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Sample records for 50-khz ultrasonic vocalizations

  1. Vocal coselection in rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Spence, Heather R; Aslam, Ali M; Hofer, Myron A; Brunelli, Susan A; Shair, Harry N

    2016-04-01

    Selective breeding and natural selection that select for one trait often bring along other correlated traits via coselection. Selective breeding for an infantile trait, high or low call rates of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalization of rat pups, also alters functions of some brain systems and emotional behaviors throughout life. We examined the effect of breeding for call rate on acoustic parameters that are of communicative significance. Selecting for higher call rate produced calls of significantly increased amplitude and bandwidth relative to a randomly bred line. Selecting for lower rate produced calls of decreased duration. These nonmorphological, functional trait changes demonstrate enhanced communicatory potential and energy expenditure for the High line and the opposite for the Low line. This demonstration of coselection in a communicatory system suggests an underlying heritable suite of linked acoustic vocalization characteristics that in noisy environments could enhance dam-pup communication and lead to selection of emotionality traits with beneficial responses to stress. PMID:27066218

  2. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  3. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    PubMed

    Murrant, Meghan N; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  4. The contribution of ultrasonic vocalizations to mouse courtship.

    PubMed

    Egnor, Se Roian; Seagraves, Kelly M

    2016-06-01

    Vocalizations transmit information to social partners, and mice use these signals to exchange information during courtship. Ultrasonic vocalizations from adult males are tightly associated with their interactions with females, and vary as a function of male quality. Work in the last decade has established that the spectrotemporal features of male vocalizations are not learned, but that female attention toward specific vocal features is modified by social experience. Additionally, progress has been made on elucidating how mouse vocalizations are encoded in the auditory system, and on the olfactory circuits that trigger their production. Together these findings provide us with important insights into how vocal communication can contribute to social interactions. PMID:26789140

  5. Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ferhat, Allain-Thibeault; Torquet, Nicolas; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    Mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations in different contexts throughout development and in adulthood. These vocal signals are now currently used as proxies for modeling the genetic bases of vocal communication deficits. Characterizing the vocal behavior of mouse models carrying mutations in genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders will help to understand the mechanisms leading to social communication deficits. We provide here protocols to reliably elicit ultrasonic vocalizations in pups and in adult mice. This standardization will help reduce inter-study variability due to the experimental settings. Pup isolation calls are recorded throughout development from individual pups isolated from dam and littermates. In adulthood, vocalizations are recorded during same-sex interactions (without a sexual component) by exposing socially motivated males or females to an unknown same-sex conspecific. We also provide a protocol to record vocalizations from adult males exposed to an estrus female. In this context, there is a sexual component in the interaction. These protocols are established to elicit a large amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory mice. However, we point out the important inter-individual variability in the vocal behavior of mice, which should be taken into account by recording a minimal number of individuals (at least 12 in each condition). These recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations are used to evaluate the call rate, the vocal repertoire and the acoustic structure of the calls. Data are combined with the analysis of synchronous video recordings to provide a more complete view on social communication in mice. These protocols are used to characterize the vocal communication deficits in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders. More ultrasonic vocalizations recordings can also be found on the mouseTube database, developed to favor the exchange of such data. PMID:27341321

  6. Recording Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations to Evaluate Social Communication.

    PubMed

    Ferhat, Allain-Thibeault; Torquet, Nicolas; Le Sourd, Anne-Marie; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    Mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations in different contexts throughout development and in adulthood. These vocal signals are now currently used as proxies for modeling the genetic bases of vocal communication deficits. Characterizing the vocal behavior of mouse models carrying mutations in genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders will help to understand the mechanisms leading to social communication deficits. We provide here protocols to reliably elicit ultrasonic vocalizations in pups and in adult mice. This standardization will help reduce inter-study variability due to the experimental settings. Pup isolation calls are recorded throughout development from individual pups isolated from dam and littermates. In adulthood, vocalizations are recorded during same-sex interactions (without a sexual component) by exposing socially motivated males or females to an unknown same-sex conspecific. We also provide a protocol to record vocalizations from adult males exposed to an estrus female. In this context, there is a sexual component in the interaction. These protocols are established to elicit a large amount of ultrasonic vocalizations in laboratory mice. However, we point out the important inter-individual variability in the vocal behavior of mice, which should be taken into account by recording a minimal number of individuals (at least 12 in each condition). These recordings of ultrasonic vocalizations are used to evaluate the call rate, the vocal repertoire and the acoustic structure of the calls. Data are combined with the analysis of synchronous video recordings to provide a more complete view on social communication in mice. These protocols are used to characterize the vocal communication deficits in mice lacking ProSAP1/Shank2, a gene associated with autism spectrum disorders. More ultrasonic vocalizations recordings can also be found on the mouseTube database, developed to favor the exchange of such data. PMID:27341321

  7. Female Presence and Estrous State Influence Mouse Ultrasonic Courtship Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The laboratory mouse is an emerging model for context-dependent vocal signaling and reception. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations are robustly produced in social contexts. In adults, male vocalization during courtship has become a model of interest for signal-receiver interactions. These vocalizations can be grouped into syllable types that are consistently produced by different subspecies and strains of mice. Vocalizations are unique to individuals, vary across development, and depend on social housing conditions. The behavioral significance of different syllable types, including the contexts in which different vocalizations are made and the responses listeners have to different types of vocalizations, is not well understood. We examined the effect of female presence and estrous state on male vocalizations by exploring the use of syllable types and the parameters of syllables during courtship. We also explored correlations between vocalizations and other behaviors. These experimental manipulations produced four main findings: 1) vocalizations varied among males, 2) the production of USVs and an increase in the use of a specific syllable type were temporally related to mounting behavior, 3) the frequency (kHz), bandwidth, and duration of syllables produced by males were influenced by the estrous phase of female partners, and 4) syllable types changed when females were removed. These findings show that mouse ultrasonic courtship vocalizations are sensitive to changes in female phase and presence, further demonstrating the context-sensitivity of these calls. PMID:22815817

  8. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Costa, Martín Elias; Laplagne, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5–10 Hz). During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, “50 kHz”) were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5–10 Hz) and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1–4 Hz). Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations. PMID:25477796

  9. Ultrasonic vocalization changes and FOXP2 expression after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Doran, Sarah J; Trammel, Cassandra; Benashaski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-04-15

    Speech impairments affect one in four stroke survivors. However, animal models of post-ischemic vocalization deficits are limited. Male mice vocalize at ultrasonic frequencies when exposed to an estrous female mouse. In this study we assessed vocalization patterns and quantity in male mice after cerebral ischemia. FOXP2, a gene associated with verbal dyspraxia in humans, with known roles in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, was also examined after injury. Using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we assessed correlates of vocal impairment at several time-points after stroke. Further, to identify possible lateralization of vocalization deficits induced by left and right hemispheric strokes were compared. Significant differences in vocalization quantity were observed between stroke and sham animals that persisted for a month after injury. Injury to the left hemisphere reduced early vocalizations more profoundly than those to the right hemisphere. Nuclear expression of Foxp2 was elevated early after stroke (at 6h), but significantly decreased 24h after injury in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Neuronal Foxp2 expression increased in stroke mice compared to sham animals 4 weeks after injury. This study demonstrates that quantifiable deficits in ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are seen after stroke. USV may be a useful tool to assess chronic behavioral recovery in murine models of stroke. PMID:25644653

  10. Ultrasonic Vocalization Changes and FOXP2 expression after Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Sarah J; Trammel, Cassandra; Benashaski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-01-01

    Speech impairments affect one in four stroke survivors. However, animal models of post-ischemic vocalization deficits are limited. Male mice vocalize at ultrasonic frequencies when exposed to an estrous female mouse. In this study we assessed vocalization patterns and quantity in male mice after cerebral ischemia. FOXP2, a gene associated with verbal dyspraxia in humans, with known roles in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, was also examined after injury. Using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we assessed correlates of vocal impairment at several time-points after stroke. Further, to identify possible lateralization of vocalization deficits induced by left and right hemispheric strokes were compared. Significant differences in vocalization quantity were observed between stroke and sham animals that persisted for a month after injury. Injury to the left hemisphere reduced early vocalizations more profoundly than those to the right hemisphere. Nuclear expression of Foxp2 was elevated early after stroke (at 6 hours), but significantly decreased 24 hours after injury in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Neuronal Foxp2 expression increased in stroke mice compared to sham animals 4 weeks after injury. This study demonstrates that quantifiable deficits in ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are seen after stroke. USV may be a useful tool to assess chronic behavioral recovery in murine models of stroke. PMID:25644653

  11. The role of ultrasonic vocalizations in mouse communication.

    PubMed

    Portfors, Christine V; Perkel, David J

    2014-10-01

    Human speech and language underlie many aspects of social behavior and thus understanding their ultimate evolutionary function and proximate genetic and neural mechanisms is a fundamental goal in neuroscience. Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations have recently received enormous attention as possible models for human speech. This attention has raised the question of whether these vocalizations are learned and what roles they play in communication. In this review, we first discuss recent evidence that ultrasonic vocalizations are not learned. We then review current evidence addressing how adult vocalizations may communicate courtship, territorial and/or other information. While there is growing evidence that these signals play key roles in communication, many important questions remain unanswered. PMID:25062471

  12. Evaluation of ultrasonic vocalizations in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) as a potential indicator of welfare.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Jaco; van Nijnatten, Tessa J M; Louwerse, Annet L; Baarends, Guus; Arndt, Saskia S; Langermans, Jan A M

    2014-09-01

    The vocal repertoire in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) has been assumed to consist not only of vocalizations audible to humans but also of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). The use of USVs to socially indicate distress has not been evaluated in this species, however. The authors analyzed the ultrasonic vocal repertoire of the common marmoset under normal housing conditions, under various experimental manipulations intended to elicit positive or negative emotional responses and during stressful experiences including blood draw and exposure to a perceived predator. Analysis of the recordings showed that marmosets produced vocalizations with ultrasonic components as part of their normal vocal repertoire, but these vocalizations all have audible components as well. Only 4 of the 13 types of vocalizations had ultrasonic components. These ultrasonic components were not reliably associated with responses to different experimental manipulations, suggesting that they are not used to indicate pain, discomfort or distress. PMID:25141062

  13. Characterization of ultrasonic vocalizations of Fragile X mice.

    PubMed

    Belagodu, Amogh P; Johnson, Aaron M; Galvez, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the leading form of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by the transcriptional silencing of FMR1, the gene which codes for the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Patients who have FXS exhibit numerous behavioral and cognitive impairments, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and autistic-like behaviors. In addition to these behavioral abnormalities, FXS patients have also been shown to exhibit various deficits in communication such as abnormal sentence structures, increased utterances, repetition of sounds and words, and reduced articulation. These deficits can dramatically hinder communication for FXS patients, exacerbating learning and cognition impairments while decreasing their quality of life. To examine the biological underpinnings of these communication abnormalities, studies have used a mouse model of the Fragile X Syndrome; however, these vocalization studies have resulted in inconsistent findings that often do not correlate with abnormalities observed in FXS patients. Interestingly, a detailed examination of frequency modulated vocalizations that are believed to be a better assessment of rodent communication has never been conducted. The following study used courtship separation to conduct a detailed examination of frequency modulated ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in FXS mice. Our analyses of frequency modulated USVs demonstrated that adult FXS mice exhibited longer phrases and more motifs. Phrases are vocalizations consisting of multiple frequency modulated ultrasonic vocalizations, while motifs are repeated frequency modulated USV patterns. Fragile X mice had a higher proportion of "u" syllables in all USVs and phrases while their wildtype counterparts preferred isolated "h" syllables. Although the specific importance of these syllables towards communication deficits still needs to be evaluated, these findings in production of USVs are consistent with the

  14. Determinants of the mouse ultrasonic vocal structure and repertoire.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Jesse; McGuinness, Brigit; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) exhibit a high degree of complexity as demonstrated in recent years. A multitude of factors have been identified to influence USVs on the spectrotemporal as well as structural - e.g. syntactic - level. A synthesis of the various studies that attributes semantics to USV properties or sequences is still lacking. Presently, we address the factors modulating the composition of USVs, specifically age, gender, genetic background (including the targeted FoxP2 mutagenesis), behavioral state and individuality. It emerges that the different factors share a set of common influences, e.g. vocalization rate and frequency range are universally modulated across independent variables described; however, distinct influences exist for sequential structure (different effects for age, behavioral state and genetic background) or vocal repertoire (age). Recently, USV research has seen important advances based on the quantitative maturation of methods on multiple levels of vocalization. Adoption of these methods to address the natural statistics of USV will ultimately benefit several related research areas, e.g. neurolinguistics, neurodevelopmental disorders, multisensory and sensorimotor research. PMID:27060755

  15. Discrimination of Ultrasonic Vocalizations by CBA/CaJ Mice (Mus musculus) Is Related to Spectrotemporal Dissimilarity of Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Neilans, Erikson G.; Holfoth, David P.; Radziwon, Kelly E.; Portfors, Christine V.; Dent, Micheal L.

    2014-01-01

    The function of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) produced by mice (Mus musculus) is a topic of broad interest to many researchers. These USVs differ widely in spectrotemporal characteristics, suggesting different categories of vocalizations, although this has never been behaviorally demonstrated. Although electrophysiological studies indicate that neurons can discriminate among vocalizations at the level of the auditory midbrain, perceptual acuity for vocalizations has yet to be determined. Here, we trained CBA/CaJ mice using operant conditioning to discriminate between different vocalizations and between a spectrotemporally modified vocalization and its original version. Mice were able to discriminate between vocalization types and between manipulated vocalizations, with performance negatively correlating with spectrotemporal similarity. That is, discrimination performance was higher for dissimilar vocalizations and much lower for similar vocalizations. The behavioral data match previous neurophysiological results in the inferior colliculus (IC), using the same stimuli. These findings suggest that the different vocalizations could carry different meanings for the mice. Furthermore, the finding that behavioral discrimination matched neural discrimination in the IC suggests that the IC plays an important role in the perceptual discrimination of vocalizations. PMID:24416405

  16. Vocal training, levodopa, and environment effects on ultrasonic vocalizations in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Brauer, Alexander F L; Ciucci, Michelle R

    2016-07-01

    Levodopa does not improve dysarthria in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), although vocal exercise therapy, such as "LSVT/LOUD(®)", does improve vocal communication. Most patients receive vocal exercise therapy while concurrently being treated with levodopa, although the interaction between levodopa and vocal exercise therapy on communication in PD is relatively unknown. Further, carryover of vocal exercise therapy to novel situations is critical for successful outcomes, but the influence of novel situations on rehabilitated vocal communication is not well understood. To address the influence of exercise, medications, and environment on vocal communication with precise experimental control, we employed the widely used 6-OHDA rat neurotoxin model of PD (infusion to the medial forebrain bundle), and assessed ultrasonic vocalizations after: vocal exercise, vocal exercise with levodopa, levodopa alone, and control conditions. We tested USVs in the familiar training environment of the home cage and a novel cage. We hypothesized that parkinsonian rats that undergo vocal exercise would demonstrate significant improvement of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) acoustic parameters as compared to the control exercise and levodopa-only treatment groups. We further hypothesized that vocal exercise in combination with levodopa administration, similar to what is common in humans, would lead to improvement in USV outcomes, particularly when tested in a familiar versus a novel environment. We found that the combination of exercise and levodopa lead to some improvement in USV acoustic parameters and these effects were stronger in a familiar vs. a novel environment. Our results suggest that although treatment can improve aspects of communication, environment can influence the benefits of these effects. PMID:27025445

  17. Vocal training, levodopa, and environment effects on ultrasonic vocalizations in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Brauer, Alexander F.L.; Ciucci, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa does not improve dysarthria in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), although vocal exercise therapy, such as “LSVT/LOUD®”, does improve vocal communication. Most patients receive vocal exercise therapy while concurrently being treated with levodopa, although the interaction between levodopa and vocal exercise therapy on communication in PD is relatively unknown. Further, carryover of vocal exercise therapy to novel situations is critical for successful outcomes, but the influence of novel situations on rehabilitated vocal communication is not well understood. To address the influence of exercise, medications, and environment on vocal communication with precise experimental control, we employed the widely used 6-OHDA rat neurotoxin model of PD (infusion to the medial forebrain bundle), and assessed ultrasonic vocalizations after: vocal exercise, vocal exercise with levodopa, levodopa alone, and control conditions. We tested USVs in the familiar training environment of the home cage and a novel cage. We hypothesized that parkinsonian rats that undergo vocal exercise would demonstrate significant improvement of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) acoustic parameters as compared to the control exercise and levodopa-only treatment groups. We further hypothesized that vocal exercise in combination with levodopa administration, similar to what is common in humans, would lead to improvement in USV outcomes, particularly when tested in a familiar versus a novel environment. We found that the combination of exercise and levodopa lead to some improvement in USV acoustic parameters and these effects were stronger in a familiar vs. a novel environment. Our results suggest that although treatment can improve aspects of communication, environment can influence the benefits of these effects. PMID:27025445

  18. Ultrasonic vocalization by rat pups during recovery from deep hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Hofer, M A; Shair, H N

    1992-11-01

    Vocalization in the ultrasonic range (USV) has been reported to occur in young rodents in response to isolation, novelty, handling, and cold. Heretofore these calls have been known to occur only in alert, attentive, or emotionally aroused animals. These studies describe the emission of USV by comatose 9- to 10-day-old rat pups during recovery from deep hypothermia. Calling began at 15-18 degrees C core temperature while pups were virtually unresponsive to stimulation. Experimental results describe the patterns of call production in relation to respiration, cardiac function, colonic temperature, and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. These vocalizations were 32-42 kHz in frequency, reached peak rates of 50/min at 23 degrees C, and were eliminated by laryngeal denervation, thus resembling isolation-induced vocalizations. However, contact with their dams failed to reduce call rates until pups had warmed above 25 degrees C. Newborn and weanling pups also emitted USV in deep hypothermia, but no USV were observed in pups recovering from general anesthesia. The possible functions and evolution of this behavior are discussed. PMID:1459345

  19. Structure of Rat Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Its Relevance to Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kashino, Makio; Hironaka, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Rats are known to emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). These USVs have been hypothesized to hold biological meaning, and the relationship between USVs and behavior has been extensively studied. However, most of these studies looked at specific conditions, such as fear-inducing situations and sexual encounters. In the present experiment, the USVs of pairs of rats in ordinary housing conditions were recorded and their features were examined. Three clusters of USVs in the 25-, 40-, and 60-kHz range were detected, which roughly corresponded to fighting, feeding, and moving, respectively. We analyzed sequential combinations of two or more clusters using a state transition model. The results revealed a more specific correspondence between the USVs and behaviors, suggesting that rat USV may work as a type of communication tool. PMID:21124767

  20. Experience restores innate female preference for male ultrasonic vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Kathryn N.; Liu, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse models are increasingly contributing to our understanding of the neural genetics of sensory processing and memory. For example, strain differences have helped elucidate basic mechanisms of age-related hearing loss and auditory fear conditioning. Assessing sensory differences arising in acoustic communication contexts is also important for understanding natural audition. While this topic has not been well studied, it is currently being addressed through auditory neuroethological studies in the CBA/CaJ strain, where insights will help lay a foundation for future neural genetic studies. Here, we focus on the responses of adult females to ultrasonic vocalizations of males. We tested a group of female mice in a place-preference paradigm before and after auditory and olfactory experience with a male. A control group was housed with other female cagemates between trials. All females showed an initial preference for male calls that rapidly decayed over the course of a trial. However, only females that had been pair-housed with a male during the inter-trial interval displayed a reinstated interest in male vocalizations, suggesting possible group differences in the assessment of the calls’ behavioral relevance. These findings provide a timeframe during which auditory processing of male ultrasounds might be expected to show a difference depending on behavioral relevance, and also suggest an importance of social interactions in maintaining call recognition. PMID:20345895

  1. Experience-dependent overrepresentation of ultrasonic vocalization frequencies in the rat primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heesoo

    2013-01-01

    Cortical sensory representation is highly adaptive to the environment, and prevalent or behaviorally important stimuli are often overrepresented. One class of such stimuli is species-specific vocalizations. Rats vocalize in the ultrasonic range >30 kHz, but cortical representation of this frequency range has not been systematically examined. We recorded in vivo cortical electrophysiological responses to ultrasonic pure-tone pips, natural ultrasonic vocalizations, and pitch-shifted vocalizations to assess how rats represent this ethologically relevant frequency range. We find that nearly 40% of the primary auditory cortex (AI) represents an octave-wide band of ultrasonic vocalization frequencies (UVFs; 32–64 kHz) compared with <20% for other octave bands <32 kHz. These UVF neurons respond preferentially and reliably to ultrasonic vocalizations. The UVF overrepresentation matures in the cortex before it develops in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus, suggesting a cortical origin and corticofugal influences. Furthermore, the development of cortical UVF overrepresentation depends on early acoustic experience. These results indicate that natural sensory experience causes large-scale cortical map reorganization and improves representations of species-specific vocalizations. PMID:23741037

  2. Ultrasonic vocalization and body temperature maintenance in infant voles of three species (Rodentia: Arvicolidae).

    PubMed

    Blake, B H

    1992-12-01

    Infant voles thermoregulate poorly and produce ultrasonic vocalizations when cooled. Vocalizing and the ability to maintain body temperature in isolated pups cold-challenged at 5 degrees C or 22 degrees C were studied in nestling Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola terrestris. The tendency to vocalize varied with age, since pups vocalized more in their 2nd week than in their 1st or 3rd weeks. Rate of vocalizing was correlated with sound pressure level of vocalizations. Their was no apparent relation between vocalizing rate and deep body temperature. M. agrestis pups vocalized most and A. terrestris pups least, and all three species vocalized more at the lower temperature. Maximal vocalizing occurred in mid aged M. agrestis (at 5 degrees C) with mean of 1291 vocalizations/20 min and mean SPL of 80 dB (decibels re: 20 microN/m2). It is suggested that the vocalizing response is an adaptation related to risk from hypothermia in infant voles. PMID:1487083

  3. Ultrasonic vocalizations, predictability and sensorimotor gating in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Emily S.; Mankin, David E.; McGraw, Justin J.; Beckwith, Travis J.; Cromwell, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a measure of sensorimotor gating in diverse groups of animals including humans. Emotional states can influence PPI in humans both in typical subjects and in individuals with mental illness. Little is known about emotional regulation during PPI in rodents. We used ultrasonic vocalization recording to monitor emotional states in rats during PPI testing. We altered the predictability of the PPI trials to examine any alterations in gating and emotional regulation. We also examined PPI in animals selectively bred for high or low levels of 50 kHz USV emission. Rats emitted high levels of 22 kHz calls consistently throughout the PPI session. USVs were sensitive to prepulses during the PPI session similar to startle. USV rate was sensitive to predictability among the different levels tested and across repeated experiences. Startle and inhibition of startle were not affected by predictability in a similar manner. No significant differences for PPI or startle were found related the different levels of predictability; however, there was a reduction in USV signals and an enhancement of PPI after repeated exposure. Animals selectively bred to emit high levels of USVs emitted significantly higher levels of USVs during the PPI session and a reduced ASR compared to the low and random selective lines. Overall, the results support the idea that PPI tests in rodents induce high levels of negative affect and that manipulating emotional styles of the animals alters the negative impact of the gating session as well as the intensity of the startle response. PMID:23850353

  4. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats anticipating circadian feeding schedules.

    PubMed

    Opiol, Hanna; Pavlovski, Ilya; Michalik, Mateusz; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-05-01

    Rats readily learn to anticipate a reward signaled by an external stimulus. Anticipatory behaviors evoked by conditioned stimuli include 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), a proposed behavioral correlate of positive affect and activation of midbrain dopamine pathways. Rats can also anticipate a reward, such as food, provided once daily, without external cueing. Anticipation of a daily reward exhibits formal properties of a circadian rhythm. The neural circuits that regulate the timing and amplitude of these rhythms remain an open question, but evidence suggests a role for dopamine. To gain further insight into the neural and affective correlates of circadian food anticipatory rhythms, we made 2h and 24h USV recordings in rats fed 2h/day in the light period, a procedure that induces robust anticipation 2-3h before mealtime. Potential interactions between internal and external time cues in USV production were evaluated by inclusion of a 3 kHz tone 15 min before mealtime. Prior to scheduled feeding, spontaneous 50 kHz USVs were rare during the light period. During scheduled feeding, flat and frequency modulated (FM) 50kHz USVs occurred prior to and during mealtime. FM USVs were more closely related to anticipation, while flat USVs were more dependent on food access. USVs also occurred during spontaneous waking at other times of day. The tone did not evoke USVs but did modulate activity. Behavioral anticipation of a daily meal is accompanied by USVs consistent with a positive affective state and elevated dopamine transmission. PMID:25677650

  5. An Overrepresentation of High Frequencies in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus Supports the Processing of Ultrasonic Vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A; Shepard, Kathryn N; Miranda, Jason A; Liu, Robert C; Lesica, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Mice are of paramount importance in biomedical research and their vocalizations are a subject of interest for researchers across a wide range of health-related disciplines due to their increasingly important value as a phenotyping tool in models of neural, speech and language disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice are not well understood. The mouse audiogram shows a peak in sensitivity at frequencies between 15-25 kHz, but weaker sensitivity for the higher ultrasonic frequencies at which they typically vocalize. To investigate the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice, we measured evoked potential, single-unit, and multi-unit responses to tones and vocalizations at three different stages along the auditory pathway: the auditory nerve and the cochlear nucleus in the periphery, and the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. Auditory brainstem response measurements suggested stronger responses in the midbrain relative to the periphery for frequencies higher than 32 kHz. This result was confirmed by single- and multi-unit recordings showing that high ultrasonic frequency tones and vocalizations elicited responses from only a small fraction of cells in the periphery, while a much larger fraction of cells responded in the inferior colliculus. These results suggest that the processing of communication calls in mice is supported by a specialization of the auditory system for high frequencies that emerges at central stations of the auditory pathway. PMID:26244986

  6. An Overrepresentation of High Frequencies in the Mouse Inferior Colliculus Supports the Processing of Ultrasonic Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A.; Shepard, Kathryn N.; Miranda, Jason A.; Liu, Robert C.; Lesica, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Mice are of paramount importance in biomedical research and their vocalizations are a subject of interest for researchers across a wide range of health-related disciplines due to their increasingly important value as a phenotyping tool in models of neural, speech and language disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice are not well understood. The mouse audiogram shows a peak in sensitivity at frequencies between 15-25 kHz, but weaker sensitivity for the higher ultrasonic frequencies at which they typically vocalize. To investigate the auditory processing of vocalizations in mice, we measured evoked potential, single-unit, and multi-unit responses to tones and vocalizations at three different stages along the auditory pathway: the auditory nerve and the cochlear nucleus in the periphery, and the inferior colliculus in the midbrain. Auditory brainstem response measurements suggested stronger responses in the midbrain relative to the periphery for frequencies higher than 32 kHz. This result was confirmed by single- and multi-unit recordings showing that high ultrasonic frequency tones and vocalizations elicited responses from only a small fraction of cells in the periphery, while a much larger fraction of cells responded in the inferior colliculus. These results suggest that the processing of communication calls in mice is supported by a specialization of the auditory system for high frequencies that emerges at central stations of the auditory pathway. PMID:26244986

  7. Ultrasonic vocalizations: a tool for behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Crawley, Jacqueline; Ricceri, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In neonatal mice ultrasonic vocalizations have been studied both as an early communicative behavior of the pup-mother dyad and as a sign of an aversive affective state. Adult mice of both sexes produce complex ultrasonic vocalization patterns in different experimental/social contexts. All these vocalizations are becoming an increasingly valuable assay for behavioral phenotyping throughout the mouse life-span and alterations of the ultrasound patterns have been reported in several mouse models of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we also show that the modulation of vocalizations by maternal cues (maternal potentiation paradigm) – originally identified and investigated in rats - can be measured in C57Bl/6 mouse pups with appropriate modifications of the rat protocol and can likely be applied to mouse behavioral phenotyping. In addition we suggest that a detailed qualitative evaluation of neonatal calls together with analysis of adult mouse vocalization patterns in both sexes in social settings, may lead to a greater understanding of the communication value of vocalizations in mice. Importantly, both neonatal and adult USV altered patterns can be determined during the behavioural phenotyping of mouse models of human neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders, starting from those in which deficits in communication are a primary symptom. PMID:18771687

  8. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  9. Ultrasonic vocalizations during intermittent swim stress forecasts resilience in subsequent forced swim and spatial learning tests.

    PubMed

    Drugan, Robert C; Warner, Timothy A; Papallo, Tristan A; Castracane, Laura L; Stafford, Nathaniel P

    2014-02-01

    The examination of stress resilience has substantially increased in recent years. However, current paradigms require multiple behavioral procedures, which themselves may serve as secondary stressors. Therefore, a novel predictor of stress resilience is needed to advance the field. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have been observed as a behavioral correlate of stress in various rodent species. It was recently reported that rats that emitted ultrasonic vocalizations during intermittent swim stress (ISS) later showed resilience when tested on an instrumental swim escape test. In the current study, we extend this earlier observation on two additional behavioral endpoints. Rats were subjected to ISS, and USVs were recorded. Twenty-four hours later, behavioral performance was evaluated in either the forced swim test or Morris water maze. Rats that emitted ultrasonic vocalizations were resilient to the effects of ISS as indicated by performance similar to controls on both measures. These results extend the original findings that ISS-induced USVs are associated with resilience and are related to subsequent aversively motivated behavior. Such a non-invasive forecast of stress responsivity will allow future work to utilize USVs to examine the neural correlates of initial stress resistance/resilience, thereby eliminating potential confounds of further behavioral testing. Future studies can utilize USVs to target potentially unappreciated neural systems to provide novel pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treatment-resistant depression. PMID:24475493

  10. Ultrasonic vocalizations of female Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in response to social partners.

    PubMed

    Börner, Annegret; Hjemdahl, Rebecca; Götz, Thomas; Brown, Gillian R

    2016-02-01

    In many species of animals, male vocalizations function to attract mating partners and coordinate sexual interactions. Whereas male vocalizations have been well studied in several species, the function of female vocalizations in mating contexts is not fully understood. In Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), both males and females produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during sexual encounters with opposite sex partners. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female vocalizations play a role in sociosexual interactions by examining how rates of 50 kHz USV production vary in relation to the sex and gonadal status of the partner, and by examining whether the proportion of frequency modulated (FM) and constant frequency calls differs between these categories of social partner. The results showed that females produced a higher total number of 50 kHz USVs to intact males than castrated males, and produced similar numbers of calls to both categories of females. Females also produced a higher proportion of FM calls to male partners than to female partners, and spent more time in the vicinity of male than female partners, regardless of the partners' gonadal status. Female USVs therefore potentially provide a measure of sexual motivation and may function to promote female mate choice in this species with multimale mating and a high risk of infanticide. PMID:26689446

  11. Pharmacology of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in adult Rats: Significance, Call Classification and Neural Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Stefan M.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an inseparable feature of emotional states and it evolved from mother-infant interaction. Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors. Three biologically significant subtypes of 50 kHz vocalizations have been identified, all expressing positive emotional states: (1) flat calls without frequency modulation that serve as contact calls during social interactions; (2) frequencymodulated calls without trills that signal rewarding and significantly motivated situation; and (3) frequency-modulated calls with trills or trills themselves that are emitted in highly emotional situations associated with intensive affective state. Negative emotional states are associated with emission of 22 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by aversive situations, muscarinic cholinergic activation of limbic areas of medial diencephalon and forebrain, and are mediated by M2 muscarinic receptors. Two biologically significant subtypes of 22 kHz vocalizations have been identified, both expressing negative emotional sates: (1) long calls that serve as alarm calls and signal external danger; and (2) short calls that express a state of discomfort without external danger. The positive and negative states with emission of vocalizations are initiated by two ascending reticular activating subsystems: the mesolimbic dopaminergic subsystem as a specific positive arousal system, and the mesolimbic cholinergic subsystem as a specific negative arousal system. PMID:26411761

  12. Communication Impairments in Mice Lacking Shank1: Reduced Levels of Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Scent Marking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, Markus; Roullet, Florence I.; Hung, Albert Y.; Sheng, Morgan; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior with restricted interests. Candidate genes for autism include the SHANK gene family, as mutations in SHANK2 and SHANK3 have been detected in several autistic individuals. SHANK genes code for a family of scaffolding proteins located in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. To test the hypothesis that a mutation in SHANK1 contributes to the symptoms of autism, we evaluated Shank1−/− null mutant mice for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to autism, focusing on social communication. Ultrasonic vocalizations and the deposition of scent marks appear to be two major modes of mouse communication. Our findings revealed evidence for low levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marks in Shank1−/− mice as compared to wildtype Shank1+/+ littermate controls. Shank1−/− pups emitted fewer vocalizations than Shank1+/+ pups when isolated from mother and littermates. In adulthood, genotype affected scent marking behavior in the presence of female urinary pheromones. Adult Shank1−/− males deposited fewer scent marks in proximity to female urine than Shank1+/+ males. Call emission in response to female urinary pheromones also differed between genotypes. Shank1+/+ mice changed their calling pattern dependent on previous female interactions, while Shank1−/− mice were unaffected, indicating a failure of Shank1−/− males to learn from a social experience. The reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior in Shank1−/− mice are consistent with a phenotype relevant to social communication deficits in autism. PMID:21695253

  13. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms. PMID:26250064

  14. Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male Mice Differ among Species and Females Show Assortative Preferences for Male Calls

    PubMed Central

    Musolf, Kerstin; Meindl, Stefanie; Larsen, Angela L.; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C.; Penn, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Male house mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during courtship, which attract females, and we aimed to test whether females use these vocalizations for species or subspecies recognition of potential mates. We recorded courtship USVs of males from different Mus species, Mus musculus subspecies, and populations (F1 offspring of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus (and F1 hybrid crosses), and Mus spicilegus), and we conducted playback experiments to measure female preferences for male USVs. Male vocalizations contained at least seven distinct syllable types, whose frequency of occurrence varied among species, subspecies, and populations. Detailed analyses of multiple common syllable types indicated that Mus musculus and Mus spicilegus could be discriminated based on spectral and temporal characteristics of their vocalizations, and populations of Mus musculus were also distinctive regardless of the classification model used. Females were able to discriminate USVs from different species, and showed assortative preferences for conspecific males. We found no evidence that females discriminate USVs of males from a different subspecies or separate populations of the same species, even though our spectral analyses identified acoustic features that differ between species, subspecies, and populations of the same species. Our results provide the first comparison of USVs between Mus species or between Mus musculus subspecies, and the first evidence that male USVs potentially facilitate species recognition. PMID:26309246

  15. Altered ultrasonic vocalization in mice with a disruption in the Foxp2 gene

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Weiguo; Cho, Julie Y.; Jiang, Yuhui; Zhang, Minhua; Weisz, Donald; Elder, Gregory A.; Schmeidler, James; De Gasperi, Rita; Sosa, Miguel A. Gama; Rabidou, Donald; Santucci, Anthony C.; Perl, Daniel; Morrisey, Edward; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2005-01-01

    Neurobiology of speech and language has previously been studied in the KE family, in which half of the members have severe impairment in both speech and language. The gene responsible for the phenotype was mapped to chromosome 7q31 and identified as the FOXP2 gene, coding for a transcription factor containing a polyglutamine tract and a forkhead DNA-binding domain. Because of linkage studies implicating 7q31 in autism, where language impairment is a component of the disorder, and in specific language impairment, FOXP2 has also been considered as a potential susceptibility locus for the language deficits in autism and/or specific language impairment. In this study, we characterized mice with a disruption in the murine Foxp2 gene. Disruption of both copies of the Foxp2 gene caused severe motor impairment, premature death, and an absence of ultrasonic vocalizations that are elicited when pups are removed from their mothers. Disruption of a single copy of the gene led to modest developmental delay but a significant alteration in ultrasonic vocalization in response to such separation. Learning and memory appear normal in the heterozygous animals. Cerebellar abnormalities were observed in mice with disruptions in Foxp2, with Purkinje cells particularly affected. Our findings support a role for Foxp2 in cerebellar development and in a developmental process that subsumes social communication functions in diverse organisms. PMID:15983371

  16. Effect of lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus on ultrasonic vocalizations in the infant rat pup.

    PubMed

    López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor; Medel-Matus, Jesus-Servando; Morgado-Valle, Consuelo; Beltrán-Parrazal, Luis; Pérez-Estudillo, César; Manzo, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Evidence shows that febrile convulsions induced in rat pups increase ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs); however, the effect of status epilepticus (SE) induced in developing rats on USVs has not been fully investigated. The goal of this study was to analyze USVs following lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE in fourteen-day-old (P14) rat pups. The rat pups were given 3-mEq/kg lithium chloride i.p. on the day before the induction of SE, which was carried out at P14 by subcutaneous injection of 100-mg/kg pilocarpine hydrochloride; control animals were given an equal volume of lithium chloride and saline on P13 and P14, respectively. Ultrasonic vocalizations were monitored at P15, P16, and P21 with a Mini 3 Bat Detector Ultra Sound Advice (15kHz-160kHz) set at 40±4kHz and digitally recorded in WAV format using the Audacity 1.3 beta software. A clear box (60×40×30cm) split down the middle with a holed wall was used; each pup was placed alone in one compartment, whereas its dam was placed on the other cage side at room temperature. Vocalizations were recorded over a 5-minute period, converted to sonograms and spectrograms, and analyzed using the Raven software. Parameters evaluated were as follows: USV frequency, latency to the first USV, and mean USV duration. There was a significant decrease in the latency (35.5±6.9s) and duration (50.8±8.6s) of USVs after SE compared with the control group (81.9±10.8s and 78.1±9.9s, respectively). Status epilepticus affected male and female rats differentially. PMID:24230988

  17. Reduced Scent Marking and Ultrasonic Vocalizations in the BTBR T+tf/J Mouse Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, Markus; Roullet, Florence I.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative impairments in communication such as delayed language and poor interactive communication skills are fundamental to the diagnosis of autism. Investigations into social communication in adult BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice are needed to determine whether this inbred strain incorporates phenotypes relevant to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, communication deficits, along with its strong behavioral phenotypes relevant to the first and third diagnostic symptoms, impairments in social interactions and high levels of repetitive behavior. The aim of the present study was to simultaneously measure female urine-elicited scent marking and ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male BTBR mice, in comparison to a standard control strain with high sociability, C57BL/6J (B6), for the assessment of a potential communication deficit in BTBR. Adult male BTBR mice displayed lower scent marking and minimal ultrasonic vocalization responses to female urine obtained from both B6 and BTBR females. Lower scent marking and ultrasonic vocalizations in a social setting by BTBR as compared to B6 are consistent with the well-replicated social deficits in this inbred mouse strain. Our findings support the interpretation that BTBR incorporate communication deficits, and suggest that scent marking and ultrasonic vocalizations offer promising measures of interest in social cues that may be widely applicable to investigations of mouse model of autism. PMID:20345893

  18. Ultrasonic vocalizations of adult male Foxp2-mutant mice: behavioral contexts of arousal and emotion.

    PubMed

    Gaub, S; Fisher, S E; Ehret, G

    2016-02-01

    Adult mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) occur in multiple behavioral and stimulus contexts associated with various levels of arousal, emotion and social interaction. Here, in three experiments of increasing stimulus intensity (water; female urine; male interacting with adult female), we tested the hypothesis that USVs of adult males express the strength of arousal and emotion via different USV parameters (18 parameters analyzed). Furthermore, we analyzed two mouse lines with heterozygous Foxp2 mutations (R552H missense, S321X nonsense), known to produce severe speech and language disorders in humans. These experiments allowed us to test whether intact Foxp2 function is necessary for developing full adult USV repertoires, and whether mutations of this gene influence instinctive vocal expressions based on arousal and emotion. The results suggest that USV calling rate characterizes the arousal level, while sound pressure and spectrotemporal call complexity (overtones/harmonics, type of frequency jumps) may provide indices of levels of positive emotion. The presence of Foxp2 mutations did not qualitatively affect the USVs; all USV types that were found in wild-type animals also occurred in heterozygous mutants. However, mice with Foxp2 mutations displayed quantitative differences in USVs as compared to wild-types, and these changes were context dependent. Compared to wild-type animals, heterozygous mutants emitted mainly longer and louder USVs at higher minimum frequencies with a higher occurrence rate of overtones/harmonics and complex frequency jump types. We discuss possible hypotheses about Foxp2 influence on emotional vocal expressions, which can be investigated in future experiments using selective knockdown of Foxp2 in specific brain circuits. PMID:26566793

  19. Maternal Deprivation Influences Pup Ultrasonic Vocalizations of C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaowen; Chen, Ling; Yang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoxin; Wang, Haojie; Dong, Jianshu; Ding, Yuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Maternal deprivation (MD) is frequently used as an early life stress model in rodents to investigate behavioral and neurological responses under stressful conditions. However, the effect of MD on the early postnatal development of rodents, which is when multiple neural systems become established, is rarely investigated due to methodological limitations. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are one of the few responses produced by neonatal rodents that can be quantitatively analyzed, and the quantification of USVs is regarded as a novel approach to investigate possible alterations in the neurobehavioral and emotional development of infant rodents under stress. To investigate the effect of MD on pup mice, we subjected C57BL/6J mice to MD and recorded the USVs of pups on postnatal days 1, 3, 7, 8, and 14. To determine whether the effect of MD on USVs was acute or cumulative, pre- and post-separation USV groups were included; sex differences in pup USV emission were also investigated. Our results suggest that (i) USV activity was high on postnatal days 3–8; (ii) the MD effect on USVs was acute, and a cumulative effect was not found; (iii) the MD mice vocalized more and longer than the controls at a lower frequency, and the effect was closely related to age; and (iv) female pups were more susceptible than males to the effect of MD on USV number and duration between postnatal days 3–8. PMID:27552099

  20. Rat Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Behavioral Neuropharmacology: From the Screening of Drugs to the Study of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in response to a wide range of stimuli that are capable of producing either euphoric (positive) or dysphoric (negative) emotional states. On these bases, recordings of USVs are extensively used in preclinical studies of affect, motivation, and social behavior. Rat USVs are sensitive to the effects of certain classes of psychoactive drugs, suggesting that emission of rat USVs can have relevance not only to neurobiology, but also to neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. This review summarizes three types of rat USVs, namely 40-kHz USVs emitted by pups, 22-kHz USVs and 50-kHz USVs emitted by young and adult animals, and relevance of these vocalizations to neuropharmacological studies. Attention will be focused on the issues of how rat USVs can be used to evaluate the pharmacological properties of different classes of drugs, and how rat USVs can be combined with other behavioral models used in neuropharmacology. The strengths and limitations of experimental paradigms based on the evaluation of rat USVs will also be discussed. PMID:26411760

  1. Reduction in ultrasonic vocalizations in pups born to rapid eye movement sleep restricted mothers in rat model.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Kamalesh K; Patel, Niraj; Radhakrishnan, Arathi; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of rapid eye movement sleep restriction (REMSR) in rats during late pregnancy were studied on the ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) made by the pups. USVs are distress calls inaudible to human ears. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was restricted in one group of pregnant rats for 22 hours, starting from gestational day 14 to 20, using standard single platform method. The USVs of male pups were recorded after a brief isolation from their mother for two minutes on alternate post-natal days, from day one till weaning. The USVs were recorded using microphones and were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using SASPro software. Control pups produced maximum vocalization on post-natal days 9 to 11. In comparison, the pups born to REMSR mothers showed not only a reduction in vocalization but also a delay in peak call making days. The experimental group showed variations in the types and characteristics of call types, and alteration in temporal profile. The blunting of distress call making response in these pups indicates that maternal sleep plays a role in regulating the neural development involved in vocalizations and possibly in shaping the emotional behaviour in neonates. It is suggested that the reduced ultrasonic vocalizations can be utilized as a reliable early marker for affective state in rat pups. Such impaired vocalization responses could provide an important lead in understanding mother-child bonding for an optimal cognitive development during post-partum life. This is the first report showing a potential link between maternal REM sleep deprivation and the vocalization in neonates and infants. PMID:24454768

  2. Exercise Effects on Early Vocal Ultrasonic Communication Dysfunction in a PINK1 Knockout Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Yang, Katie M.; Ciucci, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with vocal communication deficits that manifest early, progress, and are largely resistant to medical interventions; however, they do respond to exercise-based speech and voice therapies. Objective and Methods To study how exercise-based vocal treatment can affect the progression of communication deficits related to PD, we studied ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats with homozygous knockout (−/−) of PINK1, a gene mutation known to cause PD, under the manipulation of a behavioral vocal exercise paradigm that allows us to precisely control dose and timing of exercise in the prodromal (prior to diagnosis) stages. Results We show that intensive vocal-training rescues frequency range and intensity deficits as well as leads to an increase in call complexity and duration of calls compared to sham-training; however, over time this training regime loses significant effect as the disease progresses. We also show effects of frequent handling and conspecific (male-female) interaction in the sham-training group as they demonstrated significantly higher call rate, intensity, frequency range, and call complexity compared to rats without any form of training and consequently less handling/interaction. Further, we confirm that this model exhibits progressive gross motor deficits that indicate neurodegeneration. Discussion This study suggests that the evolving nature of vocal communication deficits requires an adjustment of therapy targets and more intensive training over the course of this progressive disease and demonstrates the importance of frequent social experiences. PMID:26577653

  3. Developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency alters pup-retrieval but not isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Burne, Thomas H J; O'Loan, Jonathan; Splatt, Karisha; Alexander, Suzanne; McGrath, John J; Eyles, Darryl W

    2011-02-01

    Evidence from animal experiments now demonstrates that prenatal vitamin D levels influence brain development. The aims of this study were to examine isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations and maternal-infant interactions using a pup-retrieval test in developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficient and control rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient diet or control diet six weeks prior to mating until birth and housed under UVB-free lighting conditions. In two separate experiments we recorded ultrasonic vocalizations at 46KHz in isolated pups and we performed a pup-retrieval test on the day of birth. There was no significant effect of maternal diet on the calling rate of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations by pups. We found that DVD-deficient dams retrieved their pups sooner than control dams and engaged in more pup directed activities (sniffing and carrying pups) and had a longer latency for self-grooming and rearing than control dams. We also assessed vitamin D related measures from a terminal blood sample immediately after the pup-retrieval test and found that DVD-deficient dams and pups had significantly lower levels of 25 OH D₃, 1,25 (OH)₂D₃ and phosphate, elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but there was no significant effect of maternal diet on calcium levels. We speculate that the altered maternal-pup interactions identified in the DVD model may impact on early periods of brain development and behaviour. PMID:21059363

  4. Variations in maternal behavior in rats selected for infant ultrasonic vocalization in isolation.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Susan A; Curley, James P; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A; Myers, Michael M; Hofer, Myron A; Welch, Martha G

    2015-09-01

    Individual differences in maternal behavior in rodents are associated with altered physiology and behavior in offspring across their lifespan and across generations. Offspring of rat dams that engage in high frequencies of high-arched-back nursing and pup-licking (High-LG) show attenuated stress responses compared to those engaging in lower frequencies (Low-LG). Selective breeding also produces widespread alterations in physiology and behavior that are stable over generations. To examine processes underlying generational and developmental influences on anxiety in an animal model, we developed two lines of rats that emit either extremely high (High-USV) or low (Low-USV) rates of 45kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in isolation at postnatal day 10. Compared to the Low-USV line, High-USV rats display increased indices of anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adulthood. The current study assessed maternal behaviors as well as oxytocin and vasopressin receptor density in High-USV and Low-USV dams to determine if selective breeding had produced differences that paralleled those found in Low- and High-LG dams. We found that Low-USV dams engage in more high-arched nursing and pup-licking than High-USV dams. Differences in oxytocin and vasopressin receptor levels were not widespread throughout the brain, with line differences in the piriform cortex and nucleus accumbens. This research illustrates the potential interplay between genetically determined (USV line) and environmental (postnatal mother-infant interactions) factors in accounting for the phenotypes associated with maternal separation induced postnatal vocalizations. PMID:26306860

  5. DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID PARTIALLY AMELIORATES DEFICITS IN SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND ULTRASONIC VOCALIZATIONS CAUSED BY PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Wellmann, Kristen A.; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10 g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol’s damaging effects. PMID:25746516

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid partially ameliorates deficits in social behavior and ultrasonic vocalizations caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Wellmann, Kristen A; George, Finney; Brnouti, Fares; Mooney, Sandra M

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts social behavior in humans and rodents. One system particularly important for social behavior is the somatosensory system. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters the structure and function of this area. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is necessary for normal brain development and brains from ethanol-exposed animals are DHA deficient. Thus, we determined whether postnatal DHA supplementation ameliorated behavioral deficits induced by prenatal ethanol exposure. Timed pregnant Long-Evans rats were assigned to one of three groups: ad libitum access to an ethanol-containing liquid diet, pair fed an isocaloric isonutritive non-alcohol liquid diet, or ad libitum access to chow and water. Pups were assigned to one of two postnatal treatment groups; gavaged intragastrically once per day between postnatal day (P)11 and P20 with DHA (10g/kg in artificial rat milk) or artificial rat milk. A third group was left untreated. Isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (iUSVs) were recorded on P14. Social behavior and play-induced USVs were tested on P28 or P42. Somatosensory performance was tested with a gap crossing test around P33 or on P42. Anxiety was tested on elevated plus maze around P35. Animals exposed to ethanol prenatally vocalized less, play fought less, and crossed a significantly shorter gap than control-treated animals. Administration of DHA ameliorated these ethanol-induced deficits such that the ethanol-exposed animals given DHA were no longer significantly different to control-treated animals. Thus, DHA administration may have therapeutic value to reverse some of ethanol's damaging effects. PMID:25746516

  7. Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Golden Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) Reveal Modest Sex Differences and Nonlinear Signals of Sexual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Vargas, Marcela; Johnston, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1) calling rates, 2) composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena) and 3) acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual arousal and

  8. Pup odor and ultrasonic vocalizations synergistically stimulate maternal attention in mice.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Shota; Nagasawa, Miho; Kihara, Takashi; Kato, Masahiro; Harada, Toshihiro; Koshida, Nobuyoshi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2013-06-01

    Pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are emitted by hypothermic pups, and pup odor are thought to be triggers of maternal behavior in mice. We investigated whether pup odor stimulated maternal responses to pup USVs in mother C57BL/6 mice. Two-choice tests were conducted by introducing mothers into a test cage in which a tube was attached on each long wall, and the duration spent in each tube was compared. Pup USVs were reproduced by an ultrasonic speaker at the tube end. In some cases, cotton with pup odor was also presented at the end of the tube. Compared to no stimuli, mothers did not specifically approach the sole presentation of either reproduced pup USVs or pup odor. However, compared to the sole presentation of pup odor, the simultaneous presentation of pup USVs and odor induced a specific approach response. These results suggested that pup USVs and odor synergistically stimulated maternal behavior. In addition, it was confirmed that mothers approached hypothermic pups emitting pup USVs for longer than anesthetized silent pups. To investigate the underlying neural mechanisms, we observed neural responses to various stimuli with the immunohistochemistry of c-fos expression. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the medial preoptic area, the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the basolateral amygdala, the numbers of c-fos-positive cells were significantly increased following the simultaneous presentation of pup USVs and odor compared to the presentation of each alone, suggesting that these nuclei were involved in multimodal processing related to maternal behavior. PMID:23544596

  9. Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Mice During Exploratory Behavior are Context-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Ho-Suk; Lipina, Tatiana V.; Roder, John C.

    2015-01-01

    While rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are known to vary with anticipation of an aversive vs. positive stimulus, little is known about USVs in adult mice in relation to behaviors. We recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice under different environmental conditions by exposing mice to both novel and familiar environments that varied in stress intensity through the addition of bright light or shallow water. In general, mouse USVs were significantly more frequent and of longer duration in novel environments. Particularly, mice in dimly-lit novel environments performed more USVs while exhibiting unsupported rearing and walking behavior, and these calls were mostly at high frequency. In contrast, mice exhibited more low frequency USVs when engaging in supported rearing behavior in novel environments. These findings are consistent with data from rats suggesting that low-frequency calls are made under aversive conditions and high-frequency calls occur in non-stressful conditions. Our findings increase understanding of acoustic signals associated with exploratory behaviors relevant to cognitive and motivational aspects of behavior. PMID:26696847

  10. Adolescent experience affects postnatal ultrasonic vocalizations and gene expression in future offspring.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Caroline M; Vassoler, Fair M; Byrnes, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-01

    The present study measured postnatal ultrasonic vocalization (USV) and gene expression to examine potential changes in communication and/or attachment in the offspring of mothers exposed to morphine during adolescence. Offspring of morphine-exposed (Mor-F1), saline-exposed (Sal-F1), or non-handled control (Con-F1) female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested for separation-induced distress calls and maternal potentiation of distress calls during early postnatal development. We also examined relative expression of dopamine D2 receptor and mu opioid receptor (oprm1) mRNA in the nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus in these offspring, as their activity has been implicated in the regulation of postnatal USV in response to maternal separation. The findings indicate that adolescent experiences of future mothers, including their 10 daily saline or morphine injections, can result in significant region-specific differences in gene expression. In addition, these experiences resulted in fewer numbers of separation-induced distress calls produced by offspring. In contrast, augmented maternal potentiation was only observed in Mor-F1 offspring. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:714-723, 2016. PMID:26999300

  11. Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Mice During Exploratory Behavior are Context-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Mun, Ho-Suk; Lipina, Tatiana V; Roder, John C

    2015-01-01

    While rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are known to vary with anticipation of an aversive vs. positive stimulus, little is known about USVs in adult mice in relation to behaviors. We recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice under different environmental conditions by exposing mice to both novel and familiar environments that varied in stress intensity through the addition of bright light or shallow water. In general, mouse USVs were significantly more frequent and of longer duration in novel environments. Particularly, mice in dimly-lit novel environments performed more USVs while exhibiting unsupported rearing and walking behavior, and these calls were mostly at high frequency. In contrast, mice exhibited more low frequency USVs when engaging in supported rearing behavior in novel environments. These findings are consistent with data from rats suggesting that low-frequency calls are made under aversive conditions and high-frequency calls occur in non-stressful conditions. Our findings increase understanding of acoustic signals associated with exploratory behaviors relevant to cognitive and motivational aspects of behavior. PMID:26696847

  12. Discrimination of partial from whole ultrasonic vocalizations using a go/no-go task in mice

    PubMed Central

    Holfoth, David P.; Neilans, Erikson G.; Dent, Micheal L.

    2014-01-01

    Mice are a commonly used model in hearing research, yet little is known about how they perceive conspecific ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Humans and birds can distinguish partial versions of a communication signal, and discrimination is superior when the beginning of the signal is present compared to the end of the signal. Since these effects occur in both humans and birds, it was hypothesized that mice would display similar facilitative effects with the initial portions of their USVs. Laboratory mice were tested on a discrimination task using operant conditioning procedures. The mice were required to discriminate incomplete versions of a USV target from a repeating background containing the whole USV. The results showed that the mice had difficulty discriminating incomplete USVs from whole USVs, especially when the beginning of the USVs were presented. This finding suggests that the mice perceive the initial portions of a USV as more similar to the whole USV than the latter parts of the USV, similar to results from humans and birds. PMID:25480084

  13. Determining Ultrasonic Vocalization Preferences in Mice using a Two-choice Playback Test.

    PubMed

    Asaba, Akari; Kato, Masahiro; Koshida, Nobuyoshi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    Mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during a variety of conditions, such as pup isolation and adult social interactions. These USVs differ with age, sex, condition, and genetic background of the emitting animal. Although many studies have characterized these differences, whether receiver mice can discriminate among objectively different USVs and show preferences for particular sound traits remains to be elucidated. To determine whether mice can discriminate between different characteristics of USVs, a playback experiment was developed recently, in which preference responses of mice to two different USVs could be evaluated in the form of a place preference. First, USVs from mice were recorded. Then, the recorded USVs were edited, trimmed accordingly, and exported as stereophonic sound files. Next, the USV amplitudes generated by the two ultrasound emitters used in the experiment were adjusted to the same sound pressure level. Nanocrystalline silicon thermo-acoustic emitters were used to play the USVs back. Finally, to investigate the preference of subject mice to selected USVs, pairs of two differing USV signals were played back simultaneously in a two-choice test box. By repeatedly entering a defined zone near an ultrasound emitter and searching the wire mesh in front of the emitter, the mouse reveals its preference for one sound over another. This model allows comparing the attractiveness of the various features of mouse USVs, in various contexts. PMID:26381885

  14. Decreased approach behavior and nucleus accumbens immediate early gene expression in response to Parkinsonian ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.

    PubMed

    Pultorak, Joshua D; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Holt, Lauren R; Blue, Katherine V; Ciucci, Michelle R; Johnson, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Many individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) have difficulty producing normal speech and voice, resulting in problems with interpersonal communication and reduced quality of life. Translational animal models of communicative dysfunction have been developed to assess disease pathology. However, it is unknown whether acoustic feature changes associated with vocal production deficits in these animal models lead to compromised communication. In rodents, male ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have a well-established role in functional inter-sexual communication. To test whether acoustic deficits in USVs observed in a PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) knockout (KO) PD rat model compromise communication, we presented recordings of male PINK1 KO USVs and normal wild-type (WT) USVs to female rat listeners. We measured approached behavior and immediate early gene expression (c-Fos) in brain regions implicated in auditory processing and sexual motivation. Our results suggest that females show reduced approach in response to PINK1 KO USVs compared with WT. Moreover, females exposed to PINK1 KO USVs had lower c-Fos immunolabeling in the nucleus accumbens, a region implicated in sexual motivation. These results are the first to demonstrate that vocalization deficits in a rat PD model result in compromised communication. Thus, the PINK1 KO PD model may be valuable for assessing treatments aimed at restoring vocal communicative function. PMID:26313334

  15. Environmental and Pharmacological Modulation of Amphetamine-Induced 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rippberger, Henrike; van Gaalen, Marcel M.; Schwarting, Rainer K.W.; WÖhr, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Rats emit high-frequency 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in appetitive situations like social interactions. Drugs of abuse are probably the most potent non-social elicitors of 50-kHz USV, possibly reflecting their euphorigenic properties. Psychostimulants induce the strongest elevation in 50-kHz USV emission, particularly amphetamine (AMPH), either when applied systemically or locally into the nucleus accumbens (Nacc). Emission of AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV depends on test context, such as the presence of conspecifics, and can be manipulated pharmacologically by targeting major neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT), but also protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. Several D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, as well as typical and atypical antipsychotics block the AMPH-induced elevation in 50-kHz USV. Inhibiting D1 and D2 receptors in the Nacc abolishes AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV, indicating a key role for this brain area. NA neurotransmission also regulates AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV emission given that α1 receptor antagonists and α2 receptor agonists exert attenuating effects. Supporting the involvement of the 5-HT system, AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV are attenuated by 5-HT2C receptor activation, whereas 5-HT2C receptor antagonism leads to the opposite effect. Finally, treatment with lithium, tamoxifen, and myricitrin was all found to result in a complete abolishment of the AMPH-induced increase in 50-kHz USV, suggesting the involvement of PKC signaling. Neurotransmitter systems involved in AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV emission only partially overlap with other AMPH-induced behaviors like hyperlocomotion. The validity of AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV as a preclinical model for neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed, particularly with relevance to altered drive and mood seen in bipolar disorder. PMID:26411764

  16. Attribution and expression of incentive salience are differentially signaled by ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Juan C; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2014-01-01

    During Pavlovian incentive learning, the affective properties of rewards are thought to be transferred to their predicting cues. However, how rewards are represented emotionally in animals is widely unknown. This study sought to determine whether 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats may signal such a state of incentive motivation to natural, nutritional rewards. To this end, rats learned to anticipate food rewards and, across experiments, the current physiological state (deprived vs. sated), the type of learning mechanism recruited (Pavlovian vs. instrumental), the hedonic properties of UCS (low vs. high palatable food), and the availability of food reward (continued vs. discontinued) were manipulated. Overall, we found that reward-cues elicited 50-kHz calls as they were signaling a putative affective state indicative of incentive motivation in the rat. Attribution and expression of incentive salience, however, seemed not to be an unified process, and could be teased apart in two different ways: 1) under high motivational state (i.e., hunger), the attribution of incentive salience to cues occurred without being expressed at the USVs level, if reward expectations were higher than the outcome; 2) in all experiments when food rewards were devalued by satiation, reward cues were still able to elicit USVs and conditioned anticipatory activity although reward seeking and consumption were drastically weakened. Our results suggest that rats are capable of representing rewards emotionally beyond apparent, immediate physiological demands. These findings may have translational potential in uncovering mechanisms underlying aberrant and persistent motivation as observed in drug addiction, gambling, and eating disorders. PMID:25047234

  17. New insights into the relationship of neurogenesis and affect: tickling induces hippocampal cell proliferation in rats emitting appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Wöhr, M; Kehl, M; Borta, A; Schänzer, A; Schwarting, R K W; Höglinger, G U

    2009-11-10

    Adult hippocampal cell proliferation (HCP) has been associated with psychopathology, especially depression. However, it is controversial whether a constitutively low rate of HCP is a trait predisposing an individual to psychopathology or whether HCP varies with the subject's affective state. We made use of a so-far neglected measure of affect, namely ultrasonic vocalizations, to gain new insights into the relationship of HCP and affect. Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations, which serve as situation-dependent affective signals. In appetitive situations, rats produce 50-kHz-calls, whereas 22-kHz-calls occur in aversive situations. We applied a standardized protocol of repeated tickling and assessed tickling-induced ultrasonic vocalizations as an index of the animals affect. Stereological quantifications of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and proliferating-cells-nuclear-antigen (PCNA) immunolabeled cells were used to estimate the rate of cell proliferation in the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The rate of cell proliferation was compared between the groups of tickled vs. non-tickled rats and between subgroups of tickled rats defined by the effect of tickling on ultrasonic vocalizations. Tickling induced ultrasonic vocalizations in a subject-dependent manner. HCP correlated positively with appetitive 50-kHz-calls, but negatively with aversive 22-kHz-calls in individual animals, while cell proliferation in the subventricular zone was not associated with the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations. Repeated tickling did not change HCP in all rats, but increased HCP in the subgroup of rats, which experienced this procedure as appetitive, i.e. in rats emitting high numbers of 50-kHz-calls or low numbers of 22-kHz-calls. Together, these data indicate that the effect of tickling on HCP depends on an interaction between a predisposing trait and stimulation-dependent variations of the subject's affective state

  18. Sexual performance and precontact 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in WAG/Rij rats: effects of opioid receptor treatment.

    PubMed

    Bialy, Michal; Strefnel, Michal; Nikolaev-Diak, Anna; Socha, Anna; Nikolaev, Evgeni; Boguszewski, Pawel M

    2014-10-01

    WAG/Rij rats are genetically selected animals that model absence epilepsy in rats. Ultrasonic vocalizations and sexual behavior - both ethologically relevant markers of reward system functioning - are poorly described in this strain. The aim of our experiment was to investigate reward-dependent precontact 50-kHz vocalizations (PVs) and copulatory behavior as well as the effects of opioid receptor treatment on such behaviors in sexually experienced WAG/Rij males and rats from two control strains: Sprague-Dawley and Crl: Han Wistar. We analyzed the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (3 mg/kg) and the agonist morphine (1 mg/kg) administration. Additionally, we analyzed the initiation of copulation in sexually naïve males before drug treatment. A significantly lower number of sexually naïve WAG/Rij rats initiated copulation. Sexually experienced WAG/Rij males differed at the control session (after physiological saline treatment) compared with Sprague-Dawley rats: WAG/Rij rats displayed more 50-kHz precontact vocalizations and had longer mount and intromission latencies, longer ejaculation latency, longer postejaculatory latency to exploration, longer 22-kHz vocalization duration after ejaculation, and longer postejaculatory intromission latency. Compared with Crl: Han Wistar rats, WAG/Rij males displayed longer mount latency and shorter 22-kHz vocalization duration. Neither naltrexone nor morphine affected PVs in all groups. On the other hand, opioid receptor treatment differently influenced the number of intromissions required to achieve ejaculation and 22-kHz postejaculatory vocalization duration in WAG/Rij rats than in both control groups. This suggests functional differences in the opioid system in this strain. As a result of the number of males that initiated copulation as well as the number of intromissions to ejaculation and 22-kHz postejaculatory vocalizations which all depend on D1 receptor activation, we suggest that the proportion of

  19. Social, thermal, and temporal influences on isolation-induced and maternally potentiated ultrasonic vocalizations of rat pups.

    PubMed

    Shair, Harry N; Brunelli, Susan A; Masmela, Jenny R; Boone, Emilie; Hofer, Myron A

    2003-03-01

    Sensory and temporal factors have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) of young rats. Sensory cues include thermal, olfactory, and tactile modalities. Temporal factors include the time spent in isolation. The goal of the present research was to examine the interaction of these factors in both isolation-induced and maternally potentiated USV. Maternal potentiation of USV occurs when a brief interaction with the dam, even a passive (anesthetized) dam, elicits an augmented vocal response to a subsequent isolation, with rates of USV in rat pups well above those emitted in standard isolation tests. We found that passive maternal potentiation of USV did occur under all conditions tested. Neither a 30-min prior isolation nor high ambient temperature prevented an increase in USV rate over the rate of the original isolation. After 30-min isolation at warm temperatures when the rate of USV had fallen to zero, the pups increased vocalization in the presence of the dam as well as in the subsequent isolation. Temporal and thermal factors also interacted significantly in regulating the level of the USV emitted by the pups during the first isolation, in the presence of the anesthetized dam, and during the second isolation. PMID:12555284

  20. Effects of the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia and nicotine on total and categorized ultrasonic vocalizations in rats.

    PubMed

    Swalve, Natashia; Mulholland, Michele M; Schulz, Tiffany D; Li, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia smoke cigarettes at a higher rate than the general population. We hypothesized that a factor in this comorbidity is sensitivity to the reinforcing and reinforcement-enhancement effects of nicotine. Phencyclidine (PCP) was used to model behavioral changes resembling negative symptoms of schizophrenia in rats. Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in rats have been used to measure emotional states, with 50 kHz USVs indicating positive states and 22 kHz USVs indicating negative states. Total and categorized numbers of 22 and 50 kHz USVs and USVs during a visual stimulus (e.g. a potential measure of reinforcement-enhancement) were examined in rats following injection of PCP (2.0 mg/kg) and/or nicotine (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. PCP was then discontinued and all rats received nicotine (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) and PCP (2.0 mg/kg) on three challenge days. PCP acutely decreased 50 kHz vocalizations, whereas repeated nicotine potentiated rates of vocalizations, with similar patterns during light presentations. Rats in the PCP and nicotine combination groups made more 50 kHz vocalizations compared with rats in the control groups on challenge days. We conclude that PCP may produce a reward deficit, which is shown by decreased 50 kHz USVs, and behaviors post-PCP exposure may best model the comorbidity between schizophrenia and nicotine. PMID:26479849

  1. Absence of deficits in social behaviors and ultrasonic vocalizations in later generations of mice lacking neuroligin4

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A. M.; Woldeyohannes, L.; Silverman, J. L.; Leblond, C. S.; Faure, P.; Torquet, N.; Le Sourd, A.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in NLGN4X have been identified in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and other neurodevelopmental disorders. A previous study reported that adult male mice lacking neuroligin4 (Nlgn4) displayed social approach deficits in the three-chambered test, altered aggressive behaviors and reduced ultrasonic vocalizations. To replicate and extend these findings, independent comprehensive analyses of autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes were conducted in later generations of the same line of Nlgn4 mutant mice at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, MD, USA and at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, France. Adult social approach was normal in all three genotypes of Nlgn4 mice tested at both sites. Reciprocal social interactions in juveniles were similarly normal across genotypes. No genotype differences were detected in ultrasonic vocalizations in pups separated from the nest or in adults during reciprocal social interactions. Anxiety-like behaviors, self-grooming, rotarod and open field exploration did not differ across genotypes, and measures of developmental milestones and general health were normal. Our findings indicate an absence of autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes in subsequent generations of Nlgn4 mice tested at two locations. Testing environment and methods differed from the original study in some aspects, although the presence of normal sociability was seen in all genotypes when methods taken from Jamain et al. (2008) were used. The divergent results obtained from this study indicate that phenotypes may not be replicable across breeding generations, and highlight the significant roles of environmental, generational and/or procedural factors on behavioral phenotypes. PMID:22989184

  2. Ultrasonic vocalization ratios reflect the influence of motivational state and amygdala lesions on different types of taste avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Hamdani, Selma; White, Norman M

    2011-02-01

    Consumption of a sweet solution (the CS) and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by rats were recorded in a conditioned taste avoidance paradigm. The rats' affective states were inferred from a ratio of high to low-frequency ultrasonic calls, which have been associated with positive and negative affect, respectively. The interacting effects of deprivation state and lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) on CS consumption and affective state were examined. Rats were trained during the light phase while either 23 h or 3h water deprived by exposing them to the CS and then injecting them with LiCl or saline. They were tested by re-exposing them to the CS while either 23 or 3h deprived. Sham-lesioned rats that received LiCl injections consumed significantly less of the CS and evidenced relatively negative affect (inferred from the USV ratio) compared to control rats that received saline injections, regardless of the deprivation state in which they were trained or tested. Rats with BLA lesions trained while 23 h deprived failed to exhibit either reduced consumption or negative affect, regardless of whether they were tested while deprived for 23 or 3h. Identical lesions had no effect on reduced consumption or on negative affect in rats trained while 3h deprived, regardless of whether they were tested while deprived for 3 or 23 h. The findings suggest that both reduced consumption and negative affect are the results of different learning processes in deprived (23 h) and nearly satiated (3h, during the light phase) rats. The amygdala-dependent negative affective shift observed in deprived rats may be due to an aversive Pavlovian conditioned response that acts to suppress drinking. The amygdala-independent negative affective response and reduced consumption in nearly satiated rats could be due to a form of latent learning of a stimulus-outcome association. PMID:20888864

  3. Rats selectively bred for low levels of 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations exhibit alterations in early social motivation.

    PubMed

    Harmon, K M; Cromwell, H C; Burgdorf, J; Moskal, J R; Brudzynski, S M; Kroes, R A; Panksepp, J

    2008-05-01

    In rats, the rates of 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) can be used as a selective breeding phenotype and variations in this phenotype can be an indicator of affective states. The 50 kHz USV is elicited by rewarding stimuli (e.g., food, sexual behavior) and therefore can express a positive affective state. Conversely, the 22 kHz USV is elicited by aversive stimuli (e.g., presence of a predator, social defeat) indicating a negative affective state. In the present study, we tested the effect of selectively breeding for 50 kHz USVs on a variety of maternal social/emotional behaviors in young rat pups (PND 10-12). These measures consisted of an assessment of isolation calls and conditioned odor preference paradigm. Results indicate that animals selected for low levels of 50 kHz USVs show the greatest alterations in social behaviors compared to the control animals. The low line animals had an increase in isolation calls tested during place preference conditioning and a decrease in 50 kHz ultrasonic calls in all conditions. These same low line animals failed to show a typical preference for a maternally-associated odor during the place preference test. The different social behaviors of the high line animals did not consistently vary from those of the control group. These results have important implications for the study of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying emotional states, and possibly contribute to the research underlying the emotional changes in developmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder by providing a novel animal model that displays communication deficits that are interdependent with significant social behavioral impairments. PMID:18393285

  4. The effects of social experience and gonadal hormones on retrieving behavior of mice and their responses to pup ultrasonic vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Shota; Nagasawa, Miho; Kihara, Takashi; Kato, Masahiro; Harada, Toshihiro; Koshida, Nobuyoshi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2010-10-01

    Pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are emitted from maternally separated pups and are thought to be a trigger for eliciting maternal behavior in mice. We investigated the effects of social experience and gonadectomy on the retrieving behavior of mice and their responses to pup USVs produced by a nanocrystalline silicon thermo-acoustic emitter. In each experiment, virgin, gonadectomized, sham-operated, sexually experienced, and parenting mice of both sexes were used, and the effects of these manipulations were compared in each sex. The retrieving behavior of both sexes increased with social experience or gonadectomy. In particular, mothers showed the highest retrieving activity among female groups, while castrated male mice showed the highest retrieving activity among male groups. All groups of female mice responded to pup USVs, with the responsiveness of sexually experienced female mice being the most enhanced. Unlike the females, virgin male mice did not respond to pup USVs, although socially experienced or castrated males showed this response; fathers exhibited the highest responsiveness. These results suggest that not only parenting experience, but also mating experience, may enhance retrieving activity and response to pup USVs in mice of both sexes. Nevertheless, the degree to which parenting experience contributed to the enhancement of both activities differed between the sexes. Furthermore, gonadectomy enhanced both activities in both sexes, although its effect was more prominent in males. Overall, our findings suggest that alteration in responsiveness of mice to pup USVs might be one of the changes in parental behavior caused by social experiences or gonadal hormones. PMID:20887176

  5. Flibanserin has anxiolytic effects without locomotor side effects in the infant rat ultrasonic vocalization model of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Podhorna, J; Brown, R E

    2000-01-01

    This study compared the effects of flibanserin, a novel 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2A antagonist; diazepam, a traditional anxiolytic; and imipramine, a traditional antidepressant, on separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), locomotor behaviour, negative geotaxis and body temperature of 7–8-day-old rat pups.Flibanserin (5, 10, 25 and 50 mg kg−1 s.c.) reduced USVs but had no effects on locomotor behaviour or negative geotaxis. Lower doses of flibanserin (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg kg−1 s.c.) had no effect on any behaviour. Diazepam (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg kg−1 s.c.) not only reduced the USVs but also increased rolling and increased the latency of the negative geotaxic response. Imipramine (10, 15, 20 and 30 mg kg−1 s.c.) reduced USVs, increased total locomotor activity and rolling but had no effect on negative geotaxis. None of the drugs altered body temperature.Our data showed that flibanserin is as effective in reducing the USVs as diazepam and imipramine but has a lower incidence of motor side effects. This suggests that flibanserin might be effective for the treatment of mood disturbances such as anxiety. PMID:10864879

  6. Ultrasonic vocalizations during intermittent swim stress forecasts resilience in a subsequent juvenile social exploration test of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Nathaniel P; Jones, Adele M; Drugan, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Current behavioral paradigms of stress resilience traditionally employ forms of prior manipulation or subsequent testing. Recent work has reported adult rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted during intermittent swim stress (ISS) may serve as a predictor of resilience. ISS-induced USVs predicted resilience on several endpoints of behavioral depression and may be considered a forecast of innate resilience. However, a potential problem for these previous findings is the lack of generalizability to other contexts, because both the stress induction and post-stress testing occur in water. The current study tests the generalizability of USVs as a predictor of stress resilience in a non-water-based post-test, the juvenile social exploration test of anxiety. The results provide further support that USVs emitted during ISS predict resilience to depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Extensions of this work to examine the neurobiology of innate resilience associated with ISS-induced USVs are discussed with comparisons to extant models of learned resilience. PMID:25823762

  7. Ultrasonic Vocalizations as a Measure of Affect in Preclinical Models of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Findings.

    PubMed

    Barker, David J; Simmons, Steven J; West, Mark O

    2015-01-01

    The present review describes ways in which ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) have been used in studies of substance abuse. Accordingly, studies are reviewed which demonstrate roles for affective processing in response to the presentation of drug-related cues, experimenter- and self-administered drug, drug withdrawal, and during tests of relapse/reinstatement. The review focuses on data collected from studies using cocaine and amphetamine, where a large body of evidence has been collected. Data suggest that USVs capture animals' initial positive reactions to psychostimulant administration and are capable of identifying individual differences in affective responding. Moreover, USVs have been used to demonstrate that positive affect becomes sensitized to psychostimulants over acute exposure before eventually exhibiting signs of tolerance. In the drug-dependent animal, a mixture of USVs suggesting positive and negative affect is observed, illustrating mixed responses to psychostimulants. This mixture is predominantly characterized by an initial bout of positive affect followed by an opponent negative emotional state, mirroring affective responses observed in human addicts. During drug withdrawal, USVs demonstrate the presence of negative affective withdrawal symptoms. Finally, it has been shown that drug-paired cues produce a learned, positive anticipatory response during training, and that presentation of drug-paired cues following abstinence produces both positive affect and reinstatement behavior. Thus, USVs are a useful tool for obtaining an objective measurement of affective states in animal models of substance abuse and can increase the information extracted from drug administration studies. USVs enable detection of subtle differences in a behavioral response that might otherwise be missed using traditional measures. PMID:26411762

  8. Non-parametric analysis of neurochemical effects and Arc expression in amphetamine-induced 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalization.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Adam; Daszczuk, Patrycja; Kursa, Miron Bartosz; Turzyńska, Danuta; Sobolewska, Alicja; Lehner, Małgorzata; Boguszewski, Paweł M; Szyndler, Janusz

    2016-10-01

    A number of studies have identified the importance of dopaminergic, opioid, serotonergic, noradrenergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in amphetamine-induced "50-kHz" ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Amphetamine became a topic of interest for many researchers interested in USVs due to its ability to induce 50-kHz USVs. To date, it has been difficult to identify the neurotransmitters responsible for this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine the following: (i) concentrations of neurotransmitters in selected structures of the rat brain after re-exposure of the rats to amphetamine administration; (ii) changes in Arc in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, nucleus accumbens core and shell, hippocampus, amygdala and ventral tegmental area; and (iii) a biological basis for differences in 50-kHz USV emissions in response to amphetamine administration. Re-exposure to amphetamine increased 50-kHz USVs. This parameter do not correlate with distance covered by the investigated animals. An increased concentration of noradrenaline in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) strongly correlated with the number of 50-kHz USVs. We found that NAcc noradrenaline concentrations negatively correlated with the concentration of dopamine and dopamine metabolites and positively correlated with the concentration of GABA and 5-HIAA (serotonin metabolite) in this structure. We have also identified a positive correlation between striatal 3-MT (dopamine metabolite) concentrations and Arc expression in the hippocampal DG as well as a negative correlation between the concentration of GABA in the amygdala and Arc expression in the central amygdala. Thus, the relationship between the emission of 50-kHz USVs and the neurochemical changes that occur after re-exposure to amphetamine indicates cross-talk between NA, DA, 5-HT and GABA neurotransmission in the NAcc. PMID:27288591

  9. Male fidelity expressed through rapid testosterone suppression of ultrasonic vocalizations to novel females in the monogamous California mouse.

    PubMed

    Pultorak, Joshua D; Fuxjager, Matthew J; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C; Marler, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone (T) is a well-known mediator of male sexual behavior in vertebrates. However, less is known about T's rapid effects on sexual behavior, particularly those involving ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), a mode of communication that can influence mate acquisition in rodents. Using the monogamous California mouse, Peromyscus californicus, we tested whether T rapidly alters male USV production by giving T or saline injections to non-paired (sexually naïve) males and paired (paternally experienced and pair-bonded) males immediately prior to a brief exposure to an unrelated, novel female. Among non-paired males, no differences in the total number of USVs were observed; however, T increased the proportion of simple sweeps produced. Among paired males, T decreased the number of USVs produced, and this change was driven by a reduction in simple sweeps. These results suggest a differential rapid effect of T pulses between non-paired and paired males upon exposure to a novel female. Additionally, we observed a positive correlation in the production of USVs made between males and novel females, and this relationship was altered by T. Given the importance of USVs in sexual communication, our study supports an essential concept of monogamy in that mate fidelity is reinforced by decreased responsiveness to prospective mates outside of the pair bond. The central mechanism in pair bonded males that decreases their responsiveness to novel females appears to be one that T can trigger. This is among the first studies to demonstrate that T can inhibit sexually related behaviors and do so rapidly. PMID:25725427

  10. The Effects of Electrical and Optical Stimulation of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons on Rat 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Scardochio, Tina; Trujillo-Pisanty, Ivan; Conover, Kent; Shizgal, Peter; Clarke, Paul B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Adult rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) at around 50-kHz; these commonly occur in contexts that putatively engender positive affect. While several reports indicate that dopaminergic (DAergic) transmission plays a role in the emission of 50-kHz calls, the pharmacological evidence is mixed. Different modes of dopamine (DA) release (i.e., tonic and phasic) could potentially explain this discrepancy. Objective: To investigate the potential role of phasic DA release in 50-kHz call emission. Methods: In Experiment 1, USVs were recorded in adult male rats following unexpected electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In parallel, phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was recorded using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. In Experiment 2, USVs were recorded following response-contingent or non-contingent optogenetic stimulation of midbrain DAergic neurons. Four 20-s schedules of optogenetic stimulation were used: fixed-interval, fixed-time, variable-interval, and variable-time. Results: Brief electrical stimulation of the MFB increased both 50-kHz call rate and phasic DA release in the NAcc. During optogenetic stimulation sessions, rats initially called at a high rate comparable to that observed following reinforcers such as psychostimulants. Although optogenetic stimulation maintained reinforced responding throughout the 2-h session, the call rate declined to near zero within the first 30 min. The trill call subtype predominated following both electrical and optical stimulation. Conclusion: The occurrence of electrically-evoked 50-kHz calls, time-locked to phasic DA (Experiment 1), provides correlational evidence supporting a role for phasic DA in USV production. However, in Experiment 2, the temporal dissociation between calling and optogenetic stimulation of midbrain DAergic neurons suggests that phasic mesolimbic DA release is not sufficient to produce 50-kHz calls. The emission of the trill subtype of 50-kHz calls

  11. Emotion and relative reward processing: An investigation on instrumental successive negative contrast and ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Binkley, K. A.; Webber, E.S.; Powers, D.D.; Cromwell, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Incentive contrast effects include changes in behavioral responses after a reward upshift (positive contrast) or downshift (negative contrast). Proposed influences on these behavioral changes are emotional state reactions after experiencing or anticipating a change in reward outcome. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations have been shown to be indicators of emotional state during behavior and anticipatory periods. The objective of the present study was to monitor rodent ultrasounds during incentive contrast using a classical runway procedure called instrumental successive negative contrast. The procedure is one that has been used often to examine incentive relativity because of its reliability in measuring negative contrast effects. Rats were trained to run in the alleyway to receive a high (12 pellets) or low magnitude (1 pellet) outcome. The high magnitude was then shifted to the low and running speeds in the alleyway for the reward and USV emission were compared. Replicating previous work, a negative contrast effect was observed with postshift running speeds significantly slower in the shifted group compared to the unshifted group. USVs did not follow the same pattern with an apparent lack of significant differences between the groups following the reward downshift. We also tested another group of animals using a visual predictive cue in the same runway test. When visual cues predicted high or low magnitude outcome, no incentive contrast was found for the running speeds following an outcome downshift, but a weak contrast effect was observed for the USV emission. These results demonstrate a separation between USVs and behavioral indicators of incentive contrast suggesting that concomitant shifts in negative affect may not be necessary for anticipatory relative reward processes. PMID:25150068

  12. Adult Male Mice Emit Context-Specific Ultrasonic Vocalizations That Are Modulated by Prior Isolation or Group Rearing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ey, Elodie; Bellier, Ludovic; Aubin, Thierry; Bourgeron, Thomas; Granon, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions in mice are frequently analysed in genetically modified strains in order to get insight of disorders affecting social interactions such as autism spectrum disorders. Different types of social interactions have been described, mostly between females and pups, and between adult males and females. However, we recently showed that social interactions between adult males could also encompass cognitive and motivational features. During social interactions, rodents emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), but it remains unknown if call types are differently used depending of the context and if they are correlated with motivational state. Here, we recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice in various behavioral conditions, such as social interaction, novelty exploration and restraint stress. We introduced a modulator for the motivational state by comparing males maintained in isolation and males maintained in groups before the experiments. Male mice uttered USVs in all social and non-social situations, and even in a stressful restraint context. They nevertheless emitted the most important number of calls with the largest diversity of call types in social interactions, particularly when showing a high motivation for social contact. For mice maintained in social isolation, the number of calls recorded was positively correlated with the duration of social contacts, and most calls were uttered during contacts between the two mice. This correlation was not observed in mice maintained in groups. These results open the way for a deeper understanding and characterization of acoustic signals associated with social interactions. They can also help evaluating the role of motivational states in the emission of acoustic signals. PMID:22238608

  13. Ultrasonic vocalizations during male-female interaction in the mouse model of Down syndrome Ts65Dn.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Bruna L; Fernandez, Fabian; Pearson, Jennifer N; Stasko, Melissa R; Costa, Alberto C S

    2014-04-10

    Down syndrome (DS) is the leading cause of genetically defined intellectual disability. Although speech and language impairments are salient features of this disorder, the nature of these phenotypes and the degree to which they are exacerbated by concomitant oromotor dysfunction and/or hearing deficit are poorly understood. Mouse models like Ts65Dn, the most extensively used DS animal model, have been critical to understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms that contribute to intellectual disability. In the present study, we characterized the properties of the ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by Ts65Dn males during courtship episodes with female partners. USVs emitted by mice in this setting have been proposed to have some basic correlation to human speech. Data were collected and analyzed from 22 Ts65Dn mice and 22 of their euploid littermates. We found that both the minimum and maximum peak frequencies of Ts65Dn calls were lower than those produced by euploid mice, whereas the mean individual duration of "down" and "complex" syllable types was significantly longer. Peak, minimal and maximal, and the fundamental frequencies of short syllables generated by Ts65Dn mice were lower compared to those by euploid mice. Finally, Ts65Dn males made fewer multiple jumps calls during courtship and the mean total duration of their "arc", "u", and "complex" syllables was longer. We discuss the human correlates to these findings, their translational potential, and the limitations of this approach. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of differences between adult Ts65Dn and euploid control mice with respect to USVs. PMID:24534182

  14. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A

    2007-09-01

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation. PMID:17543397

  15. Acute, but not repeated, administration of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 decreases conditioned footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Prus, Adam J.; Hillhouse, Todd M.; LaCrosse, Amber L.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin is an endogenous neuropeptide that has significant interactions with monoamine neurotransmitter systems. To date, neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonists, such as PD149163, have been primarily evaluated for the treatment for schizophrenia, drug addiction, and pain. Recently, PD149163 was found to attenuate fear-potentiated startle in rats, an experimental procedure used for screening anxiolytic drugs. The present study sought to extend these findings through testing PD149163 in a conditioned footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) model. Conditioning was conducted in Male Wistar rats using chambers equipped with shock grid floors and an ultrasonic vocalization detector. PD149163 and the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist buspirone produced a statistically significant reduction of 22 kHz USV counts. The typical antipsychotic haloperidol also reduced 22 kHz USV counts, but did so at cataleptic doses. Ten days of repeated administration of PD149163 abolished the inhibitory effects of PD149163 on 22 kHz USVs. These findings further support an anxiolytic profile for PD149163. However, tolerance to these effects may limit the utility of these drugs for the treatment of anxiety. PMID:24275076

  16. Effects of maternal deprivation and the duration of reunion time on rat pup ultrasonic vocalization responses to isolation: possible implications for human infant studies.

    PubMed

    Shair, Harry N; Rupert, Deborah D; Rosko, Lauren M; Hofer, Myron A; Myers, Michael M; Welch, Martha G

    2015-01-01

    In a paradigm that may serve as a translational model for maternal separation experiences of human infants in neonatal intensive care units, we examined how the duration of reunion with the dam influenced the phenomenon of maternal potentiation of ultrasonic vocalizations, in which isolated rat pups increase rates of vocalization following brief interactions with dams. We report that maternal potentiation in 12-13 day-old rats did not occur after reunions with their anesthetized dam that lasted longer than 15-min. However, after 18 hr maternal separation, isolated pups given reunions with their anesthetized dam increased vocalization rate even with reunions as long as 3 hr. Using a split-cage apparatus that prevented physical contact, the impact of 18 hr separations on maternal potentiation was partially offset by experiencing olfactory and/or auditory stimuli of the mother. These results suggest that maintaining partial maternal sensory exposure during prolonged maternal separation can reduce responses elicited by subsequent maternal separation. PMID:25380197

  17. Involvement of Glutamate NMDA Receptors in the Acute, Long-Term, and Conditioned Effects of Amphetamine on Rat 50kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Giulia; Morelli, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in response to either natural or pharmacological pleasurable stimuli, and these USVs have emerged as a new behavioral measure for investigating the motivational properties of drugs. Earlier studies have indicated that activation of the dopaminergic system is critically involved in 50kHz USV emissions. However, evidence also exists that non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters participate in this behavioral response. Methods: To ascertain whether glutamate transmission plays a role in 50kHz USV emissions stimulated by amphetamine, rats received five amphetamine (1–2mg/kg, i.p.) administrations on alternate days in a test cage, either alone or combined with the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1–0.5mg/kg, i.p.). Seven days after treatment discontinuation, rats were re-exposed to the test cage to assess drug conditioning, and afterwards received a drug challenge. USVs and locomotor activity were evaluated, along with immunofluorescence for Zif-268 in various brain regions and spontaneous alternation in a Y maze. Results: Amphetamine-treated rats displayed higher 50kHz USV emissions and locomotor activity than vehicle-treated rats, and emitted conditioned vocalizations on test cage re-exposure. Rats co-administered amphetamine and MK-801 displayed lower and dose-dependent 50kHz USV emissions, but not lower locomotor activity, during repeated treatment and challenge, and scarce conditioned vocalization compared with amphetamine-treated rats. These effects were associated with lower levels of Zif-268 after amphetamine challenge and spontaneous alternation deficits. Conclusions: These results indicate that glutamate transmission participates in the acute, long-term, and conditioned effects of amphetamine on 50kHz USVs, possibly by influencing amphetamine-induced long-term neuronal changes and/or amphetamine-associated memories. PMID:25991653

  18. Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. E.; Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is discussed as a primary means of nondestructive evaluation of subsurface flaws. The advantages and disadvantages are listed. The elementary principles, basic components of test units, scan modes, resonance testing, detection of fatigue cracks, monitoring fatigue crack growth, and determination of residual stress are discussed.

  19. Phasic Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens in Response to Pro-Social 50 kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tose, Amanda; Wanat, Matthew J.; Hart, Andrew S.; Hollon, Nick G.; Phillips, Paul E.M.; Schwarting, Rainer K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) that are thought to serve as situation-dependent affective signals and accomplish important communicative functions. In appetitive situations, rats produce 50 kHz USVs, whereas 22 kHz USVs occur in aversive situations. Reception of 50 kHz USVs induces social approach behavior, while 22 kHz USVs lead to freezing behavior. These opposite behavioral responses are paralleled by distinct brain activation patterns, with 50 kHz USVs, but not 22 kHz USVs, activating neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The NAcc mediates appetitive behavior and is critically modulated by dopaminergic afferents that are known to encode the value of reward. Therefore, we hypothesized that 50 kHz USVs, but not 22 kHz USVs, elicit NAcc dopamine release. While recording dopamine signaling with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, freely moving rats were exposed to playback of four acoustic stimuli via an ultrasonic speaker in random order: (1) 50 kHz USVs, (2) 22 kHz USVs, (3) time- and amplitude-matched white noise, and (4) background noise. Only presentation of 50 kHz USVs induced phasic dopamine release and elicited approach behavior toward the speaker. Both of these effects, neurochemical and behavioral, were most pronounced during initial playback, but then declined rapidly with subsequent presentations, indicating a close temporal relationship between the two measures. Moreover, the magnitudes of these effects during initial playback were significantly correlated. Collectively, our findings show that NAcc dopamine release encodes pro-social 50 kHz USVs, but not alarming 22 kHz USVs. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that these call types are processed in distinct neuroanatomical regions and establish a functional link between pro-social communicative signals and reward-related neurotransmission. PMID:25100595

  20. Effects of the Female Estrous Cycle on the Sexual Behaviors and Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male C57BL/6 and Autistic BTBR T+ tf/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyopil; Son, Junehee; Yoo, Hyoungseob; Kim, Hakyoo; Oh, Jihae; Han, DaeHee; Hwang, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    A primary characteristic of autism, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder, is impaired social interaction and communication. Furthermore, patients with autism frequently show abnormal social recognition. In mouse models of autism, social recognition is usually assessed by examining same-sex social behavior using various tests, such as the three-chamber test. However, no studies have examined the ability of male mice with autism to recognize the estrous cycle of female partners. In this study, we investigated the sexual behaviors, especially mounting and ultrasonic vocal communication (USV), of BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mice, which are used as a well-known mouse model of autism, when they encountered estrus or diestrus female mice. As expected, C57BL/6 mice mounted more female mice in the estrus stage compared with the diestrus stage. We found that BTBR mice also mounted more female mice in the estrus stage than female mice in the diestrus stage. Although the USV emission of male mice was not different between estrus and diestrus female mice in both strains, the mounting result implies that BTBR mice distinguish sexual receptivity of females. PMID:27574482

  1. A cholecystokinin receptor antagonist blocks milk-induced but not maternal-contact-induced decrease of ultrasonic vocalization in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Weller, A; Gispan, I H

    2000-07-01

    The role of cholecystokinin (CCK) in reducing separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) was examined by peripheral administration (of the selective CCK(A) receptor antagonist devazepide to 10-11-day-old rats. Pups placed alone for 2 min emitted a mean of 55.1 USV/min. When placed on a paper towel wet with warm, sweet milk, USV rate decreased to 23.2/min for the following 8 min. Devazepide (150-600 microg/kg IP) prevented this USV reduction, but did not increase feeding. In contrast, USV reduction produced by contact with the anesthetized dam was not affected by devazepide. Similarly, the opiate antagonist naltrexone (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg) has been shown to block morphine-induced USV decrease in pups away from the dam, but was ineffective when USV reduction was induced by the presence of the dam (Blass et al., 1990; Carden & Hofer, 1990). The current findings suggest that CCK's role is specific, in that it mediates milk- but not dam-induced quieting of USV. The results, however, are not incompatible with the possibility that CCK and opioids are part of multiple, redundant pathways that mediate the quieting of USV by the dam. PMID:10937659

  2. Effects of the Female Estrous Cycle on the Sexual Behaviors and Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male C57BL/6 and Autistic BTBR T+ tf/J Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyopil; Son, Junehee; Yoo, Hyoungseob; Kim, Hakyoo; Oh, Jihae; Han, DaeHee; Hwang, Yoon; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-08-01

    A primary characteristic of autism, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder, is impaired social interaction and communication. Furthermore, patients with autism frequently show abnormal social recognition. In mouse models of autism, social recognition is usually assessed by examining same-sex social behavior using various tests, such as the three-chamber test. However, no studies have examined the ability of male mice with autism to recognize the estrous cycle of female partners. In this study, we investigated the sexual behaviors, especially mounting and ultrasonic vocal communication (USV), of BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mice, which are used as a well-known mouse model of autism, when they encountered estrus or diestrus female mice. As expected, C57BL/6 mice mounted more female mice in the estrus stage compared with the diestrus stage. We found that BTBR mice also mounted more female mice in the estrus stage than female mice in the diestrus stage. Although the USV emission of male mice was not different between estrus and diestrus female mice in both strains, the mounting result implies that BTBR mice distinguish sexual receptivity of females. PMID:27574482

  3. Effects of acute ethanol administration and chronic stress exposure on social investigation and 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Willey, Amanda R; Spear, Linda P

    2013-04-01

    Adolescents drink largely in social situations, likely in an attempt to facilitate social interactions. This study sought to examine alterations in the incentive salience of a social stimulus following repeated stress exposure and acute ethanol administration in adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects were either exposed to 5days of restraint stress, chronic variable stress (CVS), which consisted of a different stressor every day, or non-stressed. On test day, the animals were injected with 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75g/kg ethanol and placed in a social approach test in which they could see, hear, and smell a social conspecific, but could not physically interact with it. All the animals showed an interest in the social stimulus, with adolescents engaging in more social investigation than adults. Restraint stressed adults showed ethanol-induced increases in social investigation, while ethanol effects were not seen in any other group. An ethanol-associated increase in 50kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) production was only evident in restraint stressed adolescents following 0.75g/kg ethanol. 50kHz USVs were not correlated with time spent investigating the social stimulus in any test condition. These results show that age differences in the facilitatory effects of ethanol on incentive salience of social stimuli are moderated by stress, with the facilitation of social approach by ethanol only evident in restraint stressed adults. PMID:23360955

  4. Effects of ethanol on social approach and 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalization production in adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Willey, Amanda R; Spear, Linda P

    2014-05-01

    Low doses of ethanol have been shown to facilitate social behavior in adolescent rats. The present study sought to investigate whether this ethanol effect is associated with increases in the incentive salience of social stimuli when assessed via approach behavior toward a peer (separated from the experimental animal by a mesh barrier) and 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) production in that context. A 0.5 g/kg ethanol dose was found to increase social approach/investigation of adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats during the first 5 min of the 10 min test whereas 50 kHz USV production was elevated by 0.25 g/kg during the last 5 min of testing. 50 kHz USV production and social approach were generally not correlated, indicating a clear dissociation between these measures. This is the first study to demonstrate that ethanol-induced social facilitation in adolescents is associated with an ethanol-induced increase in the incentive salience of social stimuli. PMID:24122618

  5. A Rodent “Self-Report” Measure of Methamphetamine Craving? Rat Ultrasonic Vocalizations During Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, and Reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Stephen V.; Moorman, David E.; Feltenstein, Matthew W.; Cox, Brittney M.; Ogburn, Katelyn B.; Bachar, Michal; McGonigal, Justin T.; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in a variety of contexts, and it is increasingly clear that USVs reflect more complex information than mere positive and negative affect states. We sought to examine USVs in a common model of addiction and relapse, the self-administration/reinstatement paradigm, in order to gain insight into subjective states experienced by rats during various types of methamphetamine seeking. We measured three subtypes of “50kHz” USVs [flats, trills, and non-trill frequency modulated USVs (FMs)], as well as long and short duration “22kHz” USVs, during self-administration and extinction training, and during reinstatement elicited by cues, a methamphetamine prime, cues + prime, or the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. During self-administration and extinction, rats emitted many flats and FMs, (and short duration “22kHz” USVs on day 1 of self-administration), but few trills. In contrast, methamphetamine priming injections potently enhanced FMs and trills, and trill production was correlated with the degree of methamphetamine + cue-elicited reinstatement. Cues alone yielded increases only in flat USVs during reinstatement, though a subset of rats displaying strong cue-induced reinstatement also emitted long duration, aversion-related “22kHz” USVs. Although yohimbine administration caused reinstatement, it did not induce “22kHz” USVs in methamphetamine-experienced or methamphetamine-naïve rats (unlike footshock stress, which did induce long duration “22kHz” USVs). These findings demonstrate heterogeneity of rat USVs emitted during different types of methamphetamine seeking, and highlight their potential usefulness for gaining insight into the subjective states of rats in rodent models of drug addiction and relapse. PMID:22940018

  6. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Induced by Sex and Amphetamine in M2, M4, M5 Muscarinic and D2 Dopamine Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haoran; Liang, Shuyin; Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Wess, Jurgen; Yeomans, John

    2008-01-01

    Adult mice communicate by emitting ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during the appetitive phases of sexual behavior. However, little is known about the genes important in controlling call production. Here, we study the induction and regulation of USVs in muscarinic and dopaminergic receptor knockout (KO) mice as well as wild-type controls during sexual behavior. Female mouse urine, but not female rat or human urine, induced USVs in male mice, whereas male urine did not induce USVs in females. Direct contact of males with females is required for eliciting high level of USVs in males. USVs (25 to120 kHz) were emitted only by males, suggesting positive state; however human-audible squeaks were produced only by females, implying negative state during male-female pairing. USVs were divided into flat and frequency-modulated calls. Male USVs often changed from continuous to broken frequency-modulated calls after initiation of mounting. In M2 KO mice, USVs were lost in about 70–80% of the mice, correlating with a loss of sexual interaction. In M5 KO mice, mean USVs were reduced by almost 80% even though sexual interaction was vigorous. In D2 KOs, the duration of USVs was extended by 20%. In M4 KOs, no significant differences were observed. Amphetamine dose-dependently induced USVs in wild-type males (most at 0.5 mg/kg i.p.), but did not elicit USVs in M5 KO or female mice. These studies suggest that M2 and M5 muscarinic receptors are needed for male USV production during male-female interactions, likely via their roles in dopamine activation. These findings are important for the understanding of the neural substrates for positive affect. PMID:18382674

  7. Effect of social odor context on the emission of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model for autism

    PubMed Central

    Wöhr, Markus

    2015-01-01

    An important diagnostic criterion for social communication deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are difficulties in adjusting behavior to suit different social contexts. While the BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) inbred strain of mice is one of the most commonly used mouse models for ASD, little is known about whether BTBR mice display deficits in detecting changes in social context and their ability to adjust to them. Here, it was tested therefore whether the emission of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in BTBR mouse pups is affected by the social odor context, in comparison to the standard control strain with high sociability, C57BL/6J (B6). It is known that the presence of odors from mothers and littermates leads to a calming of the isolated mouse pup, and hence to a reduction in isolation-induced USV emission. In accordance with their behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all diagnostic core symptoms of ASD, it was predicted that BTBR mouse pups would not display a calming response when tested under soiled bedding conditions with home cage bedding material containing maternal odors, and that similar isolation-induced USV emission rates would be seen in BTBR mice tested under clean and soiled bedding conditions. Unexpectedly, however, the present findings show that BTBR mouse pups display such a calming response and emit fewer isolation-induced USV when tested under soiled as compared to clean bedding conditions, similar to B6 mouse pups. Yet, in contrast to B6 mouse pups, which emitted isolation-induced USV with shorter call durations and lower levels of frequency modulation under soiled bedding conditions, social odor context had no effect on acoustic call features in BTBR mouse pups. This indicates that the BTBR mouse model for ASD does not display deficits in detecting changes in social context, but has a limited ability and/or reduced motivation to adjust to them. PMID:25852455

  8. Female mice ultrasonically interact with males during courtship displays.

    PubMed

    Neunuebel, Joshua P; Taylor, Adam L; Arthur, Ben J; Egnor, S E Roian

    2015-01-01

    During courtship males attract females with elaborate behaviors. In mice, these displays include ultrasonic vocalizations. Ultrasonic courtship vocalizations were previously attributed to the courting male, despite evidence that both sexes produce virtually indistinguishable vocalizations. Because of this similarity, and the difficulty of assigning vocalizations to individuals, the vocal contribution of each individual during courtship is unknown. To address this question, we developed a microphone array system to localize vocalizations from socially interacting, individual adult mice. With this system, we show that female mice vocally interact with males during courtship. Males and females jointly increased their vocalization rates during chases. Furthermore, a female's participation in these vocal interactions may function as a signal that indicates a state of increased receptivity. Our results reveal a novel form of vocal communication during mouse courtship, and lay the groundwork for a mechanistic dissection of communication during social behavior. PMID:26020291

  9. Female mice ultrasonically interact with males during courtship displays

    PubMed Central

    Neunuebel, Joshua P; Taylor, Adam L; Arthur, Ben J; Egnor, SE Roian

    2015-01-01

    During courtship males attract females with elaborate behaviors. In mice, these displays include ultrasonic vocalizations. Ultrasonic courtship vocalizations were previously attributed to the courting male, despite evidence that both sexes produce virtually indistinguishable vocalizations. Because of this similarity, and the difficulty of assigning vocalizations to individuals, the vocal contribution of each individual during courtship is unknown. To address this question, we developed a microphone array system to localize vocalizations from socially interacting, individual adult mice. With this system, we show that female mice vocally interact with males during courtship. Males and females jointly increased their vocalization rates during chases. Furthermore, a female's participation in these vocal interactions may function as a signal that indicates a state of increased receptivity. Our results reveal a novel form of vocal communication during mouse courtship, and lay the groundwork for a mechanistic dissection of communication during social behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06203.001 PMID:26020291

  10. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection previously thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad spectrum of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  11. Mouse vocal communication system: are ultrasounds learned or innate?

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production. Here we discuss the available data to assess whether male mouse song behavior and the supporting brain circuits resemble those of known vocal non-learning or vocal learning species. Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. Recent behavioral studies have reported opposing conclusions on mouse vocal plasticity, including vocal ontogeny changes in USVs over early development that might not be explained by innate maturation processes, evidence for and against a role for auditory feedback in developing and maintaining normal mouse USVs, and evidence for and against limited vocal imitation of song pitch. To reconcile these findings, we suggest that the trait of vocal learning may not be dichotomous but encompass a broad set of behavioral and neural traits we call the continuum hypothesis, and that mice possess some of the traits associated with a capacity for limited vocal learning. PMID:23295209

  12. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  13. Translating Mouse Vocalizations: Prosody and Frequency Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Lahvis, Garet P.; Alleva, Enrico; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Mental illness can include impaired abilities to express emotions or respond to the emotions of others. Speech provides a mechanism for expressing emotions, by both what words are spoken and by the melody or intonation of speech (prosody). Through the perception of variations in prosody, an individual can detect changes in another's emotional state. Prosodic features of mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), indicated by changes in frequency and amplitude, also convey information. Dams retrieve pups that emit separation calls, females approach males emitting solicitous calls, and mice can become fearful of a cue associated with the vocalizations of a distressed conspecific. Since acoustic features of mouse USVs respond to drugs and genetic manipulations that influence reward circuits, USV analysis can be employed to examine how genes influence social motivation, affect regulation, and communication. The purpose of this review is to discuss how genetic and developmental factors influence aspects of the mouse vocal repertoire and how mice respond to the vocalizations of their conspecifics. To generate falsifiable hypotheses about the emotional content of particular calls, this review addresses USV analysis within the framework of affective neuroscience (e.g. measures of motivated behavior such as conditioned place preference tests, brain activity, and systemic physiology). Suggested future studies include employment of an expanded array of physiological and statistical approaches to identify the salient acoustic features of mouse vocalizations. We are particularly interested in rearing environments that incorporate sufficient spatial and temporal complexity to familiarize developing mice with a broader array of affective states. PMID:20497235

  14. Resting-Associated Vocalization Emitted by Captive Asian House Shrews (Suncus murinus): Acoustic Structure and Variability in an Unusual Mammalian Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals. PMID:25390304

  15. Contextual Modulation of Vocal Behavior in Mouse: Newly Identified 12 kHz “Mid-Frequency” Vocalization Emitted during Restraint

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Sheth, Saloni; Vallabh, Neil; Grimsley, Calum A.; Bhattal, Jyoti; Latsko, Maeson; Jasnow, Aaron; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    While several studies have investigated mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by isolated pups or by males in mating contexts, studies of behavioral contexts other than mating and vocalization categories other than USVs have been limited. By improving our understanding of the vocalizations emitted by mice across behavioral contexts, we will better understand the natural vocal behavior of mice and better interpret vocalizations from mouse models of disease. Hypothesizing that mouse vocal behavior would differ depending on behavioral context, we recorded vocalizations from male CBA/CaJ mice across three behavioral contexts including mating, isolation, and restraint. We found that brief restraint elevated blood corticosterone levels of mice, indicating increased stress relative to isolation. Further, after 3 days of brief restraint, mice displayed behavioral changes indicative of stress. These persisted for at least 2 days after restraint. Contextual differences in mouse vocal behavior were striking and robust across animals. Thus, while USVs were the most common vocalization type across contexts, the spectrotemporal features of USVs were context-dependent. Compared to the mating context, vocalizations during isolation and restraint displayed a broader frequency range, with a greater emphasis on frequencies below 50 kHz. These contexts also included more non-USV vocal categories and different vocal patterns. We identified a new Mid-Frequency Vocalization, a tonal vocalization with fundamental frequencies below 18 kHz, which was almost exclusively emitted by mice undergoing restraint stress. These differences combine to form vocal behavior that is grossly different among behavioral contexts and may reflect the level of anxiety in these contexts. PMID:27014000

  16. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  17. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  18. Ultrasonic communication in frogs.

    PubMed

    Feng, Albert S; Narins, Peter M; Xu, Chun-He; Lin, Wen-Yu; Yu, Zu-Lin; Qiu, Qiang; Xu, Zhi-Min; Shen, Jun-Xian

    2006-03-16

    Among vertebrates, only microchiropteran bats, cetaceans and some rodents are known to produce and detect ultrasounds (frequencies greater than 20 kHz) for the purpose of communication and/or echolocation, suggesting that this capacity might be restricted to mammals. Amphibians, reptiles and most birds generally have limited hearing capacity, with the ability to detect and produce sounds below approximately 12 kHz. Here we report evidence of ultrasonic communication in an amphibian, the concave-eared torrent frog (Amolops tormotus) from Huangshan Hot Springs, China. Males of A. tormotus produce diverse bird-like melodic calls with pronounced frequency modulations that often contain spectral energy in the ultrasonic range. To determine whether A. tormotus communicates using ultrasound to avoid masking by the wideband background noise of local fast-flowing streams, or whether the ultrasound is simply a by-product of the sound-production mechanism, we conducted acoustic playback experiments in the frogs' natural habitat. We found that the audible as well as the ultrasonic components of an A. tormotus call can evoke male vocal responses. Electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain confirmed the ultrasonic hearing capacity of these frogs and that of a sympatric species facing similar environmental constraints. This extraordinary upward extension into the ultrasonic range of both the harmonic content of the advertisement calls and the frog's hearing sensitivity is likely to have co-evolved in response to the intense, predominantly low-frequency ambient noise from local streams. Because amphibians are a distinct evolutionary lineage from microchiropterans and cetaceans (which have evolved ultrasonic hearing to minimize congestion in the frequency bands used for sound communication and to increase hunting efficacy in darkness), ultrasonic perception in these animals represents a new example of independent evolution. PMID:16541072

  19. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  20. Phase-Specific Vocalizations of Male Mice at the Initial Encounter during the Courtship Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yui K.; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations featuring a variety of syllables. Vocalizations are observed during social interactions. In particular, males produce numerous syllables during courtship. Previous studies have shown that vocalizations change according to sexual behavior, suggesting that males vary their vocalizations depending on the phase of the courtship sequence. To examine this process, we recorded large sets of mouse vocalizations during male–female interactions and acoustically categorized these sounds into 12 vocal types. We found that males emitted predominantly short syllables during the first minute of interaction, more long syllables in the later phases, and mainly harmonic sounds during mounting. These context- and time-dependent changes in vocalization indicate that vocal communication during courtship in mice consists of at least three stages and imply that each vocalization type has a specific role in a phase of the courtship sequence. Our findings suggest that recording for a sufficiently long time and taking the phase of courtship into consideration could provide more insights into the role of vocalization in mouse courtship behavior in future study. PMID:26841117

  1. Phase-Specific Vocalizations of Male Mice at the Initial Encounter during the Courtship Sequence.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yui K; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations featuring a variety of syllables. Vocalizations are observed during social interactions. In particular, males produce numerous syllables during courtship. Previous studies have shown that vocalizations change according to sexual behavior, suggesting that males vary their vocalizations depending on the phase of the courtship sequence. To examine this process, we recorded large sets of mouse vocalizations during male-female interactions and acoustically categorized these sounds into 12 vocal types. We found that males emitted predominantly short syllables during the first minute of interaction, more long syllables in the later phases, and mainly harmonic sounds during mounting. These context- and time-dependent changes in vocalization indicate that vocal communication during courtship in mice consists of at least three stages and imply that each vocalization type has a specific role in a phase of the courtship sequence. Our findings suggest that recording for a sufficiently long time and taking the phase of courtship into consideration could provide more insights into the role of vocalization in mouse courtship behavior in future study. PMID:26841117

  2. Engineered deafness reveals that mouse courtship vocalizations do not require auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Mahrt, Elena J; Perkel, David J; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W; Portfors, Christine V

    2013-03-27

    Auditory experience during development is necessary for normal language acquisition in humans. Although songbirds, some cetaceans, and maybe bats may also be vocal learners, vocal learning has yet to be well established for a laboratory mammal. Mice are potentially an excellent model organism for studying mechanisms underlying vocal communication. Mice vocalize in different social contexts, yet whether they learn their vocalizations remains unresolved. To address this question, we compared ultrasonic courtship vocalizations emitted by chronically deaf and normal hearing adult male mice. We deafened CBA/CaJ male mice, engineered to express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptors in hair cells, by systemic injection of DT at postnatal day 2 (P2). By P9, almost all inner hair cells were absent and by P16 all inner and outer hair cells were absent in DTR mice. These mice did not show any auditory brainstem responses as adults. Wild-type littermates, also treated with DT at P2, had normal hair cells and normal auditory brainstem responses. We compared the temporal structure of vocalization bouts, the types of vocalizations, the patterns of syllables, and the acoustic features of each syllable type emitted by hearing and deaf males in the presence of a female. We found that almost all of the vocalization features we examined were similar in hearing and deaf animals. These findings indicate that mice do not need auditory experience during development to produce normal ultrasonic vocalizations in adulthood. We conclude that mouse courtship vocalizations are not acquired through auditory feedback-dependent learning. PMID:23536072

  3. Engineered Deafness Reveals That Mouse Courtship Vocalizations Do Not Require Auditory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahrt, Elena J.; Perkel, David J.; Tong, Ling; Rubel, Edwin W; Portfors, Christine V.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory experience during development is necessary for normal language acquisition in humans. Although songbirds, some cetaceans, and maybe bats may also be vocal learners, vocal learning has yet to be well established for a laboratory mammal. Mice are potentially an excellent model organism for studying mechanisms underlying vocal communication. Mice vocalize in different social contexts, yet whether they learn their vocalizations remains unresolved. To address this question, we compared ultrasonic courtship vocalizations emitted by chronically deaf and normal hearing adult male mice. We deafened CBA/CaJ male mice, engineered to express diphtheria toxin (DT) receptors in hair cells, by systemic injection of DT at postnatal day 2 (P2). By P9, almost all inner hair cells were absent and by P16 all inner and outer hair cells were absent in DTR mice. These mice did not show any auditory brainstem responses as adults. Wild-type littermates, also treated with DT at P2, had normal hair cells and normal auditory brainstem responses. We compared the temporal structure of vocalization bouts, the types of vocalizations, the patterns of syllables, and the acoustic features of each syllable type emitted by hearing and deaf males in the presence of a female. We found that almost all of the vocalization features we examined were similar in hearing and deaf animals. These findings indicate that mice do not need auditory experience during development to produce normal ultrasonic vocalizations in adulthood. We conclude that mouse courtship vocalizations are not acquired through auditory feedback-dependent learning. PMID:23536072

  4. Responses to Social Vocalizations in the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Patrick D.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying sounds is critical for an animal to make appropriate behavioral responses to environmental stimuli, including vocalizations from conspecifics. Identification of vocalizations may be supported by neuronal selectivity in the auditory pathway. The first place in the ascending auditory pathway where neuronal selectivity to vocalizations has been found is in the inferior colliculus (IC), but very few brainstem nuclei have been evaluated. Here, we tested whether selectivity to vocalizations is present in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). We recorded extracellular neural responses in the DCN of mice and found that fusiform cells responded in a heterogeneous and selective manner to mouse ultrasonic vocalizations. Most fusiform cells responded to vocalizations that contained spectral energy at much higher frequencies than the characteristic frequencies of the cells. To understand this mismatch of stimulus properties and frequency tuning of the cells, we developed a dynamic, nonlinear model of the cochlea that simulates cochlear distortion products on the basilar membrane. We preprocessed the vocalization stimuli through this model and compared responses to these distorted vocalizations with responses to the original vocalizations. We found that fusiform cells in the DCN respond in a heterogeneous manner to vocalizations, and that these neurons can use distortion products as a mechanism for encoding ultrasonic vocalizations. In addition, the selective neuronal responses were dependent on the presence of inhibitory sidebands that modulated the response depending on the temporal structure of the distortion product. These findings suggest that important processing of complex sounds occurs at a very early stage of central auditory processing and is not strictly a function of the cortex. PMID:26733824

  5. Vocalizations convey sex, seasonal phenotype, and aggression in a seasonal mammal.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Keesom, Sarah M; Amadi, Chima; Hurley, Laura M; Demas, Gregory E

    2015-12-01

    Seasonal variation in social behavior is often accompanied by seasonal variation in communication. In mammals, how seasonal environmental cues influence aggressive vocalizations remains underexplored. Photoperiod is the primary cue coordinating seasonal responses in most temperate zone animals, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), a species that undergoes reproductive inhibition and increased aggression in winter. During same-sex aggressive encounters, hamsters emit both broadband calls (BBCs) and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) that indicate aggression and the vocalizer's sex, respectively; however, it is not known whether these rodents adjust specific elements of their vocal repertoire to reflect their photoperiod-induced seasonal phenotypes. To address this, we recorded vocalizations emitted during dyadic interactions between male or female pairs of hamsters housed in long or short photoperiods and measured serum testosterone levels. USV emission rate remained stable across photoperiods, but proportional use of USV subtypes varied in novel ways: 'jump' USVs were sensitive to seasonal phenotype, but not the vocalizer's sex, whereas 'plain' USVs were sensitive only to the sex of the vocalizer. BBC emission rate varied with seasonal phenotype; short-day non-reproductive hamsters produced more BBCs and demonstrated increased aggression compared with reproductive hamsters. Testosterone, however, was not related to vocalization rates. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that changes in the vocal repertoire of Siberian hamsters reflect sex, aggression, and seasonal phenotype, suggesting that both BBCs and USVs are important signals used during same-sex social encounters. PMID:26386405

  6. Pitch underlies activation of the vocal system during affective vocalization.

    PubMed

    Belyk, Michel; Brown, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Affective prosody is that aspect of speech that conveys a speaker's emotional state through modulations in various vocal parameters, most prominently pitch. While a large body of research implicates the cingulate vocalization area in controlling affective vocalizations in monkeys, no systematic test of functional homology for this area has yet been reported in humans. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activations when subjects produced affective vocalizations in the form of exclamations vs non-affective vocalizations with similar pitch contours. We also examined the perception of affective vocalizations by having participants make judgments about either the emotions being conveyed by recorded affective vocalizations or the pitch contours of the same vocalizations. Production of affective vocalizations and matched pitch contours activated a highly overlapping set of brain areas, including the larynx-phonation area of the primary motor cortex and a region of the anterior cingulate cortex that is consistent with the macro-anatomical position of the cingulate vocalization area. This overlap contradicts the dominant view that these areas form two distinct vocal pathways with dissociable functions. Instead, we propose that these brain areas are nodes in a single vocal network, with an emphasis on pitch modulation as a vehicle for affective expression. PMID:26078385

  7. Generalized Vocal Imitation in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulson, Claire L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of three infants whose parents presented vocal models for the infants to imitate. Parents presented vocal models both with and without social praise. Infants showed systematic increases in matching after praise was introduced. Nonmatching vocalizations did not increase with introduction of praise. Findings demonstrate generalized…

  8. Vocalizations during withdrawal from opiates and cocaine: possible expressions of affective distress.

    PubMed

    Covington, Herbert E; Miczek, Klaus A

    2003-04-25

    Intense anxiety has been postulated to trigger relapse to abuse of opiates and psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical research methodologies need to be developed to adequately characterize the affective or emotional component of withdrawal. Classically, withdrawal from psychomotor stimulants and opiates focuses on somatic and autonomic indices, foremost based on observational assessments and, additionally, on measures of disrupted conditioned behavior. These measures depict the intensity and time course of withdrawal from specific doses of opiates and psychomotor stimulants, but require large numbers of subjects due to single use of each individual. Behavioral disruptions have been attributed to anhedonia, a core symptom of drug withdrawal, as well as major depressive and psychotic disorders. In spite of some pharmacological validation, inferences about anxiety-like disturbances, based on observed somatic and autonomic signs or on changes in conditioned responses, have to remain tentative. High-pitched vocalizations may communicate affective expressions and, in rodents, different kinds of ultrasonic vocalizations communicate maternal separation distress in infants, accompany the intensely arousing phases of agonistic confrontations, signal submission and distress in defensive responses to threats and painful events, and are part of the excitatory and inhibitory phases of sexual behavior. While acute treatment with opiates, psychomotor stimulants, alcohol and benzodiazepines suppresses ultrasonic vocalizations in the 22-25-kHz range, rats emit high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations upon withdrawal from prolonged exposure to these drugs, particularly if they have been startled. Peak rates of ultrasonic distress calls occur ca. 1-3 days after cessation of cocaine or opiate treatment and decline within 5-7 days. Ultrasonic vocalizations during withdrawal from cocaine, alcohol or benzodiazepines can be attenuated by renewed access to the drug. It will be informative to

  9. On Vocal Registers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollien, Harry

    A vocal register is a series or range of consecutive frequencies that can be produced with nearly identical voice quality. On the basis of research three fundamental registers can be defined and described: pulse, a low range of phonation; modal, a middle or "normal" range; and loft, a high range, described by some as falsetto. These three…

  10. Infant Vocal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hursh, Daniel E.

    In Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior, three categories of environmental control over instances of verbal behavior appear to be relevant to the study of infant vocal development: the mand, the tact, and the echoic categories. Procedures used in the remediation of language deficiencies and procedures found in work in the area of language…

  11. Ultrasonic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    Ultrasonic has proven its merit as one of the most promising sensing methods for food quality evaluation due to its non-destructive, noninvasive, precise, rapid, and on-line potential. Ultrasonic is mechanical wave at frequencies above 20 kHz propagating by vibration of the particles in the medium and penetrating through optically opaque materials to provide internal or surface information of physical attributes, such as texture and structure. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing is a way of characterizing materials by transmitting ultrasonic waves into a material, and investigating the characteristics of the transmitted and/or reflected ultrasonic waves. For the purpose of quality measurement of materials, low-intensity ultrasonic with the power level of up to 1 W/cm2 has been used. The low-intensity ultrasonic doesn't cause physical or chemical changes in the properties of the specimen when it transmits through the material. However, high-intensity ultrasonic of the power range above 1 W/cm2 may produce physical/chemical disruption and alteration in the material through which the wave propagates. High-intensity ultrasonic is usually used in cleaning, promotion of chemical reactions, homogenization, etc

  12. Dopaminergic Contributions to Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Lukas A.; Saravanan, Varun; Wood, Alynda N.; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although the brain relies on auditory information to calibrate vocal behavior, the neural substrates of vocal learning remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the dopaminergic inputs to a basal ganglia nucleus in a songbird species (Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata var. domestica) greatly reduced the magnitude of vocal learning driven by disruptive auditory feedback in a negative reinforcement task. These lesions produced no measureable effects on the quality of vocal performance or the amount of song produced. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inputs to the basal ganglia selectively mediate reinforcement-driven vocal plasticity. In contrast, dopaminergic lesions produced no measurable effects on the birds' ability to restore song acoustics to baseline following the cessation of reinforcement training, suggesting that different forms of vocal plasticity may use different neural mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During skill learning, the brain relies on sensory feedback to improve motor performance. However, the neural basis of sensorimotor learning is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in regulating vocal learning in the Bengalese finch, a songbird with an extremely precise singing behavior that can nevertheless be reshaped dramatically by auditory feedback. Our findings show that reduction of dopamine inputs to a region of the songbird basal ganglia greatly impairs vocal learning but has no detectable effect on vocal performance. These results suggest a specific role for dopamine in regulating vocal plasticity. PMID:26888928

  13. Evidence for an audience effect in mice: male social partners alter the male vocal response to female cues.

    PubMed

    Seagraves, Kelly M; Arthur, Ben J; Egnor, S E Roian

    2016-05-15

    Mice (Mus musculus) form large and dynamic social groups and emit ultrasonic vocalizations in a variety of social contexts. Surprisingly, these vocalizations have been studied almost exclusively in the context of cues from only one social partner, despite the observation that in many social species the presence of additional listeners changes the structure of communication signals. Here, we show that male vocal behavior elicited by female odor is affected by the presence of a male audience - with changes in vocalization count, acoustic structure and syllable complexity. We further show that single sensory cues are not sufficient to elicit this audience effect, indicating that multiple cues may be necessary for an audience to be apparent. Together, these experiments reveal that some features of mouse vocal behavior are only expressed in more complex social situations, and introduce a powerful new assay for measuring detection of the presence of social partners in mice. PMID:27207951

  14. Vocalizations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Pelt, Thomas I.; Piatt, J.F.; Van Vliet, G. B.

    1999-01-01

    We present the first documentation of Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) vocalizations, based on recordings made in Glacier Bay, Alaska, in 1994. We identified two apparently related types of calls: groan and quack. The Kittlitz's Murrelet calls were markedly different from the most common calls of the congeneric Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), but shared characteristics with the Marbled Murrelet's less common 'groan' call. Phylogeny, breeding biology, and habitat characteristics may explain relationships between the congeneric vocalizations. More complete knowledge of the Kittlitz's Murrelet vocal repertoire is needed before vocalizations can be either used or discarded in the design of effective programs to monitor this rare and poorly-known species.

  15. Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement (PVFM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Paradoxical Vocal Fold ...

  16. Mice lacking the cerebral cortex develop normal song: insights into the foundations of vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Whelan, Gabriela; Eichele, Gregor; Fischer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models play an increasingly important role in the identification and functional assessment of speech-associated genes, with a focus on genes involved in vocal production, and possibly vocal learning. Moreover, mice reportedly show direct projections from the cortex to brainstem vocal motor neurons, implying a degree of volitional control over vocal output. Yet, deaf mice did not reveal differences in call structures compared to their littermates, suggesting that auditory input is not a prerequisite for the development of species-specific sounds. To elucidate the importance of cortical structures for the development of mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in more detail, we studied Emx1-CRE;Esco2(fl/fl) mice, which lack the hippocampus and large parts of the cortex. We conducted acoustic analyses of the USVs of 28 pups during short-term isolation and 23 adult males during courtship encounters. We found no significant differences in the vocalizations of Emx1-CRE;Esco2(fl/fl) mice, and only minor differences in call type usage in adult mice, compared to control littermates. Our findings question the notion that cortical structures are necessary for the production of mouse USVs. Thus, mice might be less suitable to study the mechanisms supporting vocal learning than previously assumed, despite their value for studying the genetic foundations of neurodevelopment more generally. PMID:25744204

  17. Nonlinear oscillation of pathological vocal folds during vocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ni; Peng, DanDan; Sun, Min; Zhang, Dong

    2013-07-01

    The extended two-mass model is adopted to analyze the nonlinear oscillation of pathological vocal folds during vocalization. Redundant tissue or area in laryngeal patients is modeled as a massless rigid connected to the upper mass of the vocal folds, and a parameter Q is introduced to represent the change of glottal configurations and tension imbalance between the left and right sides of vocal folds. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the pathological vocal-fold decreases the threshold of Q to generate nonlinear vocal oscillation, indicating the improvement of the sensitivity of vocal folds to asymmetries and enhancing the coupling between two sides. Furthermore, the pathological vocal-fold can lower the fundamental frequency and eliminate high-order harmonics, For example, the fundamental frequency decreases from 119.94 Hz to 84.95 Hz when Q=0.58 and the sub-glottal pressure 1450 Pa. However, there are no prominent effects on the amplitudes of sub-harmonic and low-order harmonics.

  18. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  19. Ultrasonic Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Ultraprobe 2000, manufactured by UE Systems, Inc., Elmsford, NY, is a hand-held ultrasonic system that detects indications of bearing failure by analyzing changes in amplitude. It employs the technology of a prototype ultrasonic bearing-failure monitoring system developed by Mechanical Technology, Inc., Latham, New York and Marshall Space Flight Center (which was based on research into Skylab's gyroscope bearings). Bearings on the verge of failure send ultrasonic signals indicating their deterioration; the Ultraprobe changes these to audible signals. The operator hears the signals and gages their intensity with a meter in the unit.

  20. Genes and Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Could a mutation in a single gene be the evolutionary lynchpin supporting the development of human language? A rare mutation in the molecule known as FOXP2 discovered in a human family seemed to suggest so, and its sequence phylogeny reinforced a Chomskian view that language emerged wholesale in humans. Spurred by this discovery, research in primates, rodents and birds suggests that FoxP2 and other language-related genes are interactors in the neuromolecular networks that underlie subsystems of language, such symbolic understanding, vocal learning and theory of mind. The whole picture will only come together through comparative and integrative study into how the human language singularity evolved. PMID:19913899

  1. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  2. [Experimental vocal cord abduction impairment with an artificial vocal cord].

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Eiji; Tobisawa, Shinsuke; Nishizawa, Misato; Nakayama, Hideto; Fukui, Kotaro; Takanishi, Asuo

    2009-07-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) has recently been applied to the patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) with various respiratory complications including vocal cord abduction impairment and respiratory disturbance by the central origin. Any consensus guidelines on setting up the inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and expiratory one (EPAP), however, have not been raised yet. To investigate this problem, we made the upper airway tract model with moderately and severely narrow glottis using a training/test lung and the artificial vocal cord which was developed for a humanoid talking robot in Waseda University. The artificial vocal cord was molded out of a high performance thermoplastic rubber in imitation of the human larynx. Previous studies using with a high-speed camera and a sound analyzer showed that the artificial vocal cord resembled human larynx closely both morphologically and functionally. The opening and closing movements of the artificial vocal cord were observed fiberscopically under various conditions of IPAP (4-20 cmH2O) and EPAP (4-10 cmH2O). The maximal glottic width during inspiration and expiration were measured by a pair of calipers on the video-monitored display. Both of the moderately and the severely narrow artificial vocal cords without non-paralytic factors showed typical paradoxical movement showing adduction in inspiration and abduction in expiration, which is characteristic to vocal cord abductor impairment seen in MSA. In the model with moderately severe narrow glottis, this paradoxical movement was released under any positive pressures of continuous (CPAP) and bilevel (Bilevel PAP) modes. In the model with severely narrow glottis, however, there existed a threshold in setting up the optimal EPAP to release the paradoxical movement. In conclusion, EPAP-leading procedure seems to be preferable to IPAP-leading procedure to dilate the narrow glottis as a pneumatic splint in the managements of the patients with

  3. Pure Ultrasonic Communication in an Endemic Bornean Frog

    PubMed Central

    Arch, Victoria S.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Narins, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Huia cavitympanum, an endemic Bornean frog, is the first amphibian species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic (i.e., >20 kHz) vocal signals. To test the hypothesis that these frogs use purely ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication, we performed playback experiments with male frogs in their natural calling sites. We found that the frogs respond with increased calling to broadcasts of conspecific calls containing only ultrasound. The field study was complemented by electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain and by laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of the tympanic membrane's response to acoustic stimulation. These measurements revealed that the frog's auditory system is broadly tuned over high frequencies, with peak sensitivity occurring within the ultrasonic frequency range. Our results demonstrate that H. cavitympanum is the first non-mammalian vertebrate described to communicate with purely ultrasonic acoustic signals. These data suggest that further examination of the similarities and differences in the high-frequency/ultrasonic communication systems of H. cavitympanum and Odorrana tormota, an unrelated frog species that produces and detects ultrasound but does not emit exclusively ultrasonic calls, will afford new insights into the mechanisms underlying vertebrate high-frequency communication. PMID:19401782

  4. Ultrasonic Polishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic polishing process makes use of the high-frequency (ultrasonic) vibrations of an abradable tool which automatically conforms to the work piece and an abrasive slurry to finish surfaces and edges on complex, highly detailed, close tolerance cavities in materials from beryllium copper to carbide. Applications range from critical deburring of guidance system components to removing EDM recast layers from aircraft engine components to polishing molds for forming carbide cutting tool inserts or injection molding plastics. A variety of materials including tool steels, carbides, and even ceramics can be successfully processed. Since the abradable tool automatically conforms to the work piece geometry, the ultrasonic finishing method described offers a number of important benefits in finishing components with complex geometries.

  5. Ultrasonic neuromodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field’s foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions.

  6. Ultrasonic neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Naor, Omer; Krupa, Steve; Shoham, Shy

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonic waves can be non-invasively steered and focused into mm-scale regions across the human body and brain, and their application in generating controlled artificial modulation of neuronal activity could therefore potentially have profound implications for neural science and engineering. Ultrasonic neuro-modulation phenomena were experimentally observed and studied for nearly a century, with recent discoveries on direct neural excitation and suppression sparking a new wave of investigations in models ranging from rodents to humans. In this paper we review the physics, engineering and scientific aspects of ultrasonic fields, their control in both space and time, and their effect on neuronal activity, including a survey of both the field's foundational history and of recent findings. We describe key constraints encountered in this field, as well as key engineering systems developed to surmount them. In closing, the state of the art is discussed, with an emphasis on emerging research and clinical directions. PMID:27153566

  7. Prelinguistic Vocalizations Distinguish Pointing Acts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunloh, Thomas; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether point-accompanying characteristics, like vocalizations and hand shape, differentiate infants' underlying motives of prelinguistic pointing. We elicited imperative (requestive) and declarative (expressive and informative) pointing acts in experimentally controlled situations, and analyzed accompanying…

  8. Ultrasonic angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Robert J.

    1990-08-01

    Over the past 3 years we have developed a percutaneous ultrasonic angioplasty device and recently applied it in human peripheral arteries. This paper describes some of the background preceding the development of intravascular ultrasound for arterial recanalization. The chronology of our development of ultrasonic angioplasty is discussed from in vitro studies on atherosclerotic plaque to in vivo studies in canine models with differing types of arterial occlusions (thrombotic fibrotic calcific-atherosclerotic) and to initial human application. SPIE Vol. 1321 Modern Technologies Applied to Medical Practice (1989) / 69

  9. Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Automation Industries Inc. has had more than $2 million in contracts to produce innovative equipment for the Apollo program. When Marshall Space Flight Center sought a fast nondestructive way to inspect butt welds in aluminum alloys for spacecraft, the company developed a reliable ultrasonic device using multiple transducers called "delta manipulators" which detect lack of weld penetration not readily seen in radiograph automation. Industry soon adapted the ultrasonic equipment to a unique rail inspection device that saves countless man hours. Device is contained in self propelled railroad cars produced and operated by the company to check old track welds for deterioration.

  10. Maternal Responsiveness and Infant Vocalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Linda I.

    The rapidity with which mothers respond to their infants' vocalizations by either vocalizing or verbalizing was compared for five male and five female later-born, (i.e., not first-born) children and their mothers. Videotapes were made from behind a one-way mirror when infants were 2, 26, 52, and 78 weeks of age; each tape represented a five-minute…

  11. Ultrasonic test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anthony; Goff, Dan; Kruchowy, Roman; Rhoads, Carl

    1994-08-01

    An ultrasonic system for determining the quality of concrete under water without inaccuracies caused by electromagnetic interference from the ultrasonic generator. An ultrasonic generator applies pulses to the concrete. An ultrasonic detector detects the ultrasonic pulses and produces corresponding signals that are indicative of ultrasonic pulses that have passed through the material. Signal processing circuitry processes the signals to determine the transit time of the ultrasonic pulses through the material. The signal processing circuitry is disabled for a predetermined time after application of each ultrasonic pulse to the material to prevent noise produced by the means for applying ultrasonic pulses to the material from entering the signal processing circuitry and causing spurious measurements.

  12. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

    2007-01-01

    It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species. PMID:18077254

  13. Disabled Vocal Cords: An Occupational Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Norma B.

    1987-01-01

    A teacher points out the occupational hazard that can result from the misuse of the voice and ensuing vocal cord damage. Presents discussion of ways to avoid misusing the voice and prevent vocal cord damage. (MD)

  14. Harnessing vocal patterns for social communication

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Lora B.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Work on vocal communication, influenced by a drive to understand the evolution of language, has focused on auditory processing and forebrain control of learned vocalizations. The actual hindbrain neural mechanisms used to create communication signals are understudied, in part because of the difficulty of experimental studies in species that rely on respiration for vocalization. In these experimental systems – including those that embody vocal learning – vocal behaviors have rhythmic qualities. Recent studies using molecular markers and “fictive” patterns produced by isolated brains are beginning to reveal how hindbrain circuits generate vocal patterns. Insights from central pattern generators for respiration and locomotion are illuminating common neural and developmental mechanisms. Choice of vocal patterns is responsive to socially salient input. Studies of the vertebrate social brain network suggest mechanisms used to integrate socially salient information and produce an appropriate vocal response. PMID:24995669

  15. Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps, and Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect the degree of disruption of vocal cord vibration and subsequently the severity of hoarseness or other ... source allows the examiner to assess vocal fold vibration. Sometimes a second exam will follow a trial ...

  16. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  17. Vocal exercise may attenuate acute vocal fold inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Li, Nicole Y.K.; Branski, Ryan C.; Rosen, Clark A.; Grillo, Elizabeth; Steinhauer, Kimberly; Hebda, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypotheses The objective was to assess the utility of selected “resonant voice” exercises for the reduction of acute vocal fold inflammation. The hypothesis was that relatively large-amplitude, low-impact exercises associated with resonant voice would reduce inflammation more than spontaneous speech and possibly more than voice rest. Study Design The study design was prospective, randomized, double-blind. Methods Nine vocally healthy adults underwent a 1-hr vocal loading procedure, followed by randomization to (a) a spontaneous speech condition, (b) a vocal rest condition, or (c) a resonant voice exercise condition. Treatments were monitored in clinic for 4 hr, and continued extra-clinically until the next morning. At baseline, immediately following loading, after the 4-hr in-clinic treatment, and 24 hr post baseline, secretions were suctioned from the vocal folds bilaterally and submitted to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate concentrations of key markers of tissue injury and inflammation: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-8, and IL-10. Results Complete data sets were obtained for 3 markers -- IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-8 -- for one subject in each treatment condition. For those markers, results were poorest at 24-hr follow-up in the spontaneous speech condition, sharply improved in the voice rest condition, and best in the resonant voice condition. Average results for all markers, for all responsive subjects with normal baseline mediator concentrations, revealed an almost identical pattern. Conclusions Some forms of tissue mobilization may be useful to attenuate acute vocal fold inflammation. PMID:23177745

  18. Development of Social Vocalizations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Monaghan, Jessica J. M.; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Adult mice are highly vocal animals, with both males and females vocalizing in same sex and cross sex social encounters. Mouse pups are also highly vocal, producing isolation vocalizations when they are cold or removed from the nest. This study examined patterns in the development of pup isolation vocalizations, and compared these to adult vocalizations. In three litters of CBA/CaJ mice, we recorded isolation vocalizations at ages postnatal day 5 (p5), p7, p9, p11, and p13. Adult vocalizations were obtained in a variety of social situations. Altogether, 28,384 discrete vocal signals were recorded using high-frequency-sensitive equipment and analyzed for syllable type, spectral and temporal features, and the temporal sequencing within bouts. We found that pups produced all but one of the 11 syllable types recorded from adults. The proportions of syllable types changed developmentally, but even the youngest pups produced complex syllables with frequency-time variations. When all syllable types were pooled together for analysis, changes in the peak frequency or the duration of syllables were small, although significant, from p5 through p13. However, individual syllable types showed different, large patterns of change over development, requiring analysis of each syllable type separately. Most adult syllables were substantially lower in frequency and shorter in duration. As pups aged, the complexity of vocal bouts increased, with a greater tendency to switch between syllable types. Vocal bouts from older animals, p13 and adult, had significantly more sequential structure than those from younger mice. Overall, these results demonstrate substantial changes in social vocalizations with age. Future studies are required to identify whether these changes result from developmental processes affecting the vocal tract or control of vocalization, or from vocal learning. To provide a tool for further research, we developed a MATLAB program that generates bouts of vocalizations

  19. Vocal Nodules: Their Cause and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teter, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    Provides knowledge about the workings of the vocal apparatus, the scientific basis of certain vocal problems, and what to do to overcome those problems. Specifically discusses the occurrence of nodules on the vocal cords and how to treat them, a subject of interest to both singers and nonsingers. (Editor/RK)

  20. Effects of Social Games on Infant Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chin; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Fogel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contextual effects of social games on prelinguistic vocalizations. The two main goals were to (1) investigate the functions of vocalizations as symptoms of affective arousal and symbols of social understanding, and (2) explore form-function (de)coupling relations between vocalization types and game…

  1. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  2. The Role of Prelinguistic Vocalizations in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Craig T.

    This paper deals with three areas concerning early vocal development: (1) review and critique of existing experimental evidence suggesting that early vocal behavior has the properties of an operant response, (2) speculations concerning the role of non-verbal vocal behavior in early psychological development, and (3) suggestions for future…

  3. Inhibition shapes selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus of awake mice

    PubMed Central

    Mayko, Zachary M.; Roberts, Patrick D.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for integration of auditory information as it receives ascending projections from a variety of brainstem nuclei as well as descending projections from the thalamus and auditory cortex. The ascending projections are both excitatory and inhibitory and their convergence at the IC results in a microcircuitry that is important for shaping responses to simple, binaural, and modulated sounds in the IC. Here, we examined the role inhibition plays in shaping selectivity to vocalizations in the IC of awake, normal-hearing adult mice (CBA/CaJ strain). Neurons in the IC of mice show selectivity in their responses to vocalizations, and we hypothesized that this selectivity is created by inhibitory microcircuitry in the IC. We compared single unit responses in the IC to pure tones and a variety of ultrasonic mouse vocalizations before and after iontophoretic application of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and glycine receptor (GlyR) antagonists. The most pronounced effects of blocking GABAAR and GlyR on IC neurons were to increase spike rates and broaden excitatory frequency tuning curves in response to pure tone stimuli, and to decrease selectivity to vocalizations. Thus, inhibition plays an important role in creating selectivity to vocalizations in the IC. PMID:23087616

  4. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in Adult BTBR T+tf/J Mice During Three Types of Social Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social deficits and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. We previously reported an unusual pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR pups that may represent a behavioral homologue to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, impaired communication. The present study investigated the social and vocal repertoire in adult BTBR mice, to evaluate the role of ultrasonic vocalizations in multiple social situations at the adult stage of development. Three different social contexts were considered: male-female, male-male (resident-intruder) and female-female interactions. Behavioral responses and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for BTBR and for the highly social control strain C57BL/6J (B6). No episodes of overt fighting or mating were observed during the short durations of the three different experimental encounters. BTBR displayed lower levels of vocalizations and social investigation in all three social contexts as compared to B6. In addition, the correlation analyses between social investigation and USVs emission rate revealed that in B6 mice the two variables were positively correlated in all the three different social settings, whereas in BTBR mice the positive correlation was significant only in the male-female interactions. These findings strongly support the value of simultaneously recording two aspects of the mouse social repertoire, social motivation and bioacoustic communication. Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared to B6. PMID:20618443

  5. Cetacean vocal learning and communication.

    PubMed

    Janik, Vincent M

    2014-10-01

    The cetaceans are one of the few mammalian clades capable of vocal production learning. Evidence for this comes from synchronous changes in song patterns of baleen whales and experimental work on toothed whales in captivity. While baleen whales like many vocal learners use this skill in song displays that are involved in sexual selection, toothed whales use learned signals in individual recognition and the negotiation of social relationships. Experimental studies demonstrated that dolphins can use learned signals referentially. Studies on wild dolphins demonstrated how this skill appears to be useful in their own communication system, making them an interesting subject for comparative communication studies. PMID:25057816

  6. Assessing Vocal Development in Infants and Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Nathani, Suneeti; Ertmer, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in prelinguistic vocal productions during the first 20 months of life. Vocalizations were classified into 23 mutually exclusive and exhaustive types, and grouped into five ascending levels using the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised (SAEVD-R). Data from 30 typically developing infants, aged 0–20 months, show that older infants attained higher developmental levels on the SAEVD-R than younger infants. Infants 0–2, 3–5, and 6–8 months of age primarily produced vocalizations from Levels 1 (Reflexive), 2 (Control of Phonation), and 3 (Expansion). Infants 9–20 months of age also produced vocalizations from Level 4 (Basic Canonical Syllables). Only infants from 16–20 months of age produced Level 5 (Advanced Forms) vocalizations in significant quantities. The outcomes indicate that the SAEVD-R is a valuable instrument for evaluating prelinguistic vocal development. PMID:16728333

  7. Ultrasonic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    MicroUltrasonics PLR-1000 is a refined microprocessor-controlled version (usable on bolts, plates, liquids and gases) of the P2L2 developed by Langley Research Center. New technique is for nondestructive measurement of residual stress in various types of structures, for example, nuclear pressure vessels, pipes in nuclear reactors, offshore platforms, bridges, railroad tracks and wheels, aircraft wings, and engines. The instrument produces sound tone pulses that travel through a test specimen. PLR-1000 precisely measures speeds as stress increases speed of sound, tone changes, making precise measurements possible.

  8. Ultrasonic transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.; Kraft, Nancy C.

    2007-03-13

    An ultrasonic transducer having an effective center frequency of about 42 MHz; a bandwidth of greater than 85% at 6 dB; a spherical focus of at least 0.5 inches in water; an F4 lens; a resolution sufficient to be able to detect and separate a 0.005 inch flat-bottomed hole at 0.005 inches below surface; and a beam size of approximately 0.006–0.008 inches measured off a 11/2 mm ball in water at the transducer's focal point.

  9. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  10. Acoustic correlates of vocal quality.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, L; Childers, D G; Hicks, D M

    1990-06-01

    We have investigated the relationship between various voice qualities and several acoustic measures made from the vowel /i/ phonated by subjects with normal voices and patients with vocal disorders. Among the patients (pathological voices), five qualities were investigated: overall severity, hoarseness, breathiness, roughness, and vocal fry. Six acoustic measures were examined. With one exception, all measures were extracted from the residue signal obtained by inverse filtering the speech signal using the linear predictive coding (LPC) technique. A formal listening test was implemented to rate each pathological voice for each vocal quality. A formal listening test also rated overall excellence of the normal voices. A scale of 1-7 was used. Multiple linear regression analysis between the results of the listening test and the various acoustic measures was used with the prediction sums of squares (PRESS) as the selection criteria. Useful prediction equations of order two or less were obtained relating certain acoustic measures and the ratings of pathological voices for each of the five qualities. The two most useful parameters for predicting vocal quality were the Pitch Amplitude (PA) and the Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio (HNR). No acoustic measure could rank the normal voices. PMID:2359270

  11. Combating Stagefright: Selected Vocal Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Noting that stagefright has been the subject of intensive analysis and subjected to almost every conceivable test or measurement without revealing either its "cause" or its "cure," this paper presents vocal exercises to help combat the performance malady. After listing four principles concerning the nature of stagefright (it is not a pathological…

  12. Effective Vocal Production in Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Robert G.

    If speech instructors are to teach students to recreate for an audience an author's intellectual and emotional meanings, they must teach them to use human voice effectively. Seven essential elements of effective vocal production that often pose problems for oral interpretation students should be central to any speech training program: (1)…

  13. Delta opioid receptors: reflexive, defensive and vocal affective responses in female rats.

    PubMed

    Haney, M; Miczek, K A

    1995-09-01

    Ultrasonic vocalizations may be an expression of the affective pain response in laboratory animals. The present experiment compares the effects of morphine to the delta agonist, DPDPE (D-Pen2,D-Pen5 enkephalin) on a range of reflexive, behavioral and affective responses during an aggressive interaction. In experiment 1, naive female Long-Evans rats received morphine (0, 1, 3, 6, 10 micrograms ICV), or DPDPE (0, 30, 60, 100 micrograms ICV). In experiment 2, female rats were treated with naltrindole (1.0 mg/kg IP) 20 min before DPDPE (0, 60, 100 micrograms ICV). The following endpoints were measured: (1) latency to tail flick in response to heat stimuli; (2) high (33-65 kHz) and low (20-32 kHz) frequency ultrasonic and audible vocalizations; (3) defensive behavior; and (4) motoric activity. Following a brief exposure to attack, rats were threatened by the aggressor but protected from further attack by a large, wire mesh cage, thereby allowing for continued behavioral and vocal measurement without the risk of physical injury; video and audio recordings were made during the attack and then during a portion of the protected encounter (2 min). Morphine suppressed pain reactions varying in complexity from a spinal reflex, to an organized escape reaction, to an affective vocal response. The delta agonist, DPDPE, attenuated high frequency ultrasonic calling and tail flick responding. Defensive behaviors were also modulated by DPDPE at doses that had no effect on walking or rearing, indicating behavioral specificity. By contrast, doses of morphine that decreased defensive upright and escape also decreased motor activity. In female rats, morphine and DPDPE share a common profile of effects on a range of functional end-points, but DPDPE appears to modulate more selectively the reactions related to aversiveness without exerting sedative effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8545526

  14. Vocalization Induced CFos Expression in Marmoset Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; DiMauro, Audrey; Pistorio, Ashley; Hendry, Stewart; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-01-01

    All non-human primates communicate with conspecifics using vocalizations, a system involving both the production and perception of species-specific vocal signals. Much of the work on the neural basis of primate vocal communication in cortex has focused on the sensory processing of vocalizations, while relatively little data are available for vocal production. Earlier physiological studies in squirrel monkeys had shed doubts on the involvement of primate cortex in vocal behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify areas of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cortex that are potentially involved in vocal communication. In this study, we quantified cFos expression in three areas of marmoset cortex – frontal, temporal (auditory), and medial temporal – under various vocal conditions. Specifically, we examined cFos expression in these cortical areas during the sensory, motor (vocal production), and sensory–motor components of vocal communication. Our results showed an increase in cFos expression in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex as well as the medial and lateral belt areas of auditory cortex in the vocal perception condition. In contrast, subjects in the vocal production condition resulted in increased cFos expression only in dorsal premotor cortex. During the sensory–motor condition (antiphonal calling), subjects exhibited cFos expression in each of the above areas, as well as increased expression in perirhinal cortex. Overall, these results suggest that various cortical areas outside primary auditory cortex are involved in primate vocal communication. These findings pave the way for further physiological studies of the neural basis of primate vocal communication. PMID:21179582

  15. Ultrasonic Interferometers Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    I have been tinkering with ultrasonic transducers once more. In earlier notes I reported on optics-like experiments performed with ultrasonics, described a number of ultrasonic interferometers, and showed how ultrasonic transducers can be used for Fourier analysis. This time I became interested in trying the technique of using two detectors in…

  16. Ultrasonic Interferometers Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2007-03-01

    I have been tinkering with ultrasonic transducers once more. In earlier notes I reported on optics-like experiments performed with ultrasonics, described a number of ultrasonic interferometers,2 and showed how ultrasonic transducers can be used for Fourier analysis.3 This time I became interested in trying the technique of using two detectors in acoustic interferometers instead of the usual one.

  17. Ultrasonic pipe assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Graham H.; Morrow, Valerie L.; Levie, Harold; Kane, Ronald J.; Brown, Albert E.

    2003-12-23

    An ultrasonic pipe or other structure assessment system includes an ultrasonic transducer positioned proximate the pipe or other structure. A fluid connection between the ultrasonic transducer and the pipe or other structure is produced. The ultrasonic transducer is moved relative to the pipe or other structure.

  18. Modern ultrasonic flowmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, V. M.; Truman, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of ultrasonic flowmeters were reviewed on the basis of materials published in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. The following advantages of ultrasonic flowmeters over earlier instruments are cited. A comparative analysis is made of the design methods employed in ultrasonic flowmeters. The evolution of ultrasonic flowmetering is traced from the first generation and trends in their development are analyzed.

  19. Neurobiology of vocal communication: mechanisms for sensorimotor integration and vocal patterning

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Darcy B.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This review will focus on recent developments in the sensorimotor integration of vocal communication. Two broad themes are emphasized: the evolution of vocal production and perception, and the role of social context. Advances include: a proposal for the emergence of vocal patterning during vertebrate evolution, the role of sensory mechanisms such as categorical perception in decoding communication signals, contributions of sensorimotor integration phenomena including mirror neurons and vocal learning, and mechanisms of hormone-dependent plasticity in both auditory and vocal systems. Transcriptional networks activated in humans but not in chimps by the FoxP2 gene suggest molecular mechanisms underlying vocal gestures and the emergence of human language. PMID:20829032

  20. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1984-04-17

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time ''t'' between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance ''d'' between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time ''t'', the sonic velocity ''V'' is calculated with the equation ''V=2d/t''. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/ C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  1. Ultrasonic hydrometer

    DOEpatents

    Swoboda, Carl A.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time "t" between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance "d" between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time "t", the sonic velocity "V" is calculated with the equation "V=2d/t". The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0.degree. and 40.degree. C. and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation. The disclosed modified battery has a hollow spacer nub on the battery side wall, the sonic surfaces being on the inside of the nub and the electrolyte filling between the surfaces to the exclusion of intervening structure. An accessible pad exposed on the nub wall opposite one sonic surface allows the reliable placement thereagainst of the transducer.

  2. Dependence of phonation threshold pressure on vocal tract acoustics and vocal fold tissue mechanics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Roger W; Titze, Ingo R

    2006-04-01

    Analytical and computer simulation studies have shown that the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract as well as the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues are critical for determining the dynamics and the energy transfer mechanism of vocal fold oscillation. In the present study, a linear, small-amplitude oscillation theory was revised by taking into account the propagation of a mucosal wave and the inertive reactance (inertance) of the supraglottal vocal tract as the major energy transfer mechanisms for flow-induced self-oscillation of the vocal fold. Specifically, analytical results predicted that phonation threshold pressure (Pth) increases with the viscous shear properties of the vocal fold, but decreases with vocal tract inertance. This theory was empirically tested using a physical model of the larynx, where biological materials (fat, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin) were implanted into the vocal fold cover to investigate the effect of vocal fold tissue viscoelasticity on Pth. A uniform-tube supraglottal vocal tract was also introduced to examine the effect of vocal tract inertance on Pth. Results showed that Pth decreased with the inertive impedance of the vocal tract and increased with the viscous shear modulus (G") or dynamic viscosity (eta') of the vocal fold cover, consistent with theoretical predictions. These findings supported the potential biomechanical benefits of hyaluronic acid as a surgical bioimplant for repairing voice disorders involving the superficial layer of the lamina propria, such as scarring, sulcus vocalis, atrophy, and Reinke's edema. PMID:16642848

  3. Some aspects of vocal fold bowing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Hirano, M; Chijiwa, K

    1994-05-01

    Bowing of the vocal fold frequently occurs in patients with vocal fold paralysis (VFP), those with sulcus vocalis, and those who have had laser surgery. Additionally, there are vocal folds that present bowing with no noticeable organic lesion. For the purpose of investigating the causes and mechanisms of vocal fold bowing, consecutive fiberscopic videorecordings of 127 patients with VFP, 33 with sulcus vocalis, 33 with laser surgery, and 33 with dysphonia having no clinically noticeable organic lesion were reviewed. Sixty-nine percent of the paralyzed vocal folds had bowing, and the occurrence of bowing was significantly related to the activity of the thyroarytenoid muscle as measured by electromyography. The cricothyroid activity had no significant relationship to vocal fold bowing. All vocal folds with sulcus presented with bowing. Thirty-five percent of the vocal folds that had had laser surgery had bowing. The extent of tissue removal was closely related to the occurrence of bowing. Twelve cases with no organic lesion had vocal fold bowing. Of these 12 patients, 8 were male and 9 were older than 60 years. Some aging process in the mucosa was presumed to be the cause of the bowing in this age group of patients without clinically noticeable organic lesions. Causes of vocal fold bowing in the younger group of patients without organic lesions were not determined in this study. PMID:8179251

  4. VOCALS-UK: An overview of UK VOCALS science (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, H.; Vocals-Uk Science Team

    2010-12-01

    This paper will highlight a variety of process studies, observationally led studies and modelling studies, both completed and in progress, conducted by groups in the United Kingdom, working in collaboration with international partners on the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The VOCALS field experiment was conducted out of Arica, Chile, between October and November, 2008. The study aims to better understand the nature and variability of interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and steep topography, as well as local and long-range transport of pollutants and aerosol, in the context of their role in controlling the climate of the South East Pacific - an important region in terms of the global energy budget and which is currently poorly characterised in global climate models. Specific highlights will include a statistical representation of the SEP marine boundary layer during VOCALS-Rex to inform future modelling; an analysis of the synoptic and large-scale dynamical influences on cloud in the SEP; results from improved Met Office Unified Model forecast runs which examine aerosol-cloud interactions with a comparison to results from WRF-CHEM; and large eddy modelling of simulated gravity waves and their potential to induce open cellular convection (create pockets of open cells). In addition, early results from a number of further studies will be presented.

  5. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. PMID:25571556

  6. Flexible Coupling of Respiration and Vocalizations with Locomotion and Head Movements in the Freely Behaving Rat

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Joseph Andrews; Boerner, Barbara Ciralli

    2016-01-01

    Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables. Quantitative analysis of synchrony between respiration and head acceleration rhythms revealed that respiration and locomotion movements were coordinated but with a weaker coupling than expected from previous work in other mammals. We have recently shown that rats behaving in social settings produce high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations during locomotion bouts. Accordingly, rats emitted vocalizations in over half of the respiratory cycles during fast displacements. We present evidence suggesting that emission of these calls disrupts the entrainment of respiration by stride. The coupling between these two variables is thus flexible, such that it can be overridden by other behavioral demands. PMID:27525126

  7. Flexible Coupling of Respiration and Vocalizations with Locomotion and Head Movements in the Freely Behaving Rat.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joseph Andrews; Boerner, Barbara Ciralli; Laplagne, Diego Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables. Quantitative analysis of synchrony between respiration and head acceleration rhythms revealed that respiration and locomotion movements were coordinated but with a weaker coupling than expected from previous work in other mammals. We have recently shown that rats behaving in social settings produce high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations during locomotion bouts. Accordingly, rats emitted vocalizations in over half of the respiratory cycles during fast displacements. We present evidence suggesting that emission of these calls disrupts the entrainment of respiration by stride. The coupling between these two variables is thus flexible, such that it can be overridden by other behavioral demands. PMID:27525126

  8. Subglottal pressure, tracheal airflow, and intrinsic laryngeal muscle activity during rat ultrasound vocalization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires complex planning and coordination of respiratory, laryngeal, and vocal tract movements, which are incompletely understood in most mammals. Rats produce a variety of whistles in the ultrasonic range that are of communicative relevance and of importance as a model system, but the sources of acoustic variability were mostly unknown. The goal was to identify sources of fundamental frequency variability. Subglottal pressure, tracheal airflow, and electromyographic (EMG) data from two intrinsic laryngeal muscles were measured during 22-kHz and 50-kHz call production in awake, spontaneously behaving adult male rats. During ultrasound vocalization, subglottal pressure ranged between 0.8 and 1.9 kPa. Pressure differences between call types were not significant. The relation between fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure within call types was inconsistent. Experimental manipulations of subglottal pressure had only small effects on fundamental frequency. Tracheal airflow patterns were also inconsistently associated with frequency. Pressure and flow seem to play a small role in regulation of fundamental frequency. Muscle activity, however, is precisely regulated and very sensitive to alterations, presumably because of effects on resonance properties in the vocal tract. EMG activity of cricothyroid and thyroarytenoid muscle was tonic in calls with slow or no fundamental frequency modulations, like 22-kHz and flat 50-kHz calls. Both muscles showed brief high-amplitude, alternating bursts at rates up to 150 Hz during production of frequency-modulated 50-kHz calls. A differentiated and fine regulation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles is critical for normal ultrasound vocalization. Many features of the laryngeal muscle activation pattern during ultrasound vocalization in rats are shared with other mammals. PMID:21832032

  9. D-Amino acids influence ultrasonic calling in mice pups: effects of D-phenylalanine and D-leucine.

    PubMed

    Albonetti, M E; D'Udine, B; Oliverio, A

    1985-06-24

    6-day-old mice pups were injected with D-amino acids (D-phenyl-alanine + D-leucine), and their ultrasonic distress vocalizations were measured. D-Amino acids, which exert opioid-like effects, reduce the number of ultrasonic calls without affecting the activity of the pups. This effect is reversed by naloxone, an opioid antagonist. The role of endogenous opioids in modulating early attachment is discussed. PMID:4041020

  10. Recording vocalizations with Bluetooth technology.

    PubMed

    Gaona-González, Andrés; Santillán-Doherty, Ana María; Arenas-Rosas, Rita Virginia; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Aguillón-Pantaleón, Miguel Angel; Ordoñez-Gómez, José Domingo; Márquez-Arias, Alejandra

    2011-06-01

    We propose a method for capturing vocalizations that is designed to avoid some of the limiting factors found in traditional bioacoustical methods, such as the impossibility of obtaining continuous long-term registers or analyzing amplitude due to the continuous change of distance between the subject and the position of the recording system. Using Bluetooth technology, vocalizations are captured and transmitted wirelessly into a receiving system without affecting the quality of the signal. The recordings of the proposed system were compared to those obtained as a reference, which were based on the coding of the signal with the so-called pulse-code modulation technique in WAV audio format without any compressing process. The evaluation showed p < .05 for the measured quantitative and qualitative parameters. We also describe how the transmitting system is encapsulated and fixed on the animal and a way to video record a spider monkey's behavior simultaneously with the audio recordings. PMID:21359909

  11. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  12. Vocal communication of wild parrots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Jack

    2001-05-01

    Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

  13. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify approximately 96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of approximately 16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees. PMID:14514217

  14. Nomenclature proposal to describe vocal fold motion impairment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Clark A; Mau, Ted; Remacle, Marc; Hess, Markus; Eckel, Hans E; Young, VyVy N; Hantzakos, Anastasios; Yung, Katherine C; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2016-08-01

    The terms used to describe vocal fold motion impairment are confusing and not standardized. This results in a failure to communicate accurately and to major limitations of interpreting research studies involving vocal fold impairment. We propose standard nomenclature for reporting vocal fold impairment. Overarching terms of vocal fold immobility and hypomobility are rigorously defined. This includes assessment techniques and inclusion and exclusion criteria for determining vocal fold immobility and hypomobility. In addition, criteria for use of the following terms have been outlined in detail: vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold paresis, vocal fold immobility/hypomobility associated with mechanical impairment of the crico-arytenoid joint and vocal fold immobility/hypomobility related to laryngeal malignant disease. This represents the first rigorously defined vocal fold motion impairment nomenclature system. This provides detailed definitions to the terms vocal fold paralysis and vocal fold paresis. PMID:26036851

  15. Auditory feedback modulates development of kitten vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Peter; Konerding, Wiebke; Kral, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    Effects of hearing loss on vocal behavior are species-specific. To study the impact of auditory feedback on feline vocal behavior, vocalizations of normal-hearing, hearing-impaired (white) and congenitally deaf (white) cats were analyzed at around weaning age. Eleven animals were placed in a soundproof booth for 30 min at different ages, from the first to the beginning of the fourth postnatal month, every 2 weeks of life. In total, 13,874 vocalizations were analyzed using an automated procedure. Firstly, vocalizations were detected and segmented, with voiced and unvoiced vocalizations being differentiated. The voiced isolation calls ('meow') were further analyzed. These vocalizations showed developmental changes affecting several parameters in hearing controls, whereas the developmental sequence was delayed in congenitally deaf cats. In hearing-impaired and deaf animals, we observed differences both in vocal behavior (loudness and duration) and in the calls' acoustic structure (fundamental frequency and higher harmonics). The fundamental frequency decreased with age in all groups, most likely due to maturation of the vocal apparatus. In deaf cats, however, other aspects of the acoustic structure of the vocalizations did not fully mature. The harmonic ratio (i.e., frequency of first harmonic divided by fundamental frequency) was higher and more variable in deaf cats than in the other study groups. Auditory feedback thus affects the acoustic structure of vocalizations and their ontogenetic development. The study suggests that both the vocal apparatus and its neuronal motor control are subject to maturational processes, whereas the latter is additionally dependent on auditory feedback in cats. PMID:25519045

  16. Vocal Forgery in Forensic Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Patrick; Morel, Mathieu; Razik, Joseph; Chollet, Gérard

    This article describes techniques of vocal forgery able to affect automatic speaker recognition system in a forensic context. Vocal forgery covers two main aspects: voice transformation and voice conversion. Concerning voice transformation, this article proposes an automatic analysis of four specific disguised voices in order to detect the forgery and, for voice conversion, different ways to automatically imitate a target voice. Vocal forgery appears as a real and relevant question for forensic expertise. In most cases, criminals who make a terrorist claim or a miscellaneous call, disguise their voices to hide their identity or to take the identity of another person. Disguise is considered in this paper as a deliberate action of the speaker who wants to conceal or falsify his identity. Different techniques exist to transform one’s own voice. Some are sophisticated as software manipulation, some others are simpler as using an handkerchief over the mouth. In voice transformation, the presented work is dedicated to the study of disguise used in the most common cases. In voice conversion, different techniques will be presented, compared, and applied on an original example of the French President voice.

  17. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  18. Communication at the Garden Fence – Context Dependent Vocalization in Female House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoier, Svenja; Pfeifle, Christine

    2016-01-01

    House mice (Mus musculus) live in social groups where they frequently interact with conspecifics, thus communication (e.g. chemical and/or auditory) is essential. It is commonly known that male and female mice produce complex vocalizations in the ultrasonic range (USV) that remind of high-pitched birdsong (so called mouse song) which is mainly used in social interactions. Earlier studies suggest that mice use their USVs for mate attraction and mate choice, but they could also be used as signal during hierarchy establishment and familiarization, or other communication purposes. In this study we elucidated the vocalization behaviour of interacting female mice over an extended period of time under semi-natural conditions. We asked, if the rate or structure of female vocalization differs between different social and non-social contexts. We found that female USV is mainly used in social contexts, driven by direct communication to an unknown individual, the rate of which is decreased over time by a familiarization process. In addition we could show that female mice use two distinct types of USVs, differing in their frequency, which they use differently depending on whether they directly or indirectly communicate with another female. This supports the notion that vocalization in mice is context dependent, driven by a reasonable and yet underestimated amount of complexity that also involves the interplay between different sensory signals, like chemical and auditory cues. PMID:27022749

  19. Automatic classification of animal vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.

    2005-11-01

    Bioacoustics, the study of animal vocalizations, has begun to use increasingly sophisticated analysis techniques in recent years. Some common tasks in bioacoustics are repertoire determination, call detection, individual identification, stress detection, and behavior correlation. Each research study, however, uses a wide variety of different measured variables, called features, and classification systems to accomplish these tasks. The well-established field of human speech processing has developed a number of different techniques to perform many of the aforementioned bioacoustics tasks. Melfrequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) coefficients are two popular feature sets. The hidden Markov model (HMM), a statistical model similar to a finite autonoma machine, is the most commonly used supervised classification model and is capable of modeling both temporal and spectral variations. This research designs a framework that applies models from human speech processing for bioacoustic analysis tasks. The development of the generalized perceptual linear prediction (gPLP) feature extraction model is one of the more important novel contributions of the framework. Perceptual information from the species under study can be incorporated into the gPLP feature extraction model to represent the vocalizations as the animals might perceive them. By including this perceptual information and modifying parameters of the HMM classification system, this framework can be applied to a wide range of species. The effectiveness of the framework is shown by analyzing African elephant and beluga whale vocalizations. The features extracted from the African elephant data are used as input to a supervised classification system and compared to results from traditional statistical tests. The gPLP features extracted from the beluga whale data are used in an unsupervised classification system and the results are compared to labels assigned by experts. The

  20. ULTRASONIC NEUTRON DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Truell, R.; de Klerk, J.; Levy, P.W.

    1960-02-23

    A neutron dosimeter is described which utilizes ultrasonic waves in the megacycle region for determination of the extent of neutron damage in a borosilicate glass through ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation measurements before and after damage.

  1. Spark ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Nondestructive testing by spark transducer induces ultrasonic pulses in materials without physical contact. High power pulse generator connected to step up transformer produces sparking between two tungsten rods and ultrasonic energy pulses in test samples placed between rods.

  2. Ultrasonic pulser-receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven C.

    2006-09-12

    Ultrasonic pulser-receiver circuitry, for use with an ultrasonic transducer, the circuitry comprising a circuit board; ultrasonic pulser circuitry supported by the circuit board and configured to be coupled to an ultrasonic transducer and to cause the ultrasonic transducer to emit an ultrasonic output pulse; receiver circuitry supported by the circuit board, coupled to the pulser circuitry, including protection circuitry configured to protect against the ultrasonic pulse and including amplifier circuitry configured to amplify an echo, received back by the transducer, of the output pulse; and a connector configured to couple the ultrasonic transducer directly to the circuit board, to the pulser circuitry and receiver circuitry, wherein impedance mismatches that would result if the transducer was coupled to the circuit board via a cable can be avoided.

  3. Estimation of vocal fold plane in 3D CT images for diagnosis of vocal fold abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hewavitharanage, Sajini; Gubbi, Jayavardhana; Thyagarajan, Dominic; Lau, Ken; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Vocal folds are the key body structures that are responsible for phonation and regulating air movement into and out of lungs. Various vocal fold disorders may seriously impact the quality of life. When diagnosing vocal fold disorders, CT of the neck is the commonly used imaging method. However, vocal folds do not align with the normal axial plane of a neck and the plane containing vocal cords and arytenoids does vary during phonation. It is therefore important to generate an algorithm for detecting the actual plane containing vocal folds. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically estimate the vocal fold plane using vertebral column and anterior commissure localization. Gray-level thresholding, connected component analysis, rule based segmentation and unsupervised k-means clustering were used in the proposed algorithm. The anterior commissure segmentation method achieved an accuracy of 85%, a good estimate of the expert assessment. PMID:26736949

  4. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in the BTBR T+tf/J Mouse Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Gandhy, Shruti U.; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2008-01-01

    BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social abnormalities and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. Here we investigate ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR, to address the second diagnostic symptom of autism, communication deficits. As compared to the commonly used C57BL/6J (B6) strain, BTBR pups called more loudly and more frequently when separated from their mothers and siblings. Detailed analysis of ten categories of calls revealed an unusual pattern in BTBR as compared to B6. BTBR emitted high levels of harmonics, two-syllable, and composite calls, but minimal numbers of chevron-shaped syllables, upward, downward, and short calls. Because body weights were higher in BTBR than B6 pups, one possible explanation was that larger thoracic size was responsible for the louder calls and different distribution of syllable categories. To test this possibility, we recorded separation calls from FVB/NJ, a strain with body weights similar to BTBR, and 129X1/SvJ, a strain with body weights similar to B6. BTBR remained the outlier on number of calls, displaying low numbers of complex, upward, chevron, short, and frequency steps calls, along with high harmonics and composites. Further, developmental milestones and growth rates were accelerated in BTBR, indicating an unusual neurodevelopmental trajectory. Overall, our findings demonstrate strain-specific patterns of ultrasonic calls that may represent different lexicons, or innate variations in complex vocal repertoires, in genetically distinct strains of mice. Particularly intriguing is the unusual pattern of vocalizations and the more frequent, loud harmonics evident in the BTBR mouse model of autism that may resemble the atypical vocalizations seen in some autistic infants. PMID:18728777

  5. Ultrasonic search wheel probe

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing internal reflections from the tire of an ultrasonic search wheel probe or from within the material being examined. The device includes a liner with an anechoic chamber within which is an ultrasonic transducer. The liner is positioned within the wheel and includes an aperture through which the ultrasonic sound from the transducer is directed.

  6. Vocal Dose Measures: Quantifying Accumulated Vibration Exposure in Vocal Fold Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.; Švec, Jan G.; Popolo, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    To measure the exposure to self-induced tissue vibration in speech, three vocal doses were defined and described: distance dose, which accumulates the distance that tissue particles of the vocal folds travel in an oscillatory trajectory; energy dissipation dose, which accumulates the total amount of heat dissipated over a unit volume of vocal fold tissues; and time dose, which accumulates the total phonation time. These doses were compared to a previously used vocal dose measure, the vocal loading index, which accumulates the number of vibration cycles of the vocal folds. Empirical rules for viscosity and vocal fold deformation were used to calculate all the doses from the fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) values of speech. Six participants were asked to read in normal, monotone, and exaggerated speech and the doses associated with these vocalizations were calculated. The results showed that large F0 and SPL variations in speech affected the dose measures, suggesting that accumulation of phonation time alone is insufficient. The vibration exposure of the vocal folds in normal speech was related to the industrial limits for hand-transmitted vibration, in which the safe distance dose was derived to be about 500 m. This limit was found rather low for vocalization; it was related to a comparable time dose of about 17 min of continuous vocalization, or about 35 min of continuous reading with normal breathing and unvoiced segments. The voicing pauses in normal speech and dialogue effectively prolong the safe time dose. The derived safety limits for vocalization will likely require refinement based on a more detailed knowledge of the differences in hand and vocal fold tissue morphology and their response to vibrational stress, and on the effect of recovery of the vocal fold tissue during voicing pauses. PMID:12959470

  7. Vocal Imitation of Song and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantell, James T.; Pfordresher, Peter Q.

    2013-01-01

    We report four experiments that explored the cognitive bases of vocal imitation. Specifically, we investigated the accuracy with which normal individuals vocally imitated the pitch-time trajectories of spoken sentences and sung melodies, presented in their original form and with phonetic information removed. Overall, participants imitated melodies…

  8. Integrating perspectives on vocal performance and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Jon T.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent experiments in divergent fields of birdsong have revealed that vocal performance is important for reproductive success and under active control by distinct neural circuits. Vocal consistency, the degree to which the spectral properties (e.g. dominant or fundamental frequency) of song elements are produced consistently from rendition to rendition, has been highlighted as a biologically important aspect of vocal performance. Here, we synthesize functional, developmental and mechanistic (neurophysiological) perspectives to generate an integrated understanding of this facet of vocal performance. Behavioral studies in the field and laboratory have found that vocal consistency is affected by social context, season and development, and, moreover, positively correlated with reproductive success. Mechanistic investigations have revealed a contribution of forebrain and basal ganglia circuits and sex steroid hormones to the control of vocal consistency. Across behavioral, developmental and mechanistic studies, a convergent theme regarding the importance of vocal practice in juvenile and adult songbirds emerges, providing a basis for linking these levels of analysis. By understanding vocal consistency at these levels, we gain an appreciation for the various dimensions of song control and plasticity and argue that genes regulating the function of basal ganglia circuits and sex steroid hormones could be sculpted by sexual selection. PMID:22189763

  9. First Communion: The Emergence of Vocal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, John L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that vocal communion between infant and caregiver supports infants' language acquisition and connectedness with caregivers. Recommends research to determine whether social behaviors such as joint attention and vocal imitation are functionally related to language learning or are only symptomatic of a survival-centered caregiving…

  10. Vocal Activity, Time Pressure and Interpersonal Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John A.; Lashbrook, William B.

    This study examined the effects of differential time pressures on small group members' rankings of one another based on vocal activity. Vocal activity was operationalized as observed frequency of interaction. Time pressure was manipulated by allowing either six minutes or no time limit on a group problem-solving task. Main effects were…

  11. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  12. The neurobiology of primate vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Eliades, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of non-human primate communication revealed vocal behaviors far more complex than previously appreciated. Understanding the neural basis of these communicative behaviors is important as it has the potential to reveal the basic underpinnings of the still more complex human speech. The latest work revealed vocalization-sensitive regions both within and beyond the traditional boundaries of the central auditory system. The importance and mechanisms of multi-sensory face-voice integration in vocal communication are also increasingly apparent. Finally, studies on the mechanisms of vocal production demonstrated auditory-motor interactions that may allow for self-monitoring and vocal control. We review the current work in these areas of primate communication research. PMID:25062473

  13. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts. PMID:26080256

  14. Paradoxic vocal fold movement disorder.

    PubMed

    Matrka, Laura

    2014-02-01

    Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement Disorder (PVFMD) is a cause of dyspnea that can mimic or occur alongside asthma or other pulmonary disease. Treatment with Laryngeal Control Therapy is very effective once the entity is properly diagnosed and contributing comorbidities are managed appropriately. In understanding the etiology of PVFMD, focus has broadened beyond psychiatric factors alone to include the spectrum of laryngeal irritants (laryngopharyngeal reflux, allergic and sinus disease, sicca, and possibly obstructive sleep apnea). The following is a discussion of the history, terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis, comorbid conditions, and treatment of this entity. PMID:24286687

  15. Derived vocalizations of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) and the evolution of vocal complexity in primates

    PubMed Central

    Gustison, Morgan L.; le Roux, Aliza; Bergman, Thore J.

    2012-01-01

    Primates are intensely social and exhibit extreme variation in social structure, making them particularly well suited for uncovering evolutionary connections between sociality and vocal complexity. Although comparative studies find a correlation between social and vocal complexity, the function of large vocal repertoires in more complex societies remains unclear. We compared the vocal complexity found in primates to both mammals in general and human language in particular and found that non-human primates are not unusual in the complexity of their vocal repertoires. To better understand the function of vocal complexity within primates, we compared two closely related primates (chacma baboons and geladas) that differ in their ecology and social structures. A key difference is that gelada males form long-term bonds with the 2–12 females in their harem-like reproductive unit, while chacma males primarily form temporary consortships with females. We identified homologous and non-homologous calls and related the use of the derived non-homologous calls to specific social situations. We found that the socially complex (but ecologically simple) geladas have larger vocal repertoires. Derived vocalizations of geladas were primarily used by leader males in affiliative interactions with ‘their’ females. The derived calls were frequently used following fights within the unit suggesting that maintaining cross-sex bonds within a reproductive unit contributed to this instance of evolved vocal complexity. Thus, our comparison highlights the utility of using closely related species to better understand the function of vocal complexity. PMID:22641823

  16. Infant Vocalization When Alone: Possibility of Early Sound Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Yohko M.

    2012-01-01

    Five-month-old infants' vocalization when alone was investigated. Several researchers have reported observing that young infants vocalize in comfortable states without any response from others. As is implied by episodic reports in previous studies, it is possible that infants vocalize to play with their own vocal sound. Producing and listening to…

  17. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  18. Ultrasonic Microtransport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Richard Morgan, III

    We have observed numerous kinetic effects using ultrasonic flexural plate waves (FPWs) in 4mu -thick composite plates of low-stress silicon nitride, piezoelectric zinc oxide and aluminum. The wavelength is typically 100 mum, and the area 3 x 8 mm^2. A successful new surface micromachining fabrication process is presented here for the first time. FPWs have been used to move liquids and gasses with motion typically indicated by polysilicon blocks in air and polystyrene spheres in water; the velocity in air is 4.5 mm/s (with a zero-to-peak input of 3 V), and in water it is 100 mum/s (with an input of 7.8 V). Other observations include pumping of a liquid dye, and mixing near the FPW surface. All quantitative observations demonstrate that the kinetic effects of FPWs are proportional to the square of the wave amplitude. The amplitude for a typical device is 250 A at 9 V input; the power in a typical FPW is about 2 mW. The amplitude can be accurately measured using a laser diffraction technique. Experimental error is about +/-10%, and many of the results agree well with a simple theory to predict the FPW amplitude; extensions of the theory model the fluid loading of FPW devices, but experiment and theory disagree by about 15%. Pumping by flexural plate waves is an example of the phenomenon known as acoustic streaming. A common solution approach is the method of successive approximations, where the nonlinear equations are first linearized and solved. This "first-order" solution is then used to determine the inhomogeneous source terms in the linearized, "second -order" equations of motion. Theoretical predictions of streaming theory are in excellent agreement with experiment in the case where the FPW device contacts a half-space of fluid; predictions for flow in small channels encourage the development of integrated micropumps. Applications for microflow include thermal redistribution in integrated circuits and liquid movement in analytical instruments--particularly where

  19. Gestures, Vocalizations, and Memory in Language Origins

    PubMed Central

    Aboitiz, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the possible homologies between the human language networks and comparable auditory projection systems in the macaque brain, in an attempt to reconcile two existing views on language evolution: one that emphasizes hand control and gestures, and the other that emphasizes auditory–vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory–vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a “ventral pathway” connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a “dorsal pathway” connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal–premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication. PMID:22347184

  20. Detecting Depression Severity from Vocal Prosody

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Fairbairn, Catherine; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relation between vocal prosody and change in depression severity over time, 57 participants from a clinical trial for treatment of depression were evaluated at seven-week intervals using a semi-structured clinical interview for depression severity (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression: HRSD). All participants met criteria for Major Depressive Disorder at week 1. Using both perceptual judgments by naive listeners and quantitative analyses of vocal timing and fundamental frequency, three hypotheses were tested: 1) Naive listeners can perceive the severity of depression from vocal recordings of depressed participants and interviewers. 2) Quantitative features of vocal prosody in depressed participants reveal change in symptom severity over the course of depression. And 3) Interpersonal effects occur as well; such that vocal prosody in interviewers shows corresponding effects. These hypotheses were strongly supported. Together, participants’ and interviewers’ vocal prosody accounted for about 60% of variation in depression scores, and detected ordinal range of depression severity (low, mild, and moderate-to-severe) in 69% of cases (kappa = 0.53). These findings suggest that analysis of vocal prosody could be a powerful tool to assist in depression screening and monitoring over the course of depressive disorder and recovery. PMID:26985326

  1. Enhanced processing of vocal melodies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E; Dawber, Emily J

    2015-03-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies. In Study 1, 9- to 11-year-olds listened to 16 unfamiliar folk melodies (4 each of voice, piano, banjo, or marimba). They subsequently listened to the same melodies and 16 timbre-matched foils, and judged whether each melody was old or new. Vocal melodies were recognized better than instrumental melodies, which did not differ from one another, and the vocal advantage was consistent across age. In Study 2, 5- to 6-year-olds and 7- to 8-year-olds were tested with a simplified design that included only vocal and piano melodies. Both age groups successfully differentiated old from new melodies, but memory was more accurate for the older group. The older children recognized vocal melodies better than piano melodies, whereas the younger children tended to label vocal melodies as old whether they were old or new. The results provide the first evidence of differential processing of vocal and instrumental melodies in childhood. PMID:25706592

  2. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Polly; Pasch, Bret; Warren, Ashley L; Phelps, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides the raw material for

  3. Vocal learning beyond imitation: mechanisms of adaptive vocal development in songbirds and human infants

    PubMed Central

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Marcus, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of vocal learning in songbirds typically focus on the acquisition of sensory templates for song imitation and on the consequent process of matching song production to templates. However, functional vocal development also requires the capacity to adaptively diverge from sensory templates, and to flexibly assemble vocal units. Examples of adaptive divergence include the corrective imitation of abnormal songs, and the decreased tendency to copy overabundant syllables. Such frequency-dependent effects might mirror tradeoffs between the assimilation of group identity (culture) while establishing individual and flexibly expressive songs. Intriguingly, although the requirements for vocal plasticity vary across songbirds, and more so between birdsong and language, the capacity to flexibly assemble vocal sounds develops in a similar, stepwise manner across species. Therefore, universal features of vocal learning go well beyond the capacity to imitate. PMID:25005823

  4. Development of Auditory-Vocal Perceptual Skills in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Sims, Vanessa C.; Bottjer, Sarah W.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds are one of the few groups of animals that learn the sounds used for vocal communication during development. Like humans, songbirds memorize vocal sounds based on auditory experience with vocalizations of adult “tutors”, and then use auditory feedback of self-produced vocalizations to gradually match their motor output to the memory of tutor sounds. In humans, investigations of early vocal learning have focused mainly on perceptual skills of infants, whereas studies of songbirds have focused on measures of vocal production. In order to fully exploit songbirds as a model for human speech, understand the neural basis of learned vocal behavior, and investigate links between vocal perception and production, studies of songbirds must examine both behavioral measures of perception and neural measures of discrimination during development. Here we used behavioral and electrophysiological assays of the ability of songbirds to distinguish vocal calls of varying frequencies at different stages of vocal learning. The results show that neural tuning in auditory cortex mirrors behavioral improvements in the ability to make perceptual distinctions of vocal calls as birds are engaged in vocal learning. Thus, separate measures of neural discrimination and behavioral perception yielded highly similar trends during the course of vocal development. The timing of this improvement in the ability to distinguish vocal sounds correlates with our previous work showing substantial refinement of axonal connectivity in cortico-basal ganglia pathways necessary for vocal learning. PMID:23285011

  5. Memory disorders and vocal performance.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Tremblay-Champoux, Alexandra; Berkowska, Magdalena; Peretz, Isabelle

    2012-04-01

    The ability to carry a tune, natural for the majority, is underpinned by a complex functional system (i.e., the vocal sensorimotor loop, VSL). The VSL involves various components, including perceptual mechanisms, auditory-motor mapping, motor control, and memory. The malfunction of one of these components can bring about poor-pitch singing. So far, disturbed perception and deficient sensorimotor mapping have been treated as important causes of poor singing. Yet, memory has been paid relatively little attention. Here, we review results obtained from both occasional singers and individuals suffering from congenital amusia, who were asked to produce from memory or imitate a well-known melody under conditions with different memory loads. The findings point to memory as a relevant source of impairment in poor-pitch singing and to imitation as a useful aid for poor singers. PMID:22524377

  6. Audio-vocal responses of vocal fundamental frequency and formant during sustained vowel vocalizations in different noises.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shao-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Yu; Lee, Guo-She

    2015-06-01

    Sustained vocalizations of vowels [a], [i], and syllable [mə] were collected in twenty normal-hearing individuals. On vocalizations, five conditions of different audio-vocal feedback were introduced separately to the speakers including no masking, wearing supra-aural headphones only, speech-noise masking, high-pass noise masking, and broad-band-noise masking. Power spectral analysis of vocal fundamental frequency (F0) was used to evaluate the modulations of F0 and linear-predictive-coding was used to acquire first two formants. The results showed that while the formant frequencies were not significantly shifted, low-frequency modulations (<3 Hz) of F0 significantly increased with reduced audio-vocal feedback across speech sounds and were significantly correlated with auditory awareness of speakers' own voices. For sustained speech production, the motor speech controls on F0 may depend on a feedback mechanism while articulation should rely more on a feedforward mechanism. Power spectral analysis of F0 might be applied to evaluate audio-vocal control for various hearing and neurological disorders in the future. PMID:25749240

  7. Wedges for ultrasonic inspection

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Donald A.

    1982-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer device is provided which is used in ultrasonic inspection of the material surrounding a threaded hole and which comprises a wedge of plastic or the like including a curved threaded surface adapted to be screwed into the threaded hole and a generally planar surface on which a conventional ultrasonic transducer is mounted. The plastic wedge can be rotated within the threaded hole to inspect for flaws in the material surrounding the threaded hole.

  8. The "Silent Cough" Method for Vocal Hyperfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwitman, Daniel H.; Calcaterra, Thomas C.

    1973-01-01

    A method of silent coughing is recommended as an alternative to coughing and throat clearing which are described as vocally abusive activities that can be directly related to laryngeal disease. (Author/GW)

  9. What Is Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... your vocal cords. The breathing test is called spirometry and must include a flow-volume loop. This ... be so hard. To learn more about the spirometry test, see the ATS Patient Information Series fact ...

  10. Unexplained Profound Hypoglycemia After Vocal Fold Lipoinjection.

    PubMed

    Modanlou, Shohreh; Marie Giglio, Nicole; Carroll, Thomas; Pancaro, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Vocal fold injection is used for the management of glottal incompetence from various causes. The procedure is well tolerated and has few reported complications. We present a case of a 66-year-old man with long-lasting hoarseness secondary to vocal fold atrophy, who underwent an uneventful bilateral vocal fold injection with autologous fat. While in the recovery area, he experienced profuse sweating approximately 30 minutes after the surgical procedure. His blood glucose value was measured at 24 mg/dL, and plasmatic insulin level was 246 mU/L. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a systemic side effect after vocal fold lipoinjection. PMID:26491839

  11. Effects of distance on vocal intensity.

    PubMed

    Michael, D D; Siegel, G M; Pick, H L

    1995-10-01

    The vocal response of speakers to change of distance from a listener is in dispute. Warren (1968) found that speakers obeyed the inverse square law when compensating for distance changes; that is, they decreased their vocal intensity by 6 dB when distance was halved. However, speakers in a study of Johnson, Pick, Siegel, Cicciarelli, and Garber (1981) changed their vocal intensity by much less than 6 dB. This study was an attempt to reconcile the conflicting results and to gain better understanding of what people know implicitly about the effects of distance on intensity. Speakers in the present study significantly changed their vocal intensity to compensate for changes in distance, but by a maximum of 2.46 dB. Possible reasons for the different results are discussed. PMID:8558886

  12. The power of ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Profit, Alan L; Martini, Luigi G

    2005-01-01

    This overview of ultrasonic technologies describes their effectiveness for a number of applications. Product examples illustrate use for welding, cutting and boring as well as atomising. PMID:16334603

  13. Ultrasonic Bolt Gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleman, Stuart M. (Inventor); Rowe, Geoffrey K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An ultrasonic bolt gage is described which uses a crosscorrelation algorithm to determine a tension applied to a fastener, such as a bolt. The cross-correlation analysis is preferably performed using a processor operating on a series of captured ultrasonic echo waveforms. The ultrasonic bolt gage is further described as using the captured ultrasonic echo waveforms to perform additional modes of analysis, such as feature recognition. Multiple tension data outputs, therefore, can be obtained from a single data acquisition for increased measurement reliability. In addition, one embodiment of the gage has been described as multi-channel, having a multiplexer for performing a tension analysis on one of a plurality of bolts.

  14. [Surgery of benign vocal fold lesions].

    PubMed

    Olthoff, A

    2016-09-01

    Surgical treatment of benign vocal fold lesions can be indicated for clinical or functional reasons. The principles of phonosurgery have to be maintained in either case. The appropriate phonosurgical technique depends on the type of vocal fold lesion. Depending on the findings, phonosurgery aims to maintain or improve voice quality. The evaluation of clinical and functional results includes indirect laryngoscopy, videostroboscopy, and voice analysis. PMID:27552826

  15. [Our attitude in functional vocal pathology].

    PubMed

    Garcin, M; Danoy, M C; Heuillet, G

    1987-01-01

    After underlining the frequency of organic lesions observed in functional diseases of vocal cords, emphasis is placed on the importance of the phonetogram in their evaluation and video-laryngo-stroboscopic investigation in their diagnosis. When surgery is necessary, stainless steel instruments are preferred to the laser. Respective isolated or associated vocal reeducational and surgical indications are discussed, and the establishment of a team including laryngologist, phoniatrist and orthophonist recommended to ensure most effective results. PMID:3445981

  16. Scaled-up in vitro experiments of vocal fold paralysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Keith; Wei, Timothy; Krane, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Vocal fold paralysis is the inability of either one, or both vocal folds to open and close properly. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV) measurements were taken to further understand the consequences paralyzed vocal folds have on the fluid dynamics downstream of the vocal folds during human phonation. The experiments were taken in a free-stream water tunnel using a simplified scaled-up model of human vocal folds. The Reynolds and Strouhal numbers ranged from 4500 to 10000, and 0.01 to 0.04, respectively. Various configuration setups were tested to emulate several types of vocal fold paralyses. These configurations include unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI), bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) and the vocal folds operating at different oscillating frequencies. Data from these different conditions will be compared with an eye toward understanding the critical dynamics associated with this class of disease.

  17. Mother-Infant Contingent Vocalizations in Eleven Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Mother-infant vocal interactions serve multiple functions in child development, but the community-common or community-specific nature of key features of their vocal interactions remains unclear. Here we examined rates, interrelations, and contingencies of vocal interactions in 684 mothers and their 5-month-old infants in diverse communities in 11 countries (Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cameroon, France, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, and United States). Rates of mothers’ and infants’ vocalizations varied widely across communities and were uncorrelated. However, collapsing across communities mothers vocalized to infants contingent on the offset of their infants’ nondistress vocalizing, infants vocalized contingent on the offset of their mothers’ vocalizing, and maternal and infant contingencies were significantly correlated, pointing to the beginnings of dyadic conversational turn taking. Despite broad differences in the overall talkativeness of mothers and infants, maternal and infant contingent vocal responsiveness is common across communities, supporting essential functions of turn-taking in early child socialization. PMID:26133571

  18. Vocal Tract Articulation in Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Ohms, Verena R.; Snelderwaard, Peter Ch.; ten Cate, Carel; Beckers, Gabriël J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. Methodology/Principal Findings Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC) as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. Conclusion These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation. PMID:20689831

  19. Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship) call and alarm call. Results Multi-parametric analyses of the calls’ acoustic parameters and discriminant function analyses showed that advertisement calls, but not alarm calls, contain patrilineal signatures. Playback experiments controlling for familiarity showed that females paid more attention to advertisement calls from unrelated males than from their fathers. Reactions to alarm calls from unrelated males and fathers did not differ. Conclusions 1) Findings provide the first evidence of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitarily foraging mammal. 2) High predation, small body size, and dispersed social systems may select for acoustic paternal kin recognition in the high frequency/ultrasonic ranges, thus limiting risks of inbreeding and eavesdropping by predators or conspecific competitors. 3) Paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in mammals is not dependent upon a large brain and high social complexity, but may already have been an integral part of the dispersed social networks from which more complex, kin-based sociality emerged. PMID:23198727

  20. Afferents from Vocal Motor and Respiratory Effectors are Recruited during Vocal Production in Juvenile Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Bottjer, Sarah W.; To, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Learned behaviors require coordination of diverse sensory inputs with motivational and motor systems. Although mechanisms underlying vocal learning in songbirds have focused primarily on auditory inputs, it is likely that sensory inputs from vocal effectors also provide essential feedback. We investigated the role of somatosensory and respiratory inputs from vocal effectors of juvenile zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) during the stage of sensorimotor integration when they are learning to imitate a previously memorized tutor song. We report that song production induced expression of the immediate early gene product Fos in trigeminal regions that receive hypoglossal afferents from the tongue and syrinx (the main vocal organ). Furthermore, unilateral lesion of hypoglossal afferents greatly diminished singing-induced Fos expression on the side ipsilateral to the lesion, but not on the intact control side. In addition, unilateral lesion of the vagus reduced Fos expression in the ipsilateral nucleus of the solitary tract in singing birds. Lesion of the hypoglossal nerve to the syrinx greatly disrupted vocal behavior, whereas lesion of the hypoglossal nerve to the tongue exerted no obvious disruption and lesions of the vagus caused some alterations to song behavior. These results provide the first functional evidence that somatosensory and respiratory feedback from peripheral effectors is activated during vocal production and conveyed to brainstem regions. Such feedback is likely to play an important role in vocal learning during sensorimotor integration in juvenile birds and in maintaining stereotyped vocal behavior in adults. PMID:22875924

  1. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  2. Experiments in Pulsed Ultrasonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Forster, G. A.

    1970-01-01

    Describes and apparatus designed to generate and detect pulsed ultrasonics in solids and liquids over the frequency range 1-20 MHz. Experiments are suggested for velocity of sound, elastic constant and ultrasonic attenuation measurements on various materials over a wide temperature range. The equipment should be useful for demonstration purposes.…

  3. Ultrasonic measurement apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, J.; Mayes, J.C.

    1992-07-14

    This patent describes borehole measurement apparatus. It comprises a tool adapted for connection in a drill string in the borehole through earth formations, first and second ultra-sonic transmitter means disposed diametrically opposed from each other in the cylindrical body, first and second ultra-sonic transducer means disposed in the cylindrical body, and logic means, processing means, and memory means.

  4. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, A. Wren; Nummela, Samuel U.; de la Mothe, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. PMID:26084912

  5. Sensory Feedback Control of Mammalian Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Smotherman, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in particular are unique in their absolute dependence on voice control for survival: these animals must constantly adjust the acoustic and temporal patterns of their orientation sounds to efficiently navigate and forage for insects at high speeds under the cover of darkness. Many species of bats also utter a broad repertoire of communication sounds. The functional neuroanatomy of the bat vocal motor pathway is basically identical to other mammals, but the acute significance of sensory feedback in echolocation has made this a profitable model system for studying general principles of sensorimotor integration with regard to vocalizing. Bats and humans are similar in that they both maintain precise control of many different voice parameters, both exhibit a similar suite of responses to altered auditory feedback, and for both the efficacy of sensory feedback depends upon behavioral context. By comparing similarities and differences in the ways sensory feedback influences voice in humans and bats, we may shed light on the basic architecture of the mammalian vocal motor system and perhaps be able to better distinguish those features of human vocal control that evolved uniquely in support of speech and language. PMID:17449116

  6. Sensory feedback control of mammalian vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Smotherman, Michael S

    2007-09-01

    Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in particular are unique in their absolute dependence on voice control for survival: these animals must constantly adjust the acoustic and temporal patterns of their orientation sounds to efficiently navigate and forage for insects at high speeds under the cover of darkness. Many species of bats also utter a broad repertoire of communication sounds. The functional neuroanatomy of the bat vocal motor pathway is basically identical to other mammals, but the acute significance of sensory feedback in echolocation has made this a profitable model system for studying general principles of sensorimotor integration with regard to vocalizing. Bats and humans are similar in that they both maintain precise control of many different voice parameters, both exhibit a similar suite of responses to altered auditory feedback, and for both the efficacy of sensory feedback depends upon behavioral context. By comparing similarities and differences in the ways sensory feedback influences voice in humans and bats, we may shed light on the basic architecture of the mammalian vocal motor system and perhaps be able to better distinguish those features of human vocal control that evolved uniquely in support of speech and language. PMID:17449116

  7. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2001-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  8. Characterization of Neonatal Vocal and Motor Repertoire of Reelin Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Angela; Laviola, Giovanni; Scattoni, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Reelin is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing an important role in early neurodevelopment. Several genetic studies found an association between RELN gene and increased risk of autism suggesting that reelin deficiency may be a vulnerability factor in its etiology. Moreover, a reduced reelin expression has been observed in several brain regions of subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Since a number of reports have documented presence of vocal and neuromotor abnormalities in patients with autism and suggested that these dysfunctions predate the onset of the syndrome, we performed a fine-grain characterization of the neonatal vocal and motor repertoire in reelin mutant mice to explore the developmental precursors of the disorder. Our findings evidence a general delay in motor and vocal development in heterozygous (50% reduced reelin) and reeler (lacking reelin gene) mutant mice. As a whole, an increased number of calls characterized heterozygous pup's emission. Furthermore, the typical ontogenetic peak in the number of calls characterizing wild-type pups on postnatal day 4 appeared slightly delayed in heterozygous pups (to day 6) and was quite absent in reeler littermates, which exhibited a flat profile during development. We also detected a preferential use of a specific call category (two-components) by heterozygous and reeler mice at postnatal days 6 and 8 as compared to their wild-type littermates. With regard to the analysis of spontaneous movements, a differential profile emerged early in development among the three genotypes. While only slight coordination difficulties are exhibited by heterozygous pups, all indices of motor development appear delayed in reeler mice. Overall, our results evidence a genotype-dependent deviation in ultrasonic vocal repertoire and a general delay in motor development in reelin mutant pups. PMID:23700474

  9. Silent or Vocalizing Rats Copulate in a Similar Manner

    PubMed Central

    Ågmo, Anders; Snoeren, Eelke M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Both male and female rats produce 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in the presence of a sexual partner and during copulation. Previous studies showed that USVs have no incentive value for rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of USVs in behavior during copulation. Three groups of rats were used: sham males paired with sham females, devocalized females paired with sham males, and sham females paired with devocalized males. During the copulation test, the USVs emitted by the sham rat were recorded and the sexual behavior of both the male and the female were observed. The results revealed that devocalized and sham females showed similar patterns of sexual behavior and no difference was found in the copulatory behavior of devocalized and sham males. Also the behavior of the partner of a sham rat was comparable to the partner of a devocalized rat. In addition, almost no changes in USVs emission were found in the 5 seconds before and/or after a copulatory behavior. It can be concluded that USVs play no important role in rat copulatory behavior at least in sexually naïve rats. PMID:26633013

  10. Vocal Development: How Marmoset Infants Express Their Feelings.

    PubMed

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2016-05-23

    A new study shows that vocal sequences produced by newborn marmoset monkeys are driven by slow fluctuations in physiological state; the results shed light on the evolution of vocal communication between newborns and parents. PMID:27218851

  11. Effects of Verbal-Vocal Message Discrepancy on Teacher Credibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr, P. J.; Beatty, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Vocal cues which were inconsistent with verbal messages and their effects on teacher credibility were examined. Results suggested that teacher credibility was at least partially dependent upon the degree of verbal vocal consistency in teachers' messages. (Author/MH)

  12. Vocal quality factors: analysis, synthesis, and perception.

    PubMed

    Childers, D G; Lee, C K

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine several factors of vocal quality that might be affected by changes in vocal fold vibratory patterns. Four voice types were examined: modal, vocal fry, falsetto, and breathy. Three categories of analysis techniques were developed to extract source-related features from speech and electroglottographic (EGG) signals. Four factors were found to be important for characterizing the glottal excitations for the four voice types: the glottal pulse width, the glottal pulse skewness, the abruptness of glottal closure, and the turbulent noise component. The significance of these factors for voice synthesis was studied and a new voice source model that accounted for certain physiological aspects of vocal fold motion was developed and tested using speech synthesis. Perceptual listening tests were conducted to evaluate the auditory effects of the source model parameters upon synthesized speech. The effects of the spectral slope of the source excitation, the shape of the glottal excitation pulse, and the characteristics of the turbulent noise source were considered. Applications for these research results include synthesis of natural sounding speech, synthesis and modeling of vocal disorders, and the development of speaker independent (or adaptive) speech recognition systems. PMID:1837797

  13. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger W.

    2001-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  14. Vocal repertoire of the social giant otter.

    PubMed

    Leuchtenberger, Caroline; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Duplaix, Nicole; Magnusson, William E; Mourão, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    According to the "social intelligence hypothesis," species with complex social interactions have more sophisticated communication systems. Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) live in groups with complex social interactions. It is likely that the vocal communication of giant otters is more sophisticated than previous studies suggest. The objectives of the current study were to describe the airborne vocal repertoire of giant otters in the Pantanal area of Brazil, to analyze call types within different behavioral contexts, and to correlate vocal complexity with level of sociability of mustelids to verify whether or not the result supports the social intelligence hypothesis. The behavior of nine giant otters groups was observed. Vocalizations recorded were acoustically and statistically analyzed to describe the species' repertoire. The repertoire was comprised by 15 sound types emitted in different behavioral contexts. The main behavioral contexts of each sound type were significantly associated with the acoustic variable ordination of different sound types. A strong correlation between vocal complexity and sociability was found for different species, suggesting that the communication systems observed in the family mustelidae support the social intelligence hypothesis. PMID:25373985

  15. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  16. Ultrasonic frogs show hyperacute phonotaxis to female courtship calls.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun-Xian; Feng, Albert S; Xu, Zhi-Min; Yu, Zu-Lin; Arch, Victoria S; Yu, Xin-Jian; Narins, Peter M

    2008-06-12

    Sound communication plays a vital role in frog reproduction, in which vocal advertisement is generally the domain of males. Females are typically silent, but in a few anuran species they can produce a feeble reciprocal call or rapping sounds during courtship. Males of concave-eared torrent frogs (Odorrana tormota) have demonstrated ultrasonic communication capacity. Although females of O. tormota have an unusually well-developed vocal production system, it is unclear whether or not they produce calls or are only passive partners in a communication system dominated by males. Here we show that before ovulation, gravid females of O. tormota emit calls that are distinct from males' advertisement calls, having higher fundamental frequencies and harmonics and shorter call duration. In the field and in a quiet, darkened indoor arena, these female calls evoke vocalizations and extraordinarily precise positive phonotaxis (a localization error of <1 degrees ), rivalling that of vertebrates with the highest localization acuity (barn owls, dolphins, elephants and humans). The localization accuracy of O. tormota is remarkable in light of their small head size (interaural distance of <1 cm), and suggests an additional selective advantage of high-frequency hearing beyond the ability to avoid masking by low-frequency background noise. PMID:18469804

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis. PMID:24403969

  18. Effects of speech style, room acoustics, and vocal fatigue on vocal effort.

    PubMed

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Vocal effort is a physiological measure that accounts for changes in voice production as vocal loading increases. It has been quantified in terms of sound pressure level (SPL). This study investigates how vocal effort is affected by speaking style, room acoustics, and short-term vocal fatigue. Twenty subjects were recorded while reading a text at normal and loud volumes in anechoic, semi-reverberant, and reverberant rooms in the presence of classroom babble noise. The acoustics in each environment were modified by creating a strong first reflection in the talker position. After each task, the subjects answered questions addressing their perception of the vocal effort, comfort, control, and clarity of their own voice. Variation in SPL for each subject was measured per task. It was found that SPL and self-reported effort increased in the loud style and decreased when the reflective panels were present and when reverberation time increased. Self-reported comfort and control decreased in the loud style, while self-reported clarity increased when panels were present. The lowest magnitude of vocal fatigue was experienced in the semi-reverberant room. The results indicate that early reflections may be used to reduce vocal effort without modifying reverberation time. PMID:27250179

  19. VOCAL: Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language. Technical Report No. 291.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckley, Michael; And Others

    VOCAL (Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language) is designed to facilitate the authoring of computer assisted curricula which incorporate highly interactive audio and text presentations. Lessons written in VOCAL are intended to be patterned after the style of informal classroom lectures. VOCAL contains features that allow the author to specify…

  20. Effect of auditory stimuli on conditioned vocal behavior of budgerigars.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yoshimasa; Dooling, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) is a highly social species and serves as an excellent model of vocal learning and production. This species can be trained to vocalize as a conditioned response using an operant conditioning paradigm. In addition, the birds can be trained to produce different vocalizations in response to different visual signals. Budgerigars may be fairly unique in the capability for vocal production under operant control. Whether acoustic features of the bird's natural social milieu can influence this conditioned vocal output is uncertain. The present study asked whether conditioned vocal behavior in budgerigars can be influenced by hearing vocalizations of other birds. The results show that birds vocalizing under operant control produced louder calls in the presence of vocalizations from other birds, than in pure tones or in quiet. The acoustic variation of the conditioned vocalization also increased when it is in the context of hearing other . These results reveal a functional connection between the vocal production under operant control and the perceptual mechanisms subserving vocal production in the budgerigars' natural social milieu. PMID:26598232

  1. The Development and Validation of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaume, William A.; Brown, Mary Helen

    1999-01-01

    Notes that presbycusis, hearing loss associated with aging, may be marked by a second dimension of hearing loss, a loss in vocalic sensitivity. Reports on the development of the Vocalic Sensitivity Test, which controls for the verbal elements in speech while also allowing for the vocalics to exercise their normal metacommunicative function of…

  2. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  3. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  4. Ultrasonic Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, Steven (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An imaging system is described which can be used to either passively search for sources of ultrasonics or as an active phase imaging system. which can image fires. gas leaks, or air temperature gradients. This system uses an array of ultrasonic receivers coupled to an ultrasound collector or lens to provide an electronic image of the ultrasound intensity in a selected angular region of space. A system is described which includes a video camera to provide a visual reference to a region being examined for ultrasonic signals.

  5. Ultrasonic determination of recrystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and colume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  6. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water. PMID:26215790

  7. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  8. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  9. A reflex resonance model of vocal vibrato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Ingo R.; Story, Brad; Smith, Marshall; Long, Russel

    2002-05-01

    A reflex mechanism with a long latency (>40 ms) is implicated as a plausible cause of vocal vibrato. At least one pair of agonist-antagonist muscles that can change vocal-fold length is needed, such as the cricothyroid muscle paired with the thyroarytenoid muscle, or the cricothyroid muscle paired with the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle or a strap muscle. Such an agonist-antagonist muscle pair can produce negative feedback instability in vocal-fold length with this long reflex latency, producing oscillations on the order of 5-7 Hz. It is shown that singers appear to increase the gain in the reflex loop to cultivate the vibrato, which grows out of a spectrum of 0-15-Hz physiologic tremors in raw form.

  10. Shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues and their effect on vocal fold oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Roger Wai Kai

    Viscoelastic shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues and phonosurgical biomaterials were measured with a parallel-plate rotational rheometer. Elastic, viscous and damping properties were quantified as a function of frequency (0.01 Hz to 15 Hz) for human vocal fold mucosal tissues (N = 15), implantable biomaterials commonly used in the treatment of vocal fold paralysis (Teflon, gelatin, and collagen) (the non-mucosal group), and biomaterials currently or potentially useful in the treatment of vocal fold mucosal defects (adipose tissue or fat, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin) (the mucosal group). It was found that intersubject differences as large as an order of magnitude were often observed for the shear properties of vocal fold mucosal tissues, part of which may be age- and gender-related. Shear properties of the non-mucosal group biomaterials were often much higher than those of the mucosal group biomaterials, which were relatively close to the shear properties of mucosal tissues. Viscoelastic and rheological modeling showed that shear properties of human vocal fold mucosa may be described by a quasi-linear viscoelastic theory and a statistical network theory, based upon which extrapolations to audio frequencies were possible. A theory of small-amplitude vocal fold oscillation was revisited to describe the effects of tissue shear properties on vocal fold oscillation and phonation threshold pressure, a measure of the 'ease' of phonation and an objective indication of vocal function. It was found that phonation threshold pressure is directly related to the viscous shear modulus or the 'effective damping modulus', a concept proposed to quantify the effective amount of damping in vocal fold oscillation. The mucosal group biomaterials were incorporated into the artificial vocal fold mucosa of a physical model in order to empirically assess their effects on phonation threshold pressure. Results showed that higher threshold pressures were consistently observed

  11. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the true vocal fold.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Nilantha; Sandler, Belinda; Amonoo-Kuofi, Kwame; Swamy, Rajiv; Kothari, Prasad; Mochloulis, George

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) of the true vocal fold. Our patient, a 62-year-old woman, presented with dysphonia. On workup, fiberoptic laryngoscopy detected a lesion arising from the anterior half of her left true vocal fold. No evidence of other pathology was noted. The patient underwent radical radiotherapy, and the lesion resolved. Follow-up revealed no sign of recurrence. A type of myeloma, EMP is rare, especially in the larynx. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents the sixth case of glottic EMP to be reported in the literature. PMID:22930090

  12. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and vocal dose of a vocal loading test in comparison to a real teaching situation.

    PubMed

    Echternach, Matthias; Nusseck, Manfred; Dippold, Sebastian; Spahn, Claudia; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    Vocal loading capacity is an important aspect of vocal health, especially for people in vocally demanding occupations such as teaching. To analyze vocal loading, vocal loading tests (VLTs) or portable voice devices such as accelerometers have been used. However, it remains unclear how much a VLT in a clinical setup reflects the vocal effort of a real situation, in particular for teachers in a given classroom lesson. In this study of vocally healthy 101 student teachers, we analyzed different vocal doses for a 10-min VLT (80 dB at a distance of 30 cm) and a real 45-min teaching lesson. The phonation time, fundamental frequency, sound pressure level, and noise level were recorded using the VoxLog accelerometer/microphone system for both conditions. From these measurements the time dose, cycle dose, distance dose, energy dissipation dose, and radiated energy dose were calculated. The VLT was associated with a higher fundamental frequency, a higher sound pressure level, and higher relative phonation time compared to the real teaching lesson. Nevertheless, most vocal doses did not differ significantly between the conditions. A VLT of 10 min with >80 dB at 30 cm distance shows only small differences of vocal doses in comparison to a real teaching situation of 45 min. Thus, for clinical vocal assessment the vocal load of a VLT can be related to an approximately 45-min teaching situation. PMID:25012705

  13. The Effects of Class Voice and Breath Management Instruction on Vocal Knowledge, Attitudes, and Vocal Performance among Elementary Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Vispoel, Walter P.

    Forty-three elementary education majors in three classes took part in this study of the effectiveness of class voice instruction for elementary school children on vocal knowledge, attitudes, and vocal performance of the study participants. Two classes were assigned to one of the treatment conditions (vocal instruction with breath emphasis and…

  14. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet.

    PubMed

    Ohms, Verena R; Beckers, Gabriël J L; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A

    2012-01-01

    Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator. PMID:22162856

  15. Vocal tract articulation revisited: the case of the monk parakeet

    PubMed Central

    Ohms, Verena R.; Beckers, Gabriël J. L.; ten Cate, Carel; Suthers, Roderick A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Birdsong and human speech share many features with respect to vocal learning and development. However, the vocal production mechanisms have long been considered to be distinct. The vocal organ of songbirds is more complex than the human larynx, leading to the hypothesis that vocal variation in birdsong originates mainly at the sound source, while in humans it is primarily due to vocal tract filtering. However, several recent studies have indicated the importance of vocal tract articulators such as the beak and oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity. In contrast to most other bird groups, parrots have a prominent tongue, raising the possibility that tongue movements may also be of significant importance in vocal production in parrots, but evidence is rare and observations often anecdotal. In the current study we used X-ray cinematographic imaging of naturally vocalizing monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) to assess which articulators are possibly involved in vocal tract filtering in this species. We observed prominent tongue height changes, beak opening movements and tracheal length changes, which suggests that all of these components play an important role in modulating vocal tract resonance. Moreover, the observation of tracheal shortening as a vocal articulator in live birds has to our knowledge not been described before. We also found strong positive correlations between beak opening and amplitude as well as changes in tongue height and amplitude in several types of vocalization. Our results suggest considerable differences between parrot and songbird vocal production while at the same time the parrot's vocal articulation might more closely resemble human speech production in the sense that both make extensive use of the tongue as a vocal articulator. PMID:22162856

  16. Ultrasonic material property determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabian, S.

    1986-01-01

    The use and potential offered by ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to determine and/or monitor material properties is explored. The basis for such unique measurements along with examples of materials from a variety of industries are presented.

  17. Ultrasonic bone densitometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoop, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A device, for measuring the density of a bone structure so as to monitor the calcium content, is described. A pair of opposed spaced ultrasonic transducers are held within a clamping apparatus closely adjacent the bone being analyzed. These ultrasonic transducers incude piezoelectric crystals shaped to direct signals through the bone encompassed in the heel and finger of the subject being tested. A pulse generator is coupled to one of the transducers and generates an electric pulse for causing the transducers to generate an ultrasonic sound wave which is directed through the bone structure to the other transducer. An electric circuit, including an amplifier and a bandpass filter couples the signals from the receiver transducer back to the pulse generator for retriggering the pulse generator at a frequency proportional to the duration that the ultrasonic wave takes to travel through the bone structure being examined.

  18. Laser ultrasonics: Current research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.W. . Center for Nondestructive Evaluation)

    1990-09-26

    Laser-ultrasonics refers to a range of technologies involving the use of laser electrooptical systems both to generate and to detect ultrasonic signals in and on materials and structures. Such systems have been developed to permit classical ultrasonic measurements for materials characterization and defect identification and measurement. From the point of view of one concerned with practical applications of ultrasonic inspection and measurement methods, laser-ultrasonic systems offer the flexibility which, in principle, should permit remote ultrasonic measurements to be performed on objects at elevated temperatures or in hostile environments. Laser-ultrasonic systems can be designed and constructed with extremely wide and flat detection bandwidth so that ultrasonic vibrational displacements can be recorded with high fidelity. In addition, there is no mechanical loading of the surface to damp, absorb, or otherwise distort the propagating acoustic energy. This feature has been used to great advantage in performing ultrasonic measurements in thin plates and films. In spite of the great advantages offered by laser-ultrasonics, there are severe limitations which restrict its application. In fact, based upon the performance of current state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic systems, it is almost always more advantageous to use conventional ultrasonic transduction methods, if possible for a given application, than it is to apply laser-ultrasonics. In short, the main reason leading to this conclusion is the poor system detection sensitivity of laser-ultrasonic systems compared with piezoelectric transducer systems. The ramifications of this limited sensitivity are many.

  19. Audio-vocal responses elicited in adult cochlear implant users

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Torrey M.; Suneel, Deepa; Aronoff, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory deprivation experienced prior to receiving a cochlear implant could compromise neural connections that allow for modulation of vocalization using auditory feedback. In this report, pitch-shift stimuli were presented to adult cochlear implant users to test whether compensatory motor changes in vocal F0 could be elicited. In five of six participants, rapid adjustments in vocal F0 were detected following the stimuli, which resemble the cortically mediated pitch-shift responses observed in typical hearing individuals. These findings suggest that cochlear implants can convey vocal F0 shifts to the auditory pathway that might benefit audio-vocal monitoring. PMID:26520350

  20. [A case of vocal cord contact granuloma after vocal cord polyp surgery].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhili; Jiang, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    The vocal cord polyp is easy to relapse after surgery, but if the patient has recurrence in a short term, it is necessary to consider it as postoperative vocal cord contact granuloma. If the patients with contact granuloma after surgical treatment had severe impact on the pronunciation, it is necessary to be operated and confirmed by pathology and given the treatment of acid suppression, in order to avoid postoperative recurrence. PMID:27192916

  1. Vocal cord dysfunction, paradoxic vocal fold motion, or laryngomalacia? Our understanding requires an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Kent L; Morris, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    This article presents disorders of periodic occurrence of laryngeal obstruction (POLO) resulting in noisy breathing and dyspnea and a variety of secondary symptoms. Included in this classification are glottic disorders, such as paradoxic vocal fold movement and vocal cord dysfunction. The supraglottic disorder, termed, intermittent arytenoid region prolapse or laryngomalacia, is also reviewed. Three categories of POLO are defined as irritant, exertional, and psychological. PMID:20172256

  2. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-06-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  3. Predicting Achievable Fundamental Frequency Ranges in Vocalization Across Species

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo; Riede, Tobias; Mau, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are used as sound sources in various species, but it is unknown how vocal fold morphologies are optimized for different acoustic objectives. Here we identify two main variables affecting range of vocal fold vibration frequency, namely vocal fold elongation and tissue fiber stress. A simple vibrating string model is used to predict fundamental frequency ranges across species of different vocal fold sizes. While average fundamental frequency is predominantly determined by vocal fold length (larynx size), range of fundamental frequency is facilitated by (1) laryngeal muscles that control elongation and by (2) nonlinearity in tissue fiber tension. One adaptation that would increase fundamental frequency range is greater freedom in joint rotation or gliding of two cartilages (thyroid and cricoid), so that vocal fold length change is maximized. Alternatively, tissue layers can develop to bear a disproportionate fiber tension (i.e., a ligament with high density collagen fibers), increasing the fundamental frequency range and thereby vocal versatility. The range of fundamental frequency across species is thus not simply one-dimensional, but can be conceptualized as the dependent variable in a multi-dimensional morphospace. In humans, this could allow for variations that could be clinically important for voice therapy and vocal fold repair. Alternative solutions could also have importance in vocal training for singing and other highly-skilled vocalizations. PMID:27309543

  4. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative 'vocal' charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic 'meaning template' we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems. PMID:26361547

  5. Vocal Corollary Discharge Communicates Call Duration to Vertebrate Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Corollary discharge is essential to an animal's ability to filter self-generated from external stimuli. This includes acoustic communication, although direct demonstration of a corollary discharge that both conveys a vocal motor signal and informs the auditory system about the physical attributes of a self-generated vocalization has remained elusive for vertebrates. Here, we show the underlying synaptic activity of a neuronal vocal corollary discharge pathway in the hindbrain of a highly vocal species of fish. Neurons carrying the vocal corollary discharge are specifically adapted for the transmission of duration information, a predominant acoustic cue. The results reveal that vertebrates, like some insects, have a robust corollary discharge conveying call duration. Along with evidence for the influence of vocal duration on auditory encoding in mammals, these new findings suggest that linking vocal motor and corollary discharge pathways with pattern generating, call duration neurons is a shared network character across the animal kingdom. PMID:24285884

  6. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals. PMID:22711657

  7. Auditory lateralization of conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations in cats.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Laddago, Serena; Quaranta, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Auditory lateralization in response to both conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations (dog vocalizations) was observed in 16 tabby cats (Felis catus). Six different vocalizations were used: cat "purring," "meowing" and "growling" and dog typical vocalizations of "disturbance," "isolation" and "play." The head-orienting paradigm showed that cats turned their head with the right ear leading (left hemisphere activation) in response to their typical-species vocalization ("meow" and "purring"); on the other hand, a clear bias in the use of the left ear (right hemisphere activation) was observed in response to vocalizations eliciting intense emotion (dogs' vocalizations of "disturbance" and "isolation"). Overall these findings suggest that auditory sensory domain seems to be lateralized also in cat species, stressing the role of the left hemisphere for intraspecific communication and of the right hemisphere in processing threatening and alarming stimuli. PMID:26618245

  8. Vocal learning in elephants: neural bases and adaptive context.

    PubMed

    Stoeger, Angela S; Manger, Paul

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade clear evidence has accumulated that elephants are capable of vocal production learning. Examples of vocal imitation are documented in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, but little is known about the function of vocal learning within the natural communication systems of either species. We are also just starting to identify the neural basis of elephant vocalizations. The African elephant diencephalon and brainstem possess specializations related to aspects of neural information processing in the motor system (affecting the timing and learning of trunk movements) and the auditory and vocalization system. Comparative interdisciplinary (from behavioral to neuroanatomical) studies are strongly warranted to increase our understanding of both vocal learning and vocal behavior in elephants. PMID:25062469

  9. Vocal learning in elephants: neural bases and adaptive context

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S; Manger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade clear evidence has accumulated that elephants are capable of vocal production learning. Examples of vocal imitation are documented in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, but little is known about the function of vocal learning within the natural communication systems of either species. We are also just starting to identify the neural basis of elephant vocalizations. The African elephant diencephalon and brainstem possess specializations related to aspects of neural information processing in the motor system (affecting the timing and learning of trunk movements) and the auditory and vocalization system. Comparative interdisciplinary (from behavioral to neuroanatomical) studies are strongly warranted to increase our understanding of both vocal learning and vocal behavior in elephants. PMID:25062469

  10. Patterns in the vocalizations of male harbor seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Parijs, Sofie M.; Corkeron, Peter J.; Harvey, James; Hayes, Sean A.; Mellinger, David K.; Rouget, Philippe A.; Thompson, Paul M.; Wahlberg, Magnus; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2003-06-01

    Comparative analyses of the roar vocalization of male harbor seals from ten sites throughout their distribution showed that vocal variation occurs at the oceanic, regional, population, and subpopulation level. Genetic barriers based on the physical distance between harbor seal populations present a likely explanation for some of the observed vocal variation. However, site-specific vocal variations were present between genetically mixed subpopulations in California. A tree-based classification analysis grouped Scottish populations together with eastern Pacific sites, rather than amongst Atlantic sites as would be expected if variation was based purely on genetics. Lastly, within the classification tree no individual vocal parameter was consistently responsible for consecutive splits between geographic sites. Combined, these factors suggest that site-specific variation influences the development of vocal structure in harbor seals and these factors may provide evidence for the occurrence of vocal dialects.

  11. Infant vocalizations in response to speech: Vocal imitation and developmental change

    PubMed Central

    Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Infants’ development of speech begins with a language-universal pattern of production that eventually becomes language specific. One mechanism contributing to this change is vocal imitation. The present study was undertaken to examine developmental change in infants’ vocalizations in response to adults’ vowels at 12, 16, and 20 weeks of age and test for vocal imitation. Two methodological aspects of the experiment are noteworthy: (a) three different vowel stimuli (/a/, /i/, and /u/) were videotaped and presented to infants by machine so that the adult model could not artifactually influence infant utterances, and (b) infants’ vocalizations were analyzed both physically, using computerized spectrographic techniques, and perceptually by trained phoneticians who transcribed the utterances. The spectrographic analyses revealed a developmental change in the production of vowels. Infants’ vowel categories become more separated in vowel space from 12 to 20 weeks of age. Moreover, vocal imitation was documented. Infants listening to a particular vowel produced vocalizations resembling that vowel. A hypothesis is advanced extending Kuhl’s native language magnet (NLM) model to encompass infants’ speech production. It is hypothesized that infants listening to ambient language store perceptually derived representations of the speech sounds they hear which in turn serve as targets for the production of speech utterances. NLM unifies previous findings on the effects of ambient language experience on infants’ speech perception and the findings reported here that short-term laboratory experience with speech is sufficient to influence infants’ speech production. PMID:8865648

  12. Brown meagre vocalization rate increases during repetitive boat noise exposures: a possible case of vocal compensation.

    PubMed

    Picciulin, Marta; Sebastianutto, Linda; Codarin, Antonio; Calcagno, Giuliana; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated whether or not boat noise causes variations in brown meagre (Sciaena umbra) vocalizations recorded in a nearshore Mediterranean marine reserve. Six nocturnal experimental sessions were carried out from June to September 2009. In each of them, a recreational boat passed over vocalizing fish 6 times with 1 boat passage every 10 min. For this purpose three different boats were used in random order: an 8.5-m cabin-cruiser (CC), a 5-m fiberglass boat (FB), and a 7-m inflatable boat (INF). In situ continuous acoustic recordings were collected using a self-standing sonobuoy. Because boat noise levels largely exceeded both background noise and S. umbra vocalizations in the species' hearing frequency range, masking of acoustic communication was assumed. Although no immediate effect was observed during a single boat passage, the S. umbra mean pulse rate increased over multiple boat passages in the experimental condition but not in the control condition, excluding that the observed effect was due to a natural rise in fish vocalizations. The observed vocal enhancement may result either from an increased density of callers or from an increased number of pulses/sounds produced by already acoustically active individuals, as a form of vocal compensation. These two explanations are discussed. PMID:23145597

  13. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath's linguistic law.

    PubMed

    Gustison, Morgan L; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-05-10

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath's law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath's law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath's law reflects compression-the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language. PMID:27091968

  14. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    PubMed

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  15. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the “peep”) across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility. PMID:26290789

  16. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  17. Vocal Pitch Discrimination in the Motor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bufalari, Ilaria; Salmas, Paola; Busan, Pierpaolo; Fadiga, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Speech production can be broadly separated into two distinct components: Phonation and Articulation. These two aspects require the efficient control of several phono-articulatory effectors. Speech is indeed generated by the vibration of the vocal-folds in the larynx (F0) followed by "filtering" by articulators, to select certain resonant…

  18. Functional flexibility in wild bonobo vocal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Clay, Zanna; Archbold, Jahmaira; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    A shared principle in the evolution of language and the development of speech is the emergence of functional flexibility, the capacity of vocal signals to express a range of emotional states independently of context and biological function. Functional flexibility has recently been demonstrated in the vocalisations of pre-linguistic human infants, which has been contrasted to the functionally fixed vocal behaviour of non-human primates. Here, we revisited the presumed chasm in functional flexibility between human and non-human primate vocal behaviour, with a study on our closest living primate relatives, the bonobo (Pan paniscus). We found that wild bonobos use a specific call type (the "peep") across a range of contexts that cover the full valence range (positive-neutral-negative) in much of their daily activities, including feeding, travel, rest, aggression, alarm, nesting and grooming. Peeps were produced in functionally flexible ways in some contexts, but not others. Crucially, calls did not vary acoustically between neutral and positive contexts, suggesting that recipients take pragmatic information into account to make inferences about call meaning. In comparison, peeps during negative contexts were acoustically distinct. Our data suggest that the capacity for functional flexibility has evolutionary roots that predate the evolution of human speech. We interpret this evidence as an example of an evolutionary early transition away from fixed vocal signalling towards functional flexibility. PMID:26290789

  19. Patterns of Vocalization and Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Donald P.; Bouma, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses the interactive behavior that accompanies verbal exchange. It specifically describes a set of experiments designed to isolate an important subset of interactive behavior, the vocal (as opposed to the verbal) and to relate this information to a wide range of social impressions resulting from verbal exchange. (Available from…

  20. Children's recognition of emotions from vocal cues.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Disa A; Panattoni, Charlotte; Happé, Francesca

    2013-03-01

    Emotional cues contain important information about the intentions and feelings of others. Despite a wealth of research into children's understanding of facial signals of emotions, little research has investigated the developmental trajectory of interpreting affective cues in the voice. In this study, 48 children ranging between 5 and 10 years were tested using forced-choice tasks with non-verbal vocalizations and emotionally inflected speech expressing different positive, neutral and negative states. Children as young as 5 years were proficient in interpreting a range of emotional cues from vocal signals. Consistent with previous work, performance was found to improve with age. Furthermore, the two tasks, examining recognition of non-verbal vocalizations and emotionally inflected speech, respectively, were sensitive to individual differences, with high correspondence of performance across the tasks. From this demonstration of children's ability to recognize emotions from vocal stimuli, we also conclude that this auditory emotion recognition task is suitable for a wide age range of children, providing a novel, empirical way to investigate children's affect recognition skills. PMID:23331109

  1. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Andrew MR; Peake, Tom M; McGregor, Peter K

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either logistically or ethically problematic. Many studies have suggested that vocal individuality can be used to count and monitor populations over time; however, few have explicitly tested the method in this role. In this review we discuss methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals. PMID:15960848

  2. Treatment of early stage vocal cord carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, G.

    1989-03-01

    The cure rates for early stage vocal cord cancer are excellent with primary radiotherapy. Voice quality remains as good or becomes better than prior to treatment. For the local failures that do occur, surgical salvage will yield ultimate cure rates of about 95% for T1 and 90% for T2 tumors.

  3. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  4. The Tufts Non-Vocal Communication Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Richard A.; And Others

    Described are the efforts of the Biomedical Engineering Center in developing devices, particularly the Tufts Interactive Communicator (TIC) for the non-vocal severely physically disabled individual. It is noted that research has been conducted in the following areas: dictionary development, anticipatory communication, symbol communication, symbol…

  5. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    PubMed Central

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  6. Enhanced Processing of Vocal Melodies in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael W.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.; Dawber, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies.…

  7. Pupils dilate for vocal or familiar music.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Habashi, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Previous research reveals that vocal melodies are remembered better than instrumental renditions. Here we explored the possibility that the voice, as a highly salient stimulus, elicits greater arousal than nonvocal stimuli, resulting in greater pupil dilation for vocal than for instrumental melodies. We also explored the possibility that pupil dilation indexes memory for melodies. We tracked pupil dilation during a single exposure to 24 unfamiliar folk melodies (half sung to la la, half piano) and during a subsequent recognition test in which the previously heard melodies were intermixed with 24 novel melodies (half sung, half piano) from the same corpus. Pupil dilation was greater for vocal melodies than for piano melodies in the exposure phase and in the test phase. It was also greater for previously heard melodies than for novel melodies. Our findings provide the first evidence that pupillometry can be used to measure recognition of stimuli that unfold over several seconds. They also provide the first evidence of enhanced arousal to vocal melodies during encoding and retrieval, thereby supporting the more general notion of the voice as a privileged signal. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123682

  8. A Computational Study of the Effect of False Vocal Folds on Glottal Flow and Vocal Fold Vibration During Phonation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xudong; Bielamowicz, Steve; Luo, Haoxiang; Mittal, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    The false vocal folds are believed to be components of the acoustic filter that is responsible for shaping the voice. However, the effects of false vocal folds on the vocal fold vibration and the glottal aerodynamic during phonation remain unclear. This effect has implications for computational modeling of phonation as well as for understanding laryngeal pathologies such as glottal incompetence resulting from unilateral vocal fold paralysis. In this study, a high fidelity, two-dimensional computational model, which combines an immersed boundary method for the airflow and a continuum, finite-element method for the vocal folds, is used to examine the effect of the false vocal folds on flow-induced vibration (FIV) of the true vocal folds and the dynamics of the glottal jet. The model is notionally based on a laryngeal CT scan and employs realistic flow conditions and tissue properties. Results show that the false vocal folds potentially have a significant impact on phonation. The false vocal folds reduce the glottal flow impedance and increase the amplitude as well as the mean glottal jet velocity. The false vocal folds also enhance the intensity of the monopole acoustic sources in the glottis. A mechanism for reduction in flow impedance due to the false vocal folds is proposed. PMID:19142730

  9. A computational study of the effect of false vocal folds on glottal flow and vocal fold vibration during phonation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xudong; Bielamowicz, Steve; Luo, Haoxiang; Mittal, Rajat

    2009-03-01

    The false vocal folds are believed to be components of the acoustic filter that is responsible for shaping the voice. However, the effects of false vocal folds on the vocal fold vibration and the glottal aerodynamic during phonation remain unclear. This effect has implications for computational modeling of phonation as well as for understanding laryngeal pathologies such as glottal incompetence resulting from unilateral vocal fold paralysis. In this study, a high fidelity, two-dimensional computational model, which combines an immersed boundary method for the airflow and a continuum, finite-element method for the vocal folds, is used to examine the effect of the false vocal folds on flow-induced vibration (FIV) of the true vocal folds and the dynamics of the glottal jet. The model is notionally based on a laryngeal CT scan and employs realistic flow conditions and tissue properties. Results show that the false vocal folds potentially have a significant impact on phonation. The false vocal folds reduce the glottal flow impedance and increase the amplitude as well as the mean glottal jet velocity. The false vocal folds also enhance the intensity of the monopole acoustic sources in the glottis. A mechanism for reduction in flow impedance due to the false vocal folds is proposed. PMID:19142730

  10. Variability of normal vocal fold dynamics for different vocal loading in one healthy subject investigated by phonovibrograms.

    PubMed

    Doellinger, Michael; Lohscheller, Joerg; McWhorter, Andrew; Kunduk, Melda

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the potential of high-speed digital imaging technique (HSI) and the phonovibrogram (PVG) analysis in normal vocal fold dynamics by studying the effects of continuous voice use (vocal loading) during the workday. One healthy subject was recorded at sustained phonation 13 times within 2 consecutive days in the morning before and in the afternoon after vocal loading, respectively. Vocal fold dynamics were extracted and visualized by PVGs. The characteristic PVG patterns were extracted representing vocal fold vibration types. The parameter values were then analyzed by statistics regarding vocal load, left-right PVG asymmetries, anterior-posterior PVG asymmetries, and opening-closing differences. For the first time, the direct impact of vocal load could be determined by analyzing vocal fold dynamics. For same vocal loading conditions, equal dynamical behavior of the vocal folds were confirmed. Comparison of recordings performed in the morning with the recordings after work revealed significant changes in vibration behavior, indicating impact of occurring vocal load. Left-right asymmetries in vocal fold dynamics were found confirming earlier assumptions. Different dynamics between opening and closing procedure as well as for anterior and posterior parts were found. Constant voice usage stresses the vocal folds even in healthy subjects and can be detected by applying the PVG technique. Furthermore, left-right PVG asymmetries do occur in healthy voice to a certain extent. HSI in combination with PVG analysis seems to be a promising tool for investigation of vocal fold fatigue and pathologies resulting in small forms of dynamical changes. PMID:18313896

  11. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of materials hardness

    PubMed

    Badidi Bouda A; Benchaala; Alem

    2000-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental technique has been developed to measure velocities and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through a steel with a variable hardness. A correlation between ultrasonic measurements and steel hardness was investigated. PMID:10829663

  13. Ultrasonics in Dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, A. D.

    Ultrasonic instruments have been used in dentistry since the 1950's. Initially they were used to cut teeth but very quickly they became established as an ultrasonic scaler which was used to remove deposits from the hard tissues of the tooth. This enabled the soft tissues around the tooth to return to health. The ultrasonic vibrations are generated in a thin metal probe and it is the working tip that is the active component of the instrument. Scanning laser vibrometry has shown that there is much variability in their movement which is related to the shape and cross sectional shape of the probe. The working instrument will also generate cavitation and microstreaming in the associated cooling water. This can be mapped out along the length of the instrument indicating which are the active areas. Ultrasonics has also found use for cleaning often inaccessible or different surfaces including root canal treatment and dental titanium implants. The use of ultrasonics to cut bone during different surgical techniques shows considerable promise. More research is indicated to determine how to maximize the efficiency of such instruments so that they are more clinically effective.

  14. Ultrasonic call characteristics of rat pups are altered following prenatal malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Tonkiss, John; Bonnie, Kristin E; Hudson, Jamie L; Shultz, Penny L; Duran, Pilar; Galler, Janina R

    2003-09-01

    The male offspring of rats provided with a protein deficient diet (6% casein) for 5 weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy were subjected to a brief period of isolation and cooling at postnatal Days (P)7, 9, and 11, and their ultrasonic vocalizations were compared with those of well-nourished pups. Calls were categorized into 12 different types based upon their sonographic patterns. Although call rates were equal, the call characteristics of the prenatally malnourished pups differed significantly from those of well-nourished controls. At P7, their mean peak sound frequency (irrespective of call type) was significantly higher, and constant frequency calls were of both higher frequency and longer duration. Over the age range studied, prenatally malnourished pups emitted a smaller variety of calls, with significantly fewer ascending frequency vocalizations while producing either significantly fewer (P9) or greater (P11) descending frequency calls. Altered crying patterns have been related to brain damage in human babies, with more abnormal cries being associated with more severe neurological impairment. Therefore, the present results most likely reflect altered central nervous system development and function. Ultrasonic vocalization characteristics in rat pups may provide a useful early marker of the severity of disturbance to the development of the central nervous system following an insult, and offer the potential for predicting the degree of functional and behavioral deficits later in life. PMID:12918088

  15. Vocal activity of lesser galagos (Galago spp.) at zoos.

    PubMed

    Schneiderová, Irena; Zouhar, Jan; Štefanská, Lucie; Bolfíková, Barbora Černá; Lhota, Stanislav; Brandl, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Almost nothing is known about the natural vocal behavior of lesser galagos living in zoos. This is perhaps because they are usually kept in nocturnal exhibits separated from the visitors by a transparent and acoustically insulating glass barrier. The aim of the present study was therefore to fill this gap in knowledge of the vocal behavior of lesser galagos from zoos. This knowledge might be beneficial because the vocalizations of these small primates can be used for species determination. We performed a 10-day-long acoustic monitoring of vocal activity in each of seven various groups of Galago senegalensis and G. moholi living at four zoos. We quantitatively evaluated the occurrence of four loud vocalization types present in both species, including the most species-specific advertisement call. We found that qualitative as well as quantitative differences exist in the vocal behavior of the studied groups. We confirmed that the observed vocalization types can be collected from lesser galagos living at zoos, and the success can be increased by selecting larger and more diverse groups. We found two distinct patterns of diel vocal activity in the most vocally active groups. G. senegalensis groups were most vocally active at the beginning and at the end of their activity period, whereas one G. moholi group showed an opposite pattern. The latter is surprising, as it is generally accepted that lesser galagos emit advertisement calls especially at dawn and dusk, i.e., at the beginning and at the end of their diel activity. PMID:26741794

  16. Iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Marcus; Dale, Rick; Lupyan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gestural communication systems find that they originate from spontaneously created iconic gestures. Yet, we know little about how people create vocal communication systems, and many have suggested that vocalizations do not afford iconicity beyond trivial instances of onomatopoeia. It is unknown whether people can generate vocal communication systems through a process of iconic creation similar to gestural systems. Here, we examine the creation and development of a rudimentary vocal symbol system in a laboratory setting. Pairs of participants generated novel vocalizations for 18 different meanings in an iterative ‘vocal’ charades communication game. The communicators quickly converged on stable vocalizations, and naive listeners could correctly infer their meanings in subsequent playback experiments. People's ability to guess the meanings of these novel vocalizations was predicted by how close the vocalization was to an iconic ‘meaning template’ we derived from the production data. These results strongly suggest that the meaningfulness of these vocalizations derived from iconicity. Our findings illuminate a mechanism by which iconicity can ground the creation of vocal symbols, analogous to the function of iconicity in gestural communication systems. PMID:26361547

  17. The human language-associated gene SRPX2 regulates synapse formation and vocalization in mice.

    PubMed

    Sia, G M; Clem, R L; Huganir, R L

    2013-11-22

    Synapse formation in the developing brain depends on the coordinated activity of synaptogenic proteins, some of which have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we show that the sushi repeat-containing protein X-linked 2 (SRPX2) gene encodes a protein that promotes synaptogenesis in the cerebral cortex. In humans, SRPX2 is an epilepsy- and language-associated gene that is a target of the foxhead box protein P2 (FoxP2) transcription factor. We also show that FoxP2 modulates synapse formation through regulating SRPX2 levels and that SRPX2 reduction impairs development of ultrasonic vocalization in mice. Our results suggest FoxP2 modulates the development of neural circuits through regulating synaptogenesis and that SRPX2 is a synaptogenic factor that plays a role in the pathogenesis of language disorders. PMID:24179158

  18. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Poindexter, Allan M.; Ricks, Herbert E.

    1978-01-01

    A system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and or wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities.

  19. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  20. Acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical development, methodology, and potential applications of acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive testing are set forth in an overview to assess the effectiveness of the technique. Stochastic wave propagation is utilized to isolate and describe defects in fiber-reinforced composites, particularly emphasizing the integrated effects of diffuse populations of subcritical flaws. The generation and nature of acousto-ultrasonic signals are described in detail, and stress-wave factor analysis of the signals is discussed. Applications of acousto-ultrasonics are listed including the prediction of failure sites, assessing fatique and impact damage, calculating ultimate tensile strength, and determining interlaminar bond strength. The method can identify subtle but important variations in fiber-reinforced composites, and development of the related instrumentation technology is emphasized.

  1. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Herz, Jack L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a novel jackhammer that utilizes ultrasonic and/or sonic vibrations as source of power. It is easy to operate and does not require extensive training, requiring substantially less physical capabilities from the user and thereby increasing the pool of potential operators. An important safety benefit is that it does not fracture resilient or compliant materials such as cable channels and conduits, tubing, plumbing, cabling and other embedded fixtures that may be encountered along the impact path. While the ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer of the invention is able to cut concrete and asphalt, it generates little back-propagated shocks or vibrations onto the mounting fixture, and can be operated from an automatic platform or robotic system. PNEUMATICS; ULTRASONICS; IMPACTORS; DRILLING; HAMMERS BRITTLE MATERIALS; DRILL BITS; PROTOTYPES; VIBRATION

  2. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  3. Ultrasonic nondestructive materials characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A brief review of ultrasonic wave propagation in solid materials is presented with consideration of the altered behavior in anisotropic and nonlinear elastic materials in comparison with isotropic and linear elastic materials. Some experimental results are described in which ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements give insight into materials microstructure and associated mechanical properties. Recent developments with laser beam non-contact generation and detection of ultrasound are presented. The results of several years of experimental measurements using high-power ultrasound are discussed, which provide substantial evidence of the inability of presently accepted theories to fully explain the interaction of ultrasound with solid materials. Finally, a special synchrotron X-ray topographic system is described which affords the possibility of observing direct interaction of ultrasonic waves with the microstructural features of real crystalline solid materials for the first time.

  4. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  5. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  6. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Herz, Jack

    2005-01-01

    An ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer (USJ) is the latest in a series of related devices. Each of these devices cuts into a brittle material by means of hammering and chiseling actions of a tool bit excited with a combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations. A small-scale prototype of the USJ has been demonstrated. A fully developed, full-scale version of the USJ would be used for cutting through concrete, rocks, hard asphalt, and other materials to which conventional pneumatic jackhammers are applied, but the USJ would offer several advantages over conventional pneumatic jackhammers.

  7. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  8. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Lanham, R.N.

    1984-04-11

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  9. Ultrasonic shear wave couplant

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Lanham, Ronald N.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonically testing of an article at high temperatures is accomplished by the use of a compact layer of a dry ceramic powder as a couplant in a method which involves providing an ultrasonic transducer as a probe capable of transmitting shear waves, coupling the probe to the article through a thin compact layer of a dry ceramic powder, propagating a shear wave from the probe through the ceramic powder and into the article to develop echo signals, and analyzing the echo signals to determine at least one physical characteristic of the article.

  10. Evaluation of a vocal mand assessment and vocal mand training procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Bourret, Jason; Vollmer, Timothy R; Rapp, John T

    2004-01-01

    A common deficiency in the verbal repertoires of individuals with autism and related disorders is the absence of socially appropriate vocal mands. The vocal mand repertoires of these individuals may be lacking in several respects: (a) The individual might engage in no mands whatsoever, (b) the mand might be topographically dissimilar to an appropriate response, (c) the mand might be only partially topographically similar to an appropriate response, and (d) the mand might occur only after prompting. Depending on specific deficiencies in an individual's repertoire, different procedures for establishing appropriate mands may be needed. The purpose of Study 1 was to evaluate an assessment prior to teaching vocal mands for 3 individuals with developmental disabilities. The assessment showed that 1 individual displayed partial utterances of mands, 1 displayed vocal mands after mands had been reinforced, and 1 displayed vocal mands when prompted. Thus, in Study 2, a different teaching strategy was tested for each individual. Results showed that the assessment information could be linked directly to mand training for all 3 participants. PMID:15293633

  11. Vocal classification of vocalizations of a pair of Asian small-clawed otters to determine stress.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Peter M; Johnson, Michael T; Fry, Michelle; Hamel, Benjamin; Laclede, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    Asian Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinerea) are a small, protected but threatened species living in freshwater. They are gregarious and live in monogamous pairs for their lifetimes, communicating via scent and acoustic vocalizations. This study utilized a hidden Markov model (HMM) to classify stress versus non-stress calls from a sibling pair under professional care. Vocalizations were expertly annotated by keepers into seven contextual categories. Four of these-aggression, separation anxiety, pain, and prefeeding-were identified as stressful contexts, and three of them-feeding, training, and play-were identified as non-stressful contexts. The vocalizations were segmented, manually categorized into broad vocal type call types, and analyzed to determine signal to noise ratios. From this information, vocalizations from the most common contextual categories were used to implement HMM-based automatic classification experiments, which included individual identification, stress vs non-stress, and individual context classification. Results indicate that both individual identity and stress vs non-stress were distinguishable, with accuracies above 90%, but that individual contexts within the stress category were not easily separable. PMID:26233050

  12. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, Gregg A; McGinley, Matthew J; McCormick, David A

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/-) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/- mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/- mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/- song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene's role in general vocal motor control. PMID:26980647

  13. Developmental changes of cognitive vocal control in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Gavrilov, Natalja; Nieder, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary origins of human language are obscured by the scarcity of essential linguistic characteristics in non-human primate communication systems. Volitional control of vocal utterances is one such indispensable feature of language. We investigated the ability of two monkeys to volitionally utter species-specific calls over many years. Both monkeys reliably vocalized on command during juvenile periods, but discontinued this controlled vocal behavior in adulthood. This emerging disability was confined to volitional vocal production, as the monkeys continued to vocalize spontaneously. In addition, they continued to use hand movements as instructed responses during adulthood. This greater vocal flexibility of monkeys early in ontogeny supports the neoteny hypothesis in human evolution. This suggests that linguistic capabilities were enabled via an expansion of the juvenile period during the development of humans. PMID:27252457

  14. Acoustical and functional analysis of Mountain lion (Puma concolor) vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Jacquelyn

    2002-05-01

    A 2-year study resulted in acoustic analysis of the structure of over 900 mountain lion vocalizations recorded in a seminatural setting at Wildlife Prairie Park near Peoria, Illinois. A vocal repertoire was obtained by describing quantitative variables about the sounds, i.e., frequency of the dominant part of the sound (beginning, ending, maximum, and minimum), duration, and number of components. Other variables described the tonal, harmonic, and wideband qualities of the sounds. Behavioral data were collected during the same period. Further analysis of both acoustic and behavioral data was completed to develop a correlation matrix between vocalizations and behavior. This study also looked at the effects of seasons on vocal behavior. Correlations were found between vocalization types and rates of usage with specific behaviors. Vocalization type and the usage rate also varied by season.

  15. Omohyoid muscle transposition for the treatment of bowed vocal fold.

    PubMed

    Kojima, H; Hirano, S; Shoji, K; Omori, K; Honjo, I

    1996-07-01

    Imperfect glottal closure is usually the most important factor causing dysphonia in patients with bowing of the vocal folds. We have performed laryngeal framework surgery, which allows the medialization of the vocal folds from the outside without creating any scar tissue on them. Over the past 6 years, however, we encountered three cases with marked bowing of the vocal folds that could not be cured by laryngeal framework surgery alone. We used an open laryngeal procedure in these cases, even though such procedures had been considered contraindicated in the treatment of hoarseness. After performing a laryngofissure, we made a small pocket beneath the vocal fold mucosa at the anterior commissure. The superiorly based omohyoid muscle flap was then transposed into the mucosal pocket and sutured to the vocal process. This procedure should be considered an option in treating highly bowed vocal folds. PMID:8678430

  16. Vocal fold vibrations at high soprano fundamental frequencies.

    PubMed

    Echternach, Matthias; Döllinger, Michael; Sundberg, Johan; Traser, Louisa; Richter, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    Human voice production at very high fundamental frequencies is not yet understood in detail. It was hypothesized that these frequencies are produced by turbulences, vocal tract/vocal fold interactions, or vocal fold oscillations without closure. Hitherto it has been impossible to visually analyze the vocal mechanism due to technical limitations. Latest high-speed technology, which captures 20,000 frames/s, using transnasal endoscopy was applied. Up to 1568 Hz human vocal folds do exhibit oscillations with complete closure. Therefore, the recent results suggest that human voice production at very high F0s up to 1568 Hz is not caused by turbulence, but rather by airflow modulation from vocal fold oscillations. PMID:23363198

  17. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders. PMID:26436900

  18. Elastic models of vocal fold tissues.

    PubMed

    Alipour-Haghighi, F; Titze, I R

    1991-09-01

    Elastic properties of canine vocal fold tissue (muscle and mucosa) were obtained through a series of experiments conducted in vitro and were modeled mathematically. The elastic properties play a significant role in quantitative analysis of vocal fold vibrations and theory of pitch control. Samples of vocalis muscle and mucosa were dissected and prepared from dog larynges a few minutes premortem and kept in a Krebs solution at a temperature of 37 +/- 1 degrees C and a pH of 7.4 +/- 0.05. Samples of muscle tissue and mucosa were stretched and released in a slow, sinusoidal fashion. Force and displacement of the samples were measured with a dual-servo system (ergometer). After digitization, stress-strain data for samples of muscle tissue and cover tissue were averaged. The stress-strain data were then fitted numerically by polynomial and exponential models. PMID:1939897

  19. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  20. Vocal imitation of song and speech.

    PubMed

    Mantell, James T; Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2013-05-01

    We report four experiments that explored the cognitive bases of vocal imitation. Specifically, we investigated the accuracy with which normal individuals vocally imitated the pitch-time trajectories of spoken sentences and sung melodies, presented in their original form and with phonetic information removed. Overall, participants imitated melodies more accurately than sentences with respect to absolute pitch but not with respect to relative pitch or timing (overall duration). Notably, the presence of phonetic information facilitated imitation of both melodies and speech. Analyses of individual differences across studies suggested that the accuracy of imitating song predicts accuracy of imitating speech. Overall, these results do not accord with accounts of modular pitch processing that emphasize information encapsulation. PMID:23454792

  1. Vocal Parameters of Elderly Female Choir Singers

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22). The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82–349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28–348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28–95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63–94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group. PMID:26722341

  2. Vocal learning in seals, sea lions, and walruses.

    PubMed

    Reichmuth, Colleen; Casey, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    The pinnipeds provide a variety of clues to those interested in the vocal learning capabilities of non-human animals. Observational and experimental studies of seals, sea lions, and walruses reveal elements of vocal development, contextual control, plasticity in expression and learning, and even imitation of complex sounds. Consideration of the factors that influence the expression of these capabilities informs understanding of the behavioral and structural mechanisms that support vocal learning in mammals and the evolutionary forces shaping these capabilities. PMID:25042930

  3. Perinatally Influenced Autonomic System Fluctuations Drive Infant Vocal Sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yisi S; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-05-23

    The variable vocal behavior of human infants is the scaffolding upon which speech and social interactions develop. It is important to know what factors drive this developmentally critical behavioral output. Using marmoset monkeys as a model system, we first addressed whether the initial conditions for vocal output and its sequential structure are perinatally influenced. Using dizygotic twins and Markov analyses of their vocal sequences, we found that in the first postnatal week, twins had more similar vocal sequences to each other than to their non-twin siblings. Moreover, both twins and their siblings had more vocal sequence similarity with each other than with non-sibling infants. Using electromyography, we then investigated the physiological basis of vocal sequence structure by measuring respiration and arousal levels (via changes in heart rate). We tested the hypothesis that early-life influences on vocal output are via fluctuations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) mediated by vocal biomechanics. We found that arousal levels fluctuate at ∼0.1 Hz (the Mayer wave) and that this slow oscillation modulates the amplitude of the faster, ∼1.0 Hz respiratory rhythm. The systematic changes in respiratory amplitude result in the different vocalizations that comprise infant vocal sequences. Among twins, the temporal structure of arousal level changes was similar and therefore indicates why their vocal sequences were similar. Our study shows that vocal sequences are tightly linked to respiratory patterns that are modulated by ANS fluctuations and that the temporal structure of ANS fluctuations is perinatally influenced. PMID:27068420

  4. Vocally mediated social recognition in anurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bee, Mark A.

    2005-09-01

    Anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are among the most vocal of vertebrates and have long served as model systems for investigating the mechanisms and evolution of acoustic communication. Compared to higher vertebrates, however, the role of cognition in anuran communication has received less attention, at least in part due to the lack of evidence that juvenile anurans learn to produce signals or associate them with particular social contexts. Recent studies of social recognition in two anuran families indicate that territorial male frogs in some species are able to learn about and recognize the individually distinctive properties of the calls of nearby neighbors. For example, male bullfrogs (ranidae) learn about the pitch of a neighbor's vocalizations (an individually distinct voice property) and associate a familiar pitch with the location of the neighbor's territory. As in songbirds, this form of vocally mediated social recognition allows territory holders to direct low levels of aggression toward well-established neighbors, while maintaining a readiness to respond aggressively to more threatening strangers that may attempt a territory takeover. A brief review of currently available data will be used to illustrate how anurans can serve as model systems for investigating the role of cognition in acoustic communication.

  5. Role of syringeal vibrations in bird vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, O. N.; Goller, F.

    1999-01-01

    The sound-generating mechanism in the bird syrinx has been the subject of debate. Recent endoscopic imaging of the syrinx during phonation provided evidence for vibrations of membranes and labia, but could not provide quantitative analysis of the vibrations. We have now recorded vibrations in the intact syrinx directly with an optic vibration detector together with the emitted sound during brain stimulation-induced phonation in anaesthetized pigeons, cockatiels, and a hill myna. The phonating syrinx was also filmed through an endoscope inserted into the trachea. In these species vibrations were always present during phonation, and their frequency and amplitude characteristics were highly similar to those of the emitted sound, including nonlinear acoustic phenomena. This was also true for tonal vocalizations, suggesting that a vibratory mechanism can account for all vocalizations presented in the study. In some vocalizations we found differences in the shape of the waveform between vibrations and the emitted sound, probably reflecting variations in oscillatory behaviour of syringeal structures. This study therefore provides the first direct evidence for a vibratory sound-generating mechanism (i.e. lateral tympaniform membranes or labia acting as pneumatic valves) and does not support pure aerodynamic models. Furthermore, the data emphasize a potentially high degree of acoustic complexity.

  6. Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Palla, John; Friedman, Aaron D

    2016-05-01

    Paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM), also termed vocal cord dysfunction, is a poorly understood disorder of episodic dyspnea characterized by inappropriate vocal cord adduction during inspiration and potentially during expiration. It can coexist or be confused with asthma, so appropriate diagnosis is key to optimizing treatment success. Although many patients with PVCM may have underlying psychologic issues, there is emerging evidence to suggest that this entity is not psychogenic in every patient. Both laryngeal irritants and exercise have been identified as additional contributing factors in PVCM. Diagnosis of PVCM requires awake laryngoscopic confirmation. However, many patients do not exhibit signs of PVCM during this examination, despite provocation during testing. Therefore, clinical history remains key in determining which patients should proceed with behavioral therapy under the guidance of a speech pathologist. In addition, treatment may include limiting patient exposure to potential sources of laryngeal irritation. Refractory patients may benefit from psychologic assessment and treatment. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e184-e188.]. PMID:27171808

  7. Direct measurement of pressures involved in vocal exercises using semi-occluded vocal tracts.

    PubMed

    Robieux, Camille; Galant, Camille; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to rank vocal exercises using semi-occluded vocal tracts (SOVT) as a function of their effect on subglottal pressure (SGP) and on transglottal pressure (TGP). Direct measurements were performed in two healthy females. The correct realization of vocal exercises was controlled by maintaining a constant airflow at the phonation onset. TGP varied from 1.8 to 5.9 hPa among SOVT, in the same range as phonation threshold pressure values. SGP varied among subjects from 19.4 for 2-mm straw to 3.2 hPa for closed vowel. SOVT could be ranked in voice rehabilitation from the greatest to the smallest effects on SGP as following: 1) 2-mm straw; 2) 5-mm straw and fricative /v/; 3) 8-mm straw and nasals /m/ and /n/; 4) vowel /i/. PMID:24850270

  8. Variable asymmetry and resonance in the avian vocal tract: a structural basis for individually distinct vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Suthers, R A

    1994-10-01

    The social vocalizations of the oilbird (Steatornis caripensis) frequently have their acoustic energy concentrated into 3 prominent formants which appear to arise from the filter properties of their asymmetrical vocal tract with its bronchial syrinx. The frequency of the second and third formants approximate the predicted fundamental resonances of the unequal left and right cranial portions of each primary bronchus, respectively. Reversibly plugging either bronchus eliminates the corresponding formant. The first formant may arise in the trachea. The degree of vocal tract asymmetry varies between individuals, endowing them with different formant frequencies and providing potential acoustic cues by which individuals of this nocturnal, cave dwelling species may recognize each other in their dark, crowded colonies. PMID:7965918

  9. Vocal patterns in infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Canonical babbling status and vocalization frequency

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with ASD show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or “volubility” has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with ASD. We conducted a retrospective video study examining vocalizations of 37 infants at 9–12 and 15–18 months. Twenty-three of the 37 infants were later diagnosed with ASD and indeed produced low rates of canonical babbling and low volubility by comparison with the 14 typically developing infants. The study thus supports suggestions that very early vocal patterns may prove to be a useful component of early screening and diagnosis of ASD. PMID:24482292

  10. Discriminating Simulated Vocal Tremor Source Using Amplitude Modulation Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Kathy M.; Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Sources of vocal tremor are difficult to categorize perceptually and acoustically. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to discriminate vocal tremor sources through the use of spectral measures of the amplitude envelope. The hypothesis is that different vocal tremor sources are associated with distinct patterns of acoustic amplitude modulations. Study Design Statistical categorization methods (discriminant function analysis) were used to discriminate signals from simulated vocal tremor with different sources using only acoustic measures derived from the amplitude envelopes. Methods Simulations of vocal tremor were created by modulating parameters of a vocal fold model corresponding to oscillations of respiratory driving pressure (respiratory tremor), degree of vocal fold adduction (adductory tremor) and fundamental frequency of vocal fold vibration (F0 tremor). The acoustic measures were based on spectral analyses of the amplitude envelope computed across the entire signal and within select frequency bands. Results The signals could be categorized (with accuracy well above chance) in terms of the simulated tremor source using only measures of the amplitude envelope spectrum even when multiple sources of tremor were included. Conclusions These results supply initial support for an amplitude-envelope based approach to identify the source of vocal tremor and provide further evidence for the rich information about talker characteristics present in the temporal structure of the amplitude envelope. PMID:25532813

  11. Frequency and significance of vocalizations in Sydenham's chorea.

    PubMed

    de Teixeira, Antonio Lúcio; Cardoso, Francisco; Maia, Débora P; Sacramento, Daniel R; Mota, Cleonice de Carvalho Coelho; Meira, Zilda Maria Alves; Lees, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a complication of Streptococcus infection characterized by a combination of motor and non-motor features. We have investigated the presence of vocalizations in 89 consecutive patients with SC evaluated during a one-year period in the UFMG Movement Disorders Clinic. Seven (4/3 M/F) of the 89 patients (29/60 M/F) presented with simple vocalizations not preceded by premonitory sensations but in association with facial chorea in five patients. These findings suggest that vocalizations are not a common feature in SC and their phenomenology is quite distinct from the characteristics of vocal tics in tic disorders. PMID:18343182

  12. Vocal Generalization Depends on Gesture Identity and Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Sober, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Generalization, the brain's ability to transfer motor learning from one context to another, occurs in a wide range of complex behaviors. However, the rules of generalization in vocal behavior are poorly understood, and it is unknown how vocal learning generalizes across an animal's entire repertoire of natural vocalizations and sequences. Here, we asked whether generalization occurs in a nonhuman vocal learner and quantified its properties. We hypothesized that adaptive error correction of a vocal gesture produced in one sequence would generalize to the same gesture produced in other sequences. To test our hypothesis, we manipulated the fundamental frequency (pitch) of auditory feedback in Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica) to create sensory errors during vocal gestures (song syllables) produced in particular sequences. As hypothesized, error-corrective learning on pitch-shifted vocal gestures generalized to the same gestures produced in other sequential contexts. Surprisingly, generalization magnitude depended strongly on sequential distance from the pitch-shifted syllables, with greater adaptation for gestures produced near to the pitch-shifted syllable. A further unexpected result was that nonshifted syllables changed their pitch in the direction opposite from the shifted syllables. This apparently antiadaptive pattern of generalization could not be explained by correlations between generalization and the acoustic similarity to the pitch-shifted syllable. These findings therefore suggest that generalization depends on the type of vocal gesture and its sequential context relative to other gestures and may reflect an advantageous strategy for vocal learning and maintenance. PMID:24741046

  13. Vocal Emotion of Humanoid Robots: A Study from Brain Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youhui; Hu, Xiaohua; Zhou, Jie; Kuo, Taitzong

    2014-01-01

    Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings. PMID:24587712

  14. Nonhuman primate vocalizations support categorization in very young human infants.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Alissa L; Hespos, Susan J; Waxman, Sandra R

    2013-09-17

    Language is a signature of our species and our primary conduit for conveying the contents of our minds. The power of language derives not only from the exquisite detail of the signal itself but also from its intricate link to human cognition. To acquire a language, infants must identify which signals are part of their language and discover how these signals are linked to meaning. At birth, infants prefer listening to vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates; within 3 mo, this initially broad listening preference is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. Moreover, even at this early developmental point, human vocalizations evoke more than listening preferences alone: they engender in infants a heightened focus on the objects in their visual environment and promote the formation of object categories, a fundamental cognitive capacity. Here, we illuminate the developmental origin of this early link between human vocalizations and cognition. We document that this link emerges from a broad biological template that initially encompasses vocalizations of human and nonhuman primates (but not backward speech) and that within 6 mo this link to cognition is tuned specifically to human vocalizations. At 3 and 4 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations promote object categorization, mirroring precisely the advantages conferred by human vocalizations, but by 6 mo, nonhuman primate vocalizations no longer exert this advantageous effect. This striking developmental shift illuminates a path of specialization that supports infants as they forge the foundational links between human language and the core cognitive processes that will serve as the foundations of meaning. PMID:24003164

  15. Vocal emotion of humanoid robots: a study from brain mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youhui; Hu, Xiaohua; Dai, Weihui; Zhou, Jie; Kuo, Taitzong

    2014-01-01

    Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings. PMID:24587712

  16. A parametric vocal fold model based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a parametric three-dimensional body-cover vocal fold model based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human larynx. Major geometric features that are observed in the MRI images but missing in current vocal fold models are discussed, and their influence on vocal fold vibration is evaluated using eigenmode analysis. Proper boundary conditions for the model are also discussed. Based on control parameters corresponding to anatomic landmarks that can be easily measured, this model can be adapted toward a subject-specific vocal fold model for voice production research and clinical applications. PMID:27586774

  17. Continuous Vocalization during Kendo Exercises Suppresses Expiration of CO2.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, H; Terada, T; Takahashi, T; Kizaki, K; Imai, H; Era, S

    2015-06-01

    One distinctive trait of kendo, the Japanese martial art of fencing, is the execution of sustained, high-effort vocalizations during actions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of these vocalizations on respiratory functions. First, the intensity of 3 kendo exercises was quantified by measuring oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and comparing it with V̇O2max measured during treadmill tests of 8 university kendo athletes. Respiratory variables of these 8 athletes were then analyzed using a portable breath gas analyzer during the most intensive kendo exercise, kakari-keiko, with and without vocalization. Breathing frequency (fB) increased regardless of vocalization, but in trials with vocalization, fB and ventilation were significantly lower, and expiration time was significantly longer. Components of expired gases were also affected by vocalization. Although there was no significant difference in oxygen uptake, vocalization yielded a reduction in carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2) and an increase in fraction of end-tidal carbon dioxide (FetCO2). We thus conclude that these vocalizations greatly affect expiration breathing patterns in kendo. Moreover, repetition of kakari-keiko caused a reduction in V̇CO2 and an increase in FetCO2 and CO2 storage. We consider the possibility that the sustained high-effort vocalizations of kendo also increase cerebral blood flow. PMID:25760149

  18. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis. PMID:25313026

  19. Scanning ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, David S.; Reimann, Karl J.

    1982-01-01

    The invention is an ultrasonic testing device for rapid and complete examination of the test specimen, and is particularly well suited for evaluation of tubular test geometries. A variety of defect categories may be detected and analyzed at one time and their positions accurately located in a single pass down the test specimen.

  20. Experiments with Ultrasonic Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of 40 kHz ultrasonic transducers to study wave phenomena. Determines that the resulting wavelength of 9 mm allows acoustic experiments to be performed on a tabletop. Includes transducer characteristics and activities on speed of sound, reflection, double- and single-slit diffraction, standing waves, acoustical zone plate, and…

  1. Broadband Ultrasonic Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    New geometry spreads out resonance region of piezoelectric crystal. In new transducer, crystal surfaces made nonparallel. One surface planar; other, concave. Geometry designed to produce nearly uniform response over a predetermined band of frequencies and to attenuate strongly frequencies outside band. Greater bandwidth improves accuracy of sonar and ultrasonic imaging equipment.

  2. Scanning ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.

    1980-12-09

    The invention is an ultrasonic testing device for rapid and complete examination of the test specimen, and is particularly well suited for evaluation of tubular test geometries. A variety of defect categories may be detected and anlayzed at one time and their positions accurately located in a single pass down the test specimen.

  3. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  4. Ultrasonic Transducer Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grounds, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducer-beam-intensity distributions are determined by analyzing echoes from a spherical ball. Computers control equipment and process data. Important beam characteristics, such as location of best beam focus and beam diameter at focus, can be determined quickly from extensive set of plots generated by apparatus.

  5. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  6. Breeding for 50-kHz positive affective vocalization in rats.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Panksepp, Jaak; Brudzynski, Stefan M; Kroes, Roger; Moskal, Joseph R

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent and adult rats exhibit at least two distinct ultrasonic vocalizations that reflect distinct emotional states. Rats exhibit 22-kHz calls during social defeat, drug withdrawal, as well as in anticipation of aversive events. In contrast, 50-kHz calls are exhibited in high rates during play behavior, mating, as well as in anticipation of rewarding events. The neurochemistry of 22-kHz and 50-kHz calls closely matches that of negative and positive emotional systems in humans, respectively. The aim of this study was to replicate and further evaluate selective breeding for 50-kHz vocalization, in preparation for the analysis of the genetic underpinnings of the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Isolate housed adolescent rats (23-26 days old) received experimenter administered tactile stimulation (dubbed "tickling"), which mimicked the rat rough-and-tumble play behavior. This stimulation has previously been shown to elicit high levels of 50-kHz USVs and to be highly rewarding in isolate-housed animals. Each tickling session consisted of 4 cycles of 15 seconds stimulation followed by 15 seconds no stimulation for a total of 2 min, and was repeated once per day across 4 successive days. Rats were then selected for either High or Low levels of sonographically verified 50-kHz USVs in response to the stimulation, and a randomly selected line served as a control (Random group). Animals emitted both 22-kHz and 50-kHz types of calls. After 5 generations, animals in the High Line exhibited significantly more 50-kHz and fewer 22-kHz USVs than animals in the Low Line. Animals selected for low levels of 50-kHz calls showed marginally more 22-kHz USVs then randomly selected animals but did not differ in the rate of 50-kHz calls. These results extend our previous findings that laboratory rats could be bred for differential rates of sonographically verified 50-kHz USVs. PMID:15674533

  7. Ultrasonic cleaning: Fundamental theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, F. John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation describes: the theory of ultrasonics, cavitation and implosion; the importance and application of ultrasonics in precision cleaning; explanations of ultrasonic cleaning equipment options and their application; process parameters for ultrasonic cleaning; and proper operation of ultrasonic cleaning equipment to achieve maximum results.

  8. Modulation of 22-khz postejaculatory vocalizations by conditioning to new place: Evidence for expression of a positive emotional state.

    PubMed

    Bialy, Michal; Bogacki-Rychlik, Wiktor; Kasarello, Kaja; Nikolaev, Evgeni; Sajdel-Sulkowska, Elzbieta M

    2016-08-01

    It has been assumed that the 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are emitted by adult rats as a result of a negative emotional state. However, emission of the 22-kHz vocalizations by male rats has been also observed following ejaculation, which has a high rewarding value as shown by a conditioned place preference test. These observations suggest that 22-kHz USVs may also occur in response to a positive emotional state. The aim of this study was to determine whether the postejaculatory 22-kHz USVs are related to conditioning processes. The 22 kHz USVs were recorded in Sprague-Dawley males in the postejaculatory refractory period during conditioning processes to a new chamber unrelated to copulation. During the first session in the clean recording chamber, males vocalized marginally and exhibited intensive rearing behavior. From the second to fourth sessions, vocalization duration increased and the number of rearing decreased. Following established conditioning process, odor cues from foreign males, but not the familiar ones, resulted in decreased duration of 22-kHz USVs and increased the number of rearing. On the other hand, in the presence of mating cues (copulatory chamber and presence of the female), males exhibited increased duration of postejaculatory 22-kHz USVs and reduced number of rearing. These results demonstrated that the conditioning to the cues, both unrelated and related to copulation, is important for evoking postejaculatory 22-kHz USVs as well as the relaxation state. Furthermore, these results confirmed the postejaculatory 22-kHz USVs' involvement in expression of the positive emotional state. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454624

  9. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Seyed Toutounchi, Seyed Javad; Eydi, Mahmood; Golzari, Samad EJ; Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Parvizian, Nashmil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies. Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8%) and aspiration (37.8%) in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%), tumors (31.11%), surgery (28.89%), trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%). Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis. PMID:24753832

  10. Perceptual Ratings of Vocal Characteristics and Voicing Features in Untreated Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leydon, Ciara; Bielamowicz, Steven; Stager, Sheila V.

    2005-01-01

    This study used visual analog scales to obtain perceptual ratings of features of voice production in subjects with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), including clarity of laryngeal articulation, consistency of loudness across the utterance and the voiced/voiceless distinction. Recordings of repeated /i/, /isi/, and /izi/ from subjects…

  11. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a “still face,” or SF) after a period of normal interaction (“face-to-face,” or FF). Infant volubility continued at the higher rate than in FF when the parent re-engaged (“reunion,” or RE). Additionally, during SF, the variability in volubility across infants decreased, suggesting the infants adopted relatively similar rates of vocalization to re-engage the parent. The pattern of increasing volubility in SF was seen across all of the most common speech-like vocal types of the first half-year of life (e.g., full vowels, quasivowels, squeals, growls). Parent and infant volubility levels were not significantly correlated. The findings suggest that by six months of age infants have learned that their vocalizations have social value and that changes in volubility can affect parental engagement. PMID:25383061

  12. Vocal Patterns in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Canonical Babbling Status and Vocalization Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Elena; Belardi, Katie; Baranek, Grace T.; Watson, Linda R.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Canonical babbling is a critical milestone for speech development and is usually well in place by 10 months. The possibility that infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show late onset of canonical babbling has so far eluded evaluation. Rate of vocalization or "volubility" has also been suggested as possibly aberrant in infants with…

  13. Characteristics of Vocal Fold Vibrations in Vocally Healthy Subjects: Analysis with Multi-Line Kymography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Akihito; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Yokonishi, Hisayuki; Nito, Takaharu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Tayama, Niro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to analyze longitudinal data from high-speed digital images in normative subjects using multi-line kymography. Method: Vocally healthy subjects were divided into young (9 men and 17 women; M[subscript age] = 27 years) and older groups (8 men and 12 women; M[subscript age] = 73 years). From high-speed…

  14. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: Initial results for vocal fold nodules

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.; Guttag, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual’s typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to develop non-invasive ambulatory measures that can reliably differentiate vocal hyperfunction from normal patterns of vocal behavior. As an initial step towards this goal we used an accelerometer taped to the neck surface to provide a continuous, non-invasive acceleration signal designed to capture some aspects of vocal behavior related to a common manifestation of vocal hyperfunction; vocal cord nodules. We gathered data from 12 female adult patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodules and 12 control speakers matched for age and occupation. We derived features from weeklong neck-surface acceleration recordings by using distributions of sound pressure level and fundamental frequency over five-minute windows of the acceleration signal and normalized these features so that inter-subject comparisons were meaningful. We then used supervised machine learning to show that the two groups exhibit distinct vocal behaviors that can be detected using the acceleration signal. We were able to correctly classify 22 of the 24 subjects, suggesting that in the future measures of the acceleration signal could be used to detect patients with the types of aberrant vocal behaviors that are associated with hyperfunctional voice disorders. PMID:24845276

  15. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  16. 3D Simulation of an Audible Ultrasonic Electrolarynx Using Difference Waves

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Patrick; Zara, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A total laryngectomy removes the vocal folds which are fundamental in forming voiced sounds that make speech possible. Although implanted prosthetics are commonly used in developed countries, simple handheld vibrating electrolarynxes are still common worldwide. These devices are easy to use but suffer from many drawbacks including dedication of a hand, mechanical sounding voice, and sound leakage. To address some of these drawbacks, we introduce a novel electrolarynx that uses vibro-acoustic interference of dual ultrasonic waves to generate an audible fundamental frequency. A 3D simulation of the principles of the device is presented in this paper. PMID:25401965

  17. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  18. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  19. Assessing and Treating Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, William H.; Clark, Kathy M.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Chung, Bo In

    2007-01-01

    Previous research implies that stereotypic behavior tends to be maintained by the sensory consequences produced by engaging in the response. Few investigations, however, have focused on vocal stereotypy. The current study examined the noncommunicative vocalizations of 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder. First, functional analyses were…

  20. Effects of Music on Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal).…

  1. The Effect of Surface Electrical Stimulation on Vocal Fold Position

    PubMed Central

    Humbert, Ianessa A.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Saxon, Keith G.; Kearney, Pamela R.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Closure of the true and false vocal folds is a normal part of airway protection during swallowing. Individuals with reduced or delayed true vocal fold closure can be at risk for aspiration and benefit from intervention to ameliorate the problem. Surface electrical stimulation is currently used during therapy for dysphagia, despite limited knowledge of its physiological effects. Design Prospective single effects study. Methods The immediate physiological effect of surface stimulation on true vocal fold angle was examined at rest in 27 healthy adults using ten different electrode placements on the submental and neck regions. Fiberoptic nasolaryngoscopic recordings during passive inspiration were used to measure change in true vocal fold angle with stimulation. Results Vocal fold angles changed only to a small extent during two electrode placements (p ≤ 0.05). When two sets of electrodes were placed vertically on the neck the mean true vocal fold abduction was 2.4 degrees; while horizontal placements of electrodes in the submental region produced a mean adduction of 2.8 degrees (p=0.03). Conclusions Surface electrical stimulation to the submental and neck regions does not produce immediate true vocal fold adduction adequate for airway protection during swallowing and one position may produce a slight increase in true vocal fold opening. PMID:18043496

  2. Differential short-term memorisation for vocal and instrumental rhythms.

    PubMed

    Klyn, Niall A M; Will, Udo; Cheong, Yong-Jeon; Allen, Erin T

    2016-07-01

    This study explores differential processing of vocal and instrumental rhythms in short-term memory with three decision (same/different judgments) and one reproduction experiment. In the first experiment, memory performance declined for delayed versus immediate recall, with accuracy for the two rhythms being affected differently: Musicians performed better than non-musicians on clapstick but not on vocal rhythms, and musicians were better on vocal rhythms in the same than in the different condition. Results for the second experiment showed that concurrent sub-vocal articulation and finger-tapping differentially affected the two rhythms and same/different decisions, but produced no evidence for articulatory loop involvement in delayed decision tasks. In a third experiment, which tested rhythm reproduction, concurrent sub-vocal articulation decreased memory performance, with a stronger deleterious effect on the reproduction of vocal than of clapstick rhythms. This suggests that the articulatory loop may only be involved in delayed reproduction not in decision tasks. The fourth experiment tested whether differences between filled and empty rhythms (continuous vs. discontinuous sounds) can explain the different memorisation of vocal and clapstick rhythms. Though significant differences were found for empty and filled instrumental rhythms, the differences between vocal and clapstick can only be explained by considering additional voice specific features. PMID:26274938

  3. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich

    2001-05-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re:1 Pa) @ 1 m.

  4. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2004-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re 1 μPa) @ 1 m.

  5. Profiles of Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy M.; Nathani, Suneeti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of cochlear implant experience on prelinguistic vocal development in young deaf children. Procedure: A prospective longitudinal research design was used to document the sequence and time course of vocal development in 7 children who were implanted between 10 and 36 months…

  6. Chemo-port insertion: A cause of vocal cord palsy.

    PubMed

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Hindi, Khalid; Malik, Ausama; Wee, Chong Aun; Prepageran, Narayanan

    2015-11-01

    We describe extremely rare cases of vocal cord palsy following surgical insertion of a chemo port. Our cohort consisted of patients with cancer who developed hoarseness immediately after central venous line placement for the administration of chemotherapy, with vocal cord palsy confirmed with flexible laryngoscopy. Given the timing, central venous line placement appears to be the most likely cause. PMID:26108861

  7. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wood, Robert [VOCALS-REx PI, University of Washington; Bretherton, Christopher [GEWEX/GCSS Representative, University of Washington; Huebert, Barry [SOLAS Representative, University of Hawaii; Mechoso, Roberto C. [VOCALS Science Working Group Chair, UCLA; Weller, Robert [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international CLIVAR program the major goal of which is to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding of the Southeast Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system on diurnal to inter-annual timescales. The principal program objectives are: 1) the improved understanding and regional/global model representation of aerosol indirect effects over the SEP; 2) the elimination of systematic errors in the region of coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation models, and improved model simulations and predictions of the coupled climate in the SEP and global impacts of the system variability. VOCALS is organized into two tightly coordinated components: 1) a Regional Experiment (VOCALSREx), and 2) a Modeling Program (VOCALS-Mod). Extended observations (e.g. IMET buoy, satellites, EPIC/PACS cruises) will provide important additional contextual datasets that help to link the field and the modeling components. The coordination through VOCALS of observational and modeling efforts (Fig. 3) will accelerate the rate at which field data can be used to improve simulations and predictions of the tropical climate variability [Copied from the Vocals Program Summary of June 2007, available as a link from the VOCALS web at http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals/]. The CLIVAR sponsored program to under which VOCALS falls is VAMOS, which stands for Variability of the American Monsoon Systems.

  8. Optical characterization of vocal folds using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüerßen, Kathrin; Lubatschowski, Holger; Radicke, Nicole; Ptok, Martin

    2006-02-01

    The current standard procedure to ensure the diagnosis, if tissue is malignant, is still an invasive one. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new non-invasive method to investigate biological tissue. In this study OCT was used on porcine and on human vocal folds. The optical penetration depth of the used radiation is up to 2 mm. Three different OCT application systems were used. The first is a high resolution OCT, which works in contact mode. It was used to examine porcine vocal folds ex vivo. Porcine vocal folds were assigned to defined areas and examined by OCT in contact mode followed by traditional histo-morphological analysis. The second OCT is fiber based. It also works in contact mode. Images of human vocal folds were done in contact mode. They were compared with a typical histo-morphological image of a human vocal fold. The third application system works in non contact to the tissue. It was integrated in a conventional laryngoscope. Human vocal folds were examined in vivo. Single layers of the vocal folds could be distinguished from each other with all used systems. Pathological alterations could be seen. Imaging is possible in real time. General anaesthesia is not necessary. OCT makes it possible to get a view under the surface of the vocal fold without being invasive.

  9. Vocal expression in schizophrenia: Less than meets the ear.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Mitchell, Kyle R; Docherty, Nancy M; Horan, William P

    2016-02-01

    Abnormalities in nonverbal communication are a hallmark of schizophrenia. Results from studies using symptom rating scales suggest that these abnormalities are profound (i.e., 3-5 SDs) and occur across virtually every channel of vocal expression. Computerized acoustic analytic technologies, used to overcome practical and psychometric limitations with symptom rating scales, have found much more benign and isolated abnormalities. To better understand vocal deficits in schizophrenia and to advance acoustic analytic technologies for clinical and research applications, we examined archived speech samples from 5 separate studies, each using different speaking tasks (patient N = 309; control N = 117). We sought to: (a) use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify independent vocal expression measures from a large set of variables, (b) quantify how patients with schizophrenia are abnormal with respect to these variables, (c) evaluate the impact of demographic and contextual factors (e.g., study site, speaking task), and (d) examine the relationship between clinically-rated psychiatric symptoms and vocal variables. PCA identified 7 independent markers of vocal expression. Most of these vocal variables varied considerably as a function of context and many were associated with demographic factors. After controlling for context and demographics, there were no meaningful differences in vocal expression between patients and controls. Within patients, vocal variables were associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms-though only pause length was significantly associated with clinically rated negative symptoms. The discussion centers on explaining the apparent discordance between clinical and computerized speech measures. PMID:26854511

  10. Developmental Comparison of Children's Word and Nonword Vocalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Michael P.; And Others

    Word and nonword vocalizations produced by two groups of children aged 8-28 months were studied. The first group included six children whose speech was recorded monthly for 12 months. The second group contained 21 children. In both, only spontaneous vocalizations were recorded. Each sample was examined for frequency of word and nonword forms. A…

  11. The Infant Monitor of Vocal Production: Simple Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robyn Cantle

    2014-01-01

    The Infant Monitor of vocal Production (IMP) was conceived as an educational strategy to help parents understand the nature and pace of their baby's vocal development following neonatal diagnosis and amplification for hearing loss. The potential for other clinical applications emerged with use. The instrument presents as a series of…

  12. Using VOCAL: A Guide for Authors. Technical Report No. 296.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mark Edward; Pettit, Teri

    Factors which affect the overall presentation of computer assisted instruction in the Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language (VOCAL), and general guidelines for effective use of VOCAL in curriculum development are presented. Four major sections describe course design and review, spoken strings, display features, and six types of exercise…

  13. An Analysis of Vocal Stereotypy and Therapist Fading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athens, Elizabeth S.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Pipkin, Claire St. Peter

    2008-01-01

    A functional analysis for a boy with Down syndrome and autism suggested that vocal stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. The analysis also showed that instructions and noncontingent attention suppressed vocal stereotypy. A treatment package consisting of noncontingent attention, contingent demands, and response cost effectively…

  14. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O

    2004-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re 1 microPa) @ 1 m. PMID:14759033

  15. Vocalization Development in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Allison M.; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the vocalizations of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the second year of life and their relationship to other areas of development. Method: Vocalizations were examined in 125 children between ages 18 and 24 months: 50 later diagnosed with ASD, 25 with developmental delays (DD) in…

  16. Bicarbonate Availability for Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acidic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Durkes, Abigail; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bicarbonate is critical for acid-base tissue homeostasis. In this study we investigated the role of bicarbonate ion transport in vocal fold epithelial defense to acid challenges. Acidic insults to the larynx are common in gastric reflux, carcinogenesis and metastasis, and acute inflammation. Methods Ion transport was measured in viable, porcine vocal fold epithelium. First, 18 vocal folds were exposed to either the carbonic anhydrase antagonist acetazolamide or to vehicle. Second, 32 vocal folds were exposed to either a control buffer or a bicarbonate-free buffer on their luminal or basolateral surface or both. Third, vocal folds were challenged with acid in the presence of bicarbonate-free or control buffer. Results The vocal fold transepithelial resistance was greater than 300 Ω*cm2, suggesting robust barrier integrity. Ion transport did not change after exposure to acetazolamide (p > 0.05). Exposure to bicarbonate-free buffer did not compromise vocal fold ion transport (p > 0.05). Ion transport increased after acid challenge. This increase approached statistical significance and was the greatest for the control buffer and for the bicarbonate-free buffer applied to the basolateral surface. Conclusions Bicarbonate secretion may contribute to vocal fold defense against acid challenge. Our data offer a potential novel role for bicarbonate as a therapeutic agent to reduce pH abnormalities in the larynx and prevent associated pathological changes. PMID:24574427

  17. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  18. Attentional Change and Vocalization: Evidence for a Relation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furrow, David; James, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    When not socially engaged, children showed a significantly greater percentage of reoriented attention during vocalizing than nonvocalizing periods. Findings confirm the existence of an attention/vocalization relation and are consonant with Greenfield's predictions about the nature of this relation. The relation held equally for prelinguistic and…

  19. The Effect of Vocalization on Melodic Memory Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pembrook, Randall G.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which reinforces prior findings on melodic memory that show a majority of students do not sing accurately enough after only one hearing of a melody to benefit from vocalization memory techniques. Questions whether vocalization can be a memory reinforcer in melodies that are shorter and simpler than those used in this research.…

  20. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning. PMID:27247385

  1. Patterns of Gestural, Vocal, and Verbal Imitation Performance in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masur, Elise Frank; Ritz, Elsbeth G.

    1984-01-01

    Examines imitation of motor, vocal, and verbal behaviors by infants 10 to 16 months old. The imitation battery consisted of 21 behaviors in four motor and two vocal categories. The familiarity or novelty of individual behaviors was assessed through maternal interviews. Results are discussed in terms of Uzgaris' (1981) conceptualization of two…

  2. Ultrasonic thermometer isolation standoffs

    DOEpatents

    Arave, Alvin E.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for minimizing sticking of the transmission line to the protective sheath and preventing noise echoes from interfering with signal echoes in an improved high temperature ultrasonic thermometer which includes an ultrasonic transmission line surrounded by a protective sheath. Small isolation standoffs are mounted on the transmission line to minimize points of contact between the transmission line and the protective sheath, the isolation standoffs serving as discontinuities mounted on the transmission line at locations where a signal echo is desired or where an echo can be tolerated. Consequently any noise echo generated by the sticking of the standoff to the protective sheath only adds to the amplitude of the echo generated at the standoff and does not interfere with the other signal echoes.

  3. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  4. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of chest injuries].

    PubMed

    Tsurupa, D I; Deriabin, A I

    1982-03-01

    Ultrasonic diagnostic examinations were used in 365 patients with closed injuries (150), wounds (181) and consequences of traumas (34). The ultrasonic method allows to rapidly and exactly determine the presence and limits of the exudate, blood, coagulated hemothorax, residual cavity, thickness of the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura, the state of the pulmonary tissue (inflammation, blood inhibition, atelectasis). The ultrasonic method is simple, harmless and applicable under conditions of any surgical hospital. PMID:7080405

  5. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  6. Miniature implantable ultrasonic echosonometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, G. K. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A miniature echosonometer adapted for implantation in the interior of an animal for imaging the internal structure of a organ, tissue or vessel is presented. The echosonometer includes a receiver/transmitter circuit which is coupled to an ultrasonic transducer. Power is coupled to the echosonometer by electromagnetic induction through the animal's skin. Imaging signals from the echosonometer are electromagnetically transmitted through the animal's skin to an external readout apparatus.

  7. Ultrasonic Clothes Drying Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Viral; Momen, Ayyoub

    2016-05-12

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers Ayyoub Momen and Viral Patel demonstrate a direct contact ultrasonic clothes dryer under development by ORNL in collaboration with General Electric (GE) Appliances. This novel approach uses high-frequency mechanical vibrations instead of heat to extract moisture as cold mist, dramatically reducing drying time and energy use. Funding for this project was competitively awarded by DOE?s Building Technologies Office in 2014.

  8. Ultrasonic differential measurement

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, George W.; Migliori, Albert

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ultrasonic resonance testing of an object is shown and described. Acoustic vibrations are applied to an object at a plurality of frequencies. Measurements of the object's vibrational response are made simultaneously at different locations on said object. The input frequency is stepped by using small frequency changes over a predetermined range. There is a pause interval or ring delay which permits the object to reach a steady state resonance before a measurement is taken.

  9. Ultrasonic techniques for process monitoring and control.

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H.-T.

    1999-03-24

    Ultrasonic techniques have been applied successfully to process monitoring and control for many industries, such as energy, medical, textile, oil, and material. It helps those industries in quality control, energy efficiency improving, waste reducing, and cost saving. This paper presents four ultrasonic systems, ultrasonic viscometer, on-loom, real-time ultrasonic imaging system, ultrasonic leak detection system, and ultrasonic solid concentration monitoring system, developed at Argonne National Laboratory in the past five years for various applications.

  10. Dynamical origin of spectrally rich vocalizations in birdsong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitt, J. D.; Amador, A.; Goller, F.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2008-07-01

    Birdsong is a model system for learned vocal behavior with remarkable parallels to human vocal development and sound production mechanisms. Upper vocal tract filtering plays an important role in human speech, and its importance has recently also been recognized in birdsong. However, the mechanisms of how the avian sound source might contribute to spectral richness are largely unknown. Here we show in the most widely studied songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), that the broad range of upper harmonic content in different low-frequency song elements is the fingerprint of the dynamics displayed by its vocal apparatus, which can be captured by a two-dimensional dynamical model. As in human speech and singing, the varying harmonic content of birdsong is not only the result of vocal tract filtering but of a varying degree of tonality emerging from the sound source. The spectral content carries a strong signature of the intrinsic dynamics of the sound source.

  11. Insights into the Neural and Genetic Basis of Vocal Communication.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-03-10

    The use of vocalizations to communicate information and elaborate social bonds is an adaptation seen in many vertebrate species. Human speech is an extreme version of this pervasive form of communication. Unlike the vocalizations exhibited by the majority of land vertebrates, speech is a learned behavior requiring early sensory exposure and auditory feedback for its development and maintenance. Studies in humans and a small number of other species have provided insights into the neural and genetic basis for learned vocal communication and are helping to delineate the roles of brain circuits across the cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum in generating vocal behaviors. This Review provides an outline of the current knowledge about these circuits and the genes implicated in vocal communication, as well as a perspective on future research directions in this field. PMID:26967292

  12. Sharpening of ultrasonic scalers.

    PubMed

    Checchi, L; Pelliccioni, G A; D'Achille, C

    1991-08-01

    Instruments suitable for removing calculus, plaque and necrotic cementum, which hinder normal periodontal reattachment, are extremely important for successful therapy. The test was carried out in order to see if a standard scaler used for ultrasonic tartar removal maintains its physical features when sharpened. 6 scalers, compatible with piezo-electric generators, were tested and 2 diameters, A and B, weights and resonance frequencies were measured. Scalers no. 2, 3, 4, 5, were sharpened and was used as control. All measurements were taken again at the end of the test. Statistical analysis reveals significant variations, after sharpening, of A diameter (t = 4.14 greater than 3.55, p less than 0.01), B diameter (t = 5.34 greater than 3.355, p less than 0.01) and resonance frequency (t = 2.82 greater than 2.306, p less than 0.05); in contrast, there is no significant change of weights (t = 1.17 less than 2.306, p greater than 0.05). These results suggest that sharpening slightly modifies the physical features of ultrasonic tips, so that sharpening ultrasonic scalers, from a physical point of view, can be carried out, paying attention not to damage the water cooling system. PMID:1894743

  13. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  14. Ultrasonic Transducers for Fourier Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses the ultrasonic transducer for demonstrating the Fourier components of waveshapes such as the square and triangular waves produced by laboratory function generators. (JRH)

  15. Development of an Ultrasonic Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Tatsuya; Takemura, Kenjiro; Maeno, Takashi

    In the present paper, a newly developed ultrasonic brake is proposed. The ultrasonic brake can solve problems of conventional passive elements, such as time delay, instability, and large size, by using unique characteristics of ultrasonic motor, as fast response, silent motion, and non-magnetic feature. It can also be designed to be smaller than conventional elements due to its simple structure. The brake locks or releases the rotor by use of ultrasonic levitation phenomenon. First, we have designed the structure of the ultrasonic brake using an equation of ultrasonic levitation phenomenon, results from structural analysis and finite element (FE) analysis of piezoelectric material of the vibrator. Then we have manufactured the ultrasonic brake and have conducted a driving experiment. Finally, we have demonstrated that the maximum levitation force is around 40 N and the friction torque of the ultrasonic brake is up to 0.38 Nm. Moreover, we have confirmed that both response time and torque/inertia ratio of the ultrasonic brake are much more superior to the conventional ones.

  16. Vocal Dynamic Visual Pattern for voice characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajer, M. E.; Andrade, F. A. S.; Montagnoli, A. N.; Pereira, J. C.; Tsuji, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Voice assessment requires simple and painless exams. Modern technologies provide the necessary resources for voice signal processing. Techniques based on nonlinear dynamics seem to asses the complexity of voice more accurately than other methods. Vocal dynamic visual pattern (VDVP) is based on nonlinear methods and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Here we characterize healthy and Reinke's edema voices by means of perturbation measures and VDVP analysis. VDPD and jitter show different results for both groups, while amplitude perturbation has no difference. We suggest that VDPD analysis improve and complement the evaluation methods available for clinicians.

  17. Vocal Rehabilitation after Partial or Total Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Calcaterra, Thomas C.; Zwitman, Daniel H.

    1972-01-01

    One of the paramount concerns of a patient who must undergo surgical intervention for laryngeal cancer is the effect on his speech. The type of operation is based on the anatomic extent of the cancer, but each procedure presents inherent problems in vocal rehabilitation. Glottic incompetence is the primary deficit to be overcome following hemilaryngectomy, whereas the aspirate voice is the principal problem with supraglottic laryngectomy. When the larynx must be sacrificed by total laryngectomy, the patient attempts to learn esophageal speech. If this fails, a vibrating sound source for speech can be acquired, either by the construction of a trachealpharyngeal communication or by use of a manual electric vibrator. PMID:5052051

  18. Dynamics of zebra finch and mockingbird vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimenser, Aylin

    Along with humans, whales, and bats, three groups of birds which include songbirds (oscines) such as the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) are the only creatures known to learn sounds by imitation. Numerous similarities between human and songbird vocalizations exist and, recently, it has been shown that Zebra Finch in particular possesses a gene, FoxP2, known to be involved in human language. This thesis investigates song development in Zebra Finches, as well as the temporal dynamics of song in Mockingbirds. Zebra Finches have long been the system of choice for studying vocal development, ontogeny, and complexity in birdsong. Physicists find them intriguing because the spectrally complex vocalizations of the Zebra Finch can exhibit sudden transitions to chaotic dynamics, period doubling & mode-locking phenomena. Mockingbirds, by contrast, provide an ideal system to examine the richness of an avian repertoire, since these musically versatile songbirds typically know upwards of 200 songs. To analyse birdsong data, we have developed a novel clustering algorithm that can be applied to the bird's syllables, tracing their dynamics back to the earliest stages of vocal development. To characterize birdsong we have used Fourier techniques, based upon multitaper spectral analysis, to optimally work around the constraints imposed by (Heisenberg's) time-frequency uncertainty principle. Furthermore, estimates that provide optimal compromise between frequency and temporal resolution have beautiful connections with solutions to the Helmholtz wave equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates. We have used this connection to provide firm foundation for certain heuristics used in the literature to compute associated spectral derivatives and supply a pedagogical account here in this thesis. They are of interest because spectral derivatives emphasize sudden changes in the dynamics of the underlying phenomenon, and often provide a nice way to visualize

  19. [Bilateral vocal cord paresis after total thyroidectomy].

    PubMed

    Dralle, H; Neu, J; Musholt, T J; Nies, C

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old female patient complained of hoarseness and dyspnea under exertion following total thyroidectomy. Due to a faulty operating technique both nerves to the vocal cords were damaged. From the operation report it emerged that the dissection was carried out by protecting the border lamellae but the recurrent laryngeal nerve could not be found on both sides. This article presents the external expert opinion, the decision of the arbitration board and the assessment of the case by two specialist physicians. PMID:26683653

  20. Modeling the effects of a posterior glottal opening on vocal fold dynamics with implications for vocal hyperfunctiona)

    PubMed Central

    Zañartu, Matías; Galindo, Gabriel E.; Erath, Byron D.; Peterson, Sean D.; Wodicka, George R.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the frequent observation of a persistent opening in the posterior cartilaginous glottis in normal and pathological phonation, its influence on the self-sustained oscillations of the vocal folds is not well understood. The effects of a posterior gap on the vocal fold tissue dynamics and resulting acoustics were numerically investigated using a specially designed flow solver and a reduced-order model of human phonation. The inclusion of posterior gap areas of 0.03–0.1 cm2 reduced the energy transfer from the fluid to the vocal folds by more than 42%–80% and the radiated sound pressure level by 6–14 dB, respectively. The model was used to simulate vocal hyperfucntion, i.e., patterns of vocal misuse/abuse associated with many of the most common voice disorders. In this first approximation, vocal hyperfunction was modeled by introducing a compensatory increase in lung air pressure to regain the vocal loudness level that was produced prior to introducing a large glottal gap. This resulted in a significant increase in maximum flow declination rate and amplitude of unsteady flow, thereby mimicking clinical studies. The amplitude of unsteady flow was found to be linearly correlated with collision forces, thus being an indicative measure of vocal hyperfunction. PMID:25480072

  1. What Automated Vocal Analysis Reveals about the Vocal Production and Language Learning Environment of Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Steven F.; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Xu, Dongxin; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmistha

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the vocal production and language learning environments of 26 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to 78 typically developing children using measures derived from automated vocal analysis. A digital language processor and audio-processing algorithms measured the amount of adult words to children and the amount of…

  2. The Effects of Vocal Register Use and Age on the Perceived Vocal Health of Male Elementary Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.; Scott, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vocal register use and age on the perceived vocal health of male elementary music teachers. Participants (N = 160) consisted of male elementary music teachers from two neighboring states in the south-central region of the United States. Participants responded to various demographic questions…

  3. Organic and Performance Components in Vocal and Non-Vocal Communication: Unifying Concepts of Description and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Janet Mackenzie; Laver, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores some conceptual and descriptive parallels between vocal and non-vocal communication, paying particular attention to the physical phenomena and semiotic functions in both speech and gesture. The discussion focuses on the interplay between organic and performance components of speech and gestural behaviour. A central thesis of…

  4. Modeling the effects of a posterior glottal opening on vocal fold dynamics with implications for vocal hyperfunction.

    PubMed

    Zañartu, Matías; Galindo, Gabriel E; Erath, Byron D; Peterson, Sean D; Wodicka, George R; Hillman, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Despite the frequent observation of a persistent opening in the posterior cartilaginous glottis in normal and pathological phonation, its influence on the self-sustained oscillations of the vocal folds is not well understood. The effects of a posterior gap on the vocal fold tissue dynamics and resulting acoustics were numerically investigated using a specially designed flow solver and a reduced-order model of human phonation. The inclusion of posterior gap areas of 0.03-0.1 cm(2) reduced the energy transfer from the fluid to the vocal folds by more than 42%-80% and the radiated sound pressure level by 6-14 dB, respectively. The model was used to simulate vocal hyperfucntion, i.e., patterns of vocal misuse/abuse associated with many of the most common voice disorders. In this first approximation, vocal hyperfunction was modeled by introducing a compensatory increase in lung air pressure to regain the vocal loudness level that was produced prior to introducing a large glottal gap. This resulted in a significant increase in maximum flow declination rate and amplitude of unsteady flow, thereby mimicking clinical studies. The amplitude of unsteady flow was found to be linearly correlated with collision forces, thus being an indicative measure of vocal hyperfunction. PMID:25480072

  5. The Effect of Teaching Experience and Specialty (Vocal or Instrumental) on Vocal Health Ratings of Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2010-01-01

    The current study sought to determine the relationship among music teachers' length of teaching experience, specialty (vocal or instrumental), and ratings of behaviors and teaching activities related to vocal health. Participants (N = 379) were experienced (n = 208) and preservice (n = 171) music teachers, further categorized by specialty, either…

  6. An Investigation of Vocal Tract Characteristics for Acoustic Discrimination of Pathological Voices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Won; Kang, Hong-Goo; Choi, Jeung-Yoon; Son, Young-Ik

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of measures related to vocal tract characteristics in classifying normal and pathological speech. Unlike conventional approaches that mainly focus on features related to the vocal source, vocal tract characteristics are examined to determine if interaction effects between vocal folds and the vocal tract can be used to detect pathological speech. Especially, this paper examines features related to formant frequencies to see if vocal tract characteristics are affected by the nature of the vocal fold-related pathology. To test this hypothesis, stationary fragments of vowel /aa/ produced by 223 normal subjects, 472 vocal fold polyp subjects, and 195 unilateral vocal cord paralysis subjects are analyzed. Based on the acoustic-articulatory relationships, phonation for pathological subjects is found to be associated with measures correlated with a raised tongue body or an advanced tongue root. Vocal tract-related features are also found to be statistically significant from the Kruskal-Wallis test in distinguishing normal and pathological speech. Classification results demonstrate that combining the formant measurements with vocal fold-related features results in improved performance in differentiating vocal pathologies including vocal polyps and unilateral vocal cord paralysis, which suggests that measures related to vocal tract characteristics may provide additional information in diagnosing vocal disorders. PMID:24288686

  7. Fifteen-Month-Old Infants Match Vocal Cues to Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoicka, Elena; Wang, Su-hua

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen-month-old infants detected a violation when an actor performed an action that did not match her preceding vocal cue: The infants looked reliably longer when the actor expressed a humorous vocal cue followed by a sweet action or expressed a sweet vocal cue followed by a humorous action, than when the vocal cue was followed by a matching…

  8. Intonation and Fundamental Frequency of Infants' and Parents' Vocalizations During Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Christopher T.; Fry, Charles L.

    Infants raised the pitch of their vocalizations when stimulated by vocalizing parents. Nonvocal stimulation did not repeat the effect. Intonation contours did not change during different conditions. The pitch of the parents' vocalizations also rose during vocal interaction. Changes in infant pitch were interpreted as a function of imitation.…

  9. Increasing the Vocalizations of Individuals with Autism during Intervention with a Speech-Generating Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gevarter, Cindy; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Kuhn, Michelle; Mills, Kasey; Ferguson, Raechal; Watkins, Laci; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lang, Russell; Rojeski, Laura; Lancioni, Giulio E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to teach individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and limited vocal speech to emit target vocalizations while using a speech-generating device (SGD). Of the 4 participants, 3 began emitting vocal word approximations with SGD responses after vocal instructional methods (delays, differential reinforcement, prompting) were…

  10. Perspectives on the impact on vocal function of heavy vocal load among working professional music theater performers.

    PubMed

    Phyland, Debra J; Thibeault, Susan L; Benninger, Michael S; Vallance, Neil; Greenwood, Kenneth M; Smith, Julian A

    2013-05-01

    Music theater singers (MTS) typically have a heavy vocal load, but the impact on their voices has not been previously evaluated. A group of 49 MTS from two professional productions were administered the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Responses for the SVHI demonstrated that, although the SVHI supported the performers' self-report of healthy vocal status, it lacked the sensitivity to detect potential subtle fluctuations or changes in physical functioning of the voice for working singers. Secondarily, descriptive data regarding professional working singers' perspectives were collected regarding how their singing voices typically responded to performing in a music theater production after a show, across a working week, and across a production season. Seventy-nine currently performing MTS were involved in a series of focus group interviews (n=43) or a written survey (n=36) to detail their perception of the impact of performing in an eight-show per week professional production on their vocal function and vocal health. Thematic analysis revealed the MTS commonly perceived transient and variable changes in their singing voice status in both positive and negative directions after heavy vocal load. Based on these data, a list of 97 descriptors of these perceptual changes was generated using the singers' own terminology and experiences. These included symptoms of vocal impairment and vocal fatigue but also some novel descriptors of positive vocal changes to the physical functioning of the singing voice as a perceived consequence of heavy vocal load. This study offers new and valuable insights into performers' perceptions of the impact of performing in a musical theater production on physical aspects of vocal function. PMID:23415149

  11. Generalized perceptual features for animal vocalization classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemins, Patrick J.; Johnson, Michael T.

    2001-05-01

    Two sets of generalized, perceptual-based features are investigated for use in classifying animal vocalizations. Since many species, especially mammals, share similar physical sound perception mechanisms which vary in size, two features sets commonly used in human speech processing, mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and perceptual linear prediction (PLP) analysis, are modified for use in other species. One modification made to the feature extraction process is incorporating the frequency range of hearing and length of the basilar membrane of the animal in order to correctly determine the width and location of the critical band filters used for signal processing. Experimentally determined critical bands (equivalent rectangular bandwidth) and equal loudness curves (audiograms) can also be incorporated directly into the feature extraction process. Experiments are performed on African elephant (Loxodonta africana) vocalizations using a hidden Markov model (HMM) based classifier showing increased classification accuracy when using features sets based on the specific animals perceptual abilities compared to the original human perception-based feature sets.

  12. Effects of selection for behavior, human approach mode and sex on vocalization in silver fox

    PubMed Central

    Gogoleva, Svetlana S.; Volodina, Elena V.; Kharlamova, Anastasia V.; Trut, Lyudmila N.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a first direct comparison of vocal type, call rate and time spent vocalizing among Unselected, Tame and Aggressive strains of silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) in three modes of human approach (Provoking, Approach–Retreat, and Static). Also, it provides a first comparison of male and female vocal output in the Provoking test. Vocal types were found strain-specific irrespective of the fox sex or the test. Males had higher call rates and spent shorter times vocalizing than females. These results support the evidence of genetic-based emotional states, triggering vocal behavior in silver fox strains, and suggest sex dimorphism in vocal activity toward humans. PMID:23525128

  13. Ultrasonic Bonding to Metalized Plastic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.; Cruzan, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    New technique makes it possible to bond wires ultrasonically to conductor patterns on such soft substrates as plain or ceramic-filled polytetrafluoroethylene. With ultrasonic bonding, unpackaged chips attached to soft circuit boards. Preferred because chips require substrate area and better matched electrically to circuit board at high frequencies.

  14. Acousto-ultrasonics - An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex

    1989-01-01

    The application possibilities and limitations of acoustoultrasonics are reviewed. One of the most useful aspects of acousto-ultrasonics is its ability to assess degradation and damage states in composites. The sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic approach for detecting and measuring subtle but significant material property variations in composites has been demonstrated.

  15. Physical mechanism of ultrasonic machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A.; Grechishnikov, V.; Kozochkin, M.; Pivkin, P.; Petuhov, Y.; Romanov, V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the main aspects of ultrasonic machining of constructional materials are considered. Influence of coolant on surface parameters is studied. Results of experiments on ultrasonic lathe cutting with application of tangential vibrations and with use of coolant are considered.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning: An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mason, Timothy J

    2016-03-01

    The development of ultrasonic cleaning dates from the middle of the 20th century and has become a method of choice for a range of surface cleaning operations. The reasons why this has happened and the methods of assessing the efficiency of ultrasonic cleaning baths are reviewed. PMID:26054698

  17. Ultrasonic absortion in fatigued materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugan, S.; Arnold, W.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of fatigue damage, allowing an estimate of the residual life-time of components, could contribute to a safe and reliable operation of components and installations. Ultrasonic absorption, i.e. the internal friction, of a material increases with increasing fatigue or creep damage and there are many theories trying to explain the physics behind this phenomenon. Measurement of ultrasonic absorption directly on components could provide information on the degree of damage. A laser ultrasonic method, using laser-generated pulses and optical detection, was applied to study ultrasonic absorption in fatigue specimens of different metals. A characteristic behavior of the ultrasonic absorption coefficient with increasing levels of fatigue damage was found for the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Another aim of this study was to relate the absorption mechanisms to the behavior of ultrasonic absorption observed in metals with complex microstructure. To achieve this, different ultrasonic absorption mechanisms were analyzed with respect to experimental data. A thermoelastic effect related to the size and elasticity of the microstructure is discussed as the origin of the increased ultrasonic absorption.

  18. Ultrasonic vocalizations by rat pups in the cold: an acoustic by-product of laryngeal braking?

    PubMed

    Blumberg, M S; Alberts, J R

    1990-10-01

    Isolated rat pups respond to cold exposure physiologically by increasing metabolic heat production and behaviorally by emitting ultrasound. The relationship between these 2 responses was investigated by monitoring oxygen consumption, heat production by brown adipose tissue, respiratory rate, and ultrasound production during cold exposure in pups 10-12 days of age. All 3 physiological measures increased contemporaneously with the initiation of ultrasound. Pups also exhibited a respiratory pattern characterized by the prolongation of expiratory duration in relation to inspiratory duration. Ultrasound was often detected during these prolonged expirations, suggesting that pups were using laryngeal braking. Laryngeal braking is thought to enhance oxygen uptake in the lungs. Thus, ultrasound may be an acoustic by-product of a respiratory maneuver that increases oxygen delivery to metabolically active tissues during cold exposure. PMID:2244987

  19. Profiles of Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy M.; Nathani, Suneeti

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine prelinguistic vocal development in very young cochlear implant recipients. A prospective longitudinal research design was used to observe the sequence and time-course of vocal development in seven children who were implanted between 10 and 36 months of age. Speech samples were collected twice before implant activation and on a monthly basis thereafter for up to 2 years. Children’s vocalizations were classified according to the levels of the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development- Revised (SAEVD-R; Nathani, Ertmer, & Stark, in press). The main findings were (a) six of seven children made advancements in vocal development after implantation, (b) children implanted between 12 and 36 months progressed through SAEVD-R levels in the predicted sequence whereas a child implanted at a younger age showed a different sequence, (c) milestones in vocal development were often achieved with fewer months of hearing experience than observed in typically developing infants and appeared to be influenced by age at implantation, and (d) in general, children implanted at younger ages completed vocal development at younger chronological ages than those implanted later in life. Clinical indicators of benefit from implant use were also identified. PMID:17463237

  20. Material parameter computation for multi-layered vocal fold models

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Bastian; Stingl, Michael; Leugering, Günter; Berry, David A.; Döllinger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Today, the prevention and treatment of voice disorders is an ever-increasing health concern. Since many occupations rely on verbal communication, vocal health is necessary just to maintain one’s livelihood. Commonly applied models to study vocal fold vibrations and air flow distributions are self sustained physical models of the larynx composed of artificial silicone vocal folds. Choosing appropriate mechanical parameters for these vocal fold models while considering simplifications due to manufacturing restrictions is difficult but crucial for achieving realistic behavior. In the present work, a combination of experimental and numerical approaches to compute material parameters for synthetic vocal fold models is presented. The material parameters are derived from deformation behaviors of excised human larynges. The resulting deformations are used as reference displacements for a tracking functional to be optimized. Material optimization was applied to three-dimensional vocal fold models based on isotropic and transverse-isotropic material laws, considering both a layered model with homogeneous material properties on each layer and an inhomogeneous model. The best results exhibited a transversal-isotropic inhomogeneous (i.e., not producible) model. For the homogeneous model (three layers), the transversal-isotropic material parameters were also computed for each layer yielding deformations similar to the measured human vocal fold deformations. PMID:21476672

  1. The Neural Basis of Vocal Pitch Imitation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Belyk, Michel; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Liotti, Mario; Brown, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Vocal imitation is a phenotype that is unique to humans among all primate species, and so an understanding of its neural basis is critical in explaining the emergence of both speech and song in human evolution. Two principal neural models of vocal imitation have emerged from a consideration of nonhuman animals. One hypothesis suggests that putative mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis of Broca's area may be important for imitation. An alternative hypothesis derived from the study of songbirds suggests that the corticostriate motor pathway performs sensorimotor processes that are specific to vocal imitation. Using fMRI with a sparse event-related sampling design, we investigated the neural basis of vocal imitation in humans by comparing imitative vocal production of pitch sequences with both nonimitative vocal production and pitch discrimination. The strongest difference between these tasks was found in the putamen bilaterally, providing a striking parallel to the role of the analogous region in songbirds. Other areas preferentially activated during imitation included the orofacial motor cortex, Rolandic operculum, and SMA, which together outline the corticostriate motor loop. No differences were seen in the inferior frontal gyrus. The corticostriate system thus appears to be the central pathway for vocal imitation in humans, as predicted from an analogy with songbirds. PMID:26696298

  2. Responses of prefrontal multisensory neurons to mismatching faces and vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Maria M; Romanski, Lizabeth M

    2014-08-20

    Social communication relies on the integration of auditory and visual information, which are present in faces and vocalizations. Evidence suggests that the integration of information from multiple sources enhances perception compared with the processing of a unimodal stimulus. Our previous studies demonstrated that single neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) respond to and integrate conspecific vocalizations and their accompanying facial gestures. We were therefore interested in how VLPFC neurons respond differentially to matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) faces and vocalizations. We recorded VLPFC neurons during the presentation of movies with congruent or incongruent species-specific facial gestures and vocalizations as well as their unimodal components. Recordings showed that while many VLPFC units are multisensory and respond to faces, vocalizations, or their combination, a subset of neurons showed a significant change in neuronal activity in response to incongruent versus congruent vocalization movies. Among these neurons, we typically observed incongruent suppression during the early stimulus period and incongruent enhancement during the late stimulus period. Incongruent-responsive VLPFC neurons were both bimodal and nonlinear multisensory, fostering their ability to respond to changes in either modality of a face-vocalization stimulus. These results demonstrate that ventral prefrontal neurons respond to changes in either modality of an audiovisual stimulus, which is important in identity processing and for the integration of multisensory communication information. PMID:25143605

  3. Temperature-dependent regulation of vocal pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W

    2008-12-01

    Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms. PMID:18829853

  4. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  5. Ultrasonic flow nozzle cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Fridsma, D.E.; Silvestri, G.J. Jr.; Twerdochlib, M.

    1992-06-23

    This patent describes an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for a venturi flow measuring nozzle mounted in a pipe of a steam power plant and having an inlet, venturi throat, and an outlet, the pipe and nozzle having fluid flowing therethrough, the cleaning occurring while the fluid is flowing. It comprises first ultrasonic transducer means mounted to connect to the inside of the pipe, disposed adjacent the inlet of the venturi flow nozzle and the means being in direct contact with the fluid flowing through the pipe for transmitting ultrasonic waves directly into and thereby exciting the fluid flowing through the venturi flow nozzle; and control means coupled to the first ultrasonic transducer means for activating the first ultrasonic transducer means.

  6. Radiation Fibrosis of the Vocal Fold: From Man to Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Michael M.; Kolachala, Vasantha; Berg, Eric; Muller, Susan; Creighton, Frances X.; Branski, Ryan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterize fundamental late tissue effects in the human vocal fold following radiation therapy. To develop a murine model of radiation fibrosis to ultimately develop both treatment and prevention paradigms. Design Translational study using archived human and fresh murine irradiated vocal fold tissue. Methods 1) Irradiated vocal fold tissue from patients undergoing laryngectomy for loss of function from radiation fibrosis were identified from pathology archives. Histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and whole-genome microarray as well as real-time transcriptional analyses was performed. 2) Focused radiation to the head and neck was delivered to mice in a survival fashion. One month following radiation, vocal fold tissue was analyzed with histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR transcriptional analysis for selected markers of fibrosis. Results Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrated increased collagen transcription with increased deposition and disorganization of collagen in both the thyroarytenoid muscle and the superficial lamina propria. Fibronectin were increased in the superficial lamina propria. Laminin decreased in the thyroarytenoid muscle. Whole genome microarray analysis demonstrated increased transcription of markers for fibrosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, glycosaminoglycan production and apoptosis. Irradiated murine vocal folds demonstrated increases in collagen and fibronectin transcription and deposition in the lamina propria. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β increased in the lamina propria. Conclusion Human irradiated vocal folds demonstrate molecular changes leading to fibrosis that underlie loss of vocal fold pliability that occurs in patients following laryngeal irradiation. Irradiated murine tissue demonstrates similar findings, and this mouse model may have utility in creating prevention and treatment strategies for vocal fold radiation fibrosis. PMID:23242839

  7. Ultrasonic colour flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Wells, P N

    1994-12-01

    Real-time ultrasonic colour flow imaging, which was first demonstrated to be feasible only about a decade ago, has come into widespread clinical use. Ultrasound is scattered by ensembles of red blood cells. The ultrasonic frequency that gives the best signal-to-noise ratio for backscattering from blood depends on the required penetration. The frequency of ultrasound backscattered from flowing blood is shifted by the Doppler effect. The direction of flow can be determined by phase quadrature detection, and range selectivity can be provided by pulse-echo time-delay measurements. The Doppler frequency spectrum can be determined by Fourier analysis. Early two- and three-dimensional flow-imaging systems used slow manual scanning; velocity colour coding was introduced. Real-time colour flow imaging first became feasible when autocorrelation detection was used to extract the Doppler signal. Time-domain processing, which is a broad-band technique, was also soon shown to be practicable, for analysing both radio-frequency pulse-echo wavetrains and two-dimensional image speckle. Frequency- and time-domain processing both require effective cancellation of stationary echoes. The time-domain approach seems to have advantages in relation to both aliasing and the effects of attenuation in overlying tissues. Colour-coding schemes that can be interpreted without the need to refer to keys have been adopted, for both velocity and flow disturbance. Colour coding according to signal power has also been reintroduced. Three-dimensional display has been demonstrated. In interpreting colour flow images, it is important to understand the functions of critical system controls and the origins of artifacts. Various strategies can be adopted to increase the image frame rate. The problems of performance measurement and safety need to be kept under review. There are numerous opportunities for further development of ultrasonic colour flow imaging, including improvements in system design, methods of

  8. Ultrasonic aesthetic cranioplasty.

    PubMed

    Robiony, Massimo; Casadei, Matteo; Sbuelz, Massimo; Della Pietra, Lorenzo; Politi, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    The management of frontal bone injury is an important issue, and inappropriate management of such injuries may give rise to serious complications. Piezosurgery is a technique used to perform safe and effective osteotomies using piezoelectric ultrasonic vibrations. This instrument allows a safe method for osteotomy of the cranial vault in close proximity to extremely injury-sensitive tissue such as the brain. After a wide review of the literature, the authors present this technical report, introduce the use of piezosurgery to perform a safe "slim-osteotomies" for treatment of posttraumatic frontal bone deformities, and suggest the use of this instrument for aesthetic recontouring of the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:24914759

  9. Ultrasonic linear measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Scot H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An ultrasonic linear measurement system uses the travel time of surface waves along the perimeter of a three-dimensional curvilinear body to determine the perimeter of the curvilinear body. The system can also be used piece-wise to measure distances along plane surfaces. The system can be used to measure perimeters where use of laser light, optical means or steel tape would be extremely difficult, time consuming or impossible. It can also be used to determine discontinuities in surfaces of known perimeter or dimension.

  10. Ultrasonic cleaner evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, T. J.

    1980-10-01

    A method to evaluate the capabilities of ultrasonic cleaners is described. This method utilizes a ceramic plate on which a metallized coating has been deposited. The plate is immersed in a beaker filled with DI water and a few drops of liquid detergent. The plate is then subjected to a two-minute cleaning cycle. Measurement of the amount of metallized coating that is removed is determined with an image enhancement system. Use of this test reveals several factors that influence cleaning capabilities. These include system frequency, use of a wetting agent in the bath, bath temperature, fixture materials and fixture mounting.

  11. Hydrodynamic ultrasonic probe

    DOEpatents

    Day, Robert A.; Conti, Armond E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved probe for in-service ultrasonic inspection of long lengths of a workpiece, such as small diameter tubing from the interior. The improved probe utilizes a conventional transducer or transducers configured to inspect the tubing for flaws and/or wall thickness variations. The probe utilizes a hydraulic technique, in place of the conventional mechanical guides or bushings, which allows the probe to move rectilinearly or rotationally while preventing cocking thereof in the tube and provides damping vibration of the probe. The probe thus has lower friction and higher inspection speed than presently known probes.

  12. Vocal mechanisms in birds and bats: a comparative view.

    PubMed

    Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-06-01

    Vocal signals play a very important role in the life of both birds and echolocating bats, but these two unrelated groups of flying vertebrates have very different vocal systems. They nevertheless must solve many of the same problems in producing sound. This brief review examines avian and microchiropteran motor mechanisms for: 1) coordinating the timing of phonation with the vocal motor pattern that controls its acoustic properties, and 2) achieving respiratory strategies that provide adequate ventilation for pulmonary gas exchange, while also facilitating longer duration songs or trains of sonar pulses. PMID:15258634

  13. Effects of music on vocal stereotypy in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Sladeczek, Ingrid E; Rapp, John T

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal). Manipulating the intensity of music did not produce differential effects on immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy. The implications of the results and applications for future research are discussed. PMID:21941398

  14. Deep Brain Stimulation for Essential Vocal Tremor: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Ho, Allen L; Choudhri, Omar; Sung, C Kwang; DiRenzo, Elizabeth E; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-03-01

    Essential vocal tremor (EVT) is the presence of a tremulous voice that is commonly associated with essential tremor. Patients with EVT often report a necessary increase in vocal effort that significantly worsens with stress and anxiety and can significantly impact quality of life despite optimal medical and behavioral treatment options. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as an effective therapy for vocal tremor, but very few studies exist in the literature that comprehensively evaluate the efficacy of DBS for specifically addressing EVT. We present a technical report on our multidisciplinary, comprehensive operative methodology for treatment of EVT with frameless, awake deep brain stimulation (DBS). PMID:26180680

  15. Attraction and social coordination: mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    McGarva, Andrew R; Warner, Rebecca M

    2003-05-01

    To investigate factors that affect the mutual entrainment of vocal activity rhythms, female general psychology students paired according to attitude similarity questionnaires engaged in 40-minute introductory conversations. Fourier analyses performed on speakers' on-off vocal activity demonstrated periodic oscillations in talkativeness. Although some dyads coordinated their vocal activity rhythms, speech accommodation was not predicted by attitude similarity or attraction and did not affect ratings of conversation quality. These rhythms of dialogue appear resistant to change, their behavioral momentum rooted perhaps in an underlying chronobiology. PMID:12845943

  16. Effect of hydration and vocal rest on the vocal fatigue in amateur karaoke singers.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Edwin M L; Chan, Rainy M M

    2003-06-01

    Karaoke singing is a very popular entertainment among young people in Asia. It is a leisure singing activity with the singer's voice amplified with special acoustic effects in the backdrop of music. Music video and song captions are shown on television screen to remind the singers during singing. It is not uncommon to find participants singing continuously for four to five hours each time. As most of the karaoke singers have no formal training in singing, these amateur singers are more vulnerable to developing voice problems under these intensive singing activities. This study reports the performance of 20 young amateur singers (10 males and 10 females, aged between 20-25 years) on a series of phonatory function tasks carried out during continuous karaoke singing. Half of the singers were given water to drink and short duration of vocal rests at regular intervals during singing and the other half sang continuously without taking any water or rest. The subjects who were given hydration and vocal rests sang significantly longer than those who did not take any water or rest. The voice quality, as measured by perceptual and acoustic measures, and vocal function, as measured by phonetogram, did not show any significant changes during singing in the subjects who were given water and rest during the singing. However, subjects who sang continuously without drinking water and taking rests showed significant changes in the jitter measure and the highest pitch they could produce during singing. These results suggest that hydration and vocal rests are useful strategies to preserve voice function and quality during karaoke singing. This information is useful educational information for karaoke singers. PMID:12825654

  17. Vocal behavior and vocal loading factors for preschool teachers at work studied with binaural DAT recordings.

    PubMed

    Södersten, Maria; Granqvist, Svante; Hammarberg, Britta; Szabo, Annika

    2002-09-01

    Preschool teachers are at risk for developing voice problems such as vocal fatigue and vocal nodules. The purpose of this report was to study preschool teachers' voice use during work. Ten healthy female preschool teachers working at daycare centers (DCC) served as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used. Two microphones were placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth, and a portable DAT recorder was attached to the subject's waist. Recordings were made of a standard reading passage before work (baseline) and of spontaneous speech during work. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the level of the background noise, and of the subjects' voice sound pressure level, mean fundamental frequency, and total phonation time. Among the results, mean background noise level for the ten DCCs was 76.1 dBA (range 73.0-78.2), which is more than 20 dB higher than what is recommended where speech communication is important (50-55 dBA). The subjects spoke on an average of 9.1 dB louder (p < 0.0001), and with higher mean fundamental frequency (247 Hz) during work as compared to the baseline (202 Hz) (p < 0.0001). Mean phonation time for the group was 17%, which was considered high. It was concluded that preschool teachers do have a highly vocally demanding profession. Important steps to reduce the vocal loading for this occupation would be to decrease the background noise levels and include pauses so that preschool teachers can rest their voices. PMID:12395988

  18. Self-organization of early vocal development in infants and machines: the role of intrinsic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Nguyen, Sao M.; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    We bridge the gap between two issues in infant development: vocal development and intrinsic motivation. We propose and experimentally test the hypothesis that general mechanisms of intrinsically motivated spontaneous exploration, also called curiosity-driven learning, can self-organize developmental stages during early vocal learning. We introduce a computational model of intrinsically motivated vocal exploration, which allows the learner to autonomously structure its own vocal experiments, and thus its own learning schedule, through a drive to maximize competence progress. This model relies on a physical model of the vocal tract, the auditory system and the agent's motor control as well as vocalizations of social peers. We present computational experiments that show how such a mechanism can explain the adaptive transition from vocal self-exploration with little influence from the speech environment, to a later stage where vocal exploration becomes influenced by vocalizations of peers. Within the initial self-exploration phase, we show that a sequence of vocal production stages self-organizes, and shares properties with data from infant developmental psychology: the vocal learner first discovers how to control phonation, then focuses on vocal variations of unarticulated sounds, and finally automatically discovers and focuses on babbling with articulated proto-syllables. As the vocal learner becomes more proficient at producing complex sounds, imitating vocalizations of peers starts to provide high learning progress explaining an automatic shift from self-exploration to vocal imitation. PMID:24474941

  19. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar

    PubMed Central

    Vassiliki, Kalodimou; Irini, Messini; Nikolaos, Psychalakis; Karampela, Eleftheria; Apostolos, Papalois

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group). We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments. PMID:26933440

  20. The value of vocalizing: Five-month-old infants associate their own noncry vocalizations with responses from caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer A.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    The early noncry vocalizations of infants are salient social signals. Caregivers spontaneously respond to 30-50% of these sounds, and their responsiveness to infants' prelinguistic noncry vocalizations facilitates the development of phonology and speech. Have infants learned that their vocalizations influence the behavior of social partners? If infants have learned the contingency between their vocalizing and the social responses of others, they should show an extinction burst when the contingency is removed, increasing their rate of noncry vocalizing then decreasing. Thirty-eight 5-month-olds were tested in the still-face paradigm, during which they engaged in a 2-min still-face interaction with an unfamiliar adult. When the adult assumed a still face, infants showed an extinction burst. This pattern of infant vocalizations suggests that 5-month-olds have learned the social efficacy of their vocalizations on caregivers' behavior. Furthermore, the magnitude of 5-month infants' extinction bursts predicted their language comprehension at 13 months. PMID:19489893

  1. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Vocal Folds: A Study on a Chronic Vocal Fold Scar.

    PubMed

    Valerie, Angelou; Vassiliki, Kalodimou; Irini, Messini; Nikolaos, Psychalakis; Karampela, Eleftheria; Apostolos, Papalois

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to assess the histological effects of autologous infusion of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) on a chronic vocal fold scar in a rabbit model as compared to an untreated scar as well as in injection of hyaluronic acid. Study Design. Animal experiment. Method. We used 74 New Zealand rabbits. Sixteen of them were used as control/normal group. We created a bilateral vocal fold wound in the remaining 58 rabbits. After 18 months we separated our population into three groups. The first group served as control/scarred group. The second one was injected with hyaluronic acid in the vocal folds, and the third received an autologous adipose-derived stem cell infusion in the scarred vocal folds (ADSC group). We measured the variation of thickness of the lamina propria of the vocal folds and analyzed histopathologic changes in each group after three months. Results. The thickness of the lamina propria was significantly reduced in the group that received the ADSC injection, as compared to the normal/scarred group. The collagen deposition, the hyaluronic acid, the elastin levels, and the organization of elastic fibers tend to return to normal after the injection of ADSC. Conclusions. Autologous injection of adipose-derived stem cells on a vocal fold chronic scar enhanced the healing of the vocal folds and the reduction of the scar tissue, even when compared to other treatments. PMID:26933440

  2. Ultrasonic scanning of multilayer ceramic chip capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. N.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic scanning is compared to neutron radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM). Data show that SLAM and ultrasonic scanning evaluations are in good agreement. There is poor agreement between N-ray and both ultrasonic techniques because N-ray is insensitive to all but the grossest delaminations. Statistical analysis show a good correlation between ultrasonic scanning and destructive physical analysis.

  3. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Welds On Tube Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Arjun N.; Nummelin, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Scanning ultrasonic apparatus designed for use in nondestructive inspection of electron-beam welds between heat-exchanger tube and end fittings. Includes ultrasonic probe, scanning mechanism, ultrasonic-signal-generating and -processing circuits, and computers. Not necessary to immerse any part of apparatus or tube/fitting assembly in water during inspection. Output ultrasonic-test signals displayed on computer to reveal defects.

  4. Ultrasonic thermoacoustic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young S.; El-Gendy, H.; Symko, O. G.

    2005-09-01

    The development of a thermoacoustic cooler in the ultrasonic range is presented. This cooler was designed to operate at a drive frequency of 24 kHz using air as the working fluid; the resonator is 7.1 mm long and it contains a cotton wool stack with copper heat exchangers at each end. Since the ultrasonic driver is a key element in this device, a major effort was made to optimize its performance and coupling to the resonator. It is a resonant piezoelectric monomorph loaded with a metallic cone for impedance matching to the resonator. By its design it is capable of intense sound levels, of order 140 dB and higher. The attained cooling power scales with the sound power levels and a COP larger than one is achieved. Studies of heat losses consist of PIV imaging of acoustic streaming (such as Eckart) in this device and back heat flow along the stack. The developed device shows much promise for rapid cooling of small samples. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  5. Ultrasonic Drying Processing Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, V.; Bon, J.; Riera, E.; Pinto, A.

    The design of a high intensity ultrasonic chamber for drying process was investigated. The acoustic pressure distribution in the ultrasonic drying chamber was simulated solving linear elastic models with attenuation for the acoustic-structure interaction. Together with the government equations, the selection of appropriate boundary conditions, mesh refinement, and configuration parameters of the calculation methods, which is of great importance to simulate adequately the process, were considered. Numerical solution, applying the finite element method (FEM), of acoustic-structure interactions involves to couple structural and fluid elements (with different degrees of freedom), whose solution implies several problems of hardware requirements and software configuration, which were solved. To design the drying chamber, the influence of the directivity of the drying open camera and the staggered reflectors over the acoustic pressure distribution was analyzed. Furthermore, to optimize the influence of the acoustic energy on the drying process, the average value of the acoustic energy distribution in the drying chamber was studied. This would determine the adequate position of the food samples to be dried. For this purpose, the acoustic power absorbed by the samples will be analyzed in later studies.

  6. Ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Kevin R.; Malyarenko, Eugene V.; Hinders, Mark K.

    2002-12-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of aerospace structures using traditional methods is a complex, time-consuming process critical to maintaining mission readiness and flight safety. Limited access to corrosion-prone structure and the restricted applicability of available NDE techniques for the detection of hidden corrosion or other damage often compound the challenge. In this paper we discuss our recent work using ultrasonic Lamb wave tomography to address this pressing NDE technology need. Lamb waves are ultrasonic guided waves, which allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected for structural flaws such as disbonds, corrosion and delaminations. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, for example, the travel times of the fundamental Lamb modes can be converted into a thickness map of the inspection region. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical waveguide physics. Our work focuses on tomographic reconstruction to produce quantitative maps that can be easily interpreted by technicians or fed directly into structural integrity and lifetime prediction codes. Laboratory measurements discussed here demonstrate that Lamb wave tomography using a square perimeter array of transducers with algebraic reconstruction tomography is appropriate for detecting flaws in aircraft materials. The speed and fidelity of the reconstruction algorithms as well as practical considerations for person-portable array-based systems are discussed in this paper.

  7. Ultrasonic mitigation investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, B.P.; Shepard, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    The suggestion was made that the introduction of ultrasound into Tank 101-SY might serve to release the hydrogen bubbles trapped in the slurry. This would cause a continuous release of bubbles and thereby prevent the turnover phenomenon. Two major considerations were (1) the method for delivering the energy into the slurry and (2) the effective volume of action. In this study, we attached the former by designing and testing a liquid-filled waveguide and radiator, and the latter by making ultrasonic property measurements on synthetic waste. Our conclusion is that ultrasonic mitigation may not be feasible, primarily because of the very high attenuation (1000 to 50000 dB/m) factor to 10 to 30 kHz. Such a high attenuation would restrict the action volume to such a low value as to make the method impractical. Further investigations are recommended to identify the cause of this effect and determine if this same effect will be seen in real 101-SY waste.

  8. Ultrasonics and space instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design topic selected was an outgrowth of the experimental design work done in the Fluid Behavior in Space experiment, which relies on the measurement of minute changes of the pressure and temperature to obtain reasonably accurate volume determinations. An alternative method of volume determination is the use of ultrasonic imaging. An ultrasonic wave system is generated by wall mounted transducer arrays. The interior liquid configuration causes reflection and refraction of the pattern so that analysis of the received wave system provides a description of the configuration and hence volume. Both continuous and chirp probe beams were used in a laboratory experiment simulating a surface wetting propellant. The hardware included a simulated tank with gaseous voids, transmitting and receiving transducers, transmitters, receivers, computer interface, and computer. Analysis software was developed for image generation and interpretation of results. Space instrumentation was pursued in support of a number of experiments under development for GAS flights. The program included thirty undergraduate students pursuing major qualifying project work under the guidance of eight faculty supported by a teaching assistant. Both mechanical and electrical engineering students designed and built several microprocessor systems to measure parameters such as temperature, acceleration, pressure, velocity, and circulation in order to determine combustion products, vortex formation, gas entrainment, EMR emissions from thunderstorms, and milli-g-accelerations due to crew motions.

  9. Cultural relativity in perceiving emotion from vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Maria; Roberson, Debi; van der Vyver, Jacoba Marietta; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-01-01

    A central question in the study of human behavior is whether or not certain emotions, such as anger, fear and sadness, are recognized across cultures in non-verbal cues. We predicted and found that in a concept-free experimental task, participants from an isolated cultural context (the Himba ethnic group from Northwest Namibia) do not freely label Western vocalizations with expected emotion terms. Responses indicated Himba participants perceived more basic affective properties of valence (positivity or negativity) and to some extent arousal (high or low activation). In a second concept-embedded task, we manipulated whether a given trial could be solved using only affective content or discrete emotion content based on the foil choice. Above chance accuracy in Himba participants occurred only when foils differed from targets in valence, indicating that the voice can reliably convey affective meaning across cultures, but that perceptions of emotion from the voice are culturally variable. PMID:24501109

  10. Vocal dose in teachers: correlation with dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Gama, Ana Cristina Côrtes; Santos, Juliana Nunes; Pedra, Elisângela de Fátima Pereira; Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Magalhães, Max de Castro; Casas, Estevam Barbosa de Las

    2016-04-01

    Teachers are professionals with high prevalence of dysphonia, whose main risk factors are the large work hours in classrooms with the presence of background noise. The purpose of the study was to calculate the phonation time and the cycle dose of teachers with dysphonia and teachers without voice disorders during the class. There were two groups analyzed: five teachers with functional dysphonia were the first group and five teachers without voice disorders were the second group. For the data was used the VoxLog® dosimeter and the parameters were: intensity; fundamental frequency; phonation time and cycle dose. The statistical analysis used ANOVA, Student's T-test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Dysphonic teachers showed major values of phonation time and cycle dose compared with teachers without voice disorders. The dysphonia is related to extended period of speech time and greater exposure of the tissue of the vocal fold to phonotrauma. PMID:27191884

  11. Vocal premotor activity in the superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shiva R; Moss, Cynthia F

    2007-01-01

    Chronic neural recordings were taken from the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) of echolocating bats while they were engaged in one of two distinct behavioral tasks: virtual target amplitude discrimination (VTAD) and real oscillating target tracking (ROTT). In the VTAD task, bats used a limited range of sonar call features to discriminate the amplitude category of echoes, whereas in the ROTT task, the bat produced dynamically modulated sonar calls to track a moving target. Newly developed methods for chronic recordings in unrestrained, behaving bats reveal two consistent bouts of SC neural activity preceding the onset of sonar vocalizations in both tasks. A short lead bout occurs tightly coupled to vocal onset (VTAD, -5.1 to -2.2 ms range, -3.6 +/- 0.7 ms mean lead time; ROTT, -3.0 to + 0.4 ms range, -1.2 +/- 1.3 ms mean lead time), and this activity may play a role in marking the time of each sonar emission. A long lead bout in SC activity occurs earlier and spreads over a longer interval (VTAD, -40.6 to -8.4 ms range, -22.2 +/- 3.9 ms mean lead time; ROTT, -29.8 to -7.1 ms range, -17.5 +/- 9.1 ms mean lead time) when compared with short lead events. In the goal-directed ROTT task, the timing of long lead event times vary with the bat's sonar call duration. This finding, along with behavioral studies demonstrating that bats adjust sonar call duration as they track targets at changing distance, suggests the bat SC contributes to range-dependent adjustments of sonar call duration. PMID:17202477

  12. Bihemispheric network dynamics coordinating vocal feedback control.

    PubMed

    Kort, Naomi S; Cuesta, Pablo; Houde, John F; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2016-04-01

    Modulation of vocal pitch is a key speech feature that conveys important linguistic and affective information. Auditory feedback is used to monitor and maintain pitch. We examined induced neural high gamma power (HGP) (65-150 Hz) using magnetoencephalography during pitch feedback control. Participants phonated into a microphone while hearing their auditory feedback through headphones. During each phonation, a single real-time 400 ms pitch shift was applied to the auditory feedback. Participants compensated by rapidly changing their pitch to oppose the pitch shifts. This behavioral change required coordination of the neural speech motor control network, including integration of auditory and somatosensory feedback to initiate change in motor plans. We found increases in HGP across both hemispheres within 200 ms of pitch shifts, covering left sensory and right premotor, parietal, temporal, and frontal regions, involved in sensory detection and processing of the pitch shift. Later responses to pitch shifts (200-300 ms) were right dominant, in parietal, frontal, and temporal regions. Timing of activity in these regions indicates their role in coordinating motor change and detecting and processing of the sensory consequences of this change. Subtracting out cortical responses during passive listening to recordings of the phonations isolated HGP increases specific to speech production, highlighting right parietal and premotor cortex, and left posterior temporal cortex involvement in the motor response. Correlation of HGP with behavioral compensation demonstrated right frontal region involvement in modulating participant's compensatory response. This study highlights the bihemispheric sensorimotor cortical network involvement in auditory feedback-based control of vocal pitch. PMID:26917046

  13. Vibration in The Ultrasonic Machining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Chen, Zhigang; Zhong, Xinrong

    The rotary ultrasonic machining system is the vibration system, using the characteristics of the ultrasonic resonance. Based on the ultrasonic vibration model, the dynamic characteristics of the ultrasonic machining system are analyzed, and using the wave equations, the dynamic characteristics of the horn with the exponential transition are analyzed. Based on FEM, the dynamic characteristics of the horn with the exponential transition in the rotary ultrasonic machining system are analyzed.

  14. Vocal correlates of individual sooty mangabey travel speed and direction

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Many group-living animals coordinate movements with acoustic signals, but so far most studies have focused on how group movements are initiated. In this study, we investigated movement patterns of wild sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), a mostly terrestrial, forest-dwelling primate. We provide quantitative results showing that vocalization rates of mangabey subgroups, but not of focal individuals, correlated with focal individuals’ current movement patterns. More interestingly, vocal behaviour predicted whether individuals changed future speed, and possibly future travel direction. The role of vocalizations as a potential mechanism for the regulation of group movement was further highlighted by interaction effects that include subgroup size and the quality of poly-specific associations. Collectively, our results suggest that primate vocal behaviour can function beyond travel initiation in coordination and regulation of group movements. PMID:27547587

  15. Neural Correlates of Categorical Perception in Learned Vocal Communication

    PubMed Central

    Prather, JF; Nowicki, S; Anderson, RC; Peters, S; Mooney, R

    2009-01-01

    The division of continuously variable acoustic signals into discrete perceptual categories is a fundamental feature of vocal communication, including human speech. Despite the importance of categorical perception to learned vocal communication, the neural correlates underlying this phenomenon await identification. Here we report that individual sensorimotor neurons in freely behaving swamp sparrows express categorical auditory responses to changes in note duration, a learned feature of their songs, and that the neural response boundary accurately predicts the categorical perceptual boundary measured in field studies of the same sparrow population. Furthermore, swamp sparrow populations that learn different song dialects exhibit different categorical perceptual boundaries, consistent with the boundary being learned. Our results extend the analysis of the neural basis of perceptual categorization into the realm of vocal communication, while advancing the learned vocalizations of songbirds as a model for investigating how experience shapes categorical perception and the activity of categorically responsive neurons. PMID:19136972

  16. Vocal complexity influences female responses to gelada male calls.

    PubMed

    Gustison, Morgan L; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that inter-sexual selection drives the evolution of complex vocal communication in birds, but parallel lines of evidence are almost entirely absent in mammals. This dearth of evidence, particularly among primates, limits our understanding of the link between sociality and vocal complexity. Here, we use a playback experiment to quantify how wild female geladas (Theropithecus gelada) respond to three call types that are 'derived' (i.e., unique to geladas) and made by males during various affiliative contexts. These derived calls appeared to be highly salient and preferable to females: they looked longer towards and spent more time in proximity to playbacks of male vocal sequences containing one of the derived calls than to sequences containing only common and less elaborate 'grunt' calls. Our results provide the first experimental evidence for vocal elaboration as a male-specific strategy to maintain social bonds with females in non-human primates. PMID:26790770

  17. Vocalization and pauses in fast-paced reading.

    PubMed

    Breznitz, Z

    1990-04-01

    Previous research (Breznitz, 1987a) indicated that prompting first-graders to read faster than usual increases their comprehension. The present study was conducted to clarify which of the speech elements that comprise reading time is affected when reading pace is accelerated. First-graders (N = 76) read aloud three parallel forms of a comprehension test, at self- and fast-paced rates consecutively, followed by a second self-paced reading. Vocalization time, pause time, pause frequency, and the average length of vocalizations and pauses were determined with an automatic vocal transaction analyzer. During fast-paced reading, children made fewer and shorter pauses, vocalized at a faster rate, and tended to speak in longer units. The speech characteristics indicative of fast-paced reading were significantly correlated with reading comprehension, even during self-paced reading, and can serve as indicators of effective reading. PMID:2366048

  18. Linking social complexity and vocal complexity: a parid perspective

    PubMed Central

    Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana; Freeberg, Todd M.; Kullberg, Cecilia; Lucas, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The Paridae family (chickadees, tits and titmice) is an interesting avian group in that species vary in important aspects of their social structure and many species have large and complex vocal repertoires. For this reason, parids represent an important set of species for testing the social complexity hypothesis for vocal communication—the notion that as groups increase in social complexity, there is a need for increased vocal complexity. Here, we describe the hypothesis and some of the early evidence that supported the hypothesis. Next, we review literature on social complexity and on vocal complexity in parids, and describe some of the studies that have made explicit tests of the social complexity hypothesis in one parid—Carolina chickadees, Poecile carolinensis. We conclude with a discussion, primarily from a parid perspective, of the benefits and costs of grouping and of physiological factors that might mediate the relationship between social complexity and changes in signalling behaviour. PMID:22641826

  19. Vocalization frequency and duration are coded in separate hindbrain nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Chagnaud, Boris P.; Baker, Robert; Bass, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal patterning is an essential feature of neural networks producing precisely timed behaviours such as vocalizations that are widely used in vertebrate social communication. Here we show that intrinsic and network properties of separate hindbrain neuronal populations encode the natural call attributes of frequency and duration in vocal fish. Intracellular structure/function analyses indicate that call duration is encoded by a sustained membrane depolarization in vocal prepacemaker neurons that innervate downstream pacemaker neurons. Pacemaker neurons, in turn, encode call frequency by rhythmic, ultrafast oscillations in their membrane potential. Pharmacological manipulations show prepacemaker activity to be independent of pacemaker function, thus accounting for natural variation in duration which is the predominant feature distinguishing call types. Prepacemaker neurons also innervate key hindbrain auditory nuclei thereby effectively serving as a call-duration corollary discharge. We propose that premotor compartmentalization of neurons coding distinct acoustic attributes is a fundamental trait of hindbrain vocal pattern generators among vertebrates. PMID:21673667

  20. An articulatory silicon vocal tract for speech and hearing prostheses.

    PubMed

    Keng Hoong Wee; Turicchia, L; Sarpeshkar, R

    2011-08-01

    We describe the concept of a bioinspired feedback loop that combines a cochlear processor with an integrated-circuit vocal tract to create what we call a speech-locked loop. We discuss how the speech-locked loop can be applied in hearing prostheses, such as cochlear implants, to help improve speech recognition in noise. We also investigate speech-coding strategies for brain-machine-interface-based speech prostheses and present an articulatory speech-synthesis system by using an integrated-circuit vocal tract that models the human vocal tract. Our articulatory silicon vocal tract makes the transmission of low bit-rate speech-coding parameters feasible over a bandwidth-constrained body sensor network. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first articulatory speech-prosthesis system reported to date. We also present a speech-prosthesis simulator as a means to generate realistic articulatory parameter sequences. PMID:23851948

  1. Numerical Approximations of Flow Induced Vibrations of Vocal Folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sváček, P.; Horáček, J.

    2010-09-01

    The paper is interested in numerical modelling of incompressible channel flow interacting with elastic part of its walls simulating vocal fold oscillations. The flow in moving domain is described with the aid of the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, see e.g. [1], and governed by the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The flow model is coupled with the structural motion modelled by an aeroelastic two degrees of freedom model of the oscillating vocal folds, cf. [2], [9]. The described fluid-structure interaction problem is discretized in time and space, see also [1]. The numerical results of a channel flow modelling the glottal region of the human vocal tract including the vibrating vocal folds are shown. The vibrations of the channel walls are either prescribed (1st case) or induced by the aerodynamical forces (2nd case).

  2. Trends in Utilization of Vocal Fold Injection Procedures.

    PubMed

    Rosow, David E

    2015-11-01

    Office-based vocal fold injections have become increasingly popular over the past 15 years. Examination of trends in procedure coding for vocal fold injections in the United States from 2000 to 2012 was undertaken to see if they reflect this shift. The US Part B Medicare claims database was queried from 2000 through 2012 for multiple Current Procedural Terminology codes. Over the period studied, the number of nonoperative laryngoscopic injections (31513, 31570) and operative medialization laryngoplasties (31588) remained constant. Operative vocal fold injection (31571) demonstrated marked linear growth over the 12-year study period, from 744 procedures in 2000 to 4788 in 2012-an increase >640%. The dramatic increased incidence in the use of code 31571 reflects an increasing share of vocal fold injections being performed in the operating room and not in an office setting, running counter to the prevailing trend toward awake, office-based injection procedures. PMID:26220059

  3. Vocal correlates of individual sooty mangabey travel speed and direction.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Christof; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Many group-living animals coordinate movements with acoustic signals, but so far most studies have focused on how group movements are initiated. In this study, we investigated movement patterns of wild sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys), a mostly terrestrial, forest-dwelling primate. We provide quantitative results showing that vocalization rates of mangabey subgroups, but not of focal individuals, correlated with focal individuals' current movement patterns. More interestingly, vocal behaviour predicted whether individuals changed future speed, and possibly future travel direction. The role of vocalizations as a potential mechanism for the regulation of group movement was further highlighted by interaction effects that include subgroup size and the quality of poly-specific associations. Collectively, our results suggest that primate vocal behaviour can function beyond travel initiation in coordination and regulation of group movements. PMID:27547587

  4. Vocal complexity influences female responses to gelada male calls

    PubMed Central

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that inter-sexual selection drives the evolution of complex vocal communication in birds, but parallel lines of evidence are almost entirely absent in mammals. This dearth of evidence, particularly among primates, limits our understanding of the link between sociality and vocal complexity. Here, we use a playback experiment to quantify how wild female geladas (Theropithecus gelada) respond to three call types that are ‘derived’ (i.e., unique to geladas) and made by males during various affiliative contexts. These derived calls appeared to be highly salient and preferable to females: they looked longer towards and spent more time in proximity to playbacks of male vocal sequences containing one of the derived calls than to sequences containing only common and less elaborate ‘grunt’ calls. Our results provide the first experimental evidence for vocal elaboration as a male-specific strategy to maintain social bonds with females in non-human primates. PMID:26790770

  5. Evaluation of interventions to reduce multiply controlled vocal stereotypy.

    PubMed

    Scalzo, Rachel; Henry, Kelsey; Davis, Tonya N; Amos, Kally; Zoch, Tamara; Turchan, Sarah; Wagner, Tara

    2015-07-01

    This study examined four interventions targeted at decreasing multiply controlled vocal stereotypy for a 12-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and a severe intellectual disability. These interventions included Noncontingent Music, Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors, Self-Recording, and Functional Communication Training (FCT). In addition to measuring vocal stereotypy during each condition, task engagement and challenging behavior were also monitored. Across conditions, vocal stereotypy did not vary significantly from baseline except in FCT, when it decreased significantly. Task engagement was higher in this condition as well. It is hypothesized that FCT provided an enriched environment by increasing social interaction and access to desired items as well as removal of less preferred activities. For these reasons, there was a decrease in the need for the participant to engage in vocal stereotypy and challenging behavior and increase in his ability to engage in a task. PMID:25733663

  6. [Management of T1a vocal fold carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Reiter, R; Brosch, S; Smith, E; Pickhard, A

    2013-12-01

    About 2/3 of the larynx carcinomas affect the vocal chords. The main risk factor is smoking. Carcinomas in this localisation often arise from leukoplakias with dysplasia. A typical symptom is dysphonia. Arrest of vibration in microlaryngostroboscopy is a hint that a carcinoma could be present. Transoral laser cordectomy or radiotherapy show equivalent oncological results and results in quality of voice in the treatment of vocal fold carcinoma (T1a). As lymph node and distant metastasis are very rare, follow-up can concentrate on microlaryngoscopy. In case of a suspicious area on the vocal fold, biopsy of the affected tissue is needed to plan correct treatment. The prognosis of the T1 vocal chord carcinoma is quite good with a 5-year survival rate of almost 100%. PMID:23929210

  7. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2014-07-30

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  8. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  9. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  10. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  11. Ultrasonic characterization of structural ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klima, S. J.; Baaklini, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements were used to characterize density and microstructure in monolithic silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Research samples of these structural ceramics exhibited a wide range of density and microstructural variations. It was shown that bulk density variations correlate with and can be estimated by velocity measurements. Variations in microstructural features such as grain size or shape and pore morphology had a minor effect on velocity. However, these features had a pronounced effect on ultrasonic attenuation. The ultrasonic results are supplemented by low-energy radiography and scanning laser acoustic microscopy.

  12. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  13. Analytical ultrasonics for structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupperman, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    The application of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements to characterize the microstructure of structural materials is discussed. Velocity measurements in cast stainless steel are correlated with microstructural variations ranging from equiaxed (elastically isotropic) to columnar (elastically anisotropic) grain structure. The effect of the anisotropic grain structure on the deviation of ultrasonic waves in cast stainless steel is also reported. Field-implementable techniques for distinguishing equiaxed from columnar grain structures in cast strainless steel structural members are presented. The application of ultrasonic velocity measurements to characterize structural ceramics in the green state is also discussed.

  14. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Alexandra Ferreira da Silva; Nääs, Irenilza de Alencar; Oliveira, Stanley R. M.; Violaro, Fabio; de Almeida, Andréia C. M.; Neves, Diego Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This research aimed to analyze the possibility of assessing piglets’ welfare using the records of their vocalization. The trial was done in a pig commercial farm, and we recorded the vocal signals from piglets in several stressful exposure situations. Data mining techniques were applied to the processed signals in order to obtain a stress classification using the recorded data. We found that, using the piglets’ vocalization, it was possible to identify the most frequent stressful conditions at the farrowing phase, namely: pain, cold and hunger. Abstract Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger), with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets. PMID:26479541

  15. [Cause and treatment of unilateral vocal cord paralysis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongyue; Li, Keyong

    2016-03-01

    Unilateral vocal cord paralysis(UVCP) is defined as affected side vocal cord emerges immobility or motion weakening and abnormal tension due to unilateral intrinsic laryngeal muscles suffering from disorder about motor nerve. The patients usually present with hoarse voice, disability of high pitch, cough, aspiration, or a combination of these symptoms. There are increasing therapeutics researches and case analyses regarding UVCP in recent years. Thus this review summarized the progression about its causes and treatment methods. PMID:27382698

  16. Aeroelastic-aeroacoustic measurements in a self-oscillating physical model of the human vocal folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Michael; Cates, Zachary

    2009-11-01

    Measurements are presented characterizing the relationship between the structure of physical models of the human vocal folds and the sound produced by their vibration by airflow from the lungs. The model vocal folds are fabricated by molding two layers of silicone rubber of specified stiffness, approximating the body/cover structure. These are mounted in a model vocal tract, where the prephonatory gap adjusted using micropositioners. Measurements conducted in an anechoic chamber include radiated sound pressure, and high-speed video of the vibrating model vocal folds, using prephonatory separation, body stiffness, and subglottal pressure as input parameters.. Essential behavior of the vocal fold models is presented. Vibration fundamental frequency and radiated sound pressure level outside the model vocal tract as a function of subglottal pressure and prephonatory gap are presented for the cases of two identical vocal folds and one vocal fold with lower stiffness, approximating vocal fold paralysis.

  17. Computer automation of ultrasonic testing. [inspection of ultrasonic welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, B. G. W.; Kerlin, E. E.; Gardner, A. H.; Dunmyer, D.; Wells, T. G.; Robinson, A. R.; Kunselman, J. S.; Walker, T. C.

    1974-01-01

    Report describes a prototype computer-automated ultrasonic system developed for the inspection of weldments. This system can be operated in three modes: manual, automatic, and computer-controlled. In the computer-controlled mode, the system will automatically acquire, process, analyze, store, and display ultrasonic inspection data in real-time. Flaw size (in cross-section), location (depth), and type (porosity-like or crack-like) can be automatically discerned and displayed. The results and pertinent parameters are recorded.

  18. Phonology and Vocal Behavior in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Elizabeth; Paul, Rhea; Chawarska, Katyrzyna

    2011-01-01

    Scientific Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the phonological and other vocal productions of children, 18-36 months, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to compare these productions to those of age-matched and language-matched controls. Speech samples were obtained from 30 toddlers with ASD, 11 age-matched toddlers and 23 language-matched toddlers during either parent-child or clinician-child play sessions. Samples were coded for a variety of speech-like and non-speech vocalization productions. Toddlers with ASD produced speech-like vocalizations similar to those of language-matched peers, but produced significantly more atypical non-speech vocalizations when compared to both control groups.Toddlers with ASD show speech-like sound production that is linked to their language level, in a manner similar to that seen in typical development. The main area of difference in vocal development in this population is in the production of atypical vocalizations. Findings suggest that toddlers with autism spectrum disorders might not tune into the language model of their environment. Failure to attend to the ambient language environment negatively impacts the ability to acquire spoken language. PMID:21308998

  19. Auditory-motor entrainment in vocal mimicking species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have recently found robust evidence of motor entrainment to auditory stimuli in multiple species of non-human animal, all of which were capable of vocal mimicry. In contrast, the ability remained markedly absent in many closely related species incapable of vocal mimicry. This suggests that vocal mimicry may be a necessary precondition for entrainment. However, within the vocal mimicking species, entrainment appeared non-randomly, suggesting that other components besides vocal mimicry play a role in the capacity and tendency to entrain. Here we discuss potential additional factors involved in entrainment. New survey data show that both male and female parrots are able to entrain, and that the entrainment capacity appears throughout the lifespan. We suggest routes for future study of entrainment, including both developmental studies in species known to entrain and further work to detect entrainment in species not well represented in our dataset. These studies may shed light on additional factors necessary for entrainment in addition to vocal mimicry. PMID:20714417

  20. Dynamically Scaled Glottal Flow Through Symmetrically Oscillating Vocal Fold Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halvorson, Lori; Baitinger, Andrew; Sherman, Erica; Krane, Michael; Zhang, Lucy; Wei, Timothy

    2011-11-01

    Experimental results derived from DPIV measurements in a scaled up dynamic human vocal fold model are presented. The 10x scale vocal fold model is a new design that incorporates key features of vocal fold oscillatory motion. This includes coupling of down/upstream rocking as well as the oscillatory open/close motions. Experiments were dynamically scaled to examine a range of frequencies, 100 - 200 Hz, corresponding to the male and female voice. By using water as the working fluid, very high resolution, both spatial and temporal resolution, was achieved. Time resolved movies of flow through symmetrically oscillating vocal folds will be presented. Both individual realizations as well as phase-averaged data will be shown. Key features, such as randomness and development time of the Coanda effect, vortex shedding, and volume flow rate data will be shown. In this talk, effects associated with paralysis of one vocal fold will be discussed. This talk provides the baseline fluid dynamics for the vocal fold paralysis study presented in Sherman, et al. Supported by the NIH.

  1. Knockout of Foxp2 disrupts vocal development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Castellucci, Gregg A.; McGinley, Matthew J.; McCormick, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The FOXP2 gene is important for the development of proper speech motor control in humans. However, the role of the gene in general vocal behavior in other mammals, including mice, is unclear. Here, we track the vocal development of Foxp2 heterozygous knockout (Foxp2+/−) mice and their wildtype (WT) littermates from juvenile to adult ages, and observe severe abnormalities in the courtship song of Foxp2+/− mice. In comparison to their WT littermates, Foxp2+/− mice vocalized less, produced shorter syllable sequences, and possessed an abnormal syllable inventory. In addition, Foxp2+/− song also exhibited irregular rhythmic structure, and its development did not follow the consistent trajectories observed in WT vocalizations. These results demonstrate that the Foxp2 gene is critical for normal vocal behavior in juvenile and adult mice, and that Foxp2 mutant mice may provide a tractable model system for the study of the gene’s role in general vocal motor control. PMID:26980647

  2. Geographical variation of St. Lucia Parrot flight vocalizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleeman, P.M.; Gilardi, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Parrots are vocal learners and many species of parrots are capable of learning new calls, even as adults. This capability gives parrots the potential to develop communication systems that can vary dramatically over space. St. Lucia Parrot (Amazona versicolor) flight vocalizations were examined for geographic variation between four different sites on the island of St. Lucia. Spectrographic cross-correlation analysis of a commonly used flight vocalization, the p-chow call, demonstrated quantitative differences between sites. Additionally, the similarity of p-chows decreased as the distance between sites increased. Flight call repertoires also differed among sites; parrots at the Des Bottes and Quilesse sites each used one flight call unique to those sites, while parrots at the Barre de L'Isle site used a flight call that Quilesse parrots gave only while perched. It is unclear whether the vocal variation changed clinally with distance, or whether there were discrete dialect boundaries as in a congener, the Yellow-naped Parrot (Amazona auropalliata, Wright 1996). The geographical scale over which the St. Lucia Parrot's vocal variation occurred was dramatically smaller than that of the Yellow-naped Parrot. Similar patterns of fine-scale vocal variation may be more widespread among other parrot species in the Caribbean than previously documented.

  3. Velocity field measurements in oblique static divergent vocal fold models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron

    2005-11-01

    During normal phonation, the vocal fold cycle is characterized by the glottal opening transitioning from a convergent to a divergent passage and then closing before the cycle is repeated. Under ordinary phonatory conditions, both vocal folds, which form the glottal passage, move in phase with each other, creating a time-varying symmetric opening. However, abnormal pathological conditions, such as unilateral paralysis, and polyps, can result in geometrical asymmetries between the vocal folds throughout the phonatory cycle. This study investigates pulsatile flow fields through 7.5 times life-size vocal fold models with included divergence angles of 5 to 30 degrees, and obliquities between the vocal folds of up to 15 degrees. Flow conditions were scaled to match physiological parameters. Data were taken at the anterior posterior mid-plane using phase-averaged Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Viscous flow phenomena including the Coanda effect, flow separation points, and jet "flapping" were investigated. The results are compared to previously reported work of flow through symmetric divergent vocal fold models.

  4. Implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness modulates prefrontal cortex activity.

    PubMed

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Latinus, Marianne; Bruckert, Laetitia; Rouger, Julien; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2012-06-01

    Social interactions involve more than "just" language. As important is a more primitive nonlinguistic mode of communication acting in parallel with linguistic processes and driving our decisions to a much higher degree than is generally suspected. Amongst the "honest signals" that influence our behavior is perceived vocal attractiveness. Not only does vocal attractiveness reflect important biological characteristics of the speaker, it also influences our social perceptions according to the "what sounds beautiful is good" phenomenon. Despite the widespread influence of vocal attractiveness on social interactions revealed by behavioral studies, its neural underpinnings are yet unknown. We measured brain activity while participants listened to a series of vocal sounds ("ah") and performed an unrelated task. We found that voice-sensitive auditory and inferior frontal regions were strongly correlated with implicitly perceived vocal attractiveness. While the involvement of auditory areas reflected the processing of acoustic contributors to vocal attractiveness ("distance to mean" and spectrotemporal regularity), activity in inferior prefrontal regions (traditionally involved in speech processes) reflected the overall perceived attractiveness of the voices despite their lack of linguistic content. These results suggest the strong influence of hidden nonlinguistic aspects of communication signals on cerebral activity and provide an objective measure of this influence. PMID:21828348

  5. Vocal exploration is locally regulated during song learning

    PubMed Central

    Ravbar, Primoz; Parra, Lucas C.; Lipkind, Dina; Tchernichovski, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory variability is essential for sensory-motor learning, but it is not known how and at what time scales it is regulated. We manipulated song learning in zebra finches to experimentally control the requirements for vocal exploration in different parts of their song. We first trained birds to perform a one-syllable song, and once they mastered it we added a new syllable to the song model. Remarkably, when practicing the modified song, birds rapidly alternated between high and low acoustic variability to confine vocal exploration to the newly added syllable. Further, even within syllables, acoustic variability changed independently across song elements that were only milliseconds apart. Analysis of the entire vocal output during learning revealed that the variability of each song element decreased as it approached the target, correlating with momentary local distance from the target and less so with the overall distance. We conclude that vocal error is computed locally in sub-syllabic time scales and that song elements can be learned and crystalized independently. Songbirds have dedicated brain circuitry for vocal babbling in the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), which generates exploratory song patterns that drive premotor neurons at the song nucleus RA (robust nucleus of the arcopallium). We hypothesize that either AFP adjusts the gain of vocal exploration in fine time scales, or that the sensitivity of RA premotor neurons to AFP/HVC inputs varies across song elements. PMID:22399765

  6. The Xenopus Amygdala Mediates Socially Appropriate Vocal Communication Signals

    PubMed Central

    Ballagh, Irene H.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction requires that relevant sensory information is collected, classified, and distributed to the motor areas that initiate an appropriate behavioral response. Vocal exchanges, in particular, depend on linking auditory processing to an appropriate motor expression. Because of its role in integrating sensory information for the purpose of action selection, the amygdala has been implicated in social behavior in many mammalian species. Here, we show that two nuclei of the extended amygdala play essential roles in vocal communication in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. Transport of fluorescent dextran amines identifies the X. laevis central amygdala (CeA) as a target for ascending auditory information from the central thalamic nucleus and as a major afferent to the vocal pattern generator of the hindbrain. In the isolated (ex vivo) brain, electrical stimulation of the CeA, or the neighboring bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), initiates bouts of fictive calling. In vivo, lesioning the CeA of males disrupts the production of appropriate vocal responses to females and to broadcasts of female calls. Lesioning the BNST in males produces an overall decrease in calling behavior. Together, these results suggest that the anuran CeA evaluates the valence of acoustic cues and initiates socially appropriate vocal responses to communication signals, whereas the BNST plays a role in the initiation of vocalizations. PMID:24005304

  7. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  8. A wavelet packet adaptive filtering algorithm for enhancing manatee vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Gur, M Berke; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2011-04-01

    Approximately a quarter of all West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) mortalities are attributed to collisions with watercraft. A boater warning system based on the passive acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations is one possible solution to reduce manatee-watercraft collisions. The success of such a warning system depends on effective enhancement of the vocalization signals in the presence of high levels of background noise, in particular, noise emitted from watercraft. Recent research has indicated that wavelet domain pre-processing of the noisy vocalizations is capable of significantly improving the detection ranges of passive acoustic vocalization detectors. In this paper, an adaptive denoising procedure, implemented on the wavelet packet transform coefficients obtained from the noisy vocalization signals, is investigated. The proposed denoising algorithm is shown to improve the manatee detection ranges by a factor ranging from two (minimum) to sixteen (maximum) compared to high-pass filtering alone, when evaluated using real manatee vocalization and background noise signals of varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Furthermore, the proposed method is also shown to outperform a previously suggested feedback adaptive line enhancer (FALE) filter on average 3.4 dB in terms of noise suppression and 0.6 dB in terms of waveform preservation. PMID:21476661

  9. Distress vocalization sequences broadcasted by bats carry redundant information.

    PubMed

    Hechavarría, Julio C; Beetz, M Jerome; Macias, Silvio; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Distress vocalizations (also known as alarm or screams) are an important component of the vocal repertoire of a number of animal species, including bats, humans, monkeys and birds, among others. Although the behavioral relevance of distress vocalizations is undeniable, at present, little is known about the rules that govern vocalization production when in alarmful situations. In this article, we show that when distressed, bats of the species Carollia perspicillata produce repetitive vocalization sequences in which consecutive syllables are likely to be similar to one another regarding their physical attributes. The uttered distress syllables are broadband (12-73 kHz) with most of their energy focussing at 23 kHz. Distress syllables are short (~4 ms), their average sound pressure level is close to 70 dB SPL, and they are produced at high repetition rates (every 14 ms). We discuss that, because of their physical attributes, bat distress vocalizations could serve a dual purpose: (1) advertising threatful situations to conspecifics, and (2) informing the threatener that the bats are ready to defend themselves. We also discuss possible advantages of advertising danger/discomfort using repetitive utterances, a calling strategy that appears to be ubiquitous across the animal kingdom. PMID:27277892

  10. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    In both the voice and musical wind instruments, a valve (vocal folds, lips, or reed) lies between an upstream and downstream duct: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player’s lips, and∕or the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments. PMID:19649157

  11. The anuran vocal sac: a tool for multimodal signalling.

    PubMed

    Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Although in anurans the predominant mode of intra- and intersexual communication is vocalization, modalities used in addition to or instead of acoustic signals range from seismic and visual to chemical. In some cases, signals of more than one modality are produced through or by the anuran vocal sac. However, its role beyond acoustics has been neglected for some time and nonacoustic cues such as vocal sac movement have traditionally been seen as an epiphenomenon of sound production. The diversity in vocal sac coloration and shape found in different species is striking and recently its visual properties have been given a more important role in signalling. Chemosignals seem to be the dominant communication mode in newts, salamanders and caecilians and certainly play a role in the aquatic life phase of anurans, but airborne chemical signalling has received less attention. There is, however, increasing evidence that at least some terrestrial anuran species integrate acoustic, visual and chemical cues in species recognition and mate choice and a few secondarily mute anuran species seem to fully rely on volatile chemical cues produced in glands on the vocal sac. Within vertebrates, frogs in particular are suitable organisms for investigating multimodal communication by means of experiments, since they are tolerant of disturbance by observers and can be easily manipulated under natural conditions. Thus, the anuran vocal sac might be of great interest not only to herpetologists, but also to behavioural biologists studying communication systems. PMID:25389375

  12. Comparative analysis of mineralocorticoid receptor expression among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar) and non-vocal learners (quail and ring dove) has implications for the evolution of avian vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Eiji; Suzuki, Kenta; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2011-12-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor is the receptor for corticosteroids such as corticosterone or aldosterone. Previously, we found that mineralocorticoid receptor was highly expressed in song nuclei of a songbird, Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. domestica). Here, to examine the relationship between mineralocorticoid receptor expression and avian vocal learning, we analyzed mineralocorticoid receptor expression in the developing brain of another vocal learner, budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and non-vocal learners, quail (Coturnix japonica) and ring dove (Streptopelia capicola). Mineralocorticoid receptor showed vocal control area-related expressions in budgerigars as Bengalese finches, whereas no such mineralocorticoid receptor expressions were seen in the telencephalon of non-vocal learners. Thus, these results suggest the possibility that mineralocorticoid receptor plays a role in vocal development of parrots as songbirds and that the acquisition of mineralocorticoid receptor expression is involved in the evolution of avian vocal learning. PMID:22010640

  13. Ultrasonic Membrane Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    A membrane is a sermipermeable material that permits the passage of some molecules while retaining others. Ultrasound can enhance membrane operation through the asymmetric collapse of cavitating bubbles and through the turbulence associated with acoustic streaming. The added turbulence can lead to a looser, more porous fouling cake layer and may agglomerate fine particles, reducing pore blockage and cake compaction.These effects are dependent upon the ultrasonic intensity, the operating pressure, crossflow velocity and solids concentration.Membrane cleaning can also be enhanced by the use of ultrasound, but this application may not be economic when used in isolation. One of the greatest challenges facing the technology is the generation of a uniform acoustic field across the entire membrane surface in a full-scale module.

  14. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Kenneth W.; Haas, Jr., William J.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1978-08-29

    An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

  15. Metrology for ultrasonic applications.

    PubMed

    Zeqiri, Bajram

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current metrological capability applied to the characterisation of the acoustic output of equipment used within medical ultrasonic applications. Key measurement devices, developed to underpin metrology in this area, are the radiation force balance, used to determine total output power, and the piezo-electric hydrophone, used to resolve the spatial and temporal distribution of acoustic pressure. The measurement infrastructure in place within the United Kingdom ensuring users are able to carry out traceable measurements of these quantities in a meaningful way, is described. This includes the relevant primary standards, the way international equivalence of national standards is demonstrated and the routes by which the standards are disseminated to the user community. Emerging measurement techniques that may in future lead to improved measurement capability, are also briefly discussed. PMID:17081597

  16. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  17. Individual vocal signatures in barn owl nestlings: does individual recognition have an adaptive role in sibling vocal competition?

    PubMed

    Dreiss, A N; Ruppli, C A; Roulin, A

    2014-01-01

    To compete over limited parental resources, young animals communicate with their parents and siblings by producing honest vocal signals of need. Components of begging calls that are sensitive to food deprivation may honestly signal need, whereas other components may be associated with individual-specific attributes that do not change with time such as identity, sex, absolute age and hierarchy. In a sib-sib communication system where barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings vocally negotiate priority access to food resources, we show that calls have individual signatures that are used by nestlings to recognize which siblings are motivated to compete, even if most vocalization features vary with hunger level. Nestlings were more identifiable when food-deprived than food-satiated, suggesting that vocal identity is emphasized when the benefit of winning a vocal contest is higher. In broods where siblings interact iteratively, we speculate that individual-specific signature permits siblings to verify that the most vocal individual in the absence of parents is the one that indeed perceived the food brought by parents. Individual recognition may also allow nestlings to associate identity with individual-specific characteristics such as position in the within-brood dominance hierarchy. Calls indeed revealed age hierarchy and to a lower extent sex and absolute age. Using a cross-fostering experimental design, we show that most acoustic features were related to the nest of origin (but not the nest of rearing), suggesting a genetic or an early developmental effect on the ontogeny of vocal signatures. To conclude, our study suggests that sibling competition has promoted the evolution of vocal behaviours that signal not only hunger level but also intrinsic individual characteristics such as identity, family, sex and age. PMID:24266879

  18. Can vocal economy in phonation be increased with an artificially lengthened vocal tract? A computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2007-01-01

    Voiced obstruents and phonation into tubes are widely used as vocal exercises. They increase the inertive reactance of the vocal tract in the 200-1000 Hz range and thereby reinforce vocal fold vibration. But the effect is strong only when the epilarynx tube is also narrowed. The present study focused on the effects of a 'resonance tube' (27 cm in length, 0.5 cm2 cross-sectional area, hard walls) on vocal tract reactance and the accompanying economy of voice production (defined as maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), divided by maximum area declination rate (MADR)). The vowel /u/ and phonation into the tube were simulated with a computer model. Three values were given to the cross-sectional area of the epilarynx tube (0.2 cm2, 0.5 cm2, and 1.6 cm2), which is at the opposite end of the vocal tract from the artificial 'resonance tube'. The degree of glottal adduction was varied in order to find the economy maximum for each epilarynx tube setting. Results showed that the 'resonance tube' lowered F1 from 300 Hz to 150 Hz and doubled the vocal tract inertive reactance at F0=100 Hz. The largest economy with the 'resonance tube' was obtained when the epilarynx tube was narrowed (relative to the rest of the vocal tract) and sufficiently tight adduction was used. Most importantly, the intraoral acoustic pressure (calculated at 0.8 cm behind the lips) was tripled with the tube. The results suggest that by optimizing the vibratory sensations in the face that are attributed to increased intraoral acoustic pressure, phonation into a tube may assist a trainee in finding an optimal glottal and epilaryngeal setting for the greatest vocal economy. PMID:17917981

  19. Ultrasonic extensometer measures bolt preload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C. M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Extensometer using ultrasonic pulse reflections to measure elongations in tightened belts and studs is much more accurate than conventional torque wrenches in application of specified preload to bolts and other threaded fasteners.

  20. Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Martha A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)