evidence of suboptimal medical care received by people with SMI, we propose several clinical and policy recommendations to improve diabetes and other CVD risk screening and care for this highly vulnerable population. These recommendations include reducing antipsychotic medication dose or switching antipsychotic medications, enhancing smoking cessation efforts, sharing electronic health records between physical and mental health care systems, and promoting integration of care. PMID:27149967

  9. Diabetes and Cardiovascular Care Among People with Severe Mental Illness: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Mangurian, Christina; Newcomer, John W; Modlin, Chelsea; Schillinger, Dean

    2016-09-01

    Close to 19 million US adults have severe mental illnesses (SMI), and they die, on average, 25 years earlier than the general population, most often from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many of the antipsychotic medications used to treat SMI contribute to CVD risk by increasing risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Based on compelling evidence, the American Diabetes Association and the American Psychiatric Association developed guidelines for metabolic screening and monitoring during use of these medications.In this manuscript, we have reviewed the evidence on diabetes and other CVD risk screening, prevalence, and management among populations with SMI. We also review differences in screening among subpopulations with SMI (e.g., racial/ethnic minorities, women, and children). We found that despite national guidelines for screening for diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, up to 70 % of people taking antipsychotics remain unscreened and untreated. Based on estimates that 20 % of the 19 million US adults with SMI have diabetes and 70 % of them are not screened; it is likely that over 2 million Americans with SMI have unidentified diabetes. Given that undiagnosed diabetes costs over $4,000 per person, this failure to identify diabetes among people with SMI represents a missed opportunity to prevent morbidity and translates to over $8 billion in annual preventable costs to our healthcare system.Given the high burden of disease and significant evidence of suboptimal medical care received by people with SMI, we propose several clinical and policy recommendations to improve diabetes and other CVD risk screening and care for this highly vulnerable population. These recommendations include reducing antipsychotic medication dose or switching antipsychotic medications, enhancing smoking cessation efforts, sharing electronic health records between physical and mental health care systems, and promoting integration of care.

  10. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    International Chinese migration has spanned five periods: 1) an initial period of random and short-term migration dating back to the Qing and Han dynasties; 2) a spontaneous period since the Sui and Tang dynasties along trade routes; 3) a transition period during the Ming dynasty and the early Qing dynasty with war, poverty, and population growth as push factors; 4) peak migration during the Opium War period due to economic depression, population pressure, and the "coolie" trade; and 5) continuous development between the 1920s and 1949. Migration tended to occur between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and other southeast Asian countries. Four factors were identified as necessary for international migration to occur: the origin of migration, the destination factor, the middle link factor, and the immigrant characteristics. The origins of early Chinese migration appeared in a country of political corruption, population pressure, a backward economy, and social chaos. The pull factors at destination end were demand for labor. The middle link was the short distance between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and southeast Asian countries and longstanding nongovernmental exchanges. Other links were the similarity of climate, similar racial features, cultural lifestyle similarities, and convenient transportation. The people in these two provinces had a history of migration and a personality suitable for the spirit of adventure. Peak migration occurred during the late Qing dynasty and during the continuous development period. Between 1840 and 1911 there were about 10 million Chinese immigrants and during 1911 and 1949 there were about 6 million. In general, over 20 million immigrated prior to 1949, of which about 50% migrated during the peak period, 33% during the continuous period, and 20% before 1840. This amounted to about 33% of European migration and two times African migration. 60% were from Guangdong, and 30% were from Fujian province, of whom most were from counties

  11. A preliminary study of international migration of the Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1994-01-01

    International Chinese migration has spanned five periods: 1) an initial period of random and short-term migration dating back to the Qing and Han dynasties; 2) a spontaneous period since the Sui and Tang dynasties along trade routes; 3) a transition period during the Ming dynasty and the early Qing dynasty with war, poverty, and population growth as push factors; 4) peak migration during the Opium War period due to economic depression, population pressure, and the "coolie" trade; and 5) continuous development between the 1920s and 1949. Migration tended to occur between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and other southeast Asian countries. Four factors were identified as necessary for international migration to occur: the origin of migration, the destination factor, the middle link factor, and the immigrant characteristics. The origins of early Chinese migration appeared in a country of political corruption, population pressure, a backward economy, and social chaos. The pull factors at destination end were demand for labor. The middle link was the short distance between Guangdong and Fujian provinces and southeast Asian countries and longstanding nongovernmental exchanges. Other links were the similarity of climate, similar racial features, cultural lifestyle similarities, and convenient transportation. The people in these two provinces had a history of migration and a personality suitable for the spirit of adventure. Peak migration occurred during the late Qing dynasty and during the continuous development period. Between 1840 and 1911 there were about 10 million Chinese immigrants and during 1911 and 1949 there were about 6 million. In general, over 20 million immigrated prior to 1949, of which about 50% migrated during the peak period, 33% during the continuous period, and 20% before 1840. This amounted to about 33% of European migration and two times African migration. 60% were from Guangdong, and 30% were from Fujian province, of whom most were from counties

  12. A simple algorithm improves mass accuracy to 50-100 ppm for delayed extraction linear MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hack, Christopher A.; Benner, W. Henry

    2001-10-31

    A simple mathematical technique for improving mass calibration accuracy of linear delayed extraction matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DE MALDI-TOF MS) spectra is presented. The method involves fitting a parabola to a plot of Dm vs. mass data where Dm is the difference between the theoretical mass of calibrants and the mass obtained from a linear relationship between the square root of m/z and ion time of flight. The quadratic equation that describes the parabola is then used to correct the mass of unknowns by subtracting the deviation predicted by the quadratic equation from measured data. By subtracting the value of the parabola at each mass from the calibrated data, the accuracy of mass data points can be improved by factors of 10 or more. This method produces highly similar results whether or not initial ion velocity is accounted for in the calibration equation; consequently, there is no need to depend on that uncertain parameter when using the quadratic correction. This method can be used to correct the internally calibrated masses of protein digest peaks. The effect of nitrocellulose as a matrix additive is also briefly discussed, and it is shown that using nitrocellulose as an additive to a CHCA matrix does not significantly change initial ion velocity but does change the average position of ions relative to the sample electrode at the instant the extraction voltage is applied.

  13. The people and the tiger.

    PubMed

    Ward, G C

    1994-08-01

    Wildlife protection activities in Ranthambhore in Rajasthan state in 1993, and conditions of overpopulation and expanded grazing were described. Project Tiger is an ambitious program begun in the 1970s to protect the habitat of the tiger in Ranthambhore National Park. Forest park protection is limited by corrupt, poorly trained staff, who are unmotivated to protect the established sanctuaries. Tiger counts declined from 45 in the 1980s to 25 in 1993. Between 1988 and 1993, the Ranthambhore Foundation has worked to change village attitudes and practices that are based on forest exploitation. The aim was to show how the park and livelihoods can coexist without destruction of the park through excess grazing, and to initiate the planting of trees in a largely arid, treeless region. Demonstrating new ways of living had to be achieved first by building trust. Thapar, an author and environmentalist, has established his own land as an example of how irrigation and fallow land can return the land to productive potential. A mix of Jersey and Holstein cattle are bred to show how nonrange-fed cattle can be produced and deliver higher milk yields than the straggly range-fed ones. A dairy cooperative has been organized in the district, and the milk productivity has increased 1000%. Several bio-gas cookers are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of dung for fuel, instead of wood from the forest. Women become aware of the advantages of shorter walks and the end of potential arrests from taking forest protected fuelwood. There is still work to be done in learning how to work with local people. One foundation program works with instilling ideas about conservation among 3500 village children. Forest Protection Societies have been organized to grow and defend their own trees. Village men are organized to help police unauthorized grazing in protected areas. Not all programs have been successful, and lax administration has been a problem. Tourism has become a problem of too many

  14. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University - Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-29

    Texas A&M University is operating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at its district energy campus in College Station, Texas. Texas A&M received $10 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for this project. Private-sector cost share totaled $40 million.

  15. Almost 2 Million U.S. Kids Get Concussions a Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159465.html Almost 2 Million U.S. Kids Get Concussions a Year: Study ... MONDAY, June 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Close to 2 million U.S. children and teens may suffer concussions ...

  16. Teaching about the Big Three-O (300 Million) Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Most researchers and the Census Bureau expect the U.S. population to hit the 300 million mark sometime in October. This will make the United States the world's third most populous nation--behind China and India. In this article, the author found several websites dealing with the specific 300 million target, population growth in general, and…

  17. Historical Terminology Used to Represent Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Herbert C.

    1988-01-01

    Semantically traced, over time, terms used to represent old people, aging, and effects of aging. Major themes found included differences between terms used for old men and old women; ambiguity of terms; older people subjected to more pejoratives than in past; and terms characterizing the old being focused on negative and debilitative effects of…

  18. Group Counseling for People with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.; Pullo, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    Group counseling has been used with a wide range of people who have physical disorders including psychosomatic conditions, sensory (visual and auditory) disabilities, neuromuscular and orthopedic impairments, and life-threatening diseases. The needs and concerns of these people can be generally delineated as physical, psychological, social,…

  19. Volunteering among Young People. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo; Marcelo, Karlo Barrios

    2007-01-01

    This fact sheet presents information on the frequency of volunteering, trends in volunteering, and the organizations for which young people volunteer, utilizing data from multiple sources. Unlike many surveys, it shows that volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. Findings of the Civic and…

  20. Unlikely Alliances: Friendship & People with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John; O'Brien, Connie Lyle

    This discussion of friendship in the lives of people with developmental disabilities raises questions which probe the nature of friendship, friendship between people with and without disabilities, and the special challenges involved in making and keeping friends. First, four dimensions of friendship are identified and discussed: (1) attraction…

  1. Measuring Role Entrapment of People Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Rodney M.; Blood, Gordon W.; Tellis, Glen M.; Althouse, Matthew T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether people who stutter experience role entrapment in the form of vocational stereotyping. To accomplish this, 385 university students reported their perceptions of appropriate career choices for people who stutter. Direct survey procedures, utilizing the newly developed Vocational Advice Scale (VAS),…

  2. Labor Migration by Russian Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Man'shin, R. V.; Timoshenko, O. V.; Pis'mennaia, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Russia's young people have become active participants in processes of migration. After the fall of the USSR, young people began to travel outside Russia in substantially greater numbers. At the present time, young Russians can be found in all kinds of regions and countries of the world. They are getting an education in foreign universities and…

  3. A People's History for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Bill

    2008-01-01

    "A People's History for the Classroom" helps teachers introduce students to a more accurate, complex, and engaging understanding of U.S. history than is found in traditional textbooks and curricula. It includes a new introductory essay by veteran teacher Bill Bigelow on teaching strategies that align with Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the…

  4. Working with Older People. A Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Commission on Aging, Columbus.

    This resource kit for working with older people consists of an instructor's guide, a package of simulation training materials, and performance-based teacher education modules. Topics covered in the instructor's guide are understanding the common problems of working with older people, selecting problem areas for trainees, developing plans for using…

  5. Secondary Conditions in People with Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated secondary conditions in people with developmental disabilities in terms of (a) the average number of conditions experienced and overall health and independence, (b) their degree and nature, and (c) gender differences. Information was obtained by a questionnaire completed by the caregivers for 659 people with developmental…

  6. Transition Experiences of Disabled Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggott, Linda; Houghton, Ann-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the changing employment climate and shift in attitudes towards disabled people who are expected to become economically active in order to fulfill their role as responsible citizens. We briefly describe the employment profile of disabled people and reiterate the combination of factors identified in shaping progression into the…

  7. Evaluating Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…

  8. Young People's Internet Use: Divided or Diversified?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonaert, Tom; Vettenburg, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This article critically analyses research on young people's internet use. Based on a literature analysis, it examines which young people do what on the internet. These results invite a reflection on the dominant discourse on the digital divide. Within this discourse, there is a strong focus on the use of the internet for information purposes only,…

  9. [Residential care for elderly dependent people].

    PubMed

    Neyen, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Today, nursing homes increasingly offer different care solutions to elderly people with Alzheimer's or related forms of dementia. This policy of support forms part of an approach to prevent the risk factors of the loss of autonomy of elderly people. Different types of care within the same nursing home demonstrate their real importance.

  10. Understanding the lives of older gay people.

    PubMed

    Kean, Reb

    2006-09-01

    Ten research articles were examined with the aim of increasing our understanding of the lives of older gay people. It is clear from the literature that nurses must not rely on stereotypes of older gay people to inform their professional practice. It is also important for nurses to appreciate that older homosexuals have different health and social care needs from their heterosexual contemporaries.

  11. Land and people: finding a balance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Land and People: Finding a Balance is an environmental study project that engages high school students in studying earth science resource issues. The project focuses on the interaction between people and the environment in three regions of the United States: Cape Cod, Los Angeles, and the Everglades. Each section of this project is devoted to one of the three regions.

  12. Healthy Water Healthy People Field Monitoring Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 100-page manual serves as a technical reference for the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" and the "Healthy Water Healthy People Testing Kits". Yielding in-depth information about ten water quality parameters, it answers questions about water quality testing using technical overviews, data interpretation guidelines,…

  13. Aging: An Album of People Growing Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saul, Shura

    Written for teachers and students who expect to work with people in any field of human relationships and services, the document presents an anthology of vignettes on learning and aging. In addition to the author's vignettes are those of many others, chosen by a panel of 54 reader-judges consisting of students, professionals, and elderly people.…

  14. Cognitive Changes among Institutionalized Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Menacho, Inmaculada; Alcalde, Concepcion; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Aguilar, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of different cognitive training procedures in elderly people was studied. Two types of methods to train cognitive and memory functions were compared. One method was based on new technologies and the other one on pencil-and-paper activities. Thirty-six elderly institutionalized people aged 68-94 were trained. Quantitative and memory…

  15. Intergenerational Talk and Communication with Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Howard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Overviews evolving program of interdisciplinary, multimethod research concerned with intergenerational communication. Concludes from studies that young people process and respond to speech of older people in stereotypical ways. Uses lifespan and intercultural perspectives to argue that communicative patterns observed in studies are sometimes…

  16. Asset Building for and by Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Sondra G.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the four preceding articles on youth and saving, identifies policy and program implications, and suggests directions for future scholarship. It is clear that saving is difficult for many people and throughout the life course. Efforts to help young people accumulate assets might encourage saving by parents, encourage saving…

  17. Are Partnership Boards Really Valuing People?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddington, Carol; Mansell, Jim; Beadle-Brown, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Observations were conducted in three county councils to find out whether the government's ambition to develop Learning Disability Partnership Boards (as expressed in the White Paper "Valuing people") are being realized. All the partnerships practiced various inclusive activities in order to involve people with learning disabilities in public…

  18. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…

  19. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: • Major depressive disorder • Anxiety disorders • Adjustment disorder • Bipolar disorder Some mood disorders occur more often in people ... with MS, and adjustment disorders nearly one-fourth. Bipolar disorder occurs in 13 percent of people with MS ...

  20. Shoving Our Way into Young People's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Sizer and Sizer's concept of "shoving" to examine the school experiences of a group of young people who left mainstream school early and some time later enrolled in an alternative educational setting designed to reengage early school leavers in formal learning. "Shoving" is a way to explain why so many young people feel alienated…

  1. Historical Empathy and "Canada: A People's History"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Darren; Clark, Penney

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine the CBC/Radio-Canada series, "Canada: A People's History," for its use of empathy, specifically with regard to its portrayal of Aboriginal people. We call the empathy promoted in the series, emotive empathy, and compare it to the concept of historical empathy constructed by researchers in history education. The emotive…

  2. The Musical Taste of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a…

  3. Reading for Young People: The Midwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinman, Dorothy; Zimmerman, Ruth

    One of five annotated bibliographies that describe books about certain regions of the United States, this compilation focuses on books about the Midwest. The stated purposes of these regional bibliographies are: (1) to introduce young people living in the subject region to books dealing with their cultural heritage, (2) to help young people of…

  4. Reading for Young People: The Southeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heald, Dorothy, Ed.

    One of five annotated bibliographies that describe books about certain regions of the United States, this compilation focuses on books about the Southeast. The stated purposes of these regional bibliographies are: (1) to introduce young people living in the subject region to books dealing with their cultural heritage, (2) to help young people of…

  5. Caring for carers: how community nurses can support carers of people with cancer.

    PubMed

    Argyle, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    There are more than 1 million people in the UK looking after a family member or friend with cancer, but half the number of these carers do not receive support to care. Providing this care significantly affects cancer carers emotionally, physically, and financially. Community and district nurses have a vital role to play in reaching out to these hidden carers and signposting them to the correct support. This article provides tips on identifying carers, including who they are, the challenges they face, and how health professionals can approach and speak to them. It also provides guidance on signposting carers to national and local sources of support in the UK. PMID:27282503

  6. [Appropriate medication prescribing in older people].

    PubMed

    Blain, H; Rambourg, P; Le Quellec, A; Ayach, L; Biboulet, P; Bismuth, M; Blain, A; Boulenger, J-P; Celton, B; Combe, B; Dauvilliers, Y; Davy, J-M; Geny, C; Hemmi, P; Hillaire-Buys, D; Jalabert, A; Jung, B; Leclercq, F; Léglise, M-S; Morel, J; Mourad, G; Ponrouch, M-P; Puisieux, F; Quantin, X; Quéré, I; Renard, E; Ribstein, J; Roch-Torreilles, I; Rolland, Y; Rosant, D; Terminet, A; Thuret, R; Villiet, M; Deshormières, N; Bourret, R; Bousquet, J; Jonquet, O; Millat, B

    2015-10-01

    Drug-induced adverse effects are one of the main avoidable causes of hospitalization in older people. Numerous lists of potentially inappropriate medications for older people have been published, as national and international guidelines for appropriate prescribing in numerous diseases and for different age categories. The present review describes the general rules for an appropriate prescribing in older people and summarizes, for the main conditions encountered in older people, medications that are too often under-prescribed, the precautions of use of the main drugs that induce adverse effects, and drugs for which the benefit to risk ratio is unfavourable in older people. All these data are assembled in educational tables designed to be printed in a practical pocket format and used in daily practice by prescribers, whether physicians, surgeons or pharmacists.

  7. Intergenerational talk and communication with older people.

    PubMed

    Giles, H; Coupland, N; Coupland, J; Williams, A; Nussbaum, J

    1992-01-01

    A program of research conducted within an anti-agism paradigm demonstrates that young people process and respond to the speech of older people in stereotypical ways. Such conclusions result from studies using a variety of research methods. Experimental studies demonstrate that older-sounding speech triggers age schematic responses and that young people tend to use agist strategies of information seeking and compliance gaining from older people, while interactive studies explore how stereotypes and age identities are co-produced by young and old people in conversation. We use lifespan and intercultural perspectives to argue that the communicative patterns we observe in our studies are in some senses and contexts counterproductive in both the long and short term, in that they can reproduce negative attitudes toward aging as well as inhibit successful aging. PMID:1607216

  8. Consumption patterns and why people fish.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2002-10-01

    Recreational and subsistence fishing play major roles in the lives of many people, although their importance in urban areas is often underestimated. There are fish and shellfish consumption advisories in the New York-New Jersey harbor estuary, particularly in the waters of the Newark Bay Complex. This paper examines fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and the reasons that people fish in the Newark Bay Complex. I test the null hypotheses that there are no differences among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites in consumption patterns for fish and crabs and in the reasons that they fish or crab. Most people either fished or crabbed, but not both. People who fish and crab ate more grams of crab than fish in a given meal; people who crab only consumed more grams of crab at a meal than those who fish only consumed of fish. Although 30% or more of the people who fished and crabbed in the Newark Bay Complex did not eat their self-caught fish or crabs 8-25% of the people ate more than 1500 g/month. Some people angling in the Newark Bay Complex are eating crabs at a rate well over 1500 g/month, and about 70% are eating crabs even though there is a total ban on both harvest and consumption because of the health risks from dioxin. Consumption patterns were negatively correlated with mean income and positively correlated with mean age. Most people rated relaxation and being outdoors the highest reasons for angling, although on an open-ended question they usually listed recreation. There were no ethnic differences in reasons for angling, although other studies have shown ethnic differences in consumption. Obtaining fish or crabs to eat, give away, trade, or sell were rated low, suggesting that consumption advisories fail partly because people are not primarily fishing for food. PMID:12483803

  9. Designing to Fit People of Different Sizes: One Product Can Indeed Fit Nearly All People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeder, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    People interact with products and vehicles in a physical manner. They push lawn mowers, they hold mixers, and they drive cars and trucks. This interaction is greatly improved when there is a physical, dimensional match between the people and the products and vehicles they use. However, people vary in size and shape. The study and application of…

  10. Biomagnification of cyanobacterial neurotoxins and neurodegenerative disease among the Chamorro people of Guam

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Paul Alan; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    We here report biomagnification (the increasing accumulation of bioactive, often deleterious molecules through higher trophic levels of a food chain) of the neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) in the Guam ecosystem. Free-living cyanobacteria produce 0.3 μg/g BMAA, but produce 2-37 μg/g as symbionts in the coralloid roots of cycad trees. BMAA is concentrated in the developing reproductive tissues of the cycad Cycas micronesica, averaging 9 μg/g in the fleshy seed sarcotesta and a mean of 1,161 μg/g BMAA in the outermost seed layer. Flying foxes (Pteropus mariannus), which forage on the seeds, accumulate a mean of 3,556 μg/g BMAA. Flying foxes are a prized food item of the indigenous Chamorro people who boil them in coconut cream and eat them whole. Chamorros who die of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (AL-SPDC), a neurodegenerative disease with symptoms similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, have an average of 6.6 μg/g BMAA in their brain tissues. The biomagnification of BMAA through the Guam ecosystem fits a classic triangle of increasing concentrations of toxic compounds up the food chain. This may explain why the incidence of ALS-PDC among the Chamorro was 50-100 times the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis elsewhere. Biomagnification of cyanobacterial BMAA may not be unique to Guam; our discovery of BMAA in the brain tissue from Alzheimer's patients from Canada suggests alternative ecological pathways for the bioaccumulation of BMAA in aquatic or terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:14612559

  11. People who inject drugs in prison: HIV prevalence, transmission and prevention.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Kate; Moazen, Babak; Noori, Atefeh; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Farzadfar, Farshad; Hariga, Fabienne

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, over 10.1 million people were held in prisons around the world. HIV prevalence is elevated in prison and this is due to the over representation of people who inject drugs (PWID). Yet HIV prevention programs for PWID are scarce in the prison setting. With a high proportion of drug users and few prevention programs, HIV transmission occurs and sometimes at an alarming rate. This commentary focuses primarily on drug users in prison; their risk behaviours and levels of infection. It also comments on the transmission of HIV including outbreaks and the efforts to prevent transmission within the prison setting. The spread of HIV in prison has substantial public health implications as virtually all prisoners return to the community. HIV prevention and treatment strategies known to be effective in community settings, such as methadone maintenance treatment, needle and syringe programs, condoms and antiretroviral therapy should be provided to prisoners as a matter of urgency.

  12. Kellogg Foundation Still Investing in People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2011-01-01

    When the W.K. Kellogg Foundation first approached a group of tribal college presidents in 1994 with a $23 million grant for a handful of their institutions, the tribal college leaders did not exactly trip over themselves to get the money. They wanted it to be split among all of them, and the foundation honored the tribal college leaders' wish.…

  13. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  14. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources.

  15. Earthquake Protection Measures for People with Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gountromichou, C.; Kourou, A.; Kerpelis, P.

    2009-04-01

    The problem of seismic safety for people with disabilities not only exists but is also urgent and of primary importance. Working towards disability equality, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization of Greece (E.P.P.O.) has developed an educational scheme for people with disabilities in order to guide them to develop skills to protect themselves as well as to take the appropriate safety measures before, during and after an earthquake. The framework of this initiative includes a number of actions have been already undertaken, including the following: a. Recently, the main guidelines have been published to help people who have physical, cognitive, visual, or auditory disabilities to cope with a destructive earthquake. Of great importance, in case of people with disabilities, is to be prepared for the disaster, with several measures that must be taken starting today. In the pre-earthquake period, it is important that these people, in addition to other measures, do the following: - Create a Personal Support Network The Personal Support Network should be a group of at least three trustful people that can assist the disabled person to prepare for a disastrous event and to recover after it. - Complete a Personal Assessment The environment may change after a destructive earthquake. People with disabilities are encouraged to make a list of their personal needs and their resources for meeting them in a disaster environment. b. Lectures and training seminars on earthquake protection are given for students, teachers and educators in Special Schools for disabled people, mainly for informing and familiarizing them with earthquakes and with safety measures. c. Many earthquake drills have already taken place, for each disability, in order to share good practices and lessons learned to further disaster reduction and to identify gaps and challenges. The final aim of this action is all people with disabilities to be well informed and motivated towards a culture of earthquake

  16. [Sleep health education for elderly people].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Soichiro; Nishiyama, Akiko

    2015-06-01

    Successful aging is characterized by minimal age-associated loss of the physiological functions of sleep and circadian clock. Sleep health education is necessary to have normal, quality nighttime sleep and full daytime alertness. Elderly people show changes of sleep parameters, accompanied by increased napping. Many studies have reported that daytime sleepiness or napping in elderly people could have potentially serious effects such as dementia and life-style related diseases. The main topics of sleep health education for elderly people are as follows: Right knowledge of sleep mechanism, understanding the bad influence of excessive napping, the effects of light on the circadian rhythm and negative effects of caffeine, alcohol and television.

  17. Improving care for people with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sue

    2014-11-25

    People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.

  18. Utilitarianism, poverty and development of disabled people.

    PubMed

    Xavier de França, Inacia Sátiro; Freitag Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the influences of human development factors in the experience of disabled people based on social scenarios of inequality. The data collected were standardized and allocated in thematic categories. The analysis was based on liberal utilitarianism. The conclusion is that there is legislation in Brazil that guarantees the disabled people's development in areas such as health, education and work. However despite the attempts of decision makers in combating discriminatory behaviors and the theory based on equity, these people still face difficulties in breaking the barrier of poverty and achieving all humans rights deserved.

  19. Microbiological Food Safety for Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens are more likely to cause infection and to result in serious consequences in vulnerable people than in healthy adults. People with some increase in susceptibility may form nearly 20% of the population in the UK and the USA. Conditions leading to increased susceptibility are listed. The main factors leading to foodborne disease caused by major pathogens are outlined and examples are given of outbreaks resulting from these factors. Measures to prevent foodborne disease include procedures based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles and prerequisite programmes and, especially for vulnerable people, the use of lower-risk foods in place of higher-risk products. PMID:26308030

  20. The borderline personality disorder and gay people.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, C

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the diagnostic category called Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and its relationship to gay people. It discusses the psychoanalytic definition of borderline personalities, and to it adds a cultural definition. In the light of these cultural variables, the diagnosis is defined as a metaphor for the complexities and confusions of modern life. These confusions are important in the lives of gay people, who, it is suggested, are currently more prone to be diagnosed as BPD. Through the life study of a gay man, both the psychoanalytic and cultural variables are identified, then generalized to the problems of gay people in our transitional society.

  1. Disaster response for people with disability.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Suzanne; Martin, Kathy; Gardner, Jevettra Devlin

    2016-04-01

    Emergency Preparedness for people with a disability has been a steadfast activity in the state of South Carolina. In October 2015, the state experienced a natural disaster termed "The 1000 Year Flood". The disability response to the disaster was swift due to the strong collaborative network. However, the disaster did present challenges that need to be further addressed. The retelling of South Carolina's response should be informative to other state programs that provide advocacy for people with disability. Agencies and organizations that respond to disasters can learn from South Carolina's experience to ensure that the needs of people with disabilities are addressed rapidly and efficiently. PMID:26838471

  2. Classifying proteins into functional groups based on all-versus-all BLAST of 10 million proteins.

    PubMed

    Kolker, Natali; Higdon, Roger; Broomall, William; Stanberry, Larissa; Welch, Dean; Lu, Wei; Haynes, Winston; Barga, Roger; Kolker, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    To address the monumental challenge of assigning function to millions of sequenced proteins, we completed the first of a kind all-versus-all sequence alignments using BLAST for 9.9 million proteins in the UniRef100 database. Microsoft Windows Azure produced over 3 billion filtered records in 6 days using 475 eight-core virtual machines. Protein classification into functional groups was then performed using Hive and custom jars implemented on top of Apache Hadoop utilizing the MapReduce paradigm. First, using the Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COG) database, a length normalized bit score (LNBS) was determined to be the best similarity measure for classification of proteins. LNBS achieved sensitivity and specificity of 98% each. Second, out of 5.1 million bacterial proteins, about two-thirds were assigned to significantly extended COG groups, encompassing 30 times more assigned proteins. Third, the remaining proteins were classified into protein functional groups using an innovative implementation of a single-linkage algorithm on an in-house Hadoop compute cluster. This implementation significantly reduces the run time for nonindexed queries and optimizes efficient clustering on a large scale. The performance was also verified on Amazon Elastic MapReduce. This clustering assigned nearly 2 million proteins to approximately half a million different functional groups. A similar approach was applied to classify 2.8 million eukaryotic sequences resulting in over 1 million proteins being assign to existing KOG groups and the remainder clustered into 100,000 functional groups. PMID:21809957

  3. First Light with a 67-Million-Pixel WFI Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-01-01

    The newest astronomical instrument at the La Silla observatory is a super-camera with no less than sixty-seven million image elements. It represents the outcome of a joint project between the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPI-A) in Heidelberg (Germany) and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte (OAC) near Naples (Italy), and was installed at the 2.2-m MPG/ESO telescope in December 1998. Following careful adjustment and testing, it has now produced the first spectacular test images. With a field size larger than the Full Moon, the new digital Wide Field Imager is able to obtain detailed views of extended celestial objects to very faint magnitudes. It is the first of a new generation of survey facilities at ESO with which a variety of large-scale searches will soon be made over extended regions of the southern sky. These programmes will lead to the discovery of particularly interesting and unusual (rare) celestial objects that may then be studied with large telescopes like the VLT at Paranal. This will in turn allow astronomers to penetrate deeper and deeper into the many secrets of the Universe. More light + larger fields = more information! The larger a telescope is, the more light - and hence information about the Universe and its constituents - it can collect. This simple truth represents the main reason for building ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory. However, the information-gathering power of astronomical equipment can also be increased by using a larger detector with more image elements (pixels) , thus permitting the simultaneous recording of images of larger sky fields (or more details in the same field). It is for similar reasons that many professional photographers prefer larger-format cameras and/or wide-angle lenses to the more conventional ones. The Wide Field Imager at the 2.2-m telescope Because of technological limitations, the sizes of detectors most commonly in use in

  4. New four-million-year-old hominid species from Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Leakey, M G; Feibel, C S; McDougall, I; Walker, A

    1995-08-17

    Nine hominid dental, cranial and postcranial specimens from Kanapoi, Kenya, and 12 specimens from Allia Bay, Kenya, are described here as a new species of Australopithecus dating from between about 3.9 million and 4.2 million years ago. The mosaic of primitive and derived features shows this species to be a possible ancestor to Australopithecus afarensis and suggests that Ardipithecus ramidus is a sister species to this and all later hominids. A tibia establishes that hominids were bipedal at least half a million years before the previous earliest evidence showed.

  5. Agents That Negotiate Proficiently with People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Sarit

    Negotiation is a process by which interested parties confer with the aim of reaching agreements. The dissemination of technologies such as the Internet has created opportunities for computer agents to negotiate with people, despite being distributed geographically and in time. The inclusion of people presents novel problems for the design of autonomous agent negotiation strategies. People do not adhere to the optimal, monolithic strategies that can be derived analytically, as is the case in settings comprising computer agents alone. Their negotiation behavior is affected by a multitude of social and psychological factors, such as social attributes that influence negotiation deals (e.g., social welfare, inequity aversion) and traits of individual negotiators (e.g., altruism, trustworthiness, helpfulness). Furthermore, culture plays an important role in their decision making and people of varying cultures differ in the way they make offers and fulfill their commitments in negotiation.

  6. Appropriate care for people with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    How can nurses meet the healthcare needs of people with learning disabilities in the community? Solutions include addressing communication difficulties and issues of consent, and developing professionals' education. PMID:27484571

  7. Like People, Power Tools Need Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161392.html Like People, Power Tools Need Checkups Electrical cords should be free ... activities move indoors, it's time to store gardening power tools safely for the winter. It's also time ...

  8. How Do People Cope with Muscular Dystrophy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenges of the disorder, including 1 : Making the environment accessible. This may include adding ramps, widening doorways, ... electric scooters can help people move within their environments independently. Maintaining a healthy weight. Reaching and maintaining ...

  9. Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Products and Services Contact Us Glossary Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People It is not ... of a streamer injury. For more on the science of lightning: National Severe Storms Laboratory NWS Colorado ...

  10. Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Donate Special Issues for People with Aplastic Anemia Because you have aplastic anemia , everyday events can ... bleeding, such as contact sports. Pregnancy and Aplastic Anemia Pregnancy is possible for women who have been ...

  11. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  12. Supporting people with dementia to eat.

    PubMed

    Leah, Vicki

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify the best ways of supporting people with dementia to eat. Five electronic databases were searched, with a date range from January 2004 to July 2015. Following screening of the 233 studies identified, 22 were included in the final analysis. The study interventions focused on educational programmes, environmental or routine changes, and assistance with eating, with the strongest evidence shown in the more complex educational programmes for people with dementia. The evidence suggests that staff who support people with dementia to eat should undertake face-to-face education programmes and aim to give people enough time when helping them to eat. However, cultural change may be needed to ensure individual assessments are carried out to identify those having difficulty eating, and to ensure they are afforded enough time to eat their meals. PMID:27353791

  13. How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Where HPS is Found Cases ... In the US and Canada, the Sin Nombre hantavirus is responsible for the majority of cases of ...

  14. Healthy People 2020: Leading Health Indicators

    MedlinePlus

    ... County Data Resources Federal Prevention Initiatives Healthy People eLearning Program Planning Content Syndication Tools for Professionals Public Health 3.0 Webinars & Events Webinars & Events Archive About ...

  15. Medical Education in Peoples's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John A. D.; Yingang, Lin

    1987-01-01

    The three types of physicians trained in the People's Republic of China (practitioners in Chinese medicine, traditional Mongolian medicine, and western-style medicine) and the design of the medical schools and programs are discussed. (MSE)

  16. Supporting people with dementia to eat.

    PubMed

    Leah, Vicki

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify the best ways of supporting people with dementia to eat. Five electronic databases were searched, with a date range from January 2004 to July 2015. Following screening of the 233 studies identified, 22 were included in the final analysis. The study interventions focused on educational programmes, environmental or routine changes, and assistance with eating, with the strongest evidence shown in the more complex educational programmes for people with dementia. The evidence suggests that staff who support people with dementia to eat should undertake face-to-face education programmes and aim to give people enough time when helping them to eat. However, cultural change may be needed to ensure individual assessments are carried out to identify those having difficulty eating, and to ensure they are afforded enough time to eat their meals.

  17. Social Capital and People with Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Baron, Stephen; Wilson, Alastair

    1999-01-01

    Outlines social capital theories in functionalist and Marxist traditions and their implications for people with learning difficulties. Identifies multiple factors influencing their ability to access social capital, including ability/inability to conform to social norms and economic inequities. (SK)

  18. Tips for Young People. Talk and Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basic Skills Agency, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Most young people look forward to the day when they can leave school or college behind and start work. If you are starting work for the first time, or even going on your first work placement, you are probably feeling pretty excited. There's a lot to learn, a lot of new people to meet--a chance to be more independent. But maybe you feel a bit…

  19. [Compilation of historical anecdotes about chronic wounds. Well-known people who have suffered from them].

    PubMed

    García Fernández, Francisco Pedro; López Casanova, Pablo; Pancorbo Hidalgo, Pedro Luis; Verdú Soriano, José

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the course of human history many people have been affected by the presence of chronic wounds. Millions of anonymous people have suffered bed sores, varicose ulcers, arterial ulcers or neuropathic ulcers. But there have been some famous people who, from time to time, remove these lesions from their cloak of invisibility In our day and age, every time a famous person suffers from these wounds, we observe how the means of communication publicize this health problem. However famous people also suffered from these wounds in the past. In this article, the authors will review historical figures who died due to these feared sores. Kings or saints have been affected by this problem. Specifically the authors will focus on six historical figures: three kings, one composer and two saints,; the authors shall analyze the influence of chronic wounds as a cause of their deaths. This article was submitted at the VII National Symposium on Bed Sores and Chronic Wounds and at the First Latin American Congress on Ulcers and Wounds.

  20. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  1. Health care reform and people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Batavia, A I

    1993-01-01

    As a group, people with disabilities or chronic conditions experience higher-than-average health care costs and have difficulty gaining access to affordable private health insurance coverage. While the Americans with Disabilities Act will enhance access by prohibiting differential treatment without sound actuarial justification, it will not guarantee equal access for people in impairment groups with high utilization rates. Health care reform is needed to subsidize the coverage of such individuals. Such subsidization can be achieved under either a casualty insurance model, in which premiums based on expected costs are subsidized directly, or a social insurance model, in which low-cost enrollees cross-subsidize high-cost enrollees. Cost containment provisions that focus on the provider, such as global budgeting and managed competition, will adversely affect disabled people if providers do not have adequate incentives to meet these people's needs. Provisions focusing on the consumer, such as cost sharing, case management, and benefit reductions, will adversely affect disabled people if they unduly limit needed services or impose a disproportionate financial burden on disabled people.

  2. Depression, anxiety, and prevalent diabetes in the Chinese population: Findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million people

    PubMed Central

    Mezuk, Briana; Chen, Yiping; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Pang, Zengchang; Wang, Huijun; Peto, Richard; Que, Xiangsan; Zhang, Hui; Tan, Zhongwen; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite previous investigation, uncertainty remains about the nature of the associations of major depression (MD) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in adult Chinese, and the relevance of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) for T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional data from the China Kadoorie Biobank Study, a sample of approximately 500,000 adults from 10 geographically defined regions of China, were analyzed. Past year MD and GAD were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory. T2DM was defined as either having self-reported physician diagnosis of diabetes at age 30 or later (“clinically-identified” cases) or having a non-fasting blood glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L or fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L but no prior diagnosis of diabetes (“screen-detected” cases). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between MD and GAD with clinically-identified and screen-detected T2DM, adjusting for demographic characteristics and health behaviors. Results The prevalence of T2DM was 5.3% (3.2% clinically-identified and 2.1% screen-detected). MD was significantly associated with clinically-identified T2DM (Odds ratio [OR]: 1.75, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.47 – 2.08), but not with screen-detected T2DM (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.51). GAD was associated with both clinically-identified (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.60 – 2.88) and screen-detected (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 0.99 – 2.08) T2DM. The relationship between MD and GAD with T2DM was moderated by obesity. Conclusion MD is associated with clinically-identified, but not screen-detected T2DM. GAD is associated with both clinically-identified and screen-detected T2DM. The relationship between MD and T2DM is strongest among those who are not obese. PMID:24290039

  3. A concurrent resolution commending the Boys & Girls Clubs of America for its role in improving outcomes for millions of young people and thousands of communities.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2013-04-17

    04/17/2013 Referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2751-2752) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Training People To Live without Welfare. A Booming Massachusetts Economy and the Employment and Training Choices Program Combine To Save Taxpayers Millions. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Taxpayers Foundation, Boston.

    An evaluation identified the separate effects that the Massachusetts Department of Public Welfare's Employment and Training Choices Program (ET) and the healthy Massachusetts private economy have had on welfare caseloads. The analysis was limited to the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) portion of the ET program. Regression equations…

  5. Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Tombari, C.

    2005-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

  6. Changes in antidepressant use by young people and suicidal behavior after FDA warnings and media coverage: quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Lakoma, Matthew D; Madden, Jeanne M; Rusinak, Donna; Penfold, Robert B; Simon, Gregory; Ahmedani, Brian K; Clarke, Gregory; Hunkeler, Enid M; Waitzfelder, Beth; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Raebel, Marsha A; Rossom, Rebecca; Coleman, Karen J; Copeland, Laurel A; Soumerai, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate if the widely publicized warnings in 2003 from the US Food and Drug Administration about a possible increased risk of suicidality with antidepressant use in young people were associated with changes in antidepressant use, suicide attempts, and completed suicides among young people. Design Quasi-experimental study assessing changes in outcomes after the warnings, controlling for pre-existing trends. Setting Automated healthcare claims data (2000-10) derived from the virtual data warehouse of 11 health plans in the US Mental Health Research Network. Participants Study cohorts included adolescents (around 1.1 million), young adults (around 1.4 million), and adults (around 5 million). Main outcome measures Rates of antidepressant dispensings, psychotropic drug poisonings (a validated proxy for suicide attempts), and completed suicides. Results Trends in antidepressant use and poisonings changed abruptly after the warnings. In the second year after the warnings, relative changes in antidepressant use were −31.0% (95% confidence interval −33.0% to −29.0%) among adolescents, −24.3% (−25.4% to −23.2%) among young adults, and −14.5% (−16.0% to −12.9%) among adults. These reflected absolute reductions of 696, 1216, and 1621 dispensings per 100 000 people among adolescents, young adults, and adults, respectively. Simultaneously, there were significant, relative increases in psychotropic drug poisonings in adolescents (21.7%, 95% confidence interval 4.9% to 38.5%) and young adults (33.7%, 26.9% to 40.4%) but not among adults (5.2%, −6.5% to 16.9%). These reflected absolute increases of 2 and 4 poisonings per 100 000 people among adolescents and young adults, respectively (approximately 77 additional poisonings in our cohort of 2.5 million young people). Completed suicides did not change for any age group. Conclusions Safety warnings about antidepressants and widespread media coverage decreased antidepressant use, and there were

  7. Social and Spatial Clustering of People at Humanity’s Largest Gathering

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Ian; Khanna, Tarun; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic behavior of scientific and societal systems results from the aggregation of microscopic behaviors of their constituent elements, but connecting the macroscopic with the microscopic in human behavior has traditionally been difficult. Manifestations of homophily, the notion that individuals tend to interact with others who resemble them, have been observed in many small and intermediate size settings. However, whether this behavior translates to truly macroscopic levels, and what its consequences may be, remains unknown. Here, we use call detail records (CDRs) to examine the population dynamics and manifestations of social and spatial homophily at a macroscopic level among the residents of 23 states of India at the Kumbh Mela, a 3-month-long Hindu festival. We estimate that the festival was attended by 61 million people, making it the largest gathering in the history of humanity. While we find strong overall evidence for both types of homophily for residents of different states, participants from low-representation states show considerably stronger propensity for both social and spatial homophily than those from high-representation states. These manifestations of homophily are amplified on crowded days, such as the peak day of the festival, which we estimate was attended by 25 million people. Our findings confirm that homophily, which here likely arises from social influence, permeates all scales of human behavior. PMID:27258037

  8. 4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 15-MILLION GALLON UNDERGROUND CLEARWELL (foreground), HEAD HOUSE (left), OLD PUMP STATION (center), AND EAST FILTER BUILDING (background) - Dalecarlia Water Treatment Plant, 5900 MacArthur Boulevard, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Assessment of dissociative identity disorder with the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II.

    PubMed

    Ellason, J W; Ross, C A; Fuchs, D L

    1995-06-01

    96 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Dissociative Identity Disorder were administered the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II. The most elevated personality disorder scales were Avoidant, Self-defeating, Borderline, and Passive-Aggressive personality disorders. Elevated Axis I scales included Dysthymia, Major Depression, Thought Disorder, and Anxiety Disorder. Million-II profiles of a patient before and after integration showed normalization of a previously pathological profile.

  10. Formation of the Grand Canyon 5 to 6 million years ago through integration of older palaeocanyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, Karl E.; Lee, John P.; Kelley, Shari A.; Crow, Ryan S.; Crossey, Laura J.; Young, Richard A.; Lazear, Greg; Beard, L. Sue; Ricketts, Jason W.; Fox, Matthew; Shuster, David L.

    2014-03-01

    The timing of formation of the Grand Canyon, USA, is vigorously debated. In one view, most of the canyon was carved by the Colorado River relatively recently, in the past 5-6 million years. Alternatively, the Grand Canyon could have been cut by precursor rivers in the same location and to within about 200 m of its modern depth as early as 70-55 million years ago. Here we investigate the time of formation of four out of five segments of the Grand Canyon, using apatite fission-track dating, track-length measurements and apatite helium dating: if any segment is young, the old canyon hypothesis is falsified. We reconstruct the thermal histories of samples taken from the modern canyon base and the adjacent canyon rim 1,500 m above, to constrain when the rocks cooled as a result of canyon incision. We find that two of the three middle segments, the Hurricane segment and the Eastern Grand Canyon, formed between 70 and 50 million years ago and between 25 and 15 million years ago, respectively. However, the two end segments, the Marble Canyon and the Westernmost Grand Canyon, are both young and were carved in the past 5-6 million years. Thus, although parts of the canyon are old, we conclude that the integration of the Colorado River through older palaeocanyons carved the Grand Canyon, beginning 5-6 million years ago.

  11. First- and third-person perceptions of images of older people in advertising: an inter-generational evaluation.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tom; Umphery, Don

    2006-01-01

    With the baby boomers increasing in age, the number of older Americans is projected to increase to 82 million by 2050, an increase of 225% from the year 2000. But despite their growing numbers, older individuals continue to face negative attitudes toward them, their way of thinking, and their abilities. These negative attitudes result from the assumption that older people have diminished physical and mental abilities, when in fact, today's older adults are more active and in better physical and mental health than those in any previous generation. This study examines the relationship between first- and third-person perceptions and positive and negative images by determining how older people and younger people perceive each other. More specifically, when older and younger individuals look at positive and negative images of older people in advertisements, what is their perception of the effects those images will have on the other generation? Our findings show that both first- and third-person effects exist and that their perceptions depend on whether the images in the advertisements are positive or negative. The results also indicate that young people rely on the stereotypes they hold of older people when making their perceptions.

  12. The Hidden Poor: Over Three-Quarters of a Million Older Californians Overlooked by Official Poverty Line.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Frausto, Imelda D; Wallace, Steven P

    2015-08-01

    More than three-quarters of a million (772,000) older Californians are among the "hidden poor"--older adults with incomes above the federal poverty line (FPL) but below a minimally decent standard of living as determined by the Elder Economic Security Standard™ Index (Elder Index) in 2011. This policy brief uses the most recent Elder Index calculations to document the wide discrepancy that exists between the FPL and the Elder Index. This study finds that the FPL significantly underestimates the number of economically insecure older adults who are unable to make ends meet. Yet, because many public assistance programs are aligned with the FPL, potentially hundreds of thousands of economically insecure older Californians are denied aid. The highest rates of the hidden poor among older adults are found among renters, Latinos, women, those who are raising grandchildren, and people in the oldest age groups. Raising the income and asset eligibility requirement thresholds for social support programs such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI), housing, health care, and food assistance would help California's older hidden poor make ends meet. PMID:26376501

  13. The Hidden Poor: Over Three-Quarters of a Million Older Californians Overlooked by Official Poverty Line.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Frausto, Imelda D; Wallace, Steven P

    2015-08-01

    More than three-quarters of a million (772,000) older Californians are among the "hidden poor"--older adults with incomes above the federal poverty line (FPL) but below a minimally decent standard of living as determined by the Elder Economic Security Standard™ Index (Elder Index) in 2011. This policy brief uses the most recent Elder Index calculations to document the wide discrepancy that exists between the FPL and the Elder Index. This study finds that the FPL significantly underestimates the number of economically insecure older adults who are unable to make ends meet. Yet, because many public assistance programs are aligned with the FPL, potentially hundreds of thousands of economically insecure older Californians are denied aid. The highest rates of the hidden poor among older adults are found among renters, Latinos, women, those who are raising grandchildren, and people in the oldest age groups. Raising the income and asset eligibility requirement thresholds for social support programs such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI), housing, health care, and food assistance would help California's older hidden poor make ends meet.

  14. 'Older people have lived their lives': first year nursing students' attitudes towards older people.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Julie; Xiao, Lily; Siegloff, Lesley; Kelton, Moira; Paterson, Jan

    2008-08-01

    A survey was conducted with 262 commencing nursing students at a South Australian university, during a compulsory orientation week lecture prior to the first week of their nursing degree, to determine their attitudes towards older people and to working with older people. The survey provides baseline data to evaluate the efficacy of the Partnerships in Aged Care (PACE) Action Research project, the focus of which is developing aged care curriculum and placements with aged care industry partners. The survey will be replicated when this cohort completes their nursing degree. The results of this initial survey show that while commencing students generally have positive attitudes towards older people they do not aspire to work with them. The reasons cited for a lack of interest in working with older people include: poor experiences of providing care for older people; an inability to relate to or communicate with older people and a perception that the work is depressing and boring. Underpinning a negative perception of working with older people is the association of ageing with disability. Ageing for this cohort, is associated with loss of mental and physical function; loss of independence and increasing reliance on others to meet self care needs. This is viewed as evidence of a biomedical view of ageing. Contrary to previous research, many students studied in this project, who have had experience of working with older people, demonstrate more positive attitudes to older people and are less likely to express stereotypical attitudes towards ageing suggesting that positive exposure to older people can challenge ageist views. The PACE project seeks to demonstrate that strategies which may promote a positive attitude to ageing such as development of educational content which promotes a quality of life rather than a biomedical approach to ageing and supported clinical placements can impact positively on nursing students perception of ageing and of working with older people.

  15. Elderly people's interaction with advanced technology.

    PubMed

    Blažun, Helena; Vošner, Janez; Kokol, Peter; Saranto, Kaija; Rissanen, Sari

    2014-01-01

    Aging of population is an inevitable process by which the number of elderly people is increasing. Rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) is changing basic needs of elderly people; therefore society should ensure opportunities for elderly to learn and use ICT in a way to manage their daily life activities and in this way enable them participation in the information and knowledge society. The purpose of the study was to find out whether elderly are acquainted with the advanced technology and to what extent they use it or they desire to use it. Within the single point study we interviewed 100 randomly selected elderly people from different geographical regions in Slovenia. Results showed the differences in the use of advanced technology by Slovenian regions; therefore in the future activities should be focused on organizing promotional and demonstrational activities including ICT courses to increase elderly's motivation for ICT interaction.

  16. Palliative care for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2010-01-01

    The number of people with dementia will rise dramatically over the next 20 years. Currently, one in three people over the age of 65 will die with dementia. A PubMed search using MeSH headings for 'dementia' AND 'palliative care' and for specific areas, i.e. enteral feeding. National reports, UK guidelines and policies were also consulted. Advanced dementia is now being perceived as a 'terminal illness' with a similar symptom burden and prognosis to advanced cancer. People with dementia have poor access to good quality end-of-life care. Interventions such as antibiotics, fever management policies and enteral tube feeding remain in use despite little evidence that they improve quality of life or other outcomes. Research is required on the effectiveness of 'holistic' palliative care, outcome measures and the impact on carers and families.

  17. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare. PMID:26933676

  18. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  19. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare. PMID:26933676

  20. Metacognitive inferences from other people's memory performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert W; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    Three studies show that people draw metacognitive inferences about events from how well others remember the event. Given that memory fades over time, detailed accounts of distant events suggest that the event must have been particularly memorable, for example, because it was extreme. Accordingly, participants inferred that a physical assault (Study 1) or a poor restaurant experience (Studies 2-3) were more extreme when they were well remembered one year rather than one week later. These inferences influence behavioral intentions. For example, participants recommended a more severe punishment for a well-remembered distant rather than recent assault (Study 1). These metacognitive inferences are eliminated when people attribute the reporter's good memory to an irrelevant cause (e.g., photographic memory), thus undermining the informational value of memory performance (Study 3). These studies illuminate how people use lay theories of memory to learn from others' memory performance about characteristics of the world. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Document recognition serving people with disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruchterman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Document recognition advances have improved the lives of people with print disabilities, by providing accessible documents. This invited paper provides perspectives on the author's career progression from document recognition professional to social entrepreneur applying this technology to help people with disabilities. Starting with initial thoughts about optical character recognition in college, it continues with the creation of accurate omnifont character recognition that did not require training. It was difficult to make a reading machine for the blind in a commercial setting, which led to the creation of a nonprofit social enterprise to deliver these devices around the world. This network of people with disabilities scanning books drove the creation of Bookshare.org, an online library of scanned books. Looking forward, the needs for improved document recognition technology to further lower the barriers to reading are discussed. Document recognition professionals should be proud of the positive impact their work has had on some of society's most disadvantaged communities.

  2. Metacognitive inferences from other people's memory performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert W; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    Three studies show that people draw metacognitive inferences about events from how well others remember the event. Given that memory fades over time, detailed accounts of distant events suggest that the event must have been particularly memorable, for example, because it was extreme. Accordingly, participants inferred that a physical assault (Study 1) or a poor restaurant experience (Studies 2-3) were more extreme when they were well remembered one year rather than one week later. These inferences influence behavioral intentions. For example, participants recommended a more severe punishment for a well-remembered distant rather than recent assault (Study 1). These metacognitive inferences are eliminated when people attribute the reporter's good memory to an irrelevant cause (e.g., photographic memory), thus undermining the informational value of memory performance (Study 3). These studies illuminate how people use lay theories of memory to learn from others' memory performance about characteristics of the world. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27414693

  3. Primary care for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D C

    1999-05-01

    People with disabilities are a unique population. Although there have been great advances in their care, access to reliable and consistent primary health care remains a difficult issue for many of these patients after discharge from medical rehabilitation units. Many of these health care needs are not unique to this patient population, but become compounded or exacerbated in people with disabilities. The effects of physical impairments on these patients' health need to be recognized. Specific attention must be paid to prevent the occurrence of secondary disabilities, which can drastically affect their independence. Ultimately, proper attention to the health care needs of people with disabilities will result in greater independence and improved health among this population.

  4. Dietary factors and depression in older people.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Claire

    2009-10-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental health conditions and can affect people of all ages, but it is becoming more common among the older population with increasing life expectancy. Observational studies have found poor micronutrient status (particularly folate and vitamin B12) to be associated with an increased risk of depression in older people. Supplementation with folic acid has been shown to enhance anti-depressant drug treatment and there is preliminary evidence that supplementation with certain micronutrients may help improve depressive symptoms in older patients. There has also been a lot of interest in the role of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in depression. However, the evidence from randomized controlled trials is limited and difficult to evaluate owing to considerable variability between studies. The research highlights the importance of a healthy diet and lifestyle to help maintain good mental health into old age and health professionals should try to support older people in trying to achieve this.

  5. Euthanasia: why people want to die earlier.

    PubMed

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1994-09-01

    The results from two surveys in England of relatives and others who knew people in samples drawn from death certificates are reported. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. The incidence of people saying they wanted to die sooner, and of requests for euthanasia are reported. Excluding a proportion who did not wish to express a view, or did not know the answer, about a quarter of both respondents and the people who died expressed the view that an earlier death would be, or would have been, preferable. 3.6% of people in the 1990 study were said to have asked for euthanasia at some point in the last year of life. The extent to which such views were determined by the experience of pain, other distressing symptoms, dependency and social and cultural factors such as religious belief and social class is explored. The finding that dependency was important in causing the feeling that an earlier death would have been better, as well as requests for euthanasia, is related to the public debate about euthanasia, which often contains the assertion that fear of pain is a dominant factor. Pain was found to be a significant factor in death from cancer, but not as important for other causes of death. Social class, place of residence of the deceased, and strength and type of religious faith were found to be largely insignificant in influencing feelings about an earlier death and requests for euthanasia.

  6. Pressure ulcer prevention in frail older people.

    PubMed

    Barry, Maree; Nugent, Linda

    2015-12-16

    Pressure ulcers are painful and cause discomfort, have a negative effect on quality of life, and are costly to treat. The incidence and severity of preventable pressure ulcers is an important indicator of quality of care; it is essential that healthcare providers monitor prevalence and incidence rates to ensure that care strategies implemented are effective. Frail older people are at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers. This article discusses the complexities of preventing pressure ulcers in frail older people and emphasises the importance of structured educational programmes that incorporate effective clinical leadership and multidisciplinary teamwork.

  7. Caring for older people. Community services: health.

    PubMed

    Pushpangadan, M; Burns, E

    1996-09-28

    Many frail or disabled elderly people are now being maintained in the community, partially at least as a consequence of the Community Care Act 1993. This paper details the work of the major health professionals who are involved in caring for older people in the community and describes how to access nursing, palliative care, continence, mental health, Hospital at Home, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, equipment, and optical, dental, and dietetic services. In many areas, services are evolving to meet needs and some examples of innovative practice are included.

  8. Great shakes: famous people with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey M

    2004-12-01

    James Parkinson is credited with the first complete clinical description of the syndrome attributed to his name, Parkinson disease. It is recognized as the first syndrome defined after neurology became a specialty. Descriptions of Parkinson features are rare in antiquity, and famous people with this disorder have not been found before the 1800s. During the 20th century, more and more famous people appear to be afflicted with Parkinson, and this article reviews some of those who have withstood the "test of Time magazine," and examines some of the reasons why the syndrome is a relatively recent disorder. PMID:15646755

  9. Great shakes: famous people with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey M

    2004-12-01

    James Parkinson is credited with the first complete clinical description of the syndrome attributed to his name, Parkinson disease. It is recognized as the first syndrome defined after neurology became a specialty. Descriptions of Parkinson features are rare in antiquity, and famous people with this disorder have not been found before the 1800s. During the 20th century, more and more famous people appear to be afflicted with Parkinson, and this article reviews some of those who have withstood the "test of Time magazine," and examines some of the reasons why the syndrome is a relatively recent disorder.

  10. Detecting dehydration in older people: useful tests.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane

    Dehydration is common in older people, leading to longer hospital stays and increased disability and mortality. Health professionals can diagnose water-loss dehydration by taking a blood sample and measuring serum osmolality, but a less-invasive test would be useful. Evidence that tests, clinical signs or questions tested to date are useful when screening for dehydration in older people is limited. This article looks at known risk factors, signs and test for dehydration, and outlines evidence on how useful they have proven to be. Part 2 describes how a care home has used a multicomponent strategy to improve hydration. PMID:26455128

  11. Enabling sexual expression in people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Youell, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Dementia remains a significant health and social care concern in the UK. Cases of dementia are expected to increase exponentially because more people are living longer. In response, the government has issued a set of policies and guidance to better meet the needs of those living with dementia. However, one important relational aspect is notably absent from most policy documents: sexuality. This can be a complicated issue in relationships affected by dementia. This article analyses the literature and uses case studies to provide practical guidance to nurses in relation to sexual expression in people with dementia. PMID:26647706

  12. Public Attitudes towards People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Comparison of White British & South Asian People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Sarah; Scior, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    Background: National and international polices promote the acceptance, integration and inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities into mainstream society. However, there is little systematic research into general population attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities, and even less research, which considers the impact of…

  13. People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Generic Residential Services for Older People in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, D. J.; Ryrie, I.; Wright, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background: As part of a UK programme of work focusing on older people with intellectual disabilities, the circumstance of those who reside in generic services for older people were investigated. Materials and methods: Questionnaires were sent to 2570 residential and nursing homes in 53 local authorities across the UK. Results: Five hundred and…

  14. Dangerous People, Dangerous Places: The Nature and Location of Young People's Victimisation and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Research focusing on the victimisation of young people outside the home has paid insufficient attention to less criminal forms of victimisation such as harassment and their relationship to fear expressed by children. Based on survey data of 2420 children aged 9-16 years from The Children and Young People's Safety Survey, this study focuses on the…

  15. Attitudes towards People with Disabilities--What Do People with Intellectual Disabilities Have to Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corr McEvoy, Sandra; Keenan, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities have traditionally been very negative, resulting in people with intellectual disabilities being treated badly by other. This claim was explored by conducting focus groups with adults who have an intellectual disability to find out about their everyday experiences in different places and using…

  16. Ethnicity and Coping: What Young People Do and What Young People Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Anastasi, Tanya; Frydenberg, Erica

    2005-01-01

    In a number of studies, using the Adolescent Coping scale as a measure of coping, we are able to see clearly that young people from different communities cope in different ways. For example, in studies of Australian, Columbian, German, Irish and Palestinian young people it was found that coping varied in the different countries, but even within…

  17. Hobbies of retired people in the People's Republic of China: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hu, J C

    1990-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes the hobbies of over 500 retired individuals (ages fifty to eighty-eight in the People's Republic of China. Data were obtained through questionnaires and compared with the responses of 100 younger people (twenty to thirty-nine years of age). Hobbies of the retired people were classified into five categories: reading, physical exercise, productive, visual-auditory, and recreational. This classification is at variance with the one proposed by some Western writers. The following conclusions were reached: 1) there are significant differences between the hobbies of retired people and those of younger people; 2) reading is the hobby most preferred by the retired person in China; and 3) gender, age, education, and previous occupation are the factors that most influence the retired person's choice of hobbies. PMID:2228282

  18. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access. PMID:27171520

  19. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    PubMed

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.

  20. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Accessing Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Disabled People in Malawi.

    PubMed

    White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access. PMID:27171520

  1. People of Samoa: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in Samoa in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. It is designed to prepare the traveller…

  2. Music for Engaging Young People in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheong-Clinch, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Two music programs were developed specifically to meet therapeutic objectives for newly arrived immigrant and refugee students and for adolescent boys in a residential care facility. The author's observations justify further research to establish whether music can support and nurture the social, physical and mental wellbeing of young people,…

  3. Indigenous People: Emancipatory Possibilities in Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue that emancipatory possibilities for Maori, the Indigenous people of New Zealand, rely on structural changes that enable them to have control over resources, decision making, and meaning, and that emancipation is a journey traveled by oppressed groups as they exercise their collective agency. The 1990s development of…

  4. The Right to Health of Older People.

    PubMed

    Baer, Britta; Bhushan, Anjana; Taleb, Hala Abou; Vasquez, Javier; Thomas, Rebekah

    2016-04-01

    A focus on the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (hereinafter, "the right to health") draws attention to the health needs of older people, including the most marginalized among them. Many factors that influence vulnerability or impede the enjoyment of health and access to quality services result from an inability to freely exercise these human rights. A human rights approach can help to address the legal, social, and structural barriers to good health for older persons, clarifying the legal obligations of State and non-State actors to uphold and respect these rights. However, despite growing impetus for action, this area has historically received limited attention. Drawing on practice examples from different regions, this article unpacks the meaning of the right to health and other related human rights of older people in practice, covering both health care and underlying determinants of their health. Questions of availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality are highlighted from the perspective of older people's health and well-being. The article brings together knowledge, principles, norms, and standards from the human rights law, health, and ageing arenas. By making links between these arenas, it is hoped that the article fills a gap in thinking on how to achieve the progressive realization of the right to health of older people and the effective promotion and protection of their other related human rights, which are crucial for the enjoyment of health. PMID:26994261

  5. Distance Education for People with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liakou, Maria; Manousou, Evaggelia

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the standards of higher Distance Education, focusing on the Hellenic Open University, for people who have visual impairments, so that it becomes fully accessible and thus helps reduce social exclusion. Specifically, it aims to study the operational context of Distance Education, the possibilities that modern technology provides…

  6. How to Deal with Angry People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podemski, Richard S.; Childers, John H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    To respond to anger effectively, all school employees must possess an informed, constructive understanding of this emotion and some personal strategies for managing angry people. This article offers advice concerning appropriate attitudes, calm demeanor, nondefensive listening, problem definition, and correct responses to expressions of anger.…

  7. Volunteering Among Young People. CIRCLE Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Mark Hugo

    2004-01-01

    Volunteering rates among young people are generally higher than they are among adults 26 and older. However, measuring volunteer rates among all adults is a difficult task. In recent years, efforts at measuring volunteering have produced widely different estimates, largely because of the methods employed to measure volunteering. For example, the…

  8. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  9. Older People as Consumers of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Alan

    Socio-psychological variables that influence the extent to which older people (age: 50+) will be consumers of education are examined to arrive at criteria for programs appropriate to the developmental needs of this group. Research indicates that two primary influences are changes in learning abilities and interests. Secondary influences include…

  10. Leading and Managing People in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Middlewood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since it was first published in 1997, there have been many changes in education and, specifically, in the leadership and management of people. These changes include new research and literature, and developments in policy and practice in many countries. This new volume gives much more attention to international research and practice, as educational…

  11. Frail Older People as Participants in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye M.; Wilson, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experience of interviewing frail older people in a research project investigating hip fracture risk factors. Specific methodological strategies to maximize participation and data quality and to facilitate the interview process related to participant inclusion criteria, initial approach, questionnaire format, and…

  12. Learning Providers' Work with Neet Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of the relationship between learning providers and young people who have experienced Not being in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) on the latters' agency development. Agency is defined as not only bounded but generated by intra-action with relations of force, including learning providers themselves.…

  13. Seeing for People Who Are Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) and how it can help people who are visually challenged use their sense of sight. Suggests uses in higher education where it can be modified to individual needs; explains the language of seeing; discusses the use of virtual reality to create spatial animation; and outlines future developments. (LRW)

  14. The Representation of People in Educational Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This paper re-visits, in the light of a recent survey in Hong Kong, issues in relation to how people are represented in educational materials for language-learners. Consideration is given to stereotyping in the way men and women are depicted and broader questions concerning the "visibility" of women, the divorced and other groups, and the possible…

  15. People with Learning Disabilities and "Active Ageing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Liam; Boxall, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Background: People (with and without learning disabilities) are living longer. Demographic ageing creates challenges and the leading policy response to these challenges is "active ageing". "Active" does not just refer to the ability to be physically and economically active, but also includes ongoing social and civic engagement…

  16. Missing: Children and Young People with SEBD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, John; Daniels, Harry; Macnab, Natasha

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the issue of missing from and missing out on education. It argues that too little is known with regard to the characteristics of children and young people missing from schooling. It postulates that many of these pupils will have social, emotional and behavioural difficulties which are largely unrecognized and thus not…

  17. How General Practitioners Determine Young People's Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Terence

    2009-01-01

    In this research, 300 doctors in Victoria were asked to make decisions about a hypothetical patient's competence and confidentiality. It appears that assumptions embedded in relevant law, the vague nature of existing legal criteria and the diversity in assessment practices all have the potential to act as obstacles to young people's claim to…

  18. Interpersonal Mistrust and Unhappiness among Japanese People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Our main objective in this paper is to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness among Japanese people. Based on cross-sectional data for the Japanese general population from the Asia Barometer Survey (2003-2006), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal mistrust and unhappiness using a logistic…

  19. Sexting and Young People: Experts' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Shelley; Sanci, Lena; Temple-Smith, Meredith

    2011-01-01

    Young people's "sexting"--defined by the "Macquarie Dictionary Online" (2010) as the sending and receiving of sexually explicit images via mobile phones--has become a focus of much media reporting; however, research regarding the phenomenon is in its infancy. This paper reports on the first phase of a study to understand this activity more…

  20. Game Theory, People Power and Philippine Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Chua, Queena N.

    2000-01-01

    Delineates two illustrative game-theoretic applications to Philippine politics: (1) People Power Revolution in the mid-1980s and (2) conflict over Spratly Islands in the mid-1990s. Uses zero-sum games to model these two events, and elementary matrix theory to determine pure strategies and locate equilibrium points. Includes recommendations for…

  1. Native Peoples. A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). Libraries.

    This guide from McGill University (Quebec, Canada) emphasizes sources for ethnological research and includes materials reflecting concerns of social anthropology and historical approaches to the study of native peoples. Some government documents and map collections are included. Sources are arranged in the following categories: (1) handbooks and…

  2. Speechless: Facilitating Communication for People without Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rosemary

    This book describes work that has been done with verbally impaired individuals (autism, brain surgery, Down's Syndrome) who are unable to use language to convey even the simplest idea. The book points out that such people are not necessarily strangers to language, they just have not found a way to express themselves. The work discussed in the book…

  3. Selling Young People on the Symphony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimpton, Jeffrey; Lestz, Glenn M.

    1985-01-01

    How the Wichita (Kansas) Public Schools and the Wichita Symphony developed a young people's concert format that is educationally, musically, and logistically sound is described. A spirit of cooperation and interdependence between private and public art organizations is necessary to foster student interest in the arts. (RM)

  4. Suicide and Elderly People: Assessment and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Sharon M.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that people over age 60 have highest suicide rates and comprise one-fourth of all suicides. Presents case study illustrating risk assessment and intervention with elderly woman. Examines clinical issues related to recognition of suicidal elderly patients and presents practical approach to early detection, evaluation, and management of…

  5. Enhancing the care of people with HIV.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, J

    1999-01-01

    30% of South Africa's adults are infected with HIV. Of those who have been infected with HIV, many have died and left behind orphans, making South Africa's large number of orphans one of the country's most important problems. As the number of people infected with HIV in the developing world has grown dramatically, the cost of their care has quickly surpassed regionally available resources. In countries where the HIV/AIDS epidemic is exacting the heaviest damage, most people have no access to antiretroviral therapies and routine prophylaxes against opportunistic infections. The search for cost-effective methods to treat and care for the ill has therefore become a global imperative. The Enhancing Care Initiative (ECI), a multinational program recently launched by the Harvard AIDS Institute, aims to improve the care of all HIV-infected people living in resource-scarce countries. Funded by an initial 5-year grant from the Merck Company Foundation, ECI is coordinated by the Harvard AIDS Institute. The core of ECI is its AIDS care teams, groups formed by, composed of, and led by people from the countries involved. The teams are comprised of regional experts in clinical care, epidemiology, international health, human rights, behavioral science, economics, political science, and public health working to initiate meaningful changes in regional AIDS policies.

  6. Recognition of stereoscopic images among elderly people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Masako; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Sato, Yuzo; Ishihara, Shin-fya

    2002-06-01

    We tested 130 subjects including elderly people using two types of stereogram. One was a 3D image of a repeating parallel pattern showing balloons, from a software program called Stretch Eye. This program adopts a shift method in which the balloons diverge just at the point that causes a single shift between the right and left eyes, so that they appear to be more distant than the monitor screen. The Stretch Eye image was shown on a color LCD. The other image was a paper stereogram. Both used the same image of balloons. Using these 2 types of 3D image, we analyzed the recognition of stereoscopic images among elderly people. The subjects were 130 people aged 18 to 86 years, including 60 people over 60 years of age. The subjects' visual functions of cataract cloudiness (CC) and pupil distance were measured. Comparisons were carried out for the two targets of the paper stereograms and color LCDs. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the severity of CC. Two-way ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis in order to compare the influence of the target types, age and cataract cloudiness on the ability, distance and time of stereoscopic recognition. In a two-way ANOVA, two kinds of dependant variables, recognized speed (RS) and recognized distance (RD) were used for the subjects' stereoscopic recognition performance.

  7. Healthy People 2010: Oral Health Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide guidance, technical tools, and resources to help states, territories, tribes and communities develop and implement successful oral health components of Healthy People 2010 plans as well as other oral health plans. These plans are useful for: (1) promoting, implementing and tracking oral health objectives;…

  8. Intrafamilial Homicide of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucardie, Richard

    2005-01-01

    An increase in interest in crimes against people with developmental disabilities (PWDD) has been observed in the past decade. However, little attention has been given to intrafamilial homicides of PWDD. This paper provides a preliminary description of these types of homicides as they affect PWDD. Content analysis of media accounts of intrafamilial…

  9. The Cora: People of the Sierra Madre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Sarah; And Others

    This text explores an isolated and indigenous people who live in the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico. Isolation has allowed the Cora Indians to maintain their traditional customs to a much greater extent than many other groups of Native Americans. The historical and geographical contexts of the Cora are presented in this curriculum resource.…

  10. Land and People, the Growing Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Paul

    1983-01-01

    A summary and an analysis of the findings of the Land Resources for Populations of the Future project are provided in this report. The project, conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization, studied the food production capabilities of 117 developing countries to determine how many people they could support at different levels of farming and…

  11. The Right to Health of Older People.

    PubMed

    Baer, Britta; Bhushan, Anjana; Taleb, Hala Abou; Vasquez, Javier; Thomas, Rebekah

    2016-04-01

    A focus on the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (hereinafter, "the right to health") draws attention to the health needs of older people, including the most marginalized among them. Many factors that influence vulnerability or impede the enjoyment of health and access to quality services result from an inability to freely exercise these human rights. A human rights approach can help to address the legal, social, and structural barriers to good health for older persons, clarifying the legal obligations of State and non-State actors to uphold and respect these rights. However, despite growing impetus for action, this area has historically received limited attention. Drawing on practice examples from different regions, this article unpacks the meaning of the right to health and other related human rights of older people in practice, covering both health care and underlying determinants of their health. Questions of availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality are highlighted from the perspective of older people's health and well-being. The article brings together knowledge, principles, norms, and standards from the human rights law, health, and ageing arenas. By making links between these arenas, it is hoped that the article fills a gap in thinking on how to achieve the progressive realization of the right to health of older people and the effective promotion and protection of their other related human rights, which are crucial for the enjoyment of health.

  12. Politics, Violence, and Education: Other People's Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Niki

    This paper's purpose is to illustrate, through the author's personal experiences, that violent actions occur in the world that affect people, countries, and relations in multiple levels and numerous ways. Using autobiographical inquiry, the author narrates how she experienced violence in three different countries in which she has lived. In Cyprus,…

  13. Dichotomized Metaphors and Young People's Educational Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahelma, Elina

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnographically grounded longitudinal study on educational transitions, the aim of this article is to analyse young people's reflections about their educational choices at different ages. Consistencies and breaks in their plans and actual choices are explored and reflected in relation to the economic, social, cultural and…

  14. Land and People: Finding a Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This packet contains a series of teaching guides on land and people. This series features lessons on Cape Cod, the Everglades, and Los Angeles. Each section is divided into two parts: "For the Student" and "For the Teacher." The student materials give students a focus question to answer and also provide them with information they should use to…

  15. Famous forgetters: notable people and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeffrey M; Jones, Joni L

    2010-03-01

    As life expectancy continues to increase, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become much more prevalent and as yet there is no cure. This has given rise to the situation Tithonus faced in Greek mythology of living longer but not staying young. In this article, the authors explore this phenomenon while reviewing some notable people and AD. PMID:19949162

  16. Empowering People & Building Competent Communities. Chapter 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Priscilla

    For the Aboriginal peoples of Ontario, literacy is a process involving not only individuals, but also the whole community. Literacy leads to development and empowerment, which contribute to self-determination. Once the wards of the federal government, Aboriginal communities now are assuming more control over their own affairs. Education, including…

  17. Conflicting sensory relationships. Encounters with allergic people.

    PubMed

    Raffaetà, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, people employ the term 'allergy' to define various pathological conditions, although the biomedical community lacks a consensus on a definition of the term. It has become a widespread and convenient label for diverse conditions, often going beyond biomedical diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to explore how allergic people narrate their illness experiences, focusing specifically on the relationship between words, senses and bodies. This paper is based on an ethnographic study in a medium-sized north Italian city conducted from 2004 to 2008, starting in a public hospital Allergy Unit, and then developing through snowball recruitment and referral methods. Interviews were conducted with 37 allergic people, four allergologists and four nurses. Allergic people's narratives constantly drew upon two main concepts: weakness and pollution. These are interpreted as sensorial dimensions expressing a conflicting relationship with the outside environment. It is argued that in times of marked individualism and social transformations, bodily states are of fundamental importance and the mobilisation of sensory concepts is an attempt to give order and meaning to a world that is perceived as constituted by threatening aspects, polluted and out of order.

  18. From Our Eyes: Learning from Indigenous Peoples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, Sylvia, Ed.; West, Douglas A., Ed.

    The purpose of the conference and this book is to begin to establish the parameters of a new period of interaction between indigenous and non-Native peoples of North America through their experiences in university and academic practices and settings. The book exposes academic communities to indigenous learning and indigenous knowledge with the…

  19. Contextual Effect in People with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Fen; Tzeng, Ovid J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the semantic integration ability of people with WS in building up a coherent and gist theme from the context of presented sentences. Previous studies have indicated rich lexical semantic knowledge and typical semantic priming in this clinical group, but atypical brainwave patterns have been reported in studies…

  20. People Types & Tiger Stripes. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Gordon D.

    This book presents one method for identifying mind-sets, learning styles, and motivation patterns, and using the patterns in planning instruction and other helping processes, with the objective of helping people find and use their strengths to ameliorate weaknesses. The approach presented is based on Carl Jung's ideas about psychological types, as…

  1. Federal Employment of People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domzal, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of employment of people with disabilities in the Federal Government and to make recommendations for improving federal hiring and advancement of employees with disabilities. The paper summarizes the legal authorities and policy guidance, the responsibilities of various federal agencies charged with…

  2. Arkansas: Its Land and People, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foti, Tom

    This bicentennial volume offers a blend of Arkansas history, ecology, and literature. Its purpose is to show the relationship between Arkansas' people and their land. It contains a discussion of the Natural Divisions concept, the geological development of the state, and descriptions by early pioneers. The volume is not intended to be a complete…

  3. Cardiac Diseases in People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Akker, M.; Maaskant, M. A.; van der Meijden, R. J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In people with ID there is more morbidity than in the general population, including cardiac diseases. Dutch figures on this subject are scarce. Methods: Descriptive study of the prevalence of cardiac diseases in 436 residential clients in Echt, the Netherlands, and comparisons between men and women, age groups, and level and aetiology…

  4. Building Bridges of Understanding. People of Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information that will enable an American to communicate effectively with people in Thailand. The book discusses differences between American and Thai culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Thailand and the…

  5. Dakota and Ojibwe People in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Frances

    1977-01-01

    A biographical sketch of Frances Densmore, ethnologist of Native American music, and seven articles describing the lives of the Dakota and Ojibwe people as Densmore saw them are presented. The biographical sketch recounts Ms. Densmore's study of Ojibwe music and her ability to copy songs from memory when listening to them at fairs or attending…

  6. After Columbine: How People Mourn Sudden Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Jonathan D.

    2003-01-01

    Responses to the rampage killings at Columbine High School were analyzed at the national level, the level of the community, and that of the family. In many cases people responded by undertaking "grief projects." It is suggested that these projects are best understood within the context of Worden's task model of mourning. (Contains 31 references.)…

  7. How Do People Produce Ungrammatical Utterances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Iva; Pickering, Martin J.; McLean, Janet F.; Costa, Albert; Branigan, Holly P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate whether people might come to produce utterances that they regard as ungrammatical by examining the production of ungrammatical verb-construction combinations (e.g., "The dancer donates the soldier the apple") after exposure to both grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. We contrast two accounts of how such production might take…

  8. Character Education: Better Students, Better People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The application of social-emotional and character development (SECD) in classrooms is about teaching, practicing, and modeling essential personal and civic life habits and skills that are almost universally understood as making people good human beings. Among these habits are respect, responsibility, integrity, caring, fairness, and constructive…

  9. A Year's Turning: Young People Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, I. V., Ed.

    This book is an anthology of unedited verse and prose written by 14- and 15-year-old students. The book is intended for teachers in training, for their tutors, and for all teachers of English. The verses are classified as undirected and directed poems about nature, places, war, the Egyptian Tomb, up and back again, and people. The prose is…

  10. Aligning Performance: Improving People, Systems, and Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny

    Performance is the actual work that is done to assure that an organization achieves its mission, and aligning that performance assures that the path to the mission is harmonious. Alignment exists when all people involved understand the dimensions of the work and want to achieve and improve alignment. This book presents the "Language of Work" model…

  11. Seri Dictionary: People and Kinship Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Mary B.; Marlett, Stephen A.

    A subset of a Seri-English bilingual dictionary (in preparation) is presented that includes terms referring to people, kinship terms, and verbs closely related to them. This version includes an English-to-Seri dictionary with 61 basic terms and variants, and a Seri dictionary with both Spanish and English glosses. It uses a practical orthography…

  12. Young People and Migration from Contemporary Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Young Polish migrants to the UK are often portrayed as being highly educated and mobile: willing nomads who are privileged to be able to take advantage of new opportunities for travel and work abroad offered by European Union membership. However, there are also less well-educated young people who adopt migration as a livelihood strategy in…

  13. Leading People: Leadership in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The issue of leadership in mathematics education--always a matter of some contention--has been complicated by developments in the field over the past half century or so. When mathematics education began to emerge as an academic field at the beginning of the twentieth century, so few people were seriously concerned with either its practice or its…

  14. Garbology: Detective Work in People's Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching PreK-8, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Defines garbology (a combination of garbage and archaeology) as being about people and the information one can learn about them from their trash. Provides guidelines for selection and handling of trash for analysis by students. Describes a group of second graders tracing a family's information through their trash and coming to a better…

  15. Education for Older People in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Lamura, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information on trends in formal and informal adult education in Italy, with a particular focus on the older learners (over 65). Main providers, programs, objectives/motivations, and financial and legal framework are described. In general, over-65-year-old people were found to be underrepresented in participation. They were…

  16. People for Education: A Critical Policy History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Brewer, Curtis A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how history informs how policy meanings are constructed and the rhetorical strategies used to convince others to accept these meanings. We have two goals: (a) to show how a group of non-governmental actors, People for Education, became part of Ontario, Canada's policy discursive network; and (b) to demonstrate…

  17. German-Speaking People of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…

  18. Clean People in a Clean World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Bathing is here treated as an exemplar of the widespread profligacy of prosperous people and of the continually expanding expectations for all on this overloaded planet. The author places cleanliness in a wider context, not merely of animals but of all living organisms. With this in mind, it is possible to consider, in a wider than usual manner,…

  19. Why Beautiful People Are More Intelligent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Kovar, Jody L.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical studies demonstrate that individuals perceive physically attractive others to be more intelligent than physically unattractive others. While most researchers dismiss this perception as a ''bias'' or ''stereotype,'' we contend that individuals have this perception because beautiful people indeed "are" more intelligent. The conclusion that…

  20. Reading for Young People: The Great Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Mildred

    One of five annotated bibliographies that describe books about certain regions of the United States, this compilation focuses on books about the Great Plains. The stated purposes of these regional bibliographies are: (1) to introduce young people living in the subject region to books dealing with their cultural heritage, (2) to help young people…