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Sample records for 50-219 oyster creek

  1. Drywell corrosion stopped at Oyster Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Lipford, B.L. ); Flynn, J.C.

    1993-11-01

    This article describes the detection of corrosion on the drywell containment vessel of Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant and the application of a protective coating to repair the drywell. The topics of the article include drywell design features, identification of the problem, initial action, drywell corrosion, failure of cathodic protection, long-term repair, and repair results.

  2. 20. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest with oyster ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest with oyster house in the tree line - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 76 FR 79227 - Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Exemption Request Submitted by Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exelon Generation Company... Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster... for Oyster Creek and NUREG-1437, Vol. 1, Supplement 28, ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement...

  4. Respirators, internal dose, and Oyster Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Michal, R.

    1996-06-01

    This article looks at the experience of Oyster Creek in relaxing the requirements for the use of respirators in all facets of plant maintenance, on the overall dose received by plant maintenance personnel. For Roger Shaw, director of radiological controls for three years at GPU Nuclear Corporation`s Oyster Creek nuclear plant the correct dose balance is determined on a job-by-job basis: Does the job require a respirator, which is an effective means of decreasing worker inhalation of airborne radioactive particles? Will wearing a respirator slow down a worker, consequently increasing whole body radiation exposure by prolonging the time spent in fields of high external radiation? How does respiratory protection affect worker safety and to what degree? While changes to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s 10CFR20 have updated the radiation protection requirements for the nuclear industry, certain of the revisions have been directed specifically at reducing worker dose, Shaw said. {open_quotes}It basically delineates that dose is dose,{close_quotes} Shaw said, {open_quotes}regardless of whether it is acquired externally or internally.{close_quotes} The revision of Part 20 changed the industry`s attitude toward internal dose, which had always been viewed negatively. {open_quotes}Internal dose was always seen as preventable by wearing respirators and by using engineering techniques such as ventilation control and decontamination,{close_quotes} Shaw said, {open_quotes}whereas external dose, although reduced where practical, was seen as a fact of the job.{close_quotes}

  5. 77 FR 135 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background...-16, which authorizes operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS). The...

  6. 75 FR 33366 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Notice of Withdrawal of..., application for amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-16 for the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster Creek), located in Ocean County, New Jersey. The proposed amendment would have revised...

  7. 75 FR 33656 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station Environmental Assessment....2, as requested by Exelon Generation Company, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (Oyster Creek), located in Ocean County, New Jersey. Therefore, as required...

  8. Development of thermal-hydraulic analysis capabilities for Oyster creek

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    GPU Nuclear (GPUN) has been involved in developing analytical methodologies for Oyster Creek plant thermal-hydraulic response simulation for approx. 15 yr. Plant-system-related transient analysis is being accomplished via RETRAN02 MOD4 and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) analysis by SAFER-CORECOOL. This paper reviews the developmental process and lessons learned through this process.

  9. A survey of the Oyster Creek reload licensing model

    SciTech Connect

    Alammar, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Oyster Creek RETRAN licensing model was submitted for approval by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in September 1987. This paper discusses the technical issues and concerns that were raised during the review process and how they were resolved. The technical issues are grouped into three major categories: the adequacy of the model benchmark against plant data; uncertainty analysis and model convergence with respect to various critical parameters (code correlations, nodalization, time step, etc.); and model application and usage.

  10. Digital feedwater and recirculation flow control for GPUN Oyster Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Burjorjee, D. ); Gan, B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the digital system for feedwater and recirculation control that GPU Nuclear will be installing at Oyster Creek during its next outage - expected circa December 1992. The replacement was motivated by considerations of reliability and obsolescence - the analog equipment was aging and reaching the end of its useful life. The new system uses Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.'s software platform running on dual, redundant, industrial-grade 386 computers with opto-isolated field input/output (I/O) accessed through a parallel bus. The feedwater controller controls three main feed regulating valves, two low flow regulating valves, and two block valves. The recirculation controller drives the five scoop positioners of the hydraulic couplers. The system also drives contacts that lock up the actuators on detecting an open circuit in their current loops.

  11. Evaluation of ANF fuel failures in oyster creek

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, T.M.; Van Swam, L.F.; Piascik, T.G.; Spence, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the refueling outrage following cycle-10 operations of Oyster Creek nuclear generating station, fuel sipping identified 47 failed Advance Nuclear Fuels (ANF) fuel assemblies. The failed fuel was an unpressurized 8 x 8 design manufactured by ANF prior to 1980. Subsequent inspection of 46 of these 47 assemblies with the ANF ULTRATEST ultrasonic testing system indicated 104 either failed of suspect fuel rods in 44 assemblies. Two of the assemblies were identified as being sound. Selected fuel rods were removed from three of the assemblies and inspected both visually and with an eddycurrent coil. An evaluation has been performed to determine the cause of the failures. The failures were primarily the result of pellet/cladding interaction (PCI). Detailed analyses of several of the failed fuel rods were performed with ANF's fuel rod modeling code RAMPX2. RAMPX2 includes several state-of-the-art models, including a model describing the formation of fission product deposits called coins on the inside surface of the cladding, a model that accounts for axial PCI, and a trapped fuel stack model. The analyses provided an explanation for the failures.

  12. Ocean breeze monitoring network at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located in New Jersey 10 km west of the Atlantic Ocean. Routine meteorological monitoring at the station has consisted of a single meteorological tower 120 m high and instrumented at the 10-m, 46-m, and 116-m levels. An analysis of 5 yr of data from this tower showed the OCNGS is affected by an ocean breeze approx. 1 day out of 4 during May through August. This suggested the need for meteorological monitoring in addition to the single met tower at OCNGS. As a result of the 1985 OCNGS meteorological monitoring study, GPU Nuclear established an ocean breeze monitoring network in the fall of 1986. It is a permanent part of OCNGS meteorological monitoring and consists of the same sites as used in the 1985 field study. Meteorological towers are located at the ocean site, the inland site, and at OCNGS. The ocean tower is 13 m (43 ft) high, the inland tower 10 m (33 ft), and the OCNGS tower 116 m (380 ft). Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature are measured on each tower; delta-temperature is also measured on the main tower. The instruments are calibrated in the spring, summer, and fall. The network is operated and maintained by GPU Nuclear Environmental Controls. The ocean breeze monitoring network and meteorological information system forms the basis for including the effects of the ocean breeze in OCNGS emergency off-site dose assessment.

  13. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  14. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  17. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.552 Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River,...

  18. Continuous fission-product monitor system at Oyster Creek. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.L.; Chulick, E.T.

    1980-10-01

    A continuous on-line fission product monitor has been installed at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Forked River, New Jersey. The on-line monitor is a minicomputer-controlled high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer system. An intrinsic Ge detector scans a collimated sample line of coolant from one of the plant's recirculation loops. The minicomputer is a Nuclear Data 6620 system. Data were accumulated for the period from April 1979 through January 1980, the end of cycle 8 for the Oyster Creek plant. Accumulated spectra, an average of three a day, were stored on magnetic disk and subsequently analyzed for fisson products, Because of difficulties in measuring absolute detector efficiency, quantitative fission product concentrations in the coolant could not be determined. Data for iodine fission products are reported as a function of time. The data indicate the existence of fuel defects in the Oyster Creek core during cycle 8.

  19. The Effect of Oyster Reef Morphology on Particulate Transfer in a North Carolina Tidal Creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemon, M. G.; Posey, M.; Mallin, M.; Alphin, T.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) is a vital ecosystem engineer species, providing a number of ecosystem services that structure and maintain estuarine environments through the construction of large, hard-bottom reef complexes. Through suspension feeding, oysters clear the water column of particulates, leading to decreased suspended material and enhanced benthic pelagic coupling. Past field studies have indicated the potential importance of the physical reef structure in regulating the transfer of particulate material in the seston. In order to directly assess the existence of the physical reef effect, multiple field experiments were performed in a small tidal creek estuary along the south eastern coast of North Carolina. Comparison of clearance rates derived from two different in situ methods, one accounting for the physical structure of the oyster reef in addition to oyster filtration and one looking at oyster filtration alone, indicate that the reef structure may increase the amount of particulate removal performed by the reef by more than 4 times the removal performed by oyster filtration alone. A defaunation experiment was performed by eliminating the live component of the oyster reef and comparing particulate transfer of this defaunated transect to that of an adjacent faunated transect. The defaunated transect had reduced but not significantly lower material removal when compared to the faunated transect prior to defaunation. Results from short and long term sediment collection and flow velocity measurements indicate that the physical effect of oyster reefs is strong over short temporal scales (days) but is much smaller when evaluated over longer time periods (months). Generally, large silt and small sand sized material is permanently removed from the seston due to the interaction of oyster reef structure and tidal flows, however the transfer of small and medium sized silt grains is only slowed down by the presence of large reef complexes. This

  20. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report Sep-Nov 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station.

  1. RETRAN simulation of Oyster Creek MSIV closure and bypass valve tests

    SciTech Connect

    Alammar, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A series of benchmarks against start-up tests have been performed on the Oyster Creek boiling water reactor unit 2 RETRAN model in support of developing an in-house reload capability. The liquid and the pressure regulator models have been benchmarked against level and pressure setpoint changes, where small setpoint perturbations were made at rated power. The purpose of the present benchmark is to check the liquid level behavior during a severe level drop as during void collapse following a scram and to size the bypass valves by benchmarking the valves' contraction coefficient. The main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) closure start-up test was chosen for the former, while the bypass valve test was chosen for the latter. The two benchmarks complete the qualification of the upper downcomer liquid level for small and large level changes and the pressure regulator system for the Oyster Creek RETRAN model.

  2. Radwaste (DAW) volume reduction cost initiative at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generation Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wacha, A.H.

    1995-05-01

    Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station is a General Electric Mark 1, 620 MWe (Net) Boiling Water Reactor operated by GPU Nuclear Corporation and located in Forked River, New Jersey. The plant began commercial operation on December 23, 1969, and achieved its longest continuous run during cycle 14 (413 days) 2-16-93 to 9-11-94. As part of the industry-wide initiative to reduce nuclear plant O&M costs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was asked by GPU Nuclear to assist the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) in identifying opportunities for reducing the costs associated with its Radwaste Minimization Program for Dry Active Waste (DAW). The purpose of the project was to evaluate the existing generation, minimization, processing and disposal programs and to identify a wide variety of potential mechanisms for reducing waste volumes and associated costs.

  3. Oyster Creek RETRAN model benchmark to pressure and level perturbation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Alammar, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    As part of GPU Nuclear's program to establish an in-house reload capability for Oyster Creek, the RETRAN-02 MOD4 SPL Computer Code has been chosen to analyze Chapter 15 Final Safety Analysis Report transients. To qualify Oyster Creek RETRAN model, a series of startup tests has been chosen to benchmark the model. Two of those tests, involved water level and vessel pressure perturbations at 100% power. Both tests were analyzed using point kinetics and one-dimensional kinetics with no noticeable impact on level or pressure. A small impact was noticed on power but was thought to be of minor significance. This is because for such mild transients the neutron flux shape function does not change appreciably throughout the transient.

  4. Structural integrity analysis of the degraded drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear generating station.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of the degradation experienced in the steel drywell containment at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Specifically, the structural integrity of the containment shell is examined in terms of the stress limits using the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section III, Division I, Subsection NE, and examined in terms of buckling (stability) using the ASME B&PV Code Case N-284. Degradation of the steel containment shell (drywell) at Oyster Creek was first observed during an outage in the mid-1980s. Subsequent inspections discovered reductions in the shell thickness due to corrosion throughout the containment. Specifically, significant corrosion occurred in the sandbed region of the lower sphere. Since the presence of the wet sand provided an environment which supported corrosion, a series of analyses were conducted by GE Nuclear Energy in the early 1990s. These analyses examined the effects of the degradation on the structural integrity. The current study adopts many of the same assumptions and data used in the previous GE study. However, the additional computational recourses available today enable the construction of a larger and more sophisticated structural model.

  5. Oyster Creek fuel thermal margin during core thermal-hydraulic oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Dougher, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oyster Creek nuclear facility, a boiling water reactor (BWR)-2 plant type, has never experienced core thermal-hydraulic instability. Power oscillations, however, have been observed in other BWR cores both domestically and internationally. Two modes of oscillations have been observed, core wide and regional half-core. During core wide oscillations, the neutron flux in the core oscillates in the radial fundamental mode. During regional half-core oscillations, higher order harmonics in the radial plane result in out-of-phase oscillations with the neutron flux in one half of the core oscillating 180 deg out-of-phase with the neutron flux in the other half of the core. General Design Criteria 12 requires either prevention or detection and suppression of power oscillations which could result in violations of fuel design limits. Analyses performed by General Electric have demonstrated that for large-magnitude oscillations the potential exists for violation of the safety limit minimum critical power ratio (MCPR). However, for plants with a flow-biased neutron flux scram automatic mitigation of oscillations may be provided at an oscillation magnitude below that at which the safety limit is challenged. Plant-specific analysis for Oyster Creek demonstrates that the existing average power range monitor (APRM) system will sense and suppress power oscillations prior to violation of any safety limits.

  6. Elimination of redundant thermoluminescent dosemeter monitoring at Oyster Creek nuclear generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Oyster Creek direct radiation monitoring network has long been operating using several time-scale measurements. This network is used to assess the radiation levels during normal plant operations as well as to set the background radiation levels used to determine the radiological impact of a nonroutine release of radioactivity from the plant. Through analysis of the behavior of the monthly and quarterly activity of several types of direct radiation monitoring, the successful elimination of redundant and artificially high measurement techniques has been done in concert with providing the community with most efficient direct radiation monitoring methods. Dose rates from external radiation sources are measured around licensed U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) facilities using passive detectors known as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). These detectors provide a quantitative measurement of the radiation levels in the are in which they are placed. The detected radiation could be the result of cosmic or naturally occurring origin in the air and on the ground, prior nuclear weapons testing, and activity from a nuclear facility. This paper describes the TLD network placed around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) and the comparisons between TLDs of different manufacturers and of different resident times and the successful elimination of the less accurate monthly TLD for the purpose of cost containment.

  7. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Final report, September 1976-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1983-10-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves were studied using wood test panels at 20 stations in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Physiological tolerances of three teredinid species were investigated in the laboratory and correlated with field values of temperature, salinity, siltation, precipitation, and plant operations. The interaction of boring and fouling organisms was examined. There is a definite correlation between the operation of the power plant and teredinid outbreaks. Increased salinity and water flow as well as temperature are responsible. After 1976, most of the damage in Oyster Creek was done by the introduced subtropical species Teredo bartschi. It can respond faster than native species to environmental change. Although Oyster Creek contributed larvae to neighboring parts of Barnegat Bay, its role as a breeding ground was limited. Some elements of the fouling community may be antagonistic to shipworm growth. Fouling was increased in both biomass and species richness in Oyster Creek when compared with creek controls, but the fouling community in Oyster Creek was less stable than that in other areas. Lower salinity limits for the teredinids were within the salinity range found in Oyster Creek but not within the range found in the control creeks. 71 references, 9 figures, 39 tables.

  8. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Interim report 1 Sep 79-28 Feb 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.; Turner, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. Teredo bartschi caused almost complete destruction of panels in Oyster Creek during the summer of 1979. Reproduction and settlement of this species continued into October. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. The greatest shipworm damage is in Oyster Creek. Heavy mortality occurs in all species during winter, especially in winters such as 1979-80 when the generating station is not operating. Adults of all three species can survive for at least 30 days at salinities from 5 to 45 parts per thousand by weight. They can withstand abrupt salinity changes.

  9. Inclusion of the ocean breeze in Oyster Creek emergency off-site dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located 6 mi west of the Atlantic Ocean. From spring through late summer, atmospheric transport in the vicinity of OCNGS is periodically affected by the ocean breeze. The ocean breeze produces large differences in wind direction within the OCNGS emergency planning zone during the morning to evening hours. In addition, trajectory reversals can occur near the ocean breeze front. These two characteristics of the ocean breeze must be taken into account when interpreting results from conventional atmospheric dispersion models. The purpose of the study was to determine the flow characteristics of the ocean breeze and to apply these characteristics to an emergency preparedness implementing procedure (EPIP). The EPIP would be used to determine the radiological plume impact region if an accidental release occurred during an ocean breeze.

  10. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-11-15

    A limited seismic reassessment of Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safety and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented. 86 refs., 44 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Comparison of RETRAN and RELAP5 models to Oyster Creek loss of feedwater transient

    SciTech Connect

    Alammar, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    The Oyster Creek Generating Station is a 1930MW(thermal) boiling water reactor 2 plant. During the past year, a program to qualify the Oyster Creek RETRAN model against plant data was in effect at GPU Nuclear. As part of this program, a major transient that occurred on May 2, 1979, was chosen for analysis comparison. While operating at 100% power, a spurious high-pressure scram occurred, coupled with a simultaneous trip of the recirculation pumps. Other events resulted in a loss of feedwater flow and the inadvertent closure, by the operator, of the recirculation pump discharge valves, which limited recirculation flow to only five 0.0508-m (2-in.) bypass lines. The operator proceeded to isolate the vessel and use the emergency condensers for decay heat removal until feed flow was restored 45 min later. The plant RETRAN model was benchmarked against this transient for the first 45 min, using 39 volumes, 54 junctions, 25 heat conductors, and a bubble rise model for the separator/upper downcomer regions. The RETRAN results showed good agreement with plant data for downcomer level and dome pressure. The unique coupling between the downcomer and core zone liquid levels during the cyclic operation of the emergency condensers was simulated quite well. The use of the bubble rise model for the separator/ upper downcomer, however, resulted in a higher dome pressure given by RETRAN, which is believed to be due to the 100% separation efficiency of the model as compared to the degraded separator efficiencies at offoptimum operating conditions. The fuel zone liquid level was an outstanding issue at the time where a conservative simple calculation showed that the core remained covered during the transient. The RETRAN model confirmed that, but also showed that the fuel zone liquid mass during the transient was more than that at steady state.

  12. Investigation of acidity and other water-quality characteristics of Upper Oyster Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fusillo, Thomas V.; Schornick, J.C.; Koester, H.E.; Harriman, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Water-quality data collected in the upper Oyster Creek drainage basin, Ocean County, N.J., indicate that the stream has excellent water quality except for a persistently low pH. The mean concentrations of the major inorganic ions were all less than 6.0 milligrams per liter. Mean concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 0.15 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L, respectively. Dissolved oxygen averaged 8.7 mg/L and 81% saturation. Low pH levels are typical of streams draining cedar swamps. In Oyster Creek, the pH tended to decrease downstream due to chemical and biological processes. The pH levels in swamps were one-half unit or more lower than the pH levels in the adjacent stream. Sharp declines in stream pH were noted during runoff periods as the result of the mixing of poorly-buffered stream water with more highly acidic water from surrounding swamp areas. The quality of ground water within the study area was similar to the quality of streamflow, except for higher iron and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations and a higher pH range of 4.9 to 6.5. Precipitation represented a major source of many chemical constituents in the ground- and surface-waters of the Oyster Creek basin. (USGS)

  13. Analysis of populations of boring and fouling organisms in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report No. 12, Jun-Aug 79

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1980-07-01

    The growth, distribution, and species composition of marine borers (primarily shipworms) and fouling organisms are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 18 localities. Our most recent findings covering June-August, 1979, are that at least one subtropical species of the borer family Teredinidae, Teredo bartschi, continues to live in Oyster Creek and can breed in Forked River, although many die off in winter in Forked River and the species may have to recolonize. A few of the subtropical T. furcifera also survive in Oyster Creek but cause negligible damage at present, compared with T. bartschi. The summer, 1979, outbreak of T. bartschi in Oyster Creek was severe, causing nearly total destruction to wood panels. The breeding season for T. bartschi was the same as in 1978. Some fouling organisms were present in Oyster Creek that are absent in control creek stations due to low salinity.

  14. Oyster Creek cycle 10 nodal model parameter optimization study using PSMS

    SciTech Connect

    Dougher, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The power shape monitoring system (PSMS) is an on-line core monitoring system that uses a three-dimensional nodal code (NODE-B) to perform nodal power calculations and compute thermal margins. The PSMS contains a parameter optimization function that improves the ability of NODE-B to accurately monitor core power distributions. This functions iterates on the model normalization parameters (albedos and mixing factors) to obtain the best agreement between predicted and measured traversing in-core probe (TIP) reading on a statepoint-by-statepoint basis. Following several statepoint optimization runs, an average set of optimized normalization parameters can be determined and can be implemented into the current or subsequent cycle core model for on-line core monitoring. A statistical analysis of 19 high-power steady-state state-points throughout Oyster Creek cycle 10 operation has shown a consistently poor virgin model performance. The normalization parameters used in the cycle 10 NODE-B model were based on a cycle 8 study, which evaluated only Exxon fuel types. The introduction of General Electric (GE) fuel into cycle 10 (172 assemblies) was a significant fuel/core design change that could have altered the optimum set of normalization parameters. Based on the need to evaluate a potential change in the model normalization parameters for cycle 11 and in an attempt to account for the poor cycle 10 model performance, a parameter optimization study was performed.

  15. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, March-May 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-11-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. The adult population of Teredo bartschi survived the winter and spring of 1981-1982 better than it did previous cold periods without a thermal effluent. Lack of an effluent was due to a prolonged outage of the generating station. There was no spring outbreak of shipworms. The introduced species appears established at one station near but outside of Oyster Creek. Three teredinid species coexist in Oyster Creek. Larvae of T. bartschi and T. navalis have similar responses to reduced salinity. Bankia gouldi is the fastest-growing of the teredinids found in New Jersey, and as the lowest annual mortality.

  16. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly progress report 1 Dec 80-28 Feb 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River. An increase in mortality occurred in January. By February, Teredo bartschi was found only at Bayside.

  17. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Quarterly report, 1 September-30 November 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-04-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek and at the mouth of Forked River.

  18. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 80

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1981-02-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Relative destructiveness and competition among the species are being analyzed. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek. Teredo bartschi can withstand higher temperatures than the native species, but all species suffer osmotic stress at 6 parts per thousand by weight.

  19. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, September-November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-06-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the fall of 1981, Teredo bartschi remained in Oyster Creek despite continuous prolonged outages of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. It did not spread to Forked River or Waretown as it had done in other years when the effluent was present. The peak in larval production and settlement of T. bartschi occurred between September and October. Settlement of shipworms occurred on no monthly panels except those in Oyster Creek during the period of this report. Laboratory experiments revealed that T. bartschi becomes inactive at 5/sup 0/C (24/sup 0///sub 00/) and T. navalis shows signs of osmotic stress below 10/sup 0///sub 00/ at 18/sup 0/C. The shipworms in Barnegat Bay do not show a preference for settling at the mudline when the substrate is not limited.

  20. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, 1 March-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1980-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. The native species Teredo navalis and Bankia gouldi coexist with the introduced T. bartschi in Oyster Creek, at the mouth of Forked River and on the coast of the bay between the two creeks. Heavy mortality occurred in all species during winter and spring when the generating station was not operating. Temperature and salinity tolerance tests begun during April and May, 1980, were not completed by the end of May because the adult shipworms proved to be very resistant to drastic changes in these physical parameters.

  1. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant as part of the systematic evaluation program. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1981-04-01

    A limited seismic reassessment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safely and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented.

  2. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, December 1981-February 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-08-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the winter of 1981, the generating station experienced a prolonged outage. The reproductive cycle of the shipworms was not extended. Teredo bartschi was very abundant at one station in Oyster Creek and moderately abundant at a second, but did not exist elsewhere in Barnegat Bay. Some specimens of Teredo bartschi contained larvae in the gills in February. According to laboratory experiments, Teredo navalis is able to remain active at temperatures as low as 4/sup 0/C, whereas T. bartschi ceases activity (withdraws its siphons) at about 13/sup 0/C. 12 tables.

  3. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. Progress report, June-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.

    1982-12-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. Adult populations of Teredo bartschi existed in both Oyster Creek and Forked River in the summer of 1982, but the species was rare. There was no large settlement of this or any other teredinid species in Barnegat Bay. Teredo navalis was the most common species in the monthly panels. The fouling community reached its maximum yearly diversity in June-July. There was a thermal effluent causing a ..delta..T of 3 to 4/sup 0/C during most of the summer, and salinity in Oyster Creek and Forked River was similar to that of Barnegat Bay. The lack of a shipworm outbreak in 1982 may be related to the low ..delta..T in summer, plus the lack of a thermal effluent in the preceding winter-spring period.

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection program and the Oyster Creek, N. J. , nuclear facility. Hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, Second Session

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A congressional hearing was held May 28, 1980 by the Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations to discuss the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Inspection Program and the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant. This discussion included an explanation of the responsibilities now facing the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, particularly the insurance that the 68 operating nuclear power reactors are operated safely and completely by licensees with sound management practices. In addition, an explanation was given of the emergency shutdown of Oyster Creek-1 Reactor.

  5. Ecological studies of wood-boring bivalves in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station: progress report June-August 1981. Quarterly progress report 1 Jun-31 Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, K.E.; Crocket, L.

    1982-01-01

    The species composition, distribution, and population dynamics of wood-boring bivalves are being studied in the vicinity of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Untreated wood test panels are used to collect organisms at 12 stations. Physiological tolerances of 3 species are also under investigation in the laboratory. Competition among the species is being analyzed. In the summer of 1981, Teredo bartschi occurred in large numbers at one station in Oyster Creek, but did not appear in significant numbers in Forked River.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  7. 75 FR 32509 - Notice Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Generation Company, LLC, Docket No. 50-219, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Ocean County, New Jersey... that would affect the probability of an accident previously evaluated in the Oyster Creek Updated Final... Generation Company, LLC, Docket No. 50-219, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Ocean County, New...

  8. Oysters and Oyster Reef Communities in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jean; Bly, Joe

    1989-01-01

    The habitat, life history, feeding, classification, anatomy and pearl production of the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are presented. A list of other oyster reef inhabitants and predators is provided. Harvest and habitat loss are discussed. (CW)

  9. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  10. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  11. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  12. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  13. 21 CFR 161.136 - Olympia oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Olympia oysters. 161.136 Section 161.136 Food and... oysters. Olympia oysters, raw Olympia oysters, shucked Olympia oysters, are of the species Ostrea lurida and conform to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for oysters in § 161.130....

  14. The use of transplanted cultured tropical oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) to monitor Cd levels in North Queensland coastal waters (Australia).

    PubMed

    Olivier, Frédérique; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2002-10-01

    Bivalves are commonly used to detect metal pollution in the marine environment. Commercially cultured Milky oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) were transplanted in various sites along the North Queensland coast and analyzed for two metals of potentially anthropogenic origin (Cd, Zn). To provide additional information, naturally occurring Black Lip oysters (Saccostrea echinata) were also collected at the transplantation sites. The study demonstrated that the oysters species transplanted are good bioindicators of these metal concentrations in tropical waters, sensitive to variations in the environment at concentrations which are much smaller than pollution signals commonly reported for temperate waters. Three transplant experiments were carried out from May 1999 to February 2000. Milky oysters transplanted to offshore areas (Orpheus Is., Kelso Reef) accumulated Cd in the soft parts whereas oysters sampled from cages placed in Ross Creek and the Herbert River estuaries showed a decrease in Cd concentration, which resulted from an increase in dry weight. Dry weight appeared to be an important covariant affecting Cd concentration in the oysters whereas it does not unambiguously affect Zn concentrations. For the duration of the experiments, oysters sampled from the Magnetic Is. reference site showed effectively constant Cd concentrations and total Cd contents which indicates that any seasonal cycle affecting metal concentration is weak. It was found that Cd accumulation in oysters increased as ambient dissolved Cd concentration decreased, from which it was concluded that for these oysters, the predominant source of Cd was from the particulate phase rather than the dissolved phase.

  15. 78 FR 62293 - Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Oyster Festival 30th Anniversary Fireworks Display, Oyster Bay; Oyster Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Oyster Bay near Oyster Bay, NY for the...

  16. 21 CFR 161.130 - Oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oysters. 161.130 Section 161.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.130 Oysters. (a) Oysters, raw oysters, shucked oysters, are the class of foods each of which is obtained by shucking...

  17. 21 CFR 161.130 - Oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oysters. 161.130 Section 161.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.130 Oysters. (a) Oysters, raw oysters, shucked oysters, are the class of foods each of which is obtained by shucking...

  18. 21 CFR 161.130 - Oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oysters. 161.130 Section 161.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.130 Oysters. (a) Oysters, raw oysters, shucked oysters, are the class of foods each of which is obtained by shucking...

  19. 21 CFR 161.130 - Oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oysters. 161.130 Section 161.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.130 Oysters. (a) Oysters, raw oysters, shucked oysters, are the class of foods each of which is obtained by shucking...

  20. 21 CFR 161.130 - Oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oysters. 161.130 Section 161.130 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.130 Oysters. (a) Oysters, raw oysters, shucked oysters, are the class of foods each of which is obtained by shucking...

  1. Oyster Fisheries App

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez Guerrero, Geraldo A.; Armstrong, Duane; Underwood, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This project is creating a cloud-enabled, HTML 5 web application to help oyster fishermen and state agencies apply Earth science to improve the management of this important natural and economic resource. The Oyster Fisheries app gathers and analyzes environmental and water quality information, and alerts fishermen and resources managers about problems in oyster fishing waters. An intuitive interface based on Google Maps displays the geospatial information and provides familiar interactive controls to the users. Alerts can be tailored to notify users when conditions in specific leases or public fishing areas require attention. The app is hosted on the Amazon Web Services cloud. It is being developed and tested using some of the latest web development tools such as web components and Polymer.

  2. Putting oysters under pressure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pressure processing (HPP) is the most commercially important food processing technology in use now and is anticipated to remain of equal or greater importance during the next five to 10 years. This month’s column reviews the theory and current applications of HPP for oysters to improve their sa...

  3. The American Oyster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  4. Fluoranthene-induced historical alterations in oysters, Crassostrea virginica: Seasonal field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Stress-related histological parameters (digestive epithelial thickness, gonadal area, incidences of heiminth parasites and hemocytic infiltration, and parasite intensity) were monitored seasonally in the visceral mass of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, collected from an undeveloped site (Clambank Creek, North Inlet estuary, SC) and two urbanized, fluoranthene-contaminated sites (Parsonage Creek and Marina pipe, Murrells Inlet estuary, SC). Reduced mean epithelial thickness and an elevated incidence of hemocytic infiltration was occasionally observed in the Murrells Inlet oysters. Correlation analysis revealed that the seasonal profile of mean epithelial thickness in the Parsonage Creek oysters was related to that of their body burdens of fluoranthene and six other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Oysters exposed to fluoranthene in the laboratory also exhibited a reduction in their mean digestive epithelial thickness, and this response was dependent upon the interaction between fluoranthene body burden and exposure time. These results suggest that thinning of the digestive epithelium is a useful histological indicator of fluoranthene-induced stress, and demonstrate the utility of seasonally monitoring several stress-related histological parameters in conjunction with contaminant body burdens.

  5. Physical and ecological connectivity among restored oyster bars in the Severn River (Maryland, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steppe, C. N.; Fredriksson, D. W.; Wallendorf, L.; Barlow, A.

    2008-12-01

    In an effort to improve water quality and enhance the Crassostrea virginica fishery, many oyster restoration bars have been placed in Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Nevertheless, bars are often placed in sub-estuaries with poorly described circulation dynamics. Therefore the potential for the restored bars to either re-seed themselves or serve as larval sources for other beds remains unclear. To address this problem we assessed connectivity among 3 restored oyster bars in the Severn River Estuary, (Maryland, USA) via a combination of weekly plankton tows at each bar (College Creek, Weems Creek, and Lake Ogleton; May-October 2007); predictions from a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC) adapted for the study area; and satellite-tracked drifter deployments from the College Creek and Weems Creek sites (2007-2008). Planktonic assemblages were similar among sites, and shifted on a time scale of weeks. Preliminary model runs showed that connectivity between the Weems Creek site and the main-stem of the Severn River may be higher than between the College Creek site and the Severn. Finally, drifter trajectories indicated two distinct transport regimes; retention within the Severn River system, on a time scale pertinent to C. virginica larval development (about 3 weeks), and export to the main-stem of Chesapeake Bay, indicating loss of larvae from the local system, either by mortality or recruitment to another sub-estuary.

  6. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all of the forms of oysters specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and a packing medium of water,...

  7. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all of the forms of oysters specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and a packing medium of water,...

  8. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all of the forms of oysters specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and a packing medium of water,...

  9. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all of the forms of oysters specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and a packing medium of water,...

  10. 21 CFR 161.145 - Canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned oysters. 161.145 Section 161.145 Food and... oysters. (a) Identity. (1) Canned oysters is the food prepared from one or any mixture of two or all of the forms of oysters specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and a packing medium of water,...

  11. Detection of Sapovirus in oysters.

    PubMed

    Ueki, You; Shoji, Mika; Okimura, Yoko; Miyota, Yasuko; Masago, Yoshifumi; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Noda, Mamoru; Miura, Takayuki; Sano, Daisuke; Omura, Tatsuo

    2010-08-01

    SaV sequences which are either genetically identical or similar were detected from oysters, feces from gastroenteritis patients, and domestic wastewater samples in geographically close areas. This is the first report of the detection of SaV in oysters which meet the legal requirements for raw consumption in Japan.

  12. Cellular responses and disease expression in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed to suspended field contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Volety, Aswani K; Hale, Robert C; Huang, Yongqin

    2002-02-01

    Exposure of oysters to water soluble fractions derived from field-contaminated sediments (FCS) containing predominantly lower molecular weight organic aromatic compounds, has been previously demonstrated to enhance pre-existing infections caused by the protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus (Dermo), and the prevalence of experimentally induced infections. To further explore the role of pollution on the onset and progression of disease, effects of suspended FCS from an estuarine creek in Virginia, USA, dominated by higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on cellular responses and Dermo disease expression in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were examined. Sediments were collected from a PAH polluted estuarine creek in Virginia, USA. To test effects on cellular response, oysters from Maine were exposed daily to 0, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 g suspended FCS (corresponding to 0, 70.2, 105, or 140 microg PAHs, respectively) for 5, 10, 20, and 40 days. Hemocyte activities and plasma lipid, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were then measured. Exposure stimulated neutral red uptake, MTT reduction, and 3H-leucine incorporation in oyster hemocytes at various exposure times, but did not affect the plasma protein, lipid and LDH levels. To test effects on Dermo expression, oysters from a Dermo enzootic area, with an initial estimated infection prevalence of 39%, were exposed daily to 0, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 g suspended FCS (corresponding to 0, 75.0, 113, or 150 microg PAHs, respectively) for 30 days. Exposure enhanced disease expression in oysters. However, no significant change was noted in any measured cellular or humoral parameters.

  13. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  14. Unprecedented restoration of a native oyster metapopulation.

    PubMed

    Schulte, David M; Burke, Russell P; Lipcius, Romuald N

    2009-08-28

    Native oyster species were once vital ecosystem engineers, but their populations have collapsed worldwide because of overfishing and habitat destruction. In 2004, we initiated a vast (35-hectare) field experiment by constructing native oyster reefs of three types (high-relief, low-relief, and unrestored) in nine protected sanctuaries throughout the Great Wicomico River in Virginia, United States. Upon sampling in 2007 and 2009, we found a thriving metapopulation comprising 185 million oysters of various age classes. Oyster density was fourfold greater on high-relief than on low-relief reefs, explaining the failure of past attempts. Juvenile recruitment and reef accretion correlated with oyster density, facilitating reef development and population persistence. This reestablished metapopulation is the largest of any native oyster worldwide and validates ecological restoration of native oyster species.

  15. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  16. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): American oyster. [Crassostrea virginica

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, V.G. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    The American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is an important commercial and recreational species. Spawning occurs continuously in warmer months. Larvae are planktonic and are distributed throughout estuaries by tidal currents. After a 2- to 3-week planktonic stage, larvae permanently attach to a solid substrate. In the South Atlantic region, this solid substrate is usually the shell of other oysters growing in the intertidal zone. This gregarious behaivor results in formation of massive intertidal reefs that are a prominent feature of high salinity bays, creeks and sounds in the region. These reefs serve as habitat and foraging grounds for other species. Oysters tolerate salinity from about 5 ppt to above 40 ppt and temperatures from below freezing to nearly 50/sup 0/C.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  18. Sediment bioassays with oyster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, P.M.; Morgan, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Tests with naturally-occurring sediments are rare and sediment testing methodology is not standardized. The authors present a simple methodology for undertaking sediment bioassays with oyster larvae, and present data from a recent study to prove the utility of this method.

  19. Composted oyster shell as lime fertilizer is more effective than fresh oyster shell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Han; Islam, Shah Md Asraful; Hong, Sun Joo; Cho, Kye Man; Math, Renukaradhya K; Heo, Jae Young; Kim, Hoon; Yun, Han Dae

    2010-01-01

    Physio-chemical changes in oyster shell were examined, and fresh and composted oyster shell meals were compared as lime fertilizers in soybean cultivation. Structural changes in oyster shell were observed by AFM and FE-SEM. We found that grains of the oyster shell surface became smoother and smaller over time. FT-IR analysis indicated the degradation of a chitin-like compound of oyster shell. In chemical analysis, pH (12.3+/-0.24), electrical conductivity (4.1+/-0.24 dS m(-1)), and alkaline powder (53.3+/-1.12%) were highest in commercial lime. Besides, pH was higher in composted oyster shell meal (9.9+/-0.53) than in fresh oyster shell meal (8.4+/-0.32). The highest organic matter (1.1+/-0.08%), NaCl (0.54+/-0.03%), and moisture (15.1+/-1.95%) contents were found in fresh oyster shell meal. A significant higher yield of soybean (1.33 t ha(-1)) was obtained by applying composted oyster shell meal (a 21% higher yield than with fresh oyster shell meal). Thus composting of oyster shell increases the utility of oyster shell as a liming material for crop cultivation.

  20. SETTLEMENT AND SURVIVAL OF THE OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CREATED OYSTER REEF HABITATS IN CHESAPEAKE BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts to restore the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef habitats in Chesapeake Bay typically begin with the placement of hard substrata to form three-dimensional mounds on the seabed to serve as a base for oyster recruitment and growth. A shortage of oyster shell for ...

  1. High pressure inactivation of HAV within oysters: comparison of shucked oysters with whole in shell meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) within oysters bioaccumulated under simulated natural conditions to levels >106 PFU/oyster has been evaluated. Five min treatments at 20C were administered at 350, 375, and 400 MegaPascals (MPa). Shucked and whole-in-shell oysters were directly...

  2. Mapping Oyster Reef Habitats in Mobile Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolte, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Oyster reefs around the world are declining rapidly, and although they haven t received as much attention as coral reefs, they are just as important to their local ecosystems and economies. Oyster reefs provide habitats for many species of fish, invertebrates, and crustaceans, as well as the next generations of oysters. Oysters are also harvested from many of these reefs and are an important segment of many local economies, including that of Mobile Bay, where oysters rank in the top five commercial marine species both by landed weight and by dollar value. Although the remaining Mobile Bay oyster reefs are some of the least degraded in the world, projected climate change could have dramatic effects on the health of these important ecosystems. The viability of oyster reefs depends on water depth and temperature, appropriate pH and salinity levels, and the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. Projected increases in sea level, changes in precipitation and runoff patterns, and changes in pH resulting from increases in the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the oceans could all affect the viability of oyster reefs in the future. Human activities such as dredging and unsustainable harvesting practices are also adversely impacting the oyster reefs. Fortunately, several projects are already under way to help rebuild or support existing or previously existing oyster reefs. The success of these projects will depend on the local effects of climate change on the current and potential habitats and man s ability to recognize and halt unsustainable harvesting practices. As the extent and health of the reefs changes, it will have impacts on the Mobile Bay ecosystem and economy, changing the resources available to the people who live there and to the rest of the country, since Mobile Bay is an important national source of seafood. This project identified potential climate change impacts on the oyster reefs of Mobile Bay, including the possible addition of newly viable

  3. 7 CFR 701.54 - Oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oysters. 701.54 Section 701.54 Agriculture Regulations... ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.54 Oysters. (a) Notwithstanding § 701.5(b), but otherwise subject to the... be made available under this section for the eligible cost of refurbishing public or private...

  4. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  5. Uptake of cadmium from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in British Columbia oyster growers

    SciTech Connect

    Copes, Ray Clark, Nina Annika; Rideout, Karen; Palaty, Jan; Teschke, Kay

    2008-06-15

    Background: Pacific oysters along the North American coast from Washington to Alaska contain concentrations of cadmium (Cd) that are high by comparison with Atlantic oysters, frequently exceeding 2 {mu}g/g wet weight, but it is unclear whether this Cd is absorbed by consumers. Objectives: To determine the effect of oyster consumption on Cd in blood and urine among a group with high oyster consumption. Methods: Sixty-one non-smoking oyster growers and family members with a mean age of 47.3{+-}7.6 years (range 33-64) were interviewed by telephone to assess their oyster consumption and other sources of Cd exposure at present and 5 years prior to the start of oyster farming. Their blood and urine Cd concentrations were measured. Results: The geometric mean Cd concentration in blood was 0.83 {mu}g/L and in urine was 0.76 {mu}g/g creatinine. Thirty-six percent of participants had urinary Cd levels above 1 {mu}g/g creatinine and 5% were above 2 {mu}g/g creatinine. Recent (last 12 months) and long-term oyster consumptions were positive predictors of blood Cd but did not directly predict urinary Cd. The optimal model for predicting the variance in blood Cd included recent intake of oyster-derived Cd, serum iron concentration and recent ketchup consumption (R{sup 2}=0.34, p=0.00004), with the latter two variables showing a protective effect. The factors found to predict urinary Cd were blood Cd concentration and duration of oyster farming. A rise in blood Cd was observed after 12 years of farming oysters, likely caused by higher consumption of oysters during this period. Conclusions: Oyster-derived Cd is bioavailable and affects body stores of the metal.

  6. How long does oyster shell last on an oyster reef?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Eric N.; Kraeuter, John N.; Ashton-Alcox, Kathryn A.

    2006-09-01

    A reduction in population abundance, brought on by an unprecedented 6 years of low recruitment, has reduced shell input through natural mortality on Delaware Bay oyster beds. Quantitative stock surveys provide an estimate of surficial shell over the same time period, permitting the reconstruction of the time history of shell since 1998 and estimation of the rates of shell addition and loss. Shell loss rates were unexpectedly high. In most cases, half of the shell added to an oyster bed in Delaware Bay in a given year is lost over a subsequent period of 2-10 years. Unexpectedly, the shortest half-lives, typically two to three years, are at intermediate salinities. Half-lives increase upbay into lower salinity and downbay into higher salinity to about 10 years. Minimal shell doubling times were calculated under the assumption of no shell loss, a maximum accretion rate. Minimal doubling times vary from somewhat less than a decade to more than a score of years. Doubling times of decadal scale emphasize that shell has the potential to accumulate rapidly on human time scales. The rarity of definitive documentation of shell accumulation, in terms of reef vertical accretion or lateral expansion, can only be explained if most shell produced yearly does not long remain recognizably intact. Doubling times are not rapid on the scale of oyster generation time, however. Management of essential fish habitat in the estuarine realm must include management of the shell budget and management of commercial shell-producing species must include the provision of animals as carbonate producers for habitat maintenance. Shell, at least in estuarine habitats, may have low preservational potential, even in areas that, when preserved, will appear to be shellbeds. The biases in the fossil record may not be minimized in shell-rich environments of preservation because shelliness does not imply good preservability.

  7. Noroviruses in oysters from local markets and oyster farms in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittigul, Leera; Pombubpa, Kannika; Sukonthalux, Suntharee; Rattanatham, Tippawan; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen oyster samples collected from local markets and oyster farms in southern Thailand were examined for noroviruses (NoVs) and bacterial indicators of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli). Using a virus concentration procedure followed by RT-nested PCR, NoVs were detected in 38% of the samples. Oysters collected from oyster farms were found with NoVs at a higher detection rate (25/53 samples) than oysters from local markets (20/65 samples). Of the 45 NoV-positive oyster samples, 67% belonged to NoV genogroup I (GI), 15% to GII, and 18% to both GI and GII. DNA sequencing showed that 2 NoVs belonged to NoV GI-2 genotype. Fecal coliforms in NoV-positive oyster samples were in the range of < 3.0 to 1.5 x 10(4) most probable number (MPN)/g and 33% of NoV-positive oyster samples contained fecal coliforms within the standard acceptable level of raw shellfish (< 20 MPN/g). E. coli was found in the range of < 3.0 to 1.5 x 10(4) MPN/g and 9% of NoV-positive oyster samples were within acceptable levels of E. coli contamination (< 3 MPN/g). These findings indicate that NoV contamination in oysters obtained from both markets and oyster farms might pose a potential risk of acute gastroenteritis associated with raw oyster consumption. Examination for both fecal bacterial indicators and enteric viruses should be conducted for microbiological food safety of shellfish.

  8. Calculation of Oyster Benefits with a Bioenergetics Model of the Virginia Oyster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    tissue, shell, and reproductive material. The bioenergetics model is coupled to an oyster benefits module. The calculation of benefits is based on...individual oyster (Figure 1). These are shell, soft tissue, and reproductive material. The oysters filter overlying water continuously, although the rate...is a constant fraction of the energy expended in feeding. Basal metabolism proceeds at a rate independent of activity. Reproductive material is

  9. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-09-02

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets.

  10. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  11. Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Commercially Important Oysters from Goa, Central-West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Shenai-Tirodkar, Prachi S; Gauns, Mangesh U; Ansari, Zakir A

    2016-12-01

    The major beds of oyster along the central-west coast of India are exposed to different anthropogenic activities and are severely exploited for human consumption. In this viewpoint, tissues of oyster Crassostrea madrasensis, C. gryphoides and Saccostrea cucullata were analyzed for Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb concentrations (dry weight) from Chicalim Bay, Nerul Creek and Chapora Bay in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. A higher concentration of Cu (134.4-2167.9 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (7.1-88.5 mg kg(-1)) was found, which is greater than the recommended limits in all the three species (and sites). Moreover, significant (p < 0.05) variations were observed for all the metals concentrations among the species, seasons and sites. The high concentrations of Cd and Cu in tissues of edible oyster pose a threat to human health. Therefore, continuous monitoring, people awareness and a stringent government policy should be implemented to mitigate the metal pollution along the studied sites.

  12. Oyster mortality in Delaware Bay: Impacts and recovery from Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, D.; Tabatabai, A.; Burt, I.; Bushek, D.; Powell, E. N.; Wilkin, J.

    2013-12-01

    One predicted consequence of climate change is increasing variability of local weather extremes such as the frequency and intensity of storms. In August and September of 2011, Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee generated extreme flooding in the Delaware River watershed that produced prolonged baywide low salinity and consequent historically-high mortalities for the oyster stock in the upper reaches of Delaware Bay. The dynamics, consequences, and projections for recovery from the anomalously high oyster mortality that occurred as a consequence are reported using a combination of physical modeling, field sampling, and metapopulation dynamics modeling. Monthly mortality of 10% and 55% on the upper bay beds (Arnolds and Hope Creek respectively) exceeded the longer-term average at those locations and was associated with a continuous low salinity (<7) exposure of greater than 20 days. Population recovery projections based on metapopulation modeling suggests that recovery will take approximately 10 years for the uppermost beds. Clear understanding of the circumstances leading to this high population-level impact on oysters is important because anticipated future conditions of increased storm frequency will intensify the challenge such events pose for the management of fishery and aquaculture resources, and the siting of restoration efforts.

  13. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  14. Partridge Creek Diversion Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Goal: prevent mercury contamination by keeping the creek from flowing through a mine pit. The project improved brook trout habitat, green infrastructure, the local economy, and decreased human health risks. Includes before-and-after photos.

  15. ACTIVATION OF OYSTER DEFENSES BY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four field studies performed on eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica support a hypothesis that Cu, Zn, and perhaps butyltins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can stimulate hemopoiesis, hemocyte locomotion and hemocyte bactericidal capacity. The first study found circul...

  16. Survival of Salmonella Newport in oysters.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher M; Armstrong, Alexandra E; Evans, Sanford; Mild, Rita M; Langdon, Christopher J; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-08-02

    Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed foodborne illness in the United States and raw shellfish consumption is a commonly implicated source of gastrointestinal pathogens. A 2005 epidemiological study done in our laboratory by Brands et al., showed that oysters in the United States are contaminated with Salmonella, and in particular, a specific strain of the Newport serovar. This work sought to further investigate the host-microbe interactions between Salmonella Newport and oysters. A procedure was developed to reliably and repeatedly expose oysters to enteric bacteria and quantify the subsequent levels of bacterial survival. The results show that 10 days after an exposure to Salmonella Newport, an average concentration of 3.7 × 10(3)CFU/g remains within the oyster meat, and even after 60 days there still can be more than 10(2)CFU/g remaining. However, the strain of Newport that predominated in the market survey done by Brands et al. does not survive within oysters or the estuarine environment better than any other strains of Salmonella we tested. Using this same methodology, we compared Salmonella Newport's ability to survive within oysters to a non-pathogenic strain of E. coli and found that after 10 days the concentration of Salmonella was 200-times greater than that of E. coli. We also compared those same strains of Salmonella and E. coli in a depuration process to determine if a constant 120 L/h flux of clean seawater could significantly reduce the concentration of bacteria within oysters and found that after 3 days the oysters retained over 10(4)CFU/g of Salmonella while the oysters exposed to the non-pathogenic strain of E. coli contained 100-times less bacteria. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that any of the clinically relevant serovars of Salmonella can survive within oysters for significant periods of time after just one exposure event. Based on the drastic differences in survivability between Salmonella and a non

  17. Immunochromatographic assay of cadmium levels in oysters.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Kosuke; Kim, In-Hae; Itai, Takaaki; Sugahara, Takuya; Takeyama, Haruko; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-08-15

    Oysters are one of foodstuffs containing a relatively high amount of cadmium. Here we report on establishment of an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) method of cadmium levels in oysters. Cadmium was extracted with 0.l mol L(-1) HCl from oysters and cleaned up from other metals by the use of an anion-exchange column. The behavior of five metals Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd was monitored at each step of extraction and clean-up procedure for the ICA method in an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. The results revealed that a simple extraction method with the HCl solution was efficient enough to extract almost all of cadmium from oysters. Clean-up with an anion-exchange column presented almost no loss of cadmium adsorbed on the column and an efficient removal of metals other than cadmium. When a spiked recovery test was performed in the ICA method, the recovery ranged from 98% to 112% with relative standard deviations between 5.9% and 9.2%. The measured values of cadmium in various oyster samples in the ICA method were favorably correlated with those in ICP-MS analysis (r(2)=0.97). Overall results indicate that the ICA method established in the present study is an adequate and reliable detection method for cadmium levels in oysters.

  18. Oyster Reef Communities in the Chesapeake Bay: A Brief Primer. VORTEX: Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Juliana M.; Mann, Roger; Clark, Vicki P.

    This document introduces Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience (VORTEX), which is an interdisciplinary program focusing on the importance of oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The VORTEX program uses field and laboratory experience supported by multimedia instruction. This document presents an overview on the biology of…

  19. Densoviruses in oyster Crassostrea ariakensis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yan-Jun; Huang, Wei; Zhao, A-Li; Lai, Dan-Dan; Shao, Lin; Shen, Yan-Qin; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric; Zhang, Wen

    2017-03-24

    Densoviruses have short ssDNA genomes and mainly infect arthropods. To characterize viral nucleic acid in shellfish, oysters (Crassostrea ariakensis) were analyzed using viral metagenomics. Two large de novo assembled contigs, CaaDV1 and CaaDV2, consisting of nearly complete densovirus genomes (5860 nucleotides (nt) and 4034 nt) with two major ambisense protein coding regions were identified. Several potential non-structural proteins and capsid proteins were encoded by these genomes, but these were divergent from the existing densoviral species. The NS1 protein of the two CaaDVs shared 43.3%~61.5% amino acid identities with the sea star-associated densovirus and cherax quadricarinatus densovirus, with the four species clustering by phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of densovirus detection in shellfish, increasing the potential host range of densoviruses and the genetic diversity of the genus Ambidensovirus.

  20. Antiviral active peptide from oyster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Cui, Wenxuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Guo, Yao

    2008-08-01

    An active peptide against herpes virus was isolated from the enzymic hydrolysate of oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) and purified with the definite direction hydrolysis technique in the order of alcalase and bromelin. The hydrolysate was fractioned into four ranges of molecular weight (>10 kDa, 10 5 kDa, 5 1 kDa and <1 kDa) using ultrafiltration membranes and dialysis. The fraction of 10 5 kDa was purified using consecutive chromatographic methods including DEAE Sephadex A-25 column, Sephadex G-25 column, and high performance liquid chromatogram (HPLC) by activity-guided isolation. The antiviral effect of the obtained peptide on herpetic virus was investigated in Vero cells by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). The result shows that the peptide has high inhibitory activity on herpetic virus.

  1. BOILER, LOCATED IN BACK ROOM OF OYSTER SHUCKING BUILDING. STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILER, LOCATED IN BACK ROOM OF OYSTER SHUCKING BUILDING. STEAM WAS USED IN OYSTER PROCESSING, FOR EXAMPLE IN STERILIZING EQUIPMENT. - F. & H. Benning Company, 1014 Benning Road, Galesville, Anne Arundel County, MD

  2. Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  3. INFLUENCE OF ALTERED FRESHWATER FLOWS ON EASTERN OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for National Shellfisheries Association

    Eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica are prominent in Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Valued both commercially and ecologically, oyster populations are threatened by human activity, including dredging, harvesting, and upstream al...

  4. Soap Creek Associates NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  5. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  6. Trace metals in Gulf of Mexico oysters.

    PubMed

    Presley, B J; Taylor, R J; Boothe, P N

    1990-11-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from 50 to 69 locations (sites) along the Gulf of Mexico coastline, collected annually in 1986, 1987 and 1988, have been analyzed for 13 trace metals, including most of the metals of concern from an environmental quality perspective. Essentially the entire U.S. Gulf coastline was sampled, from far south Texas to far south Florida. Pooled samples of 20 oysters from three different stations at each site were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The concentrations found were generally less than or equal to literature values from other parts of the world thought to be uncontaminated by anthropogenic trace metal inputs. A few sites did, however, show apparent trace metal pollution and other sites gave anomalous values that cannot readily be explained by either known anthropogenic or natural causes. The range of values for the overall data set (maximum/minimum) varied from 15-fold for Mn to 624-fold for Pb, whereas the coefficient of variation (standard deviation/mean) was generally in the 50-60% range for most metals. Variations were much greater between stations than between years at a given station. Enrichments usually occurred in suites of three to four elements with Ag, Cd, Cu and Zn being the most common suite, thus several strong inter-element correlations were found. There was, however, little correlation between metal levels in oysters and in sediments from the collection sites even when sediment data were rationed to Al (sediment data are not given here). There was likewise little correlation between oyster metal levels and size, sex or reproductive stage of the oysters (data given elsewhere). Geographically, appreciably elevated (greater than 3 times average) metal levels were generally restricted to single sites within bays or estuaries, implying local control. On the other hand, regionally, Ag, Cd and Se levels were somewhat higher in Texas oysters than in those from Florida, whereas the reverse was true for As and

  7. Directly measured denitrification reveals oyster aquaculture and restored oyster reefs remove nitrogen at comparable high rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by over-enrichment of nutrients, which has cascading effects for ecosystem functioning. Oyster restoration and aquaculture are both hypothesized to mitigate excessive nitrogen (N) loads via benthic denitrification (DNF). However, this has...

  8. WELCOME CREEK WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, D.J.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential for small amounts of gold and other metals. Areas of alluvium in Welcome Creek and in part of Rock Creek are classed as having probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for small quantities of gold in small and scattered placers and in placer tailings. A small area which contains the Cleveland mine, on Cleveland Mountain, near the west border of the wilderness was classed as having probable mineral-resource potential for silver and gold in veins. Although green mudstone strata that often are favorable hosts for stratabound copper occurrences were found in the northeast part of the wilderness, no copper deposits were found and these studies indicate little likelihood for the occurrence of copper resources. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of energy resources.

  9. Eating oysters without risk of vibriosis: application of a bacteriophage against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Sae Kil; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Se Chang

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major cause of foodborne illness and related with the consumption of raw contaminated seafood, especially oysters. To evaluate the effectiveness of various applications of a bacteriophage (phage), pVp-1, against a multiple-antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain (CRS 09-17), we designed artificial contamination models that are most likely to be encountered during oyster processing. When live oysters were treated with bath immersion with pVp-1 after CRS 09-17 challenge, the growth of bacterial strain was significantly reduced. After 72h of phage application with bath immersion, bacterial growth reduction was observed to be 8.9×10(6)CFU/ml (control group) to 1.4×10CFU/ml (treatment group). When pVp-1 was surface-applied on the flesh of oysters after CRS 09-17 inoculation, bacterial growth was properly inhibited. After 12h of phage application on the surface of oysters, bacterial growth inhibition was revealed to be 1.44×10(6)CFU/ml (control group) to 1.94CFU/ml (treatment group). This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, of oyster surface-application of a phage against a multiple-antibiotic-resistant V. parahaemolyticus pandemic strain, and our successful phage application to various situations emphasizes the potential use of the phage to avoid V. parahaemolyticus infection from aquaculture to consumption.

  10. Associations between land use and Perkinsus marinus infection of eastern oysters in a high salinity, partially urbanized estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Brian R.; Bushek, David; Drane, J. Wanzer; Porter, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    Infection levels of eastern oysters by the unicellular pathogen Perkinsus marinus have been associated with anthropogenic influences in laboratory studies. However, these relationships have been difficult to investigate in the field because anthropogenic inputs are often associated with natural influences such as freshwater inflow, which can also affect infection levels. We addressed P. marinus-land use associations using field-collected data from Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, USA, a developed, coastal estuary with relatively minor freshwater inputs. Ten oysters from each of 30 reefs were sampled quarterly in each of 2 years. Distances to nearest urbanized land class and to nearest stormwater outfall were measured via both tidal creeks and an elaboration of Euclidean distance. As the forms of any associations between oyster infection and distance to urbanization were unknown a priori, we used data from the first and second years of the study as exploratory and confirmatory datasets, respectively. With one exception, quarterly land use associations identified using the exploratory dataset were not confirmed using the confirmatory dataset. The exception was an association between the prevalence of moderate to high infection levels in winter and decreasing distance to nearest urban land use. Given that the study design appeared adequate to detect effects inferred from the exploratory dataset, these results suggest that effects of land use gradients were largely insubstantial or were ephemeral with duration less than 3 months.

  11. Inactivation of murine norovirus and feline calicivirus during oyster fermentation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa; Seo, Jina; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Changsun

    2014-12-01

    Fermented seafood is popular in Asian countries. This study examined the survival of feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) during oyster fermentation. Oysters spiked with FCV and MNV were fermented with 5% or 10% salt at 18 °C for 15 days, and MNV and FCV titers, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations, pH, and enzymatic activity were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15 days post-fermentation (DPF). Reductions in MNV and FCV were greater in 5% NaCl-supplemented oysters than in 10% NaCl-supplemented oysters. In 5% NaCl oysters, MNV and FCV titers significantly decreased by 1.60 log and 3.01 log, respectively, at 15 DPF. Populations of LAB increased from 3.62 log10 colony-forming units/g at 0 DPF to 8.77 log10 colony-forming units/g at 15 DPF during oyster fermentation supplemented with 5% NaCl supplementation, and the pH decreased gradually from 5.38 at 0 DPF to 4.17 at 15 DPF. During oyster fermentation, α-amylase, proteinase, and lipase were produced at higher levels in 5% salted oysters than in 10% salted oysters (P < 0.01). We concluded that many of the antimicrobial factors produced in fermented oysters could contribute to a reduction in foodborne viruses.

  12. Shape analysis for an automatic oyster grading system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Xu, Xiaoqian; Lane, Robert M.; Zhan, Pengcheng

    2004-12-01

    An overview of the oyster industry in the U. S. with emphasis in Virginia shows oyster grading occurs at harvest, wholesale and processing markets. Currently whole oysters, also called shellstock, are graded manually by screening and sorting based on diameter or weight. The majority of oysters harvested for the processing industry are divided into three to four main grades: small, medium, large, and selects. We have developed a shape analysis method for an automatic oyster grading system. The system first detects and removes poor quality oysters such as banana shape, broken shell, and irregular shapes. Good quality oysters move further into grades of small, medium and large. The contours of the oysters are extracted for shape analysis. Banana shape and broken shell have a specific shape flaw (or difference) compared to the ones with good quality. Global shape properties such as compactness, roughness, and elongation are suitable and useful to measure the shape flaw. Image projection area or length of the major axis measured as global properties for sizing. Incorporating a machine vision system for grading, sorting and counting oysters supports reduced operating costs. The savings produced from reducing labor, increasing accuracy in size, grade and count and providing real time accurate data for accounting and billing would contribute to the profit of the oysters industry.

  13. Predation by native brown shrimp on invasive Pacific oyster spat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerman, E. J.; Eriksson, B. K.; Olff, H.; van der Heide, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) increased dramatically in the Wadden Sea. One of the driving mechanisms for the success of the Pacific oyster could be a relatively low predation pressure by epibenthic predators and shore birds on oyster spat. Nevertheless, observations and experiments on predation rates on early life-stages of the Pacific oyster are rare. Therefore, we examined predation rates of brown shrimps on Pacific oyster spat in a number of laboratory experiments. Our results demonstrate that spat of Pacific oysters are most susceptible to predation by brown shrimps (Crangon crangon) in the first days after settlement, when attachment to the substrate (unglazed tiles in our study) is still absent or weak. At this stage the shell length of oyster spat is around ~ 300 μm, and around 50% of the individuals in the experiment were consumed in the two hour trials. Predation rates decreased rapidly as the spat grew larger and reached zero within 10 days after settlement of the spat (shell length > 700 μm). Additional experiments revealed that the attachment of oysters is probably limiting predation by brown shrimps rather than the size of the spat. This indicates that Pacific oyster spat may limit predation loss faster compared to native bivalves, which commonly depend on size to reduce predation rates. Overall, our results suggest that the invasive success of Pacific oysters may in part be explained by relatively low predation rates throughout their life stages.

  14. Use of oysters to mitigate eutrophication in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, M. Lisa; Smyth, Ashley R.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Brown, Bonnie L.; Cornwell, Jeffrey C.; Piehler, Michael F.; Owens, Michael S.; Dalrymple, D. Joseph; Higgins, Colleen B.

    2014-12-01

    Enhancing populations of suspension feeding bivalves, particularly the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, has been proposed as a means of mitigating eutrophication in coastal waters. Review of studies evaluating the effects of C. virginica on nitrogen (N) cycling found that oysters can have effects on water quality that vary by orders of magnitude among sites, seasons, and growing condition (e.g., oyster reefs, aquaculture). Nitrogen contained in phytoplankton consumed by oysters may be returned to the water column, assimilated into oyster tissue and shell, buried in the sediments, or returned to the atmosphere as dinitrogen gas, primarily via denitrification. Accurately quantifying oyster-related N removal requires detailed knowledge of these primary fates of N in coastal waters. A review of existing data demonstrated that the current state of knowledge is incomplete in many respects. Nitrogen assimilated into oyster tissue and shell per gram of dry weight was generally similar across sites and in oysters growing on reefs compared to aquaculture. Data on long-term burial of N associated with oyster reefs or aquaculture are lacking. When compared to suitable reference sites, denitrification rates were not consistently enhanced. Depending on environmental and oyster growing conditions, changes in denitrification rates varied by orders of magnitude among studies and did not always occur. Oyster aquaculture rarely enhanced denitrification. Unharvested oyster reefs frequently enhanced denitrification rates. Incorporating oysters into nutrient reduction strategies will require filling gaps in existing data to determine the extent to which relationships between N removal and environmental and/or growing conditions can be generalized.

  15. Oyster School Stands the Test of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fern, Veronica

    1995-01-01

    Describes Oyster Elementary School's award-winning two-way bilingual (Spanish-English) program. The school's success has been maintained by strong parent and community support, high academic standards, and ongoing professional development efforts. However, cultural, generational, and socioeconomic differences among staff, students, and parents…

  16. INORGANIC ELEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN OYSTERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fisher, William S. In press. Inorganic Elements and Distribution of Eastern Oysters (Abstract). To be presented at the 96th Annual Meeting (Aquaculture 2004) of the National Shellfisheries Association, 1-5 March 2004, Honolulu, HI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R962).

    For over a century w...

  17. A microbial spoilage profile of half shell Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata).

    PubMed

    Madigan, Thomas L; Bott, Nathan J; Torok, Valeria A; Percy, Nigel J; Carragher, John F; de Barros Lopes, Miguel A; Kiermeier, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to assess bacterial spoilage of half shell Pacific and Sydney rock oysters during storage using microbial culture and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Odour and pH of oyster meats were also investigated. Estimation of microbiological counts by microbial culture highlighted growth of psychrotrophic bacteria. During storage, odour scores (a score describing deterioration of fresh odours where a score of 1 is fresh and 4 is completely spoiled) increased from 1.0 to 3.0 for Pacific oysters and from 1.3 to 3.4 for Sydney rock oysters. pH results obtained for both species fluctuated during storage (range 6.28-6.73) with an overall increase at end of storage. Pyrosequencing revealed that the majority of bacteria at Day 0 represented taxa from amongst the Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Spirochaetes that have not been cultured and systematically described. During storage, Proteobacteria became abundant with Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio found to be dominant in both oyster species at Day 7. Analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed significant differences in bacterial profiles between oyster species and storage time (both P = 0.001). As oysters spoiled, bacterial profiles between oyster species became more similar indicating a common spoilage profile. Data presented here provides detailed insight into the changing bacterial profile of shucked oysters during storage and has identified two genera, Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio, as being important in spoilage of shucked oysters.

  18. OYSTER POPULATUION ESTIMATION IN SUPPORT OF THE TEN-YEAR GOAL FOR OYSTER RESOTRATION IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY: DEVELOPING STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING AND MANAGING THE EASTERN OYSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mann, Roger, Steve Jordan, Gary Smith, Kennedy Paynter, James Wesson, Mary Christman, Jessica Vanisko, Juliana Harding, Kelly Greenhawk and Melissa Southworth. 2003. Oyster Population Estimation in Support of the Ten-Year Goal for Oyster Restoration in the Chesapeake Bay: Develop...

  19. From artificial structures to self-sustaining oyster reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walles, Brenda; Troost, Karin; van den Ende, Douwe; Nieuwhof, Sil; Smaal, Aad C.; Ysebaert, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Coastal ecosystems are increasingly recognized as essential elements within coastal defence schemes and coastal adaptation. The capacity of coastal ecosystems, like marshes and oyster reefs, to maintain their own habitat and grow with sea-level rise via biophysical feedbacks is seen as an important advantage of such systems compared to man-made hard engineering structures. Providing a suitable substrate for oysters to settle on offers a kick-start for establishment at places where they were lost or are desirable for coastal protection. Accumulation of shell material, through recruitment and growth, is essential to the maintenance of oyster reefs as it provides substrate for new generations (positive feedback loop), forming a self-sustainable structure. Insight in establishment, survival and growth thresholds and knowledge about the population dynamics are necessary to successfully implement oyster reefs in coastal defence schemes. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether artificial Pacific oyster reefs develop into self-sustaining oyster reefs that contribute to coastal protection. Reef development was investigated by studying recruitment, survival and growth rates of oysters on artificial oyster reefs in comparison with nearby natural Pacific oyster reefs. The artificial reef structure successfully offered substrate for settlement of oysters and therefore stimulated reef formation. Reef development, however, was hampered by local sedimentation and increasing tidal emersion. Tidal emersion is an important factor that can be used to predict where artificial oyster reefs have the potential to develop into self-sustaining reefs that could contribute to coastal protection, but it is also a limiting factor in using oyster reefs for coastal protection.

  20. Immune and stress responses in oysters with insights on adaptation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ximing; He, Yan; Zhang, Linlin; Lelong, Christophe; Jouaux, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Oysters are representative bivalve molluscs that are widely distributed in world oceans. As successful colonizers of estuaries and intertidal zones, oysters are remarkably resilient against harsh environmental conditions including wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity as well as prolonged air exposure. Oysters have no adaptive immunity but can thrive in microbe-rich estuaries as filter-feeders. These unique adaptations make oysters interesting models to study the evolution of host-defense systems. Recent advances in genomic studies including sequencing of the oyster genome have provided insights into oyster's immune and stress responses underlying their amazing resilience. Studies show that the oyster genomes are highly polymorphic and complex, which may be key to their resilience. The oyster genome has a large gene repertoire that is enriched for immune and stress response genes. Thousands of genes are involved in oyster's immune and stress responses, through complex interactions, with many gene families expanded showing high sequence, structural and functional diversity. The high diversity of immune receptors and effectors may provide oysters with enhanced specificity in immune recognition and response to cope with diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Some members of expanded immune gene families have diverged to function at different temperatures and salinities or assumed new roles in abiotic stress response. Most canonical innate immunity pathways are conserved in oysters and supported by a large number of diverse and often novel genes. The great diversity in immune and stress response genes exhibited by expanded gene families as well as high sequence and structural polymorphisms may be central to oyster's adaptation to highly stressful and widely changing environments.

  1. Bactericidal effects of wine on Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengchu; Chen, Ruiying; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    The bactericidal effects of wines on Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters were studied to evaluate potential inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus in contaminated oysters by wine consumption. Shucked whole oyster and oyster meat homogenate were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus and mixed with red or white wine. Survivals of V. parahaemolyticus in inoculated oysters were determined at 7 and 25 degrees C. Populations of V. parahaemolyticus in inoculated whole oysters (5.52 log most probable number [MPN] per g) decreased slightly to 4.90 log MPN/g (a 0.62-log reduction) after 24 h at 7 degrees C but increased to 7.37 log MPN/g over the same period at 25 degrees C. However, the populations in wine-treated whole oysters decreased by >1.7 and >1.9 log MPN/g after 24 h at 7 and 25 degrees C, respectively. Both red and white wines were more effective in inactivating V. parahaemolyticus in oyster meat homogenate than in whole oyster. Populations of V. parahaemolyticus in oyster meat homogenate (7.8 x 10(3) MPN/g) decreased rapidly to nondetectable levels (< 3 MPN/g) after 30 min of mixing with wine at 25 degrees C (a 3.89-log MPN/g reduction). These results suggest that chewing oysters before swallowing when eating raw oysters may result in greater inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus if wine is consumed. More studies are needed to determine the bactericidal effects of wine on V. parahaemolyticus in the complicated stomach environment.

  2. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  3. The Beaver Creek story

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  4. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  5. Line Creek improves efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, P.

    1988-04-01

    Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

  6. Understanding transplanted oysters as bioindicators of trace organic contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sericano, J.L.; Wade, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    This study was designed to examine the uptake and depuration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by transplanted oysters (Crassostrea virginica) under field conditions in Galveston Bay, Texas. Oyster were transplanted from a relative pristine area to a highly contaminated location near the Houston Ship Channel. During 48 days, the concentrations of individual PAHs and PCBs in transplanted oysters were compared to the levels found in indigenous oysters. Four and fie-ring PAHs were rapidly bioaccumulated by transplanted oysters and apparent equilibrium concentrations were reached after 20 to 30 days of exposure to the new environmental conditions. One month after the experiment started, no statistically significant differences were observed in the concentration of individual PAHs or the distributions of PAHs grouped by ring number between indigenous and transplanted oysters. PCBs were also bioconcentrated during the uptake period although the final total concentrations were lower than those measured in indigenous oysters. Low molecular weight PCBs were rapidly taken up by transplanted oysters and reached an equilibrium plateau at the end of the seven-week exposure period. In contrast, the uptake of high molecular weight PCBs was significantly slower and a final equilibrium with environmental levels was not observed. Oysters can be useful tools in biomonitoring studies but results differ for different trace organic contaminants. While PAH and low molecular weight PCB concentrations reach a steady-state within about one month, high molecular weight PCB congeners require a much longer period of time, i.e. over 6 months.

  7. Temperature-dependent stress response in oysters, Crassostrea virginica: pollution reduces temperature tolerance in oysters.

    PubMed

    Lannig, Gisela; Flores, Jason F; Sokolova, Inna M

    2006-09-12

    Combined effects of temperature and a toxic metal, cadmium (Cd), on energy metabolism were studied in a model marine bivalve, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, acclimated at 20, 24 and 28 degrees C and exposed to 50microgl(-1) of Cd. Both increasing temperature and Cd exposure led to a rise in standard metabolic rates, and combined stressors appeared to override the capability for aerobic energy production resulting in impaired stress tolerance. Oysters exposed to elevated temperature but not Cd showed no significant change in condition, survival rate and lipid peroxidation, whereas those exposed to both Cd and temperature stress suffered high mortality accompanied by low condition index and elevated lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, RNA/DNA ratios indicative of protein synthesis rate, and levels of glutathione, which is involved in metal detoxification, increased in Cd-exposed oysters at 20 degrees C but not at 28 degrees C. Implications of the synergism between elevated temperatures and cadmium stress on energy metabolism of oysters are discussed in the light of the potential effects of climate change on oyster populations in polluted areas.

  8. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  10. Non-indigenous predators threaten ecosystem engineers: Interactive effects of green crab and oyster size on American oyster mortality.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Tyler R; Poirier, Luke A; Barrett, Timothy J; McKenna, Shawn; Davidson, Jeff; Quijón, Pedro A

    2017-03-12

    Non-indigenous green crabs (Carcinus maenas) are emerging as important predators of autogenic engineers like American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) throughout the eastern seaboard of Canada and the United States. To document the spreading distribution of green crabs, we carried out surveys in seven sites of Prince Edward Island during three fall seasons. To assess the potential impact of green crabs on oyster mortality in relation to predator and prey size, we conducted multiple predator-prey manipulations in the field and laboratory. The surveys confirmed an ongoing green crab spread into new productive oyster habitats while rapidly increasing in numbers in areas where crabs had established already. The experiments measured mortality rates on four sizes of oysters exposed to three sizes of crab, and lasted 3-5 days. The outcomes of experiments conducted in Vexar(®) bags, laboratory tanks and field cages were consistent and were heavily dependent on both crab size and oyster size: while little predation occurred on large oysters, large and medium green crabs preyed heavily on small sizes. Oysters reached a refuge within the 35-55 mm shell length range; below that range, oysters suffered high mortality due to green crab predation and thus require management measures to enhance their survival. These results are most directly applicable to aquaculture operations and restoration initiatives but have implications for oyster sustainability.

  11. The bly creek ecosystem study: Phosphorus transport within a euhaline salt marsh basin, North Inlet, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, Richard F.; Wolaver, Thomas G.; Williams, Thomas M.; Spurrier, John D.; Miller, Anne B.

    Phosphorus transport through the tidal creek linking the Bly Creek basin (North Inlet, South Carolina) and the surrounding water body was studied on 34 tidal cycles between 20 June 1983 and 19 June 1984. Annual estimates of phosphorus input to the basin via streamwater, groundwater, and via streamwater, groundwater, and rain totalled 19.6 kg P·y -1; PO 4 export from the basin was not significant. Within the basin, the salt marsh was shown to be an important sink for PO 4 (207 kg P·y -1) while the oyster reef community exported a statistically insignificant 7.7 kg P·y -1. The data suggest that the source of the PO 4 to the salt marsh is the water column or benthic sediments of the tidal creek. The salt marsh was a significant sink for particulate phosphorus, but those uptakes were less than the error on the insignificant fluxes into the basin via the water column. The oyster reef community was a statistically significant sink for total phosphorus (98 kg P·y -1).

  12. 75 FR 40034 - Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Northeastern Tributary Reservoirs Land Management Plan, Beaver Creek, Clear Creek, Boone, Fort Patrick Henry... Land Management Plan (NTRLMP) for the 4,933 acres of TVA-managed public land on Beaver Creek, Clear... the Watauga River. Beaver Creek and Clear Creek reservoirs are on tributaries within the South...

  13. GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

  14. PINEY CREEK WILDERNESS, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    The Piney Creek Wilderness in southwest Missouri was investigated by geologic, geochemical, and mineral-occurrence surveys. These is no evidence of metallic mineral deposits in the rock units exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but the entire area has a probable potential for significant zinc-lead deposits at depths of several hundred feet. A probable potential also exists for a small to moderate-sized iron ore deposit at a depth of at least 2100 ft along the northwest side of the wilderness. Evaluation of these potentials would require deep drilling, and in the case of the possible iron ore deposit, a detailed magnetic survey. No energy resource potential was identified within this area.

  15. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  16. Markers associated with disease resistance in Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern oyster, Crassostrea viginica, is an economically important aquaculture species in the USA, but production has been impacted by diseases such as dermo and MSX. Efforts have been put into the development of disease-resistant oyster lines using selective breeding techniques. However, these met...

  17. Seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in retail oyster tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Yan; Shi, Xianming

    2014-03-03

    Oysters are one of the important vehicles for the transfer of foodborne pathogens. It was reported that bacteria could be bio-accumulated mainly in the gills and digestive glands. In artificially treated oysters, bacterial communities have been investigated by culture-independent methods after harvest. However, little information is available on the seasonal dynamics of bacterial accumulation in retail oyster tissues. In this study, retail oysters were collected from local market in different seasons. The seasonal dynamics and diversity of bacteria in oyster tissues, including the gills, digestive glands and residual tissues, were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was interesting that the highest bacterial diversity appeared in the Fall season, not in summer. Our results indicated that Proteobacteria was the predominant member (23/46) in oyster tissues. Our results also suggested that bacterial diversity in gills was higher than that in digestive glands and other tissues. In addition, not all the bacteria collected from surrounding water by gills were transferred to digestive glands. On the other hand, few bacteria were found in oyster tissues except in the gills. Therefore, the gills could be the best candidate target tissue for monitoring of pathogenic bacteria either to human or to oyster.

  18. Bioavailability of lead in oysters fed to young Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.L.; Spivey Fox, M.R.; Hogye, K.S.

    1981-12-01

    The presence of lead in atmospheric particulates, soil, and seawater reflects the input of both domestic and industrial wastes. Because bivalves can concentrate large quantities of heavy metals, particularly lead, consumption of their meat may be a potential risk. The relative bioavailability of lead physiologicaly incorporated into oyster meat was investigated. Day-old Japanese quail were fed purified diets with three levels of lead added as either lead acetate, freeze-dried lead-dosed oyster, or lead acetate plus freeze-dried control oyster for 2 weeks. Feeding lead from any source had little or no effect on body weight, hemoglobin, hematocrit, or percentage ash in the tibia. The concentration of lead in tibia at each level of dietary lead for each type of diet was different from those for all other levels of dietary lead. Slope-ratio analysis of the data showed that lead intrinsically incorporated into oyster meat was 69-75% as bioavailable as lead in lead acetate at levels between 25 and 100 ppm dietary lead. The combinations of (1) control oyster meat with lead acetate and (2) lead acetate with copper and zinc levels equal to those in oyster meat gave responses similar to those of the lead-dosed oyster groups. Although these data showed lower bioavailability of lead in oyster meat as compared with lead acetate, the intercept of the lines at 25 ppm dietary lead suggests that the relative bioavailability may be reserved at lower levels of lead intake.

  19. Shell Games. VORTEX: Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Juliana M.; Mann, Roger; Clark, Vicki P.

    This document introduces Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience (VORTEX), which is an interdisciplinary program focusing on the importance of oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The VORTEX program uses field and laboratory experiences supported by multimedia instruction. This document presents an overview on the biology of…

  20. Steaming oysters does not prevent Norwalk-like gastroenteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, K B; Meriwether, R A; Leiss, J K; Mac Kenzie, W R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether steaming oysters prevents gastroenteritis caused by small round structured (Norwalk-like) viruses and to identify risk factors for illness. METHODS: The authors interviewed all 48 people who ate oysters at two church suppers that were followed by outbreaks of gastroenteritis from a Norwalk-like virus. Data were collected on demographics, clinical illness, number of oysters eaten, and the extent to which they were cooked. RESULTS: Among the 48 persons, the attack rate was 56%. The risk of illness increased with the number of oysters eaten (chi-square for trend = 5.7, P = 0.02). There was no decrease in attack rates among persons who ate oysters that were better done (chi-square for trend = 1.1, P = 0.29). CONCLUSIONS: In these outbreaks, the risk of illness increased with the number of oysters eaten. Steaming oysters did not appear to prevent illness, suggesting that steaming may not be adequate to inactivate small round structured viruses. Public health messages that have emphasized the role of raw shellfish in the transmission of enteric viruses should be altered to increase the public's awareness that eating steamed oysters may also pose health risks. PMID:8955700

  1. CAN OYSTERS PLAY A ROLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The culinary and commercial value of oysters is widely recognized but, until recently, their ecological importance has been largely overlooked. Field and laboratory studies have begun to explore how filter-feeding and reef building by oysters can influence nutrient cycling, biodi...

  2. Heritability of shell pigmentation in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is a species of considerable economic importance, with among the highest global production of any cultured aquatic animal species. In the interest of increasing the value of Pacific oysters sold as “singles” for the half-shell market, we explored the feasibili...

  3. Utilization of detrital complexes by the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin)

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The contribution of bacteria and nonliving particulate organic matter of detrital complexes to the nutrition of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was investigated in the laboratory under normal feeding conditions. Results indicate the oysters were capable of assimilating crude fiber extracted from /sup 14/C-Spartina alterniflora with an efficiency of approximately 3% and that enteric bacteria did not enhance this process. Less than 1% of an oyster's energetic demands could be met by direct utilization of this substrate, in the Choptank River subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay. The potential contribution of refractory organics to oysters in large salt marshes having crude fiber concentration greater than in the Choptank system, are discussed. The ability of the oyster to utilize /sup 14/C and /sup 15/N from cellulolytic marine bacteria, isolated from a S. alterniflora dominated salt marsh, was also studied.

  4. [Norovirus outbreak in Majorca (Spain) associated with oyster consumption].

    PubMed

    Galmés Truyols, Antònia; Duran, Jaume Giménez; Riutort, Antonio Nicolau; Cerdá, Gabriel Arbona; Isabel, Catalina Bosch; Arbona, Margarita Portell; Berga, Joana Vanrell

    2011-01-01

    We describe investigation into an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption. A survey was conducted in 346 exposed persons, 266 of whom were cases. Only 14 feces samples from patients were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory. Oysters collected at the production site were sent to the National Food Center. The oysters met the microbiological quality standard required before sale, which did not include virus investigation. Epidemiological analysis showed an association between gastroenteritis and consumption of oysters (OR = 60.4; 95% CI: 26.2-139.3) and razor shells (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9). Microbiological analysis confirmed norovirus in affected individuals but not in the oysters that had been tested after a longer purification period than those consumed. Food with a special risk of norovirus transmission should be strictly monitored. Investigators should dispose of the necessary laboratory resources to study food-borne norovirus outbreaks.

  5. Adult Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) May Have Light Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanjian; Li, Zhuang; Guo, Ting; Li, Yongchuan; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    Light-sensitivity is an important aspect of mollusk survival as it plays a vital role in reproduction and predator avoidance. In the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas light sensitivity has been demonstrated in the larval stage but has not yet been conclusively demonstrated in adult oysters. In this paper we describe an experiment which was undertaken to determine if adult Pacific oysters were sensitive to light. One LED flashlight was used to shine light onto adult oysters while they were filtering seawater through their shell openings. We found that the degree of opening increased gradually during the light period but rapidly decreased when the flashlight was turned off in the treated group but not in the control group. These results suggest that adult Pacific oyster may be sensitive to light. PMID:26474058

  6. Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Loisy, Fabienne; Atmar, Robert L.; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The primary pathogens related to shellfishborne gastroenteritis outbreaks are noroviruses. These viruses show persistence in oysters, which suggests an active mechanism of virus concentration. We investigated whether Norwalk virus or viruslike particles bind specifically to oyster tissues after bioaccumulation or addition to tissue sections. Since noroviruses attach to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family, tests using immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate specific binding of virus or viruslike particles to oyster tissues through these ligands. Viral particles bind specifically to digestive ducts (midgut, main and secondary ducts, and tubules) by carbohydrate structures with a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an α linkage (same binding site used for recognition of human histo-blood group antigens). These data show that the oyster can selectively concentrate a human pathogen and that conventional depuration will not eliminate noroviruses from oyster tissue. PMID:16707048

  7. Water quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and vibrionaceae loads in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster gardening sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae conc...

  8. Effect of calcinated oyster shell powder on growth, yield, spawn run, and primordial formation of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    PubMed

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-03-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the calcium (Ca) absorption efficacy of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) grown on sawdust medium supplemented with Ca-sources, including oyster shell powder, and to determine the efficacy of oyster shell powder as a calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial formation of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of oyster shell powder was achieved at the temperature of 620.56 °C. A 1% supplementation of oyster shell powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 2% calcinated oyster shell powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 315.7 ± 15.7 mg/100 g in the fruiting body of P. eryngii, without extension of duration of spawn run and the retardation of the days to primordial formation. These results suggest that the shellfish by-products, including oyster shell powder, can be utilized to develop calcium enriched king oyster mushrooms.

  9. 1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS GLACIER VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Deadwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Deadwood Creek on Mather Memorial Parkway, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  10. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  11. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  12. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella serovars isolated from oysters served raw in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Brillhart, Crystal D; Joens, Lynn A

    2011-06-01

    To determine if Salmonella-contaminated oysters are reaching consumer tables, a survey of raw oysters served in eight Tucson restaurants was performed from October 2007 to September 2008. Salmonella spp. were isolated during 7 of the 8 months surveyed and were present in 1.2% of 2,281 oysters tested. This observed prevalence is lower than that seen in a previous study in which U.S. market oysters were purchased from producers at bays where oysters are harvested. To test whether the process of refrigerating oysters in restaurants for several days reduces Salmonella levels, oysters were artificially infected with Salmonella and kept at 4°C for up to 13 days. Direct plate counts of oyster homogenate showed that Salmonella levels within oysters did not decrease during refrigeration. Six different serovars of Salmonella enterica were found in the restaurant oysters, indicating multiple incidences of Salmonella contamination of U.S. oyster stocks. Of the 28 contaminated oysters, 12 (43%) contained a strain of S. enterica serovar Newport that matched by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis a serovar Newport strain seen predominantly in the study of bay oysters performed in 2002. The repeated occurrence of this strain in oyster surveys is concerning, since the strain was resistant to seven antimicrobials tested and thus presents a possible health risk to consumers of raw oysters.

  13. Modelling Oyster Population Response to Variation in Freshwater Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, R. J.; Lewis, F. G.; Woodsum, G. C.; Niu, X.-F.; Galperin, B.; Huang, W.; Christensen, J. D.; Monaco, M. E.; Battista, T. A.; Klein, C. J.; Howell, R. L.; Ray, G. L.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes the linkage of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic circulation model with descriptive and experimental biological data concerning oyster (Crassostrea virginica) population dynamics in the Apalachicola Estuary (Florida, U.S.A.). Our intent was to determine the direct and indirect role of Apalachicola River flow in the maintenance of oyster production. Results of a monthly field sampling programme conducted on the oyster reefs in the Apalachicola system during 1985-1986 were used to develop statistical models relating several life-history characteristics of oysters to physical-chemical aspects of water quality. The same life-history characteristics were related statistically to output from a circulation model of Apalachicola Bay. Highest oyster densities and overall bar growth were found in the vicinity of the confluence of high salinity water moving westwards from St George Sound and river-dominated (low salinity) water moving south and eastwards from East Bay. With the exception of models for oyster mortality, the predictive capability of results from the parallel modelling efforts was low. A time-averaged model was developed for oyster mortality during the summer of 1985 by running a regression analysis with averaged predictors derived from the hydrodynamic model and observed (experimental) mortality rates throughout the estuary. A geographic information system was then used to depict the results spatially and to compare the extent of expected mortality in 1985 and 1986. High salinity, relatively low-velocity current patterns, and the proximity of a given oyster bar to entry points of saline Gulf water into the bay were important factors that contribute to increased oyster mortality. Mortality was a major determinant of oyster production in the Apalachicola Estuary with predation as a significant aspect of such mortality. By influencing salinity levels and current patterns throughout the bay, the Apalachicola River was important in controlling

  14. 77 FR 64834 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... information. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John G. Lamb, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S.... For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michele G. Evans, Director, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  15. 77 FR 69506 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC., Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... erroneous information. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John G. Lamb, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation.... For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Michele G. Evans, Director, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  16. 76 FR 19795 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Safe Shutdown Capability (Phase 1)' '' available at Agencywide Documents Access and Management System..., systems, and components important to safety so that a fire that is not promptly extinguished by the fire... fire hazards and with fire detectors and ] an automatic fire suppression system installed in the...

  17. 76 FR 19488 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Safe Shutdown Capability (Phase 2)' '' available at Agencywide Documents Access and Management System... protection for structures, systems, and components important to safety so that a fire that is not promptly... suppression system installed in the fire area; or c. Enclosure of cables and equipment of one redundant...

  18. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  19. Deployed bivalves (oysters and clams) as indicators of estuarine condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ringwood, A.H.; Holland, A.F.; Keppler, C.; Wert, M.; Hyland, J.

    1995-12-31

    Hatchery-reared bivalves, oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), were deployed simultaneously at reference and degraded sites in SC estuaries for approximately 1 month. Juvenile bivalves with endogenously high growth rates were used because effects on growth can be detected in a short time frame. The effects on growth and bioaccumulation of metal contaminants, as well as two biochemical indices (expression of metallothioneins, MT, and multi-xenobiotic transporting proteins, {at}R) were evaluated. Metal concentrations of sediments were also measured. Adverse effects on growth of both species were observed at degraded sites. However, oysters tended to grow more rapidly than clams, and adverse effects on oysters were more pronounced than in clams. Many of the sediments were characterized by elevated concentrations of multiple metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, etc.). However, increases in metal concentrations of oyster tissues were observed primarily with Cu, suggesting that many of the other metals had low bioavailability. There was little evidence of bioconcentration of any metals in clams. There was a significant correlation between sediment Cu and Cu in oyster tissues, but not in clams. Alterations in MT and MXR expression were also observed in oysters deployed at degraded sites. These studies suggest that oysters may be better in-situ indicators of habitat condition because they have more rapid growth rates and greater bioaccumulation potentials.

  20. Improved tolerance of metals in contaminated oyster larvae.

    PubMed

    Weng, Nanyan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stress experienced by parents may make a significant difference in the response of their offspring. However, relevant studies on marine bivalves are very limited especially for the field populations. In the present study, we examined the relative metal tolerance of offspring produced by four natural populations of oyster Crassostrea sikamea that were contaminated by metals to different degrees. We demonstrated that the resistance of oyster offspring to copper and zinc was correlated with the level of metal pollution experienced by the parent oysters. Specifically, the oyster embryo and larvae produced by adult oysters from contaminated sites had a much higher tolerance to metal stress than those from the reference sites. Furthermore, tissue concentration-dependent maternal transfer of Cu and Zn was found in this study, and the metallothionein concentrations in eggs were positively related to the total concentrations of maternally transferred Cu and Zn. Thus, the maternally transferred metals inducing high level of MT synthesis in eggs was one of the possible mechanisms responsible for the enhanced metal tolerance of oyster embryos and larvae from heavily contaminated sites. We concluded that environmental exposure history of adult oysters significantly influenced the ability of their offspring to cope with metal stress. Our findings offered the field evidence of the possible transfer of metal tolerance from adults to offspring in marine bivalves.

  1. Drought Increases Consumer Pressure on Oyster Reefs in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Garland, Hanna G; Kimbro, David L

    2015-01-01

    Coastal economies and ecosystems have historically depended on oyster reefs, but this habitat has declined globally by 85% because of anthropogenic activities. In a Florida estuary, we investigated the cause of newly reported losses of oysters. We found that the oyster reefs have deteriorated from north to south and that this deterioration was positively correlated with the abundance of carnivorous conchs and water salinity. In experiments across these gradients, oysters survived regardless of salinity if conchs were excluded. After determining that conchs were the proximal cause of oyster loss, we tested whether elevated water salinity was linked to conch abundance either by increasing conch growth and survivorship or by decreasing the abundance of a predator of conchs. In field experiments across a salinity gradient, we failed to detect spatial variation in predation on conchs or in conch growth and survivorship. A laboratory experiment, however, demonstrated the role of salinity by showing that conch larvae failed to survive at low salinities. Because this estuary's salinity increased in 2006 in response to reduced inputs of freshwater, we concluded that the ultimate cause of oyster decline was an increase in salinity. According to records from 2002 to 2012, oyster harvests have remained steady in the northernmost estuaries of this ecoregion (characterized by high reef biomass, low salinity, and low conch abundance) but have declined in the southernmost estuaries (characterized by lower reef biomass, increases in salinity, and increases in conch abundance). Oyster conservation in this ecoregion, which is probably one of the few that still support viable oyster populations, may be undermined by drought-induced increases in salinity causing an increased abundance of carnivorous conchs.

  2. Characterization of adhesive from oysters: A structural and compositional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberts, Erik

    The inability for man-made adhesives to set in wet or humid environments is an ongoing challenging the design of biomedical and marine adhesive materials. However, we see that nature has already overcome this challenge. Mussels, barnacles, oysters and sandcastle worms all have unique mechanisms by which they attach themselves to surfaces. By understanding what evolution has already spent millions of years perfecting, we can design novel adhesive materials inspired by nature's elegant designs. The well-studied mussel is currently the standard for design of marine inspired biomimetic polymers. In the work presented here, we aim to provide new insights into the adhesive produced by the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Unlike the mussel, which produces thread-like plaques comprised of DOPA containing-protein, the oyster secretes an organic-inorganic hybrid adhesive as it settles and grows onto a surface. This form of adhesion renders the oyster to be permanently fixed in place. Over time, hundreds of thousands of oyster grow and agglomerate to form extensive reef structures. These reefs are not only essential to survival of the oyster, but are also vital to intertidal ecosystems. While the shell of the oyster has been extensively studied, curiously, only a few conflicting insights have been made into the nature of the adhesive and contact zone between shell and substrate, and even lesfs information has been ascertained on organic and inorganic composition. In this work, we provide microscopy and histochemical studies to characterize the structure and composition of the adhesive, using oyster in the adult and juvenile stages of life. Preliminary work on extracting and characterizing organic components through collaborative help with solid-state NMR (SSNMR) and proteomics are also detailed here. We aim to provide a full, comprehensive characterization of oyster adhesive so that in the future, we may apply what we learn to the design of new materials.

  3. Drought Increases Consumer Pressure on Oyster Reefs in Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Hanna G.; Kimbro, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal economies and ecosystems have historically depended on oyster reefs, but this habitat has declined globally by 85% because of anthropogenic activities. In a Florida estuary, we investigated the cause of newly reported losses of oysters. We found that the oyster reefs have deteriorated from north to south and that this deterioration was positively correlated with the abundance of carnivorous conchs and water salinity. In experiments across these gradients, oysters survived regardless of salinity if conchs were excluded. After determining that conchs were the proximal cause of oyster loss, we tested whether elevated water salinity was linked to conch abundance either by increasing conch growth and survivorship or by decreasing the abundance of a predator of conchs. In field experiments across a salinity gradient, we failed to detect spatial variation in predation on conchs or in conch growth and survivorship. A laboratory experiment, however, demonstrated the role of salinity by showing that conch larvae failed to survive at low salinities. Because this estuary’s salinity increased in 2006 in response to reduced inputs of freshwater, we concluded that the ultimate cause of oyster decline was an increase in salinity. According to records from 2002 to 2012, oyster harvests have remained steady in the northernmost estuaries of this ecoregion (characterized by high reef biomass, low salinity, and low conch abundance) but have declined in the southernmost estuaries (characterized by lower reef biomass, increases in salinity, and increases in conch abundance). Oyster conservation in this ecoregion, which is probably one of the few that still support viable oyster populations, may be undermined by drought-induced increases in salinity causing an increased abundance of carnivorous conchs. PMID:26275296

  4. Hemocytes Are Sites of Enteric Virus Persistence within Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Provost, Keleigh; Dancho, Brooke A.; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Anderson, Robert S.; Richards, Gary P.; Kingsley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how enteric viruses persist within shellfish tissues. Several lines of novel evidence show that phagocytic blood cells (hemocytes) of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) play an important role in the retention of virus particles. Our results demonstrated an association of virus contamination with hemocytes but not with hemolymph. Live oysters contaminated overnight with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and murine norovirus (MNV) had 56% and 80% of extractable virus associated with hemocytes, respectively. Transfer of HAV-contaminated hemocytes to naïve (virus-free) oysters resulted in naïve oyster meat testing HAV positive for up to 3 weeks. Acid tolerance of HAV, MNV, poliovirus (PV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) correlated with the ability of each virus to persist within oysters. Using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to evaluate persistence of these viruses in oysters, we showed that HAV persisted the longest (>21 days) and was most acid resistant, MNV and PV were less tolerant of acidic pH, persisting for up to 12 days and 1 day, respectively, and FCV did not persist (<1 day) within oysters and was not acid tolerant. This suggests that the ability of a virus to tolerate the acidic conditions typical of phagolysosomal vesicles within hemocytes plays a role in determining virus persistence in shellfish. Evaluating oyster and hemocyte homogenates and live contaminated oysters as a prelude to developing improved viral RNA extraction methods, we found that viruses were extracted more expediently from hemocytes than from whole shellfish tissues and gave similar RT-PCR detection sensitivities. PMID:21948840

  5. Relationship between Marteilioides chungmuensis infection and reproduction in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Tun, Kay Lwin; Itoh, Naoki; Ueki, Noriyuki; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    Marteilioides chungmuensis, a protozoan paramyxean parasite, infects the oocytes of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. The effects of infection on the reproductive cycle of C. gigas were investigated over two consecutive years at Okayama Prefecture, Japan. In male oysters, gonadal development began during February/March, maturity was achieved in June and spawning activity extended from July to September. In November and December, male oysters were not seen, probably because their gonads regressed to connective tissue and they transformed into undifferentiated oysters. By contrast, female oysters, in which parasite spore formation occurred, were still carrying oocytes until the following March and the spawning process of female oysters took 5 months longer than that of males in epizootic areas. The prevalence of M. chungmuensis infection increased from July to September, when most female oysters had their spawning period, and declined from October to the following April when oysters were at the spent stage. The prevalence of infection increased again in May of the following year and high prevalence was observed in the following July. When prevalence was compared between oysters of different age classes, higher prevalence was detected in older than in younger oysters. Histological examination showed that infected oysters produced oocytes continuously and spawned repeatedly from October to March, during which period healthy oysters were reproductively inactive. Parasites can infect the oocytes of infected oysters throughout the longer spawning period. These observations suggest that M. chungmuensis extends the reproductive period of infected oysters for its own reproductive benefit.

  6. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs.

    PubMed

    La Peyre, Megan K; Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T Andrew; Humphries, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y(-1). Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects.

  7. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T. Andrew; Humphries, Austin

    2015-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y−1. Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects. PMID:26500825

  8. Assessing shoreline exposure and oyster habitat suitability maximizes potential success for sustainable shoreline protection using restored oyster reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Serra, Kayla; Joyner, T. Andrew; Humphries, Austin T.

    2015-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide valuable ecosystem services that contribute to coastal resilience. Unfortunately, many reefs have been degraded or removed completely, and there are increased efforts to restore oysters in many coastal areas. In particular, much attention has recently been given to the restoration of shellfish reefs along eroding shorelines to reduce erosion. Such fringing reef approaches, however, often lack empirical data to identify locations where reefs are most effective in reducing marsh erosion, or fully take into account habitat suitability. Using monitoring data from 5 separate fringing reef projects across coastal Louisiana, we quantify shoreline exposure (fetch + wind direction + wind speed) and reef impacts on shoreline retreat. Our results indicate that fringing oyster reefs have a higher impact on shoreline retreat at higher exposure shorelines. At higher exposures, fringing reefs reduced marsh edge erosion an average of 1.0 m y−1. Using these data, we identify ranges of shoreline exposure values where oyster reefs are most effective at reducing marsh edge erosion and apply this knowledge to a case study within one Louisiana estuary. In Breton Sound estuary, we calculate shoreline exposure at 500 random points and then overlay a habitat suitability index for oysters. This method and the resulting visualization show areas most likely to support sustainable oyster populations as well as significantly reduce shoreline erosion. Our results demonstrate how site selection criteria, which include shoreline exposure and habitat suitability, are critical to ensuring greater positive impacts and longevity of oyster reef restoration projects.

  9. The density and spatial arrangement of the invasive oyster Crassostrea gigas determines its impact on settlement of native oyster larvae

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Emma M; Bishop, Melanie J; O'Connor, Wayne A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how the density and spatial arrangement of invaders is critical to developing management strategies of pest species. The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, has been translocated around the world for aquaculture and in many instances has established wild populations. Relative to other species of bivalve, it displays rapid suspension feeding, which may cause mortality of pelagic invertebrate larvae. We compared the effect on settlement of Sydney rock oyster, Saccostrea glomerata, larvae of manipulating the spatial arrangement and density of native S. glomerata, and non-native C. gigas. We hypothesized that while manipulations of dead oysters would reveal the same positive relationship between attachment surface area and S. glomerata settlement between the two species, manipulations of live oysters would reveal differing density-dependent effects between the native and non-native oyster. In the field, whether oysters were live or dead, more larvae settled on C. gigas than S. glomerata when substrate was arranged in monospecific clumps. When, however, the two species were interspersed, there were no differences in larval settlement between them. By contrast, in aquaria simulating a higher effective oyster density, more larvae settled on live S. glomerata than C. gigas. When C. gigas was prevented from suspension feeding, settlement of larvae on C. gigas was enhanced. By contrast, settlement was similar between the two species when dead. While the presently low densities of the invasive oyster C. gigas may enhance S. glomerata larval settlement in east Australian estuaries, future increases in densities could produce negative impacts on native oyster settlement. Synthesis and applications: Our study has shown that both the spatial arrangement and density of invaders can influence their impact. Hence, management strategies aimed at preventing invasive populations reaching damaging sizes should not only consider the threshold density at which impacts exceed

  10. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  11. Evaluation of Norfolk Harbor Deepening Project (A Study on Its Possible Impact on Oysters, Hard Clams and Oyster Drills).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-20

    Virginia 23062 DTIC 20 June 1984 ELECTE ~L&JMAR 12 i9BB IA B! ,", Contract No. DACW65-84-M-0056 -Ap’oved to: publicO t01b0 I D)WtbuZidon Unlimited .~Norfolk...impact on the transport of the larval oysters and hard clams during their planktonic stage. Oysters and hard clams are widely tolerant to high salinity...planktonic for about 2 weeks and during this period are transported by currents. This latter aspect will be covered later in our discussion on oysters. ~i

  12. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  13. 76 FR 35379 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S... fishing shops. The public will continue to be able to use these portions of Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek.... 3). 2. Revise Sec. 334.480 to read as follows: Sec. 334.480 Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and...

  14. The biogeography of trophic cascades on US oyster reefs.

    PubMed

    Kimbro, David L; Byers, James E; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Hughes, A Randall; Piehler, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    Predators can indirectly benefit prey populations by suppressing mid-trophic level consumers, but often the strength and outcome of trophic cascades are uncertain. We manipulated oyster reef communities to test the generality of potential causal factors across a 1000-km region. Densities of oyster consumers were weakly influenced by predators at all sites. In contrast, consumer foraging behaviour in the presence of predators varied considerably, and these behavioural effects altered the trophic cascade across space. Variability in the behavioural cascade was linked to regional gradients in oyster recruitment to and sediment accumulation on reefs. Specifically, asynchronous gradients in these factors influenced whether the benefits of suppressed consumer foraging on oyster recruits exceeded costs of sediment accumulation resulting from decreased consumer activity. Thus, although predation on consumers remains consistent, predator influences on behaviour do not; rather, they interact with environmental gradients to cause biogeographic variability in the net strength of trophic cascades.

  15. Methods for recovering poliovirus and rotavirus from oysters.

    PubMed Central

    Speirs, J I; Pontefract, R D; Harwig, J

    1987-01-01

    Polioviruses and rotaviruses are potential indicators of sewage pollution of water and shellfish. Several methods for detecting these viruses in oysters were assessed. Elution-precipitation involving Catfloc for clarification and skim milk for subsequent flocculation resulted in the recovery of an average of 79% of poliovirus type 1 and 37% of rotavirus SA-11 from oyster homogenates inoculated with low numbers of these viruses. Adsorption-elution-precipitation did not improve the recovery of poliovirus and was detrimental to the recovery of rotavirus. Ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation resulted in improved recovery of rotavirus but also in higher toxicity of oyster extracts to cell cultures. We recommend the use of the described elution-precipitation method for detecting viral pollutants in sample of oysters. PMID:2827573

  16. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) DEFENSE MEASUREMENTS AND TISSUE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivalve mollusks such as Crassostrea virginica typically inhabit estuaries and coastal areas that are increasingly contaminated with anthropogenic chemicals. Oysters may bioaccumulate large quantities of metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB...

  18. CHEMICAL EFFECTS ON OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) HEMOCYTE MICROBICIDAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes, or blood cells, perform important internal defense functions such as phagocytosis and intracellular destruction of pathogens and bacteria. Using techniques such as phagocytosis and chemiluminescence assays, potential impairment of hemocyt...

  19. Hulburt Creek Hydrology, Southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Hulburt Creek, Sauk County, Wis., in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the low flow, monthly flow, and inflow flood. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The following estimates are for the point on Hulburt Creek at the proposed Dell Lake damsite near Wisconsin Dells. The drainage area is 11.2 square miles.

  20. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  1. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  2. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  3. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  4. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  5. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida, shall open...

  6. Genotoxicity of diuron and glyphosate in oyster spermatozoa and embryos.

    PubMed

    Akcha, F; Spagnol, C; Rouxel, J

    2012-01-15

    We investigated the effects of genotoxicant exposure in gametes and embryos to find a possible link between genotoxicity and reproduction/developmental impairment, and explore the impact of chemical genotoxicity on population dynamics. Our study focused on the genotoxic effects of two herbicides on oyster gametes and embryos: glyphosate (both as an active substance and in the Roundup formulation) and diuron. France is Europe's leading consumer of agrochemical substances and as such, contamination of France's coastal waters by pesticides is a major concern. Glyphosate and diuron are among the most frequently detected herbicides in oyster production areas; as oyster is a specie with external reproduction, its gametes and embryos are in direct contact with the surrounding waters and are hence particularly exposed to these potentially dangerous substances. In the course of this study, differences in genotoxic and embryotoxic responses were observed in the various experiments, possibly due to differences in pollutant sensitivity between the tested genitor lots. Glyphosate and Roundup had no effect on oyster development at the concentrations tested, whereas diuron significantly affected embryo-larval development from the lowest tested concentration of 0.05 μg L⁻¹, i.e. an environmentally realistic concentration. Diuron may therefore have a significant impact on oyster recruitment rates in the natural environment. Our spermiotoxicity study revealed none of the tested herbicides to be cytotoxic for oyster spermatozoa. However, the alkaline comet assay showed diuron to have a significant genotoxic effect on oyster spermatozoa at concentrations of 0.05 μg L⁻¹ upwards. Conversely, no effects due to diuron exposure were observed on sperm mitochondrial function or acrosomal membrane integrity. Although our initial results showed no negative effect on sperm function, the possible impact on fertilization rate and the consequences of the transmission of damaged DNA for

  7. Phylogeny and Species Diversity of Gulf of California Oysters

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dataset of DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial loci (COI and 16S) used to infer the phylogeny of oysters in the genus Ostrea along the Pacific coast of North America.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Raith, M., D. Zacherl, E. Pilgrim , and D. Eernisse. Phylogeny and species diversity of Gulf of California oysters (Ostreidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA. American Malacological Bulletin. American Malacological Society, Arlington, VA, USA, 33(2): 263-283, (2016).

  8. Magnitude and distribution pattern of zinc in oysters

    SciTech Connect

    Koki, A.K.; Whitmore, R.; Lester, L.C. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    This study was an attempt to assess the magnitude and distribution pattern of trace element zinc in oysters to see if the problem of the magnitude of zinc contamination was evident in the South Carolina Fishery. It would identify potentially hazardous situations and persons affected would be made aware of the problem. Where high zinc concentration are found in oysters, it would then attempt to identify the source of pollution.

  9. Ancient oyster shells on the atlantic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, A.S.; Emery, K.O.; Rubin, M.

    1965-01-01

    Shells of long-dead Crassostrea virginica are reported at 71 stations in depths of 14 to 82 meters. The depths exceed those of the estuaries where the species flourishes. Radiocarbon measurements indicate that the oysters were alive 8000 to 11,000 years ago. It is concluded that the oysters lived in lagoons or estuaries which became submerged when the sea level rose at the end of the latest glacial epoch.

  10. Inducible defenses in Olympia oysters in response to an invasive predator.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jillian M; Griffith, Kaylee R; Sanford, Eric

    2017-03-01

    The prey naiveté hypothesis suggests that native prey may be vulnerable to introduced predators because they have not evolved appropriate defenses. However, recent evidence suggests that native prey sometimes exhibit induced defenses to introduced predators, as a result of rapid evolution or other processes. We examined whether Olympia oysters (Ostrea lurida) display inducible defenses in the presence of an invasive predator, the Atlantic oyster drill (Urosalpinx cinerea), and whether these responses vary among oyster populations from estuaries with and without this predator. We spawned oysters from six populations distributed among three estuaries in northern California, USA, and raised their offspring through two generations under common conditions to minimize effects of environmental history. We exposed second-generation oysters to cue treatments: drills eating oysters, drills eating barnacles, or control seawater. Oysters from all populations grew smaller shells when exposed to drill cues, and grew thicker and harder shells when those drills were eating oysters. Oysters exposed to drills eating other oysters were subsequently preyed upon at a slower rate. Although all oyster populations exhibited inducible defenses, oysters from the estuary with the greatest exposure to drills grew the smallest shells suggesting that oyster populations have evolved adaptive differences in the strength of their responses to predators. Our findings add to a growing body of literature that suggests that marine prey may be less likely to exhibit naiveté in the face of invasive predators than prey in communities that are more isolated from native predators, such as many freshwater and terrestrial island ecosystems.

  11. Copper and zinc contamination in oysters: subcellular distribution and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Yang, Yubo; Guo, Xiaoyu; He, Mei; Guo, Feng; Ke, Caihuan

    2011-08-01

    Metal pollution levels in estuarine and coastal environments have been widely reported, but few documented reports exist of severe contamination in specific environments. Here, we report on a metal-contaminated estuary in Fujian Province, China, in which blue oysters (Crassostrea hongkongensis) and green oysters (Crassostrea angulata) were discovered to be contaminated with Cu and other metals. Extraordinarily high metal concentrations were found in the oysters collected from the estuary. Comparison with historical data suggests that the estuary has recently been contaminated with Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Metal concentrations in blue oysters were as high as 1.4 and 2.4% of whole-body tissue dry wt for Cu and Zn, respectively. Cellular debris was the main subcellular fraction binding the metals, but metal-rich granules were important for Cr, Ni, and Pb. With increasing Cu accumulation, its partitioning into the cytosolic proteins decreased. In contrast, metallothionein-like proteins increased their importance in binding with Zn as tissue concentrations of Zn increased. In the most severely contaminated oysters, only a negligible fraction of their Cu and Zn was bound with the metal-sensitive fraction, which may explain the survival of oysters in such contaminated environments.

  12. Raw oysters can be a risk for infections.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Macrae, Andrew; Fonteles Filho, Antonio Adauto; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to count and identify sucrose positive and negative vibrios isolated from cultivated Crassostrea rhizophorae oysters during their growing cycle. Every month for 12 months, 10 to 18 oysters were collected for study. Collections occurred at the Center for Studies of Coastal Aquaculture (CSCA), which is associated with the Institute of Marine Science, Labomar, located in Euzebio, Ceará, Brazil. Approximately 150 oysters and their intervalvular liquor were studied. Vibrio Standard Plates Counts (SPC) from oyster meat and their intervalvular liquor varied from 25 to 59,000,000 CFU/g. For most of the 12 months of the oysters' life, it was possible to identify Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Vibrio carchariae was identified in four collections. Among other isolated species, the most important, considering public health risks, was V. vulnificus, although only one strain was confirmed. We concluded that retail purchased oysters should never be eaten raw or undercooked because many species of the genus Vibrio are known to be pathogenic to humans and live naturally on and in shellfish throughout their life cycle.

  13. Oyster shell as substitute for aggregate in mortar.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyunsuk; Park, Sangkyu; Lee, Kiho; Park, Junboum

    2004-06-01

    Enormous amounts of oyster shell waste have been illegally disposed of at oyster farm sites along the southern coast of Korea. In this study to evaluate the possibility of recycling this waste for use as a construction material, the mechanical characteristics of pulverized oyster shell were investigated in terms of its potential utilization as a substitute for the aggregates used in mortar. The unconfined compressive strengths of various soil mortar specimens, with varying blending ratios of cement, water and oyster shell, were evaluated by performing unconfined compression tests, and the results were compared with the strengths of normal cement mortar made with sand. In addition, the effect of organic chemicals on the hardening of concrete was evaluated by preparing ethyl-benzene-mixed mortar specimens. The long-term strength improvement resulting from the addition of fly ash was also examined by performing unconfined compression tests on specimens with fly-ash content. There was no significant reduction in the compressive strength of the mortars containing small oyster shell particles instead of sand. From these test data, the possible application of oyster shells in construction materials could be verified, and the change in the strength parameters according to the presence of organic compounds was also evaluated.

  14. High-pressure treatment for shelf-life extension and quality improvement of oysters cooked in a traditional Taiwanese oyster omelet.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kung-Ming; Chi, Hsin-Yi; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Whole oysters were processed using high-pressure (HP) treatment at 250 and 300 MPa for 0 to 10 min and stored at 4 degrees Celsius for up to 28 days. HP-treated oysters and untreated oysters were evaluated for lipid oxidation, growth of microorganisms, and sensory characteristics after cooking at 160 degrees Celsius for 90 s. Microbial counts after HP treatment revealed that the bacterial load was initially reduced at all pressures. HP-treated oysters had significantly higher pH and moisture (P < 0.05) relative to control (untreated) oysters during storage. HP treatment increased lipid oxidation with unpleasant odor during storage compared with the control. HP treatment decreased redness but did not significantly affect the brightness and yellowness of cooked oysters. From tests of mechanical properties, 300 MPa-treated oysters after cooking had significantly increased toughness as measured by cutting force. HP-treated oysters after cooking received higher quality scores than did the control during the storage trial. Results indicated that 300 MPa for 2 min is the optimum HP treatment that results in oysters most acceptable for oyster omelets during storage at 4 degrees Celsius, and this treatment may extend the shelf life of these oysters to 21 days.

  15. Predicting the effects of proposed Mississippi River diversions on oyster habitat quality; application of an oyster habitat suitability index model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Conzelmann, Craig P.; Byrd, Jason D.; Roszell, Dustin P.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.; Suir, Kevin J.; Colley, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decelerate the rate of coastal erosion and wetland loss, and protect human communities, the state of Louisiana developed its Comprehensive Master Plan for a Sustainable Coast. The master plan proposes a combination of restoration efforts including shoreline protection, marsh creation, sediment diversions, and ridge, barrier island, and hydrological restoration. Coastal restoration projects, particularly the large-scale diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River, needed to supply sediment to an eroding coast potentially impact oyster populations and oyster habitat. An oyster habitat suitability index model is presented that evaluates the effects of a proposed sediment and freshwater diversion into Lower Breton Sound. Voluminous freshwater, needed to suspend and broadly distribute river sediment, will push optimal salinities for oysters seaward and beyond many of the existing reefs. Implementation and operation of the Lower Breton Sound diversion structure as proposed would render about 6,173 ha of hard bottom immediately east of the Mississippi River unsuitable for the sustained cultivation of oysters. If historical harvests are to be maintained in this region, a massive and unprecedented effort to relocate private leases and restore oyster bottoms would be required. Habitat suitability index model results indicate that the appropriate location for such efforts are to the east and north of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet.

  16. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) DEFENSES ON CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHEMOLYTICUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three clinical (2030, 2062, and 2107) and three environmental (1094, 1163, and ATCC 17802) isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were exposed to hemocytes and plasma collected from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) to determine their susceptibility to putative oyster defenses. Clinic...

  17. RESPONSES OF OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) HEMOCYTES TO NONPATHOGENIC AND CLINICAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial uptake by oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and bactericidal activity of oyster hemocytes were studied using four environmental isolates and three clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Clinical isolates (2030, 2062, 2107) were obtained from gastroenteritis patien...

  18. PERKINSUS-"CIDAL" ACTIVITY OF OYSTER HEMOCYTES USING A TETRAZOLIUM DYE REDUCTION ASSAY: OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bactericidal assay developed to assess the ability of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus was optimized to estimate killing of the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus. Assay variables, temperature, hemocyte:parasite ratio, i...

  19. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers of canned oysters in the Gulf area of the United States have labeled their output with a declaration of...

  20. 40 CFR 408.270 - Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. 408.270 Section 408.270 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.270 Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers of canned oysters in the Gulf area of the United States have labeled their output with a declaration of...

  2. 40 CFR 408.270 - Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. 408.270 Section 408.270 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.270 Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers of canned oysters in the Gulf area of the United States have labeled their output with a declaration of...

  4. 40 CFR 408.270 - Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. 408.270 Section 408.270 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.270 Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.270 - Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. 408.270 Section 408.270 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.270 Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers of canned oysters in the Gulf area of the United States have labeled their output with a declaration of...

  7. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... canned oysters. 161.30 Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH....30 Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters. (a) For many years packers of canned oysters in the Gulf area of the United States have labeled their output with a declaration of...

  8. 40 CFR 408.270 - Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. 408.270 Section 408.270 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Steamed and Canned Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.270 Applicability; description of the steamed and canned oyster processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. PARASITIC AND SYMBIOTIC FAUNA INHABITING OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) SAMPLED FROM THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oysters, Crassostrea virginica, inhabiting 5 sites in the Caloosahatchee River estuary were studied over a 13 month period to determine the suitability of oyster habitat in relation to their health and condition. Histological examination of 650 oysters (10 animals per station per...

  10. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Olympia Oyster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    oysters was spread in the dyked beds The maximum reported size of Olympia oysters and left for 3.5 to 5 years until most of the is 75 mm ( Hertlein ...rangec. In elevations. They are found at depths of’ 0 to California, the bat ray Myliobatis californica is 71 m ( Hertlein 1959). Oysters may attach to an

  11. Detection of hepatitis A virus and bacterial contamination in raw oysters in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittigul, Leera; Pombubpa, Kannika; Sukonthalux, Suntharee; Rattanatham, Tippawan; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Diraphat, Pornphan

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in raw oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) using a virus concentration method and reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). A total of 220 oyster samples were collected from oyster farms and local markets in Thailand. HAV was found in three oyster samples. Nested PCR products of HAV detected in oysters were characterized further by DNA sequencing of the VP1/2A region and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. All HAV sequences (168 basepairs) were associated with human HAV subgenotype IB (GIB). Fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were determined using the multiple tube fermentation method, to assess the microbiological quality of collected oysters. Among oyster samples tested, 65% had fecal coliforms higher than the standard level for raw shellfish [< 20 Most Probable Numbers (MPN)/g]; MPN values in the range of 21.0-4.6 x 10(4)/g. Most oyster samples (85%) were contaminated with E. coli in the range of 3.0-4.6 x 10(4) MPN/g. One oyster sample with an acceptable level of fecal coliforms contained HAV GIB. E. coli was found in all HAV-positive oyster samples. The results suggest a significant presence of HAV and bacterial indicators of fecal contamination in raw oysters, which are a health risk for consumers and a source of gastrointestinal illness. Enteric viruses should also be tested to assess the microbiological quality of oysters.

  12. Mortalities of eastern and pacific oyster larvae caused by the pathogens Vibrio coralliilyticus and Vibrio tubiashii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio tubiashii is reported to be a bacterial pathogen of larval Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and has been associated with major hatchery crashes, causing shortages in seed oysters for commercial shellfish producers. Another bacterium, Vibrio cora...

  13. Reconstructing early 17th century estuarine drought conditions from Jamestown oysters.

    PubMed

    Harding, Juliana M; Spero, Howard J; Mann, Roger; Herbert, Gregory S; Sliko, Jennifer L

    2010-06-08

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were a central component of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem in 1607 when European settlers established Jamestown, VA, the first permanent English settlement in North America. These estuarine bivalves were an important food resource during the early years of the James Fort (Jamestown) settlement while the colonists were struggling to survive in the face of inadequate supplies and a severe regional drought. Although oyster shells were discarded as trash after the oysters were eaten, the environmental and ecological data recorded in the bivalve geochemistry during shell deposition remain intact over centuries, thereby providing a unique window into conditions during the earliest Jamestown years. We compare oxygen isotope data from these 17th century oyster shells with modern shells to quantify and contrast estuarine salinity, season of oyster collection, and shell provenance during Jamestown colonization (1609-1616) and the 21st century. Data show that oysters were collected during an extended drought between fall 1611 and summer 1612. The drought shifted the 14 psu isohaline above Jamestown Island, facilitating individual oyster growth and extension of oyster habitat upriver toward the colony, thereby enhancing local oyster food resources. Data from distinct well layers suggest that the colonists also obtained oysters from reefs near Chesapeake Bay to augment oyster resources near Jamestown Island. The oyster shell season of harvest reconstructions suggest that these data come from either a 1611 well with a very short useful period or an undocumented older well abandoned by late 1611.

  14. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed Central

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Rodrick, G E

    1981-01-01

    Two strains of Vibrio cholerae serotype O1 Inaba were isolated from eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, collected from estuarine waters in Florida during April 1980. The oyster meats and waters from which the oysters were collected had low fecal coliform counts, and the area had no prior evidence of sewage contamination. PMID:7235700

  15. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring.

  16. Freshwater Detention by Oyster Reefs: Quantifying a Keystone Ecosystem Service.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David A; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Frederick, Peter; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2016-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water "dams". We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a "keystone" ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i.e., brackish) conditions in the near-shore environment. In this work, we investigated the effects of shore-parallel reefs on estuarine salinity using field data and hydrodynamic modeling in a degraded reef complex in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Results suggested that freshwater detention by long linear chains of oyster reefs plays an important role in modulating salinities, not only in the oysters' local environment, but over extensive estuarine areas (tens of square kilometers). Field data confirmed the presence of salinity differences between landward and seaward sides of the reef, with long-term mean salinity differences of >30% between sides. Modeled results expanded experimental findings by illustrating how oyster reefs affect the lateral and offshore extent of freshwater influence. In general, the effects of simulated reefs were most pronounced when they were highest in elevation, without gaps, and when riverine discharge was low. Taken together, these results describe a poorly documented ecosystem service provided by oyster reefs; provide an estimate of the magnitude and spatial extent of this service; and offer quantitative information to help guide future oyster reef restoration.

  17. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    PubMed Central

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L−1) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (−38%), diameter (−5%), and sperm velocity (−23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  18. Molecular and histological identification of Marteilioides infection in Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum and Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the south coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Limpanont, Yanin; Yanin, Limpanont; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Jeung, Hee-Do; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Le, Thanh Cuong; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    The oyster ovarian parasite Marteilioides chungmuensis has been reported from Korea and Japan, damaging the oyster industries. Recently, Marteilioides-like organisms have been identified in other commercially important marine bivalves. In this study, we surveyed Marteilioides infection in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, Suminoe oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, using histology and Marteilioides-specific small subunit (SSU) rDNA PCR. The SSU rDNA sequence of M. chungmuensis (1716 bp) isolated from C. gigas in Tongyoung bay was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis reported in Japan. Inclusions of multi-nucleated bodies in the oocytes, typical of Marteilioides infection, were identified for the first time in Suminoe oysters. The SSU rDNA sequence of a Marteilioides-like organism isolated from Suminoe oysters was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis. Marteilioides sp. was also observed from 7 Manila clams of 1840 individuals examined, and the DNA sequences of which were 98.2% similar to the known sequence of M. chungmuensis. Unlike Marteilioides infection of Pacific oysters, no remarkable pathological symptoms, such as large multiple lumps on the mantle, were observed in infected Suminoe oysters or Manila clams. Distribution of the infected Manila clams, Suminoe oysters and Pacific oysters was limited to small bays on the south coast, suggesting that the southern coast is the enzootic area of Marteilioides infection.

  19. RICHLAND CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic and mineral surveys, Richland Creek Roadless Area, Arkanses, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources, gas and oil, or oil shale. The Boone Formation of Mississippian age and the Everton Formation of Ordovician age, both known to contain zinc and lead deposits in northern Arkansas, underlie the roadless area. The presence or absence of zinc and lead deposits in these formations in the subsurface can be neither confirmed nor ruled out without exploratory drilling. Most of the Richland Creek Roadless Area is under lease for oil and gas; however two wells drilled near the eastern boundary of the area did not show contained gas or oil.

  20. An efficient method of noroviruses recovery from oysters and clams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Deqing; Ma, Liping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Su, Laijin; Li, Xinguang

    2013-03-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are widespread causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of NoVs caused diseases are commonly ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. The concentration and RNA extraction of NoVs are crucial steps of detecting NoVs in shellfish. This study aimed to select a simple, rapid and highly efficient recovery method of NoVs detection with real-time RT-PCR. Four methods of recovering GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs from spiked digestive tissues of oysters and clams, respectively, were compared, of them, the method involving proteinase K and PEG 8000 was found the most efficient. With this method, 9.3% and 13.1% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from oysters and 9.6% and 12.3% of GI.3 and GII.4 NoVs were recovered from clams, respectively. This method was further used to detect NoVs in 84 oysters ( Crassostrea gigas) and 86 clams ( Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 10 coastal cities in China from Jan. 2011 to Feb. 2012. The NoVs isolation rates were 10.47% of clams (9/86) and 7.14% of oysters (6/84). All the detected NoVs belonged to genotype GII. The NoVs recovery method selected is efficient for NoVs detection in oysters and clams.

  1. Genetic improvement for disease resistance in oysters: A review.

    PubMed

    Dégremont, Lionel; Garcia, Céline; Allen, Standish K

    2015-10-01

    Oyster species suffer from numerous disease outbreaks, often causing high mortality. Because the environment cannot be controlled, genetic improvement for disease resistance to pathogens is an attractive option to reduce their impact on oyster production. We review the literature on selective breeding programs for disease resistance in oyster species, and the impact of triploidy on such resistance. Significant response to selection to improve disease resistance was observed in all studies after two to four generations of selection for Haplosporidium nelsoni and Roseovarius crassostrea in Crassostrea virginica, OsHV-1 in Crassostrea gigas, and Martelia sydneyi in Saccostrea glomerata. Clearly, resistance in these cases was heritable, but most of the studies failed to provide estimates for heritability or genetic correlations with other traits, e.g., between resistance to one disease and another. Generally, it seems breeding for higher resistance to one disease does not confer higher resistance or susceptibility to another disease. For disease resistance in triploid oysters, several studies showed that triploidy confers neither advantage nor disadvantage in survival, e.g., OsHV-1 resistance in C. gigas. Other studies showed higher disease resistance of triploids over diploid as observed in C. virginica and S. glomerata. One indirect mechanism for triploids to avoid disease was to grow faster, thus limiting the span of time when oysters might be exposed to disease.

  2. Bioaccumulation of perfluorochemicals in Pacific oyster under different salinity gradients.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Junho; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lim, Han Kyu; Moon, Hyo Bang; Ra, Jin Sung; Kim, Sang Don

    2010-04-01

    Despite the reports of widespread occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in estuarine and coastal waters and open seas, little is known on the effect of salinity on bioaccumulation. In this study, effects of salinity on bioaccumulation of PFCs in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were investigated. Furthermore, partitioning of PFCs between water and particles (oysters' food) was examined at different salinities. The distribution coefficients (K(d); partitioning between water and particles) for selected PFCs, that is, PFOS, PFOA, PFDA, and PFUnDA, increased by 2.1- to 2.7-fold with the increase in water salinity from 10 to 34 psu, suggesting "salting-out" effect, and the salting constant (delta) was estimated to range from 0.80 to 1.11. The nonlinear regression analysis of bioaccumulation suggested increase in aqueous and dietary uptake rates (K(w) and K(f)), with the increase in salinity, which resulted in elevated bioaccumulation, although the depuration rates (K(e)) also increased. The relative abundance of long carbon chain length PFCs (i.e., PFDA and PFUnDA) increased as salinity increased, while the proportion of PFOS and PFOA decreased, which is explained by the positive relationship between delta and carbon chain length. The contribution of diet to bioaccumulation in oysters ranged from 18 to 92%. Overall, salinity not only affected the chemistry of PFCs, but also the physiology of oysters, contributing to sorption and bioaccumulation of perfluorochemicals in oysters.

  3. Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  4. LUSK CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling show that the eastern third of the Lusk Creek Roadless Area in Illinois has a substantiated resource potential for fluorspar, lead, zinc, and barite, and other parts of the area have a probable resource potential for fluorspar. Fluorspar, which occurs along fault zones in the eastern part of the area, has been produced in the adjacent Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. There is little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  5. 76 FR 62631 - Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 334 Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S... Depot Parris Island. The public will continue to be able to use these portions of Archers Creek, Ribbon... Archers Creek, Ribbon Creek, and Broad River; U.S. Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island,...

  6. Shell hardness and compressive strength of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the Asian oyster, Crassostrea ariakensis.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Sara A; Chon, Grace D; Lee, James Jin-Wu; Lane, Hillary A; Paynter, Kennedy T

    2013-12-01

    The valves of oysters act as a physical barrier between tissues and the external environment, thereby protecting the oyster from environmental stress and predation. To better understand differences in shell properties and predation susceptibilities of two physiologically and morphologically similar oysters, Crassostrea virginica and Crassostrea ariakensis, we quantified and compared two mechanical properties of shells: hardness (resistance to irreversible deformation; GPa) and compressive strength (force necessary to produce a crack; N). We found no differences in the hardness values between foliated layers (innermost and outermost foliated layers), age class (C. virginica: 1, 4, 6, 9 years; C. ariakensis: 4, 6 years), or species. This suggests that the foliated layers have similar properties and are likely composed of the same material. The compressive force required to break wet and dry shells was also not different. However, the shells of both six- and nine-year-old C. virginica withstood higher compressive force than C. virginica shells aged either one or four, and the shells of C. ariakensis at both ages studied (4- and 6-years-old). Differences in ability to withstand compressive force are likely explained by differences in thickness and density between age classes and species. Further, we compared the compressive strength of differing ages of these two species to the crushing force of common oyster predators in the Chesapeake Bay. By studying the physical properties of shells, this work may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanical defenses of oysters as well as of their predation vulnerabilities.

  7. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  8. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730, originally issued August 10, 1981.\\1\\ The project is... Hydroelectric Project of 5 Megawatts or Less and Dismissing Application for Preliminary Permit. 2. Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC is now the exemptee of the Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 3730....

  9. Vibrio bacteria in raw oysters: managing risks to human health.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2016-03-05

    The human-pathogenic marine bacteria Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are strongly correlated with water temperature, with concentrations increasing as waters warm seasonally. Both of these bacteria can be concentrated in filter-feeding shellfish, especially oysters. Because oysters are often consumed raw, this exposes people to large doses of potentially harmful bacteria. Various models are used to predict the abundance of these bacteria in oysters, which guide shellfish harvest policy meant to reduce human health risk. Vibrio abundance and behaviour varies from site to site, suggesting that location-specific studies are needed to establish targeted risk reduction strategies. Moreover, virulence potential, rather than simple abundance, should be also be included in future modeling efforts.

  10. Flow cytometry as a tool to quantify oyster defence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Goedken, Michael; De Guise, Sylvain

    2004-04-01

    The fast growing oyster aquaculture industry is greatly hindered by Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni which can kill up to 80% of the production. The relationship between parasites and oyster defence mechanisms is unclear. Two defence mechanisms of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) were quantified at the single cell level utilising flow cytometry. Phagocytosis was measured using fluorescent beads. Respiratory burst activity was quantified as the H2O2-specific increase in dichlorofluorescein-associated fluorescence upon stimulation. These two assays distinguished three populations of haemocytes (granulocytes, hyalinocytes and intermediate cells) with unique functional characteristics. Granulocytes were most active at phagocytosis and H2O2 production while hyalinocytes were relatively inactive. The intermediate cells had moderate phagocytic and respiratory burst activity. Flow cytometry can rapidly, accurately and directly quantify the morphology and function of a large number of individual cells, and will lead to a better understanding of the bivalve immune system.

  11. Histopathology of oedema in pearl oysters Pinctada maxima.

    PubMed

    Jones, J B; Crockford, M; Creeper, J; Stephens, F

    2010-07-26

    In October 2006, severe mortalities (80 to 100%) were reported in pearl oyster Pinctada maxima production farms from Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia. Only P. maxima were affected; other bivalves including black pearl oysters P. margaratifera remained healthy. Initial investigations indicated that the mortality was due to an infectious process, although no disease agent has yet been identified. Gross appearance of affected oysters showed mild oedema, retraction of the mantle, weakness and death. Histology revealed no inflammatory response, but we did observe a subtle lesion involving tissue oedema and oedematous separation of epithelial tissues from underlying stroma. Oedema or a watery appearance is commonly reported in published descriptions of diseased molluscs, yet in many cases the terminology has been poorly characterised. The potential causes of oedema are reviewed; however, the question remains as to what might be the cause of oedema in molluscs that are normally iso-osmotic with seawater and have no power of anisosmotic extracellular osmotic regulation.

  12. Vibrio bacteria in raw oysters: managing risks to human health

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Brett A.; Noble, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    The human-pathogenic marine bacteria Vibrio vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus are strongly correlated with water temperature, with concentrations increasing as waters warm seasonally. Both of these bacteria can be concentrated in filter-feeding shellfish, especially oysters. Because oysters are often consumed raw, this exposes people to large doses of potentially harmful bacteria. Various models are used to predict the abundance of these bacteria in oysters, which guide shellfish harvest policy meant to reduce human health risk. Vibrio abundance and behaviour varies from site to site, suggesting that location-specific studies are needed to establish targeted risk reduction strategies. Moreover, virulence potential, rather than simple abundance, should be also be included in future modeling efforts. PMID:26880841

  13. Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  14. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  16. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  17. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  18. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  2. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  3. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  4. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  5. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  6. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  7. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  8. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  9. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  10. 2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and understructure, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and under-structure, looking northwest. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, 62-foot Concrete Arch Pine Creek Bridge, Spanning Clear Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  11. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  12. 121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  13. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  14. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  15. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  16. Guidelines for evaluating performance of oyster habitat restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baggett, Lesley P.; Powers, Sean P.; Brumbaugh, Robert D.; Coen, Loren D.; DeAngelis, Bryan M.; Greene, Jennifer K.; Hancock, Boze T.; Morlock, Summer M.; Allen, Brian L.; Breitburg, Denise L.; Bushek, David; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Grizzle, Raymond E.; Grosholz, Edwin D.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; McGraw, Kay A.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westby, Stephanie R.; zu Ermgassen, Philine S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of degraded ecosystems is an important societal goal, yet inadequate monitoring and the absence of clear performance metrics are common criticisms of many habitat restoration projects. Funding limitations can prevent adequate monitoring, but we suggest that the lack of accepted metrics to address the diversity of restoration objectives also presents a serious challenge to the monitoring of restoration projects. A working group with experience in designing and monitoring oyster reef projects was used to develop standardized monitoring metrics, units, and performance criteria that would allow for comparison among restoration sites and projects of various construction types. A set of four universal metrics (reef areal dimensions, reef height, oyster density, and oyster size–frequency distribution) and a set of three universal environmental variables (water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen) are recommended to be monitored for all oyster habitat restoration projects regardless of their goal(s). In addition, restoration goal-based metrics specific to four commonly cited ecosystem service-based restoration goals are recommended, along with an optional set of seven supplemental ancillary metrics that could provide information useful to the interpretation of prerestoration and postrestoration monitoring data. Widespread adoption of a common set of metrics with standardized techniques and units to assess well-defined goals not only allows practitioners to gauge the performance of their own projects but also allows for comparison among projects, which is both essential to the advancement of the field of oyster restoration and can provide new knowledge about the structure and ecological function of oyster reef ecosystems.

  17. Freshwater Detention by Oyster Reefs: Quantifying a Keystone Ecosystem Service

    PubMed Central

    Olabarrieta, Maitane; Frederick, Peter; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo

    2016-01-01

    Oyster reefs provide myriad ecosystem services, including water quality improvement, fisheries and other faunal support, shoreline protection from erosion and storm surge, and economic productivity. However, their role in directing flow during non-storm conditions has been largely neglected. In regions where oyster reefs form near the mouth of estuarine rivers, they likely alter ocean-estuary exchange by acting as fresh water “dams”. We hypothesize that these reefs have the potential to detain fresh water and influence salinity over extensive areas, thus providing a “keystone” ecosystem service by supporting estuarine functions that rely on the maintenance of estuarine (i.e., brackish) conditions in the near-shore environment. In this work, we investigated the effects of shore-parallel reefs on estuarine salinity using field data and hydrodynamic modeling in a degraded reef complex in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Results suggested that freshwater detention by long linear chains of oyster reefs plays an important role in modulating salinities, not only in the oysters’ local environment, but over extensive estuarine areas (tens of square kilometers). Field data confirmed the presence of salinity differences between landward and seaward sides of the reef, with long-term mean salinity differences of >30% between sides. Modeled results expanded experimental findings by illustrating how oyster reefs affect the lateral and offshore extent of freshwater influence. In general, the effects of simulated reefs were most pronounced when they were highest in elevation, without gaps, and when riverine discharge was low. Taken together, these results describe a poorly documented ecosystem service provided by oyster reefs; provide an estimate of the magnitude and spatial extent of this service; and offer quantitative information to help guide future oyster reef restoration. PMID:27936184

  18. Proteomic characterization of oyster shell organic matrix proteins (OMP)

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Abhishek; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Tong, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Oysters are economically and ecologically important bivalves, with its calcareous shell and delicious meat. The shell composition is a blend of inorganic crystals and shell proteins that form an organic matrix which protects the soft inner tissue of the oyster. The objective of the study was to compare the composition of organic matrix proteins (OMP) of two phylogenetically related species: the Hong Kong oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) and the Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata) which differ in their shell hardness and mechanical properties. C. hongkongensis shells are comparatively stronger than C. angulata. Modern shotgun proteomics has been used to understand the nature of the OMP and the variations observed in the mechanical properties of these two species of oyster shells. After visualizing proteins on the one (1DE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) gels, the protein spots and their intensities were compared using PDQuest software and 14 proteins of C. hongkongensis were found to be significantly different (student׳s t-test; p<0.05) when compared to the C. angulata. Furthermore, shell OMP separated on 1DE gels were processed using Triple TOF5600 mass spectrometry and 42 proteins of C. hongkongensis and 37 of C. angulata identified. A Circos based comparative analysis of the shell proteins of both oyster species were prepared against the shell proteome of other shell forming gastropods and molluscs to study the evolutionary conservation of OMP and their function. This comparative proteomics expanded our understating of the molecular mechanism behind the shells having different hardness and mechanical properties. PMID:28246460

  19. Trace metals in oysters and sediments of Botany Bay, Sydney.

    PubMed

    Hayes, W J; Anderson, I J; Gaffoor, M Z; Hurtado, J

    1998-03-05

    Trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in Sydney rock oysters (Sacostera commercialis) and sediments (< 53 microns fraction) were determined for six sites in the northern regions of Botany Bay. Levels for lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in oysters ranged (in microgram g-1) from 1.38 to 15.3, 1.81 to 16.3, 56.1 to 212 and 1806 to 2902, respectively. In sediments, levels ranged (in microgram g-1) from 599 to 4081, 3.57 to 91.0, 191 to 1113 and 227 to 1472, respectively. Such values indicated high levels of contamination, especially in the sediments. Indeed, high proportions of the samples displayed metal concentrations that exceeded the prescribed limits for oysters and sediments. No significant correlations in metal concentrations were found between oysters and sediments, suggesting that changes in the sediment metal loading are not solely influencing the levels of bioavailable metal. The results supported the conclusion that different rates and mechanisms of metal accumulation are taking place in the two types of samples. Variability between sites was high, particularly for oysters. Multidimensional scaling identified that the Cooks River (site 3) and La Perouse (site 6) sites were most dissimilar, both to each other as well as to the other four sites. This was a reflection of high contamination in the Cooks River and the generally low levels in the La Perouse reference sample. The configuration was mainly influenced by the sediment parameters, rather than the oyster metal concentrations, indicating the sediment data were better for identifying site similarities. These ordinations provide evidence of the usefulness of multidimensional scaling in elucidating the physico-chemical variability of the sampling sites.

  20. In vivo effects of metaldehyde on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: comparing hemocyte parameters in two oyster families.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Pierrick; Burgeot, Thierry; Renault, Tristan

    2015-06-01

    Pollutants via run-off into the ocean represent a potential threat to marine organisms, especially bivalves such as oysters living in coastal environments. These organisms filter large volumes of seawater and may accumulate contaminants within their tissues. Pesticide contamination in water could have a direct or indirect toxic action on tissues or cells and could induce alteration of immune system. Bivalve immunity is mainly supported by hemocytes and participates directly by phagocytosis to eliminate pathogens. Some studies have shown that pesticides can reduce immune defences and/or modify genomes in vertebrates and invertebrates. Metaldehyde is used to kill slugs, snails and other terrestrial gastropods. Although metaldehyde has been detected in surface waters, its effects on marine bivalves including the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have never been studied. Given the mode of action of this molecule and its targets (molluscs), it could be potentially more toxic to oysters than other pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, etc.). Effects of metaldehyde on oyster hemocyte parameters were thus monitored through in vivo experiments based on a short-term exposure. In this work, metaldehyde at 0.1 μg/L, which corresponds to an average concentration detected in the environment, modulated hemocyte activities of Pacific oysters after an in vivo short-term contact. Individuals belonging to two families showed different behaviours for some hemocyte activities after contamination by metaldehyde. These results suggested that effects of pollutants on oysters may differ from an individual to another in relation to genetic diversity. Finally, it appears essential to take an interest in the effects of metaldehyde on a wide variety of aquatic invertebrates including those that have a significant economic impact.

  1. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  2. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  3. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  4. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  5. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  6. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  7. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  8. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  12. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.715 - Debbies Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Debbies Creek. 117.715 Section 117.715 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.715 Debbies Creek. (a) The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  16. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  17. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  20. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  2. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  3. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  4. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  5. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  7. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  8. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  9. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  10. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  11. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  12. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0,...

  14. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  15. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  16. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  17. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  18. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  19. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  20. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  1. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  2. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  3. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  4. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  5. 33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curtis Creek. 117.557 Section 117.557 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695...

  6. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  7. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  8. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  9. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  10. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  11. Millennial-scale sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay Native American oyster fishery.

    PubMed

    Rick, Torben C; Reeder-Myers, Leslie A; Hofman, Courtney A; Breitburg, Denise; Lockwood, Rowan; Henkes, Gregory; Kellogg, Lisa; Lowery, Darrin; Luckenbach, Mark W; Mann, Roger; Ogburn, Matthew B; Southworth, Melissa; Wah, John; Wesson, James; Hines, Anson H

    2016-06-07

    Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America's Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations have declined dramatically, making their restoration and conservation extremely challenging. Here we present data on oyster size and human harvest from Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites spanning ∼3,500 y of Native American, colonial, and historical occupation. We compare oysters from archaeological sites with Pleistocene oyster reefs that existed before human harvest, modern oyster reefs, and other records of human oyster harvest from around the world. Native American fisheries were focused on nearshore oysters and were likely harvested at a rate that was sustainable over centuries to millennia, despite changing Holocene climatic conditions and sea-level rise. These data document resilience in oyster populations under long-term Native American harvest, sea-level rise, and climate change; provide context for managing modern oyster fisheries in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere around the world; and demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied broadly to other fisheries.

  12. Development and use of an internal standard for oyster herpesvirus 1 detection by PCR.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Arzul, I; Lipart, C

    2004-10-01

    Oyster samples were examined using a competitive PCR method in order to detect and quantify oyster herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) DNA. Quantitation of viral DNA by competitive PCR assay was based on co-amplification of OsHV-1 DNA and a competitor where a known amount of competitor DNA was present in the same reaction mixture. The competitor was engineered so that it differs in length (deletion of 76 base pairs) from the viral DNA. The assay allowed the detection of 1 fg of viral DNA among 0.5 mg of oyster tissues. The method was used to demonstrate the absence of PCR inhibitors in oyster spat ground tissues. PCR inhibition was observed in adult oyster samples when the same tissue preparation procedure was used. On the contrary, classical phenol/chloroform DNA extraction from adult oyster tissues allowed co-amplification of the internal standard competitor and the viral DNA. The method was successfully used to demonstrate the presence of viral DNA in asymptomatic adult oysters. Quantitation of OsHV-1 DNA in infected spat and asymptomatic adult oysters was also carried out. Viral DNA (1.5-325 pg) were detectable in 0.5 mg of oyster tissues in adults. The amounts of viral DNA in infected oyster spat varied from 750 pg to 35 ng per 0.5 mg of ground tissues.

  13. Millennial-scale sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay Native American oyster fishery

    PubMed Central

    Rick, Torben C.; Reeder-Myers, Leslie A.; Hofman, Courtney A.; Breitburg, Denise; Lockwood, Rowan; Henkes, Gregory; Kellogg, Lisa; Lowery, Darrin; Luckenbach, Mark W.; Mann, Roger; Ogburn, Matthew B.; Southworth, Melissa; Wah, John; Wesson, James; Hines, Anson H.

    2016-01-01

    Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America’s Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations have declined dramatically, making their restoration and conservation extremely challenging. Here we present data on oyster size and human harvest from Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites spanning ∼3,500 y of Native American, colonial, and historical occupation. We compare oysters from archaeological sites with Pleistocene oyster reefs that existed before human harvest, modern oyster reefs, and other records of human oyster harvest from around the world. Native American fisheries were focused on nearshore oysters and were likely harvested at a rate that was sustainable over centuries to millennia, despite changing Holocene climatic conditions and sea-level rise. These data document resilience in oyster populations under long-term Native American harvest, sea-level rise, and climate change; provide context for managing modern oyster fisheries in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere around the world; and demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied broadly to other fisheries. PMID:27217572

  14. Microbiological Quality and Prevalence of β-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Oysters ( Crassostrea rhizophorae ).

    PubMed

    Brandão, Maria Aparecida da RessurreiÇão; Lopes, Amanda Teixeira Sampaio; Neta, Maria Tereza da Silva; de Oliveira, Rhyan Barros Farias; Rezende, Rachel Passos; Albuquerque, George Rêgo; Gonçalves, Verônica Dias; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres; Boehs, Guisla; Maciel, Bianca Mendes

    2017-03-01

    The microbiological quality of oysters reflects the microbiological quality of their habitats because they are filter feeders. The objective of this study was to assess the bacterial composition of the edible oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae in urban and preserved estuaries. Particularly, we assessed the presence of pathogenic bacteria, investigated antibiotic susceptibility in bacterial isolates, and quantified β-lactam antibiotic resistance genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaKPC) via quantitative PCR of oyster DNA. Our results detected total coliforms, Escherichia coli , and enterobacteria in the oysters from urban estuaries, which is indicative of poor water quality. In addition, our detection of the eaeA and stxA2 virulence genes in 16.7% of E. coli isolates from oysters from this region suggests the presence of multiantibiotic-resistant enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. During periods of low precipitation, increased contamination by E. coli (in winter) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (in autumn) was observed. In contrast, cultivated oysters inhabiting monitored farms in preserved areas had low levels of bacterial contamination, emphasizing that oyster culture monitoring enhances food quality and makes oysters fit for human consumption. Distinct antibiotic resistance profiles were observed in bacteria isolated from oysters collected from different areas, including resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. The presence of the blaTEM gene in 91.3% of oyster samples indicated that microorganisms in estuarine water conferred the capability to produce β-lactamase. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly quantify and detect β-lactam antibiotic resistance genes in oysters. We believe our study provides baseline data for bacterial dynamics in estuarine oysters; such knowledge contributes to developing risk assessments to determine the associated hazards and consequences of consuming oysters from aquatic environments containing pathogenic bacteria

  15. Performance of selected eastern oyster lines across northeastern US estuaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern oyster production derived from aquaculture has expanded, but growth potential is constrained by losses to disease. Breeding programs supporting industry in the Northeast have targeted resistance to three diseases: MSX, Dermo, and ROD. Selected lines should possess some level of resistance a...

  16. Culture and Sustainability: Lessons from the Oyster and Other Metaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Consider the oyster. Like all good metaphors, it has done some morphing since the days of Shakespeare's "Merry Wives of Windsor." Newer bands of shell material have repainted the mollusk metaphor, transforming it from ostracism, opportunism, and exploitation to openness, opportunity and exploration, and thus an apt symbol for the…

  17. Active downward propulsion by oyster larvae in turbulence.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Heidi L; Hunter, Elias J; Schmitt, Erika L; Guazzo, Regina A

    2013-04-15

    Oyster larvae (Crassostrea virginica) could enhance their settlement success by moving toward the seafloor in the strong turbulence associated with coastal habitats. We characterized the behavior of individual oyster larvae in grid-generated turbulence by measuring larval velocities and flow velocities simultaneously using infrared particle image velocimetry. We estimated larval behavioral velocities and propulsive forces as functions of the kinetic energy dissipation rate ε, strain rate γ, vorticity ξ and acceleration α. In calm water most larvae had near-zero vertical velocities despite propelling themselves upward (swimming). In stronger turbulence all larvae used more propulsive force, but relative to the larval axis, larvae propelled themselves downward (diving) instead of upward more frequently and more forcefully. Vertical velocity magnitudes of both swimmers and divers increased with turbulence, but the swimming velocity leveled off as larvae were rotated away from their stable, velum-up orientation in strong turbulence. Diving speeds rose steadily with turbulence intensity to several times the terminal fall velocity in still water. Rapid dives may require a switch from ciliary swimming to another propulsive mode such as flapping the velum, which would become energetically efficient at the intermediate Reynolds numbers attained by larvae in strong turbulence. We expected larvae to respond to spatial or temporal velocity gradients, but although the diving frequency changed abruptly at a threshold acceleration, the variation in propulsive force and behavioral velocity was best explained by the dissipation rate. Downward propulsion could enhance oyster larval settlement by raising the probability of larval contact with oyster reef patches.

  18. Stress-induced immune changes in the oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, Arnaud; Malham, Shelagh K; Gélébart, Florence; Cueff, Anne; Poulet, Serge A

    2002-01-01

    Information concerning the effect of stress on invertebrate immune functions are scarce. The present study investigated the consequences of a 15-min mechanical disturbance on immune parameters in oysters Crassostrea gigas. As indicated by noradrenaline and dopamine measurements, the mechanical disturbance caused a transient state of stress in oysters. The number of circulating hemocytes, the migratory and phagocytic activities and reactive oxygen species production of hemocytes were measured before, during and after application of the stressor. Results show that all immune functions were significantly downregulated during stress and a transient period of immunostimulation was observed 30-240 min after the end of the disturbance. Taken together, these results suggest that stress can exert a profound influence on oyster immune functions and they may explain why stress and the outbreak of disease are often linked in shellfish culture. Furthermore, the present study strongly suggests that checking the stress status of animals may be necessary to avoid biases when studying oyster immune responses in vivo.

  19. Norovirus outbreak associated with undercooked oysters and secondary household transmission.

    PubMed

    Alfano-Sobsey, E; Sweat, D; Hall, A; Breedlove, F; Rodriguez, R; Greene, S; Pierce, A; Sobsey, M; Davies, M; Ledford, S L

    2012-02-01

    During December 2009, over 200 individuals reported gastrointestinal symptoms after dining at a North Carolina restaurant. An outbreak investigation included a case-control study of restaurant patrons, a secondary household transmission study, environmental assessment of the restaurant facilities and operations, and laboratory analysis of stool and food samples. Illness was primarily associated with consumption of steamed oysters (odds ratio 12, 95% confidence interval 4·8-28) and 20% (8/41 households) reported secondary cases, with a secondary attack rate of 14% among the 70 susceptible household contacts. Norovirus RNA was detected in 3/5 stool specimens from ill patrons; sequencing of RT-PCR products from two of these specimens identified identical genogroup II genotype 12 sequences. Final cooked temperatures of the steamed oysters were generally inadequate to inactivate norovirus, ranging from 21°C to 74°C. Undercooked contaminated oysters pose a similar risk for norovirus illness as raw oysters and household contacts are at risk for secondary infection.

  20. Oyster reefs can outpace sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fodrie, F. Joel; Ridge, Justin T.; Lindquist, Niels L.; Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Coleman, Sara E.; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Brodeur, Michelle C.; Gittman, Rachel K.; Keller, Danielle A.; Kenworthy, Matthew D.

    2014-06-01

    In the high-salinity seaward portions of estuaries, oysters seek refuge from predation, competition and disease in intertidal areas, but this sanctuary will be lost if vertical reef accretion cannot keep pace with sea-level rise (SLR). Oyster-reef abundance has already declined ~85% globally over the past 100 years, mainly from over harvesting, making any additional losses due to SLR cause for concern. Before any assessment of reef response to accelerated SLR can be made, direct measures of reef growth are necessary. Here, we present direct measurements of intertidal oyster-reef growth from cores and terrestrial lidar-derived digital elevation models. On the basis of our measurements collected within a mid-Atlantic estuary over a 15-year period, we developed a globally testable empirical model of intertidal oyster-reef accretion. We show that previous estimates of vertical reef growth, based on radiocarbon dates and bathymetric maps, may be greater than one order of magnitude too slow. The intertidal reefs we studied should be able to keep up with any future accelerated rate of SLR (ref. ) and may even benefit from the additional subaqueous space allowing extended vertical accretion.

  1. An improved method for quantification of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C D; Win, J K; Fletcher, G C

    2013-12-01

    Chromogenic agar was compared with the FDA recommended cellobiose-colistin agar for assessment of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters. A two-step culture confirmation method was also evaluated. The inclusion of CA gave a 33% increase in the detection rate and the two-step culture confirmation eliminated 62.5% of false positives.

  2. Study of atrazine effects on Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, haemocytes.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, B; Renault, T; Bouilly, K; Lapegue, S; Thomas-Guyon, H

    2003-01-01

    Shellfish farming is an important economic activity around the world. This activity often takes place in areas subjected to various recurring pollutions. The recrudescent use of herbicides in agriculture including atrazine implies pollutant transfer towards aquatic environment in estuarine areas. Harmful effects of such substances on animals in marine environment, particularly on cultured bivalves, are poorly documented. Bivalve molluscs such as mussels and oysters have been postulated as ideal indicator organisms because of their way of life. They filter large volumes of seawater and may therefore accumulate and concentrate contaminants within their tissues. Moreover, development of techniques allowing effect analysis of such compounds on bivalve biology may lead to the development of diagnosis tools adapted to analyze pollutant transfer towards estuarine areas. In this context, influence of atrazine on defence mechanisms was analyzed in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Atrazine was tested in vitro and in vivo on oyster haemocytes, and its effects were analyzed by flow cytometry. Haemocyte viability, cell cycle and cellular activities were monitored. Atrazine induced no significant effect in oyster under tested conditions except for peroxidase activity.

  3. Detection of Salmonella spp. in oysters by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Bej, A K; Mahbubani, M H; Boyce, M J; Atlas, R M

    1994-01-01

    PCR DNA amplification of a region of the himA gene of Salmonella typhimurium specifically detected Salmonella spp. In oysters, 1 to 10 cells of Salmonella spp. were rapidly detected by the PCR following a pre-enrichment step to increase sensitivity and to ensure that detection was based on the presence of viable Salmonella spp. Images PMID:8117091

  4. OYSTER HABITAT SUITABILITY AS A COMPONENT OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Economic and ecological issues have led resource managers to examine depletion of eastern oyster reefs along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Crassostrea virginica is a lucrative commercial species (over $60M in 2000) that also supports ecosystem integrity by providin...

  5. FISHERY-ORIENTED MODEL OF MARYLAND OYSTER POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used time series data to calibrate a model of oyster population dynamics for Maryland's Chesapeake Bay. Model parameters were fishing mortality, natural mortality, recruitment, and carrying capacity. We calibrated for the Maryland bay as a whole and separately for 3 salinity z...

  6. High pressure processing inactivates human norovirus within oysters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of raw bivalve mollusks can result in norovirus infection. One potential intervention for virus-contaminated shellfish is high pressure processing (HPP). Currently HPP is known to inactivate Vibrio bacteria, hepatitis A virus, and murine norovirus within oysters. To evaluate the potentia...

  7. Antimicrobial peptides in oyster hemolymph: the bacterial connection.

    PubMed

    Defer, Diane; Desriac, Florie; Henry, Joël; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Brillet, Benjamin; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Fleury, Yannick

    2013-06-01

    We have explored antimicrobial compounds in oyster hemolymph and purified four active peptides with molecular masses of 4464, 3158, 655 and 636 Da. While no exploitable structural elements were obtained for the former three, a partial amino acid sequence (X-P-P-X-X-I-V) was obtained for the latter, named Cg-636. Due to both its low MM and the presence of exotic amino acid residue (X), we suspected a bacterial origin and tracked cultivable hemolymph-resident bacteria of oyster for their antimicrobial abilities. Supernatants of 224 hemolymph resident bacteria coming from 60 oysters were screened against 10 target bacteria including aquaculture pathogens. Around 2% (5 strains) revealed antimicrobial activities. They belong to Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio genera. Two closely related strains named hCg-6 and hCg-42 have been shown to produce Bacteriocin-Like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS) even in oyster hemolymph. We report herein first BLIS-producing bacteria isolated from bivalve hemolymph. These results strongly suggest that hemolymph resident bacteria may prevent pathogen establishment and pave the way for considering a role of resident bacteria into bivalve defense.

  8. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  9. Molecular detection of Marteilia sydneyi, pathogen of Sydney rock oysters.

    PubMed

    Kleeman, S N; Adlard, R D

    2000-03-14

    The life cycle of Marteilia sydneyi, the aetiological agent of QX disease in the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea commercialis, is not known. We have developed and optimised 2 diagnostic assays, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridisation, for use in investigating the role of possible alternative hosts in the life cycle of this pathogen. PCR primers, designed within the ITS1 rDNA of M. sydneyi, amplified a 195 bp fragment. Sensitivity of the PCR assay was assessed using DNA extracted from known numbers of sporonts purified from infected oyster digestive gland. DNA equivalent to 0.01 sporonts was detectable following agarose gel electrophoresis. The potential inhibitory effect of the presence of host DNA on the PCR assay was tested by the addition of oyster genomic DNA during amplification. Concentrations of host DNA in excess of 50 ng per 20 microliters reaction reduced the sensitivity of the test. Environmental validation of the PCR assay was demonstrated by the amplification of M. sydneyi DNA from 50 ng of genomic DNA extracted from QX-infected oysters. A DNA probe was constructed using the M. sydneyi unique primers and was able to detect 10 pg of M. sydneyi PCR amplified DNA in dot-blot hybridisations. The probe hybridised with presporulating and sporulating M. sydneyi stages in paraffin sections of oyster digestive gland. No non-specific binding was observed. Hybridisation consistency and signal intensity decreased as sporonts matured. While the high sensitivity and specificity of the PCR test will allow rapid screening of large numbers of potential alternative hosts for the presence of parasite DNA, it does not actually identify infective stages. In situ hybridisation conducted on paraffin sections will determine the location of the parasite within the host for morphological characterisation.

  10. Latitudinal gradients in ecosystem engineering by oysters vary across habitats.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Dominic; Cole, Victoria J; Bishop, Melanie J

    2016-04-01

    Ecological theory predicts that positive interactions among organisms will increase across gradients of increasing abiotic stress or consumer pressure. This theory has been supported by empirical studies examining the magnitude of ecosystem engineering across environmental gradients and between habitat settings at local scale. Predictions that habitat setting, by modifying both biotic and abiotic factors, will determine large-scale gradients in ecosystem engineering have not been tested, however. A combination of manipulative experiments and field surveys assessed whether along the east Australian coastline: (1) facilitation of invertebrates by the oyster Saccostrea glomerata increased across a latitudinal gradient in temperature; and (2) the magnitude of this effect varied between intertidal rocky shores and mangrove forests. It was expected that on rocky shores, where oysters are the primary ecosystem engineer, they would play a greater role in ameliorating latitudinal gradients in temperature than in mangroves, where they are a secondary ecosystem engineer living under the mangrove canopy. On rocky shores, the enhancement of invertebrate abundance in oysters as compared to bare microhabitat decreased with latitude, as the maximum temperatures experienced by intertidal organisms diminished. By contrast, in mangrove forests, where the mangrove canopy resulted in maximum temperatures that were cooler and of greater humidity than on rocky shores, we found no evidence of latitudinal gradients of oyster effects on invertebrate abundance. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude by which oysters enhanced biodiversity was in many instances similar between mangroves and rocky shores. Whether habitat-context modifies patterns of spatial variation in the effects of ecosystem engineers on community structure will depend, in part, on the extent to which the environmental amelioration provided by an ecosystem engineer replicates that of other co-occurring ecosystem engineers.

  11. Experimental infection of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat by ostreid herpesvirus 1: demonstration of oyster spat susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Schikorski, David; Renault, Tristan; Saulnier, Denis; Faury, Nicole; Moreau, Pierrick; Pépin, Jean-François

    2011-02-07

    In 2008 and 2009, acute mortalities occurred in France among Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat. Different hypothesis including the implication of environmental factors, toxic algae and/or pathogens have been explored. Diagnostic tests indicated that OsHV-1 including a particular genotype, termed OsHV-1 μVar, was detected in most of samples and especially in moribund oysters with the highlighting of virus particles looking like herpes viruses by TEM examination. In this study, an experimental protocol to reproduce OsHV-1 infection in laboratory conditions was developed. This protocol was based on the intramuscular injection of filtered (0.22 μm) tissue homogenates prepared from naturally OsHV-1 infected spat collected on French coasts during mortality outbreaks in 2008. Results of the experimental trials showed that mortalities were induced after injection. Moreover, filtered tissue homogenates induced mortalities whereas the same tissue homogenates exposed to an ultraviolet (UV) treatment did not induce any mortality suggesting that oyster spat mortalities require the presence of a UV sensitive agent. Furthermore, analysis of injected oyster spat revealed the detection of high amounts of OsHV-1 DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, TEM analysis demonstrated the presence of herpes virus particles. The developed protocol allowed to maintain sources of infective virus which can be useful for the development of further studies concerning the transmission and the development of OsHV-1 infection.

  12. Experimental infection of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat by ostreid herpesvirus 1: demonstration of oyster spat susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 and 2009, acute mortalities occurred in France among Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat. Different hypothesis including the implication of environmental factors, toxic algae and/or pathogens have been explored. Diagnostic tests indicated that OsHV-1 including a particular genotype, termed OsHV-1 μVar, was detected in most of samples and especially in moribund oysters with the highlighting of virus particles looking like herpes viruses by TEM examination. In this study, an experimental protocol to reproduce OsHV-1 infection in laboratory conditions was developed. This protocol was based on the intramuscular injection of filtered (0.22 μm) tissue homogenates prepared from naturally OsHV-1 infected spat collected on French coasts during mortality outbreaks in 2008. Results of the experimental trials showed that mortalities were induced after injection. Moreover, filtered tissue homogenates induced mortalities whereas the same tissue homogenates exposed to an ultraviolet (UV) treatment did not induce any mortality suggesting that oyster spat mortalities require the presence of a UV sensitive agent. Furthermore, analysis of injected oyster spat revealed the detection of high amounts of OsHV-1 DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, TEM analysis demonstrated the presence of herpes virus particles. The developed protocol allowed to maintain sources of infective virus which can be useful for the development of further studies concerning the transmission and the development of OsHV-1 infection. PMID:21314910

  13. ["Non-aging" pearl oyster and aging salmon (about lack of basis for production of medicines based on European pearl oyster Margaritifera margaritifera)].

    PubMed

    Popov, I Iu

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on disproof of the claim by Valery Ziuganov, that pearl oyster infection prolongs the lifespan of salmon and that pearl oyster can be used as a source of medicine. His activity on the production of medicine pretending to care cancer and senescence based on the gills of salmon infected by pearl oyster is blamed. The data on pearl oyster and salmon biology are presented: Atlantic salmon survives after spawning irrespectively of oyster infection. The problem of shady medicines production is discussed. It was shown that even Academic editions and formal attributes of the belonging to scientific community do not provide a necessary barrier to frauds in this field. Adaptationist program popularity contributes such a situation, because it provides "grounds" for any speculation concerning advantages of any biological process.

  14. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT P STREET BEND, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  16. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  17. Molecular Basis for Adaptation of Oysters to Stressful Marine Intertidal Environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guofan; Li, Li; Meng, Jie; Qi, Haigang; Qu, Tao; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Oysters that occupy estuarine and intertidal habitats have well-developed stress tolerance mechanisms to tolerate harsh and dynamically changing environments. In this review, we summarize common pathways and genomic features in oyster that are responsive to environmental stressors such as temperature, salinity, hypoxia, air exposure, pathogens, and anthropogenic pollutions. We first introduce the key genes involved in several pathways, which constitute the molecular basis for adaptation to stress. We use genome analysis to highlight the strong cellular homeostasis system, a unique adaptive characteristic of oysters. Next, we provide a global view of features of the oyster genome that contribute to stress adaptation, including oyster-specific gene expansion, highly inducible expression, and functional divergence. Finally, we review the consequences of interactions between oysters and the environment from ecological and evolutionary perspectives by discussing mass mortality and adaptive divergence among populations and related species of the genus Crassostrea. We conclude with prospects for future study.

  18. The recovery of oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) populations in Sydney estuary (Australia).

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Scammell, M S; Besley, C H

    2014-01-01

    The current work documented a significant and widespread increase in the abundance of the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata, in Sydney estuary (Australia) by undertaking surveys of oyster density in the estuary in 1989 and annually from 1994 to 2006. Oyster density at six control sites located in nearby National Parks unaffected by boating and stormwater discharges were compared to 17 study sites widely distributed within Sydney estuary. No oyster populations were evident in Sydney estuary in 1989; however, by 1994 oysters had colonised areas of the lower and central estuary and by 2002 densities were statistically similar to control sites. The timing of estuary-wide increases in oyster abundance suggests that the partial banning of tributyltin in 1989 for vessels under 25 m long may have played a major role in the increase of S. glomerata in this estuary.

  19. Influence of eutrophication on metal bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability in oysters, Crassostrea angulata.

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Chen, Li-Hui; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2014-07-23

    Oysters (Crassostrea angulata) are often exposed to eutrophication. However, how these exposures influence metal bioaccumulation and oral bioavailability (OBA) in oysters is unknown. After a four month field experimental cultivation, bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of metals (Fe, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb) from seawater to oysters and metal oral bioavailability in oysters by bionic gastrointestinal tract were determined. A positive effect of macronutrient (nitrate N and total P) concentration in seawater on BAF of Cd in oysters was observed, but such an effect was not significant for Fe, Cu, Pb, and As. Only OBA of As was significantly positively correlated to N and P contents. For Fe, OBA was negatively correlated with N. The regular variation of the OBA of Fe and As may be due to the effect of eutrophication on the synthesis of metal granules and heat-stable protein in oysters, respectively.

  20. Ocean acidification increases the vulnerability of native oysters to predation by invasive snails.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Eric; Gaylord, Brian; Hettinger, Annaliese; Lenz, Elizabeth A; Meyer, Kirstin; Hill, Tessa M

    2014-03-07

    There is growing concern that global environmental change might exacerbate the ecological impacts of invasive species by increasing their per capita effects on native species. However, the mechanisms underlying such shifts in interaction strength are poorly understood. Here, we test whether ocean acidification, driven by elevated seawater pCO₂, increases the susceptibility of native Olympia oysters to predation by invasive snails. Oysters raised under elevated pCO₂ experienced a 20% increase in drilling predation. When presented alongside control oysters in a choice experiment, 48% more high-CO₂ oysters were consumed. The invasive snails were tolerant of elevated CO₂ with no change in feeding behaviour. Oysters raised under acidified conditions did not have thinner shells, but were 29-40% smaller than control oysters, and these smaller individuals were consumed at disproportionately greater rates. Reduction in prey size is a common response to environmental stress that may drive increasing per capita effects of stress-tolerant invasive predators.

  1. Characterization studies on the cadmium-binding proteins from two species of New Zealand oysters

    SciTech Connect

    Nordberg, M.; Nuottaniemi, I.; Cherian, M.G.; Nordberg, G.F.; Kjellstroem, T.; Garvey, J.S.

    1986-03-01

    Two different types of New Zealand oysters - Ostrea lutaria (OL) and Crassostrea glomerata (CG) - contained different concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium. Both kinds of oysters were shown by gel filtration (G-75) to contain cadmium and zinc in fractions corresponding to a high molecular weight protein which was heat labile. OL oysters contained cadmium in fractions corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 6500. The cadmium-binding protein in these fractions was heat-stable. This protein contained no detectable amounts of zinc and was not present in the CG oysters. CG oysters contained cadmium and zinc in a polypeptide with low molecular weight (MW 1000). The cadmium-binding oyster proteins are minimally reactive in a competitive binding radioimmunoassay in comparison to the reactivity of a typical vertebrate metallothionein; the proteins may be metallothioneins, but, if so, they do not exhibit the principal determinants characteristic of vertebrate metallothioneins.

  2. Benthic surveys of the historic pearl oyster beds of Qatar reveal a dramatic ecological change.

    PubMed

    Smyth, D; Al-Maslamani, I; Chatting, M; Giraldes, B

    2016-12-15

    The study aimed to confirm the presence of historic oyster banks of Qatar and code the biotopes present. The research also collated historical records and scientific publications to create a timeline of fishery activity. The oyster banks where once an extremely productive economic resource however, intense overfishing, extreme environmental conditions and anthropogenic impacts caused a fishery collapse. The timeline highlighted the vulnerability of ecosystem engineering bivalves if overexploited. The current status of the oyster banks meant only one site could be described as oyster dominant. This was unexpected as the sites were located in areas which once supported a highly productive oyster fishery. The research revealed the devastating effect that anthropogenic impacts can have on a relatively robust marine habitat like an oyster bed and it is hoped these findings will act as a driver to investigate and map other vulnerable habitats within the region before they too become compromised.

  3. Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).

    PubMed

    Fournier, Jonathan; Dupuy, Christine; Bouvy, Marc; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Charpy, Loïc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Le Pennec, Marcel; Cochard, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia.

  4. A comparative proteomic study on the effects of metal pollution in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lanlan; Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Tan, Qiaoguo; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-15

    The metal pollution has posed great risk on the coastal organisms along the Jiulongjiang Estuary in South China. In this work, two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics was applied to the oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis from metal pollution sites to characterize the proteomic responses to metal pollution. Metal accumulation and proteomic responses indicated that the oysters from BJ site were more severely contaminated than those from FG site. Compared with those oyster samples from the clean site (JZ), metal pollution induced cellular injuries, oxidative and immune stresses in oyster heapatopancreas from both BJ and FG sites via differential metabolic pathways. In addition, metal pollution in BJ site induced disturbance in energy and lipid metabolisms in oysters. Results indicated that cathepsin L and ferritin GF1 might be the biomarkers of As and Fe in oyster C. hongkongensis, respectively. This study demonstrates that proteomics is a useful tool for investigating biological effects induced by metal pollution.

  5. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  6. Effect of parasitism by the pyramidellid gastropod Boonea impressa on the net productivity of oysters ( Crassostrea virginica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. E.; Powell, E. N.; Ray, S. M.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of an ectoparasitic gastropod, Boonea (= Odostomia) impressa, on the energy bidget of its host, the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was examined. A model was developed from laboratory and field data, as well as from equations developed by Powell and Stanton (1985). The model predicted that net productivity by large (7 cm length) oysters parasitized by 10 and 30 large (6 mm length) snails would be reduced by 21% and 63%, respectively. In contrast, net productivity in small (3 cm length) oysters would be reduced 25% by only 3 snails. Small oysters would have a negative energy balance when parasitized by 10 snails. The predicted reduction in growth was compared with measured growth in small and large oysters parasitized at abundances typical of Texas oyster reefs. Control oysters (no parasites) gained more shell weight than parasitized oysters. In four-week experiments conducted during the spring and fall, small control oysters gained 86% and 75% more weight than highly parasitized oysters. Large control oysters had 29% and 88% more shell deposition. Snail parasitism produced 75% mortality in small, highly parasitized oysters in the summer. In typical field populations in Texas bays, a minimal estimate of 4-12% of the energy otherwise available to the oyster for growth and reproduction is consumed by Boonea impressa.

  7. Hemolymph chemistry and histopathological changes in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in response to low salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Graeme; Handlinger, Judith; Jones, Brian; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie

    2014-09-01

    This study described seasonal differences in the histopathological and hemolymph chemistry changes in different family lines of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in response to the stress of an abrupt change to low salinity, and mechanical grading. The most significant changes in pallial cavity salinity, hemolymph chemistry and histopathological findings occurred in summer at low salinity. In summer (water temperature 18°C) at low salinity, 9 (25.7% of full salinity), the mean pallial cavity salinity in oysters at day 3 was 19.8±1.6 (SE) and day 10 was 22.8±1.6 (SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. Associated with this fall in pallial cavity salinity, mean hemolymph sodium for oysters at salinity 9 on day 3 and 10 were 297.2mmol/L±20(SE) and 350.4mmol/L±21.3(SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. Similarly mean hemolymph potassium in oysters held at salinity 9 at day 3 and 10 were 5.6mmol/L±0.6(SE) and 7.9mmol/L±0.6 (SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. These oysters at low salinity had expanded intercellular spaces and significant intracytoplasmic vacuolation distending the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the alimentary tract and kidney and hemocyte infiltrate (diapedesis) within the alimentary tract wall. In contrast, in winter (water temperature 8°C) oyster mean pallial cavity salinity only fell at day 10 and this was by 6.0±0.6 (SE) compared to that of oysters at salinity 35. There were limited histopathological changes (expanded intercellular spaces and moderate intracytoplasmic vacuolation of renal epithelial cells) in these oysters at day 10 in low salinity. Mechanical grading and family line did not influence the oyster response to sudden low salinity. These findings provide additional information for interpretation of non-lethal, histopathological changes associated with temperature and salinity variation.

  8. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  9. Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

  10. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  11. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  12. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  13. Bistability in a differential equation model of oyster reef height and sediment accumulation.

    PubMed

    Jordan-Cooley, William C; Lipcius, Romuald N; Shaw, Leah B; Shen, Jian; Shi, Junping

    2011-11-21

    Native oyster populations in Chesapeake Bay have been the focus of three decades of restoration attempts, which have generally failed to rebuild the populations and oyster reef structure. Recent restoration successes and field experiments indicate that high-relief reefs persist, likely due to elevated reef height which offsets heavy sedimentation and promotes oyster survival, disease resistance and growth, in contrast to low-relief reefs which degrade in just a few years. These findings suggest the existence of alternative stable states in oyster reef populations. We developed a mathematical model consisting of three differential equations that represent volumes of live oysters, dead oyster shells (=accreting reef), and sediment. Bifurcation analysis and numerical simulations demonstrated that multiple nonnegative equilibria can exist for live oyster, accreting reef and sediment volume at an ecologically reasonable range of parameter values; the initial height of oyster reefs determined which equilibrium was reached. This investigation thus provides a conceptual framework for alternative stable states in native oyster populations, and can be used as a tool to improve the likelihood of success in restoration efforts.

  14. Inhibition of 4NQO-Induced Oral Carcinogenesis by Dietary Oyster Shell Calcium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yi; Liao, Liyan; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Tang, Shengan; Yang, Qing; Sun, Lihua; Li, Yujie; Gao, Shuangrong; Xie, Zhongjian

    2016-03-01

    Oyster has gained much attention recently for its anticancer activity but it is unclear whether calcium, the major antitumor ingredient in oyster shell, is responsible for the anticarcinogenic role of the oyster. To address this issue, C57BL/6 mice were fed with the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO, 50 µg/mL) and normal diet or a diet containing oyster powder, oyster calcium, or calcium depleted oyster powder. The tongue tissue specimens isolated from these mice were histologically evaluated for hyperplasia, dysplasia, and papillary lesions, and then analyzed for proliferation and differentiation markers by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that mice on the diet containing oyster calcium significantly reduced rates of tumors in the tongue and proliferation and enhanced differentiation in the oral epithelium compared with the diet containing calcium depleted oyster powder. These results suggest that calcium in oyster plays a critical role in suppressing formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and proliferation and promoting differentiation of the oral epithelium.

  15. Investigations of Salmonella enterica serovar newport infections of oysters by using immunohistochemistry and knockout mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher M; Dial, Sharon M; Day, William A; Joens, Lynn A

    2012-04-01

    The consumption of raw oysters is an important risk factor in the acquisition of food-borne disease, with Salmonella being one of a number of pathogens that have been found in market oysters. Previous work by our lab found that Salmonella was capable of surviving in oysters for over 2 months under laboratory conditions, and this study sought to further investigate Salmonella's tissue affinity and mechanism of persistence within the oysters. Immunohistochemistry was used to show that Salmonella was capable of breaching the epithelial barriers, infecting the deeper connective tissues of the oysters, and evading destruction by the oysters' phagocytic hemocytes. To further investigate the mechanism of these infections, genes vital to the function of Salmonella's two main type III secretion systems were disrupted and the survivability of these knockout mutants within oysters was assayed. When the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 mutant strains were exposed to oysters, there were no detectable deficiencies in their abilities to survive, suggesting that Salmonella's long-term infection of oysters does not rely upon these two important pathogenicity islands and must be due to some other, currently unknown, mechanism.

  16. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Olympia oyster

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, D. . Coll. of Natural Resources); Hassler, T.J. . California Cooperative Fishery Research Unit)

    1989-12-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessments. Olympia oysters initially spawn as males then alternate their functional genders. Spawning begins at 13-16 {degree}C and occurs from spring to fall. After a short planktonic stage, larvae attach to the substrate. Olympia oysters thrive at salinities of 25 ppt or above; they are killed by freezing temperatures. Olympia oysters once supported large sustenance and commercial fisheries. Olympia oysters have not returned to pre-exploitation population levels which declined because of pollution and loss of habitat. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Exploring spatial and temporal variations of cadmium concentrations in pacific oysters from british columbia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cindy Xin; Cao, Jiguo; Bendell, Leah

    2011-09-01

    Oysters from the Pacific Northwest coast of British Columbia, Canada, contain high levels of cadmium, in some cases exceeding some international food safety guidelines. A primary goal of this article is the investigation of the spatial and temporal variation in cadmium concentrations for oysters sampled from coastal British Columbia. Such information is important so that recommendations can be made as to where and when oysters can be cultured such that accumulation of cadmium within these oysters is minimized. Some modern statistical methods are applied to achieve this goal, including monotone spline smoothing, functional principal component analysis, and semi-parametric additive modeling. Oyster growth rates are estimated as the first derivatives of the monotone smoothing growth curves. Some important patterns in cadmium accumulation by oysters are observed. For example, most inland regions tend to have a higher level of cadmium concentration than most coastal regions, so more caution needs to be taken for shellfish aquaculture practices occurring in the inland regions. The semi-parametric additive modeling shows that oyster cadmium concentration decreases with oyster length, and oysters sampled at 7 m have higher average cadmium concentration than those sampled at 1 m.

  18. Increased temperatures combined with lowered salinities differentially impact oyster size class growth and mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Rybovich, Molly; Hall, Steven G.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the timing and interaction of seasonal high temperatures and low salinities as predicted by climate change models could dramatically alter oyster population dynamics. Little is known explicitly about how low salinity and high temperature combinations affect spat (<25mm), seed (25–75mm), andmarket (>75mm) oyster growth and mortality. Using field and laboratory studies, this project quantified the combined effects of extremely low salinities (<5) and high temperatures (>30°C) on growth and survival of spat, seed, andmarket-sized oysters. In 2012 and 2013, hatchery-produced oysters were placed in open and closed cages at three sites in Breton Sound, LA, along a salinity gradient that typically ranged from 5 to 20. Growth and mortality were recorded monthly. Regardless of size class, oysters at the lowest salinity site (annualmean = 4.8) experienced significantly highermortality and lower growth than oysters located in higher salinity sites (annual means = 11.1 and 13.0, respectively); furthermore, all oysters in open cages at the two higher salinity sites experienced higher mortality than in closed cages, likely due to predation. To explicitly examine oyster responses to extreme low salinity and high temperature combinations, a series of laboratory studies were conducted. Oysters were placed in 18 tanks in a fully crossed temperature (25°C, 32°C) by salinity (1, 5, and 15) study with three replicates, and repeated at least twice for each oyster size class. Regardless of temperature, seed and market oysters held in low salinity tanks (salinity 1) experienced 100% mortality within 7 days. In contrast, at salinity 5, temperature significantly affected mortality; oysters in all size classes experienced greater than 50%mortality at 32°C and less than 40%mortality at 25°C. At the highest salinity tested (15), only market-sized oysters held at 32°C experienced significant mortality (>60%). These studies demonstrate that high water temperatures (>30°C) and

  19. The Effects of Salinity on the Filtration Rates of Juvenile Tropical Oyster Crassostrea iredalei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Geraldine Olive Ju Lien; Inn, Lai Ven; Hwai, Aileen Tan Shau; Yasin, Zulfigar

    2016-11-01

    A small scale laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of salinity ranging from 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 ppt on the filtration rates of juvenile oyster Crassostrea iredalei with 25 ppt as the control. Three juvenile oysters (shell weight: 1.04 ± 0.12 g; shell length: 1.9 ± 0.2 cm; shell height: 1.9 ± 0.1 cm) were used to test the filtration rates in each salinity over the course of 8 hours. The hourly filtration rates were determined from the exponential decrease in algal (Chaetoceros calcitrans) concentration as a function of time. The oyster in 35 ppt salinity produced the highest overall filtration rate (FR2) with 134.06 ± 15.66 mL(-1) hr(-1) oyster(-1) and the lowest overall filtration rate (FR2) occurred in oyster exposed to 15 ppt and 45 ppt with 31.30 ± 6.90 mL(-1) hr(-1) oyster(-1) and 32.11 ± 7.68 mL(-1) hr(-1) oyster(-1) respectively throughout the 8 hours. The result from this study can be useful for optimum oyster culturing and the oysters can be employed as a natural biofilter in marine polyculture farming.

  20. Bioaccumulation and metabolomics responses in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis impacted by different levels of metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    Jiulong River Estuary, located in southern China, was heavily contaminated by metal pollution. In this study, the estuarine oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis were transplanted to two sites with similar hydrological conditions but different levels of metal pollution in Jiulong River Estuary over a six-month period. We characterized the time-series change of metal bioaccumulation and final metabolomics responses of oysters. Following transplantation, all metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the oyster digestive glands had elevated concentrations over time. By the end of six-month exposure, Cu, Zn and Cd were the main metals significantly differentiating the two sites. Using (1)H NMR metabolite approach, we further demonstrated the disturbance in osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism induced by metal contaminations. Six months later, the oysters transplanted in the two sites showed a similar metabolite variation pattern when compared with the initial oysters regardless of different metal levels in the tissues. Interestingly, by comparing the oysters from two sites, the more severely polluted oysters accumulated significantly higher amounts of osmolytes (betaine and homarine) and lower energy storage compounds (glycogen) than the less polluted oysters; these changes could be the potential biomarkers for different levels of metal pollution. Our study demonstrated the complexity of biological effects under field conditions, and NMR metabolomics provides an important approach to detect sensitive variation of oyster inner status.

  1. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  2. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  3. AN OVACYSTIS-LIKE CONDITION IN THE AMERICAN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA GMELIN FROM THE NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Histological examination of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, from a study in Pensacola Bay, Florida, revealed two cases of abnormally large, basophilic ova that resemble ovacystis disease previously reported in oysters from Maine and Long Island. The hypertrophied gamet...

  4. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994 - December 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia. The infecti...

  5. 33 CFR 117.738 - Overpeck Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.738 Overpeck Creek. (a) The draws of the Conrail and the New York, Susquehanna and Western railroad bridges, mile 0.0 both at...

  6. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  7. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  8. 33 CFR 117.738 - Overpeck Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.738 Overpeck Creek. (a) The draws of the Conrail and the New York, Susquehanna and Western railroad bridges, mile 0.0 both at...

  9. 33 CFR 117.738 - Overpeck Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.738 Overpeck Creek. (a) The draws of the Conrail and the New York, Susquehanna and Western railroad bridges, mile 0.0 both at...

  10. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  11. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  12. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  13. 33 CFR 117.738 - Overpeck Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.738 Overpeck Creek. (a) The draws of the Conrail and the New York, Susquehanna and Western railroad bridges, mile 0.0 both at...

  14. 33 CFR 117.736 - Oceanport Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.736 Oceanport Creek. The drawspan for the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations Drawbridge, mile 8.4 near Oceanport, must open on signal...

  15. 33 CFR 117.736 - Oceanport Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.736 Oceanport Creek. The drawspan for the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations Drawbridge, mile 8.4 near Oceanport, must open on signal...

  16. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible...

  17. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible...

  18. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible...

  19. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible...

  20. Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  1. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  2. News and Updates from Proctor Creek

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains news and updates from the Proctor Creek Urban Waters Partnership location. They span ongoing projects, programs, and initiatives that this Atlanta-based partnership is taking on in its work plan.

  3. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  4. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    floodplain, deep swamp, meander scars, loops, and oxbow lakes . Sandy Run Creek, along the southern boundary of Robins AFB, has a floodplain up to 2,000...River floodplain (Figure 3). The erosion action of the Ocmulgee has created bluffs, high floodplain, deep swamp, meander scars, loops, and oxbow ... lakes . Robins Air Force Base Horse Creek Bridge Replacement J. Gross L. Neal 15268146 April 2010 CLIENT: TITLE: PROJECT: DATE: SCALE: FILE: DESIGNED

  5. Management of health risks associated with oysters harvested from a norovirus contaminated area, Ireland, February-March 2010.

    PubMed

    Doré, B; Keaveney, S; Flannery, J; Rajko-Nenow, P

    2010-05-13

    Oysters from a harvesting area responsible for outbreaks of gastroenteritis were relaid at a clean seawater site and subsequently depurated in tanks of purified seawater at elevated temperatures. This combined treatment reduced norovirus levels to those detected prior to the outbreak. On the basis of norovirus monitoring the sale of treated oysters was permitted although the harvest area remained closed for direct sale of oysters. No reports of illness have been associated with the consumption of treated oysters.

  6. An outbreak of norovirus linked to oysters in Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Lodo, Kerryn L; Veitch, Mark G K; Green, Michelle L

    2014-03-31

    Norovirus is the most commonly reported virus in shellfish related gastroenteritis outbreaks. In March 2013 an investigation was conducted following the receipt of reports of gastroenteritis after the consumption of oysters at private functions in Tasmania. Cases were ascertained through general practitioners, emergency departments, media releases and self-reporting. Of the 306 cases identified in Tasmania, ten faecal specimens were collected for laboratory testing and eight were positive for norovirus (GII.g). The most common symptoms were vomiting (87%), diarrhoea (85%), myalgia (82%) and fever (56%). The implicated oysters were traced to a single lease from which they were harvested and distributed locally and interstate. Nationally 525 cases were identified from Tasmania (306), Victoria (209), New South Wales (8) and Queensland (2). This report highlights the consequences of norovirus outbreaks in shellfish, even with rapid identification, trace back and removal of the implicated product from the market.

  7. Plesiomonas shigelloides Periprosthetic Knee Infection After Consumption of Raw Oysters.

    PubMed

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Ahmed, Sarim

    Periprosthetic infections are a leading cause of morbidity after total joint arthroplasty. Common pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, enterococcus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, there are many cases in which rare bacteria are isolated. This case report describes a periprosthetic knee infection caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides. In the United States, P shigelloides and 2 other Vibrionaceae family members, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, are most often contracted from eating raw oysters and shellfish. P shigelloides usually causes a self-limiting watery diarrhea, but in immunosuppressed people it can cause septicemia. In this case report, a chemically and biologically immunosuppressed man consumed raw oysters and developed P shigelloides septicemia and acute periprosthetic knee infection that required surgical intervention.

  8. A feeding model of oyster larvae (Crassostrea angulata).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tianlong; Liu, Ying; Zheng, Jimeng; Zhang, Tao; Qi, Jianfei

    2015-08-01

    There is a need to develop more efficient rearing systems for the aquaculture of economically important bivalves, such as oysters. Here, we constructed a model that describes the feeding behavior of larval Crassostrea angulata oysters and tested it in an experimental setting. Larval ingestion rate is closely correlated with larval length. Based on our model, we showed that larval swimming speed, velum diameter and the filtration coefficient, which also determine the ingestion rate, are also correlated with larval length. Our model integrates morphological, locomotory and feeding behavior parameters to establish a relation between them and so provides a mathematical way to describe variation in the feeding behavior of bivalve larvae. The results of this study could facilitate the precise management of the aquaculture of bivalve larvae, in particular the optimum prey density and feeding rate of these important organisms.

  9. Multibiomarker assessment of three Brazilian estuaries using oysters as bioindicators

    SciTech Connect

    Valdez Domingos, F.X. Azevedo, M.; Silva, M.D.; Randi, M.A.F.; Freire, C.A.; Silva de Assis, H.C.; Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A.

    2007-11-15

    Oysters have been largely employed as bioindicators of environmental quality in biomonitoring studies. Crassostrea rhizophorae was selected to evaluate the health status of three estuarine areas impacted by anthropogenic activities along the Brazilian coast, in three estuarine complexes, ranging in latitude from 7 to 25 deg. S. In each estuary three sites were sampled in Winter and in Summer: a site considered as reference, and two sites next to contamination sources. Condition index was similar at all sites and estuaries, with the highest values found for Itamaraca oysters in Summer. Necrosis, hyperplasia, mucocyte hypertrophy and fusion of ordinary filaments were the main histopathological lesions observed. Muscle cholinesterase activity was overall similar, but with a strong seasonal effect. Inhibition or activation of branchial total ATPase and Na,K-ATPase activities at the contaminated sites was observed. The health status of these estuarine areas is quite similar, and the combined use of biomarkers is recommended.

  10. When r-selection may not predict introduced-species proliferation: predation of a nonnative oyster.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Melanie J; Peterson, Charles H

    2006-04-01

    Predicting outcomes of species introductions may be enhanced by integrating life-history theory with results of contained experiments that compare ecological responses of exotic and analogue native species to dominant features of the recipient environment. An Asian oyster under consideration for introduction to the Chesapeake Bay, USA, the rapidly growing Suminoe oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis), may not be as successful an invader as its r-selected life history suggests if the trade-off for rapid growth and maturation is lower investment in defenses against blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) predation than the native Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). In laboratory trials, blue crabs simultaneously offered equal numbers of Suminoe and Eastern oysters consumed more nonnatives, irrespective of whether the crabs had previous experience with Suminoe oysters as prey. Satiated blue crabs consumed nearly three times as many Suminoe oysters as Eastern oysters of 25-mm shell height, and eight times as many of 35-mm shell height. Despite blue crabs consuming small (30 mm) Suminoe oysters at twice the rate of large (40 mm) Suminoe oysters, when 40-mm Suminoe were paired with 30-mm Eastern oysters, seven times as many of the larger (Suminoe) oysters were consumed. The greater susceptibility of C. ariakensis than C. virginica to blue crab predation appears to be based upon the biomechanics of shell strength rather than active selection of a more attractive food. Much less force was required to crush shells of Suminoe than Eastern oysters of similar shell height. Tissue transplant experiments demonstrated greater predation on oyster tissues in weaker C. ariakensis shells independent of tissue identity, and duration of handling time before rejection of C. virginica exceeded the time to crush C. ariakensis. These results, coupled with the present importance of blue crab predation in limiting recovery of native Eastern oysters, imply a role for blue crabs in inhibiting Suminoe

  11. Factors affecting the uptake and retention of Vibrio vulnificus in oysters.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-12-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterium ubiquitous in oysters and coastal water, is capable of causing ailments ranging from gastroenteritis to grievous wound infections or septicemia. The uptake of these bacteria into oysters is often examined in vitro by placing oysters in seawater amended with V. vulnificus. Multiple teams have obtained similar results in studies where laboratory-grown bacteria were observed to be rapidly taken up by oysters but quickly eliminated. This technique, along with suggested modifications, is reviewed here. In contrast, the natural microflora within oysters is notoriously difficult to eliminate via depuration. The reason for the transiency of exogenous bacteria is that those bacteria are competitively excluded by the oyster's preexisting microflora. Evidence of this phenomenon is shown using in vitro oyster studies and a multiyear in situ case study. Depuration of the endogenous oyster bacteria occurs naturally and can also be artificially induced, but both of these events require extreme conditions, natural or otherwise, as explained here. Finally, the "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state of Vibrio is discussed. This bacterial torpor can easily be confused with a reduction in bacterial abundance, as bacteria in this state fail to grow on culture media. Thus, oysters collected from colder months may appear to be relatively free of Vibrio but in reality harbor VBNC cells that respond to exogenous bacteria and prevent colonization of oyster matrices. Bacterial-uptake experiments combined with studies involving cell-free spent media are detailed that demonstrate this occurrence, which could explain why the microbial community in oysters does not always mirror that of the surrounding water.

  12. Effects of refrigeration and alcohol on the load of Aeromonas hydrophila in oysters.

    PubMed

    Birkenhauer, J M; Oliver, J D

    2002-03-01

    Members of the bacterial genus Aeromonas are widely distributed throughout the environment and are readily cultured from a variety of foods. One member of this genus, Aeromonas hydrophila, has been reputed to be a significant cause of gastrointestinal disease. In this study, we examined the effects of refrigeration and alcohol on the level of A. hydrophila in oysters. Specifically, vodka was examined because it is used by the food service industry in preparation of Oysters Romanoff. One set of oysters was shucked on receipt, whereas others were refrigerated intact for 7 days at 5 degrees C. The oysters were blended and the numbers of A. hydrophila present determined using starch ampicillin agar. Oysters were also shucked and placed on the half shell with 5 ml of vodka for 10 min. The oysters were then washed and presumptive A. hydrophila levels determined in both the washate and homogenate. On the day of purchase, the average number of presumptive A. hydrophila found was 7.6 x 10(4) CFU/g of oyster meat. After 7 days of refrigeration, the average number had increased to 3.2 x 10(5) CFU/g of oyster meat. In the oysters treated with vodka, the average number of A. hydrophila present internally was 9.9 x 10(4) with high numbers (10(3) to 10(4)) isolated from the oyster surface. From these data, it is clear that refrigeration and alcohol treatment are not sufficient to reduce loads of A. hydrophila in or on oysters.

  13. Oyster Reef Communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Virginia Institute of Marine Science Educational Series. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Juliana M.; Mann, Roger; Clark, Vicki P.

    This CD-ROM, Oyster Reef Communities in the Chesapeake Bay, describes oyster reefs, reef communities, and their roles in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Detailed descriptions of scientific research methods and techniques used to monitor and describe oyster reef communities as well as applications of the resulting data are provided. The CD-ROM was…

  14. 76 FR 59423 - Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special-Use Permit, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Point Reyes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... National Park Service Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special-Use Permit, Draft Environmental Impact Statement... statement to consider the Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special-use permit in Drakes Estero, Point Reyes... National Seashore Web site, at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/pore (click on the Drakes Bay Oyster...

  15. 75 FR 65373 - Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special Use Permit/Environmental Impact Statement, Point Reyes National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... National Park Service Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special Use Permit/Environmental Impact Statement, Point... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special Use Permit... Statement (EIS) for the Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special Use Permit, Point Reyes National...

  16. Are oysters being bored to death? Influence of Cliona celata on Crassostrea virginica condition, growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Carroll, John M; O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Diedrich, Grant A; Finelli, Christopher M

    2015-11-17

    The boring sponge Cliona celata is a nuisance species that can have deleterious effects on eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica growth, condition, and survival. Surprisingly, however, these effects have not been well documented and when examined, results have been equi-vocal. In this study, we provide a direct comparison of growth, condition, and survival of sponge-colonized and uncolonized oysters in southeast North Carolina in 2 separate experiments. In the first experiment, sponge-colonized oysters exhibited significantly slower growth rates, reduced condition, and lower survival relative to uncolonized oysters, although results may have been confounded by oyster source. In the second experiment, using smaller oysters from the same source population, growth rate was again significantly reduced in colonized oysters relative to uncolonized oysters, however neither condition nor survival differed. In field surveys of the same population, colonized individuals across a range of sizes demonstrated significantly reduced condition. Further, condition index was negatively correlated with sponge biomass, which was positively correlated with oyster size, suggesting that the impact of the sponge changes with ontogeny. By investigating clearance rates, tissue isotopic and nutrient content, as well as caloric value, this study provides further evidence that sponge presence causes the oysters to divert energy into costly shell maintenance and repair at the expense of shell and somatic growth. Thus, although variable, our results demonstrate negative impacts of sponge infestation on oyster demographics, particularly as oysters grow larger.

  17. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  19. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  20. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  3. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  4. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  5. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  6. 40 CFR 408.260 - Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.260 Section 408.260 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.260 Applicability; description of the Atlantic and Gulf Coast hand-shucked oyster...

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Gulf of Mexico American Oyster

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cake, Edwin W.

    1983-01-01

    The American or eastern oyster (Crassostrea virrinica [Gmelin]), a bivalve in the family Ostreidae, is an important commercia and recreational species along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of North America and other areas (U.S. Pacific coast and Hawaii) where it has been introduced (Galtsoff 1964). It evolved over the last 25 million years (Miocene and Pliocene epochs) from an ancestral, Atlantic-Pacific species that also gave rise to the Central American oyster of the Pacific coast, Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein) (Stenzel 1971). It evolved to fill a eurytopic niche in coastal estuaries where it forms massive reefs in nearshore bays, sounds, lagoons, and river mouths. Its existence depends on suitable substratum (cultch and firm bottom sediments) and acceptable sal-inity conditions. The location and distribution of oyster reefs in a salt marsh-estuari ne ecosystem are not acci denta 1; rather, they result from the interacti on of many bi 01 ogi ca 1, chemica1, geo1ogi ca1, and phys i ca 1 processes (Butler 1954a; Marshall 1954; Bahr and Lanier 1981).

  8. Flow and Turbulence Over an Oyster Reef Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styles, R.

    2006-12-01

    In December of 2005, measurements of flow and turbulence were collected on opposite sides of a subtidal channel in the North Inlet/Winyah Bay National Estuary Research Reserve. One bank included an extensive cover of oyster reefs and the other was a mixture of fine sands and mud. The purpose was to examine the differences in flow and turbulence structure in a similar flow regime but with greatly varying roughness environments. Peak along channel velocities were higher on the mud bank side of the channel. Turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses components were generally greater over the oyster reef, but maximum values were sometimes highest over the sand/mud bank. Turbulence quantities were also anisotropic at both sites. During early flood, the lateral circulation was consistent with flow around a bend, with weak flow directed towards the inside of the bank at the bottom. The lateral circulation reversed direction during mid flood even though the current was still in the same direction. Implications describing the interaction between bed morphology and oyster reefs will be discussed.

  9. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in Brazilian oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L A; Santos, L K N S S; Brito, P A; Maciel, B M; Da Silva, A V; Albuquerque, G R

    2015-05-04

    The aim of this study was to detect evidence of Toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) obtained from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 624 oysters were collected, and the gills and digestive glands were dissected. Each tissue sample was separated into pools containing tissues (of the same type) from three animals, leading to a total of 416 experimental samples for analysis (208 samples each from the gills and digestive glands). Molecular analysis using PCR-based detection of the T. gondii AF 146527 repetitive fragment yielded negative results for all samples. However, when nested-PCR was used for detection of the T. gondii SAG-1 gene, 17 samples were positive, with the gills being the tissue with maximal detection of the parasite. These positive results were confirmed by sample sequencing. It is therefore suggested that C. rhizophorae oysters are capable of filtering and retaining T. gondii oocysts in their tissue. This represents a risk to public health because they are traditionally ingested in natura.

  10. Impact of atrazine on aneuploidy in pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Bouilly, Karine; Leitão, Alexandra; McCombie, Helen; Lapègue, Sylvie

    2003-01-01

    Aneuploidy has previously been described and studied in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and has been shown to be negatively correlated with growth. The present study investigated the effect of atrazine on the level of aneuploidy in this species. Crassostrea gigas adults and juveniles were subjected to different concentrations of atrazine representing a peak value found in a polluted environment (46.5 nM) and a value 10 times higher (465 nM). Although atrazine did not show any effect on the oyster mortality, significant differences in aneuploidy level were observed between the different treatments (9% for the control, 16% for 46.5 nM and 20% for 465 nM atrazine). Moreover, the same levels of aneuploidy were observed at adult and juvenile stages. This is the first reported evidence for an environmental effect on aneuploidy in C. gigas. These results will be useful for the oyster aquaculture industry and management of resources. The lowest atrazine level in the current study represents realistic potential exposure, and the results suggest that studies should be made on other aquatic species at risk of exposure to atrazine in the wild. This widely used compound may be an important factor causing damage to genetic material.

  11. Identification of the Molecular Clockwork of the Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Perrigault, Mickael; Tran, Damien

    2017-01-01

    Molecular clock system constitutes the origin of biological rhythms that allow organisms to anticipate cyclic environmental changes and adapt their behavior and physiology. Components of the molecular clock are largely conserved across a broad range of species but appreciable diversity in clock structure and function is also present especially in invertebrates. The present work aimed at identify and characterize molecular clockwork components in relationship with the monitoring of valve activity behavior in the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Results provided the characterization of most of canonical clock gene including clock, bmal/cycle, period, timeless, vertebrate-type cry, rev-erb, ror as well as other members of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (plant-like cry, 6–4 photolyase). Analyses of transcriptional variations of clock candidates in oysters exposed to light / dark regime and to constant darkness led to the generation of a putative and original clockwork model in C. gigas, intermediate of described systems in vertebrates and insects. This study is the first characterization of a mollusk clockwork. It constitutes essential bases to understand interactions of the different components of the molecular clock in C. gigas as well as the global mechanisms associated to the generation and the synchronization of biological rhythms in oysters. PMID:28072861

  12. Experimental ostreid herpesvirus 1 infection of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: kinetics of virus DNA detection by q-PCR in seawater and in oyster samples.

    PubMed

    Schikorski, D; Faury, N; Pepin, J F; Saulnier, D; Tourbiez, D; Renault, T

    2011-01-01

    Herpes- and herpes-like viruses are known to infect a wide range of bivalve mollusc species throughout the world. Abnormal summer mortalities associated to the detection of ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) have been currently reported in France among larvae and spat of the Pacific cupped oyster Crassostrea gigas. In the present work, we have developed an experimental protocol of horizontal transmission based on the cohabitation between healthy and experimentally infected oysters. Through a cohabitation trial, the kinetics of OsHV-1 detection in different oyster organs and seawater samples were investigated and characterized for the first time using real time quantitative PCR.

  13. 4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the foreground; the O'Brian Canal is in the background; vicinity of East 112th Avenue and Potomac Road in Adams County - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

  14. Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Jane E.

    Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

  15. Reconstructing pre-colonial oyster demographics in the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Roger; Harding, Juliana M.; Southworth, Melissa J.

    2009-11-01

    Recent estimates of growth and mortality rates in extant Chesapeake Bay, USA oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) populations are used to quantify changes in both population abundance (dN/dT) and shell accretion (dS/dT) associated with modern population demographics. The demographics of oyster populations that would be required to maintain reef accretion rates commensurate with sea level rise over geological time frames are examined using estimates of oyster longevity in pre-colonial (pre -1600) times combined with parallel estimates of pre-disease endemic mortality. The analysis demonstrates that modern populations, with their disease related, age-truncated demographics, are generally not capable of maintaining and building biogenic reefs through accretion. Estimates of filtration rates associated with Chesapeake Bay oyster populations prior to 1600 considerably underestimate actual benthic-pelagic coupling during that period. Pristine oyster populations would have supported water column turnover rates on the order of minutes to hours. Thus, the spatial footprint of oyster reefs was limited by available productivity in the estuary. Accretion rate calculations for pristine (pre-1600) oyster reefs describe the intimate relationship between benthic-pelagic coupling and the presence or absence of oyster reefs and the associated communities.

  16. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  17. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES, POTENTIAL VIRULENT FACTORS, IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF THE OYSTER PROTOZOAN PARASITE, PERKINSUS MARINUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...

  19. High pressure processing with hot sauce flavoring enhances sensory quality for raw oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the feasibility of flavoring raw oysters by placing them under pressure in the presence of selected flavorings. Hand-shucked raw oysters were processed at high pressure (600 MPa), in the presence or absence of (Sriracha®) flavoring, and evaluated by a trained sensory panel 3 an...

  20. Desirability of oysters treated by high pressure processing at different temperatures and elevated pressures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organoleptic changes in sterile triploid oysters (Crassostrea virginica) induced by high pressure processing (HPP) were investigated using a volunteer panel. Using a 1-7 hedonic scale, where seven is “like very much”, and one is “dislike very much”, oysters were evaluated organoleptically for flavo...

  1. Temperature-dependent persistence of human norovirus within oysters (Crassotrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study characterizes the persistence of human norovirus in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) held at different seawater temperatures. Oysters were contaminated with human norovirus GI.1 (Norwalk strain 8fIIa) by exposing them to virus contaminated water at 15 degrees C, and subsequently ho...

  2. Thermal inactivation of enteric viruses and bioaccumulation of enteric foodborne viruses in live oysters (Crassostrea virginica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human enteric viruses are one of the main causative agents of shellfish associated outbreaks. In this study, the kinetics of viral bioaccumulation in live oysters and the heat stability of the most predominant enteric viruses were determined in both tissue culture and in oyster tissues. A human nor...

  3. Heavy metals in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, of the Mississippi Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, T.F.; Lytle, J.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Levels of metals in oysters in the Sound are of profound interest not only because they document those geographic areas where metal pollution levels may be problematic but because they may disclose possible problems to consumers of oysters. At the present time objective federal standards for heavy metals in oysters and other seafood are restricted to mercury. The closure of Mississippi oyster reefs has been predicated upon bacteriological standards with little if any attention paid to heavy metals. A study of fourteen metals in oysters of the Sound was began in 1988 with objectives differing from that of the Status and Trends Program (STP) in three ways. STP levels are reported on dry weight basis of composites from three sites. In the present study, oysters were analyzed and reported on wet weight basis. Additionally analyses were made of individual specimens to indicate expected specimen to specimen variations and were conducted on oysters from the three STP and two other important oyster reef sites. In the future three or more additional sites will be added to this continuing survey effort. Metals chosen for this study were lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V).

  4. High concentrations of trace metals in oysters from the Patuxent River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, G.; Sanders, J.; Abbe, G.

    1995-12-31

    Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations from the Patuxent River have been analyzed for trace metals by a number of organizations over at least the past 19 years. During that period, high concentrations of Cu (200--500 {micro}g/g dry weight), Cd (3--7 {micro}g/g) and Ag (2--8 /{micro}g/g) have been found in oysters from the oyster bars furthest up river. In particular, Cd values in oysters from this region have had concentrations approaching or exceeding current FDA warning levels throughout the period. In previous studies it was suggested that a coal-burning power plant located in that region, Chalk Point Steam Electric Station, was responsible for the copper enrichment due to the corrosion of Cu/Ni alloy condenser tubes. However, a monthly survey of trace elements in the nearby oyster populations from 1986 to the present showed only a small decline in copper concentrations after the plant switched from Cu/Ni to Ti alloy condenser tubes in 1987. Other potential sources for trace metals in the region include municipal and industrial discharges, atmospheric deposition, and biocides (anti-fouling paint in particular). The very rapid rise in trace element concentrations in oysters with position up river, and the lack of such a response by another local bivalve, the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), suggests that a physiological effect of low salinity stress on oysters may be in part responsible for the high concentrations of trace metals in oysters in this region.

  5. Energy and antioxidant responses of pacific oyster exposed to trace levels of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Epelboin, Yanouk; Quéré, Claudie; Pernet, Fabrice; Pichereau, Vianney; Corporeau, Charlotte

    2015-09-21

    Here, we assess the physiological effects induced by environmental concentrations of pesticides in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Oysters were exposed for 14 d to trace levels of metconazole (0.2 and 2 μg/L), isoproturon (0.1 and 1 μg/L), or both in a mixture (0.2 and 0.1 μg/L, respectively). Exposure to trace levels of pesticides had no effect on the filtration rate, growth, and energy reserves of oysters. However, oysters exposed to metconazole and isoproturon showed an overactivation of the sensing-kinase AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), a key enzyme involved in energy metabolism and more particularly glycolysis. In the meantime, these exposed oysters showed a decrease in hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities, whereas 2-DE proteomic revealed that fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (F-1,6-BP), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, was up-regulated. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in oysters exposed to the highest pesticide concentrations. Both pesticides enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity of oysters. Isoproturon enhanced catalase activity, and metconazole enhanced peroxiredoxin activity. Overall, our results show that environmental concentrations of metconazole or isoproturon induced subtle changes in the energy and antioxidant metabolisms of oysters.

  6. Magnification of tributyl tin toxicity to oyster larvae by bioconcentration in biofilms of Shewanella colwelliana.

    PubMed Central

    Labare, M L; Coon, S L; Matthias, C; Weiner, R M

    1997-01-01

    The toxic effects of dissolved versus bioconcentrated tributyl tin (TBT) on oyster larvae were compared. Water column TBT levels, which had no effect in solution, inhibited natural attachment and metamorphosis of oyster larvae on bottom surfaces due to bioconcentration by biofilms. This mechanism should be considered when evaluating heavy metal toxicity in the environment. PMID:9327578

  7. Characterization studies on the cadmium-binding proteins from two species of New Zealand oysters.

    PubMed Central

    Nordberg, M; Nuottaniemi, I; Cherian, M G; Nordberg, G F; Kjellström, T; Garvey, J S

    1986-01-01

    Two different types of New Zealand oysters--Ostrea lutaria (OL) and Crassostrea glomerata (CG)--contained different concentrations of zinc, copper, and cadmium. OL oysters had 5.3 micrograms Cd/g, 3.4 micrograms Cu/g, 100 micrograms Zn/g; CG oysters had 1.4 micrograms Cd/g and 936 micrograms Zn/g. Both kinds of oysters were shown by gel filtration (G-75) to contain cadmium and zinc in fractions corresponding to a high molecular weight protein (corresponding to the size of albumin or larger) which was heat labile. OL oysters contained cadmium in fractions corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 6500. The cadmium-binding protein in these fractions was heat-stable. This protein contained no detectable amounts of zinc and was not present in the CG oysters. Further purification by gel filtration (G-50) was performed to obtain a purer protein fraction. Isoelectric focusing of the protein obtained by G-50 filtration showed one main fraction of protein with a pI approximately 5.9 at approximately 13 degrees C. CG oysters contained cadmium and zinc in a polypeptide with low molecular weight (MW 1000). The cadmium-binding oyster proteins are minimally reactive in a competitive binding radioimmunoassay in comparison to the reactivity of a typical vertebrate metallothionein; the proteins may be metallothioneins, but, if so, they do not exhibit the principal determinants characteristic of vertebrate metallothioneins. PMID:3709467

  8. Bacterial loads and microbial composition in high pressure treated oysters during storage.

    PubMed

    Prapaiwong, Naparat; Wallace, Richard K; Arias, Covadonga R

    2009-05-31

    Analysis of bacterial communities present in high-pressure (HP)-treated, quick-frozen (QF), and raw oysters was carried out during three different seasons. Bacterial numbers and species diversity in each sample were determined at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Results showed that numbers of total aerobic bacterial counts (TABC) in treated oysters were significantly lower than in untreated oysters at day 0 by 10 to 10(5) colony forming units per gram of oyster meat (CFU/g) in all samplings. However, an increase in TABC in HP-treated oysters was observed at days 7, 14, and 21 indicating that some bacteria survived the treatment and were able to proliferate during refrigeration conditions. Surprisingly, TABC in HP-treated oysters reached 10(8) CFU/g at 14 days of storage in all samplings (higher than TABC from raw oysters in two of the samplings performed). Analysis of the bacterial flora by 16S rDNA sequencing, revealed six different classes within the bacterial communities. The majority were Gram-negative bacteria, with the Gammaproteobacteria class representing between 56% and 92%. The most common bacterial genera found in this study were Shewanella, Vibrio and Psychrobacter. Four species of human pathogenic bacteria were also identified: V. vulnificus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and A. hydrophila although V. vulnificus was detected only in raw oysters.

  9. Acanthoparyphium sp. and other metazoan symbionts of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, from South Texas.

    PubMed

    Fredensborg, B L; Ramirez, J J; Partida, L

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated oysters, Crassostrea virginica , from Laguna Madre in South Texas, where a 45-yr old study recorded metacercarial infections of the echinostomatid trematode, Acanthoparyphium spinulosum , an Asian relative of which, Acanthoparyphium tyosenense, has been associated with human infections via the ingestion of raw mollusks. In an effort to examine the base-line infection parameters of Acanthoparyphium sp. in oysters, we examined the effect of distance from the shoreline, which is the habitat of the first intermediate host snail, Cerithidea pliculosa, as well as temporal changes in oyster infection levels, by conducting quarterly collections of oysters during a year. We found that almost all oysters (prevalence = 97.8-100%) were infected regardless of distance to the shoreline and season. However, the abundance of metacercariae was significantly higher close to the shoreline, while no significant temporal changes could be detected. In addition to the echinostomatid, we found a high abundance of the metacestode Tylocephalum sp. and the presence of 4 other metazoan parasites. None of the infections seemed to incur significant tissue damage to the oysters. Our study shows that at least locally, recreational harvesters of oysters may be exposed to Acanthoparyphium sp. Future studies should examine oysters from snail host habitats in the Gulf of Mexico, and the potential zoonotic risk of Acanthoparyphium sp. should be evaluated using experimental infections of animal models.

  10. RESPONSES OF OYSTERS AND THEIR HEMOCYTES TO CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with oysters and oyster hemocytes were studied using three environmental isolates (1094, 1163 and ATCC 17802) and three clinical isolates (2030, 2062, 2107). Clinical isolates were from patients who became ill during the June 1998 food pois...

  11. A study of diagnostic methods for Marteilioides chungmuensis infections in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Jung; Hwang, Jee Youn; Choi, Dong Lim; Huh, Min Do; Park, Myoung Ae

    2012-09-15

    The eggs of the Pacific oyster, Crassostraea gigas, become infertile when infected by the parasite Marteilioides chungmuensis. Histologically, M. chungmuensis infects the oyster oocyte cytoplasm, and the ovaries take on a "lumpy" appearance once infected, which lowers commercial value of the oyster. This has a negative economic impact on oyster farms in South Korea and Japan. In this study, we compared traditional diagnostic methods (histology) with two molecular-based methods (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] amplification and in situ hybridization [ISH]) to identify M. chungmuensis-infected oysters. The efficacy of PCR and ISH to identify M. chungmuensis-infected oysters was compared to that of routine histology in 100 oysters. Thirty infections were identified using PCR and 16 using histology, whereas 31 infections were identified using ISH. The ISH and PCR assays were more sensitive compared to using histology with standard epidemiological methods. We strongly recommend that early parasitic invasion should be monitored with PCR/ISH methodologies as a basis for developing effective diagnostic techniques to identify M. chungmuensis-infected oysters.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING IN VITRO KILLING OF BACTERIA BY HEMOCYTES OF THE EASTERN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A tetrazolium dye reduction assay was used to study factors governing killing of bacteria by oyster hemocytes. In vitro tests were performed on bacterial strains by using hemocytes from oysters collected from the same location in winter and summer. Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains...

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER AND ZINC ACCUMULATED BY EASTERN OYSTER AMEBOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Antimicrobial Activity of Copper and Zinc Accumulated by Eastern Oyster Amebocytes. J. Shellfish Res. 54 p. (ERL,GB 1196).

    The distribution of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica near terrestrial watersheds has led to a general impression t...

  14. The Potential Use of Electricity to Control Burrowing Shrimp in Oyster Aquaculture Beds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thalassinid shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA) where oysters succumb to the physical disruption of the sediment by the burrowing activity of these animals. While electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates i...

  15. Digital PCR for Quantifying Norovirus in Oysters Implicated in Outbreaks, France

    PubMed Central

    Polo, David; Schaeffer, Julien; Fournet, Nelly; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; McLeod, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Using samples from oysters clearly implicated in human disease, we quantified norovirus levels by using digital PCR. Concentrations varied from 43 to 1,170 RNA copies/oyster. The analysis of frozen samples from the production area showed the presence of norovirus 2 weeks before consumption. PMID:27869597

  16. Weight and salinity effects on zinc uptake and accumulation for the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin).

    PubMed

    Mo, C; Neilson, B

    1993-01-01

    The power relationships of short-term net uptake and of in-situ body burden with body weight were examined. The accumulation of soft tissue zinc in the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) was related to time integration of uptake. Short term uptake of (65)Zn was measured in the laboratory. It was (i) a function of the (dry soft-tissue) weight of the oyster, (ii) inversely related to the salinity of the ambient water, and (iii) increased linearly with ambient concentrations. When in-situ soft-tissue zinc body burdens of oysters from the James River and the Rappahannock River were fit to power functions of body weights (y = aWb), the values of b for all sites were larger by 1 than the powers for (65)Zn uptake when b was adjusted for the oyster-bed salinities. The soft-tissue zinc concentration (y/W) of an oyster increased continuously, but the rate of the increase was reduced as the oyster grows larger. Both short-term uptake and in-situ body burden varied with salinity. The soft-tissue zinc concentrations of hooked mussels (Ischadium recurvum) from the Rappahannock River oyster beds, contrary to the oysters, appeared to be in equilibrium with ambient concentrations.

  17. Kl-impregnated Oyster Shells as a Solid Catalyst for Soybean Oil Transesterificaton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on inexpensive and green catalysts is needed for economical production of biodiesel. The goal of the research was to test KI-impregnated oyster shell as a solid catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil. Specific objectives were to characterize KI-impregnated oyster shell, determine t...

  18. On the Half Shell: An Introduction to Oysters and Their Unique Structures and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, J. Adam; Haines, Sarah; Romano, Christina; Takacs, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    The eastern oyster, "Crassostrea virginica," is an ecologically and economically important species in Chesapeake Bay. Oysters are ecologically unique in the Chesapeake Bay because they build a structure known as a bar or reef by attaching to one another over a 45 long period of time. They have been coined the "Ecological Engineers…

  19. Evidence for the involvement of pathogenic bacteria in summer mortalities of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Garnier, M; Labreuche, Y; Garcia, C; Robert, M; Nicolas, J L

    2007-02-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the involvement of bacteria in oyster mortalities during summer. Moribund and apparently healthy oysters were sampled during mortality events along the French coast and in rearing facilities, usually when temperature reached 19 degrees C or higher, and oysters were in the gonadal maturation phase. Hemolymph samples were aseptically withdrawn and submitted to bacteriological analysis. In healthy oysters, bacteria colonized hemolymph at low concentrations depending on the location. In most moribund oysters, bacteria were present in hemolymph and other tissues. These bacterial populations were more often diverse in oysters originating from the open sea than from facilities where animals were generally infected by a single type of bacterium. Only the dominant colonies were identified by phenotypic and genotypic characters (RFLP of GyrB gene and partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene). They belonged to a limited number of species including Vibrio aestuarianus, members of the V. splendidus group, V. natriegens, V. parahaemolyticus, and Pseudoalteromonas sp. The most frequently encountered species was V. aestuarianus (56% of isolates), which was composed of several strains closely related by their 16S rRNA gene but diverse by their phenotypic characters. They appeared intimately linked to oysters. The species within the V. splendidus group were less prevalent (25% of isolates) and more taxonomically dispersed. A majority of the dominant strains of V. aestuarianus and V. splendidus group injected to oysters induced mortality, whereas others belonging to the same species, particularly those found in mixture, appeared innocuous.

  20. Comparison of different methods for isolation of bacterial DNA from retail oyster tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oysters are filter-feeders that bio-accumulate bacteria in water while feeding. To evaluate the bacterial genomic DNA extracted from retail oyster tissues, including the gills and digestive glands, four isolation methods were used. Genomic DNA extraction was performed using the Allmag™ Blood Genomic...

  1. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  2. A new identification method for five species of oysters in genus Crassostrea from China based on high-resolution melting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiafeng; Xu, Fei; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2014-03-01

    The high phenotypic plasticity in the shell of oysters presents a challenge during taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of these economically important bivalves. However, because DNA can exhibit marked differences among morphologically similar species, DNA barcoding offers a potential means for oyster identification. We analyzed the complete sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) of five common Crassostrea species in China (including Hong Kong oyster C. hongkongensis, Jinjiang oyster C. ariakensis, Portuguese oyster C. angulata, Kumamoto oyster C. sikamea, and Pacific oyster C. gigas) and screened for distinct fragments. Using these distinct fragments on a high-resolution melting analysis platform, we developed an identification method that does not rely on species-specific PCR or fragment length polymorphism and is efficient, reliable, and easy to visualize. Using a single pair of primers (Oyster-COI-1), we were able to successfully distinguish among the five oyster species. This new method provides a simple and powerful tool for the identification of oyster species.

  3. Surveying a fossil oyster reef using terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haring, A.; Exner, U.; Harzhauser, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Korneuburg Basin, situated north-west of Vienna, is well known to contain a rich variety of fossils from the Early Miocene (16.5 ma) and therefore has been investigated extensively by scientists in the past decades. An exceptional discovery was made in 2005: a large fossil oyster reef has been excavated and documented carefully during the last years. Aside from the giant-sized oyster (Crassostrea gryphoides), the excavation site contains numerous species of molluscs along with teeth of sharks and rays and even isolated bones of sea cows. The oysters, having lengths of up to 80 cm, are protruding from the ground surface, which is more or less a tilted plane (25˚ ) with a size of about 300 m2. The entire site is crosscut by a network of geological faults, often also offsetting individual oyster shells. Displacements along the normal faults do not exceed ~ 15 cm. The faulted fossils offer a unique opportunity to measure displacement distribution along the faults in great detail and provide insight in deformation mechanisms in porous, barely lithified sediments. In order to get a precise 3D model of the oyster reef, the terrestrial laser scanner system Leica HDS 6000 is used. It is a phase-based laser scanner, i.e. the distance measurement is performed using the phase-shift principle. Compared to the time-of-flight principle, this method is generally more appropriate to projects like this one, where the distances to be measured are relatively small (< 35 m) and where a high point density (point spacing of about 1 cm) and precision (some mm) is required for capturing the oysters adequately. However, due to fact that they occlude each other, one single scan is not sufficient to get all sides of their surface. Therefore, scans from different positions had to be acquired. These scans have to be merged, which involves the problem of sensor orientation as well as sampling of the entire 3D point cloud. Furthermore, a representation of the surface data is required that

  4. Oysters produce an organic-inorganic adhesive for intertidal reef construction.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Jeremy R; Hight, Lauren M; Kenny, Paul; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2010-09-15

    Coastal ecosystems rely upon oyster reefs to filter water, provide protection from storms, and build habitat for other species. From a chemistry perspective, few details are available to illustrate how these shellfish construct such extensive reef systems. Experiments presented here show that oysters generate a biomineralized adhesive material for aggregating into large communities. This cement is an organic-inorganic hybrid and differs from the surrounding shells by displaying an alternate CaCO(3) crystal form, a cross-linked organic matrix, and an elevated protein content. Emerging themes and unique aspects are both revealed when comparing oyster cement to the adhesives of other marine organisms. The presence of cross-linked proteins provides an analogy to mussel and barnacle adhesives whereas the high inorganic content is exclusive to oysters. With a description of oyster cement in hand we gain strategies for developing synthetic composite materials as well as a better understanding of the components needed for healthy coastal environments.

  5. Passive acoustics as a monitoring tool for evaluating oyster reef restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenil Becerra, Hilde P.

    Oyster reefs are biodiverse communities that provide many ecological and commercial benefits. However, oyster reefs have declined around the world from human activities. Oyster reef restoration programs have begun to limit some of the decline, but the need for determining the success of a program has been problematic. Passive acoustic techniques can use naturally occurring sounds produced by organisms to assess biodiversity. Passive acoustics was utilized to compare the sounds in natural and restored oyster reefs, with special attention on snapping shrimp (Alpheus spp.) snap sounds, in the St. Lucie Estuary, Florida over a one year period. Season, estuary region, habitat and day period had an effect on sound production Passive acoustic monitoring of snapping shrimp sound production may be a useful non-destructive technique for monitoring the progress of oyster reef restoration projects once further correlations are established between environmental effects and sound production.

  6. Crassaostrea gigas oyster shell extract inhibits lipogenesis via suppression of serine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nguyen Khoi Song; Kwon, Jeong Eun; Kang, Se Chan; Shim, Soon-Mi; Park, Tae-Sik

    2015-02-01

    Oysters are widely consumed seafood, but their shells impose a serious environmental problem. To extend the utilization of oyster shell waste, we investigated the biological role of oyster shell extract. In this study, we verified that the ethanol extract of oyster shell (EOS) contains taurine and betaine, the major components of oyster body. EOS downregulated transcription of Sptlc1 and Sptlc2 mRNA, the subunits of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Suppression of SPT subunits reduced sphinganine and sphingomyelin by inhibiting de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. Inhibition of sphingomyelin biosynthesis resulted in downregulation of lipogenic gene expression such as ACC, FAS, SCD1, and DGAT2. Consistent with inhibition of lipogenesis, cellular triglyceride levels were diminished by EOS, but cholesterol levels were not altered. Taken together, these results suggest that EOS has a lipid-lowering effect and could be applied as either a therapeutic or preventive measure for metabolic dysfunction.

  7. Viability and release of Salmonella charity and Escherichia coli from oyster feces.

    PubMed Central

    Rowse, A J; Fleet, G H

    1982-01-01

    Sydney Rock oysters (Crassostrea commercialis) contaminated with Salmonella charity and Escherichia coli produced feces containing viable cells of these species. The level of these bacteria in the feces depended upon the level of oyster contamination. Both S. charity and E. coli were released from the feces into overlying seawater. The extent of release into seawater depended upon the physical state of the fecal material, water temperature, and the time of contact with the water. The viability of S. charity and E. coli associated with the feces and released into seawater decreased with time and was a function of seawater temperature. The association and release of bacteria from oyster feces has important implications in oyster purification and purification tank design and may lead to a recontamination of purified oysters. PMID:6753743

  8. Structural and compositional characterization of the adhesive produced by reef building oysters.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Erik M; Taylor, Stephen D; Edwards, Stephanie L; Sherman, Debra M; Huang, Chia-Ping; Kenny, Paul; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2015-04-29

    Oysters have an impressive ability to overcome difficulties of life within the stressful intertidal zone. These shellfish produce an adhesive for attaching to each other and building protective reef communities. With their reefs often exceeding kilometers in length, oysters play a major role in balancing the health of coastal marine ecosystems. Few details are available to describe oyster adhesive composition or structure. Here several characterization methods were applied to describe the nature of this material. Microscopy studies indicated that the glue is comprised of organic fiber-like and sheet-like structures surrounded by an inorganic matrix. Phospholipids, cross-linking chemistry, and conjugated organics were found to differentiate this adhesive from the shell. Symbiosis in material synthesis could also be present, with oysters incorporating bacterial polysaccharides into their adhesive. Oyster glue shows that an organic-inorganic composite material can provide adhesion, a property especially important when constructing a marine ecosystem.

  9. Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) δ15N as a bioindicator of nitrogen sources: Observations and modeling

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, B.; Carruthers, T.J.B.; Dennison, W.C.; Fertig, E.J.; Altabet, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) in bioindicators are increasingly employed to identify nitrogen sources in many ecosystems and biological characteristics of the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) make it an appropriate species for this purpose. To assess nitrogen isotopic fractionation associated with assimilation and baseline variations in oyster mantle, gill, and muscle tissue δ15N, manipulative fieldwork in Chesapeake Bay and corresponding modeling exercises were conducted. This study (1) determined that five individuals represented an optimal sample size; (2) verified that δ15N in oysters from two locations converged after shared deployment to a new location reflecting a change in nitrogen sources; (3) identified required exposure time and temporal integration (four months for muscle, two to three months for gill and mantle); and (4) demonstrated seasonal δ15N increases in seston (summer) and oysters (winter). As bioindicators, oysters can be deployed for spatial interpolation of nitrogen sources, even in areas lacking extant populations. PMID:20381097

  10. Survey for protozoan parasites in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from the Gulf of Maine using PCR-based assays.

    PubMed

    Marquis, Nicholas D; Record, Nicholas R; Robledo, José A Fernández

    2015-10-01

    Protozoan pathogens represent a serious threat to oyster aquaculture, since they can lead to significant production loses. Moreover, oysters can concentrate human pathogens through filter feeding, thus putting at risk raw oyster consumers' health. Using PCR-based assays in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Maine, we expand the Northeast range in the USA for the protozoans Perkinsus marinus, Perkinsus chesapeaki, and Haplosporidium nelsoni, and report for the first time the detection of the human pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. Oysters hosting both P. marinus and P. chesapeaki were more than three times as likely to be infected by a non-Perkinsus than those free of Perkinsus infections.

  11. Defining optimal freshwater flow for oyster production: effects of freshet rate and magnitude of change and duration on eastern oysters and Perkinsus marinus infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Gossman, B.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2009-01-01

    In coastal Louisiana, the development of large-scale freshwater diversion projects has led to controversy over their effects on oyster resources. Using controlled laboratory experiments in combination with a field study, we examined the effects of pulsed freshwater events (freshet) of different magnitude, duration, and rate of change on oyster resources. Laboratory and field evidence indicate that low salinity events (<5 psu) decreased Perkinsus marinus infection intensities. Furthermore, when salinity was low (<5 psu), parasite infection intensities continued to decrease even as temperatures exceeded 20°C. At the same time, oyster growth was positively correlated with salinity. To maximize oyster production, data indicate that both low and high salinity events will be necessary.

  12. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay.

  13. Biotransformation and detoxification of inorganic arsenic in Bombay oyster Saccostrea cucullata.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Liu, Huaxue; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exists as the toxic inorganic forms in marine water and sediment, while marine oysters usually accumulate high As contents mostly as the less toxic organic forms. It has not yet been clear that how As is biotransformed in marine oysters. This study therefore investigated the biotransformation and detoxification of two inorganic As forms (As(III) and As(V)) in Bombay oyster Saccostrea cucullata after waterborne exposures for 30 days. Seven treatments of dissolved As exposure (clean seawater, 1, 5, 20 mg/L As(III), and 1, 5, 20 mg/L As(V)) were performed. Body As concentration increased significantly after all As exposure treatments except 1mg/L As(V). Total As, As(III), and As(V) concentration were positive correlated with glutathione-S-transferases (GST) activities, suggesting GST might play an important role in the As biotransformation and detoxification process. Organic As species were predominant in control and the low As exposed oysters, whereas a large fraction of As was remained as the inorganic forms in the high As exposed oysters, suggesting As could be biotransformed efficiently in the oysters in clean or light contaminated environment. The results of As speciation demonstrated the As biotransformation in the oysters included As(V) reduction, methylation to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and subsequent conversion to arsenobetaine (AsB). More As was distributed in the subcellular metallothionein-like proteins fraction (MTLP) functioning sequestration and detoxification in the inorganic As exposed oysters, suggesting it was also a strategy for oysters against As stress. In summary, this study elucidated that marine oysters had high ability to accumulate, biotransform, and detoxify inorganic As.

  14. Cloning and characterization of neoplasia-related genes in flat oyster Ostrea edulis.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gómez, Laura; Villalba, Antonio; Carballal, María Jesús; Abollo, Elvira

    2014-04-01

    Bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia (DN) are the most important diseases affecting cultured flat oysters Ostrea edulis in Galicia (NW Spain). Previous research using suppresive substraction hybridisation that had been performed addressing the molecular basis of DN as well as the induction and development of the disease in oysters, yielded the whole open reading frame of nine genes: XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, C1qTNF, RPA3, SAP18, p23, ubiquitin and ferritin. These nine genes were characterized in this study. The phylogenetic relationships for each gene were studied using minimum-evolution methods. Quantitative-PCR assays were also developed to analyse the modulation of the expression of these genes by bonamiosis and disseminated neoplasia. Gene expression profiles were studied in haemolymph cells and in various organs (gill, gonad, mantle and digestive gland) of oysters affected by bonamiosis, disseminated neoplasia, both diseases and in non-affected oysters (control). The expression of XBP-1, NDPk, RPA3, SAP18 and ferritin increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with heavy bonamiosis. The expression of C1qTNF; SAP18 and p23 increased in haemolymph cells of oysters with DN. The expression of XBP-1, RACK, NDPk, RPA3 and p23 significantly increased in haemolymph cells of oysters affected by both diseases. There were changes in the expression of a number of genes in different organs depeding on disease stage: RACK expression increased in gills of oysters with bonamiosis, XBP-1 increased in mantle and digestive organs of oysters with light DN and RPA3 expression increased in gonads of oysters with heavy bonamiosis and heavy neoplasia.

  15. Intertidal oysters reach their physiological limit in a future high-CO2 world.

    PubMed

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Stapp, Laura S; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-03-01

    Sessile marine molluscs living in the intertidal zone experience periods of internal acidosis when exposed to air (emersion) during low tide. Relative to other marine organisms, molluscs have been identified as vulnerable to future ocean acidification; however, paradoxically it has also been shown that molluscs exposed to high CO2 environments are more resilient compared with those molluscs naive to CO2 exposure. Two competing hypotheses were tested using a novel experimental design incorporating tidal simulations to predict the future intertidal limit of oysters in a high-CO2 world; either high-shore oysters will be more tolerant of elevated PCO2 because of their regular acidosis, or elevated PCO2  will cause high-shore oysters to reach their limit. Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, were collected from the high-intertidal and subtidal areas of the shore and exposed in an orthogonal design to either an intertidal or a subtidal treatment at ambient or elevated PCO2 , and physiological variables were measured. The combined treatment of tidal emersion and elevated PCO2  interacted synergistically to reduce the haemolymph pH (pHe) of oysters, and increase the PCO2  in the haemolymph (Pe,CO2 ) and standard metabolic rate. Oysters in the intertidal treatment also had lower condition and growth. Oysters showed a high degree of plasticity, and little evidence was found that intertidal oysters were more resilient than subtidal oysters. It is concluded that in a high-CO2 world the upper vertical limit of oyster distribution on the shore may be reduced. These results suggest that previous studies on intertidal organisms that lacked tidal simulations may have underestimated the effects of elevated PCO2.

  16. Microbial quality of oysters sold in Western Trinidad and potential health risk to consumers.

    PubMed Central

    Rampersad, F. S.; Laloo, S.; La Borde, A.; Maharaj, K.; Sookhai, L.; Teelucksingh, J.; Reid, S.; McDougall, L.; Adesiyun, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. as well as counts of E. coli in raw oysters, condiments/spices, and raw oyster cocktails sampled from 72 vendors across Western Trinidad were determined. The microbial quality of the water used in the preparation of raw oysters was also investigated. Of 200 samples each of raw oysters, condiments/spices and oyster cocktails tested, 154 (77.0%), 89 (44.5%) and 154 (77.0%) respectively yielded E. coli. The differences were statistically significant (P = < 0.001; chi square = 62.91). The mean E. coli count per g in the ready-to-eat oyster cocktail ranged from 1.5 x 10(3) +/- 2.7 x 10(3) in Couva to 8.7x10(6) +/- 4.9x10(7) in San Fernando. One hundred and forty-six (73.0%) oyster cocktails contaminated with E. coli had counts that exceeded the recommended standard of 16 per g. Of a total of 590 E. coli isolates from various sources tested, 24 (4.1%), 20 (3.4%) and 69 (11.7%) were mucoid, haemolytic and non-sorbitol fermenters respectively. Twelve (2.0%) isolates of E. coli were O157 strains, while 92 (46.0%) of 200 E. coli isolates tested belonged to enteropathogenic serogroups. Ninety (45.0%) and 73 (36.5%) of 200 water samples contained total coliforms and faecal coliforms respectively, with counts that exceeded 2.2 coliforms per 100 ml. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 7 (3.5%), 1 (0.5%) and 2 (1.0%) of 200 samples each, of raw oysters, condiments/spices and oyster cocktails respectively. Oysters pose a health risk to consumers in Trinidad, particularly from colibacillosis and salmonellosis, and the need for increased public awareness of this hazard cannot be over-emphasized. PMID:10579443

  17. High Salinity Relaying to Reduce Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in Chesapeake Bay Oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Parveen, Salina; Jahncke, Michael; Elmahdi, Sara; Crocker, Helen; Bowers, John; White, Chanelle; Gray, Stephanie; Morris, Amanda C; Brohawn, Kathy

    2017-02-01

    Cases of Vibrio infections in the United States have tripled from 1996 to 2009 and these infections are most often associated with the consumption of seafood, particularly oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Information is needed on how to reduce numbers of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in bi-valve molluscan shellfish (for example, oysters). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high salinity relaying or treatment in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) as methods to reduce the abundance of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters. For relaying field trials, oysters were collected from approved harvest waters, temperature abused outside under a tarp for 4 h, and then transferred to high (29 to 33 ppt.) and moderate (12 to 19 ppt.) salinities. For RAS treatment trial, oysters were transferred to 32 to 34 ppt. salinity at 15 °C. After 7, 14, 21, and in some instances 28 d, oysters were collected and analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels using multiplex real-time PCR. Initial levels of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus ranged from 3.70 to 5.64 log10 MPN/g, and were reduced by 2 to 5 logs after 21 to 28 d in high salinity water (29 to 34 ppt.). Oyster mortalities averaged 4% or less, and did not exceed 7%. Relaying of oysters to high salinity field sites or transfer to high salinity RAS tanks was more effective in reducing V. vulnificus compared with V. parahaemolyticus. These results suggest that high salinity relaying of oysters is more effective in reducing V. vulnificus than V. parahaemolyticus in the oyster species used in this study.

  18. Cache Creek ocean: Closure or enclosure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Joanne; Mihalynuk, Mitch

    1993-02-01

    Exotic Tethyan faunas within the Cache Creek terrane contrast markedly with faunas and lithologic associations in the adjacent Quesnel and Stikine terranes. In northern British Columbia and southeast Yukon, all three terranes are enveloped in the north by pericontinental rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, a geometry that imposes severe constraints on terrane assembly models for the northern Canadian Cordillera. Our solution to the problem invokes a northern join between the Stikinia and Quesnellia arcs through the Yukon-Tanana terrane, forming an orocline that encloses the Cache Creek terrane. This model involves (1) collision of a linear oceanic plateau at the cusp between Quesnellia and Stikinia, (2) anticlockwise rotation of Stikinia about an axis in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, (3) simultaneous enclosure of the Cache Creek ocean, and (4) emplacement of Quesnellia onto the margin of ancestral North America and the Cache Creek terrane onto Stikinia during final closure of the orocline. Early Mesozoic Paleomagnetic declinations in Stikinia are permissive of the large anticlockwise rotations predicted by the model. Similar large-scale rotations and ocean-basin enclosure are common features in the southwest Pacific. This model accounts for Paleozoic and younger linkages between Yukon-Tanana and both northern Stikinia and Quesnellia, the striking similarity between Triassic-Jurassic arcs east and west of the Cache Creek terrane, and the profound early Mesozoic deformational event in the Yukon-Tanana terrane.

  19. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  20. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, North Dakota, with a watershed dominated by prairie potholes. During a decadal period of wet conditions, Pipestem Creek contained evaporated water that had approximately half the isotopic evaporative enrichment signal found in most evaporated permanent wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from the headwaters with distance downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporation. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha and varying primarily with discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This estimate of contributing area indicated that Prairie Pothole wetlands were important sources of stream fl

  1. Influence of water allocation and freshwater inflow on oyster production: a hydrodynamic-oyster population model for Galveston Bay, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eric N; Klinck, John M; Hofmann, Eileen E; McManus, Margaret A

    2003-01-01

    A hydrodynamic-oyster population model was developed to assess the effect of changes in freshwater inflow on oyster populations in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The population model includes the effects of environmental conditions, predators, and the oyster parasite, Perkinsus marinus, on oyster populations. The hydrodynamic model includes the effects of wind stress, river runoff, tides, and oceanic exchange on the circulation of the bay. Simulations were run for low, mean, and high freshwater inflow conditions under the present (1993) hydrology and predicted hydrologies for 2024 and 2049 that include both changes in total freshwater inflow and diversions of freshwater from one primary drainage basin to another. Freshwater diversion to supply the Houston metropolitan area is predicted to negatively impact oyster production in Galveston Bay. Fecundity and larval survivorship both decline. Mortality from Perkinsus marinus increases, but to a lesser extent. A larger negative impact in 2049 relative to 2024 originates from the larger drop in fecundity under that hydrology. Changes in recruitment and mortality, resulting in lowered oyster abundance, occur because the bay volume available for mixing freshwater input from the San Jacinto and Buffalo Bayou drainage basins that drain metropolitan Houston is small in comparison to the volume of Trinity Bay that presently receives the bulk of the bay's freshwater inflow. A smaller volume for mixing results in salinities that decline more rapidly and to a greater extent under conditions of high freshwater discharge.Thus, the decline in oyster abundance results from a disequilibrium between geography and salinity brought about by freshwater diversion. Although the bay hydrology shifts, available hard substrate does not. The simulations stress the fact that it is not just the well-appreciated reduction in freshwater inflow that can result in decreased oyster production. Changing the location of freshwater inflow can also

  2. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF KILLBUCK CREEK TAKEN FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF KILLBUCK CREEK TAKEN FROM THE BRIDGE DECK SHOWING THE SECOND OR THIRD GROWTH SPROUT. - Madison County Bridge 90, Spanning Killbuck Creek on County Road No. 600, Moonville, Madison County, IN

  3. Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view looking north - Oregon Electric Railroad, Fanno Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 34.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  4. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and White Ash Trees, Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, median between northbound and southbound lanes near the Waterside Drive exit and entrance ramps., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm to the left and Henry Ford Mansion in the far background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the berm with the marsh to the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house in the background and marsh in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. 9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the marsh in the background and the berm in the foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  10. 14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  11. 12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. 3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of dam/bridge looking southwest - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of the dam/bridge looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  15. 13. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast; looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast; looking at canal going to the tree line - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  16. 5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  17. 15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor support beams. - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. 13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor window sill - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. 1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with road in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  20. 12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor joist and support beams - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. Water-quality appraisal, Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that mineralization, eutrophication, sedimentation, and limited areas of fecal contamination were occurring. Mineralization, indicated by a downstream increase in dissolved-solids concentration, was due primarily to geothermal springs that gradually decreased in the percentage of calcium, increased in the percentage of magnesium and sodium, and caused fluctuating, but overall increasing percentage of fluoride, sulfate, and chloride. Resulting water quality in Mammoth Creek was similar to that of the springs forming Hot Creek. Eutrophication was observed in Twin Lakes and the reach of Hot Creek below the fish hatchery. Twin Lakes had floating mats of algae and a high dissolved-oxygen saturation of 147 percent at a pH of 9.2. Hot Creek had excessive aquatic vascular plant and algae growth, dissolved-oxygen saturations ranging from 65 to 200 percent, algal growth potential of 30 milligrams per liter, and nitrates and phosphates of 0.44 and 0.157 milligrams per liter. Sedimentation was noted in observations of bed-material composition showing the presence of fine material beginning at Sherwin Creek Road. Fecal contamination was indicated by fecal coliform counts of 250 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal streptococcal counts greater than 1,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. (USGS)

  2. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  3. Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.; Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J.

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Meager Creek Geothermal Project: preliminary resource evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stauder, J.J.; Menzies, A.J.; Harvey, C.C.; Leach, T.M.

    1983-09-01

    A 190-200/sup 0/C geothermal resource has been identified in the Meager Creek Geothermal Area (South Meager, previously called the South Reservoir), British Columbia, Canada, on the basis of surface and near surface exploration and the results of a three well deep drilling exploration program. The geothermal resource appears to be fracture dominated with limited flow capacity. It is associated with the Meager Creek Fault Zone which was encountered by the deep wells at a depth of 1200-1600 meters (400-800 meters below MSL). Temperatures of up to 270/sup 0/C were encountered below the Meager Creek Fault Zone but both petrologic and well testing data indicate that the rock is generally impermeable. The high temperatures at depth appear to be a manifestation of the abnormally high (approximately equal to 90/sup 0/C/km) regional geothermal gradient.

  5. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  6. Water-quality appraisal. Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Setmire, J.G.

    1984-06-01

    A late summer reconnaissance in 1981 and a spring high-flow sampling in 1982 of Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek, located in the Mammoth crest area of the Sierra Nevada, indicated that three water-quality processes were occurring: (1) mineralization; (2) eutrophication; and (3) sedimentation. Limited areas of fecal contamination were also observed. Mineralization due primarily to geothermal springs increased dissolved-solids concentration downstream, which changed the chemical composition of the water. The percentage of calcium decreased gradually, the percentage of magnesium and sodium increased, and the percentage of fluoride, sulfate, and chloride fluctuated, but increased overall. These changes produced water quality in Mammoth Creek similar to that of the springs forming Hot Creek. Twin Lakes and the reach of Hot Creek below the fish hatchery showed evidence of eutrophication. Twin Lakes had floating mats of algae and a high dissolved-oxygen saturation of 147% at a pH of 9.2. Hot Creek had abundant growth of aquatic vascular plants and algae, dissolved-oxygen saturations ranging from 65% to 200%, algal growth potential of 30 milligrams per liter, nitrate concentration of 0.44 milligram per liter, and phosphate concentration of 0.157 milligram per liter. Sediment deposition was determined from detailed observations of bed-material composition, which showed that fine material was deposited at Sherwin Creek Road and downstream. Fecal contamination was indicated by fecal-coliform bacteria counts of 250 colonies per 100 milliliters and fecal-streptococcal bacteria counts greater than 1000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Although bacterial sampling was sporadic and incomplete, it did indicate adverse effects on water quality for the following beneficial uses that have been identified for Mammoth Creek and Hot Creek: (1) municipal supply; (2) cold-water habitat; and (3) contact and noncontact water recreation. 6 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Hydrology and Flood Profiles of Duck Creek and Jordan Creek Downstream from Egan Drive, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrologic and hydraulic updates for Duck Creek and the lower part of Jordan Creek in Juneau, Alaska, included computation of new estimates of peak streamflow magnitudes and new water-surface profiles for the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods. Computations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence interval flood magnitudes for both streams used data from U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations weighted with regional regression equations for southeast Alaska. The study area for the hydraulic model consisted of three channels: Duck Creek from Taku Boulevard near the stream's headwaters to Radcliffe Road near the end of the Juneau International Airport runway, an unnamed tributary to Duck Creek from Valley Boulevard to its confluence with Duck Creek, and Jordan Creek from a pedestrian bridge upstream from Egan Drive to Crest Street at Juneau International Airport. Field surveys throughout the study area provided channel geometry for 206 cross sections, and geometric and hydraulic characteristics for 29 culverts and 15 roadway, driveway, or pedestrian bridges. Hydraulic modeling consisted of application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) for steady-state flow at the selected recurrence intervals using an assumed high tide of 20 feet and roughness coefficients refined by calibration to measured water-surface elevations from a 2- to 5-year flood that occurred on November 21, 2005. Model simulation results identify inter-basin flow from Jordan Creek to the southeast at Egan Drive and from Duck Creek to Jordan Creek downstream from Egan Drive at selected recurrence intervals.

  8. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT, BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO CENTER, BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT, AND BUILDING 104 ABOVE BUILDING 106 PARTIALLY OBSCURED BEHIND TREE AT UPPER PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. Transcriptome of American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in response to bacterial challenge: insights into potential mechanisms of disease resistance.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Ian C; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Aguiar, Derek; Lane, Christopher E; Istrail, Sorin; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The American oyster Crassostrea virginica, an ecologically and economically important estuarine organism, can suffer high mortalities in areas in the Northeast United States due to Roseovarius Oyster Disease (ROD), caused by the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Roseovarius crassostreae. The goals of this research were to provide insights into: 1) the responses of American oysters to R. crassostreae, and 2) potential mechanisms of resistance or susceptibility to ROD. The responses of oysters to bacterial challenge were characterized by exposing oysters from ROD-resistant and susceptible families to R. crassostreae, followed by high-throughput sequencing of cDNA samples from various timepoints after disease challenge. Sequence data was assembled into a reference transcriptome and analyzed through differential gene expression and functional enrichment to uncover genes and processes potentially involved in responses to ROD in the American oyster. While susceptible oysters experienced constant levels of mortality when challenged with R. crassostreae, resistant oysters showed levels of mortality similar to non-challenged oysters. Oysters exposed to R. crassostreae showed differential expression of transcripts involved in immune recognition, signaling, protease inhibition, detoxification, and apoptosis. Transcripts involved in metabolism were enriched in susceptible oysters, suggesting that bacterial infection places a large metabolic demand on these oysters. Transcripts differentially expressed in resistant oysters in response to infection included the immune modulators IL-17 and arginase, as well as several genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. The identification of potential genes and processes responsible for defense against R. crassostreae in the American oyster provides insights into potential mechanisms of disease resistance.

  10. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  11. Selected hydrologic data for Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Ortiz, Roderick F.

    1989-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data were collected during 1986, 1987, and 1988 by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Fountain Creek and Monument Creek basins, east-central Colorado. The data were obtained as part of a study to determine the present and projected effects of wastewater discharges on the two creeks. The data, which are available for 129 surface-water sites, include: (1) About 1,100 water quality analyses; (2) about 420 measurements of discharge, (3) characteristics of about 50 dye clouds associated with measurements of traveltime and reaeration , and (4) about 360 measurements of channel geometry. (USGS)

  12. 78 FR 28897 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and finding of no...

  13. 20. DISTANT HELICOPTER VIEW TO SOUTHEAST UP LITTLE ROCK CREEK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DISTANT HELICOPTER VIEW TO SOUTHEAST UP LITTLE ROCK CREEK CANYON, WITH DAM AND RESERVOIR AT RIGHT CENTER. PALMDALE-LITTLEROCK DITCH, MARKED BY DENSE VEGETATION, CROSSES ROAD AT LOWER CENTER - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND SWITCHRACKS AND TREE. POWERHOUSE IS AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  15. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD... across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The proposed change will alter the... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require...

  16. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD... highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The... Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 5201). The rulemaking concerned...

  17. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. BUILDING 122 IS VISIBLE AT PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  18. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. BUILDING 113 IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  19. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW SHOWING BISHOP CREEK PLANT 4 RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX. ROOF OF BUILDING 105 IS VISIBLE IN UPPER PHOTO CENTER. PLANT 5 INTAKE DAM AT PHOTO LEFT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  20. 75 FR 8036 - Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Forest Service Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... continued livestock grazing ] within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area. The analysis will... conditions within the Monitor-Hot Creek Rangeland Project area towards desired conditions. The project...