Science.gov

Sample records for 50-ghz channel spacing

  1. Pump-phase-noise-free optical wavelength data exchange between QAM signals with 50-GHz channel-spacing using coherent DFB pump.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Albuquerque, André; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Sakamoto, Takahide; Drummond, Miguel; Nogueira, Rogério; Kanno, Atsushi; Shinada, Satoshi; Wada, Naoya; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2016-02-22

    An important challenge for implementing optical signal processing functions such as wavelength conversion or wavelength data exchange (WDE) is to avoid the introduction of linear and nonlinear phase noise in the subsystem. This is particularly important for phase noise sensitive, high-order quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical data exchange scheme through cascaded 2nd-order nonlinearities in periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides using coherent pumping. The proposed coherent pumping scheme enables noise from the coherent pumps to be cancelled out in the swapped data after WDE, even with broad linewidth distributed feedback (DFB) pump lasers. Hence, this scheme allows phase noise tolerant processing functions, enabling the low-cost implementation of WDE for high-order QAM signals. We experimentally demonstrate WDEs between 10-Gbaud 4QAM (4QAM) signal and 12.5-Gbaud 4QAM (16QAM) signal with 3.5-MHz linewidth DFB pump lasers and 50-GHz channel spacing. Error-free operation is observed for the swapped QAM signals with coherent DFB pumping whilst use of free-running DFB pumps leads to visible error floors and unrecoverable phase errors. The phase noise cancellation in the coherent pump scheme is further confirmed by study of the recovered carrier phase of the converted signals. In addition to pump phase noise, the influence of crosstalk caused by the finite extinction ratio in WDE is also experimentally investigated for the swapped QAM signals.

  2. 200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Cheng, Tzu-Kang; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Cheng; Wang, Hai-Lin; Lin, Yi-Hong

    2009-09-28

    In a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) based DWDM-PON system with an array-waveguide-grating (AWG) channelized amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source located at remote node, we study the effect of AWG filter bandwidth on the transmission performances of the 1.25-Gbit/s directly modulated WRC-FPLD transmitter under the AWG channelized ASE injection-locking. With AWG filters of two different channel spacings at 50 and 200 GHz, several characteristic parameters such as interfered reflection, relatively intensity noise, crosstalk reduction, side-mode-suppressing ratio and power penalty of BER effect of the WRC-FPLD transmitted data are compared. The 200-GHz AWG filtered ASE injection minimizes the noises of WRC-FPLD based ONU transmitter, improving the power penalty of upstream data by -1.6 dB at BER of 10(-12). In contrast, the 50-GHz AWG channelized ASE injection fails to promote better BER but increases the power penalty by + 1.5 dB under back-to-back transmission. A theoretical modeling elucidates that the BER degradation up to 4 orders of magnitude between two injection cases is mainly attributed to the reduction on ASE injection linewidth, since which concurrently degrades the signal-to-noise and extinction ratios of the transmitted data stream.

  3. Calculation of accurate channel spacing of an AWG optical demultiplexer applying proportional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyringer, D.; Hodzic, E.

    2015-06-01

    We present the proportional method to correct the channel spacing between the transmitted output channels of an AWG. The developed proportional method was applied to 64-channel, 50 GHz AWG and the achieved results confirm very good correlation between designed channel spacing (50 GHz) and the channel spacing calculated from simulated AWG transmission characteristics.

  4. Feasibility of an EHF (40/50 GHz) mobile satellite system using highly inclined orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falciasecca, G.; Paraboni, A.; Ruggieri, M.; Valdoni, F.; Vatalaro, F.

    1990-01-01

    The pan-European L-band terrestrial cellular system (GSM) is expected to provide service to more than 10 million users by the year 2000. Discussed here is the feasibility of a new satellite system at EHF (40/50 GHz) to complement, at the end of the decade, the GSM system or its decendants in order to provide additional services at 64 kbits/s, or so. The main system aspects, channel characteristics, technology issues, and both on-board and earth terminal architectures are highlighted. Based on the performed analyses, a proposal was addressed to the Italian Space Agency (ASI), aimed at the implementation of a national plan.

  5. AN ACCURATE FLUX DENSITY SCALE FROM 1 TO 50 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, R. A.; Butler, B. J. E-mail: BButler@nrao.edu

    2013-02-15

    We develop an absolute flux density scale for centimeter-wavelength astronomy by combining accurate flux density ratios determined by the Very Large Array between the planet Mars and a set of potential calibrators with the Rudy thermophysical emission model of Mars, adjusted to the absolute scale established by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. The radio sources 3C123, 3C196, 3C286, and 3C295 are found to be varying at a level of less than {approx}5% per century at all frequencies between 1 and 50 GHz, and hence are suitable as flux density standards. We present polynomial expressions for their spectral flux densities, valid from 1 to 50 GHz, with absolute accuracy estimated at 1%-3% depending on frequency. Of the four sources, 3C286 is the most compact and has the flattest spectral index, making it the most suitable object on which to establish the spectral flux density scale. The sources 3C48, 3C138, 3C147, NGC 7027, NGC 6542, and MWC 349 show significant variability on various timescales. Polynomial coefficients for the spectral flux density are developed for 3C48, 3C138, and 3C147 for each of the 17 observation dates, spanning 1983-2012. The planets Venus, Uranus, and Neptune are included in our observations, and we derive their brightness temperatures over the same frequency range.

  6. Application of 64 channel laser for free space interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yung-Hsien; Lin, Yen-Heng; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Tsao, Shyh-Lin

    2006-08-01

    We analyze and simulate the optical properties of the frequency hopping wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) laser. In order to design the multi-channel wavelength hopping laser as the light source of optics to the x(OTTx), our investigation describes how to design, simulate of 64×64 Array Waveguide Grating (AWG) on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The achieved AWG has a channel spacing of 0.4 nm (50GHz) with its spectrum centered at 1550.52 nm. The number of arrayed waveguides is 266 and the length difference is 9.89μm. We find out an optimal value of waveguide separation at the junction between arrayed waveguides region and free propagation region. In order to get a better uniformity for 64 channel outputs while insertion loss and crosstalk are taken into account, we also describe the improved design by using tapered waveguide structure at the both ends of AWG. The experimental results show the flatness can be improved to 0.71 dB which is very close to our previous simulation works. We also analyze the concentration effect of doping Er, cross-talk and thermal effect in SOI waveguide. We investigate the optical sphericity mirror station (BS) and relay station (RS) in OTTx system. We use the uniformity for 64 channel outputs as the light source of wavelength hopping laser of this system. The optic signals convert to the receiving signal by 4G over OTTx signal converting technique in this system.

  7. Microwave noise temperature and attenuation of clouds at frequencies below 50 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.

    1981-01-01

    The microwave attenuation and noise temperature effects of clouds can result in serious degradation of telecommunications link performance, especially for low-noise systems presently used in deep-space communications. Although cloud effects are generally less than rain effects, the frequent presence of clouds will cause some amount of link degradation a large portion of the time. Cloud types, water particle densities, radiative transfer, attenuation and noise temperature calculations are reviewed and examples of basic link signal to noise ratio calculations are given. Calculations for twelve different cloud models are presented for frequencies of from 1 to 50 GHz and elevation angles of 30 degrees and 90 degrees. These case results may be used as a handbook to predict noise temperature and attenuation values for known or forecast cloud conditions.

  8. Transmission of 112(4×28)-Gb/s PAM-4 Signal over 48.6-km SSMF within only 50-GHz Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jian; Hu, Rong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a transmission of 112(4×28)-Gb/s PAM-4 signal is experimentally demonstrated within only 50-GHz grid, achieving an optical spectral efficiency (SE) of 2.24 b/s/Hz. For the intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) based PAM-4 transmission, it is the first time to the best of our knowledge that 112-Gb/s PAM-4 signal has been transmitted over 48.6-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF), which is compatible with 50-GHz standard gridding. By employing digital pre-equalization, duobinary encoding/decoding and 7-level based training sequence aided least-mean square (TS-LMS) algorithm, each lane of the 28-Gb/s PAM-4 signal occupies less than 11-GHz optical spectral (3-dB bandwidth), resulting in negligible inter-channel interference for the 4-lane 112-Gb/s PAM-4 signals within 50-GHz grid. The proposed method is bandwidth and computationally efficient, which is thought feasible in the low-cost short reach optical networks.

  9. High-Temperature RF Probe Station For Device Characterization Through 500 deg C and 50 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Zachary D.; Downey, Alan N.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Ponchak, George E.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A high-temperature measurement system capable of performing on-wafer microwave testing of semiconductor devices has been developed. This high temperature probe station can characterize active and passive devices and circuits at temperatures ranging from room temperature to above 500 C. The heating system uses a ceramic heater mounted on an insulating block of NASA shuttle tile material. The temperature is adjusted by a graphical computer interface and is controlled by the software-based feedback loop. The system is used with a Hewlett-Packard 8510C Network Analyzer to measure scattering parameters over a frequency range of 1 to 50 GHz. The microwave probes, cables, and inspection microscope are all shielded to protect from heat damage. The high temperature probe station has been successfully used to characterize gold transmission lines on silicon carbide at temperatures up to 540 C.

  10. A Study of Dielectric Properties of Proteinuria between 0.2 GHz and 50 GHz

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Peck Shen; Ting, Hua Nong; Ong, Teng Aik; Wong, Chew Ming; Ng, Kwan Hong; Chong, Yip Boon

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the dielectric properties of urine in normal subjects and subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at microwave frequency of between 0.2 GHz and 50 GHz. The measurements were conducted using an open-ended coaxial probe at room temperature (25°C), at 30°C and at human body temperature (37°C). There were statistically significant differences in the dielectric properties of the CKD subjects compared to those of the normal subjects. Statistically significant differences in dielectric properties were observed across the temperatures for normal subjects and CKD subjects. Pearson correlation test showed the significant correlation between proteinuria and dielectric properties. The experimental data closely matched the single-pole Debye model. The relaxation dispersion and relaxation time increased with the proteinuria level, while decreasing with the temperature. As for static conductivity, it increased with proteinuria level and temperature. PMID:26066351

  11. Design of a 40/50 GHz satellite ground station for fade mitigation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the increasing demand in satellite capacity, driven by applications such as high-definition television (HDTV), 3D-TV and interactive broadband services, higher frequency bands will have to be exploited. The capacity on Ku-band is already becoming scarce and Ka-band systems are more commonly used. It can be expected that 40 and 50 GHz (Q and V band) will have to be used in the future. At these frequencies the wave propagation effects have a significant impact on the performance. The traditional approach of implementing large fade margins in the system design is not suitable as it leads to expensive ground terminals. Fade mitigation by adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) is a cost-efficient method. To investigate the Q/V-band for future commercial exploitation, ESA's ALPHASAT satellite will provide experimental payloads for communications and wave propagation experiments. In Graz a Q/V-band ground station is currently under development. It will be equipped with a 3 m tracking antenna, a 50 W Klystron amplifier and a 290 K LNA. Fade mitigation experiments will be conducted, initially using DVB-S2 modems which allow to vary the modulation scheme, the Forward Error Correction code and the symbol rate under control of the ACM computer. In addition, uplink power control can be combined with the ACM methods. A specially developed signal analyser provides precise measurement of the signal/noise ratio. In addition, propagation data will be available from a beacon receiver, also developed by Joanneum Research. Important goals of the experiment are to investigate the reliability of links under realistic operating conditions using ACM and to develop efficient ACM and signal/noise ratio measurement algorithms which can be later implemented in optimised modems for Q/V-band. The paper describes the ground station design and addresses the planned fade mitigation experiments.

  12. Some characteristics of the international space channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noack, T. L.; Poland, W. B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Some physical characteristics of radio transmission links and the technology of PCM modulation combine with the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunications Union to define a communications channel having a determinable channel capacity, error rate, and sensitivity to interference. These characteristics and the corresponding limitations on EIRP, power flux density, and power spectral density for space service applications are described. The ITU regulations create a critical height of 1027 km where some parameters of the limitation rules change. The nature of restraints on power spectral density are discussed and an approach to a standardized representation of Necessary Bandwidth for the Space Services is described. It is shown that, given the PFD (power flux density) and PSD (power spectral density) limitations of radio regulations, the channel performance is determined by the ratio of effective receiving antenna aperture to system noise temperature. Based on this approach, the method for a quantitative trade-off between spectrum spreading and system performance is presented. Finally, the effects of radio frequency interference between standard systems is analyzed.

  13. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  14. Experimental Procedure for Determination of the Dielectric Properties of Biological Samples in the 2-50 GHz Range

    PubMed Central

    Odelstad, Elias; Raman, Sujith; Rydberg, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to test and evaluate an experimental procedure for providing data on the complex permittivity of different cell lines in the 2–50-GHz range at room temperature, for the purpose of future dosimetric studies. The complex permittivity measurements were performed on cells suspended in culture medium using an open-ended coaxial probe. Maxwell’s mixture equation then allows the calculation of the permittivity profiles of the cells from the difference in permittivity between the cell suspensions and pure culture medium. The open-ended coaxial probe turned out to be very sensitive to disturbances affecting the measurements, resulting in poor precision. Permittivity differences were not large in relation to the spread of the measurements and repeated measurements were performed to improve statistics. The 95% confidence intervals were computed for the arithmetic means of the measured permittivity differences in order to test the statistical significance. The results showed that for bone cells at the lowest tested concentration (33 500/ml), there were significance in the real part of the permittivity at frequencies above 30 GHz, and no significance in the imaginary part. For the second lowest concentration (67 000/ml) there was no significance at all. For a medium concentration of bone cells (135 000/ml) there was no significance in the real part, but there was significance in the imaginary part at frequencies below about 25 GHz. The cell suspension with a concentration of 1 350 000/ml had significance in the real part for both high (above 30 GHz) and low (below 15 GHz) frequencies. The imaginary part showed significance for frequencies below 25 GHz. In the case of an osteosarcoma cell line with a concentration of 2 700 000/ml, only the imaginary part showed significance, and only for frequencies below 15 GHz. For muscle cells at a concentration of 743 450/ml, there was only significance in the imaginary part for frequencies below 5 GHz

  15. Choosing channel quantization levels and viterbi decoding for space diversity reception over the additive white Guassian noise channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalson, S.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work in the area of choosing channel quantization levels for a additive white Gaussian noise channel composed of one receiver-demodulator is reviewed, and how this applies to the Deep Space Network composed of several receiver-demodulators (space diversity reception) is shown. Viterbi decoding for the resulting quantized channel is discussed.

  16. Real Space Transfer Between Two Semiconductor Channels Connected in Parallel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, K.; Cohen, E.; Janes, D.; Melloch, M.; Wilshere, C.

    1997-03-01

    With Real Space Transfer (RST), it is possible to rapidly alter a carrier's transport characteristics by moving it a short vertical distance through a heterostructure. The concept of the Velocity Modulation transistor (VMT), which uses this principle to modulate current, first appeared in 1982; its fast switching capabilities have yet to realized. We present evidence of RST at DC operating conditions in a double-gated, dual-channel transistor amenable to high speed VMT operation. A gate voltage is applied in order to create a potential difference between two channels, which are connected in parallel. Electrons enter one of two channels and undergo RST to a channel of different mobility. MBE growth provides a modulation doped 2-D electron gas which is separated from a lower mobility, doped channel by 70 nm by a digitally graded GaAs/Al_xGa_1-xAs barrier. The mobility ratio is 2.5:1 at room temperature. Further, the heterostructure is designed such that, with appropriate gating, the carriers can be forced back and forth between these channels, having their mobilities and velocities changed accordingly.

  17. Utilizing space frequency COFDM on multipath fading channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellerman, Fred C.

    2007-04-01

    This paper will investigate the use of an enhanced rate one Alamouti Space Frequency (SF) multiple antenna Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) radio communication system. A two transmit, single receive antenna system will be simulated to operate under conditions of multipath fading with noise. A simple modification to the standard coherent Alamouti receive combiner will be applied and shown to improve bit error rate (BER) performance on rapidly fading multipath HF channels. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing frequency domain techniques will be utilized to effectively eliminate the Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) resulting from the effects of multipath. Numerically simulated results will be shown for several multipath fading High Frequency (HF) radio channels. Inner convolutional error correction coding will be applied in addition to the Alamouti coding and numerically simulated BER results presented. Various HF channel conditions will be simulated including the 2 ms, 10 Hz, 2 ms, 5 Hz, CCIR poor (2 ms, 1 Hz) and extra poor (2 ms, 2 Hz) channel conditions. Performance under conditions of correlated transmit antennas will also be investigated.

  18. The 40 and 50 GHz propagation experiments at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, using the ITALSAT beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodroffe, J. M.; Davies, P. G.; Ladd, D. N.; Norbury, John R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the current experimental program and future plans for the reception of transmissions from the 18.7, 39.6, and 49.5 GHz beacons from the ITALSAT satellite by the Radio Communications Research Unit at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. The Radio Communications Research Unit, which has had considerable experience in developing experimental millimetric equipment for propagation studies, has initiated the development of a single-channel receiver and a triple-channel receiver to measure propagation effects at 49.5 GHz and 39.6 GHz respectively. The initial location of the receivers will be at Chilbolton, Hampshire, UK.

  19. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Conrath, M; Canfield, P J; Bronowicki, P M; Dreyer, M E; Weislogel, M M; Grah, A

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  20. Capillary channel flow experiments aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrath, M.; Canfield, P. J.; Bronowicki, P. M.; Dreyer, M. E.; Weislogel, M. M.; Grah, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the near-weightless environment of orbiting spacecraft capillary forces dominate interfacial flow phenomena over unearthly large length scales. In current experiments aboard the International Space Station, partially open channels are being investigated to determine critical flow rate-limiting conditions above which the free surface collapses ingesting bubbles. Without the natural passive phase separating qualities of buoyancy, such ingested bubbles can in turn wreak havoc on the fluid transport systems of spacecraft. The flow channels under investigation represent geometric families of conduits with applications to liquid propellant acquisition, thermal fluids circulation, and water processing for life support. Present and near future experiments focus on transient phenomena and conduit asymmetries allowing capillary forces to replace the role of gravity to perform passive phase separations. Terrestrial applications are noted where enhanced transport via direct liquid-gas contact is desired.

  1. Modelling the transmission of a 40-Gbit s{sup -1} NRZ-ADPSK signal in 50-GHz networks

    SciTech Connect

    Gurkin, N V; Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plaksin, S O; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

    2013-06-30

    We study numerically the effect of linear and nonlinear distortions on the transmission of a 40-Gbit s{sup -1} NRZ-ADPSK signal. The results of the numerical simulation coincide within the measurement accuracy with the experimental data, which indicates the adequacy of the mathematical model of the communication line, transmitter and receiver. We have found experimentally and numerically that in communication systems based on a standard telecommunication fibre negative dispersion (approximately -160 ps nm{sup -1}) introduced into the signal being transmitted provides an increase in the maximum admissible signal power coupled into a span and in the value of the admissible attenuation of the spans at 2 dB. It is established that nonlinear distortions caused by the presence of adjacent channels in a frequency network with a step of 50 and 100 GHz (crosstalks) are insignificant in comparison with the interchannel nonlinear distortions. (optical information transmission)

  2. Space-Charge Transport Limits in Periodic Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, S M; Chawla, S R

    2005-05-16

    It has been empirically observed in both experiments and particle-in-cell simulations that space-charge-dominated beams suffer strong emittance growth and particle losses in alternating gradient quadrupole transport channels when the undepressed phase advance {sigma}{sub 0} increases beyond about 85{sup o} per lattice period. Although this criteria has been used extensively in practical designs of intense beam transport lattices, no theory exists that explains the limit. We propose a mechanism for the transport limit resulting from classes of halo particle resonances near the core of the beam that allow near-edge particles to rapidly increase in oscillation amplitude when the space-charge intensity and the flutter of the matched beam envelope are both sufficiently large. Due to a finite beam edge and/or perturbations, this mechanism can result in dramatic halo-driven increases in statistical beam phase space area, lost particles, and degraded transport. A core-particle model for a uniform density elliptical beam in a periodic focusing lattice is applied to parametrically analyze this process.

  3. Quantum Detection Theory for the Free-Space Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Lau, C.-W.

    2001-04-01

    The fundamental performance limits of optical communications over the free-space channel are developed using quantum theory, and presented in terms of concepts familiar to communications engineers. The compact Dirac notation generally employed in quantum mechanics is defined, and key concepts necessary for understanding quantum projection measurements are reviewed. A derivation that provides significant insights into the quantum measurement performed by the optimum receiver is developed by interpreting the familiar technique of photon counting in terms of quantum projection operators. The performance of the optimum quantum receiver for on-off keying and optical binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation is treated first as a noise-free (or pure-state) problem, then extended to include the effects of background radiation. The performance of the optimum quantum receiver is compared to that of classical optical receivers employing photon-counting and coherent detection techniques, and it is shown to be exponentially better in most cases.

  4. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security.

  5. Free-space optical channel estimation for physical layer security.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Mikio; Kitamura, Mitsuo; Ito, Toshiyuki; Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Takenaka, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo; Aoki, Takao; Sasaki, Masahide

    2016-04-18

    We present experimental data on message transmission in a free-space optical (FSO) link at an eye-safe wavelength, using a testbed consisting of one sender and two receiver terminals, where the latter two are a legitimate receiver and an eavesdropper. The testbed allows us to emulate a typical scenario of physical-layer (PHY) security such as satellite-to-ground laser communications. We estimate information-theoretic metrics including secrecy rate, secrecy outage probability, and expected code lengths for given secrecy criteria based on observed channel statistics. We then discuss operation principles of secure message transmission under realistic fading conditions, and provide a guideline on a multi-layer security architecture by combining PHY security and upper-layer (algorithmic) security.

  6. The 500 MHz to 5.50 GHz complex permittivity spectra of single-wall carbon nanotube-loaded polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Mungle, C.; Kouzoudis, D.; Fang, S.; Eklund, P. C.

    2000-03-01

    The 500 MHz to 5.50 GHz complex permittivity spectra of a thick-film polymer loaded with 0-23 wt% single-wall carbon nanotubes is measured. At 500 MHz, as the weight percentage loading of the carbon nanotubes increases from 0 to 23% the real permittivity is found to increase by a factor of ˜35, and the imaginary permittivity by a factor of 1200. The spectral magnitudes decrease rapidly from the 500 MHz value over the measured frequency range. Experimental data are in qualitative agreement with values predicted using an effective medium theory for materials comprised of elongated cylindrical conductors [A.N. Lagarkov, A.K. Sarychev, Phy. Rev. B 53 (1996) 6318].

  7. Planar Superconducting Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Channelizing Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsan, Negar; U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is a compact, superconducting, channelizing bandpass filter on a single-crystal (0.45 m thick) silicon substrate, which operates from 300 to 600 GHz. This device consists of four channels with center frequencies of 310, 380, 460, and 550 GHz, with approximately 50-GHz bandwidth per channel. The filter concept is inspired by the mammalian cochlea, which is a channelizing filter that covers three decades of bandwidth and 3,000 channels in a very small physical space. By using a simplified physical cochlear model, and its electrical analog of a channelizing filter covering multiple octaves bandwidth, a large number of output channels with high inter-channel isolation and high-order upper stopband response can be designed. A channelizing filter is a critical component used in spectrometer instruments that measure the intensity of light at various frequencies. This embodiment was designed for MicroSpec in order to increase the resolution of the instrument (with four channels, the resolution will be increased by a factor of four). MicroSpec is a revolutionary wafer-scale spectrometer that is intended for the SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Mission. In addition to being a vital component of MicroSpec, the channelizing filter itself is a low-resolution spectrometer when integrated with only an antenna at its input, and a detector at each channel s output. During the design process for this filter, the available characteristic impedances, possible lumped element ranges, and fabrication tolerances were identified for design on a very thin silicon substrate. Iterations between full-wave and lumped-element circuit simulations were performed. Each channel s circuit was designed based on the availability of characteristic impedances and lumped element ranges. This design was based on a tabular type bandpass filter with no spurious harmonic response. Extensive electromagnetic modeling for each channel was performed. Four channels

  8. Performance Analysis of Hybrid PON (WDM-TDM) with Equal and Unequal Channel Spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramandeep; Dewra, Sanjeev; Rani, Aruna

    2016-06-01

    In this hybrid WDM-TDM PON has been evaluated and compared the downstream wavelengths with equal and unequal channel spacing at 5 Gbit/s per wavelength in the scenario of triple play services with 128 optical network units (ONUs). The triple play services: data, voice and video signals are transmitted up to 50 km distance having Q factor of 6.68 and BER of 3.64e-012 with unequal channel spacing and 45 km distance having Q factor of 6.33 and BER of 2.40e-011 with equal channel spacing in downstream direction. It has been observed that downstream wavelengths with unequal channel spacing provide better results than equal channel spacing.

  9. The Force of Habit: Channelling Young Bodies at Alternative Education Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a novel conceptual framework for examining the (re)formulation of habits in education spaces. It is based on the premise that education spaces are key sites for channelling and intervening in children's habits, to various ends. The article focuses on the ways educators at alternative education spaces in the United Kingdom…

  10. An Analysis of Three-Channel RSNS Virtual Spacing Direction Finding System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    understand and predict the performance of a three-channel RSNS virtual spacing DF system , simulations in MATLAB were carried out. This chapter...introduces all the models that were used in the MATLAB simulations. A. NOISE MODEL It is assumed that the noise in the system is random in nature and...CHANNEL RSNS VIRTUAL SPACING DIRECTION FINDING SYSTEM by Kevin Kwai December 2007 Thesis Advisors: Phillip Pace David Jenn

  11. Compact dual channel optical fiber amplifier for space communication applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Henwood-Moroney, L.; Hosking, P.; Kehayas, E.; Stampoulidis, L.; Robertson, A.

    2015-03-01

    We present results from the development of a dual channel Optical Fiber Amplifier (OFA) that consists of two copropagating low noise EDFAs at 1565 and 1545nm. The two channels have separate outputs but can also be combined via an optical switch to a common output channel for an increased output signal power. The OFA produces up to 35dB gain at low signal input powers and a total of over 350mW optical signal power combined from both EDFA channels with a 5mW signal input. The OFA was tested with input signals between 0.1 - 20 mW over the C-band and with pump power varying from 0 - 100% of the maximum operating pump power. The OFA module has total mass of 583 g including all electrical and optical components, as well as optical and electrical bulkheads, and a total module volume of 430 cm3. The module was also radiation tested via gamma irradiation up to 100 krad TID, validating the robustness of the optical amplifier against RIA effects and its suitability for LEO and GEO satellite missions.

  12. Atmospheric channel transfer function estimation from experimental free-space optical communications data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Colin N.; Kuga, Yasuo; Ritcey, James A.; Ishimaru, Akira; Hammel, Stephen; Tsintikidis, Dimitris

    2011-09-01

    The performance of terrestrial free-space optical communications systems is severely impaired by atmospheric aerosol particle distributions where the particle size is on the order of the operating wavelength. For optical and near-infrared wavelengths, fog droplets cause multiple-scattering and absorption effects which rapidly degrade received symbol detection performance as the optical depth parameter increases (visibility decreases). Using a custom free-space optical communications system we measured field data in fog within the optical multiple-scattering regime. We investigate the behavior of the estimated channel transfer function using both real field-test data and simulated propagation data based on field-test conditions. We then compare the channel transfer function estimates against the predictions computed using a radiative-transfer theory model-based approach which we also developed previously for the free-space optical atmospheric channel.

  13. A synthetic aperture microwave radiometer to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Hilliard, L. M.; Swift, C. T.; Ruf, C. S.; Garrett, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    A concept is presented for a microwave radiometer in space to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity as part of an 'Earth Probe' mission. The measurements could be made using an array of stick antennas. The L-band channel (1.4 GHz) would be the primary channel for determining soil moisture, with the S-band (2.65-GHz) and C-band (5.0-GHz) channels providing ancillary information to help correct for the effects of the vegetation canopy and possibly to estimate a moisture profile. A preliminary study indicates that an orbit at 450 km would provide coverage of better than 95 percent of the earth every 3 days. A 10-km resolution cell (at nadir) requires stick antennas about 9.5-m long at L-band. The S-band and C-band sticks would be substantially shorter (5 m and 2.7 m, respectively).

  14. Multiplexing free-space channels using twisted light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenburg, Brandon; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S.; Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Taherirostami, Payam; Chen, Changchen; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an interferometric protocol for multiplexing optical states of light in a lossless manner, with potential to become a standard element in free-space communication schemes that utilize light endowed with orbital angular momentum (OAM). We demonstrate multiplexing for odd and even OAM superpositions generated using different sources. In addition, our technique permits one to prepare either coherent superpositions or statistical mixtures of OAM states. We employ state tomography to study the performance of this protocol, and we demonstrate fidelities greater than 0.98.

  15. First Taste of Hot Channel in Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. Q.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, X.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-04-01

    A hot channel (HC) is a high temperature (˜10 MK) structure in the inner corona first revealed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Eruptions of HCs are often associated with flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results of previous studies have suggested that an HC is a good proxy for a magnetic flux rope (MFR) in the inner corona as well as another well known MFR candidate, the prominence-cavity structure, which has a normal coronal temperature (˜1-2 MK). In this paper, we report a high temperature structure (HTS, ˜1.5 MK) contained in an interplanetary CME induced by an HC eruption. According to the observations of bidirectional electrons, high temperature and density, strong magnetic field, and its association with the shock, sheath, and plasma pile-up region, we suggest that the HTS is the interplanetary counterpart of the HC. The scale of the measured HTS is around 14 R ⊙ , and it maintained a much higher temperature than the background solar wind even at 1 AU. It is significantly different from the typical magnetic clouds, which usually have a much lower temperature. Our study suggests that the existence of a corotating interaction region ahead of the HC formed a magnetic container to inhibit expansion of the HC and cool it down to a low temperature.

  16. Free-space laser communication performance in the atmospheric channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Arun K.

    In spite of the tremendous technical advancement of available components, the major limitation of free-space laser communication (lasercom) performance is due to the atmosphere, because a portion of the atmospheric path always includes turbulence and multiple scattering effects. Starting from a fundamental understanding of the laser communications system under diverse weather conditions, this chapter provides a comprehensive treatment of the evaluation of parameters needed for analyzing system performance. The significance of higher-order statistics of probability density functions of irradiance fluctuations due to turbulence to performance analysis is explained. Starting from link analysis, the necessary expressions relating link margin, bit-error-rate, signal-to-noise-ratio, and probability of fade statistics are presented. Results for laboratory-simulated atmospheric turbulence and multiple scattering are presented. Example numerical results for simulations of lasercom systems operating under various at mospheric conditions are presented for various scenarios such as uplink-downlink (e.g., between ground and satellite, aircraft or UAV) and horizontal (terrestrial) link. Both turbulence and multiple scattering effects have been included in the analysis with both on-off keying and pulse-position modulation schemes. Statistical estimation and computation of communication parameters presented in this chapter will be useful in designing and optimizing lasercom systems that are reliable under all weather conditions.

  17. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel.

    PubMed

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z

    2015-08-10

    A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with <8% of EVM in a turbulent channel. Based on the results, we show that transmitting the LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

  18. Reconfigurable high-speed optical fibre networks: Optical wavelength conversion and switching using VCSELs to eliminate channel collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiyo, Duncan Kiboi; Chabata, T. V.; Kipnoo, E. K. Rotich; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally provide an alternative solution to channel collisions through up-wavelength conversion and switching by using vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). This has been achieved by utilizing purely optical wavelength conversion on VCSELs at the low attenuation, 1550 nm transmission window. The corresponding transmission and bit error-rate (BER) performance evaluation is also presented. In this paper, two 1550 nm VCSELs with 50-150 GHz channel spacing are modulated with a 10 Gb/s NRZ PRBS 27-1 data and their interferences investigated. A channel interference penalty range of 0.15-1.63 dB is incurred for 150-50 GHz channel spacing without transmission. To avoid channel collisions and to minimize high interference penalties, the transmitting VCSEL with data is injected into the side-mode of a slave VCSEL to obtain a new up converted wavelength. A 16 dB extinction ratio of the incoming wavelength is achieved when a 15 dBm transmitting beam is injected into the side-mode of a -4.5 dBm slave VCSEL. At 8.5 Gb/s, a 1.1 dB conversion and a 0.5 dB transmission penalties are realized when the converted wavelength is transmitted over a 24.7 km G.655 fibre. This work offers a low-cost, effective wavelength conversion and channel switching to reduce channel collision probability by reconfiguring channels at the node of networks.

  19. 77 FR 38210 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-Based 800 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 90 Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-Based 800... Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) licensees to exceed a legacy channel spacing requirement and bandwidth...: Brian Regan, Mobility Division, Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, at (202) 418-2849, or email:...

  20. Atmospheric channel transfer function estimation from experimental free-space optical communications data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Colin N.; Tsintikidis, Dimitris; Hammel, Stephen; Kuga, Yasuo; Ritcey, James A.; Ishimaru, Akira

    2012-03-01

    Using an 850-nanometer-wavelength free-space optical (FSO)communications system of our own design, we acquired field data for the transmitted and received signals in fog at Point Loma, CA for a range of optical depths within the multiple-scattering regime. Statistical estimators for the atmospheric channel transfer function and the related coherency function were computed directly from the experimental data. We interpret the resulting channel transfer function estimates in terms of the physics of the atmospheric propagation channel and fog aerosol particle distributions. We investigate the behavior of the estimators using both real field-test data and simulated propagation data. We compare the field-data channel transfer function estimates against the outputs from a computationally-intensive radiative-transfer theory model-based approach, which we also developed previously for the FSO multiple-scattering atmospheric channel. Our results show that the data-driven channel transfer function estimates are in close agreement with the radiative transfer modeling, and provide comparable receiver signal detection performance improvements while being significantly less time and computationally-intensive.

  1. Comparative Response of Microchannel Plate and Channel Electron Multiplier Detectors to Penetrating Radiation in Space

    DOE PAGES

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Harper, Ronnie W.; Dors, Eric E.; ...

    2015-10-02

    Channel electron multiplier (CEM) and microchannel plate (MCP) detectors are routinely used in space instrumentation for measurement of space plasmas. Here, our goal is to understand the relative sensitivities of these detectors to penetrating radiation in space, which can generate background counts and shorten detector lifetime. We use 662 keV γ-rays as a proxy for penetrating radiation such as γ-rays, cosmic rays, and high-energy electrons and protons that are ubiquitous in the space environment. We find that MCP detectors are ~20 times more sensitive to 662 keV γ-rays than CEM detectors. This is attributed to the larger total area ofmore » multiplication channels in an MCP detector that is sensitive to electronic excitation and ionization resulting from the interaction of penetrating radiation with the detector material. In contrast to the CEM detector, whose quantum efficiency εγ for 662 keVγ -rays is found to be 0.00175 and largely independent of detector bias, the quantum efficiency of the MCP detector is strongly dependent on the detector bias, with a power law index of 5.5. Lastly, background counts in MCP detectors from penetrating radiation can be reduced using MCP geometries with higher pitch and smaller channel diameter.« less

  2. Comparative Response of Microchannel Plate and Channel Electron Multiplier Detectors to Penetrating Radiation in Space

    SciTech Connect

    Funsten, Herbert O.; Harper, Ronnie W.; Dors, Eric E.; Janzen, Paul A.; Larsen, Brian A.; MacDonald, Elizabeth A.; Poston, David I.; Ritzau, Stephen M.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2015-10-02

    Channel electron multiplier (CEM) and microchannel plate (MCP) detectors are routinely used in space instrumentation for measurement of space plasmas. Here, our goal is to understand the relative sensitivities of these detectors to penetrating radiation in space, which can generate background counts and shorten detector lifetime. We use 662 keV γ-rays as a proxy for penetrating radiation such as γ-rays, cosmic rays, and high-energy electrons and protons that are ubiquitous in the space environment. We find that MCP detectors are ~20 times more sensitive to 662 keV γ-rays than CEM detectors. This is attributed to the larger total area of multiplication channels in an MCP detector that is sensitive to electronic excitation and ionization resulting from the interaction of penetrating radiation with the detector material. In contrast to the CEM detector, whose quantum efficiency εγ for 662 keVγ -rays is found to be 0.00175 and largely independent of detector bias, the quantum efficiency of the MCP detector is strongly dependent on the detector bias, with a power law index of 5.5. Lastly, background counts in MCP detectors from penetrating radiation can be reduced using MCP geometries with higher pitch and smaller channel diameter.

  3. Experimental quantum teleportation over a high-loss free-space channel.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-song; Kropatschek, Sebastian; Naylor, William; Scheidl, Thomas; Kofler, Johannes; Herbst, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton; Ursin, Rupert

    2012-10-08

    We present a high-fidelity quantum teleportation experiment over a high-loss free-space channel between two laboratories. We teleported six states of three mutually unbiased bases and obtained an average state fidelity of 0.82(1), well beyond the classical limit of 2/3. With the obtained data, we tomographically reconstructed the process matrices of quantum teleportation. The free-space channel attenuation of 31 dB corresponds to the estimated attenuation regime for a down-link from a low-earth-orbit satellite to a ground station. We also discussed various important technical issues for future experiments, including the dark counts of single-photon detectors, coincidence-window width etc. Our experiment tested the limit of performing quantum teleportation with state-of-the-art resources. It is an important step towards future satellite-based quantum teleportation and paves the way for establishing a worldwide quantum communication network.

  4. Suppression of Space Charge Induced Beam Halo in Nonlinear Focusing Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich; Scheinker, Alexander; Kurennoy, Sergey; Li, Chao

    2016-01-29

    An intense non-uniform particle beam exhibits strong emittance growth and halo formation in focusing channels due to nonlinear space charge forces of the beam. This phenomenon limits beam brightness and results in particle losses. The problem is connected with irreversible distortion of phase space volume of the beam in conventional focusing structures due to filamentation in phase space. Emittance growth is accompanied by halo formation in real space, which results in inevitable particle losses. We discuss a new approach for solving a self-consistent problem for a matched non-uniform beam in two-dimensional geometry. The resulting solution is applied to the problem of beam transport, while avoiding emittance growth and halo formation by the use of nonlinear focusing field. Conservation of a beam distribution function is demonstrated analytically and by particle-in-cell simulation for a beam with a realistic beam distribution.

  5. Suppression of Space Charge Induced Beam Halo in Nonlinear Focusing Channel

    DOE PAGES

    Batygin, Yuri Konstantinovich; Scheinker, Alexander; Kurennoy, Sergey; ...

    2016-01-29

    An intense non-uniform particle beam exhibits strong emittance growth and halo formation in focusing channels due to nonlinear space charge forces of the beam. This phenomenon limits beam brightness and results in particle losses. The problem is connected with irreversible distortion of phase space volume of the beam in conventional focusing structures due to filamentation in phase space. Emittance growth is accompanied by halo formation in real space, which results in inevitable particle losses. We discuss a new approach for solving a self-consistent problem for a matched non-uniform beam in two-dimensional geometry. The resulting solution is applied to the problemmore » of beam transport, while avoiding emittance growth and halo formation by the use of nonlinear focusing field. Conservation of a beam distribution function is demonstrated analytically and by particle-in-cell simulation for a beam with a realistic beam distribution.« less

  6. Performance evaluation and channel modeling of MIMO free space optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tianping; Lu, Yimin; Lu, Gang; Peng, Kai

    2005-11-01

    Free space optical communication systems represent one of the most promising approaches for addressing the emerging broadband access market, it can provide high bandwidth with no physical contact, but are hampered by signal fading effects due to particulate scattering caused by atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we propose a new channel model of MIMO free space optical communication system. The physics meaning of this model is very clear, and its format is very simple. Mathematic results show that MIMO is a very effective way for intensity fluctuation reduction induced by turbulence, thus reduce the bit-error-rate of the system.

  7. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of several studies Space Shuttle communication system are summarized. These tasks can be divided into the following categories: (1) phase multiplexing for two- and three-channel data transmission, (2) effects of phase noise on the performance of coherent communication links, (3) analysis of command system performance, (4) error correcting code tradeoffs, (5) signal detection and angular search procedure for the shuttle Ku-band communication system, and (6) false lock performance of Costas loop receivers.

  8. Controls on the Mean Spacing of Channels on Incised Alluvial Terraces in the Western U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, L.; Pelletier, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Incised alluvial terraces with a relatively uniform channel spacing are commonly found throughout the western United States. The characteristic spacing of low-order channels on these surfaces generally increases as the height of the surface increases with respect to base level. We measure the characteristic spacing of channels in parallel drainage networks on incised alluvial terraces and unconsolidated fill deposits in several locations throughout the western U.S. where incision is the result of a quantifiable change in base-level elevation. Mean channel spacing on terraces subjected to small amounts of base-level drop (e.g 20 m) can be more than three times smaller than that typically observed on terraces subjected to larger amounts (e.g. 100 m) of base-level drop. The relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean channel spacing is further examined by using a numerical model. Numerical experiments suggest that the observed relationship between relief and channel spacing is the result of feedbacks between the depth of channel incision, mass wasting, and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport on steep hillslopes that lead to valley widening. In extremely high relief cases, valley side slopes may lengthen sufficiently to support the formation of first order, tributary valleys, leading to the development of a trellis-like drainage system. The rapid widening of valley side-slopes can prevent the growth of adjacent, ephemeral channels and promote a greater mean channel spacing. Model results offer additional insight into the response of landscapes to rapid base-level fall and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how various amounts of base-level drop influence channel network morphology.

  9. Improving the performance of continuous variable quantum key distribution using fading effects of free-space channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zeyu; Zhu, Chengrui; He, Guangqiang

    2015-08-01

    Quantum key distribution can be used to share secret keys with information-theoretic security between two legitimate partners for secure communication. In the case of satellite communication, free-space channel is the only way to transmit information, thus research on its properties is of great significance to quantum cryptographic communication. In this paper, we thoroughly analyze the influence of free-space channel fading effects on continuous variable quantum key distribution and for the first time prove that random distribution (such as Rayleigh distribution, Rice distribution and et al.) of free-space channel fading coefficients can be used to increase secret information rates and improve system stability against excess noises. Our results offer academic reference for practical applications of ground-space and space-space quantum communication and global quantum communication network.

  10. Flame acceleration and DDT in channels with obstacles: Effect of obstacle spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Gamezo, Vadim N.; Oran, Elaine S.; Ogawa, Takanobu

    2008-10-15

    We study flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in obstructed channels using 2D reactive Navier-Stokes numerical simulations. The energy release rate for the stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture is modeled by one-step Arrhenius kinetics. Computations performed for channels with symmetrical and staggered obstacle configurations show two main effects of obstacle spacing S. First, more obstacles per unit length create more perturbations that increase the flame surface area more quickly, and therefore the flame speed grows faster. Second, DDT occurs more easily when the obstacle spacing is large enough for Mach stems to form between obstacles. These two effects are responsible for three different regimes of flame acceleration and DDT observed in simulations: (1) Detonation is ignited when a Mach stem formed by the diffracting shock reflecting from the side wall collides with an obstacle, (2) Mach stems do not form, and the detonation is not ignited, and (3) Mach stems do not form, but the leading shock becomes strong enough to ignite a detonation by direct collision with the top of an obstacle. Regime 3 is observed for small S and involves multiple isolated detonations that appear between obstacles and play a key role in final stages of flame and shock acceleration. For Regime 1 and staggered obstacle configurations, we observe resonance phenomena that significantly reduce the DDT time when S/2 is comparable to the channel width. Effects of imposed symmetry and stochasticity on DDT phenomena are also considered. (author)

  11. Energy efficient rateless codes for high speed data transfer over free space optical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Geetha; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Acharya, U. S.

    2015-03-01

    Terrestrial Free Space Optical (FSO) links transmit information by using the atmosphere (free space) as a medium. In this paper, we have investigated the use of Luby Transform (LT) codes as a means to mitigate the effects of data corruption induced by imperfect channel which usually takes the form of lost or corrupted packets. LT codes, which are a class of Fountain codes, can be used independent of the channel rate and as many code words as required can be generated to recover all the message bits irrespective of the channel performance. Achieving error free high data rates with limited energy resources is possible with FSO systems if error correction codes with minimal overheads on the power can be used. We also employ a combination of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) with provision for modification of threshold and optimized LT codes with belief propagation for decoding. These techniques provide additional protection even under strong turbulence regimes. Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) is another method of improving link reliability. Performance of ARQ is limited by the number of retransmissions and the corresponding time delay. We prove through theoretical computations and simulations that LT codes consume less energy per bit. We validate the feasibility of using energy efficient LT codes over ARQ for FSO links to be used in optical wireless sensor networks within the eye safety limits.

  12. Quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100-kilometre free-space channels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Juan; Ren, Ji-Gang; Lu, He; Cao, Yuan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Zhou, Fei; Jiang, Yan; Cai, Xin-Dong; Xu, Ping; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Jia, Jian-Jun; Huang, Yong-Mei; Yin, Hao; Wang, Jian-Yu; Chen, Yu-Ao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2012-08-09

    Transferring an unknown quantum state over arbitrary distances is essential for large-scale quantum communication and distributed quantum networks. It can be achieved with the help of long-distance quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution. The latter is also important for fundamental tests of the laws of quantum mechanics. Although quantum teleportation and entanglement distribution over moderate distances have been realized using optical fibre links, the huge photon loss and decoherence in fibres necessitate the use of quantum repeaters for larger distances. However, the practical realization of quantum repeaters remains experimentally challenging. Free-space channels, first used for quantum key distribution, offer a more promising approach because photon loss and decoherence are almost negligible in the atmosphere. Furthermore, by using satellites, ultra-long-distance quantum communication and tests of quantum foundations could be achieved on a global scale. Previous experiments have achieved free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over distances of 600 metres (ref. 14) and 13 kilometres (ref. 15), and transfer of triggered single photons over a 144-kilometre one-link free-space channel. Most recently, following a modified scheme, free-space quantum teleportation over 16 kilometres was demonstrated with a single pair of entangled photons. Here we report quantum teleportation of independent qubits over a 97-kilometre one-link free-space channel with multi-photon entanglement. An average fidelity of 80.4 ± 0.9 per cent is achieved for six distinct states. Furthermore, we demonstrate entanglement distribution over a two-link channel, in which the entangled photons are separated by 101.8 kilometres. Violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality is observed without the locality loophole. Besides being of fundamental interest, our results represent an important step towards a global quantum network. Moreover, the high

  13. Space station architecture, module, berthing hub, shell assembly, berthing mechanism and utility connection channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The geometric form of a space station is presented that includes a description of a plurality of modules and berthing hubs, joined by interconnections which are sideways connectable. The modules and hubs are fastened together in a triangular configuration in three dimensions. The interconnections include a pair of opposed, axially aligned, flanged ports and a clamp latch formed from a plurality of sections hinged along their length and extending circumferentially around the flanged ports. A hermetic seal is formed between the ports. A utilities connection channel extends between the ports. The channel has a shell with utilities connectors movable between an extended position to mating connectors in the modules and a withdrawn position. Assembly sequence and common module shell structure is detailed.

  14. Space station architecture, module, berthing hub, shell assembly, berthing mechanism and utility connection channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space station (20) includes a plurality of modules (24) and berthing hubs (22), joined by interconnections (26) which are sideways connectable. The modules (24) and hubs (22) are fastened together in a triangular configuration in three dimensions. The interconnections (26) include a pair of opposed, axially aligned, flanged ports (50) and a clamp latch (52) formed from a plurality of sections (54, 56 and 58) hinged along their length and extending circumferentially around the flanged ports (50). A hermetic seal (63) is formed between the ports (50). A utilities connection channel (68) extends between the ports (50). The channel (68) has a shell (70) with utilities connectors (74) movable between an extended position to mating connectors in the modules (24) and a withdrawn position. Assembly sequence and common module shell structure is detailed.

  15. Use of the channel fill level in defining a design space for twin screw wet granulation.

    PubMed

    Gorringe, L J; Kee, G S; Saleh, M F; Fa, N H; Elkes, R G

    2017-03-15

    Twin screw wet granulation is a key process in the continuous manufacture of oral solid dosage forms. Previous research has qualitatively suggested that the channel fill level influences the granules produced. In this paper a quantitative measure of the total volumetric fraction of the conveying element channels of the screw filled with powder (φ) was used. Experimental results are shown which demonstrate that very similar particle size distributions can be obtained at the same φ with the same material and screw configuration but radically different solids feed rates and screw speeds. Morphology of the granules also correlates with φ. This is consistent with previous observations in the literature correlating granule attributes with powder feed rate and screw speed but also considers the two parameters in combination. A process design space approach based on φ is proposed. This can be determined empirically, and potentially has value in setting process control strategies, assuring process robustness and allowing process flexibility during the product lifecycle.

  16. MCP-based dual band far UV spectrograph with single channel readouts for space use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Jingeun; Min, Kyoungwook; Ryu, Kwangsun; Han, Wonyong; Nam, Ukwon; Lee, Daehee; Jin, Ho; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Korpela, Eric J.; Edelstein, Jerry; Lampton, Michael; Hull, Jeff

    2007-06-01

    A compact far ultraviolet (FUV) spectrograph has been developed and applied to space observation on a micro-satellite. The dual channel imaging spectrograph utilized two micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors with a single crossed delay line (XDL) anode to record photon arrival events. The unconventional anode design allows for the use of a single set of position encoding electronics for both detector fields, thereby reducing the size, weight, and power of the associated electronics. The ground and on-orbit performance tests verified the successful application of the system for astrophysical observations. In this note, we report the design, the development, and the test results of the system, focusing on the XDL anode system.

  17. Twelve Channel Optical Fiber Connector Assembly: From Commercial Off the Shelf to Space Flight Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melaine N.

    1998-01-01

    The commercial off the shelf (COTS) twelve channel optical fiber MTP array connector and ribbon cable assembly is being validated for space flight use and the results of this study to date are presented here. The interconnection system implemented for the Parallel Fiber Optic Data Bus (PFODB) physical layer will include a 100/140 micron diameter optical fiber in the cable configuration among other enhancements. As part of this investigation, the COTS 62.5/125 microns optical fiber cable assembly has been characterized for space environment performance as a baseline for improving the performance of the 100/140 micron diameter ribbon cable for the Parallel FODB application. Presented here are the testing and results of random vibration and thermal environmental characterization of this commercial off the shelf (COTS) MTP twelve channel ribbon cable assembly. This paper is the first in a series of papers which will characterize and document the performance of Parallel FODB's physical layer from COTS to space flight worthy.

  18. Channel modelling for free-space optical inter-HAP links using adaptive ARQ transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, S.; Giggenbach, D.; Kirstädter, A.

    2014-10-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have seen significant developments in recent years due to growing need for very high data rates and tap-proof communication. The operation of an FSO link is suited to diverse variety of applications such as satellites, High Altitude Platforms (HAPs), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), aircrafts, ground stations and other areas involving both civil and military situations. FSO communication systems face challenges due to different effects of the atmospheric channel. FSO channel primarily suffers from scintillation effects due to Index of Refraction Turbulence (IRT). In addition, acquisition and pointing becomes more difficult because of the high directivity of the transmitted beam: Miss-pointing of the transmitted beam and tracking errors at the receiver generate additional fading of the optical signal. High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) are quasi-stationary vehicles operating in the stratosphere. The slowly varying but precisely determined time-of-flight of the Inter-HAP channel adds to its characteristics. To propose a suitable ARQ scheme, proper theoretical understanding of the optical atmospheric propagation and modeling of a specific scenario FSO channel is required. In this paper, a bi-directional symmetrical Inter-HAP link has been selected and modeled. The Inter-HAP channel model is then investigated via simulations in terms of optical scintillation induced by IRT and in presence of pointing error. The performance characteristic of the model is then quantified in terms of fading statistics from which the Packet Error Probability (PEP) is calculated. Based on the PEP characteristics, we propose suitable ARQ schemes.

  19. Space communication system for compressed data with a concatenated Reed-Solomon-Viterbi coding channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Hilbert, E. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A space communication system incorporating a concatenated Reed Solomon Viterbi coding channel is discussed for transmitting compressed and uncompressed data from a spacecraft to a data processing center on Earth. Imaging (and other) data are first compressed into source blocks which are then coded by a Reed Solomon coder and interleaver, followed by a convolutional encoder. The received data is first decoded by a Viterbi decoder, followed by a Reed Solomon decoder and deinterleaver. The output of the latter is then decompressed, based on the compression criteria used in compressing the data in the spacecraft. The decompressed data is processed to reconstruct an approximation of the original data-producing condition or images.

  20. Optimal convective brine drainage from sea ice and optimal brine channel spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, A. J.; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Orszag, S.

    2010-12-01

    The state of the polar climate is intricately linked to the structure and evolution of sea ice. While it is well known that the drainage of brine from sea ice influences its structural properties, the exchange of heat and chemicals between ice and ocean, and forcing of the ocean thermohaline circulation, models often rely on ad hoc parameterizations in the absence of theoretical justification. We develop a theoretical model of the physical processes responsible for brine drainage driven by gravity. Sea ice consists of a porous array of ice crystals bathed in dense salty brine; a reactive porous medium. The buoyancy driven flow of brine leads to local dissolution of ice and the formation of brine channels: ice free conduits through which brine drains. It is observed that the spacing of brine channels and structure of the ice matrix evolve as sea ice grows. We consider nonlinear convection in a reactive porous medium undergoing steady state growth, applying a numerical model to investigate the mechanism controlling the spatial distribution of brine channels. The theory predicts a brine flux scaling law that is consistent with previous experiments, and the resulting dynamics yields insight into variations in sea ice microstructure and fluid transport through the ice.

  1. Free-space quantum cryptography with quantum and telecom communication channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, Morio; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Klaus, Werner; Kunimori, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide

    2008-07-01

    Quantum cryptography is a new technique that uses the laws of physics to transmit information securely. In such systems, the vehicle to transfer quantum information is a single photon. However, the transmission distance is limited by the absorption of photons in an optical fiber in which the maximum demonstrated range is about 100 km. Free-space quantum cryptography between a ground station and a satellite is a way of sending the quantum information further distances than that with optical fibers since there is no birefringence effect in the atmosphere. At the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), the laser communication demonstration between the NICT optical ground station and a low earth orbit satellite was successfully conducted in 2006. For such space communication links, free-space quantum cryptography is considered to be an important application in the future. We have developed a prototype system for free-space quantum cryptography using a weak coherent light and a telecom communication channel. The preliminary results are presented.

  2. Effects of the atmospheric channel on free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, Arun K.; Ricklin, Jennifer C.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of how the presence of atmospheric turbulence and scattering/absorbing media in the atmospheric channel degrade high-data-rate free-space laser communication performance. The impact of the atmospheric channel on overall link budget performance is discussed. Fog, rain, dust, snow, smoke, molecular absorption, and aerosol particulate matter all attenuate the signal-carrying laser beam, and to a certain extent can be compensated for by increasing the signal gain or by appropriate selection of the optical wavelength. In contrast, random fluctuations in the atmospheres refractive index severely degrade the wave-front quality of a signal-carrying laser beam, causing intensity fading and random signal losses at the receiver. This results in increased system bit error rates, especially along horizontal propagation paths. Atmospheric turbulence-induced signal losses increase as the distance between the transmitter and receiver is increased, and there is no wavelength window where these effects can be avoided, although longer wavelengths are less affected. With atmospheric turbulence, increasing the signal gain will not necessarily improve laser beam quality. For many cases of practical interest, the limiting factor in robust free-space optical communication link performance can be the presence of clear-air atmospheric turbulence in the optical channel. Various proposed probability density functions of laser intensity fluctuations through atmospheric turbulence will be discussed as they relate to laser communications performance and reliability under different weather conditions. Results from numerical simulations are presented for analyzing communications performance for various scenarios: Downlink, Uplink and Terrestrial (Horizontal) link.

  3. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer in a Rib Roughened Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin Chien; Chyu, Minking K.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-11-08

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and frictional losses in a rib roughened channel combined with detached pin-fins. The overall channel geometry (W=76.2 mm, E=25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D=6.35 mm=[1/4]E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D=4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin-tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/O=0, 1, 2, respectively. The rib height-to-channel height ratio is 0.0625. Two newly proposed cross ribs, namely the broken rib and full rib are evaluated in this effort. The broken ribs are positioned in between two consecutive rows of pin-fins, while the full ribs are fully extended adjacent to the pin-fins. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all pin elements. The presence of ribs enhances local heat transfer coefficient on the endwall substantially by approximately 20% to 50% as compared to the neighboring endwall. In addition, affected by the rib geometry, which is a relatively low profile as compared to the overall height of the channel, the pressure loss seems to be insensitive to the presence of the ribs. However, from the overall heat transfer enhancement standpoint, the baseline cases (without ribs) outperform cases with broken ribs or full ribs.

  4. Equalization enhanced phase noise in Nyquist-spaced superchannel transmission systems using multi-channel digital back-propagation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Lavery, Domaniç; Thomsen, Benn C.; Savory, Seb J.; Killey, Robert I.; Bayvel, Polina

    2015-01-01

    Superchannel transmission spaced at the symbol rate, known as Nyquist spacing, has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the optical communication channel capacity and spectral efficiency. However, the achievable capacity and reach of transmission systems using advanced modulation formats are affected by fibre nonlinearities and equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). Fibre nonlinearities can be effectively compensated using digital back-propagation (DBP). However EEPN which arises from the interaction between laser phase noise and dispersion cannot be efficiently mitigated, and can significantly degrade the performance of transmission systems. Here we report the first investigation of the origin and the impact of EEPN in Nyquist-spaced superchannel system, employing electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and multi-channel DBP (MC-DBP). Analysis was carried out in a Nyquist-spaced 9-channel 32-Gbaud DP-64QAM transmission system. Results confirm that EEPN significantly degrades the performance of all sub-channels of the superchannel system and that the distortions are more severe for the outer sub-channels, both using EDC and MC-DBP. It is also found that the origin of EEPN depends on the relative position between the carrier phase recovery module and the EDC (or MC-DBP) module. Considering EEPN, diverse coding techniques and modulation formats have to be applied for optimizing different sub-channels in superchannel systems. PMID:26365422

  5. Design Study of a Multi-channel Array Particle Spectrometer for Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Andreia; Assis, P.; Brogueira, P.; Gonçalves, P.; Keating, A.; Pimenta, M.; Rodrigues, P.; Trindade, A.

    In this work, a novel particle spectrometer is proposed to fulfil the need to map the space radiation environment for future space missions and to provide more accurate scientific data. The concept of the instrument brings together new radiation-hard technologies, for the photo-sensors and scintillating materials that will improve the quality of the data, while taking into account the limited resources such as mass, power and accommodation, allocated for space radiation monitors. The Multi-channel Array Particle Spectrometer (MAPS), can measure fluxes and energy dis-tributions of protons, ions, electrons and gammas in a wide energy range based on the 3D reconstruction of the particle track through the detector and its deposited energy in the active volume. It consists on a 8 x 8 segmented scintillator block built from 3.2 x 3.2 x 20 mm3 indi-vidual LYSO:Ce rods that are readout at both ends by two 64 pixel Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) matrices, a new generation of high gain (105-106) avalanche photodiodes working in controlled Geiger mode, that collect the scintillating light produced by the interactions of the charged particles in the crystals. Each SiPM matrix is readout by a 64 channel mixed sig-nal analog-digital ASIC, offering both particle identification and particle counting capabilities. Power cycling design of the ASIC allows to activate the particle identification block only during a pre-determined time slice, keeping the total power budget of less than 1 mW/channel. An on-board FPGA sorts the serialized data from the two ASICs and computes the trigger primitives in real-time and in an event-by-event basis. Whenever a charged particle crosses the segmented volume of the detector, the XY coordinates, given by the pixelized crystal positions, and the deposited energy in each crystal is recorded. The double readout scheme allows to compute the light collection asymmetry between both ends of the crystal and to use that information to record the

  6. MIMO Free-Space Optical Communication Employing Subcarrier Intensity Modulation in Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Popoola, Wasiu O.; Ahmadi, Vahid; Leitgeb, Erich

    In this paper, we analyse the error performance of transmitter/receiver array free-space optical (FSO) communication system employing binary phase shift keying (BPSK) subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) in clear but turbulent atmospheric channel. Subcarrier modulation is employed to eliminate the need for adaptive threshold detector. Direct detection is employed at the receiver and each subcarrier is subsequently demodulated coherently. The effect of irradiance fading is mitigated with an array of lasers and photodetectors. The received signals are linearly combined using the optimal maximum ratio combining (MRC), the equal gain combining (EGC) and the selection combining (SelC). The bit error rate (BER) equations are derived considering additive white Gaussian noise and log normal intensity fluctuations. This work is part of the EU COST actions and EU projects.

  7. Atmospheric turbulence-induced fading channel model for space-to-ground laser communications links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, Morio; Takenaka, Hideki; Takayama, Yoshihisa

    2011-08-01

    The fading channel model for generating a random time-varying signal based on the atmospheric turbulence spectrum for space-to-ground laser links is discussed. The temporal frequency characteristics of the downlink are theoretically derived based on the von Karman spectrum. The rms wind speed based on the Bufton wind model is used as the transverse wind velocity, which makes the simulation simple. The time-varying signal is generated as functions of the receiver aperture diameter and the rms wind speed. The simulated result of the time-varying signal is presented and compared with the gamma-gamma distribution based on the scintillation theory in a moderate-to-strong-turbulence regime.

  8. Design of a multi-channel free space optical interconnection component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Da-Gong; Zhang, Pei-Song; Jing, Wen-Cai; Tan, Jun; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Yi-Mo

    2008-11-01

    A multi-channel free space optical interconnection component, fiber optic rotary joint, was designed using a Dove prism. When the Dove prism is rotated an angle of α around the longitudinal axis, the image rotates an angle of 2 α. The optical interconnection component consists of the signal transmission system, Dove prim and driving mechanism. The planetary gears are used to achieve the speed ratio of 2:1 between the total optical interconnection component and the Dove prism. The C-lenses are employed to couple different optical signals in the signal transmission system. The coupling loss between the receiving fiber of stationary part and the transmitting fiber of rotary part is measured.

  9. Distributing entanglement and single photons through an intra-city, free-space quantum channel.

    PubMed

    Resch, K; Lindenthal, M; Blauensteiner, B; Böhm, H; Fedrizzi, A; Kurtsiefer, C; Poppe, A; Schmitt-Manderbach, T; Taraba, M; Ursin, R; Walther, P; Weier, H; Weinfurter, H; Zeilinger, A

    2005-01-10

    We have distributed entangled photons directly through the atmosphere to a receiver station 7.8 km away over the city of Vienna, Austria at night. Detection of one photon from our entangled pairs constitutes a triggered single photon source from the sender. With no direct time-stable connection, the two stations found coincidence counts in the detection events by calculating the cross-correlation of locally-recorded time stamps shared over a public internet channel. For this experiment, our quantum channel was maintained for a total of 40 minutes during which time a coincidence lock found approximately 60000 coincident detection events. The polarization correlations in those events yielded a Bell parameter, S=2.27+/-0.019, which violates the CHSH-Bell inequality by 14 standard deviations. This result is promising for entanglement-based freespace quantum communication in high-density urban areas. It is also encouraging for optical quantum communication between ground stations and satellites since the length of our free-space link exceeds the atmospheric equivalent.

  10. Efficiency of MIMO configuration and adaptive optics corrections in free space optical fading channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjarian, Zeinab; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Fadlullah, Jarir

    2010-01-01

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communications is the only practical candidate for realizing universal network coverage between ground and airborne nodes, satellites, and even moon and other nearby planets. When atmosphere (be it the earth or Mars) is a part of the optical channel, attributes of scattering and turbulence bring about amplitude attenuation, and scintillation, as well as beam wander and phase aberrations at the receiving aperture. Phase screens are usually used in order to simulate the atmospheric fading channel and phase fluctuations. In this paper, different methods of generating phase screens are compared based on their accuracy and computational complexity, as in most computer simulations, a large ensemble of phase screens are required for averaging purposes. To combat the focal plane intensity fading, caused by amplitude and phase variations in the received wave-front, it is possible to replace the Single Input-Single Output (SISO) communications system with its Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) equivalent, which has the same total transmit power and receiving aperture area. Another alternative is to equip the receiver with a state of the art Adaptive Optics (AO) correction system. Using average Bit Error Rate (BER), as a performance metric, effectiveness of these two approaches are compared and it is shown that while a MIMO configuration outperforms a basic AO system capable of only tilt corrections, an ideal AO system, which is able to remove higher orders of Zernike modes can asymptotically perform as well as an equivalent MIMO configuration.

  11. Evidence of Real-Space Transfer in Buried-Channel GexC1-x Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, En-Shao; Kelly, David; Donnelly, Joseph; Tutuc, Emanuel; Banerjee, Sanjay

    2008-03-01

    We present experimental evidence of real-space transfer (RST) in buried-channel GexC1-x p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFET) containing a Si cap layer. The output characteristics of these devices reveal a negative differential resistance (NDR) below 150K, at the onset of the saturation regime. This observation indicates a charge transfer from GexC1-x layer into the Si cap at sufficiently large drain bias values. The lower hole mobility of the Si cap with respect to the GexC1-x, translates into a drain current reduction, hence the observed NDR. Our low-field, temperature-dependent mobility measurements indeed reveal a higher effective carrier mobility in the buried-channel GexC1-x layer with respect to a Si-reference sample, which suggests that the observed NDR is caused by RST of holes from the GexC1-x into the Si layer.

  12. Optimizing Spanwise & Streamwise Spacings of MHK Devices in a Trapezoidal River Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. D.; Barco, J.; Johnson, E.; James, S. C.; Jones, C. A.; Jepsen, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The world is facing significant challenges meeting the energy demands for the future. Growing populations and developing economies as well as increasing energy expenditures highlight the need for a spectrum of energy sources. One promising renewable is marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, which has the potential to make important contributions to future energy portfolios. Increasing interest in MHK energy has spurred to significant research on optimal placement of emerging technologies to maximize energy capture and minimize potential negative effects on the environment. Understanding changes to near- and far-field hydrodynamics is necessary to assess optimal placement. This work demonstrates a newly developed modeling tool that can be used to optimize MHK array layouts to maximize energy capture while minimizing potentially harmful environmental effects. SNL has developed and implemented modifications to an existing flow, sediment-dynamics, and water-quality code (SNL-EFDC) to qualify, quantify, and visualize the interaction and influence of MHK-device operation at a representative site using an appropriate and verified representation of momentum/energy extraction and turbulent wake generation. Various hypothetical MHK array configurations are simulated within a straight rectangular unidirectional flow conditions channel at several water column depths. Results show that the turbine-array power efficiency increased, nonlinearly, as turbine spacing was increased in both the spanwise and streamwise directions as well as when turbines were placed higher in the water column. Contour plots facilitate evaluation of tradeoffs between efficiency and spacing. In addition, results show that flow increases around and over/under the array leading to elevated velocities in the main channel, near the bank, and near the sediment bed, which may have potential implications for bank and bottom erosion, and navigation. SNL-EFDC's "MHK friendly" array-optimization tool is and will

  13. Capillary Channel Flow (CCF) EU2-02 on the International Space Station (ISS): An Experimental Investigation of Passive Bubble Separations in an Open Capillary Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, Mark M.; Wollman, Andrew P.; Jenson, Ryan M.; Geile, John T.; Tucker, John F.; Wiles, Brentley M.; Trattner, Andy L.; DeVoe, Claire; Sharp, Lauren M.; Canfield, Peter J.; Klatte, Joerg; Dreyer, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    It would be signicantly easier to design fluid systems for spacecraft if the fluid phases behaved similarly to those on earth. In this research an open 15:8 degree wedge-sectioned channel is employed to separate bubbles from a two-phase flow in a microgravity environment. The bubbles appear to rise in the channel and coalesce with the free surface in much the same way as would bubbles in a terrestrial environment, only the combined effects of surface tension, wetting, and conduit geometry replace the role of buoyancy. The host liquid is drawn along the channel by a pump and noncondensible gas bubbles are injected into it near the channel vertex at the channel inlet. Control parameters include bubble volume, bubble frequency, liquid volumetric flow rate, and channel length. The asymmetrically confined bubbles are driven in the cross-flow direction by capillary forces until they at least become inscribed within the section or until they come in contact with the free surface, whereupon they usually coalesce and leave the flow. The merging of bubbles enhances, but does not guarantee, the latter. The experiments are performed aboard the International Space Station as a subset of the Capillary Channel Flow experiments. The flight hardware is commanded remotely and continuously from ground stations during the tests and an extensive array of experiments is conducted identifying numerous bubble flow regimes and regime transitions depending on the ratio and magnitude of the gas and liquid volumetric flow rates. The breadth of the publicly available experiments is conveyed herein primarily by narrative and by regime maps, where transitions are approximated by simple expressions immediately useful for the purposes of design and deeper analysis.

  14. Fading probability density function of free-space optical communication channels with pointing error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Liao, Rui

    2011-06-01

    The turbulent atmosphere causes wavefront distortion, beam wander, and beam broadening of a laser beam. These effects result in average power loss and instantaneous power fading at the receiver aperture and thus degrade performance of a free-space optical (FSO) communication system. In addition to the atmospheric turbulence, a FSO communication system may also suffer from laser beam pointing error. The pointing error causes excessive power loss and power fading. This paper proposes and studies an analytical method for calculating the FSO channel fading probability density function (pdf) induced by both atmospheric turbulence and pointing error. This method is based on the fast-tracked laser beam fading profile and the joint effects of beam wander and pointing error. In order to evaluate the proposed analytical method, large-scale numerical wave-optics simulations are conducted. Three types of pointing errors are studied , namely, the Gaussian random pointing error, the residual tracking error, and the sinusoidal sway pointing error. The FSO system employs a collimated Gaussian laser beam propagating along a horizontal path. The propagation distances range from 0.25 miles to 2.5 miles. The refractive index structure parameter is chosen to be Cn2 = 5×10-15m-2/3 and Cn2 = 5×10-13m-2/3. The studied cases cover from weak to strong fluctuations. The fading pdf curves of channels with pointing error calculated using the analytical method match accurately the corresponding pdf curves obtained directly from large-scale wave-optics simulations. They also give accurate average bit-error-rate (BER) curves and outage probabilities. Both the lognormal and the best-fit gamma-gamma fading pdf curves deviate from those of corresponding simulation curves, and they produce overoptimistic average BER curves and outage probabilities.

  15. 77 FR 18991 - Channel Spacing and Bandwidth Limitations for Certain Economic Area (EA)-Based 800 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ...)-Based 800 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) Licensees AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...)-based 800 MHz Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) licensees to exceed a channel spacing and bandwidth... flexibility to deploy new technologies and to better utilize their licensed spectrum, while also...

  16. Turbulence-induced channel crosstalk in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed free-space optical link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguita, Jaime A.; Neifeld, Mark A.; Vasic, Bane V.

    2008-05-01

    A multichannel free-space optical (FSO) communication system based on orbital angular momentum (OAM)-carrying beams is studied. We numerically analyze the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the system and find that turbulence induces attenuation and crosstalk among channels. Based on a model in which the constituent channels are binary symmetric and crosstalk is a Gaussian noise source, we find optimal sets of OAM states at each turbulence condition studied and determine the aggregate capacity of the multichannel system at those conditions. OAM-multiplexed FSO systems that operate in the weak turbulence regime are found to offer good performance. We verify that the aggregate capacity decreases as the turbulence increases. A per-channel bit-error rate evaluation is presented to show the uneven effects of crosstalk on the constituent channels.

  17. An adaptive detector and channel estimator for deep space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, R.; Arabshahi, P.; Yan, T. Y.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss the design and testing of both the channel parameter identification system, and the adaptive threshold system, and illustrate their advantages and performance under simulated channel degradation conditions.

  18. Localization algorithms for micro-channel x-ray telescope on board SVOM space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosset, L.; Götz, D.; Osborne, J.; Willingale, R.

    2016-07-01

    SVOM is a French-Chinese space mission to be launched in 2021, whose goal is the study of Gamma-Ray Bursts, the most powerful stellar explosions in the Universe. The Micro-channel X-ray Telescope (MXT) is an X-ray focusing telescope, on board SVOM, with a field of view of 1 degree (working in the 0.2-10 keV energy band), dedicated to the rapid follow-up of the Gamma-Ray Bursts counterparts and to their precise localization (smaller than 2 arc minutes). In order to reduce the optics mass and to have an angular resolution of few arc minutes, a "lobster-Eye" configuration has been chosen. Using a numerical model of the MXT Point Spread Function (PSF) we simulated MXT observations of point sources in order to develop and test different localization algorithms to be implemented on board MXT. We included preliminary estimations of the instrumental and sky background. The algorithms on board have to be a combination of speed and precision (the brightest sources are expected to be localized at a precision better than 10 arc seconds in the MXT reference frame). We present the comparison between different methods such as barycentre, PSF fitting in one or two dimensions. The temporal performance of the algorithms is being tested using the X-ray afterglow data base of the XRT telescope on board the NASA Swift satellite.

  19. Free-space communications over exponentiated Weibull turbulence channels with nonzero boresight pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiang; Yao, Mingwu

    2015-02-09

    In this paper, we present analytical expressions for the performance of urban free-space optical (FSO) communication systems under the combined influence of atmospheric turbulence- and misalignment-induced fading (pointing errors). The atmospheric turbulence channel is modeled by the exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution that can accurately describe the probability density function (PDF) of the irradiance fluctuations associated with a transmitted Gaussian-beam wave and a finite-sized receiving aperture. The nonzero boresight pointing error PDF model, which is recently proposed for considering the effects of both boresight and jitter, is adopted in analysis. We derive a novel expression for the composite PDF in terms of a convergent double series involving a Meijer's G-function. Based on the statistical results mentioned above, exact expressions for the average bit error rate of on-off keying modulation scheme and the outage probability are developed. To provide more insight, we also perform an asymptotic error rate analysis at high average signal-to-noise ratio. Our analytical results indicate that the diversity gain for the zero boresight case is determined only by the ratio between the equivalent beamwidth at the receiver and the jitter standard deviation, while for the nonzero boresight case, the diversity gain is related to the ratio of the equivalent beamwidth to the jitter variance as well as the parameter of the EW distribution.

  20. Feasibility study on 8PSK, QPSK, TFM, by using CLASS for Space Station/TDRSS real measured channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Song H.; Godfrey, Robert D.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of transmitting 500 Mbps data rate through the TDRSS real channel (about 2.5 bits/sec/Hz) for the Space Station application is studied in this paper. The modulation schemes examined are octal phase shift keying, quarternary phase shift keying, and tamed frequency modulation scheme. The software tool used is the Communication Link Analysis and Simulation System. A channel equalizer is shown to be required for such application. Sensitivity results, eye diagrams, and phase trajectory diagrams are presented for discussions.

  1. Space-bandwidth extension in parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a four-channel polarization-imaging camera.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Ito, Yasunori; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2013-07-15

    We propose a method for extending the space bandwidth (SBW) available for recording an object wave in parallel phase-shifting digital holography using a four-channel polarization-imaging camera. A linear spatial carrier of the reference wave is introduced to an optical setup of parallel four-step phase-shifting interferometry using a commercially available polarization-imaging camera that has four polarization-detection channels. Then a hologram required for parallel two-step phase shifting, which is a technique capable of recording the widest SBW in parallel phase shifting, can be obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed method was numerically and experimentally verified.

  2. Optimal Performance Monitoring of Hybrid Mid-Infrared Wavelength MIMO Free Space Optical and RF Wireless Networks in Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Barnet Michael

    An optimal performance monitoring metric for a hybrid free space optical and radio-frequency (RF) wireless network, the Outage Capacity Objective Function, is analytically developed and studied. Current and traditional methods of performance monitoring of both optical and RF wireless networks are centered on measurement of physical layer parameters, the most common being signal-to-noise ratio, error rate, Q factor, and eye diagrams, occasionally combined with link-layer measurements such as data throughput, retransmission rate, and/or lost packet rate. Network management systems frequently attempt to predict or forestall network failures by observing degradations of these parameters and to attempt mitigation (such as offloading traffic, increasing transmitter power, reducing the data rate, or combinations thereof) prior to the failure. These methods are limited by the frequent low sensitivity of the physical layer parameters to the atmospheric optical conditions (measured by optical signal-to-noise ratio) and the radio frequency fading channel conditions (measured by signal-to-interference ratio). As a result of low sensitivity, measurements of this type frequently are unable to predict impending failures sufficiently in advance for the network management system to take corrective action prior to the failure. We derive and apply an optimal measure of hybrid network performance based on the outage capacity of the hybrid optical and RF channel, the outage capacity objective function. The objective function provides high sensitivity and reliable failure prediction, and considers both the effects of atmospheric optical impairments on the performance of the free space optical segment as well as the effect of RF channel impairments on the radio frequency segment. The radio frequency segment analysis considers the three most common RF channel fading statistics: Rayleigh, Ricean, and Nakagami-m. The novel application of information theory to the underlying physics of the

  3. Pool spacing, channel morphology, and the restoration of tidal forested wetlands of the Columbia River, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Montgomery, David R.

    2008-10-09

    Tidal forested wetlands have sustained substantial areal losses, and restoration practitioners lack a description of many ecosystem structures associated with these late-successional systems in which surface water is a significant controlling factor on the flora and fauna. The roles of large woody debris in terrestrial and riverine ecosystems have been well described compared to functions in tidal areas. This study documents the role of large wood in forcing channel morphology in Picea-sitchensis (Sitka spruce) dominated freshwater tidal wetlands in the floodplain of the Columbia River, U.S.A. near the Pacific coast. The average pool spacing documented in channel surveys of three freshwater tidal forested wetlands near Grays Bay were 2.2 ± 1.3, 2.3 ± 1.2, and 2.5 ± 1.5. There were significantly greater numbers of pools on tidal forested wetland channels than on a nearby restoration site. On the basis of pool spacing and the observed sequences of log jams and pools, the tidal forested wetland channels were classified consistent with a forced step-pool class. Tidal systems, with bidirectional flow, have not previously been classified in this way. The classification provides a useful basis for restoration project design and planning in historically forested tidal freshwater areas, particularly in regard to the use of large wood in restoration actions and the development of pool habitats for aquatic species. Significant modifications by beaver on these sites warrant further investigation to explore the interactions between these animals and restoration actions affecting hydraulics and channel structure in tidal areas.

  4. Numerical simulation for peristalsis of Carreau-Yasuda nanofluid in curved channel with mixed convection and porous space

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Anum; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.; Ahmad, B.

    2017-01-01

    Main theme of present investigation is to model and analyze the peristaltic activity of Carraeu-Yasuda nanofluid saturating porous space in a curved channel. Unlike the traditional approach, the porous medium effects are characterized by employing modified Darcy’s law for Carreau-Yasuda fluid. To our knowledge this is first attempt in this direction for Carreau-Yasuda fluid. Heat and mass transfer are further considered. Simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer are examined in presence of mixed convection, viscous dissipation and thermal radiation. The compliant characteristics for channel walls are taken into account. The resulting complex mathematical system has been discussed for small Reynolds number and large wavelength concepts. Numerical approximation to solutions are thus plotted in graphs and the physical description is presented. It is concluded that larger porosity in a medium cause an enhancement in fluid velocity and reduction in concentration. PMID:28151968

  5. Monolithically integrated 20-channel optical add/drop multiplexer subsystem with hybrid-integrated 40-channel photodetector array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Andreas B.; Krabe, Detlef; Dieckroeger, Jens; Spott, Thorsten; Kraeker, Tobias; Martins, Evely; Zavrsnik, Miha; Schneider, Hartmut W.; Baumann, Ingo

    2003-03-01

    We built a 20 channel, 200 GHz, fully reconfigurable optical add-/drop multiplexer with integrated variable optical attenuators and power monitor diodes. A single planar lightwave circuit chip contains demultiplexer, switch array, attenuators and multiplexers. It also serves as an "optical motherboard" for a hybrid, flip-chip assembly containing four 10-channel photo detector arrays. A thermal management concept which considers both microscopic and macroscopic aspects of the device was developed. The final device exhibits an insertion loss of 9 dB from "in"- to "through"-port, a 1 dB bandwidth of >50 GHz and switch extinction ratios in excess of 40 dB.

  6. Long reach DWDM-PON with 12.5 GHz channel spacing based on comb source seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhao; Nie, Hai-tao; Wang, Yao-jun

    2016-07-01

    A long reach dense wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (DWDM-PON) with 12.5 GHz channel spacing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An optical frequency comb source is used to provide the multiwavelength seeding light, while reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) are installed in both optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network units (ONUs) as colorless transmitter. The experimental results show that the bidirectional transmission for 1.2 Gbit/s data rate is achieved over 80 km single mode fiber (SMF).

  7. Flow tests of a single fuel element coolant channel for a compact fast reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springborn, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Water flow tests were conducted on a single-fuel-element cooling channel for a nuclear concept to be used for space power. The tests established a method for measuring coolant flow rate which is applicable to water flow testing of a complete mockup of the reference reactor. The inlet plenum-to-outlet plenum pressure drop, which approximates the overall core pressure drop, was measured and correlated with flow rate. This information can be used for reactor coolant flow and heat transfer calculations. An analytical study of the flow characteristics was also conducted.

  8. Multi-channel medical device for time domain functional near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing

    PubMed Central

    Re, Rebecca; Contini, Davide; Turola, Massimo; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a compact dual wavelength (687 nm, 826 nm) multi-channel (16 sources, 8 detectors) medical device for muscle and brain imaging based on time domain functional near infrared spectroscopy. The system employs the wavelength space multiplexing approach to reduce wavelength cross-talk and increase signal-to-noise ratio. System performances have been tested on homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue phantoms following specifically designed protocols for photon migration instruments. Preliminary in vivo measurements have been performed to validate the instrument capability to monitor hemodynamic parameters changes in the arm muscle during arterial occlusion and in the adult head during a motor task experiment. PMID:24156079

  9. An Extension of Workload Capacity Space for Systems With More Than Two Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-05

    enables a single plot to be used to compare the capacity coefficient values to the upper and lower bounds on standard parallel processing in order to...bounds onto the unified capacity space enables a single plot to be used to compare the capacity coefficient values to the upper and lower bounds on...Eidels (2011) introduced the notion of a unified workload capacity space for plotting both the capacity coefficient and the CDF bounds on standard

  10. Performance of a space-time block coded code division multiple access system over Nakagami-m fading channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiangbin; Dong, Tao; Xu, Dazhuan; Bi, Guangguo

    2010-09-01

    By introducing an orthogonal space-time coding scheme, multiuser code division multiple access (CDMA) systems with different space time codes are given, and corresponding system performance is investigated over a Nakagami-m fading channel. A low-complexity multiuser receiver scheme is developed for space-time block coded CDMA (STBC-CDMA) systems. The scheme can make full use of the complex orthogonality of space-time block coding to simplify the high decoding complexity of the existing scheme. Compared to the existing scheme with exponential decoding complexity, it has linear decoding complexity. Based on the performance analysis and mathematical calculation, the average bit error rate (BER) of the system is derived in detail for integer m and non-integer m, respectively. As a result, a tight closed-form BER expression is obtained for STBC-CDMA with an orthogonal spreading code, and an approximate closed-form BER expression is attained for STBC-CDMA with a quasi-orthogonal spreading code. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve almost the same performance as the existing scheme with low complexity. Moreover, the simulation results for average BER are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  11. On fading probability density functions of fast-tracked and untracked free-space optical communication channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Liao, Rui

    2011-03-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication systems suffer from average power loss and instantaneous power fading due to the atmospheric turbulence. The channel fading probability density function (pdf) is of critical importance for FSO communication system design and evaluation. The performance and reliability of FSO communication systems can be greatly enhanced if fast-tacking devices are employed at the transmitter in order to compensate laser beam wander at the receiver aperture. The fast-tracking method is especially effective when communication distance is long. This paper studies the fading probability density functions of both fast-tracked and untracked FSO communication channels. Large-scale wave-optics simulations are conducted for both tracked and untracked lasers. In the simulations, the Kolmogorov spectrum is adopted, and it is assumed that the outer scale is infinitely large and the inner scale is negligibly small. The fading pdfs of both fast-tracked and untracked FSO channels are obtained from the simulations. Results show that the fast-tracked channel fading can be accurately modeled as gamma-distributed if receiver aperture size is smaller than the coherence radius. An analytical method is given for calculating the untracked fading pdfs of both point-like and finite-size receiver apertures from the fast-tracked fading pdf. For point-like apertures, the analytical method gives pdfs close to the well-known gamma-gamma pdfs if off-axis effects are omitted in the formulation. When off-axis effects are taken into consideration, the untracked pdfs obtained using the analytical method fit the simulation pdfs better than gamma-gamma distributions for point-like apertures, and closely fit the simulation pdfs for finite-size apertures where gamma-gamma pdfs deviate from those of the simulations significantly.

  12. Fading losses on the LCRD free-space optical link due to channel turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Bruce; Piazzolla, Sabino; Hamkins, Jon

    2013-03-01

    The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) will implement an optical communications link between a pair of Earth terminals via an Earth-orbiting satellite relay. Optical turbulence over the communication paths will cause random uctuations, or fading, in the received signal irradiance. In this paper we characterize losses due to fading caused by optical turbulence. We illustrate the performance of a representative relay link, utilizing a channel interleaver and error-correction-code to mitigate fading, and provide a method to quickly determine the link performance.

  13. Fading Losses on the LCRD Free-Space Optical Link Due to Channel Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Piazzolla, Sabino; Hamkins, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) will implement an optical communications link between a pair of Earth terminals via an Earth-orbiting satellite relay. Clear air turbulence over the communication paths will cause random fluctuations, or fading, in the received signal irradiance. In this paper we characterize losses due to fading caused by clear air turbulence. We illustrate the performance of a representative relay link, utilizing a channel interleaver and error-correction-code to mitigate fading, and provide a method to quickly determine the link performance.

  14. Ergodic capacity and outage capacity analysis for multiple-input single-output free-space optical communications over composite channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Jun-Bo; Chen, Ming; Huang, Nuo; Jia, Lin-Qiong; Guan, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communications have attracted significant attention recently. The ergodic capacity and outage capacity of a multiple-input single-output FSO communication system are investigated. Initially, a composite channel model including distance-dependant atmospheric loss, pointing error, and atmospheric turbulence is derived. To show different weather conditions, both the weak and strong atmospheric turbulence conditions are taken into account. Moreover, the statistical characteristics of two composite channels (i.e., weak turbulence composite channels and strong turbulence composite channels) are provided. Furthermore, approximated expressions of the ergodic capacity and closed-form expressions of the outage capacity are derived under the two composite channels, respectively. Numerical results finally substantiate that the derived theoretical expressions can provide a very good approximation to the simulation results.

  15. Analysis of effective capacity for free-space optical communication systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, You-quan; Chi, Xue-fen; Shi, Jia-lin; Zhao, Lin-lin

    2015-05-01

    To facilitate the efficient support of quality-of-service (QoS) for promising free-space optical (FSO) communication systems, it is essential to model and analyze FSO channels in terms of delay QoS. However, most existing works focus on the average capacity and outage capacity for FSO, which are not enough to characterize the effective transmission data rate when delay-sensitive service is applied. In this paper, the effective capacity of FSO communication systems under statistical QoS provisioning constraints is investigated to meet heterogeneous traffic demands. A novel closed-form expression for effective capacity is derived under the combined effects of atmospheric turbulence conditions, pointing errors, beam widths, detector sizes and QoS exponents. The obtained results reveal the effects of some significant parameters on effective capacity, which can be used for the design of FSO systems carrying a wide range of services with diverse QoS requirements.

  16. MIMO free-space optical communication employing coherent BPOLSK modulation in atmospheric optical turbulence channel with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, K.; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2015-05-01

    An optical wireless communication system is an alternative to radio frequency communication, but atmospheric turbulence induced fading and misalignment fading are the main impairments affecting an optical signal when propagating through the turbulence channel. The resultant of misalignment fading is the pointing errors, it degrades the bit error rate (BER) performance of the free space optics (FSO) system. In this paper, we study the BER performance of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) FSO system employing coherent binary polarization shift keying (BPOLSK) in gamma-gamma (G-G) channel with pointing errors. The BER performance of the BPOLSK based MIMO FSO system is compared with the single-input single-output (SISO) system. Also, the average BER performance of the systems is analyzed and compared with and without pointing errors. A novel closed form expressions of BER are derived for MIMO FSO system with maximal ratio combining (MRC) and equal gain combining (EGC) diversity techniques. The analytical results show that the pointing errors can severely degrade the performance of the system.

  17. Employing circle polarization shift keying in free space optical communication with gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Du, Fan; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying

    2014-12-01

    A novel theoretical model of a circular polarization shift keying (CPolSK) system for free space optical links through an atmospheric turbulence channel, is proposed. Intensity scintillation and phase fluctuation induced in atmospheric turbulence, from weak to strong levels, are specifically researched with respect to circular polarization control error caused by the system design. We derive closed form expressions of the bit error rate (BER) and outage probability for evaluating the BER performance and communication interruption in the Gamma-Gamma distributed channel model. Simulation results show that atmospheric turbulence and circular polarization control error have significant effects on the BER performance and interruption of communication in the CPolSK system. The deterioration in BER performance, caused by intensity scintillation and phase fluctuation, is augmented by the power penalty conditioned by the circular polarization control error. This consequently adds to the demand for emissive power from the CPolSK system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that controlling the circular polarization control error below 8° as well as the normalized threshold within 8 dB, 9 dB and 10 dB in turbulent scenarios from weak to strong levels can significantly reduce the probability of communication interruption occurring. This study provides reference material for further design of the CPolSK system.

  18. Effective capacity of MIMO free-space optical systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Wang, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we provide the capacity limits of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical communication (FSO) system in the presence of quality of service (QoS) requirements. Closed-form expression for the effective capacity of MIMO FSO system with equal gain combining (EGC) is derived. In order to provide insights into the impact of various system parameters, asymptotic expressions are further analyzed in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Special cases are provided according to the derived results at the same time. Numerical results are given to validate all the analytical results, and the influences of QoS requirements and MIMO configurations are also illustrated.

  19. Performance analysis of wideband data and television channels. [space shuttle communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geist, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Several aspects are discussed of space shuttle communications, including the return link (shuttle-to-ground) relayed through a satellite repeater (TDRS). The repeater exhibits nonlinear amplification and an amplitude-dependent phase shift. Models were developed for various link configurations, and computer simulation programs based on these models are described. Certain analytical results on system performance were also obtained. For the system parameters assumed, the results indicate approximately 1 db degradation relative to a link employing a linear repeater. While this degradation is dependent upon the repeater, filter bandwidths, and modulation parameters used, the programs can accommodate changes to any of these quantities. Thus the programs can be applied to determine the performance with any given set of parameters, or used as an aid in link design.

  20. Double quadriphase modulation/demodulation technique for three-channel communication link. [Space Shuttle-to-TDRS link example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alem, W. K.

    1977-01-01

    A modulation technique for a three-channel communication link is introduced. The structure of the modulator is such as to form an unbalanced quadriphase signal wherein the high rate data stream is bi-phase modulated on the in-phase carrier component, while the sum of the two lower rate signals is bi-phase modulated on the quadrature component of the same carrier. The sum of the two lower signals is, in turn, formed by modulating with the respective data streams the in-phase and the quadrature components of a square wave subcarrier. At the demodulator, the tracking of the carrier and the subcarrier is performed by two independent Costas loops. The demodulation of the high data rate signal is carried out after establishing the carrier reference signal, while the lower rate signals are demodulated after the subcarrier loop recovers the subcarrier. In this paper, the performance of the two loops is analyzed and the expressions for the tracking errors are derived. Finally, a numerical example pertaining to the Space Shuttle-to-TDRS Ku-band link is presented for illustration.

  1. Adaptive selective relaying in cooperative free-space optical systems over atmospheric turbulence and misalignment fading channels.

    PubMed

    Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz

    2014-06-30

    In this paper, a novel adaptive cooperative protocol with multiple relays using detect-and-forward (DF) over atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors is proposed. The adaptive DF cooperative protocol here analyzed is based on the selection of the optical path, source-destination or different source-relay links, with a greater value of fading gain or irradiance, maintaining a high diversity order. Closed-form asymptotic bit error-rate (BER) expressions are obtained for a cooperative free-space optical (FSO) communication system with Nr relays, when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to either a wide range of turbulence conditions, following a gamma-gamma distribution of parameters α and β, or pointing errors, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. A greater robustness for different link distances and pointing errors is corroborated by the obtained results if compared with similar cooperative schemes or equivalent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the accuracy and usefulness of the derived results.

  2. Impact of channel-spacing on next 400 Gb/s Ethernet 40-km PMD based on 16×25Gb/s WDM architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Ferrera, P.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2014-06-01

    The impact of fiber dispersion, system non-linearities and their interaction when varying the channel-spacing value, ranging from 200 to 800 GHz, on the performance of a WDM 16×25Gb/s architecture that has been proposed as next 400 Gb/s Ethernet (400 GbE) 40-km physical medium dependent (PMD) sublayer is numerically analyzed. It is shown through calculations of the Quality Factor that the gain modulation nonlinearity of the semiconductor optical pre-amplifier is the main phenomenon that degrades the system performance. Moreover, it is demonstrated that its impact becomes dependent on the channel-spacing of the WDM plan, provided that the chromatic dispersion of the fiber is enough to vary the bit-correlation level among channels at the pre-amplifier input. Despite the considerable channel count, the effect of carrier heating-induced four wave mixing (FWM) is found to be rather modest, while the impact of carrier density pulsation-induced FWM and fiber non-linear response resulted to be negligible. With respect to the analyzed phenomena, a wide channel plan, only limited by the gain bandwidth, should be preferred for the 400 GbE implementation, especially if a nanostructured, broad-bandwidth, SOA can be afforded.

  3. Performance analysis of relay-aided free-space optical communication system over gamma-gamma fading channels with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hui-hua; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ran-ran; Liu, Xiao-xia; Guo, Li-xin; Yang, Yin-tang

    2016-07-01

    The average bit error rate ( ABER) performance of a decode-and-forward (DF) based relay-assisted free-space optical (FSO) communication system over gamma-gamma distribution channels considering the pointing errors is studied. With the help of Meijer's G-function, the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the aggregated channel model are derived on the basis of the best path selection scheme. The analytical ABER expression is achieved and the system performance is then investigated with the influence of pointing errors, turbulence strengths and structure parameters. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is also provided to confirm the analytical ABER expression.

  4. Comparison of rate one-half, equivalent constraint length 24, binary convolutional codes for use with sequential decoding on the deep-space channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually all previously-suggested rate 1/2 binary convolutional codes with KE = 24 are compared. Their distance properties are given; and their performance, both in computation and in error probability, with sequential decoding on the deep-space channel is determined by simulation. Recommendations are made both for the choice of a specific KE = 24 code as well as for codes to be included in future coding standards for the deep-space channel. A new result given in this report is a method for determining the statistical significance of error probability data when the error probability is so small that it is not feasible to perform enough decoding simulations to obtain more than a very small number of decoding errors.

  5. Rapid, Single-Molecule Assays in Nano/Micro-Fluidic Chips with Arrays of Closely Spaced Parallel Channels Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Machining

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Brian K.; King, Jason K.; Robinson, William N.; Hofmeister, William H.; Davis, Lloyd M.

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective pharmaceutical drug discovery depends on increasing assay throughput while reducing reagent needs. To this end, we are developing an ultrasensitive, fluorescence-based platform that incorporates a nano/micro-fluidic chip with an array of closely spaced channels for parallelized optical readout of single-molecule assays. Here we describe the use of direct femtosecond laser machining to fabricate several hundred closely spaced channels on the surfaces of fused silica substrates. The channels are sealed by bonding to a microscope cover slip spin-coated with a thin film of poly(dimethylsiloxane). Single-molecule detection experiments are conducted using a custom-built, wide-field microscope. The array of channels is epi-illuminated by a line-generating red diode laser, resulting in a line focus just a few microns thick across a 500 micron field of view. A dilute aqueous solution of fluorescently labeled biomolecules is loaded into the device and fluorescence is detected with an electron-multiplying CCD camera, allowing acquisition rates up to 7 kHz for each microchannel. Matched digital filtering based on experimental parameters is used to perform an initial, rapid assessment of detected fluorescence. More detailed analysis is obtained through fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Simulated fluorescence data is shown to agree well with experimental values. PMID:25140634

  6. Study of sensory-code space to assess the possibility of synthesis of additional sensory channels in a human-machine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonets, V. A.; Zeveke, A. V.; Malysheva, G. I.; Polevaya, S. A.

    1994-09-01

    The attributes of the afferent flow of the cat analyzer under heat, cold, tactile, and pain stimulation are studied. It is shown the flows formed can be described by an attribute vector. It is found that unoccupied regions exist in the vector space of the descriptions of physiologically permissible codes, i.e., there is an excess of code space that could serve for the synthesis of additional channels, including those not inherent in human modalities. In many problems of engineering and medicine, this could be the only way to restore or compensate for lost functions of analyzing systems, such as vision and hearing.

  7. DWDM channel spacing tunable optical TDM carrier from a mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode based fiber ring.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guo-Hsuan; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2008-08-18

    A novel optical TDM pulsed carrier with tunable mode spacing matching the ITU-T defined DWDM channels is demonstrated, which is generated from an optically injection-mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLD) with 10%-end-facet reflectivity. The FPLD exhibits relatively weak cavity modes and a gain spectral linewidth covering >33.5 nm. The least common multiple of the mode spacing determined by both the weak-resonant-cavity FPLD and the fiber-ring cavity can be tunable by adjusting length of the fiber ring cavity or the FPLD temperature to approach the desired 200GHz DWDM channel spacing of 1.6 nm. At a specific fiber-ring cavity length, such a least-common- multiple selection rule results in 12 lasing modes between 1532 and 1545 nm naturally and a mode-locking pulsewidth of 19 ps broadened by group velocity dispersion among different modes. With an additional intracavity bandpass filter, the operating wavelength can further extend from 1520 to 1553.5 nm. After channel filtering, each selected longitudinal mode gives rise to a shortened pulsewidth of 12 ps due to the reduced group velocity dispersion. By linear dispersion compensating with a 55-m long dispersion compensation fiber (DCF), the pulsewidth can be further compressed to 8 ps with its corresponding peak-to-peak chirp reducing from 9.7 to 4.3 GHz.

  8. Nano-Structured Mesoporous Silica Wires with Intra-Wire Lamellae via Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly in Space-Confined Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.; Shi, Donglu; Blom, Douglas Allen

    2014-04-06

    Evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of silica sol-gel ethanol-water solution mixtures with block-copolymer were studied inside uniform micro/nano channels. Nano-structured mesoporous silica wires, with various intra-wire self-assembly structures including lamellae, were prepared via EISA process but in space-confined channels with the diameter ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm. Membranes made of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and track-etched polycarbonate (EPC) were utilized as the arrays of space-confined channels (i.e., 50, 100, and 200-nm EPC and 200-nm AAO) for infiltration and drying of mixture solutions; these substrate membranes were submerged in mixture solutions consisting of a silica precursor, a structure-directing agent, ethanol, and water. After the substrate channels were filled with the solution under vacuum impregnation, the membrane was removed from the solution and dried in air. The silica precursor used was tetra-ethyl othosilicate (TEOS), and the structure-directing agent employed was triblock copolymer Pluronic-123 (P123). It was found that the formation of the mesoporous nanostructures in silica wires within uniform channels were significantly affected by the synthesis conditions including (1) pre-assemble TEOS aging time, (2) the evaporation rate during the vacuum impregnation, and (3) the air-dry temperature. The obtained intra-wire structures, including 2D-hexagonal rods and lamellae, were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A steric hindrance effect seems to explain well the observed polymer-silica mesophase formation tailored by TEOS aging time. The evaporation effect, air-drying effect, and AAO-vs-EPC substrate effect on the mesoporous structure of the formed silica wires were also presented and discussed.

  9. Sub-Nyquist field trial using time frequency packed DP-QPSK super-channel within fixed ITU-T grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potì, L.; Meloni, G.; Berrettini, G.; Fresi, F.; Foggi, T.; Secondini, M.; Giorgi, L.; Cavaliere, F.; Hackett, S.; Petronio, A.; Nibbs, P.; Forgan, R.; Leong, A.; Masciulli, R.; Pfander, C.

    2015-06-01

    Sub-Nyquist time frequency packing technique was demonstrated for the first time in a super channel field trial transmission over long-haul distances. The technique allows a limited spectral occupancy even with low order modulation formats. The transmission was successfully performed on a deployed Australian link between Sydney and Melbourne which included 995 km of uncompensated SMF with coexistent traffic. 40 and 100 Gb/s co-propagating channels were transmitted together with the super-channel in a 50 GHz ITU-T grid without additional penalty. The super-channel consisted of eight sub-channels with low-level modulation format, i.e. DP-QPSK, guaranteeing better OSNR robustness and reduced complexity with respect to higher order formats. At the receiver side, coherent detection was used together with iterative maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) detection and decoding. A 975 Gb/s DP-QPSK super-channel was successfully transmitted between Sydney and Melbourne within four 50GHz WSS channels (200 GHz). A maximum potential SE of 5.58 bit/s/Hz was achieved with an OSNR=15.8 dB, comparable to the OSNR of the installed 100 Gb/s channels. The system reliability was proven through long term measurements. In addition, by closing the link in a loop back configuration, a potential SE*d product of 9254 bit/s/Hz*km was achieved.

  10. Sub-Nyquist field trial using time frequency packed DP-QPSK super-channel within fixed ITU-T grid.

    PubMed

    Potì, L; Meloni, G; Berrettini, G; Fresi, F; Foggi, T; Secondini, M; Giorgi, L; Cavaliere, F; Hackett, S; Petronio, A; Nibbs, P; Forgan, R; Leong, A; Masciulli, R; Pfander, C

    2015-06-15

    Sub-Nyquist time frequency packing technique was demonstrated for the first time in a super-channel field trial transmission over long-haul distances. The technique allows a limited spectral occupancy even with low order modulation formats. The transmission was successfully performed on a deployed Australian link between Sydney and Melbourne which included 995 km of uncompensated SMF with coexistent traffic. 40 and 100 Gb/s co-propagating channels were transmitted together with the super-channel in a 50 GHz ITU-T grid without additional penalty. The super-channel consisted of eight sub-channels with low-level modulation format, i.e. DP-QPSK, guaranteeing better OSNR robustness and reduced complexity with respect to higher order formats. At the receiver side, coherent detection was used together with iterative maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) detection and decoding. A 975 Gb/s DP-QPSK super-channel was successfully transmitted between Sydney and Melbourne within four 50GHz WSS channels (200 GHz). A maximum potential SE of 5.58 bit/s/Hz was achieved with an OSNR = 15.8 dB, comparable to the OSNR of the installed 100 Gb/s channels. The system reliability was proven through long term measurements. In addition, by closing the link in a loop back configuration, a potential SE∙d product of 9254 bit/s/Hz·km was achieved.

  11. Development of high-performance cooling devices for space application by using flow boiling in narrow channels.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shinichi; Inada, Yukihiro; Shinmoto, Yasuhisa; Ohta, Haruhiko

    2009-04-01

    Heat generation density from semiconductor devices has been increasing with the rapid development of electronic technology. The cooling system using boiling two-phase phenomena has attracted much attention because of its high heat removal potential. To develop compact and high-performance cooling systems, we conducted experiments on the increase of critical heat flux (CHF) for flow boiling in narrow channels by improved liquid supply. A large surface of 150 mm in heated length and 30 mm in width with grooves of an apex angle of 90 degrees , 0.5-mm depth, and 1 mm in pitch was employed. A structure of narrow heated channel between parallel plates with an unheated auxiliary channel was devised and tested by using water for different combinations of gap sizes and volumetric flow rates, where inlet of the main heated channel and the outlet of auxiliary unheated channel were closed to prevent the flow instability observed frequently at low flow rate for parallel two channels. For the total volumetric flow rate more than 4.5 x 10(-5) m(3)/s, higher values of CHF large than 2 x 10(6) W/m(2) were obtained for gap size of 2 mm. For gap sizes of 2 mm and 5 mm at high volumetric flow rate larger than 6.0 x 10(-5) m(3)/s, or mass velocity based on the cross section are of main heated channel 958.1 kg/m(2)s and 383.2 kg/m(2) s, respectively, the extension of dry patches was observed at the upstream location of the main heated channel resulting in burnout not at the downstream but at the upstream. By the increase in total volumetric flow rate, the pressure drop increased because of increasing in the flow rate passing through the sintered metal porous plates connecting both channels. The values of pressure drop for gap size of 2 mm were higher than that for gap size of 5 mm. When the performance of the cooling system was evaluated on the basis of pump power, ignoring its variation in the efficiency with volumetric flow rate, that is, the power defined as the product of the

  12. Engineering trade studies for a quantum key distribution system over a 30  km free-space maritime channel.

    PubMed

    Gariano, John; Neifeld, Mark; Djordjevic, Ivan

    2017-01-20

    Here, we present the engineering trade studies of a free-space optical communication system operating over a 30 km maritime channel for the months of January and July. The system under study follows the BB84 protocol with the following assumptions: a weak coherent source is used, Eve is performing the intercept resend attack and photon number splitting attack, prior knowledge of Eve's location is known, and Eve is allowed to know a small percentage of the final key. In this system, we examine the effect of changing several parameters in the following areas: the implementation of the BB84 protocol over the public channel, the technology in the receiver, and our assumptions about Eve. For each parameter, we examine how different values impact the secure key rate for a constant brightness. Additionally, we will optimize the brightness of the source for each parameter to study the improvement in the secure key rate.

  13. Average BER analysis of SCM-based free-space optical systems by considering the effect of IM3 with OSSB signals under turbulence channels.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wansu; Cho, Tae-Sik; Yun, Changho; Kim, Kiseon

    2009-11-09

    In this paper, we derive the average bit error rate (BER) of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-based free space optics (FSO) systems using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DD-MZM) for optical single-sideband (OSSB) signals under atmospheric turbulence channels. In particular, we consider the third-order intermodulation (IM3), a significant performance degradation factor, in the case of high input signal power systems. The derived average BER, as a function of the input signal power and the scintillation index, is employed to determine the optimum number of SCM users upon the designing FSO systems. For instance, when the user number doubles, the input signal power decreases by almost 2 dBm under the log-normal and exponential turbulence channels at a given average BER.

  14. Paravascular channels, cisterns, and the subarachnoid space in the rat brain: A single compartment with preferential pathways.

    PubMed

    Bedussi, Beatrice; van der Wel, Nicole N; de Vos, Judith; van Veen, Henk; Siebes, Maria; VanBavel, Ed; Bakker, Erik Ntp

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests an extensive exchange of fluid and solutes between the subarachnoid space and the brain interstitium, involving preferential pathways along blood vessels. We studied the anatomical relations between brain vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid compartments, and paravascular spaces in male Wistar rats. A fluorescent tracer was infused into the cisterna magna, without affecting intracranial pressure. Tracer distribution was analyzed using a 3D imaging cryomicrotome, confocal microscopy, and correlative light and electron microscopy. We found a strong 3D colocalization of tracer with major arteries and veins in the subarachnoid space and large cisterns, attributed to relatively large subarachnoid space volumes around the vessels. Confocal imaging confirmed this colocalization and also revealed novel cisternal connections between the subarachnoid space and ventricles. Unlike the vessels in the subarachnoid space, penetrating arteries but not veins were surrounded by tracer. Correlative light and electron microscopy images indicated that this paravascular space was located outside of the endothelial layer in capillaries and just outside of the smooth muscle cells in arteries. In conclusion, the cerebrospinal fluid compartment, consisting of the subarachnoid space, cisterns, ventricles, and para-arteriolar spaces, forms a continuous and extensive network that surrounds and penetrates the rat brain, in which mixing may facilitate exchange between interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid.

  15. English Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The cloud covered earthscape of Northern Europe demonstrates the difficulty of photographing this elusive subject from space. The English Channel (51.0N, 1.5E) separating the British Islands from Europe is in the center of the scene. The white cliffs of Dover on the SE coast of the UK, the Thames River estuary and a partial view of the city of London can be seen on the north side of the Channel while the Normandy coast of France is to the south.

  16. Chip-interleaved optical code division multiple access relying on a photon-counting iterative successive interference canceller for free-space optical channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaolin; Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Rong; Hanzo, Lajos

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we design a novel Poisson photon-counting based iterative successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme for transmission over free-space optical (FSO) channels in the presence of both multiple access interference (MAI) as well as Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading, shot-noise and background light. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme exhibits a strong MAI suppression capability. Importantly, an order of magnitude of BER improvements may be achieved compared to the conventional chip-level optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) photon-counting detector.

  17. [Study with a quartz resonator of a new natural informational channel associated with quantum properties of the physical space (vacuum)].

    PubMed

    Baurov, Iu A; Iakovenko, V A; Komissarov, A V; Verzhikovskiĭ, V G; Konradov, A A

    2001-01-01

    The results on long-time measurements of differential frequency of two quartz generators are presented. One generator is placed into magnetic system creating a vector potential field, and the other (calibration generator) is situated out of this system. It was found that oscillations of frequency difference occur with periods to 20 h and 22.5 h were revealed. Tangents to the Earth parallel at the moments of observation of value minima form three distinct subsets of directions. The traditional physical concepts do not explain these results. These results are in a good agreement with hypothesis about the anisotropic interaction of objects in nature (due to the new fundamental vector constant, cosmological vector potential Ag) and hence a new informational channel. The possibility is discussed that external factors affect biological objects via the new information channel.

  18. Hybrid pulse position modulation and binary phase shift keying subcarrier intensity modulation for free space optics in a weak and saturated turbulence channel.

    PubMed

    Faridzadeh, Monire; Gholami, Asghar; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Rajbhandari, Sujan

    2012-08-01

    In this paper a hybrid modulation scheme based on pulse position modulation (PPM) and binary phase shift keying subcarrier intensity modulation (BPSK-SIM) schemes for free-space optical communications is proposed. The analytical bit error rate (BER) performance is investigated in weak and saturated turbulence channels and results are verified with the simulation data. Results show that performance of PPM-BPSK-SIM is superior to BPSK-SIM in all turbulence regimes; however, it outperforms 2-PPM for the turbulence variance σ(1)(2)>0.2. PPM-BPSK-SIM offers a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain of 50 dB in the saturation regime compared to BPSK at a BER of 10(-6). The SNR gain in comparison to PPM improves as the strength of the turbulence level increases.

  19. Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical system with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Prabu; Sriram Kumar, D.

    2014-12-01

    Free-space optical communication (FSO) is emerging as a captivating alternative to work out the hindrances in the connectivity problems. It can be used for transmitting signals over common lands and properties that the sender or receiver may not own. The performance of an FSO system depends on the random environmental conditions. The bit error rate (BER) performance of differential phase shift keying FSO system is investigated. A distributed strong atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing error is considered for the BER analysis. Here, the system models are developed for single-input, single-output-FSO (SISO-FSO) and single-input, multiple-output-FSO (SIMO-FSO) systems. The closed-form mathematical expressions are derived for the average BER with various combining schemes in terms of the Meijer's G function.

  20. Outage performance of multihop free-space optical communication system over exponentiated Weibull fading channels with nonzero boresight pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Ping; Cao, Tian

    2016-09-01

    The outage performance of the multihop free-space optical (FSO) communication system with decode-and-forward (DF) protocol is studied by considering the joint effects of nonzero boresight pointing errors and atmospheric turbulence modeled by exponentiated Weibull (EW) distribution. The closed-form analytical expression of outage probability is derived, and the results are validated through Monte Carlo simulation. Furthermore, the detailed analysis is provided to evaluate the impacts of turbulence strength, receiver aperture size, boresight displacement, beamwidth and number of relays on the outage performance for the studied system.

  1. Performance of multi-hop parallel free-space optical communication over gamma-gamma fading channel with pointing errors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengguang; Liu, Hongzhan; Ma, Xiaoping; Lu, Wei

    2016-11-10

    Multi-hop parallel relaying is considered in a free-space optical (FSO) communication system deploying binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation under the combined effects of a gamma-gamma (GG) distribution and misalignment fading. Based on the best path selection criterion, the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of this cooperative random variable is derived. Then the performance of this optical mesh network is analyzed in detail. A Monte Carlo simulation is also conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results for the average bit error rate (ABER) and outage probability. The numerical result proves that it needs a smaller average transmitted optical power to achieve the same ABER and outage probability when using the multi-hop parallel network in FSO links. Furthermore, the system use of more number of hops and cooperative paths can improve the quality of the communication.

  2. Through space and through bridge channels of charge transfer at p-n nano-junctions: A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandu, Naveen; Tretiak, Sergei; Kilina, Svetlana; Kilin, Dmitri

    2016-12-01

    Details of charge density distribution at p-n nano interface are analyzed with density functional theory techniques using model system of dimers of doped silicon quantum dots interacting through bond and through space. Spatial distributions of transition densities between the ground and excited states suggest the character of essential electronic excitations, which have a Fӧrster, bound, unbound, or charge transfer character. A redistribution of electronic density from n-impurities to p-impurities results in a ground state polarization and creates an offset of energies of the bands localized on p-doped quantum dot and the bands localized on n-doped quantum dot. Although impurities contribute very few orbitals to the total density, a ground state charge redistribution and polarization are both responsible for the presence of a large number of charge transfer excitations involving solely silicon orbitals.

  3. The Atmospheric Channels of GLAS: Near Real-Time Global Lidar Remote Sensing of Clouds and Aerosols from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Stephen P.; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, Bill; Welton, E. Judd; Spinhirne, James

    2000-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) will be placed into orbit in 2001 aboard the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). From its nearly polar orbit (94 degree inclination), GLAS will provide continuous global measurements of the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols while simultaneously providing high accuracy topographic profiling of surface features. During the mission, which is slated to last 3 to 5 years, the data collected by GLAS will be in near-real time to produce level 1 and 2 data products at the NASA GLAS Science Computing Facility (SCF) at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The atmospheric products include cloud and aerosol layer heights, planetary boundary layer depth, polar stratospheric clouds and thin cloud and aerosol optical depth. These products will be made available to the science community within days of their creation. The processing algorithms must be robust, adaptive, efficient, and clever enough to run autonomously for the widely varying atmospheric conditions that will be encountered. This paper presents an overview of the GLAS atmospheric data products and briefly discusses the design of the processing algorithms.

  4. Performance limits of high-rate space-to-ground optical communications through the turbulent atmospheric channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, John E.

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric turbulence corrupts both the amplitude and phase of an optical field propagating from space to an earth-based receiver. While aperture averaging can mitigate amplitude scintillation effects, the performance of single spatial-mode receiver systems such as coherent detection or preamplified direction detection can be significantly degraded by the corrupted phase when the ratio of aperture diameter D to atmospheric coherence length r0 exceeds unity. Although adaptive optics may be employed to correct the wavefront, in practice the correction is imperfect and the residual phase errors induce a communications performance loss. That loss is quantified here by Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Single-mode-receiver fade statistics for imperfect phase correction are calculated in terms of the atmospheric Greenwood frequency fg, the adaptive optic servo loop cutoff frequency fc, and the ratio D/r0. From these statistics, link bit-error rate (BER) performance is calculated. The results reveal that conventional performance measures such as Strehl ratio or mean signal-to- noise ratio loss can significantly underestimate receiver BER losses. Only when the ratio fg/fc is 0.1 or less will communications losses be small (about 0.5 dB) over a wide range of D/r0.

  5. GROWING WHITE DWARFS TO THE CHANDRASEKHAR LIMIT: THE PARAMETER SPACE OF THE SINGLE DEGENERATE SN Ia CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hillman, Y.; Prialnik, D.; Kovetz, A.; Shara, M. M.

    2016-03-10

    Can a white dwarf (WD), accreting hydrogen-rich matter from a non-degenerate companion star, ever exceed the Chandrasekhar mass and explode as a SN Ia? We explore the range of accretion rates that allow a WD to secularly grow in mass, and derive limits on the accretion rate and on the initial mass that will allow it to reach 1.4M{sub ⊙}—the Chandrasekhar mass. We follow the evolution through a long series of hydrogen flashes, during which a thick helium shell accumulates. This determines the effective helium mass accretion rate for long-term, self-consistent evolutionary runs with helium flashes. We find that net mass accumulation always occurs despite helium flashes. Although the amount of mass lost during the first few helium shell flashes is a significant fraction of that accumulated prior to the flash, that fraction decreases with repeated helium shell flashes. Eventually no mass is ejected at all during subsequent flashes. This unexpected result occurs because of continual heating of the WD interior by the helium shell flashes near its surface. The effect of heating is to lower the electron degeneracy throughout the WD, especially in the outer layers. This key result yields helium burning that is quasi-steady state, instead of explosive. We thus find a remarkably large parameter space within which long-term, self-consistent simulations show that a WD can grow in mass and reach the Chandrasekhar limit, despite its helium flashes.

  6. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  7. Channel Identification Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits. PMID:23227035

  8. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  9. Ultra-large number of transmission channels in space division multiplexing using few-mode multi-core fiber with optimized air-hole-assisted double-cladding structure.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tatsuhiko; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2014-04-07

    The ultimate number of transmission channels in a fiber for the space division multiplexing (SDM) is shown by designing an air-hole-assisted double-cladding few-mode multi-core fiber. The propagation characteristics such as the dispersion and the mode field diameter are almost equalized for all cores owing to the double cladding structure, and the crosstalk between adjacent cores is extremely suppressed by the heterogeneous arrangement of cores and the air holes surrounding the cores. Optimizing the structure of the air-hole-assisted double-cladding, ultra dense core arrangements, e.g. 129 cores in a core accommodated area with 200 μm diameter, can be realized with low crosstalk of less than -34.3 dB at 100km transmission. In this design, each core supports 3 modes i.e. LP(01), LP(11a), and LP(11b) as the transmission channels, so that the number of transmission channels can be 3-hold greater than the number of cores. Therefore, 387 transmission channels can be realized.

  10. Enhanced real-space transfer in δ-doped GaAs/In0.1Ga0.9As/In0.25Ga0.75As two-step channel heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jan-Shing; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Lin, Wei; Lin, Yu-Shyan

    1997-10-01

    A two-step channel In0.1Ga0.9As/In0.25Ga0.75As heterostructure real-space transfer transistor grown by low-pressure metalorgonic chemical vapor deposition is implemented. By virtue of δ doping, shallow ohmic contacts and two-step channel, a high peak-to-valley current ratio up to 260 000 at 300 K can be obtained at low collector voltage (Vc=3 V). Moreover, from Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) measurements, we observe a positive persistent-photoconductivity effect and variations of quantum lifetime. The SdH result is in good agreement with the critical drained-to-source onset voltage of negative differential resistance.

  11. TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, Kartik; Montell, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) superfamily of cation channels is remarkable in that it displays greater diversity in activation mechanisms and selectivities than any other group of ion channels. The domain organizations of some TRP proteins are also unusual, as they consist of linked channel and enzyme domains. A unifying theme in this group is that TRP proteins play critical roles in sensory physiology, which include contributions to vision, taste, olfaction, hearing, touch, and thermo- and osmosensation. In addition, TRP channels enable individual cells to sense changes in their local environment. Many TRP channels are activated by a variety of different stimuli and function as signal integrators. The TRP superfamily is divided into seven subfamilies: the five group 1 TRPs (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, and TRPA) and two group 2 subfamilies (TRPP and TRPML). TRP channels are important for human health as mutations in at least four TRP channels underlie disease. PMID:17579562

  12. Characterization of the Twelve Channel 100/140 Micron Optical Fiber, Ribbon Cable and MTP Array Connector Assembly for Space Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Macmurphy, Shawn; Friedberg, Patricia; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Presented here is the second set of testing conducted by the Technology Validation Laboratory for Photonics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on the 12 optical fiber ribbon cable with MTP array connector for space flight environments. In the first set of testing the commercial 62.5/125 cable assembly was characterized using space flight parameters. The testing showed that the cable assembly would survive a typical space flight mission with the exception of a vacuum environment. Two enhancements were conducted to the existing technology to better suit the vacuum environment as well as the existing optoelectronics and increase the reliability of the assembly during vibration. The MTP assembly characterized here has a 100/140 optical commercial fiber and non outgassing connector and cable components. The characterization for this enhanced fiber optic cable assembly involved vibration, thermal and radiation testing. The data and results of this characterization study are presented which include optical in-situ testing.

  13. TRP Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd

    The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.

  14. Fracture channel waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  15. Channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides a comprehensive overview of channel catfish aquaculture. Sections include fish biology; commercial culture; culture facilities; production practices; water quality management; nutrition, feeding and feed formulation; infectious diseases; harvesting and processing; and the...

  16. Mechanosensitive Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinac, Boris

    Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.

  17. Preliminary optical design of a varied line-space spectrograph for the multi-channel detection of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra in the 280-550 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, B.S.; McKinney, W.R.; Hussain, Z.; Padmore, H.

    1996-07-01

    The optical design of a varied line-space spectrograph for the multi-channel recording of NEXAFS spectra in a single {open_quotes}snapshot{close_quotes} is proposed. The spectrograph is to be used with a bending magnet source on beamline 7.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Approximately 20 volts of spectra are simultaneously imaged across a small square of material sample at each respective K absorption edge of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Photoelectrons emitted from the material sample will be collected by an electron imaging microscope, the view field of which determines the sampling size. The sample also forms the exit slit of the optical system. This dispersive method of NEXAFS data acquisition is three to four orders of magnitude faster than the conventional method of taking data point-to-point using scanning of the grating. The proposed design is presented along with the design method and supporting SHADOW raytrace analysis.

  18. Performance analysis of free-space optical systems employing binary polarization shift keying signaling over gamma-gamma channel with pointing errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Prabu; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2014-07-01

    Free-space optics (FSO) has become one of the prominent solutions to the bandwidth limitation of radio frequency links. But, the FSO system performance is purely dependent on atmospheric conditions. Atmospheric turbulence, scintillation, and pointing errors are the major deteriorations in FSO communications. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) or spatial diversity structure can improve the performance of the FSO system. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the MIMO FSO system employing binary polarization shift keying using optimal combining is analyzed. We have derived a closed form expression for the BER of the system, and the results are compared against the single input single output system.

  19. Study of a MHEMT heterostructure with an In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As channel MBE-grown on a GaAs substrate using reciprocal space mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshin, A. N. Bugaev, A. S.; Ermakova, M. A.; Ruban, O. A.

    2015-08-15

    The crystallographic characteristics of the design elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility (MHEMT) heterostructure with an In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As channel are determined based on reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle from the (001) plane of 2° and consists of a stepped metamorphic buffer containing six layers including an inverse step, a high-temperature buffer layer with constant composition, and active HEMT layers. The InAs content in the layers of the metamorphic buffer is varied from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space maps are constructed for the (004) symmetric reflection and (224)+ asymmetric reflection. It is found that the heterostructure layers are characterized both by a tilt angle relative to the plane of the (001) substrate and a rotation angle around the [001] axis. The tilt angle of the layer increases as the InAs concentration in the layer increases. It is shown that a high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition has the largest degree of relaxation compared with all other layers of the heterostructure.

  20. Exact error rate analysis of equal gain and selection diversity for coherent free-space optical systems on strong turbulence channels.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mingbo; Cheng, Julian; Holzman, Jonathan F

    2010-06-21

    Exact error rate performances are studied for coherent free-space optical communication systems under strong turbulence with diversity reception. Equal gain and selection diversity are considered as practical schemes to mitigate turbulence. The exact bit-error rate for binary phase-shift keying and outage probability are developed for equal gain diversity. Analytical expressions are obtained for the bit-error rate of differential phase-shift keying and asynchronous frequency-shift keying, as well as for outage probability using selection diversity. Furthermore, we provide the closed-form expressions of diversity order and coding gain with both diversity receptions. The analytical results are verified by computer simulations and are suitable for rapid error rates calculation.

  1. The effect of structural design parameters on FPGA-based feed-forward space-time trellis coding-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing channel encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passas, Georgios; Freear, Steven; Fawcett, Darren

    2010-08-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based feed-forward space-time trellis code (FFSTTC) encoders can be synthesised as very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) designs. Evaluation of their FPGA implementation can lead to conclusions that help a designer to decide the optimum implementation, given the encoder structural parameters. VLSI architectures based on 1-bit multipliers and look-up tables (LUTs) are compared in terms of FPGA slices and block RAMs (area), as well as in terms of minimum clock period (speed). Area and speed graphs versus encoder memory order are provided for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 8 phase shift keying (8-PSK) modulation and two transmit antennas, revealing best implementation under these conditions. The effect of number of modulation bits and transmit antennas on the encoder implementation complexity is also investigated.

  2. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  3. Adaptive tracking of narrowband HF channel response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Arikan, O.

    2003-12-01

    Estimation of channel impulse response constitutes a first step in computation of scattering function, channel equalization, elimination of multipath, and optimum detection and identification of transmitted signals through the HF channel. Due to spatial and temporal variations, HF channel impulse response has to be estimated adaptively. Based on developed state-space and measurement models, an adaptive Kalman filter is proposed to track the HF channel variation in time. Robust methods of initialization and adaptively adjusting the noise covariance in the system dynamics are proposed. In simulated examples under good, moderate and poor ionospheric conditions, it is observed that the adaptive Kalman filter based channel estimator provides reliable channel estimates and can track the variation of the channel in time with high accuracy.

  4. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  5. Starburst Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies.

    In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out.

    Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  6. Nonlinear channelizer.

    PubMed

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  7. Channel Rehabilitation: Processes, Design, and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    and Meyer (1979) presented the channel classification shown in Figure 3.12, which is based on channel planform, sediment load, energy , and relative...of the stable channels used in the data base . Figure 6.16 depicts the relationship between the energy slope and the computed sediment concentration...structure spacing procedure would be to select an energy slope based on the desired sediment transport concentration. The sediment transport

  8. The throughput of packet broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramson, N.

    1977-01-01

    A unified presentation of packet broadcasting theory is presented. Section II introduces the theory of packet broadcasting data networks. Section III provides some theoretical results on the performance of a packet broadcasting network when users have a variety of data rates. Section IV deals with packet broadcasting networks distributed in space, and in Section V some properties of power-limited packet broadcasting channels are derived, showing that the throughput of such channels can approach that of equivalent point-to-point channels.

  9. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation

  10. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to

  11. Quartz Channel Fabrication for Electrokinetically Driven Separations

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D.W.; Ashby, C.I.H.; Bailey, C.G.; Kravitz, S.H., Warren, M.E.; Matzke, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    For well resolved electrokinetic separation, we L tilize crystalline quartz to micromachine a uniformly packe Q&iKLmnel. Packing features are posts 5 Vm on a side with:} pm spacing and etched 42 Vm deep. In addition to anisotropic wet etch characteristics for micromachining, quartz propmties are compatible with chemical soiutioits, ekctrokinetic high voltage operation, and stationary phase film depositions. To seal these channels, we employ a room temperature silicon-oxynhride deposition to forma membrane, that is subsequently coated for mechanical stability. Using this technique, particulate issues and global warp, that make large area wafer bon ding methods difficult, are avoided, and a room temperature process, in contrast to high temperature bonding techniques, accommodate preprocessing of metal films for electrical interconnect. After sealing channels, a number of macro-assembly steps are required to attach a micro-optical detection system and fluid interconnects. Keywords: microcharmel, integrated channel, micromachined channel, packed channel, electrokinetic channel, eleetrophoretic channel

  12. Demonstration of in-service wavelength division multiplexing optical-signal-to-noise ratio performance monitoring and operating guidelines for coherent data channels with different modulation formats and various baud rates.

    PubMed

    Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Khaleghi, Salman; Daab, Wajih; Almaiman, Ahmed; Ziyadi, Morteza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Rogawski, Devora; Tur, Moshe; Touch, Joseph D; Vusirikala, Vijay; Zhao, Wendy; Willner, Alan E

    2014-03-15

    We demonstrated a delay-line interferometer (DLI)-based, optical-signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring scheme of 100  Gbit/s polarization multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PM-QPSK) four-channel WDM at 50-GHz International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid with <0.5  dB error for signals with up to 26 dB of actual OSNR. We also demonstrated data format transparency and baud rate tunability of the OSNR monitor by measuring the OSNR for a 200  Gbit/s PM-16-QAM (25-Gbaud) signal and a 200  Gbit/s PM-QPSK (50-Gbaud) signal. We also explored and studied different monitor parameters, including the shape of the filter spectrum, the bandwidth of the filter, DLI delay, and DLI phase-detuning to determine the design guidelines for a desired level of accuracy for the OSNR monitor in an optical network.

  13. Eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Arnadóttir, Jóhanna; Chalfie, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensitive ion channels are gated directly by physical stimuli and transduce these stimuli into electrical signals. Several criteria must apply for a channel to be considered mechanically gated. Mechanosensitive channels from bacterial systems have met these criteria, but few eukaryotic channels have been confirmed by the same standards. Recent work has suggested or confirmed that diverse types of channels, including TRP channels, K(2P) channels, MscS-like proteins, and DEG/ENaC channels, are mechanically gated. Several studies point to the importance of the plasma membrane for channel gating, but intracellular and/or extracellular structures may also be required.

  14. Channels and Erosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 20 June 2003

    The dissected and eroded channel observed in this THEMIS image taken of plains materials southwest of the volcano Elysium Mons shows typical erosional islands and depositional features. The interesting thing about this channel is that it appears to start out of nowhere. The MOLA context image shows that the channel originates from a fissure within the ground, whose origin is likely volcanic, but may also be related to volatile processes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.5, Longitude 126.8 East (233.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Channel to Nowhere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 May 2003

    A channel-like feature roughly halfway between the Isidis Basin and Elysium Mons shows no connection to either a source region or terminal basin. It may be that this feature is not a channel at all and has instead arisen from the erosion of a once continuous layer of material into remnants that mimic a channel.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.9, Longitude 105 East (255) meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Stochastic Wireless Channel Modeling, Estimation and Identification from Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; Djouadi, Seddik M; Li, Yanyan

    2008-07-01

    This paper is concerned with stochastic modeling of wireless fading channels, parameter estimation, and system identification from measurement data. Wireless channels are represented by stochastic state-space form, whose parameters and state variables are estimated using the expectation maximization algorithm and Kalman filtering, respectively. The latter are carried out solely from received signal measurements. These algorithms estimate the channel inphase and quadrature components and identify the channel parameters recursively. The proposed algorithm is tested using measurement data, and the results are presented.

  17. Disease causing mutations of calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, Nancy M; Beam, Kurt G

    2008-01-01

    Calcium ions play an important role in the electrical excitability of nerve and muscle, as well as serving as a critical second messenger for diverse cellular functions. As a result, mutations of genes encoding calcium channels may have subtle affects on channel function yet strongly perturb cellular behavior. This review discusses the effects of calcium channel mutations on channel function, the pathological consequences for cellular physiology, and possible links between altered channel function and disease. Many cellular functions are directly or indirectly regulated by the free cytosolic calcium concentration. Thus, calcium levels must be very tightly regulated in time and space. Intracellular calcium ions are essential second messengers and play a role in many functions including, action potential generation, neurotransmitter and hormone release, muscle contraction, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, calcium-dependent gene expression, synaptic plasticity and cell death. Calcium ions that control cell activity can be supplied to the cell cytosol from two major sources: the extracellular space or intracellular stores. Voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels are the primary way in which Ca(2+) ions enter from the extracellular space. The sarcoplasm reticulum (SR) in muscle and the endoplasmic reticulum in non-muscle cells are the main intracellular Ca(2+) stores: the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and inositol-triphosphate receptor channels are the major contributors of calcium release from internal stores.

  18. Minio Vallis Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image is of the southern reach of Minio Vallis, a small fluvial channel located near the larger Mangala Vallis. Both channels are in the Tharsis region, in the area west of Arsia Mons and southeast of Medusae Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 208.1 East (151.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Channel Wall Landslides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Electroosmotic Flow in Nanofluidic Channels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of electroosmotic mobilities in nanofluidic channels with rectangular cross sections and compare our results with theory. Nanofluidic channels were milled directly into borosilicate glass between two closely spaced microchannels with a focused ion beam instrument, and the nanochannels had half-depths (h) of 27, 54, and 108 nm and the same half-width of 265 nm. We measured electroosmotic mobilities in NaCl solutions from 0.1 to 500 mM that have Debye lengths (κ–1) from 30 to 0.4 nm, respectively. The experimental electroosmotic mobilities compare quantitatively to mobilities calculated from a nonlinear solution of the Poisson–Boltzmann equation for channels with a parallel-plate geometry. For the calculations, ζ-potentials measured in a microchannel with a half-depth of 2.5 μm are used and range from −6 to −73 mV for 500 to 0.1 mM NaCl, respectively. For κh > 50, the Smoluchowski equation accurately predicts electroosmotic mobilities in the nanochannels. However, for κh < 10, the electrical double layer extends into the nanochannels, and due to confinement within the channels, the average electroosmotic mobilities decrease. At κh ≈ 4, the electroosmotic mobilities in the 27, 54, and 108 nm channels exhibit maxima, and at 0.1 mM NaCl, the electroosmotic mobility in the 27 nm channel (κh = 1) is 5-fold lower than the electroosmotic mobility in the 2.5 μm channel (κh = 100). PMID:25365680

  1. The Psychology of Channeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretically analyzes phenomenon of channeling from perspective of C. G. Jung's analytic psychology. Hypothesizes that contact with otherworldly spiritual beings claimed by channelers is actually projected contact with contents of channeler's own unconscious mind. Suggests that channelers seek more constructive ways of contacting their…

  2. Channel nut tool

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Marvin

    2016-01-12

    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  3. Elliptical Muon Helical Cooling Channel Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, S. A.; Flanagan, G.; Lopes, M. L.; Yonehara, K.

    2013-09-01

    A helical cooling channel (HCC) consisting of a pressurized gas absorber imbedded in a magnetic channel that provides solenoid, helical dipole and helical quadrupole fields has shown considerable promise in providing six-dimensional phase space reduction for muon beams. The most effective approach to implementing the desired magnetic field is a helical solenoid (HS) channel composed of short solenoid coils arranged in a helical pattern. The HS channel along with an external solenoid allows the B$_z$ and B$_{\\phi}$ components along the reference orbit to be set to any desired values. To set dB$_{\\phi}$/dr to the desired value for optimum focusing requires an additional variable to tune. We shall show that using elliptical shaped coils in the HS channel allows the flexibility to achieve the desired dB$_{\\phi}$/dr on the reference orbit without significant change to B$_z$ and B$_{\\phi}$.

  4. Microlayer during boiling in narrow slot channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diev, Mikhail D.; Leontiev, Alexander I.

    1997-01-01

    An international space station Alpha will have a two-phase thermal control system. Boiling of a liquid ammonia will be a process of heat collection in evaporative heat exchangers. Unfortunately, only little data is available for boiling heat transfer in microgravity. Geometries of boiling channels working good in normal gravity are not appropriate in microgravity, and special means should be worked out to avoid some undesired events. From this point of view, the narrow slot channels may be assumed as a promising geometry for microgravity operation. During boiling in narrow slots, the vapor bubbles are flattened between the channel walls. The vapor phase and the channel wall are separated by a thin liquid film which is known as a microlayer. The paper presents the experimental results compared to the theoretical analysis, the paper also shows the narrow slot channels as a perspective configuration for microgravity applications.

  5. Microfluidic channel fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Don W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    A new channel structure for microfluidic systems and process for fabricating this structure. In contrast to the conventional practice of fabricating fluid channels as trenches or grooves in a substrate, fluid channels are fabricated as thin walled raised structures on a substrate. Microfluidic devices produced in accordance with the invention are a hybrid assembly generally consisting of three layers: 1) a substrate that can or cannot be an electrical insulator; 2) a middle layer, that is an electrically conducting material and preferably silicon, forms the channel walls whose height defines the channel height, joined to and extending from the substrate; and 3) a top layer, joined to the top of the channels, that forms a cover for the channels. The channels can be defined by photolithographic techniques and are produced by etching away the material around the channel walls.

  6. Cholesterol and Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena; Fang, Yun; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Romanenko, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A variety of ion channels, including members of all major ion channel families, have been shown to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol and partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains. In general, several types of cholesterol effects have been described. The most common effect is suppression of channel activity by an increase in membrane cholesterol, an effect that was described for several types of inwardly-rectifying K+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels, Ca+2 sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels, N-type voltage-gated Ca+2 channels and volume-regulated anion channels. In contrast, several types of ion channels, such as epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and Transient Receptor Potential channels, as well as some of the types of inwardly-rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels were shown to be inhibited by cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol was also shown to alter the kinetic properties and current-voltage dependence of several voltage-gated channels. Finally, maintaining membrane cholesterol level is required for coupling ion channels to signalling cascades. In terms of the mechanisms, three general mechanisms have been proposed: (i) specific interactions between cholesterol and the channel protein, (ii) changes in the physical properties of the membrane bilayer and (iii) maintaining the scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The goal of this review is to describe systematically the role of cholesterol in regulation of the major types of ion channels and to discuss these effects in the context of the models proposed. PMID:20213557

  7. Fading channel simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to high frequency (HF) radio signal propagation through fading channels and, more particularly, to simulation of fading channels in order to characterize HF radio system performance in transmitting and receiving signals through such fading channels. Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  8. Channel Floor Yardangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  9. 1x4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on free-standing silicon racetrack resonators.

    PubMed

    Dong, Po; Qian, Wei; Liang, Hong; Shafiiha, Roshanak; Wang, Xin; Feng, Dazeng; Li, Guoliang; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V; Asghari, Mehdi

    2010-11-22

    We present a 1x4 reconfigurable demultiplexing filter based on cascaded thermally tunable silicon racetrack resonators with ultralow tuning powers. The use of free-standing silicon resonators with undercut structures significantly reduces the tuning power, with a figure of ~2.9 mW per free spectral range. Even with the presence of thermal crosstalk between two adjacent resonators, we demonstrate multiplexing functionality for channel spacings of 200 GHz, 100 GHz, and 50 GHz, with channel wavelengths aligned to International Telecommunication Union (ITU) grid specifications. Crosstalk values for 200 GHz and 50 GHz channel spacings are less than -20 dB and -11.5 dB, respectively. The total power to achieve this performance is in the range of 1.84 mW to 2.4 mW. Such low-power, compact, and reconfigurable filters are particularly useful in chip-scale optical interconnects.

  10. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    available surface micromachinable materials. For many potential applications, the hot filament CVD method demonstrated in this work is quite enabling, since it provides a much less expensive method than microwave CVD based alternatives for depositing doped CVD diamond over large wafers (e.g., 8") for batch fabrication. The first three methods described so far focus on a single vibrating disk resonator and improve its electrical equivalent modeling, C x/Co, and Q. Once we craft the resonator that meets the challenging design requirements of RF channel-select filters, the last method presents a design hierarchy that achieves the desired filter response with a specific center frequency, bandwidth, and filter termination resistance. The design procedure culminates in specific values for all mechanical geometry variables necessary for the filter layout, such as disk radii, and beam widths; and process design variables such as resonator material thickness and capacitive actuation gap spacing. Finally, the experimental results introduce a 39nm-gap capacitive transducer, voltage-controlled frequency tuning, and a stress relieving coupled array design that enable a 0.09% bandwidth 223.4 MHz channel-select filter with only 2.7dB of in-band insertion loss and 50dB rejection of out-of-band interferers. This amount of rejection is more than 23dB better than previous capacitive-gap transduced filter designs that did not benefit from sub-50nm gaps. It also comes in tandem with a 20dB shape factor of 2.7 realized by a hierarchical mechanical circuit design utilizing 206 micromechanical circuit elements, all contained in an area footprint of only 600mumx420mum. The key to such low insertion loss for this tiny percent bandwidth is Q's>8,800 supplied by polysilicon disk resonators employing for the first time capacitive transducer gaps small enough to generate coupling strengths of C x/Co ˜0.1%, which is a 6.1x improvement over previous efforts. The filter structure utilizes electrical

  11. Median-plane sound localization as a function of the number of spectral channels using a channel vocoder.

    PubMed

    Goupell, Matthew J; Majdak, Piotr; Laback, Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Using a vocoder, median-plane sound localization performance was measured in eight normal-hearing listeners as a function of the number of spectral channels. The channels were contiguous and logarithmically spaced in the range from 0.3 to 16 kHz. Acutely testing vocoded stimuli showed significantly worse localization compared to noises and 100 pulses click trains, both of which were tested after feedback training. However, localization for the vocoded stimuli was better than chance. A second experiment was performed using two different 12-channel spacings for the vocoded stimuli, now including feedback training. One spacing was from experiment 1. The second spacing (called the speech-localization spacing) assigned more channels to the frequency range associated with speech. There was no significant difference in localization between the two spacings. However, even with training, localizing 12-channel vocoded stimuli remained worse than localizing virtual wideband noises by 4.8 degrees in local root-mean-square error and 5.2% in quadrant error rate. Speech understanding for the speech-localization spacing was not significantly different from that for a typical spacing used by cochlear-implant users. These experiments suggest that current cochlear implants have a sufficient number of spectral channels for some vertical-plane sound localization capabilities, albeit worse than normal-hearing listeners, without loss of speech understanding.

  12. Median-plane sound localization as a function of the number of spectral channels using a channel vocoder

    PubMed Central

    Goupell, Matthew J.; Majdak, Piotr; Laback, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Using a vocoder, median-plane sound localization performance was measured in eight normal-hearing listeners as a function of the number of spectral channels. The channels were contiguous and logarithmically spaced in the range from 0.3 to 16 kHz. Acutely testing vocoded stimuli showed significantly worse localization compared to noises and 100 pulse∕s click trains, both of which were tested after feedback training. However, localization for the vocoded stimuli was better than chance. A second experiment was performed using two different 12-channel spacings for the vocoded stimuli, now including feedback training. One spacing was from experiment 1. The second spacing (called the speech-localization spacing) assigned more channels to the frequency range associated with speech. There was no significant difference in localization between the two spacings. However, even with training, localizing 12-channel vocoded stimuli remained worse than localizing virtual wideband noises by 4.8° in local root-mean-square error and 5.2% in quadrant error rate. Speech understanding for the speech-localization spacing was not significantly different from that for a typical spacing used by cochlear-implant users. These experiments suggest that current cochlear implants have a sufficient number of spectral channels for some vertical-plane sound localization capabilities, albeit worse than normal-hearing listeners, without loss of speech understanding. PMID:20136221

  13. Quasi-Anonymous Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    QUASI- ANONYMOUS CHANNELS Ira S. Moskowitz Center for High Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC...Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA Abstract Although both anonymity and covert...channels are part of the larger topic of information hiding, there also exists an intrinsic linkage between anonymity and covert channels. This linkage

  14. On the Evolution of Voltage Gated Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Michael

    2006-03-01

    This talk summarizes some ideas, calculations and data analysis/collection surrounding the structure and evolution of ion channels, in particular voltage gated sodium channels. The great advantage of ion channels is that they are individual proteins whose function has long been known and is readily inferred through voltage measurements. Their evolution can be tracked through the growing data base of sequences. Kinetic data is readily available, showing important differences between nearly identical channels. I will discuss our efforts to collate available functional data on voltage gated sodium channels into an 'ion channel property space' . We then use this dataset to infer underlying kinetic models, and to create evolutionary trees based on the function of the channels. Finally, I will discuss our endeavors to how ion channels evolved to be the way they are: Examples of questions we would like to answer include: to what extent do design principles dictate the details of the kinetic schemes of ion channels, such as (a) the symmetry of the sodium and potassium channels (or lack thereof), as reflected in their kinetic schemes ; (b) the coupling of sodium channel kinetics to potassium channel kinetics; or (c) activation/inactivation of the channels themselves.

  15. The Deep Space Network: A Radio Communications Instrument for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Stelzried, C. T.; Noreen, G. K.; Slobin, S. D.; Petty, S. M.; Trowbridge, D. L.; Donnelly, H.; Kinman, P. W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Burow, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is to serve as a communications instrument for deep space exploration, providing communications between the spacecraft and the ground facilities. The uplink communications channel provides instructions or commands to the spacecraft. The downlink communications channel provides command verification and spacecraft engineering and science instrument payload data.

  16. Ion channels in plants

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In his recent opus magnum review paper published in the October issue of Physiology Reviews, Rainer Hedrich summarized the field of plant ion channels.1 He started from the earliest electric recordings initiated by Charles Darwin of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula,1,2 known as Venus flytrap, and covered the topic extensively up to the most recent discoveries on Shaker-type potassium channels, anion channels of SLAC/SLAH families, and ligand-activated channels of glutamate receptor-like type (GLR) and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGC).1 PMID:23221742

  17. Cardiac ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552

  18. Incompatibility of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki

    2017-03-01

    Two quantum channels are called compatible if they can be obtained as marginals from a single broadcasting channel; otherwise they are incompatible. We derive a characterization of the compatibility relation in terms of concatenation and conjugation, and we show that all pairs of sufficiently noisy quantum channels are compatible. The complement relation of incompatibility can be seen as a unifying aspect for several important quantum features, such as impossibility of universal broadcasting and unavoidable measurement disturbance. We show that the concepts of entanglement breaking channel and antidegradable channel can be completely characterized in terms compatibility.

  19. On 1-qubit channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, Armin

    2001-09-01

    The entropy HT (ρ) of a state with respect to a channel T and the Holevo capacity of the channel require the solution of difficult variational problems. For a class of 1-qubit channels, which contains all the extremal ones, the problem can be significantly simplified by attaching a unique Hermitian antilinear operator ϑ to every channel of the considered class. The channel's concurrence CT can be expressed by ϑ and turns out to be a flat roof. This allows to write down an explicit expression for HT. Its maximum would give the Holevo (one-shot) capacity.

  20. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  1. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sanjeev S; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-09-23

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for various physiological processes such as the conscious sensations of touch and hearing, and the unconscious sensation of blood flow. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels.

  2. Electrophysiological channel interactions using focused multipolar stimulation for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Shefin S.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Wise, Andrew K.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Fallon, James B.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Speech intelligibility with existing multichannel cochlear implants (CIs) is thought to be limited by poor spatial selectivity and interactions between CI channels caused by overlapping activation with monopolar (MP) stimulation. Our previous studies have shown that focused multipolar (FMP) and tripolar (TP) stimulation produce more restricted neural activation in the inferior colliculus (IC), compared to MP stimulation. Approach. This study explored interactions in the IC produced by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels. We recorded multi-unit neural activity in the IC of anaesthetized cats with normal and severely degenerated spiral ganglion neuron populations in response to FMP, TP and MP stimulation from a 14 channel CI. Stimuli were applied to a ‘fixed’ CI channel, chosen toward the middle of the cochlear electrode array, and the effects of simultaneously stimulating a more apical ‘test’ CI channel were measured as a function of spatial separation between the two stimulation channels and stimulus level of the fixed channel. Channel interactions were quantified by changes in neural responses and IC threshold (i.e., threshold shift) elicited by simultaneous stimulation of two CI channels, compared to stimulation of the test channel alone. Main results. Channel interactions were significantly lower for FMP and TP than for MP stimulation (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed between FMP and TP stimulation. With MP stimulation, threshold shifts increased with decreased inter-electrode spacing and increased stimulus levels of the fixed channel. For FMP and TP stimulation, channel interactions were found to be similar for different inter-electrode spacing and stimulus levels of the fixed channel. Significance. The present study demonstrates how the degree of channel interactions in a CI can be controlled using stimulation configurations such as FMP and TP; such knowledge is essential in enhancing CI function in complex

  3. Nondecaying hydrodynamic interactions along narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiunas, Karolis; Pagliara, Stefano; Lauga, Eric; Lister, John R.; Keyser, Ulrich

    Particle-particle interactions are of paramount importance in every multi-body system as they determine the collective behaviour and coupling strength. Many well-known interactions like electro-static, van der Waals or screened Coulomb, decay exponentially or with negative powers of the particle spacing r. Similarly, hydrodynamic interactions between particles undergoing Brownian motion decay as 1 / r in bulk, and are assumed to decay in small channels. Such interactions are ubiquitous in biological and technological systems. Here we confine two particles undergoing Brownian motion in narrow, microfluidic channels and study their coupling through hydrodynamic interactions. Our experiments show that the hydrodynamic particle-particle interactions are distance-independent in these channels. This finding is of fundamental importance for the interpretation of experiments where dense mixtures of particles or molecules diffuse through finite length, water-filled channels or pore networks.

  4. Monitoring system determines amplitude and time of vibration channel peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.

    1966-01-01

    Adaptive scheme advocated in this innovation will reduce processing time and is applicable to environmental testing and to space-borne or aircraft-borne vibration monitoring devices requiring a large number of channels.

  5. 78. PIPING CHANNEL FOR FUEL LOADING, FUEL TOPPING, COMPRESSED AIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. PIPING CHANNEL FOR FUEL LOADING, FUEL TOPPING, COMPRESSED AIR, GASEOUS NITROGEN, AND HELIUM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. A radio continuum survey of southern E and SO galaxies at 2.7 GHz and 5.0 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, E. M.

    A radio survey has been conducted of about 250 E and SO galaxies which makes possible, since the distances of all the radio galaxies are known, a discussion of such absolute quantities as radio power and optical luminosity. Use is made of the fractional luminosity function defined by Hummel (1981). The results of the present study indicate that, unlike the case of spiral galaxies, the galaxy environment appears to have little influence on the formation of radio sources in elliptical and SO galaxies, and there is no evidence for excess radio emission from paired galaxies.

  7. Cholesterol and Kir channels

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, Irena

    2009-01-01

    To date, most of the major types of Kir channels, Kir2s, Kir3s, Kir4s and Kir6s, have been found to partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains and/or to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol. Surprisingly, however, in spite of the structural similarities between different Kirs, effects of cholesterol on different types of Kir channels vary from cholesterol-induced decrease in the current density (Kir2 channels) to the loss of channel activity by cholesterol depletion (Kir4 channels) and loss of channel coupling by different mediators (Kir3 and Kir6 channels). Recently, we have gained initial insights into the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol-induced suppression Kir2 channels, but mechanisms underlying cholesterol sensitivity of other Kir channels are mostly unknown. The goal of this review is to present a summary of the current knowledge of the distinct effects of cholesterol on different types of Kir channels in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19548316

  8. Fading channel simulator

    DOEpatents

    Argo, Paul E.; Fitzgerald, T. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.

  9. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  10. Dual channel electrostimulation in pain.

    PubMed

    Devulder, J; De Laat, M; Rolly, G

    1998-06-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is an accepted treatment for neuropathic pain. Technical advances in electrode design and better patient selection have led to better and sustained pain control by these devices. Multilead electrical stimulation is the latest innovation in implantable electrostimulation (Mattrix, Medtronic Minneapolis, USA). Two combined multipolar leads connected to a radiofrequency--coupled system can deliver electrical pulses of various amplitudes and pulse widths at different dermatome levels. Single stimulation is applied with different electrode configurations using both electrodes with identical stimulation parameters. In dual stimulation, the amplitude and the pulse width can vary between the electrode configurations. Dual channel stimulation helps steering stimulation paresthesias. Three patients illustrate the technical advantages of dual channel electrostimulation in the pain relief at multiple sites. Two patients with failed back surgery syndrome obtained more easily stimulation-induced paresthesias in the back and the legs. Dual channel stimulation is cost saving in patients implanted with two electrodes. This is presented in a third patient with an electrode in the thalamus--as pain treatment for cervicobrachialgia and a second in the epidural space--as treatment for the failed back surgery syndrome. These electrodes were connected to the Mattrix stimulator.

  11. R type anion channel

    PubMed Central

    Diatloff, Eugene; Peyronnet, Rémi; Colcombet, Jean; Thomine, Sébastien; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Plant genomes code for channels involved in the transport of cations, anions and uncharged molecules through membranes. Although the molecular identity of channels for cations and uncharged molecules has progressed rapidly in the recent years, the molecular identity of anion channels has lagged behind. Electrophysiological studies have identified S-type (slow) and R-type (rapid) anion channels. In this brief review, we summarize the proposed functions of the R-type anion channels which, like the S-type, were first characterized by electrophysiology over 20 years ago, but unlike the S-type, have still yet to be cloned. We show that the R-type channel can play multiple roles. PMID:21051946

  12. Switchable topological phonon channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süsstrunk, Roman; Zimmermann, Philipp; Huber, Sebastian D.

    2017-01-01

    Guiding energy deliberately is one of the central elements in engineering and information processing. It is often achieved by designing specific transport channels in a suitable material. Topological metamaterials offer a way to construct stable and efficient channels of unprecedented versatility. However, due to their stability it can be tricky to terminate them or to temporarily shut them off without changing the material properties massively. While a lot of effort was put into realizing mechanical topological metamaterials, almost no works deal with manipulating their edge channels in sight of applications. Here, we take a step in this direction, by taking advantage of local symmetry breaking potentials to build a switchable topological phonon channel.

  13. Selfcomplementary Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaczyński, Marek; Roga, Wojciech; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-10-01

    Selfcomplementary quantum channels are characterized by such an interaction between the principal quantum system and the environment that leads to the same output states of both interacting systems. These maps can describe approximate quantum copy machines, as perfect copying of an unknown quantum state is not possible due to the celebrated no-cloning theorem. We provide here a parametrization of a large class of selfcomplementary channels and analyze their properties. Selfcomplementary channels preserve some residual coherences and residual entanglement. Investigating some measures of non-Markovianity, we show that time evolution under selfcomplementary channels is highly non-Markovian.

  14. Ion channels in asthma.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén

    2011-09-23

    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  15. Mobility of protozoa through narrow channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Shor, Leslie M; LeBoeuf, Eugene J; Wikswo, John P; Kosson, David S

    2005-08-01

    Microbes in the environment are profoundly affected by chemical and physical heterogeneities occurring on a spatial scale of millimeters to micrometers. Physical refuges are critical for maintaining stable bacterial populations in the presence of high predation pressure by protozoa. The effects of microscale heterogeneity, however, are difficult to replicate and observe using conventional experimental techniques. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of spatial constraints on the mobility of six species of marine protozoa. Microfluidic devices were created with small channels similar in size to pore spaces in soil or sediment systems. Individuals from each species of protozoa tested were able to rapidly discover and move within these channels. The time required for locating the channel entrance from the source well increased with protozoan size and decreased with channel height. Protozoa of every species were able to pass constrictions with dimensions equal to or smaller than the individual's unconstrained cross-sectional area. Channel geometry was also an important factor affecting protozoan mobility. Linear rates of motion for various species of protozoa varied by channel size. In relatively wide channels, typical rates of motion were 300 to 500 microm s(-1) (or about 1 m per hour). As the channel dimensions decreased, however, motilities slowed more than an order of magnitude to 20 microm s(-1). Protozoa were consistently observed to exhibit several strategies for successfully traversing channel reductions. The empirical results and qualitative observations resulting from this research help define the physical limitations on protozoan grazing, a critical process affecting microbes in the environment.

  16. Pannexin 1 channels in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Cea, Luis A; Riquelme, Manuel A; Vargas, Anibal A; Urrutia, Carolina; Sáez, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Normal myotubes and adult innervated skeletal myofibers express the glycoprotein pannexin1 (Panx1). Six of them form a "gap junction hemichannel-like" structure that connects the cytoplasm with the extracellular space; here they will be called Panx1 channels. These are poorly selective channels permeable to ions, small metabolic substrate, and signaling molecules. So far little is known about the role of Panx1 channels in muscles but skeletal muscles of Panx1(-/-) mice do not show an evident phenotype. Innervated adult fast and slow skeletal myofibers show Panx1 reactivity in close proximity to dihydropyridine receptors in the sarcolemma of T-tubules. These Panx1 channels are activated by electrical stimulation and extracellular ATP. Panx1 channels play a relevant role in potentiation of muscle contraction because they allow release of ATP and uptake of glucose, two molecules required for this response. In support of this notion, the absence of Panx1 abrogates the potentiation of muscle contraction elicited by repetitive electrical stimulation, which is reversed by exogenously applied ATP. Phosphorylation of Panx1 Thr and Ser residues might be involved in Panx1 channel activation since it is enhanced during potentiation of muscle contraction. Under denervation, Panx1 levels are upregulated and this partially explains the reduction in electrochemical gradient, however its absence does not prevent denervation-induced atrophy but prevents the higher oxidative state. Panx1 also forms functional channels at the cell surface of myotubes and their functional state has been associated with intracellular Ca(2+) signals and regulation of myotube plasticity evoked by electrical stimulation. We proposed that Panx1 channels participate as ATP channels and help to keep a normal oxidative state in skeletal muscles.

  17. Deep space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Srinivasan, Meera; Shaw, Matthew; Piazzolla, Sabino; Wright, Malcolm W.; Farr, William H.

    2016-03-01

    A number of laser communication link demonstrations from near Earth distances extending out to lunar ranges have been remarkably successful, demonstrating the augmented channel capacity that is accessible with the use of lasers for communications. The next hurdle on the path to extending laser communication and its benefits throughout the solar system and beyond is to demonstrate deep-space laser communication links. In this paper, concepts and technology development being advanced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in order to enable deep-space link demonstrations to ranges of approximately 3 AU in the next decade, will be discussed.

  18. A linearization of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Tanner

    2015-06-01

    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  19. Ion channels in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2010-08-01

    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  20. Quantum circuit design for accurate simulation of qudit channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Sheng; Sanders, Barry C.

    2015-04-01

    We construct a classical algorithm that designs quantum circuits for algorithmic quantum simulation of arbitrary qudit channels on fault-tolerant quantum computers within a pre-specified error tolerance with respect to diamond-norm distance. The classical algorithm is constructed by decomposing a quantum channel into a convex combination of generalized extreme channels by convex optimization of a set of nonlinear coupled algebraïc equations. The resultant circuit is a randomly chosen generalized extreme channel circuit whose run-time is logarithmic with respect to the error tolerance and quadratic with respect to Hilbert space dimension, which requires only a single ancillary qudit plus classical dits.

  1. Software-Defined Radio for Space-to-Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Ken; Jih, Cindy; Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Abbott, Ben A.; Fritz, Justin A.

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes the Space- to-Space Communications System (SSCS) Software- Defined Radio (SDR) research project to determine the most appropriate method for creating flexible and reconfigurable radios to implement wireless communications channels for space vehicles so that fewer radios are required, and commonality in hardware and software architecture can be leveraged for future missions. The ability to reconfigure the SDR through software enables one radio platform to be reconfigured to interoperate with many different waveforms. This means a reduction in the number of physical radio platforms necessary to support a space mission s communication requirements, thus decreasing the total size, weight, and power needed for a mission.

  2. Basaltic Lava Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.

    2004-12-01

    In Hawaii, the mode of lava transport - through open channels or through insulating lava tubes - determines the thermal, rheological, and emplacement history of a lava flow. Most Hawaiian lavas are erupted at near-liquidus temperatures and are therefore crystal-poor; lava transport through open channels allows rapid cooling and consequent rapid increases in lava crystallinity. Solidified aa flows resulting from channelized flow are typically fine-grained throughout their thickness, indicating cooling of the entire flow thickness during transport. In contrast, transport of lava through insulating tubes permits flow over long distances with little cooling. Flows emerging from such tubes typically have pahoehoe flow surfaces with glassy crusts. Groundmass textures that coarsen from the flow rind to the interior reflect rates of post-emplacement, rather than syn-emplacement, cooling. To distinguish eruption conditions that result in lava channels from those that allow formation of lava tubes, we have performed a series of laboratory experiments involving injection of PEG 600 (a wax with a Newtonian rheology and freezing temperature of 19ºC) into cold water through both uniform and non-uniform sloping channels. In uniform channels, tube formation can be distinguished from open channel flow using a dimensionless parameter based on a solidification time scale, an advection time scale, and a Rayleigh number that describes convection by heat loss from crust-free shear zones. Theoretical analysis predicts that in the open channel regime, the width of the crust (dc) will vary with the channel width (W) as dc = W5/3. Crustal coverage of non-uniform channels in both laboratory experiments and field examples from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, is consistent with this prediction. However, experiments in non-uniform channels illustrate additional controls on the surface coverage of lava channels. Most important is crustal extension resulting from flow acceleration through constrictions

  3. Ion channels in microbes

    PubMed Central

    Martinac, Boris; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching

    2008-01-01

    Summary Studies of ion channels have for long been dominated by the animalcentric, if not anthropocentric view of physiology. The structures and activities of ion channels had, however, evolved long before the appearance of complex multicellular organisms on Earth. The diversity of ion channels existing in cellular membranes of prokaryotes is a good example. Though at first it may appear as a paradox that most of what we know about the structure of eukaryotic ion channels is based on the structure of bacterial channels, this should not be surprising given the evolutionary relatedness of all living organisms and suitability of microbial cells for structural studies of biological macromolecules in a laboratory environment. Genome sequences of the human as well as various microbial, plant and animal organisms unambiguously established the evolutionary links, whereas crystallographic studies of the structures of major types of ion channels published over the last decade clearly demonstrated the advantage of using microbes as experimental organisms. The purpose of this review is not only to provide an account of acquired knowledge on microbial ion channels but also to show that the study of microbes and their ion channels may also hold a key to solving unresolved molecular mysteries in the future. PMID:18923187

  4. Applying Alpha-Channeling to Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    A.I. Zhmoginov and N.J. Fisch

    2012-03-16

    The α-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic α- particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefi t open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of α- channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the α-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the α -channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly-damped modes are identifi ed. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the α -channeling effect can be signi cantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the α-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  5. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.

    2013-09-01

    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  6. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1982-01-01

    Early observations of Mars conducted by means of telescopes are considered. Secchi introduced the Italian word 'canale' ('channel') in 1869 to describe apparent lines on the planet's surface. Between 1877 and 1888 Schiaparelli mapped a profusion of 'canali'. Schiaparelli's work led to famous controversies about Mars. This book attempts to investigate the puzzle posed by the Martian channels, taking into account also the results of the studies conducted with the aid of the two orbiting Viking spacecraft which have produced a total number of nearly 60,000 pictures. The channel types are discussed along with questions regarding the distribution, the ages, and the proposed origins of the channels. Attention is given to the geomorphology of Mars, the patterns and networks of Martian valleys, ice and the Martian surface, the outflow channels, catastrophic flood processes, questions of analogy between terrestrial and Martian geographic features, and Martian phenomena associated with water liquid or water ice.

  7. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  8. System analysis for millimeter-wave communication satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Hilsen, N. B.; Gallagher, J. J.; Stevens, G.

    1980-01-01

    Research and development needs for millimeter-wave space communication systems are presented. Assumed propagation fade statistics are investigated along with high data rate diversity link and storage. The development of reliable ferrite switches, and high performance receivers and transmitters is discussed, in addition to improved tolerance of dish and lens fabrication for the antennas. The typical cost for using a simplex voice channel via a high capacity 40/50 GHz satellite is presented.

  9. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  10. Assay for calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  11. Fine Channel Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.

  12. Channel Access in Erlang

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.

    2013-10-13

    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  13. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  14. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  15. Two-Channel Transparency-Optimized Control Architectures in Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Chang, Pyung Hun; Park, Hyung-Soon

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces transparency-optimized control architectures (TOCAs) using two communication channels. Two classes of two-channel TOCAs are found, thereby showing that two channels are sufficient to achieve transparency. These TOCAs achieve a greater level of transparency but poorer stability than three-channel TOCAs and four-channel TOCAs. Stability of the two-channel TOCAs has been enhanced while minimizing transparency degradation by adding a filter; and a combined use of the two classes of two-channel TOCAs is proposed for both free space and constrained motion, which involve switching between two TOCAs for transition between free space and constrained motions. The stability condition of the switched teleoperation system is derived for practical applications. Through the one degree-of-freedom (DOF) experiment, the proposed two-channel TOCAs were shown to operate stably, while achieving better transparency under time delay than the other TOCAs. PMID:23833548

  16. Envelope Interactions in Multi-Channel Amplitude Modulation Frequency Discrimination by Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Previous cochlear implant (CI) studies have shown that single-channel amplitude modulation frequency discrimination (AMFD) can be improved when coherent modulation is delivered to additional channels. It is unclear whether the multi-channel advantage is due to increased loudness, multiple envelope representations, or to component channels with better temporal processing. Measuring envelope interference may shed light on how modulated channels can be combined. Methods In this study, multi-channel AMFD was measured in CI subjects using a 3-alternative forced-choice, non-adaptive procedure (“which interval is different?”). For the reference stimulus, the reference AM (100 Hz) was delivered to all 3 channels. For the probe stimulus, the target AM (101, 102, 104, 108, 116, 132, 164, 228, or 256 Hz) was delivered to 1 of 3 channels, and the reference AM (100 Hz) delivered to the other 2 channels. The spacing between electrodes was varied to be wide or narrow to test different degrees of channel interaction. Results Results showed that CI subjects were highly sensitive to interactions between the reference and target envelopes. However, performance was non-monotonic as a function of target AM frequency. For the wide spacing, there was significantly less envelope interaction when the target AM was delivered to the basal channel. For the narrow spacing, there was no effect of target AM channel. The present data were also compared to a related previous study in which the target AM was delivered to a single channel or to all 3 channels. AMFD was much better with multiple than with single channels whether the target AM was delivered to 1 of 3 or to all 3 channels. For very small differences between the reference and target AM frequencies (2–4 Hz), there was often greater sensitivity when the target AM was delivered to 1 of 3 channels versus all 3 channels, especially for narrowly spaced electrodes. Conclusions Besides the increased loudness, the present results

  17. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shilian Zhang, Zhili

    2015-01-15

    A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  18. Plasma channel optical pumping device and method

    DOEpatents

    Judd, O.P.

    1983-06-28

    A device and method are disclosed for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an electrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature blackbody radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device. 5 figs.

  19. Ice-shelf channel evolution in Antarctic ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Reinhard; Berger, Sophie; Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice shelves buttress the continental ice flux and facilitate ice--ocean interactions. They are often intersected by longitudinally elongated channels in which basal melting is significantly enhanced. Recent studies highlighted that this type of channelized melting impacts the buttressing strength of ice shelves and hence imprints the mass flux from the Antarctic continent. Here, the channel evolution is investigated from a glaciological perspective, using a full Stokes model and geophysical data from three consecutive field seasons on Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (RBIS), Antarctica. The RBIS contains numerous channels, incising the ice shelf by more than half the ice thickness. The modeling confirms (1) that basal melting as a feasible mechanism for the channel creation, albeit channels may also advect without melting for many tens of kilometers. The mere existence of channels is not a sufficient criteria to infer channelized melting at that location; (2) channels can be out of hydrostatic equilibrium depending on their width and the upstream melt history. This implies that inverting surface elevation for ice thickness in those areas is erroneous. Corresponding observational evidence for the channels at RBIS is presented by comparing the hydrostatic-ice thickness from GPS measurements with the ice thickness measured by ground-penetrating radar; (3) the simulations show that channelized melting imprints the flowfield characteristically, and can cause enhanced horizontal shearing across channels. This is exemplified for a channel at RBIS where the velocity anomaly is found in different sets of satellite-derived surface velocities, as well as in ground-based GPS measurements. This opens up the possibility to classify channelized melting from space, an important step towards incorporating these effects in ice--ocean models.

  20. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  1. Cooperative gating between ion channels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kee-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  2. Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Lawrence G.

    Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.

  3. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  4. Chondrocyte channel transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Rebecca; May, Hannah; Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To date, a range of ion channels have been identified in chondrocytes using a number of different techniques, predominantly electrophysiological and/or biomolecular; each of these has its advantages and disadvantages. Here we aim to compare and contrast the data available from biophysical and microarray experiments. This letter analyses recent transcriptomics datasets from chondrocytes, accessible from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). We discuss whether such bioinformatic analysis of microarray datasets can potentially accelerate identification and discovery of ion channels in chondrocytes. The ion channels which appear most frequently across these microarray datasets are discussed, along with their possible functions. We discuss whether functional or protein data exist which support the microarray data. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression in osteoarthritis and healthy cartilage is also discussed and we verify the differential expression of 2 of these genes, namely the genes encoding large calcium-activated potassium (BK) and aquaporin channels. PMID:23995703

  5. Calcium Channel Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as high blood pressure, chest pain and Raynaud's disease. Find out more about this class of medication. ... Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia) Some circulatory conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For black people and older people, calcium channel ...

  6. Proton channel models

    PubMed Central

    Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912

  7. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  8. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  9. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables.

  10. Cl(-) channels in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida; MacAulay, Nanna; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2016-10-01

    A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also determines sensitivity towards cytostatic drugs such as cisplatin. Recent data point to a molecular and functional relationship of LRRC8A and anoctamins (ANOs). ANO6, 9, and 10 (TMEM16F, J, and K) augment apoptotic Cl(-) currents and AVD, but it remains unclear whether these anoctamins operate as Cl(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated by cell swelling, it is possible that CFTR serves RVD/AVD through accumulation of ROS and activation of independent membrane channels such as ANO6. Thus activation of ANO6 will support cell shrinkage and induce additional apoptotic events, such as membrane phospholipid scrambling.

  11. Data Processing for NASA's TDRSS DAMA Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Christopher C.; Horan, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    A concept for the addition of a Demand Assignment Multiple Access (DAMA) service to NASA's current Space Network (SN) is developed. Specifically, the design of a receiver for the DAMA channel is outlined. Also, an outline of the procedures taken to process the received service request is presented. The modifications to the (SN) system are minimal. The post reception processing is accomplished using standard commercial off the shelf (COTS) packages. The result is a random access system capable of receiving requests for service.

  12. Space Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    invest in and support commercial efforts. In testimony before the House Committee on Space and Aeronautics in April of 2005, Elon Musk provided the...Response Launch Vehicle. Space Daily. Retrieved April 9, 2006 from www.spacedaily.com. 81 Musk , Elon (2005, April 20). Commercialization of Space...Space Transportation Policy. (2006, January 5). Retrieved May 30, 2006 from http://www.ostp.gov/html/SpaceTransFactSheetJan2005.pdf. 86 Musk , Elon

  13. Radioanatomy of the retroperitoneal space.

    PubMed

    Coffin, A; Boulay-Coletta, I; Sebbag-Sfez, D; Zins, M

    2015-02-01

    The retroperitoneum is a space situated behind the parietal peritoneum and in front of the transversalis fascia. It contains further spaces that are separated by the fasciae, between which communication is possible with both the peritoneal cavity and the pelvis, according to the theory of interfascial spread. The perirenal space has the shape of an inverted cone and contains the kidneys, adrenal glands, and related vasculature. It is delineated by the anterior and posterior renal fasciae, which surround the ureter and allow communication towards the pelvis. At the upper right pole, the perirenal space connects to the retrohepatic space at the bare area of the liver. There is communication between these two spaces through the Kneeland channel. The anterior pararenal space contains the duodenum, pancreas, and the ascending and descending colon. There is free communication within this space, and towards the mesenteries along the vessels. The posterior pararenal space, which contains fat, communicates with the preperitoneal space at the anterior surface of the abdomen between the peritoneum and the transversalis fascia, and allows communication with the contralateral posterior pararenal space. This space follows the length of the ureter to the pelvis, which explains the communication between these areas and the length of the pelvic fasciae.

  14. Quantum steganography with noisy quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Bilal A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-02-15

    Steganography is the technique of hiding secret information by embedding it in a seemingly ''innocent'' message. We present protocols for hiding quantum information by disguising it as noise in a codeword of a quantum error-correcting code. The sender (Alice) swaps quantum information into the codeword and applies a random choice of unitary operation, drawing on a secret random key she shares with the receiver (Bob). Using the key, Bob can retrieve the information, but an eavesdropper (Eve) with the power to monitor the channel, but without the secret key, cannot distinguish the message from channel noise. We consider two types of protocols: one in which the hidden quantum information is stored locally in the codeword, and another in which it is embedded in the space of error syndromes. We analyze how difficult it is for Eve to detect the presence of secret messages, and estimate rates of steganographic communication and secret key consumption for specific protocols and examples of error channels. We consider both the case where there is no actual noise in the channel (so that all errors in the codeword result from the deliberate actions of Alice), and the case where the channel is noisy and not controlled by Alice and Bob.

  15. Transverse Mixing in a Natural River Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swick, W. A.; Macmahan, J. H.; Reniers, A. J.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.

    2010-12-01

    Transverse mixing in a river channel is investigated using field observations and a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model, Delft3D. Six fluorescent Rhodamine dye releases were conducted in a 30 m wide, 500 m long, and 2 m deep relatively straight reach in the Kootenai River, ID on 12-16 August 2010. The study reach contained a number of natural channel features, such as a pool-riffle sequence and bank irregularities, which influence transverse mixing. The dye was released at a constant rate for one hour from a kayak fixed in the center of the channel. River discharge was steady and all releases were conducted in the morning hours to avoid diurnal wind effects. Vertical dye concentrations and velocity profiles were measured near the source and four downstream locations: 25m, 100m, 300m and 500m. In addition to the stationary observations, two different roving dye sampling schemes were performed to increase the spatial dye concentration resolution. The first sampling scheme consisted of 5 evenly-spaced dye sensors being slowly moved upstream. The second scheme consisted of 3 dye sensors moved transversely across the channel at various streamwise channel locations. These observations provide the horizontal and vertical extent of the dye plume and the spatial and temporal variability of the dye concentration. Local flow structures, produced by the separation of flow over riffles and bank irregularities, strongly control the observed local concentration distributions. Qualitative calculations highlight the influence of channel irregularities on the rate of transverse mixing and quantitative inferences shed light on the dominant mixing processes operating within different parts of the channel. 1D analytical and 3D numerical model are used to assess the relative importance of turbulent diffusion and local flow structure on predicted spatial dye concentrations.

  16. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  17. TRP channels and analgesia.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Louis S; Abooj, Mruvil

    2013-03-19

    Since cloning and characterizing the first nociceptive ion channel Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), other TRP channels involved in nociception have been cloned and characterized, which include TRP Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), TRP Vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), TRP Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), TRP Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), more recently TRP Canonical 1, 5, 6 (TRPC1, 5, 6), TRP Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and TRP Melastatin 3 (TRPM3). These channels are predominantly expressed in C and Aδ nociceptors and transmit noxious thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivities. TRP channels are modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides and cytokines. Significant advances have been made targeting these receptors either by antagonists or agonists to treat painful conditions. In this review, we will discuss TRP channels as targets for next generation analgesics and the side effects that may ensue as a result of blocking/activating these receptors, because they are also involved in physiological functions such as release of vasoactive neuropeptides and regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of the body temperature, gastrointestinal motility, urinary bladder control, etc.

  18. TRP Channels and Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Louis S.; Abooj, Mruvil

    2013-01-01

    Since cloning and characterizing the first nociceptive ion channel Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), other TRP channels involved in nociception have been cloned and characterized, which include TRP Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), TRP Vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), TRP Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), TRP Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), more recently TRP Canonical 1, 5, 6 (TRPC1, 5, 6), TRP Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and TRP Melastatin 3 (TRPM3). These channels are predominantly expressed in C and Aδ nociceptors and transmit noxious thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivities. TRP channels are modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides and cytokines. Significant advances have been made targeting these receptors either by antagonists or agonists to treat painful conditions. In this review, we will discuss TRP channels as targets for next generation analgesics and the side effects that may ensue as a result of blocking/activating these receptors, because they are also involved in physiological functions such as release of vasoactive neuropeptides and regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of the body temperature, gastrointestinal motility, urinary bladder control etc. PMID:22910182

  19. Calcium channels and migraine.

    PubMed

    Pietrobon, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    Missense mutations in CACNA1A, the gene that encodes the pore-forming α1 subunit of human voltage-gated Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, cause a rare form of migraine with aura (familial hemiplegic migraine type 1: FHM1). Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder whose key manifestations are recurrent attacks of unilateral headache that may be preceded by transient neurological aura symptoms. This review, first, briefly summarizes current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that are believed to underlie migraine headache, migraine aura and the onset of a migraine attack, and briefly describes the localization and function of neuronal Ca(V)2.1 channels in the brain regions that have been implicated in migraine pathogenesis. Then, the review describes and discusses i) the functional consequences of FHM1 mutations on the biophysical properties of recombinant human Ca(V)2.1 channels and native Ca(V)2.1 channels in neurons of knockin mouse models carrying the mild R192Q or severe S218L mutations in the orthologous gene, and ii) the functional consequences of these mutations on neurophysiological processes in the cerebral cortex and trigeminovascular system thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine, and the insights into migraine mechanisms obtained from the functional analysis of these processes in FHM1 knockin mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels.

  20. Mitochondrial Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In work spanning more than a century, mitochondria have been recognized for their multifunctional roles in metabolism, energy transduction, ion transport, inheritance, signaling, and cell death. Foremost among these tasks is the continuous production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, which requires a large electrochemical driving force for protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This process requires a membrane with relatively low permeability to ions to minimize energy dissipation. However, a wealth of evidence now indicates that both selective and nonselective ion channels are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, along with several known channels on the outer membrane. Some of these channels are active under physiological conditions, and others may be activated under pathophysiological conditions to act as the major determinants of cell life and death. This review summarizes research on mitochondrial ion channels and efforts to identify their molecular correlates. Except in a few cases, our understanding of the structure of mitochondrial ion channels is limited, indicating the need for focused discovery in this area. PMID:17059356

  1. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  2. Measured channel parameters for the disturbed wide-bandwidth HF channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, Christopher A.; Bello, Phillip A.

    2003-04-01

    The wideband HF (WBHF) channel impulse response measurements presented here were taken over a high-latitude auroral path using the MITRE experimental WBHF test facility. A nominal instantaneous bandwidth of 1 MHz was used for the majority of the tests. These tests took place from 14 March through 1 April 1992 over a path from Sondrestrom AFB, Greenland, to Bedford, Massachusetts, a distance of approximately 3,100 km. The measurements were made using a direct-sequence pseudo-noise (DSPN) channel probe with a (±180°) chip modulation and chip rate of 1024 kchips/second. Complex channel impulse response values at increments of 500 nanoseconds in delay were derived by correlating the received signal with a set of local DSPN references uniformly spaced in delay over a delay range of 2 ms. Each of these channel impulse response values was sampled in time at a rate of up to 62.5 samples per second, resulting in the ability to observe (one-sided) Doppler spectra and shifts of up to 31.25 Hz. From these measurements, the channel scattering function, rms (2σ) Doppler spread, rms (2σ) Delay spread, Doppler shift, and rms (2σ) spread factor were calculated. In addition, for the first time, the impulse response correlation along the delay axis was calculated. These latter measurements support the use of an uncorrelated scattering hypothesis in modeling the disturbed WBHF channel.

  3. A Q-Band Free-Space Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Composites.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ahmed M; Obrzut, Jan; Garboczi, Edward J

    2016-11-01

    We present a free-space measurement technique for non-destructive non-contact electrical and dielectric characterization of nano-carbon composites in the Q-band frequency range of 30 GHz to 50 GHz. The experimental system and error correction model accurately reconstruct the conductivity of composite materials that are either thicker than the wave penetration depth, and therefore exhibit negligible microwave transmission (less than -40 dB), or thinner than the wave penetration depth and, therefore, exhibit significant microwave transmission. This error correction model implements a fixed wave propagation distance between antennas and corrects the complex scattering parameters of the specimen from two references, an air slab having geometrical propagation length equal to that of the specimen under test, and a metallic conductor, such as an aluminum plate. Experimental results were validated by reconstructing the relative dielectric permittivity of known dielectric materials and then used to determine the conductivity of nano-carbon composite laminates. This error correction model can simplify routine characterization of thin conducting laminates to just one measurement of scattering parameters, making the method attractive for research, development, and for quality control in the manufacturing environment.

  4. A Q-Band Free-Space Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Composites

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ahmed M.; Garboczi, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a free-space measurement technique for non-destructive non-contact electrical and dielectric characterization of nano-carbon composites in the Q-band frequency range of 30 GHz to 50 GHz. The experimental system and error correction model accurately reconstruct the conductivity of composite materials that are either thicker than the wave penetration depth, and therefore exhibit negligible microwave transmission (less than −40 dB), or thinner than the wave penetration depth and, therefore, exhibit significant microwave transmission. This error correction model implements a fixed wave propagation distance between antennas and corrects the complex scattering parameters of the specimen from two references, an air slab having geometrical propagation length equal to that of the specimen under test, and a metallic conductor, such as an aluminum plate. Experimental results were validated by reconstructing the relative dielectric permittivity of known dielectric materials and then used to determine the conductivity of nano-carbon composite laminates. This error correction model can simplify routine characterization of thin conducting laminates to just one measurement of scattering parameters, making the method attractive for research, development, and for quality control in the manufacturing environment. PMID:28057959

  5. Nearly optimal algorithms and bounds for multilayer channel routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Bonnie; Brady, Martin; Brown, Donna; Leighton, Tom

    1989-05-01

    Channel routing plays an important role in the development of automated layout systems for integrated circuits. Many layout systems first place modules on a chip and then wire together terminals on different modules that should be electrically connected. This wiring problem is often solved by heuristically partitioning the given space into rectangular channels and then assigning to each such channel a set of wires which are to pass through it. This solution reduces a global wiring problem to a set of disjoint (and hopefully easier) local channel routing subproblems. For this reason, the channel routing problem has been intensively studied for over a decade, and numerous heuristics and approximation algorithms have been proposed for its solution. The generic form of the channel routing problem may be described as follows. The channel consists of a rectilinear grid of tracks (or rows) and columns. Along the top and bottom tracks are numbers called terminals, and terminals with the same number form a net. A net with q terminals is called an q-terminal net. The smallest net is a two-terminal net; if q is greater than 2, we have a multiterminal net. The channel routing problem is to connect all the terminals in each net using horizontal and vertical wires which are routed along the underlying rectilinear grid. The goal is to complete the wiring using the minimum number of tracks; i.e., to minimize the width of the channel.

  6. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.

    1998-01-01

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.

  7. Channel plate for DNA sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.

    1998-01-13

    This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.

  8. Chaos in quantum channels

    DOE PAGES

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; ...

    2016-02-01

    For this research, we study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back upmore » our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. In conclusion, these results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.« less

  9. Chaos in quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni

    2016-02-01

    For this research, we study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. In conclusion, these results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.

  10. TRP channels and pain.

    PubMed

    Julius, David

    2013-01-01

    Nociception is the process whereby primary afferent nerve fibers of the somatosensory system detect noxious stimuli. Pungent irritants from pepper, mint, and mustard plants have served as powerful pharmacological tools for identifying molecules and mechanisms underlying this initial step of pain sensation. These natural products have revealed three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family--TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1--as molecular detectors of thermal and chemical stimuli that activate sensory neurons to produce acute or persistent pain. Analysis of TRP channel function and expression has validated the existence of nociceptors as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons devoted to the detection of noxious stimuli. These studies are also providing insight into the coding logic of nociception and how specification of nociceptor subtypes underlies behavioral discrimination of noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of these channels has provided the intellectual and technical foundation for developing new classes of analgesic drugs.

  11. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  12. Space Basics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  13. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.

    2007-12-01

    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  14. The neutron channeling phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A

    1997-01-01

    Shields, used for protection against radiation, are often pierced with vacuum channels for passing cables and other instruments for measurements. The neutron transmission through these shields is an unavoidable phenomenon. In this work we study and discuss the effect of channels on neutron transmission through shields. We consider an infinite homogeneous slab, with a fixed thickness (20 lambda, with lambda the mean free path of the neutron in the slab), which contains a vacuum channel. This slab is irradiated with an infinite source of neutrons on the left side and on the other side (right side) many detectors with windows equal to 2 lambda are placed in order to evaluate the neutron transmission probabilities (Khanouchi, A., Aboubekr, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1994) Rencontre Nationale des Jeunes Chercheurs en Physique. Casa Blanca Maroc; Khanouchi, A., Sabir, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1995) Premier Congré International des Intéractions Rayonnements Matière. Eljadida Maroc). The neutron history within the slab is simulated by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) and using the exponential biasing technique in order to improve the Monte Carlo calculation (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Aboubker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco). Then different geometries of the vacuum channel have been studied. For each geometry we have determined the detector response and calculated the neutron transmission probability for different detector positions. This neutron transmission probability presents a peak for the detectors placed in front of the vacuum channel. This study allowed us to clearly identify the neutron channeling phenomenon. One application of our study is to detect vacuum defects in materials.

  15. Chryse Outflow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by a chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a complex of connected channel floors and chaotic terrain and extend as far south as and connect to eastern Valles Marineris. Ares Vallis originates from discontinuous patches of chaotic terrain within large craters. In the Chryse basin the Ares channel forks; one branch continues northwest into central Chryse Planitia (Latin for plain) and the other extends north into eastern Chryse Planitia.

  16. Large Array Channel Capacity in the Presence of Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V.; Srinivasan, M.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model for a large array ground receiver system for use in deep-space communications, and analyze the resulting array channel capacity. The model includes effects of array geometry, time-dependent spacecraft orbital trajectory, point and extended interference sources, and elevation-dependent noise and tropospheric channel variations. Channel capacity is expressed as the ratio of determinants of covariance matrices characterizing source, interference, and additive noise, and then reduced to a simpler quadratic form more amenable to analysis and numerical computation. This formulation facilitates inclusion of array and channel characteristics into the model, as well as comparison of optimal, suboptimal, and equivalent single antenna configurations on achievable throughput. Realistic examples of ground array channel capacity calculations are presented, demonstrating the impact of array geometry, planetary interference sources, and array combining algorithm design upon the achievable data throughput.

  17. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The medical aspects of space flight are briefly discussed. The problems of space adaptation syndrome, commonly known as space sickness, are described, and its cause is shown. The adaptation of the cardiovascular system to weightlessness, the problems of radiation in space, atrophy of bones and muscles, and loss of blood volume are addressed. The difficulties associated with the reexperience of gravity on return to earth are briefly considered.

  18. Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-29

    as the Solar Heliospheric Observatory —a joint European Space Agency-NASA mission) (Ka) was launched in December 1995 and NASA’s Advanced Composition...Command, United States Central Command, United States European Command, and others. The US has missile defense cooperative programs with a number of...Therefore, civilian space agencies have often taken the leadership role for space. Agencies such as the European Space Agency, the United Kingdom

  19. Alluvial channel hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackers, Peter

    1988-07-01

    The development and utilisation of water resources for irrigation, hydropower and public supply can be severely affected by sediment. Where there is a mature and well vegetated landscape, sediment problems may be relatively minor; but where slopes are steep and vegetation sparse, the yield of sediment from the catchment gives high concentrations in the rivers. In utilising these resources, for whatever purpose, an understanding of the hydraulics of alluvial channels is vital. The regime of any conveyance channel in alluvium depends on the interrelationships of sediment transport, channel resistance and bank stability. The regime concept was originally based on empirical relations obtained from observations from canal systems in the Indian subcontinent, and for many years was surrounded by a certain degree of mystique and much scepticism from academics. In more recent years the unabashed empiricism of the original method has been replaced by process-based methods, which have also served as broad confirmation of the classic regime formulae, including their extension to natural channels and meandering channels. The empirical approach to the hydraulics of alluvial channels has thus been updated by physically based formulae for sediment transport and resistance, though there remains some uncertainty about the third function to complete the definition of slope and geometry. Latest thoughts in this respect are that the channel seeks a natural optimum state. Physical modelling using scaled down representations of rivers and estuaries has been used for almost a century, but it requires the correct simulation of the relevant processes. The coming of a better understanding of the physics of sediment transport and the complexity of alluvial channel roughness leads to the conclusion that only in very restricted circumstances can scale models simulate closely the full-size condition. However, the quantification of these processes has been instrumental in the development of

  20. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  1. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    ScienceCinema

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2016-07-12

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  2. Compact 4-channel AWGs for CWDM and LAN WDM in data center monolithic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Pan; An, Junming; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Jiashun; Wang, Liangliang; Qi, Ying; Han, Qin; Hu, Xiongwei

    2015-12-01

    InP-based 4-channel AWGs for Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) with channel spacing of 20 nm and Local Area Network (LAN) WDM with channel spacing of 800 GHz are designed and fabricated. The deep-ridge waveguide is used to make the chip compact, chip size of AWG for CWDM is 0.55×3.9 mm2 and for LAN WDM is 1.6×3 mm2. The measured results indicate that, the insertion losses are -5 dB and -7 dB, crosstalk levels are below -25 dB and -24 dB for AWG with 20 nm channel spacing and 800 GHz channel spacing, respectively. These AWGs can be integrated with lasers and detectors array monolithically for data center applications.

  3. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  4. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  5. Constructing Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Austin

    This chapter chronicles the growth of the author's understanding of Media Space through his 20-year experience with coupling spaces, using video. It is a “technology-first” understanding of the construction of space. Key ideas from research studies and practice are presented, and contrasts with other genres of communication are made. The implications for distributed collaboration are explored.

  6. Stream Succession: Channel Changes After Wildfire Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, N. E.; Luce, C. H.; Buffington, J. M.; Rieman, B.; Black, T.

    2004-12-01

    One paradigm in geomorphology is that vegetation is a fundamental control on sediment and water supplies to streams, and therefore on downstream geomorphology. Within this paradigm, wildfire has been implicated as a major driving force behind landscape erosion and changes to stream channels, periodically yielding pulses of sediment from upland basins, which, in turn, hypothetically, drive cyclical changes to stream channels. Within the context of management for ecologically valuable aquatic species across a landscape, biologists have envisioned available stream habitats cycling on long time scales, with some habitats increasing or decreasing in productivity, while others are temporarily taken out of production by severe disturbances related to fire. Some hypothesize that stream habitats may benefit from disturbance after the initial reorganization, increasing in quality over time, until the disturbance-supplied materials, gravel and wood, eventually become scarce, reducing habitat quality until the next disturbance. Systematic observations of actual channel "succession", however, are rare. We examined the long-term effects of wildfire disturbance on channel characteristics in moderate-gradient (2.3-3.9%), unconfined, mountain streams. Selection of this stream type excludes direct impacts from post-fire debris flows and allows us to focus on post-fire changes in basin hydrology, sediment supply and proximal riparian characteristics (supply of wood debris, bank strength from roots, etc.). The study was designed using a space-for-time substitution within the Idaho batholith. We considered three different forest age classes, corresponding with three different times since fire: recent (15-20 yrs), mid (90-130 yrs), and old (>150 yrs). Variables independent of fire and with potentially confounding effects (elevation, drainage area, land use, lithology, valley slope) were controlled to isolate the effect of fire on channel characteristics. Characteristics of interest

  7. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  8. Covert Channels within IRC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    Distribution ~NA maintain primary management responsibility and Statement "A" - unclassifed, unlimited distribution ? authority to release all...AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED... DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GCE/ENG/11-04 COVERT CHANNELS WITHIN IRC Wayne C. Henry, BSCE Captain, USAF Approved

  9. Learning in Tactile Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gescheider, George A.; Wright, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrotactile intensity-discrimination thresholds for sinusoidal stimuli applied to the thenar eminence of the hand declined as a function of practice. However, improvement was confined to the tactile information-processing channel in which learning had occurred. Specifically, improvements in performance with training within the Pacinian-corpuscle…

  10. Developments in relativistic channeling

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy accelerator applications and particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used for accelerator extraction and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but have not yet been tried. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits.

  12. Channels of Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproule, J. Michael

    Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from…

  13. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  14. Ion channels in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  15. Trellis coded modulation for transmission over fading mobile satellite channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divasalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The combination of trellis coding and multiple phase-shift keyed (MPSK) signaling with asymmetry (nonuniform spacing) to the signal set is disclosed with regard to its suitability for a fading mobile satellite communication channel. For MPSK signaling, introducing nonuniformity in the phase spacing between signal points provides an improvement in performance over that achievable with trellis codes symmetric MPSK signaling, all this without increasing the average or peak power, or changing the bandwidth constraints imposed on the system. Block interleaving may be used to reduce error and pilot tone(s) may be used for improving the error correction performance of the trellis decoder in the presence of channel fading.

  16. Fermi Liquid Instabilities in the Spin Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Congjun; Sun, Kai; Fradkin, Eduardo; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-16

    We study the Fermi surface instabilities of the Pomeranchuk type in the spin triplet channel with high orbital partial waves (F{sub l}{sup a} (l > 0)). The ordered phases are classified into two classes, dubbed the {alpha} and {beta}-phases by analogy to the superfluid {sup 3}He-A and B-phases. The Fermi surfaces in the {alpha}-phases exhibit spontaneous anisotropic distortions, while those in the {beta}-phases remain circular or spherical with topologically non-trivial spin configurations in momentum space. In the {alpha}-phase, the Goldstone modes in the density channel exhibit anisotropic overdamping. The Goldstone modes in the spin channel have nearly isotropic underdamped dispersion relation at small propagating wavevectors. Due to the coupling to the Goldstone modes, the spin wave spectrum develops resonance peaks in both the {alpha} and {beta}-phases, which can be detected in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. In the p-wave channel {beta}-phase, a chiral ground state inhomogeneity is spontaneously generated due to a Lifshitz-like instability in the originally nonchiral systems. Possible experiments to detect these phases are discussed.

  17. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  18. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  19. Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.

  20. Performance characteristics according to the channel length and magnetic fields of cylindrical Hall thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongsub; Seo, Mihui; Seon, Jongho; June Lee, Hae; Choe, Wonho

    2011-09-01

    Performance characteristics of low power cylindrical Hall thrusters are investigated in terms of the length of the discharge channel. Thrust, efficiency, discharge current, and propellant utilization are evaluated for different channel lengths of 19, 22, and 25 mm. It is found that the propellant utilization and ion energy distribution function are strongly associated with the channel length. Increase of thrust and efficiency are also found with increasing channel lengths. These characteristics of the thruster are interpreted with possible generation of multi-charged ions due to increased residing time within the extended space inside the channel.

  1. Erosional channels on the shoreface of Nauset Beach, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Needell, S. W.; Dillon, William P.; Knebel, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Many channels (1 to 3 m relief)_are located offshore of Nauset Beach, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in water 4 to 18 m deep. The channels are oblique to the shoreline, are spaced approximately 260 m apart, and deepen seaward. The southern flank of each channel is rippled whereas the northern flank and interchannel areas are smooth. The origin of the channels is unknown. They probably formed by erosion of the shoreface, perhaps by rip-current circulation during storm conditions or by rip-current circulation under quiet conditions. The channels may control current flow and thereby maintain themselves even though formative conditions may no longer exist.

  2. Efficient mapping of ligand migration channel networks in dynamic proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tu-Liang; Song, Guang

    2011-08-01

    For many proteins such as myoglobin, the binding site lies in the interior, and there is no obvious route from the exterior to the binding site in the average structure. Although computer simulations for a limited number of proteins have found some transiently open channels, it is not clear if there exist more channels elsewhere or how the channels are regulated. A systematic approach that can map out the whole ligand migration channel network is lacking. Ligand migration in a dynamic protein resembles closely a well-studied problem in robotics, namely, the navigation of a mobile robot in a dynamic environment. In this work, we present a novel robotic motion planning inspired approach that can map the ligand migration channel network in a dynamic protein. The method combines an efficient spatial mapping of protein inner space with a temporal exploration of protein structural heterogeneity, which is represented by a structure ensemble. The spatial mapping of each conformation in the ensemble produces a partial map of protein inner cavities and their inter-connectivity. These maps are then merged to form a super map that contains all the channels that open dynamically. Results on the pathways in myoglobin for gaseous ligands demonstrate the efficiency of our approach in mapping the ligand migration channel networks. The results, obtained in a significantly less amount of time than trajectory-based approaches, are in agreement with previous simulation results. Additionally, the method clearly illustrates how and what conformational changes open or close a channel.

  3. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  4. Reconfigurable optical inter-channel interference mitigation for spectrally overlapped QPSK signals using nonlinear wave mixing in cascaded PPLN waveguides.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yinwen; Ziyadi, Morteza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Almaiman, Ahmed; Liao, Peicheng; Bao, Changjing; Alishahi, Fatemeh; Falahpour, Ahmad; Shamee, Bishara; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Akasaka, Youichi; Sekiya, Motoyoshi; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin; Touch, Joseph; Willner, Alan E

    2016-07-15

    A reconfigurable all-optical inter-channel interference (ICI) mitigation method is proposed for an overlapped channel system that avoids the need for multi-channel detection and channel spacing estimation. The system exhibits a 0.5-dB implementation penalty compared to a single-channel baseline system. Experiments using a dual-carrier QPSK overlapped system with both 20G-baud and 25G-baud under different channel spacing conditions evaluate the performance of the method. Improved signal constellation and receiver sensitivity demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. This results in over 4-dB OSNR of benefit when the system Q-factor reaches a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 8.5 dB under less-than-baudrate channel spacing conditions.

  5. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  6. Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-06

    adversaries’ perceptions of US space capabilities and makes them less confident of success in interfering with those capabilities. DSC is built on...Responsibilities IV-17 transportation and space-based tourism , are no longer out of reach. Due to the demand for space-based products and services, the USG has...1) A well-organized missile warning system structure allows commanders to maximize detection and warning of inbound ballistic missiles, thereby

  7. Sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon. Must channels open before inactivating

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, B.P.

    1981-09-01

    Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed on voltage-clamped crayfish giant axons. The primary goals was to investigate whether channels must open before activating. Voltage-clamp artifacts were minimized by the use of low-sodium solutions and full series resistance compensation, and the spatial uniformity of the currents was checked with a closely spaced pair of electrodes used to measure local current densities. For membrane potentials between -40 and +40 mV, sodium currents decay to zero with a single exponential time-course. The time constant for decay is a steep function of membrane potential. The time-course of inactivation measured with the double-pulse method is very similar to the decay of current at the same potential. Steady-state inactivation curves measured with different test pulses are identical. The time-course of doubling pulse inactivation shows a lag that roughly correlates with the opening of sodium channels, but it is not strictly necessary for channels to open before inactivating. Measurements of the potential dependence of the integral of sodium conductance are also inconsistent with the simplest cases of models in which channels must open before activating.

  8. Development of channel organization and roughness following sediment pulses in single-thread, gravel bed rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Large, episodic inputs of coarse sediment (sediment pulses) in forested, mountain streams may result in changes in the size and arrangement of bed forms and in channel roughness. A conceptual model of channel organization delineates trajectories of response to sediment pulses for many types of gravel bed channels. Channels exhibited self-organizing behavior to various degrees based on channel gradient, presence of large in-channel wood or other forcing elements, the size of the sediment pulse, and the number of bed-mobilizing flows since disturbance. Typical channel changes following a sediment pulse were initial decreases in water depth, in variability of bed elevations, and in the regularity of bed form spacing. Trajectories of change subsequently showed increased average water depth, more variable and complex bed topography, and increased uniformity of bed form spacing. Bed form spacing in streams with abundant forcing elements developed at a shorter spatial scale (two to five channel widths) than in streams without such forcing mechanisms (five to 10 channel widths). Channel roughness increased as bed forms developed.

  9. Space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  10. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians

  11. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-02-01

    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  12. Meander properties of Venusian channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, G.; Baker, V. R.

    1993-01-01

    Venusian lava channels have meander dimensions that relate to their mode of formation. Their meander properties generally follow terrestrial river trends of wavelength (L) to width (W) ratios, suggesting an equilibrium adjustment of channel form. Slightly higher L/W for many Venusian channels in comparison to terrestrial rivers may relate to nonaqueous flow processes. The unusually low L/W values for some Venusian and lunar sinuous rilles probably indicate modification of original meander patterns by lava-erosional channel widening.

  13. Universality of receptor channel responses.

    PubMed

    Kardos, J; Nyikos, L

    2001-12-01

    Rate parameters estimated for neurotransmitter-gated receptor channel opening and receptor desensitization are classified according to their dependence on the temporal resolution of the techniques applied in the measurements. Because allosteric proteins constituting receptor channels impose restrictions on the types of model suitable to describe the dynamic response of channels to neurotransmitters, Markovian, non-linear or fractal dynamic models and their possible extension to receptor channel response in excitable membranes are discussed.

  14. High Resolution Millimeter Wave Inspecting of the Orbiter Acreage Heat Tiles of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, J. T.; Khakovsky, S.; Zoughi, r.; Hepburn, F.

    2007-01-01

    Presence of defects such as disbonds, delaminations, impact damage, in thermal protection systems can significantly reduce safety of the Space Shuttle and its crew. The physical cause of Space Shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure was a breach in its thermal protection system, caused by a piece of external tank insulating foam separating from the external tank and striking the leading edge of the left wing of the orbiter. There is an urgent need for a rapid, robust and life-circle oriented nondestructive testing (NDT) technique capable of inspecting the external tank insulating foam as well as the orbiter's protective (acreage) heat tiles and its fuselage prior and subsequent to a launch. Such a comprehensive inspection technique enables NASA to perform life-cycle inspection on critical components of the orbiter and its supporting hardware. Consequently, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center initiated an investigation into several potentially viable NDT techniques for this purpose. Microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods have shown great potential to achieve these goals. These methods have been successfully used to produce images of the interior of various complex, thick and thin external tank insulating foam structures for real focused reflectometer at operating frequency from 50-100 GHz and for synthetic aperture techniques at Ku-band (12-18 GHz) and K-band (18-26 GHz). Preliminary results of inspecting heat tile specimens show that increasing resolution of the measurement system is an important issue. This paper presents recent results of an investigation for the purpose of detecting anomalies such as debonds and corrosion in metal substrate in complex multi-sectioned protective heat tile specimens using a real focused 150 GHz (D-band) reflectometer and wide-band millimeter wave holography at 33-50, GHz (Q-band).

  15. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  16. Geysering in boiling channels

    SciTech Connect

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi; Chiang, Jing-Hsien

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  17. Nanochannels: biological channel analogues.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, H; Rajanikant, G K

    2012-06-01

    The flux of ions across the biological membrane is a central activity to many cellular processes, from conduction of nerve impulse to the apoptosis. Traffic of ions or molecules across the membrane and organelles is governed by natural machines of great precision; ion channels, a special class of proteins, reside in the biological membranes. Recent studies in the field of nanoscience have concentrated on to precisely mimic the physical and chemical properties of these pores that make them increasingly attractive in this field. Synthetic nanoporous materials have a great deal of medical applications, including biosensing, biosorting, immune-isolation and drug delivery. In this review, the authors briefly describe the interesting synthetic channels that are extensively studied, and also attempt to furnish a precise overview of recent advances in this arena.

  18. Lightning energetics: Estimates of energy dissipation in channels, channel radii, and channel-heating risetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, J.E.

    1998-05-01

    In this report, several lightning-channel parameters are calculated with the aid of an electrodynamic model of lightning. The electrodynamic model describes dart leaders and return strokes as electromagnetic waves that are guided along conducting lightning channels. According to the model, electrostatic energy is delivered to the channel by a leader, where it is stored around the outside of the channel; subsequently, the return stroke dissipates this locally stored energy. In this report this lightning-energy-flow scenario is developed further. Then the energy dissipated per unit length in lightning channels is calculated, where this quantity is now related to the linear charge density on the channel, not to the cloud-to-ground electrostatic potential difference. Energy conservation is then used to calculate the radii of lightning channels: their initial radii at the onset of return strokes and their final radii after the channels have pressure expanded. Finally, the risetimes for channel heating during return strokes are calculated by defining an energy-storage radius around the channel and by estimating the radial velocity of energy flow toward the channel during a return stroke. In three appendices, values for the linear charge densities on lightning channels are calculated, estimates of the total length of branch channels are obtained, and values for the cloud-to-ground electrostatic potential difference are estimated. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  19. Stream Channel Stability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    geometry of the stilling basin and appurtenances for optimum energy dissipation. The hydraulic design, based on a 100-year return period design storm...cases the only viable alternative based on present technology is to let the channel seek its oa equilibrium, but attempt to minimize total losses by...are degrading, resulting in bank caving, land loss , and damage to highway bridges. Many streams have enlarged to the extent that 50 to 100-year runoff

  20. Umbellulone modulates TRP channels.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian; Minassi, Alberto; Prenen, Jean; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Appendino, Giovanni; Nilius, Bernd

    2011-12-01

    Inhalation of umbellulone (UMB), the offensive principle of the so-called "headache tree" (California bay laurel, Umbellularia californica Nutt.), causes a painful cold sensation. We therefore studied the action of UMB and some derivatives devoid of thiol-trapping properties on the "cold" transient receptor potential cation channels TRPA1 and TRPM8. UMB activated TRPA1 in a dose-dependent manner that was attenuated by cysteine-to-serine isosteric mutation in TRPA1 (C622S), while channel block was observed at higher concentration. However, although activation by mustard oil was completely prevented in these mutants, UMB still retained activating properties, indicating that it acts on TRPA1 only as a partial electrophilic agonist. UMB also activated TRPM8, but to a lower extent than TRPA1. Removing Michael acceptor properties of UMB (reduction or nucleophilic trapping) was detrimental for the activation of TRPA1, but increased the blocking potency. This was, however, attenuated by acetylation of the hydroxylated analogs. All UMB derivatives, except the acetylated derivatives, were also TRPM8 activators. They acted, however, in a bimodal manner, inhibiting the channel more potently than UMB, and with tetrahydro-UMB being the most potent TRPM8 activator. In conclusion, UMB is a bimodal activator of TRPA1 and a weak activator of TRPM8. Non-electrophilic derivatives of UMB are better TRPM8 activators than the natural product and also potent blockers of this channel as well as of TRPA1. The lack of effects of the acetylated UMB derivatives suggests that steric hindrance may prevent access to the recognition site for the bicyclic monoterpene pharmacophore on TRPA1 and TRPM8.

  1. Athermal channeled spectropolarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Julia Craven

    2015-12-08

    A temperature insensitive (athermal) channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is described. The athermal CSP includes a crystal retarder formed of a biaxial crystal. The crystal retarder has three crystal axes, wherein each axis has its own distinct index of refraction. The axes are oriented in a particular manner, causing an amplitude modulating carrier frequency induced by the crystal retarder to be thermally invariant. Accordingly, a calibration beam technique can be used over a relatively wide range of ambient temperatures, with a common calibration data set.

  2. Ion channels in the RPE.

    PubMed

    Wimmers, Sönke; Karl, Mike O; Strauss, Olaf

    2007-05-01

    In close interaction with photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role for visual function. The analysis of RPE functions, specifically ion channel functions, provides a basis to understand many degenerative diseases of the retina. The invention of the patch-clamp technique significantly improved the knowledge of ion channel structure and function, which enabled a new understanding of cell physiology and patho-physiology of many diseases. In this review, ion channels identified in the RPE will be described in terms of their specific functional role in RPE physiology. The RPE expresses voltage- and ligand-gated K(+), Cl(-), and Ca(2+)-conducting channels. K(+) and Cl(-) channels are involved in transepithelial ion transport and volume regulation. Voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels act as regulators of secretory activity, and ligand-gated cation channels contribute to RPE function by providing driving forces for ion transport or by influencing intracellular Ca(2+) homoeostasis. Collectively, activity of these ion channels determines the physiology of the RPE and its interaction with photoreceptors. Furthermore, changes in ion channel function, such as mutations in ion channel genes or a changed regulation of ion channel activity, have been shown to lead to degenerative diseases of the retina. Increasing knowledge about the properties of RPE ion channels has not only provided a new understanding of RPE function but has also provided greater understanding of RPE function in health and disease.

  3. Cascading blockages in channel bundles.

    PubMed

    Barré, C; Talbot, J

    2015-11-01

    Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of N(c) parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary N(c) and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary N(c) and N=1 for coupled channels. For N>1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N=1 but decreases for N>1. This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.

  4. Cascading blockages in channel bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barré, C.; Talbot, J.

    2015-11-01

    Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of Nc parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary Nc and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary Nc and N =1 for coupled channels. For N >1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N =1 but decreases for N >1 . This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.

  5. Micro-channel plate detector

    DOEpatents

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

    2015-09-22

    A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

  6. Development of a Crosslink Channel Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Chris; Smith, Carl; Burns, Rich

    2004-01-01

    Distributed Spacecraft missions are an integral part of current and future plans for NASA and other space agencies. Many of these multi-vehicle missions involve utilizing the array of spacecraft as a single, instrument requiring communication via crosslinks to achieve mission goals. NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing the Formation Flying Test Bed (FFTB) to provide a hardware-in-the-loop simulation environment to support mission concept development and system trades with a primary focus on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) challenges associated with spacecraft flying. The goal of the FFTB is to reduce mission risk by assisting in mission planning and analysis, provide a technology development platform that allows algorithms to be developed for mission functions such as precision formation navigation and control and time synchronization. The FFTB will provide a medium in which the various crosslink transponders being used in multi-vehicle missions can be integrated for development and test; an integral part of the FFTB is the Crosslink Channel Simulator (CCS). The CCS is placed into the communications channel between the crosslinks under test, and is used to simulate on-mission effects to the communications channel such as vehicle maneuvers, relative vehicle motion, or antenna misalignment. The CCS is based on the Starlight software programmable platform developed at General Dynamics Decision Systems and provides the CCS with the ability to be modified on the fly to adapt to new crosslink formats or mission parameters. This paper briefly describes the Formation Flying Test Bed and its potential uses. It then provides details on the current and future development of the Crosslink Channel Simulator and its capabilities.

  7. Ion channeling revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Corona, Aldo; Nguyen, Anh

    2014-09-01

    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  8. Geomorphic analyses from space imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most obvious applications of space imagery to geomorphological analyses is in the study of drainage patterns and channel networks. LANDSAT, high altitude photography and other types of remote sensing imagery are excellent for depicting stream networks on a regional scale because of their broad coverage in a single image. They offer a valuable tool for comparing and analyzing drainage patterns and channel networks all over the world. Three aspects considered in this geomorphological study are: (1) the origin, evolution and rates of development of drainage systems; (2) the topological studies of network and channel arrangements; and (3) the adjustment of streams to tectonic events and geologic structure (i.e., the mode and rate of adjustment).

  9. A Study of Covert Communications in Space Platforms Hosting Government Payloads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    access to space by hosting government-supplied payloads on commercial space platforms. These commercially hosted payloads require stringent...15. SUBJECT TERMS Commercially hosted payload, covert channel, MIL-STD-1553B, SpaceWire, multilevel security, cross-domain 16. SECURITY...access to space by hosting government-supplied payloads on commercial space platforms. These commercially hosted payloads require stringent

  10. L-type Ca2+ channels in the heart: structure and regulation.

    PubMed

    Treinys, Rimantas; Jurevicius, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    This review analyzes the structure and regulation mechanisms of voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel in the heart. L-type Ca(2+) channels in the heart are composed of four different polypeptide subunits, and the pore-forming subunit alpha(1) is the most important part of the channel. In cardiac myocytes, Ca(2+) enter cell cytoplasm from extracellular space mainly through L-type Ca(2+) channels; these channels are very important system in heart Ca(2+) uptake regulation. L-type Ca(2+) channels are responsible for the activation of sarcoplasmic reticulum channels (RyR2) and force of muscle contraction generation in heart; hence, activity of the heart depends on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Phosphorylation of channel-forming subunits by different kinases is one of the most important ways to change the activity of L-type Ca(2+) channel. Additionally, the activity of L-type Ca(2+) channels depends on Ca(2+) concentration in cytoplasm. Ca(2+) current in cardiac cells can facilitate, and this process is regulated by phosphorylation of L-type Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Disturbances in cellular Ca(2+) transport and regulation of L-type Ca(2+) channels are directly related to heart diseases, life quality, and life span.

  11. Ion channels and transporters [corrected] in cancer. 2. Ion channels and the control of cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Cuddapah, Vishnu Anand; Sontheimer, Harald

    2011-09-01

    A hallmark of high-grade cancers is the ability of malignant cells to invade unaffected tissue and spread disease. This is particularly apparent in gliomas, the most common and lethal type of primary brain cancer affecting adults. Migrating cells encounter restricted spaces and appear able to adjust their shape to accommodate to narrow extracellular spaces. A growing body of work suggests that cell migration/invasion is facilitated by ion channels and transporters. The emerging concept is that K(+) and Cl(-) function as osmotically active ions, which cross the plasma membrane in concert with obligated water thereby adjusting a cell's shape and volume. In glioma cells Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) actively accumulate K(+) and Cl(-), establishing a gradient for KCl efflux. Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and voltage-gated Cl(-) channels are largely responsible for effluxing KCl promoting hydrodynamic volume changes. In other cancers, different K(+) or even Na(+) channels may function in concert with a variety of Cl(-) channels to support similar volume changes. Channels involved in migration are frequently regulated by Ca(2+) signaling, most likely coupling extracellular stimuli to cell migration. Importantly, the inhibition of ion channels and transporters appears to be clinically relevant for the treatment of cancer. Recent preclinical data indicates that inhibition of NKCC1 with an FDA-approved drug decreases neoplastic migration. Additionally, ongoing clinical trials demonstrate that an inhibitor of chloride channels may be a therapy for the treatment of gliomas. Data reviewed here strongly indicate that ion channels are a promising target for the development of novel therapeutics to combat cancer.

  12. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  13. Space Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  14. Collaborative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    When architects discuss the educational facilities of the next century and beyond, the conversation turns to collaborative spaces. They envision flexible and fluid spaces that will encourage creative and critical thinking, and free students to communicate clearly about the task at hand. While these are admirable ideals, there are some fundamental…

  15. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  16. Space Jurisdiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Declan

    United Societies In Space (USIS) marks its official beginning at Georgetown University Law School in October, 1992. The setting was the Moot Court proceedings of the International Institute of Space Lawyers at the law school. Dr. George S. Robinson, III was presiding over the Court Competition. Dr. Robinson was Associate General Counsel for the Smithsonian Institution at that time…

  17. Space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  18. Alpha Channeling in a Rotating Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2008-09-23

    The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with E × B rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the RF waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity.

  19. Ion Channels in Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pravir; Kumar, Dhiraj; Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Ambasta, Rashmi K

    2016-01-01

    The convergent endeavors of the neuroscientist to establish a link between clinical neurology, genetics, loss of function of an important protein, and channelopathies behind neurological disorders are quite intriguing. Growing evidence reveals the impact of ion channels dysfunctioning in neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Many neurological/neuromuscular disorders, viz, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related disorders are caused due to altered function or mutation in ion channels. To maintain cell homeostasis, ion channels are playing a crucial role which is a large transmembrane protein. Further, these channels are important as it determines the membrane potential and playing critically in the secretion of neurotransmitter. Behind NDDs, losses of pathological proteins and defective ion channels have been reported and are found to aggravate the disease symptoms. Moreover, ion channel dysfunctions are eliciting a range of symptoms, including memory loss, movement disabilities, neuromuscular sprains, and strokes. Since the possible mechanistic role played by aberrant ion channels, their receptor and associated factors in neurodegeneration remained elusive; therefore, it is a challenging task for the neuroscientist to implement the therapeutics for targeting NDDs. This chapter reviews the potential role of the ion channels in membrane physiology and brain homeostasis, where ion channels and their associated factors have been characterized with their functional consequences in neurological diseases. Moreover, mechanistic role of perturbed ion channels has been identified in various NDDs, and finally, ion channel modulators have been investigated for their therapeutic intervention in treating common NDDs.

  20. A free-space optical terminal for fading channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T.; Murphy, R. J.; Walther, F.; Volpicelli, A.; Wilcox, B.; Crucioli, D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a lasercom terminal using spatial diversity to mitigate fading caused by atmospheric scintillation. Multiple receive apertures are separated sufficiently to capture statistically independent samples of the incoming beam. The received optical signals are tracked individually, photo-detected, and summed electrically, with measured diversity gain. The terminal consists of COTS components. It was used in successful demonstrations over a 5.4km ground-ground link from June through September 2008, during which it experienced a wide temperature range. Design overview and hardware realization are presented. This work was sponsored by the Department of Defense, RRCO DDR&E, under Air Force Contract FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  1. Channel Characterization for Free-Space Optical Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    SR), both of which are required to estimate the Power in the Bucket ( PIB ) and Power in the Fiber (PIF) associated with the FOENEX data beam. UCF was...provided with some of the PIB and PIF data taken by APL on the FOENEX data beam in order to compare actual measurements with theoretical...measurements of the BLS-900 Scintec scintollometer controlled by APL. The same was true of the theoretical and measured PIB in both directions over the

  2. Apparatus for assembling space structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. D.; Tuggle, R. H., Jr.; Burch, J. L.; Clark, K. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for producing a structure in outer space from rolls of prepunched ribbon or sheet material that are transported from the earth to the apparatus located in outer space is described. The apparatus spins the space structure similar to a spider spinning a web utilizing the prepunched ribbon material. The prepunched ribbon material is fed through the apparatus and is shaped into a predetermined channel-shaped configuration. Trusses are punched out of the ribbon and are bent downwardly and attached to a track which normally is a previously laid sheet of material. The size of the overall space structure may be increased by merely attaching an additional roll of sheet material to the apparatus.

  3. Roughness characteristics of natural channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Harry Hawthorne

    1967-01-01

    Color photographs and descriptive data are presented for 50 stream channels for which roughness coefficients have been determined. All hydraulic computations involving flow in open channels require an evaluation of the roughness characteristics of the channel. In the absence of a satisfactory quantitative procedure this evaluation remains chiefly an art. The ability to evaluate roughness coefficients must be developed through experience. One means of gaining this experience is by examining and becoming acquainted with the appearance of some typical channels whose roughness coefficients are known. The photographs and data contained in this report represent a wide range of channel conditions. Familiarity with the appearance, geometry, and roughness characteristics of these channels will improve the engineer's ability to select roughness coefficients for other channels .

  4. Chloride channels as drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.

    2013-01-01

    Chloride channels represent a relatively under-explored target class for drug discovery as elucidation of their identity and physiological roles has lagged behind that of many other drug targets. Chloride channels are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including epithelial fluid secretion, cell-volume regulation, neuroexcitation, smooth-muscle contraction and acidification of intracellular organelles. Mutations in several chloride channels cause human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, macular degeneration, myotonia, kidney stones, renal salt wasting and hyperekplexia. Chloride-channel modulators have potential applications in the treatment of some of these disorders, as well as in secretory diarrhoeas, polycystic kidney disease, osteoporosis and hypertension. Modulators of GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid A) receptor chloride channels are in clinical use and several small-molecule chloride-channel modulators are in preclinical development and clinical trials. Here, we discuss the broad opportunities that remain in chloride-channel-based drug discovery. PMID:19153558

  5. 66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. VIEW OF DELUGE CHANNEL; NORTH FACE OF THEODOLITE SHELTER (BLDG. 788); TELEVISION CAMERA TOWER; CAMERA TOWER FROM SOUTH END OF LAUNCH DECK - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Trumpis, B. D.; Udalov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of space shuttle communication systems were studied. The following major areas were investigated: burst error correction for shuttle command channels; performance optimization and design considerations for Costas receivers with and without bandpass limiting; experimental techniques for measuring low level spectral components of microwave signals; and potential modulation and coding techniques for the Ku-band return link. Results are presented.

  7. Helical Channel Design and Technology for Cooling of Muon Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonehara, K.; Derbenev, Y. S.; Johnson, R. P.

    2010-11-01

    Novel magnetic helical channel designs for capture and cooling of bright muon beams are being developed using numerical simulations based on new inventions such as helical solenoid (HS) magnets and hydrogen-pressurized RF (HPRF) cavities. We are close to the factor of a million six-dimensional phase space (6D) reduction needed for muon colliders. Recent experimental and simulation results are presented.

  8. Space smarts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Frank

    1991-02-01

    A review is presented of design and development work in space data processors at the Honeywell Space Systems Group in Florida. Space computers, some hardened for the first time against radiation from both man-made nuclear events and the natural space environment, are described. A specific illustration of this is the Space Shuttle main engine control which monitors some 120 engine parameters 50 times per second and operates the actuators that control the liquid-fueled engine through its eight minute burn. It is further pointed out that Space Station processors will be tied together by three different data buses, each with its own protocol, while the backbone of the data management system will be an optical fiber distributed data interface handling up to 100 Mbits/sec. Radiation hardening without heavy shielding can be accomplished in several ways, i.e., at the materials level, by insulating substrates which can limit the photo-currents generated by a nuclear event, and at the topological level, by spacing transistors so that photocurrents cannot concentrate at any particular node.

  9. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  10. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to underscore the importance of continued studies on the effects of space on human physiology. With particular reference to the Space Station, it is pointed out that there are two aspects which are challenging to life scientists: first is the development of a research capability for the life sciences which will be used to conduct investigations necessary to extend the time humans can remain in space; second is the challenge to develop a medical capability to provide prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. A discussion of physiological changes that have been observed in spacecrews follows along the lines of the two aspects mentioned.

  11. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  12. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  13. Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss beams propagation through turbulence: analysis of channel efficiency.

    PubMed

    Doster, Timothy; Watnik, Abbie T

    2016-12-20

    As a means of increasing the channel capacity in free-space optical communication systems, two types of orbital angular momentum carrying beams, Bessel-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss, are studied. In a series of numerical simulations, we show that Bessel-Gauss beams, pseudo-nondiffracting beams, outperform Laguerre-Gauss beams of various orders in channel efficiency and bit error rates.

  14. Active integrated filters for RF-photonic channelizers.

    PubMed

    El Nagdi, Amr; Liu, Ke; LaFave, Tim P; Hunt, Louis R; Ramakrishna, Viswanath; Dabkowski, Mieczyslaw; MacFarlane, Duncan L; Christensen, Marc P

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical study of RF-photonic channelizers using four architectures formed by active integrated filters with tunable gains is presented. The integrated filters are enabled by two- and four-port nano-photonic couplers (NPCs). Lossless and three individual manufacturing cases with high transmission, high reflection, and symmetric couplers are assumed in the work. NPCs behavior is dependent upon the phenomenon of frustrated total internal reflection. Experimentally, photonic channelizers are fabricated in one single semiconductor chip on multi-quantum well epitaxial InP wafers using conventional microelectronics processing techniques. A state space modeling approach is used to derive the transfer functions and analyze the stability of these filters. The ability of adapting using the gains is demonstrated. Our simulation results indicate that the characteristic bandpass and notch filter responses of each structure are the basis of channelizer architectures, and optical gain may be used to adjust filter parameters to obtain a desired frequency magnitude response, especially in the range of 1-5 GHz for the chip with a coupler separation of ∼9 mm. Preliminarily, the measurement of spectral response shows enhancement of quality factor by using higher optical gains. The present compact active filters on an InP-based integrated photonic circuit hold the potential for a variety of channelizer applications. Compared to a pure RF channelizer, photonic channelizers may perform both channelization and down-conversion in an optical domain.

  15. Light transmission channels in random scattering media (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Recently it has been shown that shaping the wavefront of an incident laser beam can significantly enhance the total transmission of light through strong scattering media [1]. This is done by coupling light to high transmission channels. However, optical absorption would modify such transmission channels. In a disordered system with uniform absorption, the maximal transmission channel changes from diffusive to ballistic-like transport [2]. This ballistic-like transport may enable new modes of imaging in absorbing media. If the absorption is distributed non-uniformly in space, the high transmission channels redirect the energy flows to circumvent the absorbing regions to minimize loss. Thus the attenuation of high transmission channels by inhomogeneous absorption becomes lower than that by homogeneous absorption [3]. Since the maximum transmission channel is the most efficient in bypassing the absorbing region, the ratio of its transmittance to the average transmittance increases with absorption, eventually exceeds the ratio without absorption. The finding that inhomogeneous absorption may have a weaker impact on open channels than homogeneous absorption is promising for practical applications. [1] S. M. Popoff, A. Goetschy, S. F. Liew, A. D. Stone, and H. Cao. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 133903 (2014). [2] S. F. Liew, S. M. Popoff, A. P. Mosk, W. L. Vos, and H. Cao. Phys. Rev. B 89, 224202 (2014). [3] S. F. Liew and H. Cao. Opt. Express 23, 11043 (2015).

  16. Nanobody Mediated Crystallization of an Archeal Mechanosensitive Channel

    PubMed Central

    Löw, Christian; Yau, Yin Hoe; Pardon, Els; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Wåhlin, Lisa; Quistgaard, Esben M.; Moberg, Per; Geifman-Shochat, Susana; Steyaert, Jan; Nordlund, Pär

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channels (MS) are integral membrane proteins and allow bacteria to survive sudden changes in external osmolarity due to transient opening of their pores. The efflux of cytoplasmic osmolytes reduces the membrane tension and prevents membrane rupture. Therefore these channels serve as emergency valves when experiencing significant environmental stress. The preparation of high quality crystals of integral membrane proteins is a major bottleneck for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Crystallization chaperones based on various protein scaffolds have emerged as promising tool to increase the crystallization probability of a selected target protein. So far archeal mechanosensitive channels of small conductance have resisted crystallization in our hands. To structurally analyse these channels, we selected nanobodies against an archeal MS channel after immunization of a llama with recombinant expressed, detergent solubilized and purified protein. Here we present the characterization of 23 different binders regarding their interaction with the channel protein using analytical gel filtration, western blotting and surface plasmon resonance. Selected nanobodies bound the target with affinities in the pico- to nanomolar range and some binders had a profound effect on the crystallization of the MS channel. Together with previous data we show that nanobodies are a versatile and valuable tool in structural biology by widening the crystallization space for highly challenging proteins, protein complexes and integral membrane proteins. PMID:24205053

  17. Active Integrated Filters for RF-Photonic Channelizers

    PubMed Central

    Nagdi, Amr El; Liu, Ke; LaFave, Tim P.; Hunt, Louis R.; Ramakrishna, Viswanath; Dabkowski, Mieczyslaw; MacFarlane, Duncan L.; Christensen, Marc P.

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical study of RF-photonic channelizers using four architectures formed by active integrated filters with tunable gains is presented. The integrated filters are enabled by two- and four-port nano-photonic couplers (NPCs). Lossless and three individual manufacturing cases with high transmission, high reflection, and symmetric couplers are assumed in the work. NPCs behavior is dependent upon the phenomenon of frustrated total internal reflection. Experimentally, photonic channelizers are fabricated in one single semiconductor chip on multi-quantum well epitaxial InP wafers using conventional microelectronics processing techniques. A state space modeling approach is used to derive the transfer functions and analyze the stability of these filters. The ability of adapting using the gains is demonstrated. Our simulation results indicate that the characteristic bandpass and notch filter responses of each structure are the basis of channelizer architectures, and optical gain may be used to adjust filter parameters to obtain a desired frequency magnitude response, especially in the range of 1–5 GHz for the chip with a coupler separation of ∼9 mm. Preliminarily, the measurement of spectral response shows enhancement of quality factor by using higher optical gains. The present compact active filters on an InP-based integrated photonic circuit hold the potential for a variety of channelizer applications. Compared to a pure RF channelizer, photonic channelizers may perform both channelization and down-conversion in an optical domain. PMID:22319352

  18. An Efficient, Highly Flexible Multi-Channel Digital Downconverter Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodhart, Charles E.; Soriano, Melissa A.; Navarro, Robert; Trinh, Joseph T.; Sigman, Elliott H.

    2013-01-01

    sampling rates of up to 1,280 MHz. The current implementation takes a 1,280-MHz real input, and first breaks it up into seven 160-MHz complex channels, each spaced 80 MHz apart. The eighth channel at baseband was not required for this implementation, and led to more optimization. Afterwards, 16 second stage narrow band channels with independently tunable center frequencies and bandwidth settings are implemented A future implementation in a larger Xilinx FPGA will hold up to 32 independent second-stage channels.

  19. Phase-space contraction and quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Spina, Maria Elena; Saraceno, Marcos; Carlo, Gabriel

    2005-12-15

    We give a criterion to differentiate between dissipative and diffusive quantum operations. It is based on the classical idea that dissipative processes contract volumes in phase space. We define a quantity that can be regarded as 'quantum phase space contraction rate' and which is related to a fundamental property of quantum channels: nonunitality. We relate it to other properties of the channel and also show a simple example of dissipative noise composed with a chaotic map. The emergence of attractor-like structures is displayed.

  20. Bacterial sodium channels: models for eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels are made up of four linked homologous but different transmembrane domains. Bacteria express sodium channels comprised of four identical subunits, each being analogous to a single homologous domain of their eukaryotic counterparts. Key elements of primary structure are conserved between bacterial and eukaryotic sodium and calcium channels. The simple protein structure of the bacterial channels has allowed extensive structure-function probes of key regions as well as allowing determination of several X-ray crystallographic structures of these channels. The structures have revealed novel features of sodium and calcium channel pores and elucidated the structural importance of many of the conserved features of primary sequence. The structural information has also formed the basis for computational studies probing the basis for sodium and calcium selectivity and gating.

  1. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Ken; Dalheim, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Presents an elementary teaching unit on NASA's space program, including teacher background information, suggested student activities, and a list of resources. Appended is a transcript of an interview conducted by elementary children with astronaut candidate Sherwood (Woody) Spring. (SJL)

  2. Stream Channel Stability. Appendix E. Geomorphic Controls of Channel Stability,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Erosion and Channels Research Unit, USDA Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford, MS. 1,"<Xi i .. i,,< .;,i,<..7 PREFACE This process -oriented study was...organized to investigate three complementary aspects of channel stability including (a) the nature of channel failure processes ; (b) the influences of...valley-fill depositional units on these processes and (c) the properties and distributions of the valley-fill units. The study was process oriented to

  3. Noninvasive Measurement of the Pressure Distribution in a Deformable Micro-Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsun, Ozgur; Yakhot, Victor; Ekinci, Kamil L.

    2013-11-01

    Direct and noninvasive measurement of the pressure drop in test sections of a rigid micro-channel is a challenging task. In a micro-channel with compliant walls, however, it is possible to determine the pressure field under flow from the local deflection of the channel walls. Here, we present a robust analytical approach for determining the pressure distribution in a deformable micro-channel under flow. In this method, we first measure the channel deflection profile as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure; this initial measurement provides the constitutive curves for the deformable channel. We then match the deflection profile under flow to the constitutive curves, obtaining the hydrodynamic pressure distribution. We have tested and validated the developed mapping on planar micro-fluidic channels. This method remains accurate in a broad parameter space, and can find possible applications in microfluidics and for characterizing biological flows. We acknowledge generous support from the US NSF through Grant No. CMMI-0970071.

  4. Mitochondrial Small Conductance SK2 Channels Prevent Glutamate-induced Oxytosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Dolga, Amalia M.; Netter, Michael F.; Perocchi, Fabiana; Doti, Nunzianna; Meissner, Lilja; Tobaben, Svenja; Grohm, Julia; Zischka, Hans; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Decher, Niels; Culmsee, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK2/KCa2.2) channels are known to be located in the neuronal plasma membrane where they provide feedback control of NMDA receptor activity. Here, we provide evidence that SK2 channels are also located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of neuronal mitochondria. Patch clamp recordings in isolated mitoplasts suggest insertion into the inner mitochondrial membrane with the C and N termini facing the intermembrane space. Activation of SK channels increased mitochondrial K+ currents, whereas channel inhibition attenuated these currents. In a model of glutamate toxicity, activation of SK2 channels attenuated the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, blocked mitochondrial fission, prevented the release of proapoptotic mitochondrial proteins, and reduced cell death. Neuroprotection was blocked by specific SK2 inhibitory peptides and siRNA targeting SK2 channels. Activation of mitochondrial SK2 channels may therefore represent promising targets for neuroprotective strategies in conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23430260

  5. Mitochondrial small conductance SK2 channels prevent glutamate-induced oxytosis and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dolga, Amalia M; Netter, Michael F; Perocchi, Fabiana; Doti, Nunzianna; Meissner, Lilja; Tobaben, Svenja; Grohm, Julia; Zischka, Hans; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Decher, Niels; Culmsee, Carsten

    2013-04-12

    Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK2/K(Ca)2.2) channels are known to be located in the neuronal plasma membrane where they provide feedback control of NMDA receptor activity. Here, we provide evidence that SK2 channels are also located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of neuronal mitochondria. Patch clamp recordings in isolated mitoplasts suggest insertion into the inner mitochondrial membrane with the C and N termini facing the intermembrane space. Activation of SK channels increased mitochondrial K(+) currents, whereas channel inhibition attenuated these currents. In a model of glutamate toxicity, activation of SK2 channels attenuated the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, blocked mitochondrial fission, prevented the release of proapoptotic mitochondrial proteins, and reduced cell death. Neuroprotection was blocked by specific SK2 inhibitory peptides and siRNA targeting SK2 channels. Activation of mitochondrial SK2 channels may therefore represent promising targets for neuroprotective strategies in conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. Fuel cell plates with improved arrangement of process channels for enhanced pressure drop across the plates

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; Pierce, Bill L.; Wright, Maynard K.

    1986-01-01

    A plate for a fuel cell has an arrangement of ribs defining an improved configuration of process gas channels and slots on a surface of the plate which provide a modified serpentine gas flow pattern across the plate surface. The channels are generally linear and arranged parallel to one another while the spaced slots allow cross channel flow of process gas in a staggered fashion which creates a plurality of generally mini-serpentine flow paths extending transverse to the longitudinal gas flow along the channels. Adjacent pairs of the channels are interconnected to one another in flow communication. Also, a bipolar plate has the aforementioned process gas channel configuration on one surface and another configuration on the opposite surface. In the other configuration, there are not slots and the gas flow channels have a generally serpentine configuration.

  7. Space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A fact sheet on the NASA space science program is presented. Some of the subjects considered include the following: (1) the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, (2) the Orbiting Solar Observatory, (3) the Small Astronomy Satellite, (4) lunar programs, (5) planetary programs using the Mariner, Pioneer 10, and Viking space probes, and (6) the Scout, Thor-Delta, and Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles. For each program there is a description of the effort, the schedule, management, program officials, and funding aspects in outline form.

  8. Space Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENTS CATALOG NUIA3.R CMU-RI-TR-82-10 I4 1 (. 4. ;,;-LL (and Sublitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD CovEREO SPACE ROBOTICS Interim... Robotics Institute Pittsburgh, PA. 15213 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Office of Naval Research -August 1982 Arlington, VA 22217...SXnet.eE . Space Robotics Richard E. Korf Department of Computer Science and The Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Oetusylvania

  9. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4

  10. Channel Acquisition for Massive MIMO-OFDM With Adjustable Phase Shift Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Li; Gao, Xiqi; Swindlehurst, A. Lee; Zhong, Wen

    2016-03-01

    We propose adjustable phase shift pilots (APSPs) for channel acquisition in wideband massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems employing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to reduce the pilot overhead. Based on a physically motivated channel model, we first establish a relationship between channel space-frequency correlations and the channel power angle-delay spectrum in the massive antenna array regime, which reveals the channel sparsity in massive MIMO-OFDM. With this channel model, we then investigate channel acquisition, including channel estimation and channel prediction, for massive MIMO-OFDM with APSPs. We show that channel acquisition performance in terms of sum mean square error can be minimized if the user terminals' channel power distributions in the angle-delay domain can be made non-overlapping with proper phase shift scheduling. A simplified pilot phase shift scheduling algorithm is developed based on this optimal channel acquisition condition. The performance of APSPs is investigated for both one symbol and multiple symbol data models. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed APSP approach can provide substantial performance gains in terms of achievable spectral efficiency over the conventional phase shift orthogonal pilot approach in typical mobility scenarios.

  11. Getting the GeoSTAR Instrument Concept Ready for a Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lim, B.; Tanner, A.; Ruf, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer - GeoSTAR - is a microwave sounder intended for geostationary satellites. First proposed for the EO-3 New Millennium mission in 1999, the technology has since been developed under the Instrument Incubator Program. Under IIP-03 a proof-of-concept demonstrator operating in the temperature sounding 50 GHz band was developed to show that the aperture synthesis concept results in a realizable, stable and accurate imaging-sounding radiometer. Some of the most challenging technology, such as miniature low-power 183- GHz receivers used for water vapor sounding, was developed under IIP-07. The first such receiver has recently been adapted for use in the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR), which was previously developed under IIP-98. This receiver represents a new state of the art and outperforms the previous benchmark by an order of magnitude in radiometric sensitivity. It was first used in the GRIP hurricane field campaign in 2010, where HAMSR became the first microwave sounder to fly on the Global Hawk UAV. Now, under IIP-10, we will develop flight-like subsystems and a brassboard testing system, which will facilitate rapid implementation of a space mission. GeoSTAR is the baseline payload for the Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission - one of NASA's 15 "decadal-survey" missions. Although PATH is currently in the third tier of those missions, the IIP efforts have advanced the required technology to a point where a space mission can be initiated in a time frame commensurate with second-tier missions. An even earlier Venture mission is also being considered.

  12. Quantum Limits of Space-to-Ground Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, H.; Dolinar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum limiting factors contributed by the transmitter, the optical channel, and the receiver of a space-to-ground optical communications link are described. Approaches to move toward the ultimate quantum limit are discussed.

  13. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 73.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.213 Grandfathered short-spaced stations. (a... FM). (3) For co-channel and first-adjacent-channel stations, a copy of any application...

  14. 47 CFR 73.213 - Grandfathered short-spaced stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 73.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.213 Grandfathered short-spaced stations. (a... FM). (3) For co-channel and first-adjacent-channel stations, a copy of any application...

  15. Channels on Dunes in Russell Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Hundreds of enigmatic small channels are seen to carve into the slopes of these dark sand dunes lying within Russell Crater on Mars. These features were previously identified as gullies in images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on Mars Global Surveyor, but the higher resolution HiRISE image brings out many new details and mysteries. The channels extend from near the top of the dunes to their bases, indicating that some fluid material carved into the sand. The channels commonly begin as smaller tributaries joined together, suggesting several sources of fluid. Distinct dark spots are located near where the channels seem to originate. Several channels appear to originate at alcoves. Several of these channels have sinuous middle reaches while others are straighter. Further down slope, some channel edges appear elevated above the surrounding terrain, particularly in the lower reaches. The channels seem to terminate abruptly, with no deposition of material, unlike at the bases of some other gullies on Mars that are not on dunes.

    One hypothesis for the origin of the channels, which has previously been proposed by the MOC team, is that CO2 (or maybe H2O) frost is deposited on the dunes in shadows or at night. Some frost may also be incorporated into the internal parts of the dunes due to natural avalanching. When the frost is eventually heated by sunlight, rapid sublimation triggers an avalanche of fluidized sand, forming a gully. HiRISE will continue to target small channel features such as these and may return to search for any changes over time.

    Image PSP_001440_1255 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 16, 2006. The complete image is centered at -54.2 degrees latitude, 12.9 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.4 km (157.1 miles). At this distance the image scale is 50.3 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so

  16. Tissue channel morphology in Octopus.

    PubMed

    Browning, J; Casley-Smith, J R

    1981-01-01

    The morphology of tissue channels in muscle and neural tissues of Octopus was investigated, at the ultrastructural level, with a technique involving the precipitation of ferrocyanide ions. The numbers, sizes and conductivities of the channels were estimated from quantitative data. No evidence was gained to indicate that the low microvascular density in Octopus is coupled to an especially extensive network of extravascular channels. The tissue channel system in Octopus appears to be broadly comparable with the mammalian system; a lack of information prevents more appropriate comparisons with marine fishes. Probable functions of tissue channels in Octopus and mammals, and reasons for apparent similarities and differences in the channel organization of these divergent groups, are discussed.

  17. Ion channel therapeutics for pain

    PubMed Central

    Skerratt, Sarah E; West, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex disease which can progress into a debilitating condition. The effective treatment of pain remains a challenge as current therapies often lack the desired level of efficacy or tolerability. One therapeutic avenue, the modulation of ion channel signaling by small molecules, has shown the ability to treat pain. However, of the 215 ion channels that exist in the human genome, with 85 ion channels having a strong literature link to pain, only a small number of these channels have been successfully drugged for pain. The focus of future research will be to fully explore the possibilities surrounding these unexplored ion channels. Toward this end, a greater understanding of ion channel modulation will be the greatest tool we have in developing the next generation of drugs for the treatment of pain. PMID:26218246

  18. Space Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  19. Agonist-activated ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Colquhoun, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at ion channels as an example of the pharmacologist's stock in trade, the action of an agonist on a receptor to produce a response. Looked at in this way, ion channels have been helpful because they are still the only system which is simple enough for quantitative investigation of transduction mechanisms. A short history is given of attempts to elucidate what happens between the time when agonist first binds, and the time when the channel opens. PMID:16402101

  20. Covert Channels and Anonymizing Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-30

    Covert Channels and Anonymizing Networks Ira S. Moskowitz Center for High Assurance Computer Systems Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375...ABSTRACT There have long been threads of investigation into covert channels, and threads of investigation into anonymity , but these two closely related...channel capacity and anonymity , and poses more questions than it answers. Even this preliminary work has proven difficult, but in this investigation lies

  1. The Channel Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5 km-long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover. It connects Dover, Kent in England with Calais, northern France. The undersea section of the tunnel is unsurpassed in length in the world. A proposal for a Channel tunnel was first put forward by a French engineer in 1802. In 1881, a first attempt was made at boring a tunnel from the English side; the work was halted after 800 m. Again in 1922, English workers started boring a tunnel, and advanced 120 m before it too was halted for political reasons. The most recent attempt was begun in 1987, and the tunnel was officially opened in 1994. At completion it was estimated that the project cost around $18 billion. It has been operating at a significant loss since its opening, despite trips by over 7 million passengers per year on the Eurostar train, and over 3 million vehicles per year.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring

  2. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  3. Genetic Control of Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ahmad S; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 80 genes in the human genome code for pore-forming subunits of potassium (K(+)) channels. Rare variants (mutations) in K(+) channel-encoding genes may cause heritable arrhythmia syndromes. Not all rare variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are necessarily disease-causing mutations. Common variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are increasingly recognized as modifiers of phenotype in heritable arrhythmia syndromes and in the general population. Although difficult, distinguishing pathogenic variants from benign variants is of utmost importance to avoid false designations of genetic variants as disease-causing mutations.

  4. Demystifying Mechanosensitive Piezo Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-06-01

    Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel.

  5. Chaotic behavior of channeling particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Kaloyeros, Alain E.; Wang, Guang-Hou

    1994-03-01

    Channeling describes the collimated motion of energetic charged particles along the lattice plane or axis in a crystal. The energetic particles are steered through the channels formed by strings of atomic constituents in the lattice. In the case of planar channeling, the motion of a charged particle between the atomic planes can be periodic or quasiperiodic, such as a simple oscillatory motion in the transverse direction. In practice, however, the periodic motion of the channeling particles can be accompanied by an irregular, chaotic behavior. In this paper, the Moliere potential, which is considered as a good analytical approximation for the interaction of channeling particles with the rows of atoms in the lattice, is used to simulate the channeling behavior of positively charged particles in a tungsten (100) crystal plane. By appropriate selection of channeling parameters, such as the projectile energy E(0) and incident angle psi(0), the transition of channeling particles from regular to chaotic motion is demonstrated. It is argued that the fine structures that appear in the angular scan channeling experiments are due to the particles' chaotic motion.

  6. TRP channels and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Chahl, Loris A

    2011-01-01

    Depression and schizophrenia are major psychiatric disorders that cause much human suffering. Current treatments have major limitations and new drug targets are eagerly sought. Study of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in these disorders is at an early stage and the potential of agents that activate or inhibit these channels remains speculative. The findings that TRPC6 channels promote dendritic growth and are selectively activated by hyperforin, the key constitutent of St John's wort, suggest that TRPC6 channels might prove to be a new target for antidepressant drug development. There is now considerable evidence that TRPV1 antagonists have anxiolytic activity but there is no direct evidence that they have antidepressant activity. There is also no direct evidence that TRP channels play a role in schizophrenia. However, the findings that TRPC channels are involved in neuronal development and fundamental synaptic mechanisms, and that TRPV1 channels play a role in central dopaminergic and cannabinoid mechanisms is suggestive of potential roles of these channels in schizophrenia. Investigation of TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of yielding further understanding of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders and the development of new drug treatments.

  7. Capacities of quantum amplifier channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation. Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.

  8. Ultrasound modulates ion channel currents

    PubMed Central

    Kubanek, Jan; Shi, Jingyi; Marsh, Jon; Chen, Di; Deng, Cheri; Cui, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (US) has been demonstrated to stimulate neurons in animals and humans, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. It has been hypothesized that US, a mechanical stimulus, may mediate cellular discharge by activating mechanosensitive ion channels embedded within cellular membranes. To test this hypothesis, we expressed potassium and sodium mechanosensitive ion channels (channels of the two-pore-domain potassium family (K2P) including TREK-1, TREK-2, TRAAK; NaV1.5) in the Xenopus oocyte system. Focused US (10 MHz, 0.3–4.9 W/cm2) modulated the currents flowing through the ion channels on average by up to 23%, depending on channel and stimulus intensity. The effects were reversible upon repeated stimulation and were abolished when a channel blocker (ranolazine to block NaV1.5, BaCl2 to block K2P channels) was applied to the solution. These data reveal at the single cell level that focused US modulates the activity of specific ion channels to mediate transmembrane currents. These findings open doors to investigations of the effects of  US on ion channels expressed in neurons, retinal cells, or cardiac cells, which may lead to important medical applications. The findings may also pave the way to the development of sonogenetics: a non-invasive, US-based analogue of optogenetics. PMID:27112990

  9. On funneling of tidal channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzoni, S.; D'Alpaos, A.

    2015-03-01

    Tidal channels dissect the tidal landscape and exert a crucial control on the morphodynamic evolution of these landscapes. Improving our understanding of channel equilibrium morphology is therefore an important issue for both theoretical and practical reasons. We analyze the case of a tidal channel dissecting a relatively short, unvegetated tidal flat characterized by microtidal conditions and a negligible external sediment supply. The three-dimensional equilibrium configuration of the channel is determined on the basis of a hydrodynamic model, describing the cross-sectional distribution of the longitudinal bed shear stresses, coupled with a morphodynamic model retaining the description of the main physical processes shaping the channel and the adjacent intertidal platform. Both channel bed and width are allowed to adapt to the flow field so that an equilibrium altimetric and planimetric configuration is eventually obtained, when erosion becomes negligibly small, and asymptotically constant elevations are reached everywhere within the domain. Model results reproduce several observed channel characteristics of geomorphic relevance, such as the relationship between channel cross-sectional area and the flowing tidal prism, the scaling of the width-to-depth ratio with channel width, and the longitudinal distributions of bed elevations and channel widths. In analogy with empirical evidence from estuaries, tidal channel funneling is usually assumed to be described by an exponential trend. Our theoretical analyses, modeling results, and observational evidence suggest that a linear relationship also provides a good approximation to describe longitudinal variations in channel width for short tidal channels. Longitudinal bed profiles characterized by a strong planform funneling tend to attain an upward concavity, whereas a low degree of convergence implies an almost linear profile. Finally, the model allows one to analyze the influence of environmental conditions (sediment

  10. ECAP spread of excitation with virtual channels and physical electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michelle L; Stille, Lisa J; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Goehring, Jenny L

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate physiological spatial excitation patterns for stimulation of adjacent physical electrodes and intermediate virtual channels. Two experiments were conducted that utilized electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spread-of-excitation (SOE) functions obtained with the traditional forward-masking subtraction method. These two experiments examined spatial excitation patterns for virtual-channel maskers and probes, respectively. In Experiment 1, ECAP SOE patterns were obtained for maskers applied to physical electrodes and virtual channels to determine whether virtual-channel maskers yield SOE patterns similar to those predicted from physical electrodes. In Experiment 2, spatial separation of SOE functions was compared for two adjacent physical probe electrodes and the intermediate virtual channel to determine the extent to which ECAP SOE patterns for virtual-channel probes are spatially separate from those obtained with physical electrodes. Data were obtained for three electrode regions (basal, middle, apical) for 35 ears implanted with Cochlear (N = 16) or Advanced Bionics (N = 19) devices. Results from Experiment 1 showed no significant difference between predicted and measured ECAP amplitudes for Advanced Bionics subjects. Measured ECAP amplitudes for virtual-channel maskers were significantly larger than the predicted amplitudes for Cochlear subjects; however, the difference was <2 μV and thus is likely not clinically significant. Results from Experiment 2 showed that the probe set in the apical region demonstrated the least amount of spatial separation amongst SOE functions, which may be attributed to more uniform nerve survival patterns, closer electrode spacing, and/or the tapered geometry of the cochlea. As expected, adjacent physical probes demonstrated greater spatial separation than for comparisons between each physical probe and the intermediate virtual channel. Finally, the virtual-channel SOE

  11. Space Mission : Y3K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer

  12. Fiber channel services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavalli, Kumar

    1993-02-01

    There exists an increasing need, in the user environment, for a computer interconnect scheme with higher speed, higher performance and longer reach than the presently available alternatives. There is also a great demand for a multidirectional networking to provide high bandwidth on demand, high distribution capability, random access and high transport flexibility. The users expect low access delay, low transfer delay, high data integrity and a definable quality of service from their networks. All these requirements, however, have to be met with the preservation of the existing software in which a lot of user investment has already been made. In answer to the demands, there has been an emergence of a new network to interconnect heterogeneous systems at very high cost performance ratio. This new network is based on Fiber Channel Standard, blessed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

  13. The Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millis, R. L.; Dunham, E. W.; Sebring, T. A.; Smith, B. W.; de Kock, M.; Wiecha, O.

    2004-11-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.2-m telescope to be built at a new site near Happy Jack, Arizona. The DCT features a large prime focus mosaic CCD camera with a 2-degree-diameter field of view especially designed for surveys of KBOs, Centaurs, NEAs and other moving or time-variable targets. The telescope can be switched quickly to a Ritchey-Chretien configuration for optical/IR spectroscopy or near-IR imaging. This flexibility allows timely follow-up physical studies of high priority objects discovered in survey mode. The ULE (ultra-low-expansion) meniscus primary and secondary mirror blanks for the telescope are currently in fabrication by Corning Glass. Goodrich Aerospace, Vertex RSI, M3 Engineering and Technology Corp., and e2v Technologies have recently completed in-depth conceptual design studies of the optics, mount, enclosure, and mosaic focal plane, respectively. The results of these studies were subjected to a formal design review in July, 2004. Site testing at the 7760-ft altitude Happy Jack site began in 2001. Differential image motion observations from 117 nights since January 1, 2003 gave median seeing of 0.84 arcsec FWHM, and the average of the first quartile was 0.62 arcsec. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for securing long-term access to this site on the Coconino National Forest is nearing completion and ground breaking is expected in the spring of 2005. The Discovery Channel Telescope is a project of the Lowell Observatory with major financial support from Discovery Communications, Inc. (DCI). DCI plans ongoing television programming featuring the construction of the telescope and the research ultimately undertaken with the DCT. An additional partner can be accommodated in the project. Interested parties should contact the lead author.

  14. More About R Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, G. K.

    2007-12-01

    Much of our understanding of how subglacial drainage systems operate is based on key papers by Röthlisberger and Shreve that describe the steady-state hydraulics of circular ice-walled water conduits. Subsequent studies have extended these results to include transient conditions---relevant to diurnally- and seasonally-forced drainage systems---and to semi-circular bed-floored channels. In passing from circular to semi-circular conduits it is usual to adopt Nye's creep closure expression for circular tunnels and to assume that creep closure proceeds as it would for a circular ice-walled conduit. This assumption is only valid if ice can slip freely over the subglacial bed and it completely breaks down if free sliding is inhibited. Even for glaciers and ice streams that are sliding at fast rates the frictional resistance to conduit closure can be substantial and it is therefore impossible to maintain a semi-circular channel in a steady-state. The resulting difference between the rate of creep closure at the conduit ceiling and at the sidewalls forces the cross-sectional geometry of the conduit to evolve. At the time of writing it is unclear whether or not non-circular steady-state geometries can exist but either possibility is interesting. If there is no steady-state geometry then subglacial conduits must necessarily operate in an episodic manner. If steady-state geometries do exist then steady-state subglacial conduits must manifest along-path variations in their height-to-width aspect ratio in response to along-path changes in effective pressure and viscous dissipation.

  15. Euclid imaging channels: from science to system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiaux, J.; Auguères, J. L.; Boulade, O.; Cara, C.; Paulin-Henriksson, S.; Réfrégier, A.; Ronayette, S.; Amara, A.; Glauser, A.; Dumesnil, C.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Booth, J.; Schweitzer, M.; Holmes, R.; Cropper, M.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Duvet, L.; Lumb, D.

    2010-07-01

    Euclid is an ESA Cosmic Vision wide-field space mission concept dedicated to the high-precision study of Dark Energy and Dark Matter. The mission relies on two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The first probe requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies. The second probe is based on the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through spectroscopic redshifts. Additional cosmological probes are also used and include cluster counts, redshift space distortions, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) and galaxy clustering, which can all be derived from a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. Euclid Imaging Channels Instrument of the Euclid mission is designed to study the weak gravitational lensing cosmological probe. The combined Visible and Near InfraRed imaging channels form the basis of the weak lensing measurements. The VIS channel provides high-precision galaxy shape measurements for the measurement of weak lensing shear. The NIP channel provides the deep NIR multi-band photometry necessary to derive the photometric redshifts and thus a distance estimate for the lensed galaxies. This paper describes the Imaging Channels design driver requirements to reach the challenging science goals and the design that has been studied during the Cosmic Vision Assessment Phase.

  16. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. CHANNEL IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY OVERCROSSING OF ARROYO SECO CHANNEL. CHANNEL IS BEHIND TREES AND BUSHES AT RIGHT AND LEFT. STONEY DRIVE PASSES UNDER PARKWAY. LOOKING 282°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Arroyo Seco Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at milepost 30.10, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  18. Simulating complex ion channel kinetics with IonChannelLab

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Manuel; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jorge E; Perez-Cornejo, Patricia; Arreola, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    In-silico simulation based on Markov chains is a powerful way to describe and predict the activity of many transport proteins including ion channels. However, modeling and simulation using realistic models of voltage- or ligand-gated ion channels exposed to a wide range of experimental conditions require building complex kinetic schemes and solving complicated differential equations. To circumvent these problems, we developed IonChannelLab a software tool that includes a user-friendly Graphical User Interface and a simulation library. This program supports channels with Ohmic or Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz behavior and can simulate the time-course of ionic and gating currents, single channel behavior and steady-state conditions. The program allows the simulation of experiments where voltage, ligand and ionic concentration are varied independently or simultaneously. PMID:20935453

  19. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan

    2000-08-08

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  20. Entering Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  1. Space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

  2. Littoral steering of deltaic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-11-01

    The typically single-threaded channels on wave-influenced deltas show striking differences in their orientations, with some channels oriented into the incoming waves (e.g., Ombrone, Krishna), and others oriented away from the waves (e.g., Godavari, Sao Francisco). Understanding the controls on channel orientation is important as the channel location greatly influences deltaic morphology and sedimentology, both subaerially and subaqueously. Here, we explore channel orientation and consequent feedbacks with local shoreline dynamics using a plan-form numerical model of delta evolution. The model treats fluvial sediment delivery to a wave-dominated coast in two ways: 1) channels are assumed to prograde in a direction perpendicular to the local shoreline orientation and 2) a controlled fraction of littoral sediment transport can bypass the river mouth. Model results suggest that channels migrate downdrift when there is a significant net littoral transport and alongshore transport bypassing of the river mouth is limited. In contrast, river channels tend to orient themselves into the waves when fluvial sediment flux is relatively large, causing the shoreline of the downdrift delta flank to attain the orientation of maximum potential sediment transport for the incoming wave climate. Using model results, we develop a framework to estimate channel orientations for wave-influenced deltas that shows good agreement with natural examples. An increase in fluvial sediment input can cause a channel to reorient itself into incoming waves, behavior observed, for example, in the Ombrone delta in Italy. Our results can inform paleoclimate studies by linking channel orientation to fluvial sediment flux and wave energy. In particular, our approach provides a means to quantify past wave directions, which are notoriously difficult to constrain.

  3. Paired SSB optical OFDM channels for high spectral efficient signal transmission over DWDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicharro, Francisco I.; Ortega, Beatriz; Mora, José

    2016-07-01

    A new high spectral efficient SSB-OOFDM DWDM transmission system has been experimentally demonstrated. The proposed transmitter employs paired optical channels consisting of two SSB modulated OFDM signals using opposite sidebands in order to allow an efficient use of the spectrum with optical carriers separation under 10 GHz. Moreover, different paired channels are multiplexed into the 25 GHz grid DWDM fiber transmission link. Optical carrier spacing of 8.75 GHz in paired channels has been demonstrated allowing 40.8 Gb/s signal transmission rate over a 25 GHz paired channel bandwidth.

  4. Quasi-stable injection channels in a wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire-Turkay, Mara; Farmer, John P.; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    The influence of initial position on the acceleration of externally injected electrons in a plasma wakefield is investigated. Test-particle simulations show previously unobserved complex structure in the parameter space, with quasi-stable injection channels forming for particles injected in narrow regions away from the wake centre. Particles injected into these channels remain in the wake for a considerable time after dephasing and as a result achieve significantly higher energy than their neighbours. The result is relevant to both the planning and optimisation of experiments making use of external injection.

  5. Large eddy simulation of the flow in a transpired channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Moin, Parviz; Ferziger, Joel

    1989-01-01

    The flow in a transpired channel has been computed by large eddy simulation. The numerical results compare very well with experimental data. Blowing decreases the wall shear stress and enhances turbulent fluctuations, while suction has the opposite effect. The wall layer thickness normalized by the local wall shear velocity and kinematic viscosity increases on the blowing side of the channel and decreases on the suction side. Suction causes more rapid decay of the spectra, larger mean streak spacing and higher two-point correlations. On the blowing side, the wall layer structures lie at a steeper angle to the wall, whereas on the suction side this angle is shallower.

  6. Irreducible Decompositions and Stationary States of Quantum Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Raffaella; Pautrat, Yan

    2016-06-01

    For a quantum channel (completely positive, trace-preserving map), we prove a generalization to the infinite-dimensional case of a result by Baumgartner and Narnhofer [3]: this result is, in a probabilistic language, a decomposition of a general quantum channel into its irreducible recurrent components. More precisely, we prove that the positive recurrent subspace (i.e. the space supporting the invariant states) can be decomposed as the direct sum of supports of extremal invariant states; this decomposition is not unique, in general, but we can determine all the possible decompositions. This allows us to describe the full structure of invariant states.

  7. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communications system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the digital communication system for the direct communication links from ground to space shuttle and the links involving the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). Three main tasks were performed:(1) Channel encoding/decoding parameter optimization for forward and reverse TDRS links,(2)integration of command encoding/decoding and channel encoding/decoding; and (3) modulation coding interface study. The general communication environment is presented to provide the necessary background for the tasks and to provide an understanding of the implications of the results of the studies.

  8. Channel change on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Santa Cruz River, an ephemeral river that drains 8,581 square miles in southeastern Arizona, has a long history of channel instability. Since the late 19th century, lateral channel erosion has caused extensive property damage, particularly in Pima County. During the flood of 1983, about $100 million damage was caused in the Tucson area alone; most damage resulted from bank erosion on the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries. The nature, magni- tude, location, and frequency of channel change on the Santa Cruz River were highly variable in time and space from 1936 through 1986 along a 70-mile reach in Pima County, Arizona. Four mechanisms of lateral channel change--channel migration, avulsion and meander cutoff, channel widening, and arroyo widening--were identified on the Santa Cruz River. The dominant mechanism in a reach depends on channel morphology and flood magnitude. The dominant vertical change has been degradation. The timing and magnitude of channel change at a particular location are controlled primarily by hydroclimatic factors such as magnitude, duration, intensity, and frequency of precipitation and floods. The location of channel change and its magnitude in response to a given discharge are controlled largely by topographic, geologic, hydraulic, and artificial factors. Although much of the present morphology of the Santa Cruz River is the result of recent large floods, a direct link between hydroclimatic con- ditions and channel change is not always evident because resistance of the channel to erosion varies with time. (USGS)

  9. Channel routing for VLSI layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schory, Michael

    1988-12-01

    Channel routing for VLSI layout is reviewed and a set of features required of an industrial channel router is defined. A channel router, CAR, was implemented, based on the Greedy and Detour routers. Integrated circuit design is discussed, with attention to the various channel routing problems and models. The major requirements for an industrial channel router to be integrated within general cells and standard cells routing environments are discussed and their fulfillment in CAR is considered. CAR comprises: the Greedy router functionality; the Detour router's obstacle, obstruction and switch box extensions; rectilinear channels; ports located not on standard and immediately surrounding layers; middle ports within the channel; jog on conflict-only to reduce jog use; single layer jogs; and partial pre-routing and dynamic layer optimization. Special features of CAR include: extension of the net definition with a short range tendency; definition of net preferred track; net visibility range in rectilinear channels; an extended area mechanism to deal with obstacles, rectilinear edges, pre-routing and ports on unusual layers; unified jog cost evaluation functions; unified, efficient jog selection; a general evaluation function for track worth; and a net connectivity part to control and handle split nets. Examples are presented of CAR operations.

  10. Basal channels on ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2013-09-01

    Recent surveys of floating ice shelves associated with Pine Island Glacier (Antarctica) and Petermann Glacier (Greenland) indicate that there are channels incised upward into their bottoms that may serve as the conduits of meltwater outflow from the sub-ice-shelf cavity. The formation of the channels, their evolution over time, and their impact on ice-shelf flow are investigated using a fully-coupled ice-shelf/sub-ice-shelf ocean model. The model simulations suggest that channels may form spontaneously in response to meltwater plume flow initiated at the grounding line if there are relatively high melt rates and if there is transverse to ice-flow variability in ice-shelf thickness. Typical channels formed in the simulations have a width of about 1-3 km and a vertical relief of about 100-200 m. Melt rates and sea-water transport in the channels are significantly higher than on the smooth flat ice bottom between the channels. The melt channels develop through melting, deformation, and advection with ice-shelf flow. Simulations suggest that both steady state and cyclic state solutions are possible depending on conditions along the lateral ice-shelf boundaries. This peculiar dynamics of the system has strong implications on the interpretation of observations. The richness of channel morphology and evolution seen in this study suggests that further observations and theoretical analysis are imperative for understanding ice-shelf behavior in warm oceanic conditions.

  11. Modelling Martian surface channel dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulthard, T. J.; Skinner, C.; Kim, J.; Schumann, G.; Neal, J. C.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Extensive and large surface channel features found at Athabasca and Kasei have previously been attributed to the erosional power of flowing water with palaeoflood discharges being estimated from the surface channel dimensions. However, in order for these channels to be alluvial there are several basic questions to be answered. Are water flows under Martian conditions capable of eroding the amounts of sediment required to leave these channels? Are our present estimates of palaeoflood discharge of correct magnitude to carry out this erosion? And are the channels a product of one or many flood events? Here, we use a numerical model (CAESAR-Lisflood) that links a two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow scheme to a sediment transport model to simulate fluvial morphodynamics in the Athabasca and Kasei regions. CAESAR-Lisflood has been successfully applied to simulating flooding, erosion and deposition on Earth in a number of locations, and allows the development of channels, bars, braids and other fluvial features to be modelled. The numerical scheme of the model was adapted to Martian conditions by adjusting gravity, drag co-efficient, roughness and grainsize terms. Preliminary findings indicate that fluvial erosion and deposition is capable of creating mega channel features found at these sites and that existing palaeflood estimates are commensurate with channel forming discharges for these features.

  12. Space Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-15

    sponsored Survivability Analysis Group (SAG), (b) Reviewing for the Air Force some spacecraft radioisotope - thermoelectric - generator (RTG) and... Thermoelectric Generator SADA Solar Array Drive Assembly SAG Survivahilily Analysis Group SAMSO Space and Missile Systems Organization SAOS Solar Array Drive...over was accomplished without incident except that the third- generation gyro (TGG) drift-rate compensation was observed to have changed sometime after

  13. Found Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Ted; Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    When education providers confront obstacles such as shrinking budgets and swelling enrollments, a multi-million-dollar new facility or major additions probably are not feasible. Converting vacant and underused buildings into school facilities enables administrators to acquire additional space quickly and cheaply. In this article, the authors…

  14. Training Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  15. Space Gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  16. Friendly Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Elia, William

    1996-01-01

    The creation of usable space for gatherings and socializing is an important consideration in any campus planning program. The University of California-San Diego has a large outdoor assembly area. An addition at Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo encompasses an existing pedestrian path. A new building at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, is designed as a…

  17. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  18. Second Symposium on Space Industrialization. [space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, C. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The policy, legal, and economic aspects of space industrialization are considered along with satellite communications, material processing, remote sensing, and the role of space carriers and a space station in space industrialization.

  19. Single step channeling in glass interior by femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kongsuwan, Panjawat; Wang Hongliang; Lawrence Yao, Y.

    2012-07-15

    Channeling inside a transparent material, glass, by femtosecond laser was performed by using a single step process rather than hybrid processes that combine the laser irradiation with an additional tool or step to remove the material. Tightly focusing of a single femtosecond laser pulse using proper optical and laser processing parameters could induce the micro-explosion and could create voids inside transparent materials, and the effects of these parameters on the resultant feature geometry and channel length were studied. Understanding of the channel length variation at different locations from the specimen surface could enhance prediction capability. Taking into account of the laser, material, and lens properties, numerical models were developed to predict the absorption volume shape and size at different focusing depths below the surface of a specimen. These models will also be validated with the variation in feature and channel lengths inside the specimen obtained from the experiments. Spacing between adjacent laser pulses and laser parameters was varied to investigate effects of channel overlapping and its influence on long channel formation.

  20. Unsteady compressible flows in channel with varying walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pořízková, P.; Kozel, K.; Horáček, J.

    2014-03-01

    This study deals with numerical solution of a 2D and 3D unsteady flows of a compressible viscous fluid in 2D and 3D channel for low inlet airflow velocity. The unsteadiness of the flow is caused by a prescribed periodic motion of a part of the channel wall, nearly closing the channel during oscillations. The channels shape is a simplified geometry of the glottal space in the human vocal tract. Goal is numerical simulation of flow in the channels which involves attributes of real flow causing acoustic perturbations. The system of Navier-Stokes equations closed with static pressure expression for ideal gas describes the unsteady laminar flow of compressible viscous fluid. The numerical solution is implemented using the finite volume method and the predictor-corrector MacCormack scheme with artificial viscosity using a grid of quadrilateral cells. The unsteady grid of quadrilateral cells is considered in the form of conservation laws using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method. The application of developed method for numerical simulations of flow fields in the 2D and 3D channels, acquired from a developed program, are presented for inlet velocity u=4.12 m/s, inlet Reynolds number Re=4481 and the wall motion frequency 100 Hz.

  1. Substrate Channel in Nitrogenase Revealed by a Molecular Dynamics Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Dayle; Danyal, Karamatullah; Raugei, Simone; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2014-03-22

    Mo-dependent nitrogenase catalyzes the biological reduction of N2 to 2NH3 at the FeMo-cofactor buried deep inside the MoFe protein. Access of substrates, such as N2, to the active site is likely restricted by the surrounding protein, requiring substrate channels that lead from the surface to the active site. Earlier studies on crystallographic structures of the MoFe protein have suggested three putative substrate channels. Here, we have utilized sub-microsecond atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to allow the nitrogenase MoFe protein to explore its conformational space in an aqueous solution at physiological ionic strength, revealing a putative substrate channel not previously reported. The viability of the proposed channel was tested by examining the free energy of passage of N2 from the surface through the channel to FeMo-cofactor, with discovery of a very low energy barrier. These studies point to a viable substrate channel in nitrogenase that appears during thermal motions of the protein in an aqueous environment that approaches a face of FeMo-cofactor earlier implicated in substrate binding.

  2. Characterization of the spatial variability of channel morphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Troutman, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial variability of two fundamental morphological variables is investigated for rivers having a wide range of discharge (five orders of magnitude). The variables, water-surface width and average depth, were measured at 58 to 888 equally spaced cross-sections in channel links (river reaches between major tributaries). These measurements provide data to characterize the two-dimensional structure of a channel link which is the fundamental unit of a channel network. The morphological variables have nearly log-normal probability distributions. A general relation was determined which relates the means of the log-transformed variables to the logarithm of discharge similar to previously published downstream hydraulic geometry relations. The spatial variability of the variables is described by two properties: (1) the coefficient of variation which was nearly constant (0.13-0.42) over a wide range of discharge; and (2) the integral length scale in the downstream direction which was approximately equal to one to two mean channel widths. The joint probability distribution of the morphological variables in the downstream direction was modelled as a first-order, bivariate autoregressive process. This model accounted for up to 76 per cent of the total variance. The two-dimensional morphological variables can be scaled such that the channel width-depth process is independent of discharge. The scaling properties will be valuable to modellers of both basin and channel dynamics. Published in 2002 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  3. Continuity of Quantum Channel Capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Debbie; Smith, Graeme

    2009-11-01

    We prove that a broad array of capacities of a quantum channel are continuous. That is, two channels that are close with respect to the diamond norm have correspondingly similar communication capabilities. We first show that the classical capacity, quantum capacity, and private classical capacity are continuous, with the variation on arguments {\\varepsilon} apart bounded by a simple function of {\\varepsilon} and the channel’s output dimension. Our main tool is an upper bound of the variation of output entropies of many copies of two nearby channels given the same initial state; the bound is linear in the number of copies. Our second proof is concerned with the quantum capacities in the presence of free backward or two-way public classical communication. These capacities are proved continuous on the interior of the set of non-zero capacity channels by considering mutual simulation between similar channels.

  4. Channelling, a new immunization strategy.

    PubMed

    Gacharna Romero, M G; Silva Pizano, E; Avendano Lamo, J

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, with PAHO/WHO technical assistance, the Ministry of Health, Colombia, designed what is known as the channelling strategy, aimed at improving immunization coverage. This name was given because the strategy is designed to establish communication channels through direct action aimed at promoting health. Health workers and community leaders or guides conduct household visits to identify unvaccinated children or those with incomplete vaccination schedules and "channel" them to health centers or health posts. The channelling strategy developed in Colombia was briefly mentioned in the case study on the Colombian Vaccination Crusade of 1984. It is now being employed for ORT and other PHC components in the Colombian Child Survival and Development Plan, 1985-1987. In the meantime, other countries have adopted the channelling strategy, which is described in this article.

  5. A Drosophila mechanosensory transduction channel.

    PubMed

    Walker, R G; Willingham, A T; Zuker, C S

    2000-03-24

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies a wide range of senses, including proprioception, touch, balance, and hearing. The pivotal element of these senses is a mechanically gated ion channel that transduces sound, pressure, or movement into changes in excitability of specialized sensory cells. Despite the prevalence of mechanosensory systems, little is known about the molecular nature of the transduction channels. To identify such a channel, we analyzed Drosophila melanogaster mechanoreceptive mutants for defects in mechanosensory physiology. Loss-of-function mutations in the no mechanoreceptor potential C (nompC) gene virtually abolished mechanosensory signaling. nompC encodes a new ion channel that is essential for mechanosensory transduction. As expected for a transduction channel, D. melanogaster NOMPC and a Caenorhabditis elegans homolog were selectively expressed in mechanosensory organs.

  6. Inherit Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.; Jenks, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin development of a unique educational tool targeted at educating and inspiring young people 12-16 years old about NASA and the Space Program. Since these young people are the future engineers, scientists and space pioneers, the nurturing of their enthusiasm and interest is of critical importance to the Nation. This summer the basic infrastructure of the tool was developed in the context of an educational game paradigm. The game paradigm has achieved remarkable success in maintaining the interest of young people in a self-paced, student-directed learning environment. This type of environment encourages student exploration and curiosity which are exactly the traits that future space pioneers need to develop to prepare for the unexpected. The Inherit Space Educational Tool is an open-ended learning environment consisting of a finite-state machine classic adventure game paradigm. As the young person explores this world, different obstacles must be overcome. Rewards will be offered such as using the flight simulator to fly around and explore Titan. This simulator was modeled on conventional Earth flight simulators but has been considerably enhanced to add texture mapping of Titan's atmosphere utilizing the latest information from the NASA Galileo Space Probe. Additional scenery was added to provide color VGA graphics of a futuristic research station on Titan as well as an interesting story to keep the youngster's attention. This summer the game infrastructure has been developed as well as the Titan Flight Simulator. A number of other enhancements are planned.

  7. 47 CFR 95.7 - Channel sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel sharing. 95.7 Section 95.7... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.7 Channel sharing. (a) Channels or channel pairs (one 462... and use of channels to reduce interference and to make the most effective use of the facilities....

  8. 47 CFR 95.7 - Channel sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel sharing. 95.7 Section 95.7... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.7 Channel sharing. (a) Channels or channel pairs (one 462... and use of channels to reduce interference and to make the most effective use of the facilities....

  9. Interactive Visual Contextualization of Space Weather Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, M.; Ynnerman, A.; Emmart, C.; Berrios, D.; Harberts, R.

    2012-12-01

    Linköping University, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), and the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are collaborating on a new open source visualization software for astrovisualization. The CCMC is providing real-time and historical space weather data from the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), including timely modeled coronal mass ejection events simulated by the Space Weather Research Center at NASA GSFC. Linköping University is developing a new modular visualization tool with multi-channel capabilities to support planetarium exhibits, displaying the real-time space weather data contextualized using fieldlines, volumetric visualization techniques, and planetary information. This collaboration aims to engage the public about space weather and real-time events at the AMNH. We present an overview of this collaboration and demo some of the capabilities.

  10. Jamming in Microfluidic Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Carlos; Daniels, Karen; Riehn, Robert

    2009-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the flow of a colloid through a microfluidic device. The glass microfluidic device consists of a wide channel with spatially periodic funnels manufactured with photolithographic methods. The device was etched to a depth of about 1 micron that restricts the solid phase of the colloid, fluorescent polystyrene spheres with sub-micron radii, to quasi-2D motion. The liquid phase of the colloid is an aqueous solution with trace amounts of a non-ionic surfactant and with a pH about 2 units above the pKa of the surface groups on the polystyrene spheres to maintain a stable colloid at concentrations high enough to produce jamming. The flow rate of the colloid is controlled by a computer interfaced syringe pump with two controllable modes of operation: a continuous, steady mode that provides a plug-like velocity profile and a discrete, jerky mode that sends compressional waves of specifiable sizes through the colloid. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observe the interactions between the colloid and the glass funnels and investigate how the interaction depends on the funnel geometry. In particular, we investigate the jamming transition from a liquid-like flowing state to a solid-like stationary state.

  11. Decomposite channel estimation and equalization for GMSK-based system with transmit diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Timothy S.; Gudena, Chandragupta

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, multi-channel estimation schemes for a GMSK-based system with transmit diversity (space-time coding) are presented. For such a system, the channel information (impulse response) is critical for both space-time decoding and equalization at the receiver. Three non-blind estimation schemes, which decompose the channel in the process, are proposed for the GMSK receiver to obtain the impulse response of each of the multipath channels (i.e. transmit antennas): oversampling deconvolution, minimum mean-square error, and joint adaptive and correlation estimation. Since the received signal is the sum of emitted GMSK signals, interference cancellation is employed to facilitate the estimation process. Three cancellation algorithms, including direct cancellation, mean-square cancellation, and iterative cancellation, combined with each channel estimation method are investigated and compared. The estimated channel information will feed to the receiver consisting of space-time decoder and equalizer to decode the symbols of interest. Two receiver architectures are investigated in this paper, where the first design is the space-time decoder followed by the equalizer, the other is in the reverse way (equalizer followed by space-time decoder). In each of the two receiver architectures, the channel estimation needs additional modification and so does the equalizer. The equalizer in the design is a maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) based on Viterbi algorithm. To prove the concept and algorithms, both simulation and hardware implementation are performed. From the experimental results, it is shown that all the channel estimation algorithms can produce acceptable impulse response for space-time decoding and equalizer, in which the joint adaptive estimation with iterative cancellation is superior to the others. It is also shown that the diversity gain of this transmit diversity system is as good as a system with the same degree of receive diversity.

  12. Kv1 channels and neural processing in vestibular calyx afferents

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Frances L.; Kirk, Matthew E.; Rennie, Katherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium-selective ion channels are important for accurate transmission of signals from auditory and vestibular sensory end organs to their targets in the central nervous system. During different gravity conditions, astronauts experience altered input signals from the peripheral vestibular system resulting in sensorimotor dysfunction. Adaptation to altered sensory input occurs, but it is not explicitly known whether this involves synaptic modifications within the vestibular epithelia. Future investigations of such potential plasticity require a better understanding of the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the known heterogeneity of afferent discharge under normal conditions. This study advances this understanding by examining the role of the Kv1 potassium channel family in mediating action potentials in specialized vestibular afferent calyx endings in the gerbil crista and utricle. Pharmacological agents selective for different sub-types of Kv1 channels were tested on membrane responses in whole cell recordings in the crista. Kv1 channels sensitive to α-dendrotoxin and dendrotoxin-K were found to prevail in the central regions, whereas K+ channels sensitive to margatoxin, which blocks Kv1.3 and 1.6 channels, were more prominent in peripheral regions. Margatoxin-sensitive currents showed voltage-dependent inactivation. Dendrotoxin-sensitive currents showed no inactivation and dampened excitability in calyces in central neuroepithelial regions. The differential distribution of Kv1 potassium channels in vestibular afferents supports their importance in accurately relaying gravitational and head movement signals through specialized lines to the central nervous system. Pharmacological modulation of specific groups of K+ channels could help alleviate vestibular dysfunction on earth and in space. PMID:26082693

  13. Riverine biophysical interactions in the form of channel-spanning logjams in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E. E.; Beckman, N. D.

    2012-12-01

    Channel-spanning logjams completely span the active channel and create longitudinal discontinuities of the water surface and stream bed across at least two-thirds of the channel width. These jams disproportionately affect channel process and form relative to smaller jams that do not span the entire channel width. We analyze a spatially extensive dataset of 859 channel-spanning jams distributed along 124 km of 16 distinct rivers on the eastern side of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA with drainage areas spanning 2.6 to 258 sq km and diverse valley geometry and forest stand age. We categorize valley geometry in terms of lateral confinement, which correlates with gradient. Jams exhibit substantial downstream variability in spacing at channel lengths of hundreds to thousands of meters. The number of jams within a reach is explained by a statistical model that includes drainage area, valley type, and channel width. Longitudinal spacing of jams drops substantially at drainage areas greater than ~ 20 sq km, although jam spacing exhibits tremendous variability at smaller drainage areas. The lack of jams at larger drainage areas likely reflects increasing transport capacity for instream wood. Variability in jam spacing at small drainage areas likely reflects local controls of valley geometry and associated wood recruitment and fluvial transport capacity. Management of instream wood designed to facilitate the formation of channel-spanning jams can be most effectively focused on smaller drainage areas where these jams were historically most abundant. Unmanaged streams in the study region with drainage area < 60 sq km have ~ 1.1 channel-spanning jams per 100 m length of stream. The cumulative effects of these jams on physical and biotic components of streams are substantial. Numerous jams create nonlinear complex responses that facilitate formation of multi-thread channels, as well as enhancing storage of carbon and other nutrients in channel and floodplain

  14. Space Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  15. Marine governance in the English Channel (La Manche): Linking science and management.

    PubMed

    Glegg, G; Jefferson, R; Fletcher, S

    2015-06-30

    The English Channel is one of the world's busiest sea areas with intense shipping and port activity juxtaposed with recreation, communications and important conservation areas. Opportunities for marine renewable energy vie with existing activities for space. The current governance of the English Channel is reviewed and found to lack integration between countries, sectors, legislation and scientific research. Recent developments within the EU's marine management frameworks are significantly altering our approach to marine governance and this paper explores the implications of these new approaches to management of the English Channel. Existing mechanisms for cross-Channel science and potential benefits of an English Channel scale perspective are considered. In conclusion, current management practices are considered against the 12 Malawi Principles of the ecosystem approach resulting in proposals for enhancing governance of the region through science at the scale of the English Channel.

  16. Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Danna; Peterson, Charles G; Dallmann, Nicholas; Hughes, Richard J; Mccabe, Kevin P; Nordholt, Jane E; Tyagi, Hush T; Peters, Nicholas A; Toliver, Paul; Chapman, Thomas E; Runser, Robert J; Mcnown, Scott R

    2008-01-01

    To move beyond dedicated links and networks, quantum communications signals must be integrated into networks carrying classical optical channels at power levels many orders of magnitude higher than the quantum signals themselves. We demonstrate transmission of a 1550-nm quantum channel with up to two simultaneous 200-GHz spaced classical telecom channels, using ROADM (reconfigurable optical <1dd drop multiplexer) technology for multiplexing and routing quantum and classical signals. The quantum channel is used to perform quantum key distribution (QKD) in the presence of noise generated as a by-product of the co-propagation of classical channels. We demonstrate that the dominant noise mechanism can arise from either four-wave mixing or spontaneous Raman scattering, depending on the optical path characteristics as well <1S the classical channel parameters. We quantity these impairments and discuss mitigation strategies.

  17. Pair normalized channel feature and statistics-based learning for high-performance pedestrian detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Bobo; Wang, Guijin; Ruan, Zhiwei; Lin, Xinggang; Meng, Long

    2012-07-01

    High-performance pedestrian detection with good accuracy and fast speed is an important yet challenging task in computer vision. We design a novel feature named pair normalized channel feature (PNCF), which simultaneously combines and normalizes two channel features in image channels, achieving a highly discriminative power and computational efficiency. PNCF applies to both gradient channels and color channels so that shape and appearance information are described and integrated in the same feature. To efficiently explore the formidably large PNCF feature space, we propose a statistics-based feature learning method to select a small number of potentially discriminative candidate features, which are fed into the boosting algorithm. In addition, channel compression and a hybrid pyramid are employed to speed up the multiscale detection. Experiments illustrate the effectiveness of PNCF and its learning method. Our proposed detector outperforms the state-of-the-art on several benchmark datasets in both detection accuracy and efficiency.

  18. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  19. Spaced Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-11-20

    less resistance to the penetration of a projectile than does the midsection of the plate. This is so because the front and rear surfaces of the armor ...Front -7idsectio " Aberdeen Proving Ground Report .AD-943, "Ballistic Test of Spaced Armor Arrangements which can be used for Increasing the Protection of... Ground . The target was to be a 100 • thick cast armor plate which can be quite easily penetrated by this carbide cored projectile at O0 obliquity

  20. Space Telescopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the Kirkpatrick–Baez type systems and the focussing colli- mator or ‘ lobster -eye’ systems. 1http://henke.lbl.gov/optical constants/ 176 9. Space...mirror requires a longer telescope. Focussing collimator or ‘ lobster -eye’ telescopes The Wolter and the Kirkpatrick–Baez systems have in common a...9.13: Flat-mirror two-dimensional focussing collimator or detached lobster - eye configuration (Schmidt 1975). within one tube but from adjacent walls a

  1. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Clyde F

    2003-12-01

    A series of workshops were sponsored by the Physical Science Division of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to address operational gravity-compliant in-situ resource utilization and life support techologies. Workshop participants explored a Mars simulation study on Devon Island, Canada; the processing of carbon dioxide in regenerative life support systems; space tourism; rocket technology; plant growth research for closed ecological systems; and propellant extraction of planetary regoliths.

  2. Multi-channel scanning SQUID microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su-Young

    I designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested an 8-channel high- Tc scanning SQUID system. I started by modifying an existing single-channel 77 K high-Tc scanning SQUID microscope into a multi-channel system with the goal of reducing the scanning time and improving the spatial resolution by increasing the signal-to-noise ratio S/N. I modified the window assembly, SQUID chip assembly, cold-finger, and vacuum connector. The main concerns for the multi-channel system design were to reduce interaction between channels, to optimize the use of the inside space of the dewar for more than 50 shielded wires, and to achieve good spatial resolution. In the completed system, I obtained the transfer function and the dynamic range (phimax ˜ 11phi0) for each SQUID. At 1kHz, the slew rate is about 3000 phi0/s. I also found that the white noise level varies from 5 muphi0/Hz1/2 to 20 muphi 0/Hz1/2 depending on the SQUID. A new data acquisition program was written that triggered on position and collects data from up to eight SQUIDS. To generate a single image from the multichannel system, I calibrated the tilt of the xy-stage and z-stage manually, rearranged the scanned data by cutting overlapping parts, and determined the applied field by multiplying by the mutual inductance matrix. I found that I could reduce scanning time and improve the image quality by doing so. In addition, I have analyzed and observed the effect of position noise on magnetic field images and used these results to find the position noise in my scanning SQUID microscope. My analysis reveals the relationship between spatial resolution and position noise and that my system was dominated by position noise under typical operating conditions. I found that the smaller the sensor-sample separation, the greater the effect of position noise is on the total effective magnetic field noise and on spatial resolution. By averaging several scans, I found that I could reduce position noise and that the spatial resolution can

  3. Space vehicle thermal rejection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, Herbert J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A space vehicle thermal heat rejection system 10 utilizing separate optimized heat pipe components for the functions of heat acquisition, heat transport, and heat rejection. A honeycomb panel heat pipe evaporator section 20 performs the function of heat acquisition, and forms a closed thermodynamic system with a dual channel heat pipe transport section 30, which performs the function of heat transport. A plurality of truss or channel core heat pipe rejection fins 41 form the condenser section 40, which performs the function of heat rejection. A common wall 32 separates the condenser section 40 from the transport section 30. Using the above heat pipe components and having efficient interfacing between them results in high performance factors for the overall system.

  4. TRPV channels and vascular function

    PubMed Central

    Baylie, R.L.; Brayden, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential channels, of the vanilloid subtype (TRPV), act as sensory mediators, being activated by endogenous ligands, heat, mechanical and osmotic stress. Within the vasculature, TRPV channels are expressed in smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, as well as in peri-vascular nerves. Their varied distribution and polymodal activation properties make them ideally suited to a role in modulating vascular function, perceiving and responding to local environmental changes. In endothelial cells, TRPV1 is activated by endocannabinoids, TRPV3 by dietary agonists, and TRPV4 by shear stress, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and downstream of Gq-coupled receptor activation. Upon activation, these channels contribute to vasodilation via nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and intermediate/small conductance potassium channel (IKCa/SKCa) dependent pathways. In smooth muscle, TRPV4 is activated by endothelial derived EETs, leading to large conductance potassium channel (BKCa) activation and smooth muscle hyperpolarization. Conversely, smooth muscle TRPV2 channels contribute to global calcium entry and may aid constriction. TRPV1 and TRPV4 are expressed in sensory nerves and can cause vasodilation through CGRP and substance P release as well as mediating vascular function via the baroreceptor reflex (TRPV1) or via increasing sympathetic outflow during osmotic stress (TRPV4). Thus, TRPV channels play important roles in the regulation of normal and pathological cellular function in the vasculature. PMID:21062421

  5. ATP release through pannexon channels

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) serves as a signal for diverse physiological functions, including spread of calcium waves between astrocytes, control of vascular oxygen supply and control of ciliary beat in the airways. ATP can be released from cells by various mechanisms. This review focuses on channel-mediated ATP release and its main enabler, Pannexin1 (Panx1). Six subunits of Panx1 form a plasma membrane channel termed ‘pannexon’. Depending on the mode of stimulation, the pannexon has large conductance (500 pS) and unselective permeability to molecules less than 1.5 kD or is a small (50 pS), chloride-selective channel. Most physiological and pathological stimuli induce the large channel conformation, whereas the small conformation so far has only been observed with exclusive voltage activation of the channel. The interaction between pannexons and ATP is intimate. The pannexon is not only the conduit for ATP, permitting ATP efflux from cells down its concentration gradient, but the pannexon is also modulated by ATP. The channel can be activated by ATP through both ionotropic P2X as well as metabotropic P2Y purinergic receptors. In the absence of a control mechanism, this positive feedback loop would lead to cell death owing to the linkage of purinergic receptors with apoptotic processes. A control mechanism preventing excessive activation of the purinergic receptors is provided by ATP binding (with low affinity) to the Panx1 protein and gating the channel shut. PMID:26009770

  6. Ion Channels in Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Sezgin, Efe C.; Eckert, Franziska; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma exhibit a high metastatic tropism to the brain. Development of brain metastases severely worsens the prognosis of cancer patients and constrains curative treatment options. Metastasizing to the brain by cancer cells can be dissected in consecutive processes including epithelial–mesenchymal transition, evasion from the primary tumor, intravasation and circulation in the blood, extravasation across the blood–brain barrier, formation of metastatic niches, and colonization in the brain. Ion channels have been demonstrated to be aberrantly expressed in tumor cells where they regulate neoplastic transformation, malignant progression or therapy resistance. Moreover, many ion channel modulators are FDA-approved drugs and in clinical use proposing ion channels as druggable targets for future anti-cancer therapy. The present review article aims to summarize the current knowledge on the function of ion channels in the different processes of brain metastasis. The data suggest that certain channel types involving voltage-gated sodium channels, ATP-release channels, ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and gap junction-generating connexins interfere with distinct processes of brain metastazation. PMID:27618016

  7. Microbial Senses and Ion Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Ching; Zhou, Xin-Liang; Su, Zhen-Wei; Haynes, W. John; Loukin, Sephan H.; Saimi, Yoshiro

    The complexity of animals and plants is due largely to cellular arrangement. The structures and activities of macromolecules had, however, evolved in early microbes long before the appearance of this complexity. Among such molecules are those that sense light, heat, force, water, and ligands. Though historically and didactically associated with the nervous system, ion channels also have deep evolutionary roots. For example, force sensing with channels, which likely began as water sensing through membrane stretch generated by osmotic pressure, must be ancient and is universal in extant species. Extant microbial species, such as the model bacterium Escherichia coli and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are equipped with stretch-activated channels. The ion channel proteins MscL and MscS show clearly that these bacterial channels receive stretch forces from the lipid bilayer. TRPY1, the mechanosensitive channel in yeast, is being developed towards a similar basic understanding of channels of the TRP (transientreceptor- potential) superfamily. TRPY1 resides in the vacuolar membrane and releases Ca2+ from the vacuole to the cytoplasm upon hyperosmotic shock. Unlike in most TRP preparations from animals, the mechanosensitivity of TRPY1 can be examined directly under patch clamp in either whole-vacuole mode or excised patch mode. The combination of direct biophysical examination in vitro with powerful microbial genetics in vivo should complement the study of mechanosensations of complex animals and plants.

  8. Ryanodine receptors as leak channels.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Ávila, Guillermo; Rueda, Angélica

    2014-09-15

    Ryanodine receptors are Ca(2+) release channels of internal stores. This review focuses on those situations and conditions that transform RyRs from a finely regulated ion channel to an unregulated Ca(2+) leak channel and the pathological consequences of this alteration. In skeletal muscle, mutations in either CaV1.1 channel or RyR1 results in a leaky behavior of the latter. In heart cells, RyR2 functions normally as a Ca(2+) leak channel during diastole within certain limits, the enhancement of this activity leads to arrhythmogenic situations that are tackled with different pharmacological strategies. In smooth muscle, RyRs are involved more in reducing excitability than in stimulating contraction so the leak activity of RyRs in the form of Ca(2+) sparks, locally activates Ca(2+)-dependent potassium channels to reduce excitability. In neurons the enhanced activity of RyRs is associated with the development of different neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Huntington diseases. It appears then that the activity of RyRs as leak channels can have both physiological and pathological consequences depending on the cell type and the metabolic condition.

  9. IA channels: diverse regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Yarimar; Nerbonne, Jeanne M

    2014-04-01

    In many peripheral and central neurons, A-type K(+) currents, IA, have been identified and shown to be key determinants in shaping action potential waveforms and repetitive firing properties, as well as in the regulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. The functional properties and physiological roles of native neuronal IA, however, have been shown to be quite diverse in different types of neurons. Accumulating evidence suggests that this functional diversity is generated by multiple mechanisms, including the expression and subcellular distributions of IA channels encoded by different voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channel pore-forming (α) subunits, interactions of Kv α subunits with cytosolic and/or transmembrane accessory subunits and regulatory proteins and post-translational modifications of channel subunits. Several recent reports further suggest that local protein translation in the dendrites of neurons and interactions between IA channels with other types of voltage-gated ion channels further expands the functional diversity of native neuronal IA channels. Here, we review the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been shown or proposed to underlie the functional diversity of native neuronal IA channels.

  10. Substrate channeling in proline metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Arentson, Benjamin W.; Sanyal, Nikhilesh; Becker, Donald F.

    2012-01-01

    Proline metabolism is an important pathway that has relevance in several cellular functions such as redox balance, apoptosis, and cell survival. Results from different groups have indicated that substrate channeling of proline metabolic intermediates may be a critical mechanism. One intermediate is pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), which upon hydrolysis opens to glutamic semialdehyde (GSA). Recent structural and kinetic evidence indicate substrate channeling of P5C/GSA occurs in the proline catabolic pathway between the proline dehydrogenase and P5C dehydrogenase active sites of bifunctional proline utilization A (PutA). Substrate channeling in PutA is proposed to facilitate the hydrolysis of P5C to GSA which is unfavorable at physiological pH. The second intermediate, gamma-glutamyl phosphate, is part of the proline biosynthetic pathway and is extremely labile. Substrate channeling of gamma-glutamyl phosphate is thought to be necessary to protect it from bulk solvent. Because of the unfavorable equilibrium of P5C/GSA and the reactivity of gamma-glutamyl phosphate, substrate channeling likely improves the efficiency of proline metabolism. Here, we outline general strategies for testing substrate channeling and review the evidence for channeling in proline metabolism. PMID:22201749

  11. Pharmacology of cardiac potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-Rong; Dong, Ming-Qing

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac K(+) channels are cardiomyocyte membrane proteins that regulate K(+) ion flow across the cell membrane on the electrochemical gradient and determine the resting membrane potential and the cardiac action potential morphology and duration. Several K(+) channels have been well studied in the human heart. They include the transient outward K(+) current I(to1), the ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier current I(Kur), the rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier currents I(Kr) and I(Ks), the inward rectifier K(+) current I(K1), and ligand-gated K(+) channels, including adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) current (I(KATP)) and acetylcholine-activated current (I(KACh)). Regional differences of K(+) channel expression contribute to the variable morphologies and durations of cardiac action potentials from sinus node and atrial to ventricular myocytes, and different ventricular layers from endocardium and midmyocardium to epicardium. They also show different responses to endogenous regulators and/or pharmacological agents. K(+) channels are well-known targets for developing novel anti-arrhythmic drugs that can effectively prevent/inhibit cardiac arrhythmias. Especially, atrial-specific K(+) channel currents (I(Kur) and I(KACh)) are the targets for developing atrial-selective anti-atrial fibrillation drugs, which has been greatly progressed in recent years. This chapter concentrates on recent advances in intracellular signaling regulation and pharmacology of cardiac K(+) channels under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  12. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    SciTech Connect

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2010-06-15

    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).

  13. Digital Channel Simulator Developed and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizon, Thomas P.

    2000-01-01

    The Digital Channel Simulator (DCS) is a real-time test set developed in-house by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field that simulates the characteristics of the modulator, demodulator, and transmission medium in a typical communications system to enable controlled laboratory testing of codec pairs. The DCS can support data rates up to 100 megasymbols per second (Msymbols/sec) with symbol sizes up to 10 bits and is compatible with both TTL (transistor transistor logic) and ECL (emitter coupled logic) interfaces. Because of its use of digital integrated circuits (IC's), the DCS offers the user accurate and repeatable testing while maintaining a simple reconfiguration of the modulation scheme and noise characteristics. The PC-based graphical user interface (GUI) assures user friendly operation for configuring, controlling, and monitoring the DCS and system during tests. In a typical communications system, the modulator places a symbol in constellation space and puts it on a carrier to be sent to the demodulator. Because of noise on the channel, the I and Q position in constellation space cannot be recovered exactly, and the received coordinates shift. To mimic this process in the laboratory, the DCS uses a mapper to place the symbol in constellation space. It simulates the shift in coordinates by digitally adding "noise" to the I and Q values. The mapper and noise source are implemented in lookup tables. Modulation schemes and noise characteristics are set by the values loaded in these tables. The mapper also has a pass-through mode to facilitate modulator testing, allowing noise to be added to 8-bit I and Q values of modulated data without a second mapping. To achieve high symbol rates, eight processing circuits are placed in parallel between an ECL demultiplexer and multiplexer. A graphical user interface was developed to calculate, load, and verify the values for the lookup tables. This interface can also be used to debug and verify proper operation of the

  14. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  15. Pharmacology of cardiac potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Tamargo, Juan; Caballero, Ricardo; Gómez, Ricardo; Valenzuela, Carmen; Delpón, Eva

    2004-04-01

    Cardiac K+ channels are membrane-spanning proteins that allow the passive movement of K+ ions across the cell membrane along its electrochemical gradient. They regulate the resting membrane potential, the frequency of pacemaker cells and the shape and duration of the cardiac action potential. Additionally, they have been recognized as potential targets for the actions of neurotransmitters and hormones and class III antiarrhythmic drugs that prolong the action potential duration (APD) and refractoriness and have been found effective to prevent/suppress cardiac arrhythmias. In the human heart, K+ channels include voltage-gated channels, such as the rapidly activating and inactivating transient outward current (Ito1), the ultrarapid (IKur), rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components of the delayed rectifier current and the inward rectifier current (IK1), the ligand-gated channels, including the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive (IKATP) and the acetylcholine-activated (IKAch) currents and the leak channels. Changes in the expression of K+ channels explain the regional variations in the morphology and duration of the cardiac action potential among different cardiac regions and are influenced by heart rate, intracellular signalling pathways, drugs and cardiovascular disorders. A progressive number of cardiac and noncardiac drugs block cardiac K+ channels and can cause a marked prolongation of the action potential duration (i.e. an acquired long QT syndrome, LQTS) and a distinct polymorphic ventricular tachycardia termed torsades de pointes. In addition, mutations in the genes encoding IKr (KCNH2/KCNE2) and IKs (KCNQ1/KCNE1) channels have been identified in some types of the congenital long QT syndrome. This review concentrates on the function, molecular determinants, regulation and, particularly, on the mechanism of action of drugs modulating the K+ channels present in the sarcolemma of human cardiac myocytes that contribute to the different phases of the cardiac action

  16. Marine Toxins Targeting Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Hugo R.

    2006-01-01

    This introductory minireview points out the importance of ion channels for cell communication. The basic concepts on the structure and function of ion channels triggered by membrane voltage changes, the so-called voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs), as well as those activated by neurotransmitters, the so-called ligand-gated ion channel (LGICs), are introduced. Among the most important VGIC superfamiles, we can name the voltage-gated Na+ (NaV), Ca2+ (CaV), and K+ (KV) channels. Among the most important LGIC super families, we can include the Cys-loop or nicotinicoid, the glutamate-activated (GluR), and the ATP-activated (P2XnR) receptor superfamilies. Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow the passage of different ions in a specific or unspecific manner. For instance, the activation of NaV, CaV, or KV channels opens a pore that is specific for Na+, Ca2+, or K+, respectively. On the other hand, the activation of certain LGICs such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, GluRs, and P2XnRs allows the passage of cations (e.g., Na+, K+, and/or Ca2+), whereas the activation of other LGICs such as type A γ-butyric acid and glycine receptors allows the passage of anions (e.g., Cl− and/or HCO3−). In this regard, the activation of NaV and CaV as well as ligand-gated cation channels produce membrane depolarization, which finally leads to stimulatory effects in the cell, whereas the activation of KV as well as ligand-gated anion channels induce membrane hyperpolarization that finally leads to inhibitory effects in the cell. The importance of these ion channel superfamilies is emphasized by considering their physiological functions throughout the body as well as their pathophysiological implicance in several neuronal diseases. In this regard, natural molecules, and especially marine toxins, can be potentially used as modulators (e.g., inhibitors or prolongers) of ion channel functions to treat or to alleviate a specific ion channel-linked disease (e

  17. DPPX potassium channel antibody

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, William Oliver; Lennon, Vanda A.; Komorowski, Lars; Probst, Christian; Clardy, Stacey Lynn; Aksamit, Allen J.; Appendino, Juan Pablo; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Pittock, Sean J.; Sandroni, Paola; Tippmann-Peikert, Maja; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the detection frequency and clinical associations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein-6 (DPPX), a regulatory subunit of neuronal Kv4.2 potassium channels. Methods: Specimens from 20 patients evaluated on a service basis by tissue-based immunofluorescence yielded a synaptic immunostaining pattern consistent with DPPX-IgG (serum, 20; CSF, all 7 available). Transfected HEK293 cell-based assay confirmed DPPX specificity in all specimens. Sixty-nine patients with stiff-person syndrome and related disorders were also evaluated by DPPX-IgG cell-based assay. Results: Of 20 seropositive patients, 12 were men; median symptom onset age was 53 years (range, 13–75). Symptom onset was insidious in 15 and subacute in 5. Twelve patients reported prodromal weight loss. Neurologic disorders were multifocal. All had one or more brain or brainstem manifestations: amnesia (16), delirium (8), psychosis (4), depression (4), seizures (2), and brainstem disorders (15; eye movement disturbances [8], ataxia [7], dysphagia [6], dysarthria [4], respiratory failure [3]). Nine patients reported sleep disturbance. Manifestations of central hyperexcitability included myoclonus (8), exaggerated startle (6), diffuse rigidity (6), and hyperreflexia (6). Dysautonomia involved the gastrointestinal tract (9; diarrhea [6], gastroparesis, and constipation [3]), bladder (7), cardiac conduction system (3), and thermoregulation (1). Two patients had B-cell neoplasms: gastrointestinal lymphoma (1), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1). Substantial neurologic improvements followed immunotherapy in 7 of 11 patients with available treatment data. DPPX-IgG was not detected in any of the stiff-person syndrome patients. Conclusions: DPPX-IgG is a biomarker for an immunotherapy-responsive multifocal neurologic disorder of the central and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:25320100

  18. Improved Iterative Decoding of Network-Channel Codes for Multiple-Access Relay Channel

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Saikat; Verma, Shrish

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative communication using relay nodes is one of the most effective means of exploiting space diversity for low cost nodes in wireless network. In cooperative communication, users, besides communicating their own information, also relay the information of other users. In this paper we investigate a scheme where cooperation is achieved using a common relay node which performs network coding to provide space diversity for two information nodes transmitting to a base station. We propose a scheme which uses Reed-Solomon error correcting code for encoding the information bit at the user nodes and convolutional code as network code, instead of XOR based network coding. Based on this encoder, we propose iterative soft decoding of joint network-channel code by treating it as a concatenated Reed-Solomon convolutional code. Simulation results show significant improvement in performance compared to existing scheme based on compound codes. PMID:27347526

  19. Improved Iterative Decoding of Network-Channel Codes for Multiple-Access Relay Channel.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Saikat; Verma, Shrish

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative communication using relay nodes is one of the most effective means of exploiting space diversity for low cost nodes in wireless network. In cooperative communication, users, besides communicating their own information, also relay the information of other users. In this paper we investigate a scheme where cooperation is achieved using a common relay node which performs network coding to provide space diversity for two information nodes transmitting to a base station. We propose a scheme which uses Reed-Solomon error correcting code for encoding the information bit at the user nodes and convolutional code as network code, instead of XOR based network coding. Based on this encoder, we propose iterative soft decoding of joint network-channel code by treating it as a concatenated Reed-Solomon convolutional code. Simulation results show significant improvement in performance compared to existing scheme based on compound codes.

  20. Plasma channel optical-pumping device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, O.P.

    1981-07-17

    A device and method are described for optically pumping a gaseous laser using blackbody radiation produced by a plasma channel which is formed from an electrical discharge between two electrodes spaced at opposite longitudinal ends of the laser. A preionization device which can comprise a laser or electron beam accelerator produces a preionization beam which is sufficient to cause an elctrical discharge between the electrodes to initiate the plasma channel along the preionization path. The optical pumping energy is supplied by a high voltage power supply rather than by the preionization beam. High output optical intensities are produced by the laser due to the high temperature black-body radiation produced by the plasma channel, in the same manner as an exploding wire type laser. However, unlike the exploding wire type laser, the disclosed invention can be operated in a repetitive manner by utilizing a repetitive pulsed preionization device.

  1. Digital data over video channels - Techniques for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dean L.; Hanby, Walter D.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made of various techniques for transmitting digital data over a composite video channel. Transmitting data from experiments on the Space Shuttle Orbiter over a video channel is attractive since extra channel capacity is needed. Broadcast television telecommunications schemes and other techniques described in the literature were reviewed and compared. PSK (Phase Shift Keying), MPSK (m-ary PSK), or PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation) can be transmitted on visible lines of a frame, unassigned lines of the VBI (Vertical Blanking Interval), or during the HBI (Horizontal Blanking Interval). All three modulation techniques can be attractive under the proper conditions. However, PAM on visible lines or during the VBI should be relatively easy to implement, provide adequate average data rates, and give acceptable BERs (Bit Error Rates).

  2. Optical Channelizer Evaluation Using Empirical Data and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic,William D.

    1998-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation Division under NASA contract NAS3-25865 developed a proof-of-concept (POC) multichannel demultiplexer implemented as an acousto-optic radiofrequency (RF) with a spectrum analyzer. A detailed analysis of the experimental results indicate that the expected degradation caused by the acousto-optical channelizer is approximately 2.0 dB degradation at 10(exp -5) bit-error rate (BER) and 3.0 dB degradation at 10(exp -8) BER. This degradation may be quite acceptable when considering the excellent volume, mass, and power characteristics of acousto-optical channelizing relative to other technologies. In addition, system performance can be greatly improved by using digital pulse shaping in the modem and increasing the channel spacing from 40 to 45 kHz for 64 kbps quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation.

  3. Channelized bottom melting and stability of floating ice shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rignot, E.; Steffen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The floating ice shelf in front of Petermann Glacier, in northwest Greenland, experiences massive bottom melting that removes 80% of its ice before calving into the Arctic Ocean. Detailed surveys of the ice shelf reveal the presence of 1-2 km wide, 200-400 m deep, sub-ice shelf channels, aligned with the flow direction and spaced by 5 km. We attribute their formation to the bottom melting of ice from warm ocean waters underneath. Drilling at the center of one of channel, only 8 m above sea level, confirms the presence of ice-shelf melt water in the channel. These deep incisions in ice-shelf thickness imply a vulnerability to mechanical break up and climate warming of ice shelves that has not been considered previously.

  4. Development efforts to improve curved-channel microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corbett, M. B.; Feller, W. B.; Laprade, B. N.; Cochran, R.; Bybee, R.; Danks, A.; Joseph, C.

    1993-01-01

    Curved-channel microchannel plate (C-plate) improvements resulting from an ongoing NASA STIS microchannel plate (MCP) development program are described. Performance limitations of previous C-plates led to a development program in support of the STIS MAMA UV photon counter, a second generation instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. C-plate gain, quantum detection efficiency, dark noise, and imaging distortion, which are influenced by channel curvature non-uniformities, have all been improved through use of a new centrifuge fabrication technique. This technique will be described, along with efforts to improve older, more conventional shearing methods. Process optimization methods used to attain targeted C-plate performance goals will be briefly characterized. Newly developed diagnostic measurement techniques to study image distortion, gain uniformity, input bias angle, channel curvature, and ion feedback, will be described. Performance characteristics and initial test results of the improved C-plates will be reported. Future work and applications will also be discussed.

  5. America plans for space

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Contents include: pursuing a balanced space program; the space defense initiative; warfare in space; the lunar laboratory; the role of space in preserving the peace; living off the land - the use of resources in space for future civilian space operations; the military uses of space; C3I(command control communications and intelligence); aspects of space technology; arms control in space: preserving critical strategic space systems without weapons in space; space and arms control: a skeptical view; options for space arms control; space arms control.

  6. Environmental constraints in earth-space propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, J. M.

    1980-11-01

    The advantages of utilizing space for telecommunications is well known in both the commercial and military arenas. A small complement of satellites at synchronous orbit, for example, may provide nearly global coverage and may be designed to support small disadvantaged customers as well as those characterized by large antenna structures and sophisticated acquisition and processing capabilities. Modern navigational and timing needs can also be satisfied through exploitation of space platforms and NAVSTAR/GPS is a system which exemplifies the utilization of space for those purposes. Applications of space in surveillance and kindred areas also exist and spaceborne instruments for monitoring the exoatmospheric environment and transmissions from the Sun abound. There is an obvious charm in the utilization of space for various purposes, however, most applications require the transmission of intelligence or data between space platforms and other space segments or a ground terminal. Thus the channel or the propagation path clearly becomes a part of the total system as a perturbation source. The nuisance value of the propagation path derives from the extent to which it does not duplicate free space at a specified frequency. This paper reviews the general utilization of space to introduce the importance of Earth-space radio propagation with special emphasis directed toward DoD mission areas. An outline of the basic properties of Earth-space RF propagation follows and finally an assessment of the major effects is given.

  7. Infinitely many kinds of quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew B

    2008-01-01

    We define the ability of a quantum channel to simulate another by means of suitable encoding and decoding operations. While classical channels have only two equivalence classes under simulation (channels with non-vanishing capacity and those with vanishing capacity), we show that there are an uncountable infinity of different equivalence classes of quantum channels using the example of the quantum erasure channel. Our results also imply a kind of 'Matthew principle' for error correction on certain channels.

  8. Open Space Conferences: A New Way of Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Recent attendance at two events hosted at the Channel 4 Television Centre by "Policy Unplugged" (a group styling themselves as policy entrepreneurs) has converted the author to a style of working called the Open Space Conference. Created in the mid-1980s by organizational consultant Harrison Owen, Open Space conferences allow participants to…

  9. Information transmission and recovery in neural communications channels

    SciTech Connect

    Eguia, M. C.; Rabinovich, M. I.; Abarbanel, H. D. I.

    2000-11-01

    behavior is strikingly different than the passive role communications channels usually play, and the ''data processing theorem'' of conventional communications theory is violated by these neural channels. Our calculations indicate that neurons can reinforce reliable transmission along a chain even when the synapses and the neurons are not completely reliable components. This phenomenon is generic in parameter space, robust in the presence of noise, and independent of the discretization process. Our results suggest a framework in which one might understand the apparent design complexity of neural information transduction networks. If networks with many dynamical neurons can recover information not apparent at various waystations in the communications channel, such networks may be more robust to noisy signals, may be more capable of communicating many types of encoded sensory neural information, and may be the appropriate design for components, neurons and synapses, which can be individually imprecise, inaccurate ''devices.''

  10. How human sleep in space — investigations during space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, I. M.; Zdravev, T. K.; Yanev, T. K.

    Sleep problems have been observed during many of the space flights. The existence of poor quality of sleep, fatigue, insomnia or different alterations in sleep structure, organization and sleep cyclicity have been established. Nevertheless results obtained from investigations of human sleep on board manned space vehicles show that it is possible to keep sleep patterns related to the restorative and adaptive processes. For the first time in the frame of the "Intercosmos" program a multi-channel system for recording and analysis of sleep in space was constructed by scientists of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was installed on board the manned Mir orbiting station. In 1988 during the joint Bulgarian-Russian space flight continues recording of electro-physiological parameters necessary to estimate the sleep stages and sleep organization was made. These investigations were continued in next space flights of different prolongation. The results were compared with the findings obtained under the conditions during the pre- and post-flight periods.

  11. How human sleep in space--investigations during space flights.

    PubMed

    Stoilova, I M; Zdravev, T K; Yanev, T K

    2003-01-01

    Sleep problems have been observed during many of the space flights. The existence of poor quality of sleep, fatigue, insomnia or different alterations in sleep structure, organization and sleep cyclicity have been established. Nevertheless results obtained from investigations of human sleep on board manned space vehicles show that it is possible to keep sleep patterns related to the restorative and adaptive processes. For the first time in the frame of the "Intercosmos" program a multi-channel system for recording and analysis of sleep in space was constructed by scientists of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and was installed on board the manned Mir orbiting station. In 1988 during the joint Bulgarian-Russian space flight continues recording of electro-physiological parameters necessary to estimate the sleep stages and sleep organization was made. These investigations were continued in next space flights of different prolongation. The results were compared with the findings obtained under the conditions during the pre- and post-flight periods.

  12. A universal set of qubit quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Daniel; Giraud, Olivier; Nechita, Ion; Pellegrini, Clément; Žnidarič, Marko

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the set of quantum channels acting on a single qubit. We provide an alternative, compact generalization of the Fujiwara-Algoet conditions for complete positivity to non-unital qubit channels, which we then use to characterize the possible geometric forms of the pure output of the channel. We provide universal sets of quantum channels for all unital qubit channels as well as for all extremal (not necessarily unital) qubit channels, in the sense that all qubit channels in these sets can be obtained by concatenation of channels in the corresponding universal set. We also show that our universal sets are essentially minimal.

  13. Catalytic reaction in confined flow channel

    DOEpatents

    Van Hassel, Bart A.

    2016-03-29

    A chemical reactor comprises a flow channel, a source, and a destination. The flow channel is configured to house at least one catalytic reaction converting at least a portion of a first nanofluid entering the channel into a second nanofluid exiting the channel. The flow channel includes at least one turbulating flow channel element disposed axially along at least a portion of the flow channel. A plurality of catalytic nanoparticles is dispersed in the first nanofluid and configured to catalytically react the at least one first chemical reactant into the at least one second chemical reaction product in the flow channel.

  14. Channel by Day and Night

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 June 2004 This pair of images shows part of a small channel.

    Day/Night Infrared Pairs

    The image pairs presented focus on a single surface feature as seen in both the daytime and nighttime by the infrared THEMIS camera. The nighttime image (right) has been rotated 180 degrees to place north at the top.

    Infrared image interpretation

    Daytime: Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    Nighttime: Infrared images taken during the nighttime exhibit only the thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. The effect of sun-facing versus non-sun-facing energy dissipates quickly at night. Thermophysical effects dominate as different surfaces cool at different rates through the nighttime hours. Rocks cool slowly, and are therefore relatively bright at night (remember that rocks are dark during the day). Dust and other fine grained materials cool very quickly and are dark in nighttime infrared images.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 19.8, Longitude 141.5 East (218.5 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through

  15. General rules for the arrangements and gating motions of pore-lining helices in homomeric ion channels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2014-08-08

    The pore-lining helix (PLH) bundles are central to the function of all ion channels, as their conformational rearrangements dictate channel gating. Here we explore all plausible oligomeric arrangements of the PLH bundles within homomeric ion channels by building models using generic restraints. In particular, the distance between two neighbouring PLHs was bounded both below and above in order to avoid steric clash and allow proper packing. The resulting models provide a theoretical representation of the accessible space for oligomeric arrangements. While the represented space is confined, it encompasses nearly all the ion channel PLH bundles for which the structures are currently known. For a multitude of channels, gating models suggested by paths within the confined accessible space are in qualitative agreement with those established in previous structural and computational studies.

  16. FAITH Water Channel Flow Visualization

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water channel flow visualization experiments are performed on a three dimensional model of a small hill. This experiment was part of a series of measurements of the complex fluid flow around the hi...

  17. TRP channels in the skin.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-05-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as 'polymodal cellular sensors' on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities.

  18. Potassium Channels in Neurofbromatosis-1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder commonly associated with cognitive impairments, including low IQ, learning ... disabilities , behavioral difficulties, executive dysfunction and language-based deficits. Despite the growing recognition of the importance of SK channels

  19. Structure parameters in rotating Couette-Poiseuille channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knightly, George H.; Sather, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well-known that a number of steady state problems in fluid mechanics involving systems of nonlinear partial differential equations can be reduced to the problem of solving a single operator equation of the form: v + lambda Av + lambda B(v) = 0, v is the summation of H, lambda is the summation of one-dimensional Euclid space, where H is an appropriate (real or complex) Hilbert space. Here lambda is a typical load parameter, e.g., the Reynolds number, A is a linear operator, and B is a quadratic operator generated by a bilinear form. In this setting many bifurcation and stability results for problems were obtained. A rotating Couette-Poiseuille channel flow was studied, and it showed that, in general, the superposition of a Poiseuille flow on a rotating Couette channel flow is destabilizing.

  20. Space Handbook,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    thle early life * of" the system. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in power output for polonium - 210 (Po- 210 ) with a 138-day half-life, curium-242 (Cm...can move large payloads through space. The radioisotope heat cycle engines use high-energy particle sources such as plutonium and polonium . The walls...place inI January 1959, when researchers tested and delive .red to the AEC’ the 2.5 v. att SNAI’-3. aI polonium -2 10-f’ueled’ radioisotope generator

  1. Space Technospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  2. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  3. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  4. Measurement of dielectric properties of whole and ground chicken breast meat over the frequency range from 500 MHz to 50 GHz

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dielectric properties of food greatly influence its interaction with RF and MW electromagnetic fields and subsequently determine the absorption of microwave energy and consequent heating behavior of food materials in microwave heating and processing applications. Microwave heating is usually re...

  5. Bimetallic Microswimmers Speed Up in Confining Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Zhou, Chao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, H. P.

    2016-11-01

    Synthetic microswimmers are envisioned to be useful in numerous applications, many of which occur in tightly confined spaces. It is therefore important to understand how confinement influences swimmer dynamics. Here we study the motility of bimetallic microswimmers in linear and curved channels. Our experiments show swimmer velocities increase, up to 5 times, with the degree of confinement, and the relative velocity increase depends weakly on the fuel concentration and ionic strength in solution. Experimental results are reproduced in a numerical model which attributes the swimmer velocity increase to electrostatic and electrohydrodynamic boundary effects. Our work not only helps to elucidate the confinement effect of phoretic swimmers, but also suggests that spatial confinement may be used as an effective control method for them.

  6. Continuous-variable private quantum channel

    SciTech Connect

    Bradler, Kamil

    2005-10-15

    In this paper we introduce the concept of quantum private channel within the continuous variables framework (CVPQC) and investigate its properties. In terms of CVPQC we naturally define a 'maximally' mixed state in phase space together with its explicit construction and show that for increasing number of encryption operations (which sets the length of a shared key between Alice and Bob) the encrypted state is arbitrarily close to the maximally mixed state in the sense of the Hilbert-Schmidt distance. We bring the exact solution for the distance dependence and give also a rough estimate of the necessary number of bits of the shared secret key (i.e., how much classical resources are needed for an approximate encryption of a generally unknown continuous-variable state). The definition of the CVPQC is analyzed from the Holevo bound point of view which determines an upper bound of information about an incoming state an eavesdropper is able to get from his optimal measurement.

  7. Formation of brine channels in sea ice.

    PubMed

    Morawetz, Klaus; Thoms, Silke; Kutschan, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    Liquid salty micro-channels (brine) between growing ice platelets in sea ice are an important habitat for CO2-binding microalgaea with great impact on polar ecosystems. The structure formation of ice platelets is microscopically described and a phase field model is developed. The pattern formation during solidification of the two-dimensional interstitial liquid is considered by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. The coupling and time evolution of these order parameters are described by a consistent set of three model parameters. They determine the velocity of the freezing process and the structure formation, the phase diagram, the super-cooling and super-heating region, and the specific heat. The model is used to calculate the short-time frozen micro-structures. The obtained morphological structure is compared with the vertical brine pore space obtained from X-ray computed tomography.

  8. Commercial Space Tourism and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronald

    2007-08-01

    Space tourism, a concept which even a few years ago was perveived as science fantasy, is now a credible industry. Five individuals have paid up to $25 M to spend more than a week on the International Space Station. Several enterprises are working toward viable suborbital and orbital private space operations. while operational space weather support to human space flight has been the domain of government entities the emergence of space tourism now presents a new opportunity for the commercial space weather community. This article examines the space weather impact on crews and passengers of the future space tourism industry.

  9. Co-Channel Speaker Separation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Segment Classification .................... 2-8 2.3.3 Comb Filtering. . I. 2-0 2.4 Co-Channel Speaker Separation Algorithms ........... 2-9 i11 Page...4-7 4.4 Test Results ........ ......................... 4-8 4.4.1 Pitch Deviation Method of Assigning Separated Segments ...developed that if given that a segment of co-channel speech is separated into a "stronger" and "weaker" segment , the corrxt assignment of these separated

  10. Ionic Channels as Natural Nanodevices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    modeling ion transport in biological channels: Self-consistent particle-based simulations. Journal of Computational Electronics, 2: 239-243. 6. Boda ...dielectric boundary: application to calcium channel selectivity. Molecular Simulation, 30: 89-96. 17 7. Boda , D., Gillespie, D., Nonner, W., Henderson...systems. Phys Rev E, 69, 046702. 8. van der Straaten, T., Kathawala, G., Kuang, Z., Boda , D., Chen, D.P., Ravaioli, U., Eisenberg, R.S., and D

  11. Synthesis of superstructure fiber Bragg grating comb filter by ameliorated layer-peeling algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hui; Sun, Junqiang; Chen, Guojie; Chen, Weicheng; Huang, Dexiu

    2005-01-01

    A novel 16-channel comb filter based on superstructure fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) is proposed for the first time. It is characterized by single-grating structure, equal reflectivity peaks, narrow channel bandwidth, flat-top, high bandwidth utilization ratio, standard 50 GHz channel-spacing, and realizing dispersion compensation and wavelength filtration simultaneously. Based on ameliorated layer-peeling algorithm, that is adopting channel-by-channel windowing method rather than all-channel integral windowing method, this novel SFBG is synthesized successfully. According to the grating structure of the synthesized SFBG, reflectivity spectrum, group delay and group delay ripper are analyzed based on the method of transfer matrix. The results show this SFBG does an almost perfect job of reproducing the desired spectrum.

  12. Producing a Live HDTV Program from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grubbs, Rodney; Fontanot, Carlos; Hames, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    By the year 2000, NASA had flown HDTV camcorders on three Space Shuttle missions: STS-95, STS-93 and STS-99. All three flights of these camcorders were accomplished with cooperation from the Japanese space agency (then known as NASDA and now known as JAXA). The cameras were large broadcast-standard cameras provided by NASDA and flight certified by both NASA and NASDA. The high-definition video shot during these missions was spectacular. Waiting for the return of the tapes to Earth emphasized the next logical step: finding a way to downlink the HDTV live from space. Both the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) programs were interested in live HDTV from space, but neither had the resources to fully fund the technology. Technically, downlinking from the ISS was the most effective approach. Only when the Japanese broadcaster NHK and the Japanese space agency expressed interest in covering a Japanese astronaut's journey to the ISS did the project become possible. Together, JAXA and NHK offered equipment, technology, and funding toward the project. In return, NHK asked for a live HDTV downlink during one of its broadcast programs. NASA and the ISS Program sought a US partner to broadcast a live HDTV program and approached the Discovery Channel. The Discovery Channel had proposed a live HDTV project in response to NASA's previous call for offers. The Discovery Channel agreed to provide addItional resources. With the final partner in place, the project was under way. Engineers in the Avionics Systems Division at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) had already studied the various options for downlinking HDTV from the ISS. They concluded that the easiest way was to compress the HDTV so that the resulting data stream would "look" like a payload data stream. The flight system would consist of a professional HDTV camcorder with live HD-SDI output, an HDTV MPEG-2 encoder, and a packetizer/protocol converter.

  13. Standards for space data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, E. B.

    1985-01-01

    NASA has chaired the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) for the past four years. During that time, a top-level, end-to-end reference model for space data sytems has been developed that identifies the functions anad services which must be provided by space data systems, and defines the interfaces between major functional elements. A group of definitions for standard protocols has been derived by analyzing these interfaces, and a set of detailed guidelines for space data system standards is in the final stages of negotiation among member CCSDS agencies. Two guidelines that address packet telemetry and channel coding have been approved and are being incorporated into the internal standards of member agencies. Others (packet telecommand, time code, standards data format unit) are in review within CCSDS technical panels and will soon be submitted for approval. These guidelines provide a mechanism for significant cost savings in the implementation of space data systems by allowing reuse of hardware and software for different payloads and for missions, and by enabling the substitution of new technology/higher performance elements at key points in the data system without causing major perturbations in the remainder of the system.

  14. A three channel telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesho, Jeffery C.; Eaton, Harry A. C.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel telemetry system intended for biomedical applications is described. The transmitter is implemented in a single chip using a 2 micron BiCMOS processes. The operation of the system and the test results from the latest chip are discussed. One channel is always dedicated to temperature measurement while the other two channels are generic. The generic channels carry information from transducers that are interfaced to the system through on-chip general purpose operational amplifiers. The generic channels have different bandwidths: one from dc to 250 Hz and the other from dc to 1300 Hz. Each generic channel modulates a current controlled oscillator to produce a frequency modulated signal. The two frequency modulated signals are summed and used to amplitude modulate the temperature signal which acts as a carrier. A near-field inductive link telemeters the combined signals over a short distance. The chip operates on a supply voltage anywhere from 2.5 to 3.6 Volts and draws less than 1 mA when transmitting a signal. The chip can be incorporated into ingestible, implantable and other configurations. The device can free the patient from tethered data collection systems and reduces the possibility of infection from subcutaneous leads. Data telemetry can increase patient comfort leading to a greater acceptance of monitoring.

  15. 8-PSK Signaling over non-linear satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Sheila B.; Caballero, Ruben B. Eng.

    1996-01-01

    Space agencies are under pressure to utilize better bandwidth-efficient communication methods due to the actual allocated frequency bands becoming more congested. Also budget reductions is another problem that the space agencies must deal with. This budget constraint results in simpler spacecraft carrying less communication capabilities and also the reduction in staff to capture data in the earth stations. It is then imperative that the most bandwidth efficient communication methods be utilized. This thesis presents a study of 8-ary Phase Shift Keying (8PSK) modulation with respect to bandwidth, power efficiency, spurious emissions and interference susceptibility over a non-linear satellite channel.

  16. Glass composition and process for sealing void spaces in electrochemical devices

    DOEpatents

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Kirby, Brent W [Kennewick, WA

    2012-05-01

    A glass foaming material and method are disclosed for filling void spaces in electrochemical devices. The glass material includes a reagent that foams at a temperature above the softening point of the glass. Expansion of the glass fills void spaces including by-pass and tolerance channels of electrochemical devices. In addition, cassette to cassette seals can also be formed while channels and other void spaces are filled, reducing the number of processing steps needed.

  17. Atomic mutagenesis in ion channels with engineered stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Lueck, John D; Mackey, Adam L; Infield, Daniel T; Galpin, Jason D; Li, Jing; Roux, Benoît; Ahern, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    C-type inactivation of potassium channels fine-tunes the electrical signaling in excitable cells through an internal timing mechanism that is mediated by a hydrogen bond network in the channels' selectively filter. Previously, we used nonsense suppression to highlight the role of the conserved Trp434-Asp447 indole hydrogen bond in Shaker potassium channels with a non-hydrogen bonding homologue of tryptophan, Ind (Pless et al., 2013). Here, molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the Trp434Ind hydrogen bonding partner, Asp447, unexpectedly 'flips out' towards the extracellular environment, allowing water to penetrate the space behind the selectivity filter while simultaneously reducing the local negative electrostatic charge. Additionally, a protein engineering approach is presented whereby split intein sequences are flanked by endoplasmic reticulum retention/retrieval motifs (ERret) are incorporated into the N- or C- termini of Shaker monomers or within sodium channels two-domain fragments. This system enabled stoichiometric control of Shaker monomers and the encoding of multiple amino acids within a channel tetramer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18976.001 PMID:27710770

  18. A Possible Hybrid Cooling Channel for a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S; Gallardo, Juan C.

    2010-05-17

    A Neutrino Factory requires an intense and well-cooled (in transverse phase space) muon beam. We discuss a hybrid approach for a linear 4D cooling channel consisting of high-pressure gas-filled RF cavities--potentially allowing high gradients without breakdown--and discrete LiH absorbers to provide the necessary energy loss that results in the required muon beam cooling. We report simulations of the channel performance and its comparison with the vacuum case; we also briefly discuss technical and safety issues associated with cavities filled with high-pressure hydrogen gas. Even with additional windows that might be needed for safety reasons, the channel performance is comparable to that of the original, all-vacuum Feasibility Study 2a channel on which our design is based. If tests demonstrate that the gas-filled RF cavities can operate effectively with an intense beam of ionizing particles passing through them, our approach would be an attractive way of avoiding possible breakdown problems with a vacuum RF channel.

  19. Tetrachromacy of human vision: spectral channels and primary colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrik, Vitali V.

    2002-06-01

    Full-color imaging requires four channels as, in contrast to a colorimeter, can add no primary to matched scene colors themselves. An ideal imaging channel should have the same spectral sensitivity of scene recording as a retinal receptor and evoke the same primary color sensation. The alternating matching functions of a triad of real primaries are inconsistent with the three cones but explicable of two pairs of independent opponent receptors with their alternating blue-yellow and green-red chromatic axes in the color space. Much other controversy of trichromatic approach can also be explained with the recently proposed intra- receptor processes in the photopic rod and cone, respectively. Each of their four primary sensations, unmixed around 465, 495, 575, and 650 nm, is evoked within a different spectral region. The current trichromatic photographic systems have been found separately to approximate the blue and red receptors, as well as their spectral opponency against the respective yellow and blue- green receptors simulated with a single middle-wave imaging channel. The channel sensitivities are delimited by the neutral points of rod and cone and cannot simulate the necessary overlap of non-opponent channels for properly to render some mixed colors. The yellow and cyan positive dyes closely control the brightness of blue and red sensations, respectively. Those red and blue respectively to control the yellow and blue-green sensations on brightness scales are replaced by magenta dye, controlling them together. Accurate rendering of natural saturation metameric colors, problematic blue-green, purple-red, and low-illumination colors requires to replace the hybrid 'green' channel with the blue-green and yellow channels.

  20. Ephemeral channel recharge and near-channel evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D.; Williams, D.; Scott, R.; Unkrich, C.; Hultine, K.

    2003-04-01

    Ephemeral channel transmission losses play an important role in ground water/surface water dynamics in arid and semi-arid basins in the Southwest. However, identification of the processes driving these dynamics is difficult. Specifically, data on the proportion of runoff transmission losses that escape from near-channel evapotranspiration (ET) and wetted channel evaporation to become deep ground water recharge are difficult to obtain. Quantifying recharge with greater certainty is a critical need required to manage basins whose primary source of water supply is derived from groundwater. This paper addresses two principal objectives: 1) Assess the magnitude and seasonality of ephemeral channel recharge to the regional aquifer and a perched aquifer occluded from the regional aquifer; and, 2) Monitor the dynamics of ET and water movement between Flume 6, Flume 2, and Flume 1 of the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). Groundwater, surface water, chemical, isotopic, tree sap flux and micrometeorological techniques were used to independently estimate ephemeral channel recharge. It was found that during the 1999 and 2000 monsoon seasons a substantial amount of water recharged into the regional aquifer in the 7 km reach between flume 2 and flume 1 of the WGEW. In 2001 and 2002 no recharge was detected.

  1. SHAPING OF ACTION POTENTIALS BY TYPE I AND TYPE II BK CHANNELS

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, David B.; Wang, Bin; Brenner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The BK channel is a Ca2+ and voltage-gated conductance responsible for shaping action potential waveforms in many types of neurons. Type II BK channels are differentiated from type I channels by their pharmacology and slow gating kinetics. The β4 accessory subunit confers type II properties on BK α subunits. Empirically derived properties of BK channels, with and without the β4 accessory subunit, were obtained using a heterologous expression system under physiological ionic conditions. These data were then used to study how BK channels alone (type I) and with the accessory β4 subunit (type II) modulate action potential properties in biophysical neuron models. Overall, the models support the hypothesis that it is the slower kinetics provided by the β4 subunit that endows the BK channel with type II properties, which leads to broadening of action potentials and, secondarily, to greater recruitment of SK channels reducing neuronal excitability. Two regions of parameter space distinguished type II and type I effects; one where the range of BK-activating Ca2+ was high (>20 µM) and the other where BK-activating Ca2+ was low (~0.4–1.2 µM). The latter required an elevated BK channel density, possibly beyond a likely physiological range. BK-mediated sharpening of the spike waveform associated with the lack of the β4 subunit was sensitive to the properties of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels due to electrogenic effects on spike duration. We also found that depending on Ca2+ dynamics, type II BK channels may have the ability to contribute to the medium AHP, a property not generally ascribed to BK channels, influencing the frequency-current relationship. Finally, we show how the broadening of action potentials conferred by type II BK channels can also indirectly increase the recruitment of SK-type channels decreasing the excitability of the neuron. PMID:21723921

  2. 18 CFR 1304.303 - Channel excavation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Channel excavation... Activities on TVA Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.303 Channel excavation. (a) Channel excavation of... encourage owners of flowage easement property to adopt the standards for channel excavation applicable...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.303 - Channel excavation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Channel excavation... Activities on TVA Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.303 Channel excavation. (a) Channel excavation of... encourage owners of flowage easement property to adopt the standards for channel excavation applicable...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.303 - Channel excavation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Channel excavation... Activities on TVA Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.303 Channel excavation. (a) Channel excavation of... encourage owners of flowage easement property to adopt the standards for channel excavation applicable...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.303 - Channel excavation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Channel excavation. 1304... Flowage Easement Shoreland § 1304.303 Channel excavation. (a) Channel excavation of privately-owned... encourage owners of flowage easement property to adopt the standards for channel excavation applicable...

  6. 33 CFR 117.966 - Galveston Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.966 Galveston Channel. The drawspan for the Pelican Island Causeway Drawbridge across Galveston Channel, mile 4.5 of the Galveston Channel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Galveston Channel....

  7. 33 CFR 117.966 - Galveston Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.966 Galveston Channel. The drawspan for the Pelican Island Causeway Drawbridge across Galveston Channel, mile 4.5 of the Galveston Channel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Galveston Channel....

  8. 33 CFR 117.966 - Galveston Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.966 Galveston Channel. The drawspan for the Pelican Island Causeway Drawbridge across Galveston Channel, mile 4.5 of the Galveston Channel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Galveston Channel....

  9. 47 CFR 95.29 - Channels available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels available. 95.29 Section 95.29... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.29 Channels available. (a) For a base station, fixed... transmission of another GMRS station on a different channel or channels), the licensee of the GMRS system...

  10. 47 CFR 95.29 - Channels available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels available. 95.29 Section 95.29... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.29 Channels available. (a) For a base station, fixed... transmission of another GMRS station on a different channel or channels), the licensee of the GMRS system...

  11. 47 CFR 73.6006 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel assignments. 73.6006 Section 73.6006... Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6006 Channel assignments. Class A TV stations will not be authorized on UHF TV channels 52 through 69, or on channels unavailable for TV broadcast station use...

  12. 47 CFR 73.6006 - Channel assignments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel assignments. 73.6006 Section 73.6006... Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6006 Channel assignments. Class A TV stations will not be authorized on UHF TV channels 52 through 69, or on channels unavailable for TV broadcast station use...

  13. The Berlin oil channel for drag reduction research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Hoppe, G.; van der Hoeven, J. G. Th.; Makris, R.

    1992-03-01

    For drag reduction research an oil channel has been designed and built. It is also well suited for investigations on turbulent flow and in particular on the dynamics of the viscous sublayer near the wall. The thickness of the viscous sublayer ( y += 5) can be varied between 1 and 4 mm. Surfaces with longitudinal ribs (“riblets”), which are known to reduce drag, can have fairly large dimensions. The lateral spacing of the ribs can lie between 3 and 10 mm, as compared to about 0.5 mm spacing for conventional wind tunnels. It has been proved by appropriate tests that the oil channel data are completely equivalent to data from other facilities and with other mean flow geometries. However, the shear stress data from the new oil channel are much more accurate than previous data due to a novel differential shear force balance with an accuracy of ±0.2%. In addition to shear stress measurements, velocity fluctuation measurements can be carried out with hot wire or hot film probes. In order to calibrate these probes, a moving sled permits to emulate the flow velocities with the fluid in the channel at rest. A number of additional innovations contribute to the improvement of the measurements, such as, e.g., (i) novel adjustable turbulators to maintain equilibrium turbulence in the channel, (ii) a “bubble trap” to avoid bubbles in the channel at high flow velocities, (iii) a simple method for the precision calibration of manometers, and (iv) the elimination of (Coulomb) friction in ball bearings. This latter fairly general invention is used for the wheels of the calibration unit of the balance. The channel has a cross section of 25 × 85 cm and is 11 m long. It is filled with about 4.5 metric tons of baby oil (white paraffine oil), which is transparent and odorless like water. The kinematic viscosity of the oil is v = 1.2×10-5 m2/s, and the highest (average) velocity is 1.29 m/s. Thus, the Reynolds number range (calculated with the channel width, 0.25 m) lies between

  14. On signal design by the R/0/ criterion for non-white Gaussian noise channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bordelon, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    The use of the cut-off rate criterion for modulation system design is investigated for channels with non-white Gaussian noise. A signal space representation of the waveform channel is developed, and the cut-off rate for vector channels with additive non-white Gaussian noise and unquantized demodulation is derived. When the signal input to the channel is a continuous random vector, maximization of the cut-off rate with constrained average signal energy leads to a water-filling interpretation of optimal energy distribution in signal space. The necessary condition for a finite signal set to maximize the cut-off rate with constrained energy and an equally likely probability assignment of signal vectors is presented, and an algorithm is outlined for numerically computing the optimum signal set. As an example, the rectangular signal set which has the water-filling average energy distribution and the optimum rectangular set are compared.

  15. TIDALLY ENHANCED STELLAR WIND: A WAY TO MAKE THE SYMBIOTIC CHANNEL TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA VIABLE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Han, Z.

    2011-07-10

    In the symbiotic (or WD+RG) channel of the single-degenerate scenario for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the explosions occur a relatively long time after star formation. The birthrate from this channel would be too low to account for all observed SNe Ia were it not for some mechanism to enhance the rate of accretion on to the white dwarf. A tidally enhanced stellar wind, of the type which has been postulated to explain many phenomena related to giant star evolution in binary systems, can do this. Compared to mass stripping, this model extends the space of SNe Ia progenitors to longer orbital periods and hence increases the birthrate to about 0.0069 yr{sup -1} for the symbiotic channel. Two symbiotic stars, T CrB and RS Oph, considered to be the most likely progenitors of SNe Ia through the symbiotic channel, are well inside the period-companion mass space predicted by our models.

  16. The pharmacology of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology contains review and research articles on recent advances in transient receptor potential (TRP) channel pharmacology. The review articles, written by a panel of distinguished experts, address the rapid progress in TRP channel research in fields as diverse as oncology, urology, dermatology, migraine, inflammation and pain. These reviews are complemented by original research reports focusing, among others, on the emerging roles of TRPV1 in osteoporosis and cystitis and on evodiamine as a lead structure for the development of potent TRPV1 agonists/desensitizers. Other papers highlight the differences in TRPV3 pharmacology between recombinant and native systems, the mechanisms of TRPM3 activation/inhibition and TRPP2 as a target of naringenin, a dietary flavonoid with anticancer actions. New therapeutic opportunities in pain may arise from the strategy to combine TRP channel and cell membrane impermeant sodium channel blockers to inhibit sensory nerve activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24773265

  17. Generic theory for channel sinuosity.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Eli D; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-05-21

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as "inherited" from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support.

  18. River meanders and channel size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    This study uses an enlarged data set to (1) compare measured meander geometry to that predicted by the Langbein and Leopold (1966) theory, (2) examine the frequency distribution of the ratio radius of curvature/channel width, and (3) derive 40 empirical equations (31 of which are original) involving meander and channel size features. The data set, part of which comes from publications by other authors, consists of 194 sites from a large variety of physiographic environments in various countries. The Langbein-Leopold sine-generated-curve theory for predicting radius of curvature agrees very well with the field data (78 sites). The ratio radius of curvature/channel width has a modal value in the range of 2 to 3, in accordance with earlier work; about one third of the 79 values is less than 2.0. The 40 empirical relations, most of which include only two variables, involve channel cross-section dimensions (bankfull area, width, and mean depth) and meander features (wavelength, bend length, radius of curvature, and belt width). These relations have very high correlation coefficients, most being in the range of 0.95-0.99. Although channel width traditionally has served as a scale indicator, bankfull cross-sectional area and mean depth also can be used for this purpose. ?? 1986.

  19. TRP channels in the skin

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllősi, Attila Gábor; Bíró, Tamás

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels not only act as ‘polymodal cellular sensors’ on sensory neurons but are also functionally expressed by a multitude of non-neuronal cell types. This is especially true in the skin, one of the largest organs of the body, where they appear to be critically involved in regulating various cutaneous functions both under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review, we focus on introducing the roles of several cutaneous TRP channels in the regulation of the skin barrier, skin cell proliferation and differentiation, and immune functions. Moreover, we also describe the putative involvement of several TRP channels in the development of certain skin diseases and identify future TRP channel-targeted therapeutic opportunities. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24372189

  20. Generic theory for channel sinuosity

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; Constantine, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Sinuous patterns traced by fluid flows are a ubiquitous feature of physical landscapes on Earth, Mars, the volcanic floodplains of the Moon and Venus, and other planetary bodies. Typically discussed as a consequence of migration processes in meandering rivers, sinuosity is also expressed in channel types that show little or no indication of meandering. Sinuosity is sometimes described as “inherited” from a preexisting morphology, which still does not explain where the inherited sinuosity came from. For a phenomenon so universal as sinuosity, existing models of channelized flows do not explain the occurrence of sinuosity in the full variety of settings in which it manifests, or how sinuosity may originate. Here we present a generic theory for sinuous flow patterns in landscapes. Using observations from nature and a numerical model of flow routing, we propose that flow resistance (representing landscape roughness attributable to topography or vegetation density) relative to surface slope exerts a fundamental control on channel sinuosity that is effectively independent of internal flow dynamics. Resistance-dominated surfaces produce channels with higher sinuosity than those of slope-dominated surfaces because increased resistance impedes downslope flow. Not limited to rivers, the hypothesis we explore pertains to sinuosity as a geomorphic pattern. The explanation we propose is inclusive enough to account for a wide variety of sinuous channel types in nature, and can serve as an analytical tool for determining the sinuosity a landscape might support. PMID:23610390